Science.gov

Sample records for black powder substitutes

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    PubMed

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. PMID:26916211

  2. Coal as a Substitute for Carbon Black

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    New proposal shows sprayed coal powder formed by extrusion of coal heated to plastic state may be inexpensive substitute for carbon black. Carbon black is used extensively in rubber industry as reinforcing agent in such articles as tires and hoses. It is made from natural gas and petroleum, both of which are in short supply.

  3. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  5. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  13. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in... cargo vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive...

  14. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in... cargo vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive...

  15. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in... cargo vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive...

  16. 49 CFR 173.170 - Black powder for small arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Black powder for small arms. 173.170 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.170 Black powder for small arms. Black powder for small arms that has been classed in... cargo vessel; (c) The black powder must be packed in inner metal or heavy wall conductive...

  17. 1. LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BUILDING NO. 602, BLACK POWDER BLENDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH TOWARD BUILDING NO. 602, BLACK POWDER BLENDER. POWDER TO BE BLENDED IS BROUGHT IN ON UPPER LEVEL, WHERE IT IS POURED INTO BLENDING MACHINE. BLENDED POWDER IS TRANSPORTED IN PUSH CARTS FROM LOWER LEVEL TO MAGAZINE. NOTE THAT ALL LIGHTS FOR BUILDING ARE MOUNTED OUTSIDE AND SHINE THROUGH WINDOWS. BUILDING ITSELF IS CONSTRUCTED OF WOOD. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. Comparative studies of industrial grade carbon black powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Komal; Chauhan, Alok P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Comparative studies of two dissimilar industrial grade Carbon Black (CB) powders (N375 and N405) were conducted. The structure, surface area and particle size are the three important characteristics of CB powder that determine their processability and application as filler in preparing rubber compounds. The powders were characterized for their structure using dibutyl phthalate absorption (DBPA), particle size via laser particle size analyzer and surface area by nitrogen adsorption method. The structural characterization showed that N405 had lower DBPA in comparison to N375, confirming low structure of N405 grade CB powder. It was observed from the particle size analysis that N375 was coarser than N405 grade CB. The total surface area values were determined by the BET method based on the cross sectional area of the nitrogen molecule. N375, a coarse grade CB powder with high structure, depicted less surface area as compared to N405.

  19. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  20. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  1. Spherical Granule Production from Micronized Saltwort (Salicornia herbacea) Powder as Salt Substitute.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myung-Gon; Lee, Gyu-Hee

    2013-03-01

    The whole saltwort plant (Salicornia herbacea) was micronized to develop the table salt substitute. The micronized powder was mixed with distilled water and made into a spherical granule by using the fluid-bed coater (SGMPDW). The SGMPDW had superior flowability to powder; however, it had low dispersibility. To increase the dispersibility of SGMPDW, the micronized powder was mixed with the solution, which contained various soluble solid contents of saltwort aqueous extract (SAE), and made into a spherical granule (SGMPSAE). The SGMPSAE prepared with the higher percentages of solid content of SAE showed improved dispersibility in water and an increase in salty taste. The SGMPSAE prepared with 10% SAE was shown to possess the best physicochemical properties and its relative saltiness compared to NaCl (0.39). In conclusion, SGMPSAEs can be used as a table salt substitute and a functional food material with enhanced absorptivity and convenience. PMID:24471111

  2. Sensitive detection of black powder by stand-alone ion mobility spectrometer with chlorinated hydrocarbon modifiers in drift gas.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xixi; Wang, Xin; Wang, Weiguo; Zhou, Qinghua; Chen, Chuang; Peng, Liying; Wen, Meng; Qu, Tuanshuai; Wang, Zhenxin; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces a simple method for selective and sensitive detection of black powder by adding chlorinated hydrocarbons in the drift gas instead of changing the structure of conventional ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). The function of chloride modifiers was to substitute Cl(-)(H₂O)n for [O₂⁻ (H₂O)(n)] in the drift region so as to avoid the overlap between O₂⁻ (H₂O)(n) and sulfur ion peaks. Among CH₂Cl₂, CHCl₃ and CCl₄, CCl₄ was chosen as the modifier due to the best peak-to-peak resolution and stability towards the fluctuation of modifier concentration. With 1.4 ppm CCl₄ as the modifier, the minimum detectable quantity of 0.1 ng for sulfur was achieved. Moreover, this method showed the ability for detection of common explosives at sub-nanogram level, such as black powder (BP), ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). In summary, this method requiring no configuration modification has high sensitivity and selectivity, and consumes trace amount of modifier. And these characteristics make it easy to be adopted in current deployed IMS to detect black powder explosives.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10150 - Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10150 Carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (4-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-523)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10149 - Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10149 Carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified... substance identified generically as carbon black, (3-methylphenyl)-modified, substituted (PMN P-07-522)...

  13. Direct 3D powder printing of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds for substitution of complex bone defects.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Miguel; Moseke, Claus; Ewald, Andrea; Gbureck, Uwe; Groll, Jürgen; Pires, Inês; Teßmar, Jörg; Vorndran, Elke

    2014-03-01

    The 3D printing technique based on cement powders is an excellent method for the fabrication of individual and complex bone substitutes even in the case of large defects. The outstanding bone remodeling capacity of biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in varying ratios makes the adaption of powder systems resulting in BCP materials to this fabrication technique a desirable aim. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel powder system for the 3D printing process, intended for the production of complexly shaped BCP scaffolds by a hydraulic setting reaction of calcium carbonate and TCP with phosphoric acid. The HA/TCP ratio in the specimens could be tailored by the calcium/phosphate ratio of the starting powder. The scaffolds could be fabricated with a dimensional accuracy of >96.5% and a minimal macro pore size of 300 µm. Independent of the phase composition the printed specimens showed a microporosity of approximately 68%, while the compressive strength strongly depended on the chemical composition and increased with rising TCP content in the scaffolds to a maximum of 1.81 MPa. Post-treatment of the scaffolds with a polylactic-co-glycolic acid-solution enhanced the mechanical properties by a factor of 8. In vitro studies showed that all BCP scaffolds were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell viability as well as the cell proliferation, as compared with pure TCP. Cell proliferation is even better on BCP when compared to HA and cell viability is in a similar range on these materials.

  14. Effect of annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Al substituted nanocrystalline Fe-Si-Co alloy powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyni, P. C.; Alagarsamy, Perumal

    2016-11-01

    We report effects of annealing and substitution of Al on structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe80-xAlxCo5Si15 (x=0-10) alloy powders prepared by mechanical alloying process using a planetary ball mill technique. All the as-milled powders exhibit non-equilibrium solid solution of α-Fe (Si,Co,Al). While the average size of crystals decreases, the lattice constant and dislocation density increase with increasing Al content. On the other hand, the annealing at elevated temperatures increases the size of the crystals and decreases the dislocation density. In addition, the substitution of Al in FeAlCoSi alloy powders controls growth of the crystals during annealing. As a result, coercivity (HC) of the annealed powders decreases considerably. However, the variation in HC is dominated by the dislocation density. Fe70Al10Co5Si15 powder annealed at 900 °C exhibits improved magnetic properties (HC~14 Oe and moderate magnetization of 160 emu/g) due to optimum nanocrystalline microstructure with fine nanocrystals (~18 nm) and reduced dislocation density. Systematic correlations observed between structural and magnetic properties for Fe80-xAlxCo5Si15 powders reveal a promising approach to control the growth of the crystals in the annealed nanocrystalline alloys and to improve the magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Fe-Si based nanocrystalline alloys by adding suitable substituting elements.

  15. Structure, stoichiometry, and phase purity of calcium substituted lanthanum manganite powders

    SciTech Connect

    Faaland, S.; Einarsrud, M.A.; Roermark, L.; Hoeier, R.; Grande, T.; Knudsen, K.D.

    1998-11-01

    Calcium-doped lanthanum manganite La{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, synthesized by the glycine/nitrate method, was characterized by high resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, electron diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. A strong correlation was observed between the cooling rate from the calcination temperature and the powder quality, indicating the importance of a homogeneous oxygen stoichiometry. The structure refinement reveals that La{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} with x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.6 has orthorhombic symmetry with space group Pnma. The MnO{sub 6} octahedra are fairly symmetrical, but the octahedra are tilted about 20{degree} relative to the ideal perovskite structure. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that only the O-Mn-O bending mode is significantly influenced by the substitution of La with Ca. In La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} the authors found diffraction evidence of a superstructure in domains in some of the grains. They propose that the superstructure in La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} is due to ordering of Ca{sup 2+} ions on A (La{sup 3+}) sites in the perovskite ABO{sub 3} structure.

  16. Danger assessment of a spring-gun device (muzzleloader) loaded only with black powder.

    PubMed

    Voisard, Matthias X; Kneubuehl, Beat P

    2010-03-01

    We report a case involving a spring-gun device (muzzleloader) loaded solely with gunpowder, installed next to shoes to prevent the neighbors' puppy from removing them. The booby trap was triggered by the 15-year-old dog-owners son when he tried to put the shoes out of the reach of the puppy. The boy suffered second degree superficial burns located mainly at the dorsal side of the right hand and fingers. To estimate the danger of the used weapon, several tests were undertaken on soap blocks from different distances and with different loads of black powder. The particle density per mm and the depth of black powder tattooing in the soap was compared with the boy's injuries, and found conclusive with the gun-owners statement regarding the loading of the weapon. Furthermore, our experiments indicated that the gunpowder load involved was not able to inflict permanent damage, not even to the eyes, at the here estimated firing distance.

  17. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of gamma-prime particles in a gamma matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest gamma-prime particles, and had the lowest gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650 gamma C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760 C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the gamma-prime particle size distribution and the gamma-gamma-prime mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  18. Powdered eggshell: a pilot study on a new bone substitute for use in maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Dupoirieux, L; Pourquier, D; Souyris, F

    1995-06-01

    The present study is a preliminary report on the use of hen's eggshell as a possible bone substitute. In the first part of the study, particles ranging from 400 microns to 600 microns in diameter were bioassayed in an intramuscular pouch in rodents. This material was found to be biocompatible, but appeared not to have osteoinductive capacities. In the second and third part of the study, this material was used as an interpositional graft material in critical-size defects of rat mandibles and rabbit skulls. At 2 months, a morphologic restoration was obtained using the graft, but the healing was only achieved by fibrous union. In the fourth part of the study, the material was experimented on as an onlay bone graft on rabbit mandibles. A 6-month follow-up of the implant confirmed its stability. In conclusion, the use of this safe and inexpensive material is suggested for filling limited bone defects in non-weight-bearing areas. The use of eggshell powder for bone augmentation may also be considered, after further studies, to assess its long-term stability. PMID:7673447

  19. Influence of the preparation methods on the structure and magnetic properties of nanosized Al-substituted barium hexaferrite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peneva, P.; Koutzarova, T.; Kolev, S.; Ghelev, Ch.; Vertruyen, B.; Henrist, C.; Closet, R.; Cloots, R.; Zaleski, A.

    2016-03-01

    We report studies on the correlation between the method of preparation, microstructure and magnetic properties of nanosized monodomain Al-substituted barium hexaferrite (BaAlFe11O19) powders. The powders were obtained by the co-precipitation and single microemulsion methods. The particles in the samples had a size between 80 nm and 135 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. The value of the saturation magnetization Ms measured was very high, namely, 66.12 emu/g. The hysteresis loop was very narrow, with the coercivity Hc being 163 Oe, which indicated that the particles were in a near-superparamagnetic state.

  20. Investigation of Ga substitution in ZnO powder and opto-electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Serier, Hélène; Demourgues, Alain; Gaudon, Manuel

    2010-08-01

    Two sets of Ga-doped ZnO powders were synthesized via solid-state and Pechini routes with a substitution rate varying from 0 to 4 mol %. The gallium solubility limit is strongly dependent on the synthesis history. Indeed, a low temperature annealing allows incorporating about 1.5 mol % (X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductive coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), optical properties) whereas under 0.1% of dopant is introduced after thermal treatment at high temperature: 1500 degrees C (from XRD and pellets conductivity). The incorporation of gallium leads to an anisotropic distortion of the zincite crystal lattice (a and c parameters increase and decrease, respectively, versus the Ga content leading to a decrease of the c/a ratio) which can be explained from the valence bond model. XRD analysis, chemical titration by ICP, and conductivity measurements (on pellets obtained at high temperature) allow determining accurately the maximum Ga content in the zincite. The optical properties (IR absorption efficiency) linked to electron carriers are directly correlated to the gallium rate introduced in ZnO oxide; nevertheless, the non linear correlation between these two parameters tends to show that the concentration of charge carriers in the system is not equal to the amount of Ga(3+) atoms inserted per ZnO volume unit. A saturation regime is observed and was here explained once again on the basis of the valence band model by the increase of inhibiting p type defects with the increase of (n-type donors) Ga(3+) concentration. PMID:20593782

  1. Black pepper powder microbiological quality improvement using DBD systems in atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Maciej; Hołub, Marcin; Balcerak, Michał; Kalisiak, Stanisław; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary results are given regarding black pepper powder decontamination using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric pressure. Three different DBD reactor constructions were investigated, both packaged and unpackaged material was treated. Due to potential, industrial applications, in addition to microbiological results, water activity, loss of mass and the properties of packaging material, regarding barrier properties were investigated. Argon based treatment of packed pepper with DBD reactor configuration is proposed and satisfactory results are presented for treatment time of 5 min or less. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  2. Danger assessment of a spring-gun device (muzzleloader) loaded only with black powder.

    PubMed

    Voisard, Matthias X; Kneubuehl, Beat P

    2010-03-01

    We report a case involving a spring-gun device (muzzleloader) loaded solely with gunpowder, installed next to shoes to prevent the neighbors' puppy from removing them. The booby trap was triggered by the 15-year-old dog-owners son when he tried to put the shoes out of the reach of the puppy. The boy suffered second degree superficial burns located mainly at the dorsal side of the right hand and fingers. To estimate the danger of the used weapon, several tests were undertaken on soap blocks from different distances and with different loads of black powder. The particle density per mm and the depth of black powder tattooing in the soap was compared with the boy's injuries, and found conclusive with the gun-owners statement regarding the loading of the weapon. Furthermore, our experiments indicated that the gunpowder load involved was not able to inflict permanent damage, not even to the eyes, at the here estimated firing distance. PMID:20010291

  3. Lifting techniques for finger marks on human skin previous enhancement by Swedish Black powder--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Trapecar, Matej

    2009-12-01

    An examination was done to investigate whether certain lifting techniques can lift recovered latent fingerprints on human skin surfaces of living subjects. For recovery Swedish Soot powder mixture (Swedish Black) was used. Donors intentionally placed fingerprints on the skin surface of living subjects. Finger marks were then in all cases recovered with Swedish Black powder. The procedure was repeated after 1 h and 4 h. Treated finger marks were secured and preserved as latent fingerprint evidence by different lifting processes. Having examined skin surfaces and finger marks we observed that the lifters such as white instant lifter, white fingerprint gelatin, black fingerprint gelatin, silicone, transparent adhesive tape, are suitable. Moreover, white fingerprint gelatin and white instant lifter proved to be very good at lifting treated finger marks. Black fingerprint gelatin was very good also, but finger marks were examined by slant light.

  4. A method for producing superfine black tea powder with enhanced infusion and dispersion property.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weihua; Zhang, Yang; Fan, Chongxin; Han, Lujia

    2017-01-01

    Tea is rich in healthy components including polyphenols, caffeine, gallic acids, and others. Current technology of tea infusion and extraction leads to more than 40% soluble solids wasted in spent leaf. To increase the bioaccessibility of black tea, we report a method of pulverization treatments including general and superfine grinding to reduce the particle size. In comparison with coarsely ground black tea powders (BTPs), the superfine ground BTP with medium diameter 6.9μm resulted in significant higher infusion yield of total polyphenols (TPP), caffeine, and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). The total water-soluble solids (WSS) of superfine BTP infusion increased markedly by twice due to the accelerated diffusion and enhanced solubility. High correlation between particle size and sedimentation ratio suggested improved dispersion stability of superfine BTP. The optimal dispersion of 0.1% superfine BTP in water was obtained by combination of homogenization and 0.08% CMC-Na formulation with 27.05% centrifugal sedimentation ratio. PMID:27507472

  5. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions. PMID:22663136

  6. Effect of Gallium and Indium Co-Substituting on Upconversion Properties of Er/Yb:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Powders Prepared by the Co-Precipitation Method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liang, Yun-Ling; Hu, Zheng-Fa; Feng, Zu-Yong; Lun, Ma; Zhang, Xiu-ping; Sheng, Xia; Liu, Qian; Luo, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Gallium and Indium co-substituted Yb, Er:YAG was fabricated through the chemical co-precipitation method. The formation process and structure of the Ga3+ and In3+ substituted phosphor powders were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetry analyzer, infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the effects of Ga3+ and In3+ concentration on the luminescence properties were investigated by spectrum. The results showed that the blue shift occurred after the substitution of Ga3+ and In3+ for Al3+ in matrix, and the intensity of emission spectrum was affected by the concentration of Ga3+ and In3+. PMID:27451659

  7. Effect of Gallium and Indium Co-Substituting on Upconversion Properties of Er/Yb:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Powders Prepared by the Co-Precipitation Method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liang, Yun-Ling; Hu, Zheng-Fa; Feng, Zu-Yong; Lun, Ma; Zhang, Xiu-ping; Sheng, Xia; Liu, Qian; Luo, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Gallium and Indium co-substituted Yb, Er:YAG was fabricated through the chemical co-precipitation method. The formation process and structure of the Ga3+ and In3+ substituted phosphor powders were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetry analyzer, infrared spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the effects of Ga3+ and In3+ concentration on the luminescence properties were investigated by spectrum. The results showed that the blue shift occurred after the substitution of Ga3+ and In3+ for Al3+ in matrix, and the intensity of emission spectrum was affected by the concentration of Ga3+ and In3+.

  8. Selective Laser Sintering Method Using Titanium Powder Sheet Toward Fabrication of Porous Bone Substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Terutake; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Tamura, Masashi; Hanyu, Kenichi

    The present paper investigates the laser sintering of titanium sheets toward the fabrication of porous artificial bones. The novelty lies in the use of a titanium powder sheet mixed with an organic binder and the application of selective laser sintering to the fabrication of a laminated porous structure. Alternating irradiation of Nd: YAG pulses with short scanning paths results in the suppression of distortion of the sintered part as well as enhanced mechanical properties. Under the appropriate conditions identified in the experiment, a bending strength of 63MPa and a Young’s modulus of 1.5GPa are attained when the load is applied parallel to the lamination direction, whereas load vertical to the lamination direction yields 79MPa and 1.8GPa, respectively. The size of pores varies from 200 to 300µm, and the porosity is approximately 65%. These values, other than Young’s modulus, are almost equivalent to those of human bones.

  9. (210)Pb content in natural gas pipeline residues ("black-powder") and its correlation with the chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Carvalho, Franciane; Cordilha, Aloisio; Matta, Luiz Ernesto; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to assess the (210)Pb content in "black-powder" found in pigging operations on gas pipelines in Brazil, in particular, on the Campos Basin gas pipeline. Additionally, the chemical composition of such deposits was determined and an eventual correlation with (210)Pb concentration evaluated. Typical "black-powder" generated in the natural gas pipeline from Campos Basin oilfield contains mainly iron oxide ( approximately 81%) and residual organic matter ( approximately 9%). The (210)Pb content ranges from 4.9 to 0.04k Bqkg(-1) and seems to be inversely correlated with the distance to the platforms. On the other hand, (226)Ra concentration is higher on the pipeline branch between the platform and the onshore installations. (228)Ra was only observed in few samples, in particular, in the samples with the highest (226)Ra content.

  10. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-01

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient

  11. Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

    2008-10-23

    The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient

  12. The Textures of Heroin: User Perspectives on "Black Tar" and Powder Heroin in Two U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Mars, Sarah G; Bourgois, Philippe; Karandinos, George; Montero, Fernando; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, U.S. heroin consumers have been divided from the full range of available products: east of the Mississippi River, Colombian-sourced powder heroin (PH) dominates the market while, to the west, Mexican-sourced "black tar" (BTH) is the main heroin available. By conducting qualitative research in two exemplar cities, Philadelphia (PH) and San Francisco (BTH), we compare users' experiences of heroin source-types, markets, health consequences, and consumption preferences. The strict division of heroin markets may be changing with novel forms of powder heroin appearing in San Francisco. Our researchers and interviewees perceived vein loss stemming from the injection of heroin alone to be a particular problem of BTH while, among the Philadelphia sample, those who avoided the temptations of nearby cocaine sales displayed healthier injecting sites and reported few vein problems. Abscesses were common across both sites, the Philadelphia sample generally blaming missing a vein when injecting cocaine and the San Francisco group finding several explanations, including the properties of BTH. Consumption preferences revealed a "connoisseurship of potency," with knowledge amassed and deployed to obtain the strongest heroin available. We discuss the reasons that their tastes take this narrow form and its relationship to the structural constraints of the heroin market. PMID:27440088

  13. LTCC processed CoTi substituted M-type barium ferrite composite with BBSZ glass powder additives for microwave device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Yingli; Li, Jie; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Huaiwu; Harris, Vincent. G.

    2016-05-01

    Hexagonal magnetoplumbite ferrites typically have sintering temperatures above 1100∘C in order to stabilize a single phase compound, which is much higher than the melting point of silver leading to device fabrication challenges. Application of low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technologies may prove effective in decreasing the sintering temperature of hexagonal ferrites. Ferrite powders combined with glass frit powder is an effective pathway to lowering the sintering temperature. Here, hexagonal M-type barium ferrite (i.e., Ba(CoTi)1.5Fe9O19) ceramics, combined with BBSZ glass powder as a sintering aid were synthesized. Co and Ti ions where used to substitute for Fe cations in order to modify the magnetic anisotropy field. The density, microstructure, magnetic properties and complex permeability are reported. The BBSZ glass addition was shown to improve the densification and magnetic properties of the barium ferrite. The densification of the BaM ferrite Ba(CoTi)1.5Fe9O19 was further enhanced by the glass additive at low firing temperatures of below 900∘C because of the formation of a liquid phase. Complex permeability of ferrites sintered at 900∘C was also influenced by the BBSZ addition and the resonance frequency was shown to decrease with increased amounts of the glass modifier.

  14. Large scale production of yolk-shell β-tricalcium phosphate powders, and their bioactivities as novel bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung Sang; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-08-28

    This paper proposes the production of yolk-shell structured β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powders using a spray-drying method, suitable for commercial scale production. Spray-dried precursor powders, consisting of calcium-phosphate salts and each of the various carbon source materials, are combusted in an oxygen atmosphere to obtain a yolk-shell structure. Only dextrin among the carbon source materials investigated shows promise in the production of β-TCP yolk-shell powders. By evaluating their apatite-forming capacity in simulated body fluid, the outstanding bioactivity of β-TCP yolk-shell powders is confirmed: numerous acicular and newly formed hydroxyl carbonate apatite crystals cover the entire β-TCP surface after a single day of soaking. These crystals are observed on both the outer and inner surfaces of the shells, and on the outer surface of the core, which is encouraging for its potential use as a bone grafting material. PMID:25005151

  15. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). 721.10080 Section 721.10080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). 721.10080 Section 721.10080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). 721.10080 Section 721.10080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10080 - Carbon black, 4-[(17-substituted-3,6,9,12,15-pentaazaheptadec-1-yl) substituted] phenyl-modified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon black, 4- phenyl-modified, hydrochlorides (generic). 721.10080 Section 721.10080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  19. Fatal contact shot to the chest caused by the gas jet from a muzzle-loading pistol discharging only black powder and no bullet: case study and experimental simulation of the wounding effect.

    PubMed

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bielefeld, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Pircher, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In modern medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with fatal injuries from black powder guns. Most of them focus on the morphological features such as intense soot soiling, blast tattooing and burn effects in close-range shots or describe the wound ballistics of spherical lead bullets. Another kind of "unusual" and potentially lethal weapons are handguns destined for firing only blank cartridges such as starter and alarm pistols. The dangerousness of these guns is restricted to very close and contact range shots and results from the gas jet produced by the deflagration of the propellant. The present paper reports on a suicide committed with a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. 45. An unusually large stellate entrance wound was located in the precordial region, accompanied by an imprint mark from the ramrod and a faint greenish discoloration (apparently due to the formation of sulfhemoglobin). Autopsy revealed an oversized powder cavity, multiple fractures of the anterior thoracic wall as well as ruptures of the heart, the aorta, the left hepatic lobe and the diaphragm. In total, the zone of mechanical destruction had a diameter of approx. 15 cm. As there was no exit wound and no bullet lodged in the body, the injury was caused exclusively by the inrushing combustion gases of the propellant (black powder) comparable with the gas jet of a blank cartridge gun. In contact shots to ballistic gelatine using the suicide's pistol loaded with black powder but no projectile, the formation of a nearly spherical cavity could be demonstrated by means of a high-speed camera. The extent of the temporary cavity after firing with 5 g of black powder roughly corresponded to the zone of destruction found in the suicide's body. PMID:25119685

  20. Fatal contact shot to the chest caused by the gas jet from a muzzle-loading pistol discharging only black powder and no bullet: case study and experimental simulation of the wounding effect.

    PubMed

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bielefeld, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Pircher, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In modern medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with fatal injuries from black powder guns. Most of them focus on the morphological features such as intense soot soiling, blast tattooing and burn effects in close-range shots or describe the wound ballistics of spherical lead bullets. Another kind of "unusual" and potentially lethal weapons are handguns destined for firing only blank cartridges such as starter and alarm pistols. The dangerousness of these guns is restricted to very close and contact range shots and results from the gas jet produced by the deflagration of the propellant. The present paper reports on a suicide committed with a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. 45. An unusually large stellate entrance wound was located in the precordial region, accompanied by an imprint mark from the ramrod and a faint greenish discoloration (apparently due to the formation of sulfhemoglobin). Autopsy revealed an oversized powder cavity, multiple fractures of the anterior thoracic wall as well as ruptures of the heart, the aorta, the left hepatic lobe and the diaphragm. In total, the zone of mechanical destruction had a diameter of approx. 15 cm. As there was no exit wound and no bullet lodged in the body, the injury was caused exclusively by the inrushing combustion gases of the propellant (black powder) comparable with the gas jet of a blank cartridge gun. In contact shots to ballistic gelatine using the suicide's pistol loaded with black powder but no projectile, the formation of a nearly spherical cavity could be demonstrated by means of a high-speed camera. The extent of the temporary cavity after firing with 5 g of black powder roughly corresponded to the zone of destruction found in the suicide's body.

  1. Effect of Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} substitution at the Mn site in (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})MnO{sub 3}: A neutron powder diffraction investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelli, A.; Ferretti, M.; Castellano, C.; Cimberle, M.R.; Ritter, C.

    2013-04-15

    The crystal and magnetic structures of the (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 1−x}TM{sub x})O{sub 3} compounds (x=0.00, 0.03, 0.08; TM=Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}) were investigated between 5 K and 300 K by means of dc magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction analysis followed by Rietveld refinement. Both substituting cations lead to a reduction of the long range ferromagnetic ordering temperature; ferromagnetism is strongly suppressed in the 8% Cu-substituted sample, where long- and short-range FM magnetic orders coexist together with short-range A-type AFM order. This particular feature can be related to the Jahn–Teller character of Cu{sup 2+}, absent in Ni{sup 2+}, and suggests the occurrence of a quantum critical point in the (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x})O{sub 3} system. - Graphical abstract: Rietveld refinement plot of (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 0.92}Cu{sub 0.08})O{sub 3} showing in the inset the coexistence of broad A-type AFM peaks with FM ones. Highlights: ► (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})MnO{sub 3} was substituted with Ni and Cu. ► Neutron powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement were carried out. ► A quantum critical point possibly occurs in the (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x})O{sub 3} system.

  2. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  3. Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma Longa) and Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum Sativum) and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elkhair, R.; Ahmed, H. A.; Selim, S.

    2014-01-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of dye naphthol blue black in the presence of zirconia-supported Ti-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Chunjie; Guo Yihang; Hu Changwen; Wang Chungang; Li Danfeng

    2004-02-02

    Zirconia-supported Ti-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates, Li{sub 5}PW{sub 11}TiO{sub 40}/ZrO{sub 2} (PW{sub 11}Ti/ZrO{sub 2}) and K{sub 7}PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 40}/ZrO{sub 2} (PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2}), were prepared by incorporating PW{sub 11}Ti and PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} cluster into a zirconia matrix via a sol-gel technique. These insoluble and readily separable composites were characterized by DR-UV (DR: diffuse reflectance) and FT-IR spectra, {sup 31}P MAS NMR, ICP-AES, and nitrogen adsorption determination, indicating that the clusters were chemically attached to the zirconia supports, and the primary Keggin structure remained intact. The photocatalytic activity of the supported PW{sub 11}Ti and PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} was tested via degradation of an aqueous dye naphthol blue black (NBB). It indicated that the dye NBB can be degraded totally and mineralized into the inorganic products such as CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions by irradiating the composite slurry in the near-UV area. Dropped of PW{sub 11}Ti or PW{sub 10}Ti{sub 2} cluster from the zirconia matrix into the reaction system was hardly observed during the photocatalytic tests, attributed to the strong chemical interactions between the Keggin units and the zirconia support.

  5. Cheap, Gram-Scale Fabrication of BN Nanosheets via Substitution Reaction of Graphite Powders and Their Use for Mechanical Reinforcement of Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Mo, Xiaoshu; Gan, Haibo; Guo, Tongyi; Wang, Xuebin; Chen, Bin; Chen, Jun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important two-dimensional (2D) materials, BN nanosheets attracted intensive interest in the past decade. Although there are many methods suitable for the preparation of BN sheets, finding a cheap and nontoxic way for their mass and high-quality production is still a challenge. Here we provide a highly effective and cheap way to synthesize gram-scale-level well-structured BN nanosheets from many common graphite products as source materials. Single-crystalline multi-layered BN sheets have a mean lateral size of several hundred nanometers and a thickness ranging from 5 nm to 40 nm. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis shows that the structures exhibit a near band-edge emission and a broad emission band from 300 nm to 500 nm. Utilization of nanosheets for the reinforcement of polymers revealed that the Young's modulus of BN/PMMA composite had increased to 1.56 GPa when the BN's fraction was only 2 wt.%, thus demonstrating a 20% gain compared to a blank PMMA film. It suggests that the BN nanosheet is an ideal mechanical reinforcing material for polymers. In addition, this easy and nontoxic substitution method may provide a universal route towards high yields of other 2D materials. PMID:24572725

  6. The loss of a polymorphic glycosylation site caused by Thr-927 [yields] Ile is linked to a second polymorphic Val-816 [yields] Ile substitution in lysosomal [alpha]-glucosidase of American blacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hermans, M.M.P.; Oostra, B.A.; Reuser, A.J.J. ); Svetkey, L.P.; Chen, Y.T. )

    1993-04-01

    Inherited deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase [alpha]-glucosidase (acid maltase) causes lysosomal accumulation of glycogen, a condition known as glycogen storage disease type II (GSD II). The clinical phenotype is heterogeneous, and heterogeneity also exists at the molecular level. Point mutations were recently identified in two cases of severe infantile and one case of adult GSD II. In addition to mutations with a deleterious effect on enzyme function, several polymorphisms have been documented. Of note are those polymorphisms that relate to racial differences, but they can pose a problem when mutant alleles are being analyzed. An example of this was an American black patient with an adult form of GSD II (GM1935). Mutation analysis revealed three amino acid substitutions that were not encountered in the Caucasian population. The three substitutions were Asp-645 [r arrow] Glu (exon 14), Val-816 [r arrow] Ile (exon 17), and Thr-927 [r arrow] Ile (exon 19), and they were linked to the same allele . The Thr-927 [r arrow] Ile substitution deleting the most carboxyl-terminal N-linked glycosylation site was found to have no effect on enzyme function, in agreement with the studies on the role of the individual glycosylation sites. There were different opinions, however, with respect to the effect of the other two substitutions. The Val-816 [r arrow] Ile substitution was reported by Martiniuk et al. to cause the lysosomal [alpha]-glucosidase deficiency, but the authors concluded on the basis of more extensive studies that the Asp-645[r arrow] Glu substitution was actually the deleterious mutation and the Val-816 [r arrow] Ile substitution a polymorphism. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Cation substitution in synthetic meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O) I: X-ray powder diffraction analysis of quenched polycrystalline aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Browning, Frank; Wood, Ian G.

    2012-05-01

    Meridianiite, MgSO4·11H2O, is the most highly hydrated phase in the binary MgSO4-H2O system. Lower hydrates in the MgSO4-H2O system have end-member analogues containing alternative divalent metal cations (Ni2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, and Co2+) and exhibit extensive solid solution with MgSO4 and with one another, but no other undecahydrate is known. We have prepared aqueous MgSO4 solutions doped with these other cations in proportions up to and including the pure end-members. These liquids have been solidified into fine-grained polycrystalline blocks of metal sulfate hydrate + ice by rapid quenching in liquid nitrogen. The solid products have been characterised by X-ray powder diffraction, and the onset of partial melting has been quantified using a thermal probe. We have established that of the seven end-member metal sulfates studied, only MgSO4 forms an undecahydrate; ZnSO4 forms an orthorhombic heptahydrate (synthetic goslarite), MnSO4, FeSO4, and CoSO4 form monoclinic heptahydrates (syn. mallardite, melanterite, bieberite, respectively), and CuSO4 crystallises as the well-known triclinic pentahydrate (syn. chalcanthite). NiSO4 forms a new hydrate which has been indexed with a triclinic unit cell of dimensions a = 6.1275(1) Å, b = 6.8628(1) Å, c = 12.6318(2) Å, α = 92.904(2)°, β = 97.678(2)°, and γ = 96.618(2)°. The unit-cell volume of this crystal, V = 521.74(1) Å3, is consistent with it being an octahydrate, NiSO4·8H2O. Further analysis of doped specimens has shown that synthetic meridianiite is able to accommodate significant quantities of foreign cations in its structure; of the order 50 mol. % Co2+ or Mn2+, 20-30 mol. % Ni2+ or Zn2+, but less than 10 mol. % of Cu2+ or Fe2+. In three of the systems we examined, an `intermediate' phase occurred that differed in hydration state both from the Mg-bearing meridianiite end-member and the pure dopant end-member hydrate. In the case of CuSO4, we observed a melanterite-structured heptahydrate at Cu

  8. Influence of moisture content on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in powdered red and black pepper spices by radio-frequency heating.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-04-17

    The influence of moisture content during radio-frequency (RF) heating on heating rate, dielectric properties, and inactivation of foodborne pathogens was investigated. The effect of RF heating on the quality of powdered red and black pepper spices with different moisture ranges was also investigated. Red pepper (12.6%, 15.2%, 19.1%, and 23.3% dry basis, db) and black pepper (10.1%, 17.2%, 23.7%, and 30.5% db) inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were treated in a RF heating system with 27.12 MHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on moisture content up to 19.1% (db) of red pepper and 17.2% (db) of black pepper, but there was a significant decrease in the heating rate when the moisture content was increased beyond these levels. The dielectric properties of both samples increased with a rise in moisture content. As the moisture content increased, treatment time required to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium by more than 7 log CFU/g (below the detection limit, 1 log CFU/g) decreased and then increased again without affecting product quality when the moisture content exceeded a level corresponding to the peak heating rate. RF treatment significantly (P<0.05) reduced moisture content of both spices. These results suggest that RF heating can be effectively used to not only control pathogens but also reduce moisture levels in spices and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on moisture content.

  9. Powder sampling.

    PubMed

    Venables, Helena J; Wells, J I

    2002-01-01

    The factors involved when sampling powder mixes have been reviewed. The various methods are evaluated (manual, automatic, and sub-sampling) and the errors incurred are discussed. Certain rules have been applied to various samplers and their suitability for powder mixtures are described. The spinning riffler is apparently the most suitable, while the use of sample thieves should be avoided due to error and bias.

  10. Revealing the powdering methods of black makeup in Ancient Egypt by fitting microstructure based Fourier coefficients to the whole x-ray diffraction profiles of galena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungár, T.; Martinetto, P.; Ribárik, G.; Dooryhée, E.; Walter, Ph.; Anne, M.

    2002-02-01

    Galena (PbS) is a major ingredient in ancient Egyptian eye makeup. The microstructure of PbS in Egyptian cosmetic powders is used as a fingerprint and is matched with the microstructures produced artificially in geological galena minerals. The microstructure of PbS is determined by x-ray diffraction peak profile analysis in terms of dislocation density, crystallite size, and size distribution. High-resolution powder diffractograms were measured at the ESRF Grenoble synchrotron source with high resolution and high peak-to-background ratios. The Fourier coefficients of the first nine measured reflections of galena are fitted using physically based Fourier coefficients of strain and size functions. Strain anisotropy is accounted for by the dislocation model of the mean square strain. The x-ray data are supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, and are compared with archæological documents. It enables us to describe the procedures of eye makeup manufacturing in the Middle and New Kingdoms of Egypt some 2000 years before Christ.

  11. Solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  12. Energetic powder

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  13. Sensory Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrillo, Ronald T.

    The idea that the cutaneous surface may be employed as a substitute for the eyes and ears is by no means a modern notion. Although the sense of touch has long been considered as a surrogate for both the visual and auditory modalities, the focus of this chapter will be on the efforts to develop a tactile substitute for hearing, especially that of human speech. The visual system is our primary means of processing information about environmental space such as orientation, distance, direction and size. It is much less effective in making temporal discriminations. The auditory system is unparalleled in processing information that involves rapid sequences of temporal events, such as speech and music. The tactile sense is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information although not as effective in either domain as the eye or the ear.

  14. Hemoglobin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Anbari, Kevin K; Garino, Jonathan P; Mackenzie, Colin F

    2004-10-01

    Orthopaedic patients frequently require blood transfusions to treat peri-operative anemia. Research in the area of hemoglobin substitutes has been of great interest since it holds the promise of reducing the reliance on allogeneic blood transfusions. The three categories of hemoglobin substitutes are (1) cell-free, extracellular hemoglobin preparations made from human or bovine hemoglobin (hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers or HBOCs); (2) fluorine-substituted linear or cyclic carbon chains with a high oxygen-carrying capacity (perfluorocarbons); and (3) liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin. Of the three, HBOCs have been the most extensively studied and tested in preclinical and clinical trials that have shown success in diminishing the number of blood transfusions as well as an overall favorable side-effect profile. This has been demonstrated in vascular, cardiothoracic, and orthopaedic patients. HBOC-201, which is a preparation of cell-free bovine hemoglobin, has been approved for clinical use in South Africa. These products may well become an important tool for physicians treating peri-operative anemia in orthopaedic patients.

  15. Location and oxidation state of iron in Fe-substituted CuInS{sub 2} chalcopyrites

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Johanna D.; Xu Tianhong; Sorescu, Monica; Strohmeier, Brian R.; Sturgeon, Jacqueline; Gourdon, Olivier; Baroudi, Kristen; Yao Jinlei; Aitken, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-15

    CuIn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2}(x=0-0.30) was synthesized via high-temperature, solid-state synthesis. Phase-pure materials were found in samples where x=0-0.15, after which a secondary phase became apparent. The materials were characterized with the use of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Reitveld refinement revealed a linear decrease in unit cell volume as the amount of iron substitution increases in accordance with Vegard's Law. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) confirms that the actual stoichiometry is close to the nominal composition of the materials. The temperature for both the chalcopyrite-to-sphalerite and the sphalerite-to-wurtzite phase transitions decreases with increasing iron substitution for indium. These findings suggest that the Fe is being randomly incorporated into the crystal structure of the CuInS{sub 2}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to determine the oxidation state of the ions (Cu{sup 1+}, In{sup 3+,} and S{sup 2-}), and Fe{sup 57} Moessbauer spectroscopy verified that the iron is in the 3{sup +} oxidation state. Band gaps of the solid solution were estimated to be in the range of 0.70-0.85 eV. Rietveld refinement of neutron diffraction data indicates that the iron is occupying the In site within the chalcopyrite structure. - Graphical abstract: CuIn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2} samples were prepared by solid-state synthesis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy indicate Cu{sup +}, In{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+} and S{sup 2-} in the samples. Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction data shows Fe{sup 3+} residing on the indium site. The band gaps of the iron-containing samples decrease to {approx}0.7 eV. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Cu{sup +}, In{sup 3+} and S{sup 2-}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moessbauer spectroscopy indicates the presence of Fe{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement of neutron

  16. A study of a tissue equivalent gelatine based tissue substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A study of several tissue substitutes for use as volumetric dosimeters was performed. The tissue substitutes studied included tissue substitutes from previous studies and from ICRU 44. The substitutes were evaluated for an overall match to Reference Man which was used as a basis for this study. The evaluation was based on the electron stopping power, the mass attenuation coefficient, the electron density, and the specific gravity. The tissue substitute chosen also had to be capable of changing from a liquid into a solid form to maintain an even distribution of thermoluminesent dosimetry (TLD) powder and then back to a liquid for recovery of the TLD powder without adversely effecting the TLD powder. The gelatine mixture provided the closest match to the data from Reference Man tissue. The gelatine mixture was put through a series of test to determine it`s usefulness as a reliable tissue substitute. The TLD powder was cast in the gelatine mixture and recovered to determine if the TLD powder was adversely effected. The distribution of the TLD powder after being cast into the gelatin mixture was tested in insure an even was maintained.

  17. A study of a tissue equivalent gelatine based tissue substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    A study of several tissue substitutes for use as volumetric dosimeters was performed. The tissue substitutes studied included tissue substitutes from previous studies and from ICRU 44. The substitutes were evaluated for an overall match to Reference Man which was used as a basis for this study. The evaluation was based on the electron stopping power, the mass attenuation coefficient, the electron density, and the specific gravity. The tissue substitute chosen also had to be capable of changing from a liquid into a solid form to maintain an even distribution of thermoluminesent dosimetry (TLD) powder and then back to a liquid for recovery of the TLD powder without adversely effecting the TLD powder. The gelatine mixture provided the closest match to the data from Reference Man tissue. The gelatine mixture was put through a series of test to determine it's usefulness as a reliable tissue substitute. The TLD powder was cast in the gelatine mixture and recovered to determine if the TLD powder was adversely effected. The distribution of the TLD powder after being cast into the gelatin mixture was tested in insure an even was maintained.

  18. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  19. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, John D.

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  20. Synthesis of fluoride-releasing carbonate apatites for bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo; Yokoyama, Daiki; Yamazaki, Atsushi; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2007-06-01

    Fluoride (F-)-substituted B-type carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHAP) powders were prepared for application as bone substitute materials having the ability to enhance bone formation and to suppress bone resorption due to the therapeutic effect of F-. F- was adsorbed on CHAP in a sodium fluoride solution followed by heating at 700 degrees C in carbon dioxide flow to substitute F- for the hydroxyl ion in the CHAP structure. The F- contents in the F-substituted CHAP powders were 16-22 times greater than that in normal adult human bones. The carbonate ion contents in the F-substituted CHAP powders corresponded to or were higher than that in normal adult human bones. F-substituted CHAP powder with CO3(2-) and F- contents of 11.03 and 0.66 wt%, respectively, slowly released F- in a physiological salt solution to a sufficiently high F- level. The F- concentration slowly increased and reached 67.20 +/- 4.81 microg l(-1), which was 1.5-9.3 times higher than that in the body fluid of normal adult humans, near the therapeutic window of F-, and far lower than the estimated toxic level. Therefore, the F-substituted CHAP can promote bone formation. The present F-substituted CHAP has the advantage of slow F- release over sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate which are highly soluble salts and cannot be sintered into a ceramic body.

  1. Vitreous Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Foster, William Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Modern vitreoretinal surgery is a young science. While tremendous developments have occurred in instrument design and technique since Machemer first described vitrectomy surgery in 1973[1], the application of advanced materials concepts to the development of intra-ocular compounds is a particularly exciting area of research. To date, the development of vitreous substitutes has played a significant role in enabling the dramatic and progressive improvement in surgical outcome, but perhaps no other area of research has the potential to further improve the treatment of retinal detachment and other retinal disorders. While prior research has focused solely upon the ability of a compound to re-attach the retina, future research should seek to enable the surgeon to inhibit the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and re-detachment, the integration of stem-cell therapies with surgical retina, long-term delivery of medications to the posterior segment, and the promotion of more rapid and complete visual rehabilitation. PMID:19343097

  2. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andre F; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2014-07-11

    The toxic side effects of early generations of red blood cell substitutes have stimulated development of more safe and efficacious high-molecular-weight polymerized hemoglobins, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated hemoglobins, and vesicle-encapsulated hemoglobins. Unfortunately, the high colloid osmotic pressure and blood plasma viscosity of these new-generation materials limit their application to blood concentrations that, in general, are not sufficient for full restoration of oxygen-carrying and -delivery capacity. However, these materials may serve as oxygen therapeutics for treating tissues affected by ischemia and trauma, particularly when the therapeutics are coformulated with antioxidants. These new oxygen therapeutics also possess additional beneficial effects owing to their optimal plasma expansion properties, which induce systemic supraperfusion that increases endothelial nitric oxide production and improves tissue washout of metabolic wastes, further contributing to their therapeutic role.

  3. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  4. Preparation of metal diboride powders

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group of consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  5. Characterization of Fine Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Matthew; Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Jesse

    Fine powders are used in many applications and across many industries such as powdered paints and pigments, ceramics, petrochemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and bulk and fine chemicals, to name a few. In addition, fine powders must often be handled as a waste by-product, such as ash generated in combustion and gasification processes. In order to correctly design a process and process equipment for application and handling of powders, especially fine powders, it is essential to understand how the powder would behave. Many characterization techniques are available for determining the flow properties of powders; however, care must be taken in selecting the most appropriate technique(s).

  6. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  7. Dustiness of Fine and Nanoscale Powders

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Douglas E.; Baron, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.3–37.9% and 0.1–31.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100nm particle contribution in a workplace. PMID:23065675

  8. Composite powder particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald S. (Inventor); MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A liquid coating composition including a coating vehicle and composite powder particles disposed within the coating vehicle. Each composite powder particle may include a magnesium component, a zinc component, and an indium component.

  9. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric; Schmale, David T.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  10. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  11. Magnetic fingerprint powder from a mineral indigenous to Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thonglon, Thatsanee; Chaikum, Nopadol

    2010-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate whether natural magnetite (Fe3O4), which is an abundant mineral in Thailand, could be used as a magnetic powder in the detection of latent fingerprints. Because of the presence of impurities, powdered magnetite is only weakly attracted by a magnet and cannot be used as a magnetic fingerprint powder by itself. Mixing a small amount of magnetite powder with nickel powder greatly enhances the magnetic attraction. A mixture of magnetite powder and nickel powder in a mass ratio of approximately 1:100 was found to be suitable for use as a magnetic fingerprint powder. Fingerprints developed using the magnetite/nickel mixture on nonporous surfaces were found to exhibit good adherence and clarity. Using an automated fingerprint identification system, the number of minutiae detected in fingerprints developed by using the prepared powder on nonporous surfaces was found to be comparable to those detected in fingerprints developed by using a commercial black magnetic powder. The cost is lowered by more than 60%.

  12. Multiple feed powder splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  13. Multiple feed powder splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  14. Granulation of fine powder

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ching-Fong

    2016-08-09

    A mixture of fine powder including thorium oxide was converted to granulated powder by forming a first-green-body and heat treating the first-green-body at a high temperature to strengthen the first-green-body followed by granulation by crushing or milling the heat-treated first-green-body. The granulated powder was achieved by screening through a combination of sieves to achieve the desired granule size distribution. The granulated powder relies on the thermal bonding to maintain its shape and structure. The granulated powder contains no organic binder and can be stored in a radioactive or other extreme environment. The granulated powder was pressed and sintered to form a dense compact with a higher density and more uniform pore size distribution.

  15. Black Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  16. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  17. Morphology and composition of Ni-Co electrodeposited powders

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimovic, V.M.; Lacnjevac, U.C.; Stoiljkovic, M.M.; Pavlovic, M.G.; Jovic, V.D.

    2011-12-15

    The morphology, phase and chemical composition of Ni-Co alloy powders electrodeposited from an ammonium sulfate-boric acid containing electrolyte with different ratio of Ni/Co ions were investigated. The ratios of Ni/Co ions were 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of the electrodeposited alloy powders were investigated using AES, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. Composition of the electrolyte, i.e. the ratio of Ni/Co concentrations was found to influence both, the alloy phase composition and the morphology of Ni-Co alloy powders. At the highest ratio of Ni/Co = 1/1 concentrations typical 2D fern-like dendritic particles were obtained. With a decrease of Ni/Co ions ratio among 2D fern-like dendrites, 3D dendrites and different agglomerates were obtained. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the alloy powders mainly consisted of the face-centered cubic {alpha}-nickel phase and hexagonal close-packed {epsilon}-cobalt phase and minor proportions of face-centered cubic {alpha}-cobalt phase. The occurrence of the latter phase was observed only in the alloy powder with the higher cobalt concentration in electrolyte. The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Co alloys powders were successfully electrodeposited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition of the electrolyte (Ni/Co ions ratio) was found to influence on morphology of powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner.

  18. Single crystalline and rare earth substituted La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} investigated by x-ray diffraction and EXAFS spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Riegg, S.; Reller, A.; Ebbinghaus, S.G.

    2012-04-15

    Single crystals of La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} were obtained from a BaCl{sub 2} flux. The structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction and compared to earlier x-ray and neutron powder diffraction results. The local structures of Ru and La/Ln in pure La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} and the rare earth substituted La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy) polycrystalline samples were determined from the extended x-ray absorption fine structures (EXAFS) of the K- and L{sub III}-edges of Ru, La, and Ln, respectively. A four shell model was developed to reduce the number of refinable parameters in the fit of the EXAFS spectra. The distribution of the Ln-ions in the layered crystal structure was determined by a comparison of the coordination spheres obtained from the Ln-edges with the unsubstituted La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5}. Interatomic distances were compared to the values obtained from the single crystal diffraction and were found to agree very well. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy) is shown viewed along the c-axis. The alternating stacking of LaRuO{sub 4} and LnO layers leads to the formation of zig-zag layers of corner sharing RuO{sub 6} octahedra. The La sites in the LaRuO{sub 4} layers are represented by light blue spheres, while the La/Ln sites in the LnO layers are colored dark blue. EXAFS investigations reveal a cationic ordering with roughly 65% of the substituting Ln ions occupying the LnO layers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure determination of La{sub 2}RuO{sub 5} by single crystal x-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru-K EXAFS investigations of La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} powder samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS of La and Ln in La{sub 2-x}Ln{sub x}RuO{sub 5} powder samples using K- and L{sub III}-absorption edges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement of EXAFS results and crystal structure data despite low symmetry space group. Black

  19. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  20. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  1. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  2. Co-substitution at the Mn-site in YMnO{sub 3}: Structural stability and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Malo, S.; Maignan, A.

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid state synthesis of several series of hexagonal co-substituted YMn{sub 1-x}(M Prime ,M Double-Prime ){sub x}O{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidencing the critical parameters which govern the stabilization of the hexagonal phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inducing a decrease of the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature by co-substitutions. -- Abstract: The YMnO{sub 3} oxide, crystallizing in the P6{sub 3}cm space group is one of the most studied multiferroic material. While these properties can be modified by substitutions at the Mn-site, the peculiar fivefold coordination appears to limit the M solubility range in YMn{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 3}. This motivated the preparation by solid state reaction of several series of co-substituted YMn{sub 1-x}(M Prime ,M Double-Prime ){sub x}O{sub 3}, which were studied using both powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The cation pairs have been chosen for their ability to adopt a fivefold coordination similar to that of Mn{sup 3+} in YMnO{sub 3}, to keep a constant average trivalent oxidation state and to maintain an average cationic radius similar to that of Mn{sup 3+}. For YMn{sub 1-x}(Cu{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2}){sub x}O{sub 3}, a complete solid solution is observed without cation ordering. For all other studied cation pairs, the solubility range is always reaching a minimum value of 25% for the Zn containing pairs (Zn{sub 2/3}V{sub 1/3} and Zn{sub 3/4}Mo{sub 1/4}), a maximum of 50% being reached for the Cu containing pairs (Cu{sub 2/3}V{sub 1/3}, Cu{sub 2/3}Nb{sub 1/3} and Cu{sub 3/4}W{sub 1/4}). Interestingly, the non-centrosymmetric P6{sub 3}cm space group is retained within the solubility range without generating cation ordering phenomena. These co-substitutions at the Mn{sup 3+} are found to induce a decrease of the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature, the T{sub N} variations being similar to the temperature decrease of the dielectric anomaly

  3. Optimal Substitution of Cotton Burr and Linters in Thermoplastic Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate various substitutions of cotton burr and linters fractions of cotton gin waste (CGW) as a natural fiber source in ligno-cellulosic polymer composites (LCPC.) Samples were fabricated with approximately 50% natural fiber, 40% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) powder...

  4. Partial substitution of Mo{sup 6+} by S{sup 6+} in the fast oxide ion conductor La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}: Synthesis, structure and sulfur depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Mhadhbi, Noureddine; Corbel, Gwenaeel; Lacorre, Philippe; Bulou, Alain

    2012-06-15

    Powder-solid state reaction route using La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} as sulfur source was used to prepare compositions of the solid solution La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9}. Single phases were only obtained in the substitution range extending up to y=0.8 (40 mol% S) at the annealing temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C with regard to the limit of stability of the lanthanum sulphate reactant. Within the synthesis conditions, a stabilization of the high temperature {beta}-form is observed from and above y=0.1 (5 mol% S). Temperature-controlled X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses have shown that La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders undergo thermal decompositions in two steps. Heating above 900 Degree-Sign C, a sulfur depletion to the benefit of molybdenum in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders leads to the formation of La{sub 2}SO{sub 6}. At higher temperature, the exsolved La{sub 2}SO{sub 6} phase then decomposes into La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which in turn reacts with the sulfur-depleted La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase to form La{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. The present study also reveals that depending on the substitution rate y, the sulfur depletion can be induced by ball-milling of raw powders. Along the La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} series, the isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur tends to restrict in magnitude, or even to suppress above 400 Degree-Sign C, the distortive thermal expansion of the cubic {beta}-type structure, thus strongly decreasing the conductance at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3}-'SO{sub 3}' ternary phase diagram showing the exsolution path at low temperature (white arrows) and the total decomposition path at high temperature (black arrows) of {beta}-La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} up to 40 mol%. Black

  5. Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder by continuous precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Boz, Ismail; Kaluza, Stefan; Boroglu, Mehtap Safak; Muhler, Martin

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: High surface area ZnO powders are synthesized by a low temperature continuous precipitation under ultrasonication. Urea is used as precipitating agent so that no contamination of ZnO powder emanating from precipitating agent, such as, alkalis, is observed. pH and type of precursor greatly affects the surface area and other properties. In this manuscript, we report a very simple and effective continuous precipitation to synthesize high surface area ZnO powder. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved at 90 Degree-Sign C in a continuous precipitation unit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous precipitation unit was ultrasonicated to improve final product homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation intermediate, hydrozincite, was led to high surface area ZnO powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had a rather uniform mesoporous structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved by continuous precipitation using zinc ions and urea at low temperature of 90 Degree-Sign C. The powder precipitated resulted in high-purity single-phase ZnO powder when calcined at 280 Degree-Sign C for 3 h in air. The solution pH and the precipitation duration strongly affected the surface area of the calcined ZnO powder. Detailed structural characterizations demonstrated that the synthesized ZnO powder were single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The powdered samples precipitated by homogeneous precipitation crystallized directly to hydrozincite without any intermediate phase formation. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final ZnO powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis (DLS), and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine the specific surface area (BET) and the pore size distribution (BJH).

  6. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  7. Sintering titanium powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

  8. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Jablonski, Paul D.

    2011-05-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  9. Formulation and physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit-type cookies supplemented with fruit powders.

    PubMed

    Uchoa, Ana Maria Athayde; Correia da Costa, José Maria; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Meira, Tatyane Ribeiro; Sousa, Paulo Henrrique Machado; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2009-06-01

    Cashew apple and guava residues from fruit juice industry were prepared as dehydrated fruit powders and used at different levels of wheat flour substitution for cookies formulations. The effects of guava and cashew apple fruit powders supplementation on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the cookies were evaluated. The pH, fibre and protein content were significantly affected. Biscuits with 15 g and 20 g/100g cashew apple and guava fruit powders showed the highest scores for sensorial attributes, respectively. The supplementation seems to be suited for wheat flour substitution and it is possible to obtain cookies with value-added food ingredient within the standards.

  10. Ceramic powder compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.J.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Mahoney, F.M.

    1995-12-31

    With the objective of developing a predictive model for ceramic powder compaction we have investigated methods for characterizing density gradients in ceramic powder compacts, reviewed and compared existing compaction models, conducted compaction experiments on a spray dried alumina powder, and conducted mechanical tests and compaction experiments on model granular materials. Die filling and particle packing, and the behavior of individual granules play an important role in determining compaction behavior and should be incorporated into realistic compaction models. These results support the use of discrete element modeling techniques and statistical mechanics principals to develop a comprehensive model for compaction, something that should be achievable with computers with parallel processing capabilities.

  11. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat…

  12. Talking Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    This book contains essays which focus on the systems of communication that operate within and between various social segments of Afro-American communities in the United States. The essays are presented under the following headings: (1) "Getting Into It: Black Talk, Black Life and the Academic," (2) "'Talking My Talk': Black Talk Varieties and…

  13. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  14. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  15. Effects of scandium substitution on the crystal structure and luminescence properties of LuBO{sub 3}: Ce{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuntao; Ren, Guohao; Ding, Dongzhou; Pan, Shangke; Yang, Fan

    2012-10-15

    The calcite phase of LuBO{sub 3} and ScBO{sub 3} polycrystalline powders were synthesized by solid state reaction method, and the Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce (x=0.2, 0.5, 0.7) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. A large composition deviation between the initial polycrystalline powders and final single crystal was confirmed by electron probe micro-analysis. Raman spectroscopy revealed that moderate lattice disorder was induced by scandium substitution. However, based on the single crystal X-ray study, we finally concluded that the crystal structure of lutetium scandium orthoborate still crystallized in the rhombohedral system belonging to R3{sup -}c. Furthermore, the relationship between the energies of the five 5d levels of Ce{sup 3+} and the crystalline environment was revealed. The total redshift, total crystal field splitting, and centroid shift of Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} were calculated based on their VUV excitation spectra. The variations trend of these observed spectroscopic parameters was in accordance with the predicted ones. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce is rhombohedral system with R3{sup -}c space group. The relationship between the energies of the five Ce{sup 3+} 5d levels and the crystalline environment is established. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate lattice disorder is induced by scandium doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of Lu{sub 1-x}Sc{sub x}BO{sub 3}:Ce is rhombohedral system with R3{sup -}c space group. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship between energies of Ce{sup 3+} 5d levels and crystalline environment is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spectroscopic parameters are experimentally and theoretically calculated.

  16. Talcum powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder As a filler in street drugs, like heroin Other products may also contain talc. ... have developed serious lung damage and cancer. Injecting heroin that contains talc into a vein may lead ...

  17. Gelcasting superalloy powders

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Gelcasting is a process for forming inorganic powders into complex shapes. It was originally developed for ceramic powders. A slurry of powder and a monomer solution is poured in to mold and polymerized in-situ to form gelled parts. Typically, only 2-4 wt % Polymer is used. The process has both aqueous and nonaqueous versions. Gelcasting is a generic process and has been used to produce ceramic parts from over a dozen different ceramic compositions ranging from alumina-based refractories to high-performance silicon nitride. Recently, gelcasting has been applied to forming superalloy powders into complex shapes. This application has posed several challenges not previously encountered in ceramics. In particular, problems were caused by the larger particle size and the higher density of the particles. Additional problems were encountered with binder removal. How these problems were overcome will be described.

  18. Pyrotechnic filled molding powder

    DOEpatents

    Hartzel, Lawrence W.; Kettling, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to thermosetting molding compounds and more particularly to a pyrotechnic filled thermosetting compound comprising a blend of unfilled diallyl phthalate molding powder and a pyrotechnic mixture.

  19. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  20. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m.sup.2 /gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  1. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.

    1997-06-10

    Fabrication is described for conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive deionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (<50 m{sup 2}/gm) graphite and cokes exhibit excellent reversible lithium intercalation characteristics, making them ideal for use as anodes in high voltage lithium insertion (lithium-ion) batteries. Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon composites with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced. 1 fig.

  2. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  3. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-05-10

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  6. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-01-25

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  7. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  9. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-28

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  10. Managing Substitute Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin R.

    1999-01-01

    This news brief presents information on managing substitute teaching. The information is based on issues discussed at a summit meeting which included public school administrators and personnel directors from around the nation. The main topics of concern focused around four core components related to the management of substitute teaching:…

  11. Stable powders made from photosensitive polycrystalline complexes of heterocyclic monomers and their polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a low electronic conductivity polymer composition having well dispersed metal granules, a stable powder made from photosensitive polycrystalline complexes of pyrrole, or its substituted derivatives and silver cations for making the polymer composition, and methods of forming the stable powder and polymer composition, respectively. A polycrystalline complex of silver and a monomer, such as pyrrole, its substituted derivatives or combinations thereof, is precipitated in the form of a stable photosensitive powder upon addition of the monomer to a solvent solution, such as toluene containing an electron acceptor. The photosensitive powder can be stored in the dark until needed. The powder may be dissolved in a solvent, cast onto a substrate and photopolymerized.

  12. The Substitution of a Super Black Fixed Micro-Object for an Optical Microcavity in a Delayed Choice Experiment to Send Information Immediately Between 2 Paired Particles: Simplifying the Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    An experiment has been described that relies on a delayed choice for an idler photon that immediately affects the signal photon with which it is at least initially entangled and for which the idler photon provides which-way information. The delayed choice concerns whether to maintain or eliminate the entanglement before any measurements are made. In one option of the delayed choice, the entanglement can be eliminated because the relevant state of the idler photon related to its entanglement is eliminated when the idler photon enters an optical microcavity filled with photons with the same mode as the incoming idler photon. The microcavity is located at the crossroads of two possible idler photon paths. The relevant state of the idler photon characterizes the particular path taken by the photon and this information is eliminated when the particle enters the cavity. Over a number of runs with this choice, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows interference. If the entanglement is maintained, the distribution of the paired signal photons shows which-way information. This experiment can be simplified by using a super black material (e.g., Vantablack) affixed to a fixed micro-object located at the crossroads of the two possible idler photon paths instead of the optical microcavity. The photon would be absorbed by the material and there would be no way to detect from which direction it came. Objects such as fixed mirrors in a Mach Zehnder interferometer do not provide ww information. The super black fixed micro-object should not either.

  13. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Alessandra Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela Montanaro, Laura

    2009-02-04

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and (b) titration of Ca(OH){sub 2}. The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m{sup 2}/g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH){sub 2} were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  14. Application of acid-modified Imperata cylindrica powder for latent fingerprint development.

    PubMed

    Low, Wei Zeng; Khoo, Bee Ee; Aziz, Zalina Binti Abdul; Low, Ling Wei; Teng, Tjoon Tow; bin Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim

    2015-09-01

    A novel powdering material that utilizes acid-modified Imperata cylindrica (IC) powder for the development of fingermarks was studied. Experiments were carried out to determine the suitability, adherence quality and sensitivity of the acid-modified IC powder. Fingermarks of different constituents (eccrine, sebaceous and natural fingermarks) on different types of surfaces were used. Acid-modified IC powder was also used to develop fingermarks of different ages as well as aged fingermarks recovered from the water. From the visual inspection, acid-modified IC powder was able to interact with different fingermark constituents and produced distinct ridge details on the examined surfaces. It was also able to develop aged fingermarks and fingermarks that were submerged in water. A statistical comparison was made against the Sirchie® Hi-Fi black powder in terms of the powders' sensitivity and quality of the developed natural fingermarks. The image quality was analyzed using MITRE's Image Quality of Fingerprint (IQF) software. From the experiments, acid-modified IC powder has the potential as a fingermark development powder, although natural fingermarks developed by Sirchie® black powder showed better quality and sensitivity based on the results of the statistical comparison. PMID:26385718

  15. Application of acid-modified Imperata cylindrica powder for latent fingerprint development.

    PubMed

    Low, Wei Zeng; Khoo, Bee Ee; Aziz, Zalina Binti Abdul; Low, Ling Wei; Teng, Tjoon Tow; bin Abdullah, Ahmad Fahmi Lim

    2015-09-01

    A novel powdering material that utilizes acid-modified Imperata cylindrica (IC) powder for the development of fingermarks was studied. Experiments were carried out to determine the suitability, adherence quality and sensitivity of the acid-modified IC powder. Fingermarks of different constituents (eccrine, sebaceous and natural fingermarks) on different types of surfaces were used. Acid-modified IC powder was also used to develop fingermarks of different ages as well as aged fingermarks recovered from the water. From the visual inspection, acid-modified IC powder was able to interact with different fingermark constituents and produced distinct ridge details on the examined surfaces. It was also able to develop aged fingermarks and fingermarks that were submerged in water. A statistical comparison was made against the Sirchie® Hi-Fi black powder in terms of the powders' sensitivity and quality of the developed natural fingermarks. The image quality was analyzed using MITRE's Image Quality of Fingerprint (IQF) software. From the experiments, acid-modified IC powder has the potential as a fingermark development powder, although natural fingermarks developed by Sirchie® black powder showed better quality and sensitivity based on the results of the statistical comparison.

  16. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  17. Acoustic properties of organic powders as ultrasonic contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, V. A.; Loginov, S. V.; Dmitriev, K. V.

    2011-11-01

    The results of experiments on measuring attenuation and the effective acoustic nonlinear parameter of the second order are given for a suspension of cocoa-powder in water at different concentrations of the suspension. In the process of evaluating the value of the nonlinear parameter the attenuation in the suspension and generation of the second harmonic not only in the suspension but also in water are taken into account. The obtained results are evidence of the possibility of using a suspension of cocoa-powder in water as a technical substitute for ultrasonic contrast agents. The values of attenuation (up to 60 m-1 at the concentration of 1 g of the powder per 1 l of water) and the nonlinear parameter (up to 120 m-1 at the same concentration) mean that the suspension of cocoa-powder in water has smaller attenuation and the nonlinear parameter than ultrasonic contrast agents at the same concentration. However, these values for the suspension differ considerably from corresponding values for water or blood and, therefore, a suspension of cocoa-powder in water is a promising "substitute" for ultrasonic contrast agents in the case of technical testing of systems for nonlinear tomography of a blood flow, but cannot replace them in medical studies.

  18. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  3. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  4. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  5. Powder towpreg process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

  6. Copper thiocyanato complexes and cocaine - a case of 'black cocaine'.

    PubMed

    Laussmann, Tim; Grzesiak, Ireneus; Krest, Alexander; Stirnat, Kathrin; Meier-Giebing, Sigrid; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Klein, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of a black powder confiscated by German customs was elucidated. Black powders are occasionally used as a 'transporter' for cocaine and are obviously especially designed to cloak the presence of the drug. The material consisting of cocaine, copper, iron, thiocyanate, and graphite was approached by analytical tools and chemical modelling. Graphite is added to the material probably with the intention of masking the typical infrared (IR) fingerprints of cocaine and can be clearly detected by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Cu(2+) and NCS(-) ions, when carefully reacted with cocaine hydrochloride, form the novel compound (CocH)2 [Cu(NCS)4 ] (CocH(+)  = protonated cocaine), which has been characterised by single crystal XRD, IR, NMR, UV/Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Based on some further experiments the assumed composition of the original black powder is discussed. PMID:24753444

  7. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi

    2016-10-04

    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  8. In situ synthesis of silicon-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate and their performance in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chang-Weon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Kyu-Hong; Lee, Jong Kook; Park, Hong-Chae; Yoon, Seog-Young

    2012-01-01

    In situ preparation of silicon (Si) substituted biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/ β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were carried out through aqueous co-precipitation method. The concentrations of added silicon were varied with the phosphor in order to obtain constant Ca/(P+Si) ratios of 1.602. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of synthesized silicon substituted BCP powders. The characterization revealed that the formation of biphasic mixtures of different HAp/ β-TCP ratios was dependent on the content of silicon. After immersing in Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 week, 3 wt% silicon substituted BCP powders were degraded and precipitation started to be formed with small granules consisting of number of flake-like crystal onto the surface of synthesized powders. In the case of 1 wt% silicon substituted BCP powders, the degradation behavior was detected after immersion in HBSS for 3 weeks. On the other hand, silicon unsubtituted BCP powders were not degraded even after that duration. On the basis of these results, silicon substituted BCP is able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface in contact with physiological fluids faster than BCP does. This enhanced reactivity resulted in reduction for the stability of the β-TCP structure due to SiO4 tetrahedral distortion and disorder at the hydroxyl site when silicon incorporates into BCP.

  9. Demystifying Mystery Powders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotar, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

  10. Electrically conductive ceramic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yanxia

    1999-11-01

    Electrically conductive ceramic powders were investigated in this project. There are three ways to produce those materials. The first is doping alkali metal into the titanium dioxides in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The second is reducing un-doped titanium dioxide, forming a non-stoichiometric composition in a hydrogen atmosphere. The third is to coat a conductive layer, reduced titanium dioxide, on an insulating core such as alumina. Highly conductive powders have been produced by all these processes. The conductivity of powder compacts ranged between 10-2 and 10° S/cm. A novel doping process was developed. All samples were doped by a solid-vapor reaction instead of a solid state reaction. Titanium dioxide was doped with alkali metals such as Na or Li in this study. The alkali metal atom contributes an electron to the host material (TiO2), which then creates Ti 3+ ion. The conductivity was enhanced by creating the donor level due to the presence of these Ti3+ ions. The conductivity of those alkali doped titanium oxides was dependent on the doping level and charge mobility. Non-stoichiometric titanium oxides were produced by reduction of titanium dioxide in a hydrogen atmosphere at 800°C to 1000°C for 2 to 6 hours. The reduced titanium oxides showed better stability with respect to conductivity at ambient condition when compared with the Na or Li doped samples. Conductive coatings were prepared by coating titanium precursors on insulating core materials like SiO2, Al2O3 or mica. The titania coating was made by hydrolysis of titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4) followed by a reduction procedure to form reduced titanium oxide. The reduced titanium oxides are highly conductive. A uniform coating of titanium oxides on alumina cores was successfully produced. The conductivity of coated powder composites was a function of coating quantity and hydrolysis reaction temperature. The conductivity of the powder as a function of structure, composition, temperature, frequency and

  11. In situ synthesis of magnesium-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate and in vitro biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Hyeong-Shin; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jin, Hyeong-Ho; Hwang, Kyu-Hong; Lee, Jong Kook; Park, Hong-Chae; Yoon, Seog-Young

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Mg–BCP were successfully prepared through in situ aqueous co-precipitation method. ► The amount of β-TCP phase was changed with the magnesium substitution level. ► The substitution of magnesium led to a decrease in the unit cell volume. ► Mg–BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface faster than BCP. -- Abstract: In situ preparation of magnesium (Mg) substituted biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) of hydroxyapatite (HAp)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were carried out through aqueous co-precipitation method. The concentrations of added magnesium were varied with the calcium in order to obtain constant (Ca + Mg)/P ratios of 1.602. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure of synthesized magnesium substituted BCP powders. The results have shown that substitution of magnesium in the calcium deficient apatites revealed the formation of biphasic mixtures of different HAp/β-TCP ratios after heating at 1000 °C. The ratios of the formation of phase mixtures were dependent on the content of magnesium. After immersing in Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 week, 1 wt% magnesium substituted BCP powders were degraded and precipitation started to be formed with small granules consisting of number of flake-like crystal onto the surface of synthesized powders. On the other hand, in the case of pure BCP powders, the formation of new precipitates was detected after immersion in HBSS for 2 weeks. On the basis of these results, magnesium substituted BCP could be able to develop a new apatite phase on the surface in contact with physiological fluids faster than BCP does. In addition, the retention time to produce the new apatite phase in implantation operation for the BCP powder could be controlled by the amount of magnesium substitution.

  12. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  13. The substitutability of reinforcers.

    PubMed

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E

    1993-07-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  14. The substitutability of reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E.

    1993-01-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  15. Vacuum powder injector and method of impregnating fiber with powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus uniformly impregnate stranded material with dry powder such as low solubility, high melt flow polymer powder to produce, for example, composite prepregs. The stranded material is expanded in an impregnation chamber by an influx of air so that the powder, which may enter through the same inlet as the air, penetrates to the center of the stranded material. The stranded material then is contracted for holding the powder therein. The stranded material and powder may be pulled through the impregnation chamber in the same direction by vacuum. Larger particles of powder which do not fully penetrate the stranded material may be combed into the stranded material and powder which does not impregnate the stranded material may be collected and reused.

  16. Processing polymeric powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of uniformly and continuously depositing and sinter-fusing nominal 0.1 to 40 microns dimensioned electrostatically charged polymer powder particles onto essentially uniformly spread 5 to 20 micron grounded continuous fiber tow to produce a respoolable thermoplastic composite two-preg was formulated at NASA Langley. The process was reduced to practice under a NASA grant at the University of Akron this spring. The production of tow-preg is called phase 1. The production of ultrafine polymer powders from 5 to 10 percent (wt) polymer solids in solvent is considered. This is phase 0 and is discussed. The production of unitape from multi tow-pregs was also considered. This is phase 2 and is also discussed. And another approach to phase 1, also proposed last summer, was scoped. This is phase 1A and is also discussed.

  17. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  18. Black Lawyers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Gilbert

    1977-01-01

    Notes that blacks are destined to remain strangers in the land of opportunity and in the system of justice, except as persons suspected, accused, arrested, prosecuted, imprisoned, executed--all in disproportionate numbers. (Author/AM)

  19. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other ... that men who get more phytoestrogens in their diet have a lower risk of developing lung cancer ...

  20. Black psyllium

    MedlinePlus

    Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugarBlack psyllium might decrease blood sugar by decreasing how much ... absorbs from foods. Taking it along with other herbs and supplements that might also lower blood sugar ...

  1. Reversible mechanochromism and enhanced AIE in tetraphenylethene substituted phenanthroimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rajneesh; Jadhav, Thaksen; Dhokale, Bhausaheb; Mobin, Shaikh M

    2014-08-21

    Tetraphenylethene (TPE) substituted phenanthroimidazoles 3a and 3b were designed and synthesized by the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. They show reversible mechanochromic behavior with contrast colors between sky-blue and yellow green. The powder XRD studies show that destruction of a crystalline state into an amorphous state is responsible for mechanochromism. Hydrogen bonding interaction of a cyano-group in 3b results in enhanced AIE and improved thermal stability. PMID:24983656

  2. Thermal properties of carbon black aqueous nanofluids for solar absorption

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, carbon black nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the pretreated carbon black powder into distilled water. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were explored. The photothermal properties, optical properties, rheological behaviors, and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids were also investigated. The results showed that the nanofluids of high-volume fraction had better photothermal properties. Both carbon black powder and nanofluids had good absorption in the whole wavelength ranging from 200 to 2,500 nm. The nanofluids exhibited a shear thinning behavior. The shear viscosity increased with the increasing volume fraction and decreased with the increasing temperature at the same shear rate. The thermal conductivity of carbon black nanofluids increased with the increase of volume fraction and temperature. Carbon black nanofluids had good absorption ability of solar energy and can effectively enhance the solar absorption efficiency. PMID:21767359

  3. Brominated carbon black: An EDXD study

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Marilena; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2014-06-19

    An energy dispersive X-Ray study of pure and brominated carbon black was carried out. The analysis of the diffraction patterns reveals that the low bromine load (ca.1% mol) is trapped into the structure, without significantly modifying it. This allows the application of the difference methods, widely tested for electrolyte solutions, inorganic matrices containing metals and isomorphic substitutions.

  4. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  10. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  11. The Age of Substitutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeller, H. E.; Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1976-01-01

    Dwindling mineral resources might cause a shift from nonrenewable resources to renewable resources and inexhaustible elements such as iron and aluminum. Alternative energy sources such as breeder, fusion, solar, and geothermal power must be developed for production and recycling of materials. Substitution and, hence, living standards ultimately…

  12. Performing Substitute Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bletzer, Keith V.

    2010-01-01

    Formal education is both a right and an obligation bestowed on young people in most all nations of the world. Teachers (adults) and students (youth) form a co-present dyadic contract that must be maintained within the classroom. Substitute teachers fill a role in sustaining the integrity of this teacher-student link, whenever teachers are absent.…

  13. Screening Substitute Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkuri, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The screening process a school district uses in hiring substitute teachers is critical to striking a balance between required qualifications and immediate need. Typically, screening involves at least one of the following: pre-screening, paper and pencil screening, interviews, and background checks, each of which is used to different degrees…

  14. Characterization of mutagenic activity in grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.; Jagerstad, M.

    1994-06-01

    Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

  15. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  16. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Song Haiyan; Sjastad, Anja O.; Fjellvag, Helmer; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Vistad, Ornulv B.; Arstad, Bjornar; Norby, Poul

    2011-12-15

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO{sub 2} provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as Nb{sup V} and an equivalent amount of Ti{sup IV} is transformed to Ti{sup III} as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air Ti{sup IV} and Nb{sup V} cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. {sup 93}Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O{sub 2} oxide matrices without sign of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} (nano)precipitates. The Nb-O-Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. - Graphical abstract: Layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single layer Nb-substituted

  17. Chemical reactions of metal powders with organic and inorganic liquids during ball milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1975-01-01

    Chromium and/or nickel powders were milled in metal chlorides and in organic liquids representative of various functional groups. The powders always reacted with the liquid and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 weight percent. Compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid.

  18. Black Literature vs. Black Studies: Three Lynchings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melvin G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers three works by black authors, all dealing with lynchings, that may be used in a black literature course to introduce students to the esthetic dimension of black literature, as well as to its cultural and racial significance. (GW)

  19. Parametric Powder Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, William I. F.; Evans, John S. O.

    The rapidity with which powder diffraction data may be collected, not only at neutron and X-ray synchrotron facilities but also in the laboratory, means that the collection of a single diffraction pattern is now the exception rather than the rule. Many experiments involve the collection of hundreds and perhaps many thousands of datasets where a parameter such as temperature or pressure is varied or where time is the variable and life-cycle, synthesis or decomposition processes are monitored or three-dimensional space is scanned and the three-dimensional internal structure of an object is elucidated. In this paper, the origins of parametric diffraction are discussed and the techniques and challenges of parametric powder diffraction analysis are presented. The first parametric measurements were performed around 50 years ago with the development of a modified Guinier camera but it was the automation afforded by neutron diffraction combined with increases in computer speed and memory that established parametric diffraction on a strong footing initially at the ILL, Grenoble in France. The theoretical parameterisation of quantities such as lattice constants and atomic displacement parameters will be discussed and selected examples of parametric diffraction over the past 20 years will be reviewed that highlight the power of the technique.

  20. Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

  1. Nasal Absorption of Macromolecules from Powder Formulations and Effects of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Their Absorption.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Akifumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Kimura, Shunsuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The nasal absorption of macromolecules from powder formulations and the effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as a pharmaceutical excipient on their absorption were studied. Model macromolecules were fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (average molecular weight of 4.4kDa, FD4) and insulin. The plasma concentration of FD4 after application of the powder containing 50% starch (control) was higher than that after application of the solution, and the absorption from 50% starch powder was enhanced by the substitution of starch with CMC-Na. The fractional absorption of FD4 after administration of the CMC-Na powder formulation was 30% and 40% higher than that after administration from the solution and the starch powder, respectively. The nasal absorption of insulin from the powder and the effect of CMC-Na were similar with those of FD4. The effective absorption of FD4 and insulin after application of powder with CMC-Na could be due to the increase in the nasal residence of FD4 and insulin. No damage in the nasal mucosa or dysfunction of the mucociliary clearance was observed after application of the drug powder and CMC-Na. The present findings indicate that nasal delivery of powder formulations with the addition of CMC-Na as an excipient is a promising approach for improving the nasal absorption of macromolecules. PMID:27598527

  2. Nasal Absorption of Macromolecules from Powder Formulations and Effects of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Their Absorption.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiko; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Akifumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Kimura, Shunsuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The nasal absorption of macromolecules from powder formulations and the effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as a pharmaceutical excipient on their absorption were studied. Model macromolecules were fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (average molecular weight of 4.4kDa, FD4) and insulin. The plasma concentration of FD4 after application of the powder containing 50% starch (control) was higher than that after application of the solution, and the absorption from 50% starch powder was enhanced by the substitution of starch with CMC-Na. The fractional absorption of FD4 after administration of the CMC-Na powder formulation was 30% and 40% higher than that after administration from the solution and the starch powder, respectively. The nasal absorption of insulin from the powder and the effect of CMC-Na were similar with those of FD4. The effective absorption of FD4 and insulin after application of powder with CMC-Na could be due to the increase in the nasal residence of FD4 and insulin. No damage in the nasal mucosa or dysfunction of the mucociliary clearance was observed after application of the drug powder and CMC-Na. The present findings indicate that nasal delivery of powder formulations with the addition of CMC-Na as an excipient is a promising approach for improving the nasal absorption of macromolecules.

  3. Nasal Absorption of Macromolecules from Powder Formulations and Effects of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Their Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Akiko; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Akifumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Kimura, Shunsuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The nasal absorption of macromolecules from powder formulations and the effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as a pharmaceutical excipient on their absorption were studied. Model macromolecules were fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (average molecular weight of 4.4kDa, FD4) and insulin. The plasma concentration of FD4 after application of the powder containing 50% starch (control) was higher than that after application of the solution, and the absorption from 50% starch powder was enhanced by the substitution of starch with CMC-Na. The fractional absorption of FD4 after administration of the CMC-Na powder formulation was 30% and 40% higher than that after administration from the solution and the starch powder, respectively. The nasal absorption of insulin from the powder and the effect of CMC-Na were similar with those of FD4. The effective absorption of FD4 and insulin after application of powder with CMC-Na could be due to the increase in the nasal residence of FD4 and insulin. No damage in the nasal mucosa or dysfunction of the mucociliary clearance was observed after application of the drug powder and CMC-Na. The present findings indicate that nasal delivery of powder formulations with the addition of CMC-Na as an excipient is a promising approach for improving the nasal absorption of macromolecules. PMID:27598527

  4. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  5. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 288: 321-333, 2002. [ PubMed abstract ] Gunn TR, Wright IM: The use of black and blue cohosh in labour. New Zealand Medical Journal 109: 410-411, 1996. [ PubMed abstract ] Finkle RS, ...

  6. Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This paper, presented as part of a military lecture series given by the Division of Continuing Education and Community Service Speakers' Bureau of the University of Hawaii to military personnel at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter, investigates the origins and present status of Black English. A discussion of early studies in the Gullah dialect…

  7. Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged…

  8. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Drought in the Black Hills     View ... and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging ... the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the  albedo  at the surface increased. Albedo measures the ...

  9. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…

  10. Economic aspects of drug substitution

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Hossein; Schweitzer, Stuart O.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major directions of health policy is the attempt to contain expenditures on pharmaceuticals by encouraging substitution of generic for brand name drug products. Yet, a major marketing survey of prescribing and dispensing patterns in California in 1977 found relatively little drug substitution occurring, and in fact substitution of more expensive products occurred more frequently than did substitution of less expensive products. This article tests alternative models of pharmacy dispensing behavior to better explain substitution patterns and it estimates price functions to measure the extent to which cost savings on generic products are passed on to consumers. PMID:10311162

  11. Mound powder loader, Mod 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gress, A.V. Jr.

    1985-08-21

    At the investigation of Sandia Albuquerque, a semiautomatic powder loader was designed and fabricated for pyrotechnics devices. The basic functions of the system were to load a precise, measured amount of powder into a charge holder and to compact the mixture to a specified density. This report documents the history, rationale, design, and performance of the Mod 1 loader.

  12. Probing silicon substitution in molecular sieves by plasma desorption mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stipdonk, M. J.; von Heimburg, S. L.; Schweikert, E. A.

    1998-10-01

    Plasma desorption was used to produce secondary ion mass spectra from samples of unsubstituted and substituted aluminum phosphate materials. The yield of fingerprint ions representative of silicon oxide solids indicates that the incorporation of silicon into the material during synthesis and following calcination occurs via the formation of silicon-rich islands. Complementary X-ray photoelectron data provide supporting evidence that the surface of the substituted aluminum phosphate material becomes silicon rich and phosphorus depleted. No changes in the unsubstituted and substituted material with respect to composition and phase were detected using powder X-ray diffraction.

  13. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y.; Siemann, Stefan

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic). 721.10214 Section 721.10214... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  15. New Bismuth-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Bargan, Ana Maria; Luca, Constantin

    2015-11-01

    New bismuth-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca10- x Bi x (PO4)6(OH)2 where x = 0-2.5] nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method from aqueous solutions. The structural properties of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with x-ray analysis, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. The results confirm that bismuth ions have been incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The prepared nanocrystalline powders consisted of hydroxyapatite as single phase with hexagonal structure, crystal sizes smaller than 60 nm and (Bi + Ca)/P atomic ratio of around 1.67. The hydroxyapatite samples doped with Bi have mesoporous textures with pores size of around 2 nm and specific surface area in the range of 12-25 m2/g. The Bi-substituted hydroxyapatite powders are more effective against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria than Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  16. Vacancy and Doping States in Monolayer and bulk Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2015-09-18

    The atomic geometries and transition levels of point defects and substitutional dopants in few-layer and bulk black phosphorus are calculated. The vacancy is found to reconstruct in monolayer P to leave a single dangling bond, giving a negative U defect with a +/- transition level at 0.24 eV above the valence band edge. The V(-) state forms an unusual 4-fold coordinated site. In few-layer and bulk black P, the defect becomes a positive U site. The divacancy is much more stable than the monovacancy, and it reconstructs to give no deep gap states. Substitutional dopants such as C, Si, O or S do not give rise to shallow donor or acceptor states but instead reconstruct to form non-doping sites analogous to DX or AX centers in GaAs. Impurities on black P adopt the 8-N rule of bonding, as in amorphous semiconductors, rather than simple substitutional geometries seen in tetrahedral semiconductors.

  17. Comparison of hydration, tyrosinase resistance, and antioxidant activation in three kinds of pearl powders.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dong-Zi; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Hwang, Hann-Jang; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, people have bred freshwater pearls as a substitute for natural pearls that occur in seawater, and they have also developed water-soluble pearl powder (P-w) and ultra-micro (P-mu) and ultra-nano pearl powder (P-n) products. However, neither the scientific value of pearl powder, nor the differences in efficiencies of different pearl powder products is still unknown. In this study, the effectiveness of three kinds of pearl powder products in various applications was compared. Tests for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and evaluations of the skin surface hydration of test subjects showed that pearl powder has a satisfactory moisturizing effect on skin and that P-mu has a distinctly stronger moisturizing effect than P-w. The three pearl powder products can also significantly reduce the activation of tyrosinase and free radicals. In tests for reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for scavenging free radicals, P-n and P-mu showed better performance than P-w. These results provide a reliable scientific basis for the use of pearl powder in beauty treatment, resistance to aging, and clinical medical treatment. PMID:20447365

  18. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  19. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  20. Human periodontal ligament cell viability in milk and milk substitutes.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Robert M; Liewehr, Frederick R; West, Leslie A; Patton, William R; McPherson, James C; Runner, Royce R

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several milk substitutes compared to whole milk in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from freshly extracted, healthy third molars and cultured in Eagle's minimal essential media (EMEM). The cells were plated onto 24-well culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. EMEM was replaced with refrigerated whole milk (positive control), reconstituted powdered milk, evaporated milk, or one of two baby formulas (Similac or Enfamil). Tap water served as the negative control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with the experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 2, 4, or 8 h. Cell viability was determined by a cell proliferation assay (CellTiter 96 AQ Assay), with absorbance read at 450 nM. A two-way ANOVA (p < 0.001) indicated that at 1 h there was no difference in the effect on PDL cell viability between any of the materials and whole milk. At 2 h, Enfamil and Similac performed significantly better than whole milk, whereas evaporated milk performed worse. At 4 h, Enfamil performed better than whole milk, whereas all other milk substitutes performed worse. At 8 h, all substitutes performed worse than whole milk. These results suggest that Enfamil, which is supplied in powder form that does not require special storage and has a shelf life of 18 months, is a more effective storage medium for avulsed teeth than pasteurized milk for at least 4 h.

  1. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  2. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  3. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  4. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  5. powder in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Chao-Hsien; Shen, Pouyan; Chen, Shuei-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Submicron-sized NiAl2+ X O4 fragments and nanocondensates of Ni-doped γ-Al2O3, Al-doped NiO and β-Ni(OH)2 were synthesized simultaneously by pulsed laser ablation of NiAl2O4 powder in water and characterized using X-ray/electron diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The NiAl2+ X O4 is Al-enriched spinel with dislocations and subgrains. The Ni-doped γ-Al2O3 spinel has paracrystalline distribution (i.e., with fair constant longitudinal spacing, but variable relative lateral translations) of defect clusters and intimate intergrowth of θ-Al2O3 and 2x(3) commensurate superstructure. The Al-doped NiO has perfect cubo-octahedron shape and as small as 5 nm in size. The β-Ni(OH)2 and 1-D turbostratic hydroxide lamellae occurred as a matrix of these oxide nanoparticles. The colloidal suspension containing the composite phases has a minimum band gap of 5.3 eV for potential photocatalytic applications.

  6. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder for oral bone defects treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Saqaei, Mahboobe; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Edris, Hossein; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat

    2015-11-01

    Bone defects which emerge around dental implants are often seen when implants are placed in areas with insufficient alveolar bone, in extraction sockets, or around failing implants. Bone regeneration in above-mentioned defects using of bone grafts or bone substitutes may cure the long-term prognoses of dental implants. Biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteogenic properties are key factors affecting the applications of a bone substitute. This study was aimed at preparation, characterization, biocompatibility and bioactivity evaluation of the bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powder as a desired candidate for oral bone defect treatments. Nanocomposite powders containing 58S bioactive glass and different amounts of forsterite nanopowder were synthesized in situ by sol-gel technique. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite powders and their cytotoxicity assessment was performed via MTT test. Bioactivity assessment was done by immersing the prepared powder in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Results showed that nanocomposite powders containing forsterite with crystallite size of 20-50nm were successfully fabricated by calcination at 600°C. The prepared bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders revealed high in vitro biocompatibility; besides, the nanocomposite containing 20wt.% forsterite showed a substantial increase in the cell viability compared with control groups. During immersion in SBF, the formation of apatite layer confirmed the bioactivity of bioactive glass-forsterite nanocomposite powders. According to the results, the fabricated nanocomposite powders can be introduced as a promising candidate for oral bone imperfection treatments and hard tissue mend.

  7. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  8. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  9. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  10. Explicit Substitutions and All That

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar; Busnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the Lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda(sigma)- and lambda(s(e))-calculi.

  11. Explicit Substitutions and All That

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala-Rincon, Mauricio; Munoz, Cesar

    2000-01-01

    Explicit substitution calculi are extensions of the lambda-calculus where the substitution mechanism is internalized into the theory. This feature makes them suitable for implementation and theoretical study of logic-based tools such as strongly typed programming languages and proof assistant systems. In this paper we explore new developments on two of the most successful styles of explicit substitution calculi: the lambda sigma- and lambda S(e)-calculi.

  12. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  13. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  14. Influence of debittered, defatted fenugreek seed powder and flaxseed powder on the rheological characteristics of dough and quality of cookies.

    PubMed

    Metwal, Nirmala; Jyotsna, R; Jeyarani, T; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2011-06-01

    A functional ingredient mix (FIM) comprising debittered and defatted fenugreek seed powder (70%) and flaxseed powder (30%) was used in cookies. Ash, fat and protein, dough development time, resistance to extension and peak viscosity values increased as the level of FIM increased from 10 to 30% in the blend. Beyond 20% of FIM substitution, the quality characteristics of cookies were adversely affected. Use of soya lecithin produced a significant improvement in the overall quality of the cookies with 20% FIM. Linolenic acid and total dietary fiber content of the cookies with 20% FIM and lecithin contained four times the amount of linolenic acid (2.3%) and double the amount of dietary fiber (13.04%) when compared with the control cookies (0.5% and 6.22%) respectively. Surface scanning electron microscopy of cookies with different levels of FIM from 10 to 30% showed that there was a disruption in the matrix.

  15. Ceramic powder for sintering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

    1984-01-01

    Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

  16. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  17. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  18. Method for Production of Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be achieved into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

  19. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  20. Rare-earth substitutions in Z-type hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquiod, Catherine; Autissier, Denis

    1992-02-01

    Z-type hexaferrite (Ba 3Co 2Fe 24O 41) presents a gyromagnetic permeability whose resonance frequency stands around 2 GHz. The damping coefficient α is less than 0.1. The influence on the damping coefficient of doping this ferrite by a rare-earth (La) has been studied. Powders have been synthesized by carbonate coprecipitation, dried and calcined at different temperatures. Different phases have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Solubility in the range of weak concentrations has been verified. The synthesized powders were processed by slip casting in the presence of a magnetic field in order to align the particles. The microstructural and hyperfrequency characteristics have been evaluated. The influence of the substitution on anisotropy fields and damping are studied in comparison with pure Co 2Z, whose processing and properties have been optimized as a reference.

  1. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.; Moore, Jeffery A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing.

  2. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  3. Thermal evolution behavior of carbides and {gamma} Prime precipitates in FGH96 superalloy powder

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Lin; Liu Hengsan; He Xinbo; Rafi-ud-din; Qu Xuanhui; Qin Mingli; Li Zhou; Zhang Guoqing

    2012-05-15

    The characteristics of rapidly solidified FGH96 superalloy powder and the thermal evolution behavior of carbides and {gamma} Prime precipitates within powder particles were investigated. It was observed that the reduction of powder size and the increase of cooling rate had transformed the solidification morphologies of atomized powder from dendrite in major to cellular structure. The secondary dendritic spacing was measured to be 1.02-2.55 {mu}m and the corresponding cooling rates were estimated to be in the range of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}-4.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K{center_dot}s{sup -1}. An increase in the annealing temperature had rendered the phase transformation of carbides evolving from non-equilibrium MC Prime carbides to intermediate transition stage of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, and finally to thermodynamically stable MC carbides. The superfine {gamma} Prime precipitates were formed at the dendritic boundaries of rapidly solidified superalloy powder. The coalescence, growth, and homogenization of {gamma}' precipitates occurred with increasing annealing temperature. With decreasing cooling rate from 650 Degree-Sign C{center_dot}K{sup -1} to 5 Degree-Sign C{center_dot}K{sup -1}, the morphological development of {gamma} Prime precipitates had been shown to proceed from spheroidal to cuboidal and finally to solid state dendrites. Meanwhile, a shift had been observed from dendritic morphology to recrystallized structure between 900 Degree-Sign C and 1050 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, accelerated evolution of carbides and {gamma}' precipitates had been facilitated by the formation of new grain boundaries which provide fast diffusion path for atomic elements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural characteristic of FGH96 superalloy powder was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between microstructure, particle size, and cooling rate was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal evolution behavior of {gamma

  4. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  5. 21 CFR 169.179 - Vanilla powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla powder. 169.179 Section 169.179 Food and... § 169.179 Vanilla powder. (a) Vanilla powder is a mixture of ground vanilla beans or vanilla oleoresin...) Dried corn sirup. (6) Gum acacia. Vanilla powder may contain one or any mixture of two or more of...

  6. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  7. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Joseph L.; Hung, Cheng-Hung

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  8. Enhancement in magnetic properties of magnesium substituted bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianlong; Xie, Dan E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Teng, Changjiu; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Yilin; Ren, Tian-Ling E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-06-14

    We report a potential way to effectively improve the magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles through Mg{sup 2+} ion substitution at the Fe-sites of BFO lattice. The high purity and structural changes induced by Mg doping are confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometer and Raman spectra. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed in Mg substituted samples, which simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. A physical model is proposed to support the observed ferromagnetism of Mg doped samples, and the superparamagnetic properties are revealed by the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The improved magnetic properties and soft nature obtained by Mg doping in BFO nanoparticles demonstrate the possibility of BFO nanoparticles to practical applications.

  9. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  10. On the Methods to Measure Powder Flow.

    PubMed

    Tan, Geoffrey; Morton, David A V; Larson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The flow of powders can often play a critical role in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. Many of these processes require good, consistent and predictable flow of powders to ensure continuous production of pharmaceutical dosages and to ensure their quality. Therefore, the flow of powders is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical industry and thus the measuring and evaluating of powder flow is of utmost importance. At present, there are numerous methods in which the flow of powders can be measured. However, due to the complex and environment-dependent nature of powders, no one method exists that is capable of providing a complete picture of the behaviour of powders under dynamic conditions. Some of the most commonly applied methods to measure the flow of powders include: density indices, such as the Carr index and Hausner ratio, powder avalanching, the angle of repose (AOR), flow through an orifice, powder rheometry and shear cell testing.

  11. How Do Substitute Teachers Substitute? An Empirical Study of Substitute-Teacher Labor Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershenson, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the daily labor supply of a potentially important, but often overlooked, source of instruction in U.S. public schools: substitute teachers. I estimate a sequential binary-choice model of substitute teachers' job-offer acceptance decisions using data on job offers made by a randomized automated calling system. Importantly, this…

  12. Vitreous substitutes: challenges and directions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian-Ying; Fu, Yue; Hui, Yan-Nian

    2015-01-01

    The natural vitreous body has a fine structure and complex functions. The imitation of the natural vitreous body by vitreous substitutes is a challenging work for both researchers and ophthalmologists. Gases, silicone oil, heavy silicone oil and hydrogels, particularly the former two vitreous substitutes are clinically widely used with certain complications. Those, however, are not real artificial vitreous due to lack of structure and function like the natural vitreous body. This article reviews the situations, challenges, and future directions in the development of vitreous substitutes, particularly the experimental and clinical use of a new artificial foldable capsular vitreous body. PMID:26085987

  13. Substitution Rates under Stabilizing Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Allelic substitutions under stabilizing phenotypic selection on quantitative traits are studied in Monte Carlo simulations of 8 and 16 loci. The results are compared and contrasted to analytical models based on work of M. Kimura for two and "infinite" loci. Selection strengths of S = 4Nes approximately four (which correspond to reasonable strengths of selection for quantitative characters) can retard substitution rates tenfold relative to rates under neutrality. An important finding is a strong dependence of per locus substitution rates on the number of loci. PMID:3609727

  14. Synthesis and spectral characterization of silver/magnesium co-substituted hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, D.; Shinyjoy, E.; Kavitha, L.

    2014-06-01

    The present work is aimed at the synthesis of antibacterial and bioactive silver/magnesium co-substituted hydroxyapatite (Ag/Mg-HAP) powders. For this purpose, firstly, different concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 2.5 wt.%) of silver substituted HAP (Ag-HAP) powders were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation technique and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Secondly, magnesium (Mg) is co-substituted as secondary material into Ag-HAP to offset the potential cytotoxicity of Ag, as higher concentration of Ag is toxic. The antibacterial activity of as-synthesized powders was evaluated by Escherichia coli (E. coli) and was found to be effectively high against bacterial colonization. Also, the in vitro cell-material interaction is evaluated with human osteosarcoma MG63 (HOS MG63) cells for cell proliferation. The results showed the evidence of cytotoxic effects of the higher concentration of Ag-HAP characterized by poor cellular viability whereas, Ag/Mg-HAP showed better cell viability indicating that co-substitution of Mg in Ag-HAP effectively offset the negative effects of Ag and improve performance compared with pure HAP. Thus, the as synthesized Ag/Mg-HAP will serve as a better candidate for biomedical applications with good antibacterial property and bone bonding ability.

  15. In situ studies of zeolite syntheses using powder diffraction methods: Crystallization of ``instant zeolite A`` powder and CoAPO-5

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, P.; Christensen, A.N.; Hanson, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    A series of hydrothermal zeolite synthesis were performed on a powder diffractometer using synchrotron radiation and a position sensitive detector. Direct observation of the induction period (nucleation stage), crystallization and transformation of zeolite 4A (Na-LTA) was possible due to the intense X-ray beam which allows fast data collection. High pressure experiments were performed, allowing observation of hydrothermal synthesis of a cobalt substituted AlPO{sub 4}-zeolite, CoAPO-5, up to 165{degrees}C. The temperature dependence of crystallization rates of CoAPO-5 was studied. This is to our knowledge the first time resolved powder diffraction studies of zeolite syntheses using angle dispersive synchrotron powder diffraction.

  16. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  17. Black Teachers on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    The importance to the black community of teaching as a profession can be seen in reference material and other literature about blacks, but this book is unique in presenting the voices of black teachers themselves. The stories of 20 black teachers, born between 1905 and 1973, are told in their own voices. These 20 life interviews collect the…

  18. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  19. Enhancement of aged and denatured fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming technique following dusting with amino acid-containing powders.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Carly; Almond, Matthew J; Baum, John V; Bond, John W

    2013-03-01

    We have carried out experiments to investigate the aging of latent fingerprints deposited on black PVC over a period of 4-15 weeks. A thumbprint was used in each case and before deposition of the print the donor rubbed their thumb around their nose to add sebaceous deposits. We have studied the effect of heat, light, and moisture and we find that moisture is the most significant factor in the degradation of the latent print. We have attempted to enhance these latent prints by dusting with valine powder or powders composed of valine mixed with gold or red fluorescent commercial fingerprint powders. To make a direct comparison between "treated" and "untreated" prints, the prints were cut in half with one-half being "treated" and one-half not. Our studies show the best results being obtained when powders of valine and red fluorescent powders are applied prior to cyanoacrylate fuming.

  20. Factor substitution in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A

    2006-03-01

    This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home residents. Studying longitudinal data from 1991 to 2000 on nearly every nursing home in the United States, we use the method of instrumental variables (IV) to address measurement error in nursing home wages. The results from the IV models yield evidence of factor substitution: higher nursing home wages are associated with greater use of psychoactive drugs and lower quality.

  1. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the signing of 1987 Montreal Protocol, reducing and eliminating the use of harmful solvents has become an internationally imminent environmental protection mission. Solvent substitution is an effective way to achieve this goal. The Program for Assisting the Replacement of...

  2. Nucleophilic Substitution by Benzodithioate Anions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnans-Plaisance, Chantal; Gressier, Jean-Claude

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-session experiment designed to provide a good illustration of, and to improve student knowledge of, the Grignard reaction and nucleophilic substitution. Discusses the procedure, experimental considerations, and conclusion of this experiment. (CW)

  3. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  4. Characterization of black pigment used in 30 BC fresco wall paint using instrumental methods and chemometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Several standard powdered black pigments were characterized by means of thermogravimetry TG-DTG and allied techniques. These pigments were used to make standard plaster frescoes at this purpose prepared. The latter ones were subjected to Raman and reflectance analysis. The results obtained, together with TG data, were chemometrically processed and used to identify an analogous standard fresco fabricated by an unknown commercial black pigment, obtaining excellent results. Results The same colorimetric and reflectometric techniques, coupled with suitable chemometric techniques, were then successfully used to identify the type of black pigment present in an ancient roman fresco of the Imperial Age (30 B.C.). Conclusion TG-DTG resulted useful techniques to autenticate powdered black pigments.Colorimetry and Raman, but also the only colorimetry, were useful to identify an ancient black pigment in situ. PMID:22594437

  5. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder.

  6. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  7. Blood substitutes based on nanobiotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2006-08-01

    Stimulated by concerns of potential infective agents in donated blood, commercial enterprises have attempted to develop blood substitutes since the 1900s. After several years of development, a few of the many leads are showing promise. In this article, nanobiotechnological approaches that are now in phase III clinical trials are reviewed, followed by a discussion of how important basic knowledge gained is being used to develop new generations of blood substitutes based on nanobiotechnology.

  8. Electrophilic Substitution Reactions of Indoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Richard J.

    The topic of this chapter is electrophilic substitution of indole and its derivatives. The indole ring is highly reactive at its 3-position toward protonation, halogenation, alkylation and acylation. Electrophilic substitution can be combined with inter- or intramolecular addition at C-2. Intramolecular alkylation by iminium ions (Pictet-Spengler reaction) is particularly useful. Enantioselectivity can be achieved in many conjugate addition reactions. These reactions have been applied to synthesis of both natural products and drugs.

  9. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively.

  10. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively. PMID:24245897

  11. Automated dry powder dispenser for explosive components

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P.; Salmonson, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    Sandia and Mound are developing a workcell that will automate the assembly of explosive components. Sandia is responsible for the automated powder dispenser subsystem. Automated dispensing of explosive powders in the past resulted in separation or segregation of powder constituents. The Automated Dry Powder Dispenser designed by Sandia achieves weight tolerances of {plus_minus}0.1 mg while keeping powderoxidizer separation to a minimum. A software control algorithm compensates fore changes in powder flow due to lot variations, temperature, humidity, and the amount of powder left in the system.

  12. Automated dry powder dispenser for explosive components

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, P. ); Salmonson, J.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Sandia and Mound are developing a workcell that will automate the assembly of explosive components. Sandia is responsible for the automated powder dispenser subsystem. Automated dispensing of explosive powders in the past resulted in separation or segregation of powder constituents. The Automated Dry Powder Dispenser designed by Sandia achieves weight tolerances of {plus minus}0.1 mg while keeping powderoxidizer separation to a minimum. A software control algorithm compensates fore changes in powder flow due to lot variations, temperature, humidity, and the amount of powder left in the system.

  13. Nonallograft osteoconductive bone graft substitutes.

    PubMed

    Bucholz, Robert W

    2002-02-01

    An estimated 500,000 to 600,000 bone grafting procedures are done annually in the United States. Approximately (1/2) of these surgeries involve spinal arthrodesis whereas 35% to 40% are used for general orthopaedic applications. Synthetic bone graft substitutes currently represent only 10% of the bone graft market, but their share is increasing as experience and confidence in their use are accrued. Despite 15 to 20 years of clinical experience with various synthetic substitutes, there have been few welldesigned, controlled clinical trials of these implants. Synthetic bone graft substitutes consist of hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, or a combination of these minerals. Their fabrication technique, crystallinity, pore dimensions, mechanical properties, and resorption rate vary. All synthetic porous substitutes share numerous advantages over autografts and allografts including their unlimited supply, easy sterilization, and storage. However, the degree to which the substitute provides an osteoconductive structural framework or matrix for new bone ingrowth differs among implants. Disadvantages of ceramic implants include brittle handling properties, variable rates of resorption, poor performance in diaphyseal defects, and potentially adverse effects on normal bone remodeling. These inherent weaknesses have refocused their primary use to bone graft extenders and carriers for pharmaceuticals. The composition, histologic features, indications, and clinical experience of several of the synthetic bone graft substitutes approved for orthopaedic use in the United States are reviewed. PMID:11937865

  14. Metallography of powder metallurgy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lawley, Alan; Murphy, Thomas F

    2003-12-15

    The primary distinction between the microstructure of an ingot metallurgy/wrought material and one fabricated by the powder metallurgy route of pressing followed by sintering is the presence of porosity in the latter. In its various morphologies, porosity affects the mechanical, physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of the material. Thus, it is important to be able to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of powder metallurgy parts and components. Metallographic procedures necessary for the reliable characterization of microstructures in powder metallurgy materials are reviewed, with emphasis on the intrinsic challenges presented by the presence of porosity. To illustrate the utility of these techniques, five case studies are presented involving powder metallurgy materials. These case studies demonstrate problem solving via metallography in diverse situations: failure of a tungsten carbide-coated precipitation hardening stainless steel, failure of a steel pump gear, quantification of the degree of sinter (DOS), simulation of performance of a porous filter using automated image analysis, and analysis of failure in a sinter brazed part assembly.

  15. POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  16. Phonons from neutron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrov, D.A.; Louca, D.; Roeder, H. )

    1999-09-01

    The spherically averaged structure function S([vert bar][bold q][vert bar]) obtained from pulsed neutron powder diffraction contains both elastic and inelastic scattering via an integral over energy. The Fourier transformation of S([vert bar][bold q][vert bar]) to real space, as is done in the pair density function (PDF) analysis, regularizes the data, i.e., it accentuates the diffuse scattering. We present a technique which enables the extraction of off-center ([vert bar][bold q][vert bar][ne]0) phonon information from powder diffraction experiments by comparing the experimental PDF with theoretical calculations based on standard interatomic potentials and the crystal symmetry. This procedure [dynamics from powder diffraction] has been [ital successfully] implemented as demonstrated here for two systems, a simple metal fcc Ni and an ionic crystal CaF[sub 2]. Although computationally intensive, this data analysis allows for a phonon based modeling of the PDF, and additionally provides off-center phonon information from neutron powder diffraction. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  17. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  18. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  19. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys consisting principally of virgin electrolytic copper and zinc with small amounts of the virgin metals aluminum and tin. It contains...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bronze powder is a very fine metallic powder prepared from alloys consisting principally of virgin electrolytic copper and zinc with small amounts of the virgin metals aluminum and tin. It contains...

  1. Substitutes for leadership: test of a construct.

    PubMed

    Howell, J P; Dorfman, P W

    1981-12-01

    The study reported here examined the impact of leadership substitutes on subordinate job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Leadership substitutes, as suggested by Kerr (1977), replace or "act in the place of" a specific leader behavior. Multiple regression was used to test the validity and strength of potential substitutes. Results indicated mixed support for the substitutes construct. PMID:10253689

  2. Container Prevents Oxidation Of Metal Powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Power, Christopher A.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Burns, David H.

    1992-01-01

    Sealed high-vacuum container holds metal powder required free of contamination by oxygen from point of manufacture to point of use at vacuum-plasma-spraying machine. Container protects powder from air during filling, storage, and loading of spraying machine. Eliminates unnecessary handling and transfer of powder from one container to another. Stainless-steel container sits on powder feeder of vacuum-plasma-spraying machine.

  3. Chemical and Physical Properties of Tantalum Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushotham, Y.; Balaji, T.; Kumar, Arbind; Govindaiah, R.; Sharma, M. K.; Sethi, V. C.; Prakash, T. L.

    The present work is intended to produce capacitor grade Tantalum powder by sodium reduction of potassium tantalum fluoride prepared from an indigenous ore source. The powder has been characterized for its chemical and physical properties, and compared with the commercially available powders. It is found that indigenous powder has higher impurity levels which could, however, be reduced to acceptance limits. The average particle size is within the prescribed limits.

  4. Method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, Richard J.; Ho, Pauline

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400.degree. K. (127.degree.C.). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material.

  5. Synthesis and crystal chemical evolution of fresnoite powders

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Chui L.; Madhavi, S.; Phonthammachai, N.; White, Timothy J.

    2012-03-15

    (Ba,Sr){sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} fresnoite powders were prepared via a Pechini process in which citric acid and ethylene glycol were used as complexing agents. The resulting gel contained a homogeneous distribution of the metal ions that suppressed the formation of (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} perovskite as a secondary phase during calcination. Phase development was examined as by isochronal and isothermal reaction analysis. A combination of thermo- and differential gravimetric analysis (TGA-DGA), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that calcination at 900 Degree-Sign C/12 h yielded finely crystalline ({approx}70 nm) Ba{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BTS) and Sr{sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} (STS). The endmembers and compositional intermediates crystallized directly from the Pechini resin and indirectly through reaction of (Ba,Sr)CO{sub 3}, (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} and a silica-rich glass intermediates. This new method for preparing fresnoite yields materials suitable for consolidation as dense monolithic dielectrics or for use as high surface area catalytic powders. - Graphical abstract: The Pechini synthesis of (Ba, Sr){sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} titano-silicate fresnoites delivers finely divided precursors for applications as diverse as solid electrolytes and photocatalysis that exploit the unique Ti-O and Si-O bonding and structural morphology of these materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Pechini method for synthesizing (Ba,Sr){sub 2}TiSi{sub 2}O{sub 8} fresnoites is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method minimizes a persistent glassy intermediate phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Pechini process is generally applicable for tailoring fresnoites as functional materials.

  6. Point substitutions in Japanese alloalbumins.

    PubMed

    Arai, K; Madison, J; Huss, K; Ishioka, N; Satoh, C; Fujita, M; Neel, J V; Sakurabayashi, I; Putnam, F W

    1989-08-01

    We have completed the structural study of five rare types of inherited albumin variants (alloalbumins) discovered in the Biochemical Genetics Study of 15,581 unrelated children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We have also identified the structural change in five other alloalbumin specimens detected during clinical electrophoresis of sera from Japanese living near Tokyo. Each of the five albumin variants from Nagasaki and Hiroshima has a single amino acid substitution. All of these substitutions differ, and none has been reported in non-Japanese populations. No instances of proalbumin variants or of albumin B (the most frequent alloalbumins in Caucasians) were detected in the children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, one instance of a variant proalbumin and two examples of albumin B occurred in Japanese from the vicinity of Tokyo. In addition a previously unreported point substitution was found in albumin Tochigi, which is present in two unrelated persons from Tochigi prefecture. Four of the point mutations in the Japanese alloalbumins are in close proximity in a short segment of the polypeptide chain (residues 354-382) in which three additional point substitutions have been reported in diverse populations. These results, combined with earlier data, suggest that point substitutions are grouped in certain segments of the albumin molecule.

  7. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  9. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  11. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  12. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  14. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  16. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine...

  19. Lattice strain induced magnetism in substituted nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Kar, Manoranjan

    2016-10-01

    Strontium (Sr) substituted cobalt ferrite i.e. Co1-xSrxFe2O4 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1) have been synthesized by the citric acid modified sol-gel method. Crystal structure and phase purity have been studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique. The Rietveld refinement of XRD pattern using the space group Fd 3 bar m shows monotonically increasing of lattice parameter with the increase in Sr concentration. Magnetic hysteresis loops measurement has been carried out at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) over a field range of ±1.5 T. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant were calculated by employing the Law of Approach (LA) to the saturation. It is observed that magnetocrystalline anisotropy has anomaly for x=0.01 (Co0.99Sr0.01Fe2O4) sample. Strain mediated modification of magnetic properties in Sr substituted cobalt ferrite has been observed. The saturation magnetization for doping concentration i.e. x=0.01 abruptly increase while for x>0.01 decreases with the increase in Sr concentration. A correlation between lattice strain and magnetic behavior in non-magnetic Sr- substituted nano-crystalline cobalt ferrite has been reported.

  20. Unified optical symbolic substitution processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David P.

    1990-07-01

    Symbolic substitution operations can be realized optically on a correlator. This is a very attractive and efficient architecture for symbolic substitution. It allows parallel multichannel realization with a fixed set of filters (on film or easily realized on low space bandwidth product spatial light modulators) using space and frequency-multiplexing or sequential filters. All basic logic, numeric and morphological image processing functions can be achieved by symbolic substitution. Moreover, all operations are possible on one multifunctional optical processor. Morphological operations are felt to be essential for ATR and pattern recognition preprocessing in clutter. They greatly improve the role for optics by allowing the same optical architecture to be used for low, medium and high level vision.

  1. Substitution systems and nonextensive statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2015-12-01

    Substitution systems evolve in time by generating sequences of symbols from a finite alphabet: At a certain iteration step, the existing symbols are systematically replaced by blocks of Nk symbols also within the alphabet (with Nk, a natural number, being the length of the kth block of the substitution). The dynamics of these systems leads naturally to fractals and self-similarity. By using B-calculus (García-Morales, 2012) universal maps for deterministic substitution systems both of constant and non-constant length, are formulated in 1D. It is then shown how these systems can be put in direct correspondence with Tsallis entropy. A 'Second Law of Thermodynamics' is also proved for these systems in the asymptotic limit of large words.

  2. What Black Business Leaders Can Do for the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John H.

    1985-01-01

    The existence of viable Black businesses is a statement of productivity and hope for the Black community. Black business leaders can help Black America by giving, soliciting, and lending money; by setting examples; by advocating for Black economic progress and change; and by providing opportunities for Black youth. (GC)

  3. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  5. NASA Now: Black Holes

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...

  6. Black widow spider (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the southern areas of the United States. The black widow makes her home in wood piles, under eaves, and other undisturbed places. The bite of a black widow can be serious and require medical attention. ...

  7. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  8. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOEpatents

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  9. Particle adhesion in powder coating

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, M.K.; Wankum, D.L.; Knutson, M.; Williams, S.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Electrostatic powder coating is a widely used industrial painting process. It has three major advantages: (1) it provides high quality durable finish, (2) the process is environmentally friendly and does not require the use of organic solvents, and (3) it is economically competitive. The adhesion of electrostatically deposited polymer paint particles on the grounded conducting substrate depends upon many parameters: (a) particle size and shape distributions, (b) electrostatic charge distributions, (c) electrical resistivity, (d) dielectric strength of the particles, (e) thickness of the powder film, (f) presence and severity of the back corona, and (g) the conductivity and surface properties of the substrate. The authors present a model on the forces of deposition and adhesion of corona charged particles on conducting substrates.

  10. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-28

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  11. Mesoscale Simulations of Powder Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomov, Ilya.; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-01

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  12. Black and white psychiatrists: therapy with blacks.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E; Gray, B A

    1985-01-01

    This paper is one of a series of reports on the findings of a survey on psychotherapy with nonpsychotic black patients and black and white psychiatrists. The responses of the two groups of psychiatrists are presented and analyzed, focusing on their clinical experiences with their black patients. The differences between the two groups of psychiatrists on the presenting problems, unconscious conflicts, and role of racism with their black patients are among the clinical areas examined and discussed.The psychiatrists treated similar types of black male and female patients; however, the survey results indicate that a large proportion of white psychiatrists have little or no experience treating blacks. Although there were more similarities than differences in responses of black and white psychiatrists to clinical questions, there were differences in the frequency and order in which problems were rated. For example, both groups of psychiatrists rated developing new coping mechanisms as the most frequent problem in stages of the treatment process for both sexes. However, white psychiatrists rated a majority of the problems in stages of the treatment process as occurring more frequently than did black psychiatrists. The findings substantiate difficulties with clinical treatment by a therapist who has a racial, ethnic, or cultural background different from that of his patient.

  13. Substituted decision making: elder guardianship.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, Martha E; Goethe, Katherine E

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this column is to help experienced clinicians navigate the judicial system when they are confronted with requests for capacity evaluations that involve guardianship (conservatorship). The interface between the growing elderly medical population and increasing requests for substituted decision making is becoming more complex. This column will help practicing psychiatrists understand the medical, legal, and societal factors involved in adult guardianship. Such understanding is necessary in order to effectively perform guardianship evaluations and adequately inform courts, patients, and families about the psychiatric diagnoses central to substituted decision making.

  14. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  15. Black holes without firewalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  16. Accelerating black diholes and static black dirings

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Edward

    2006-01-15

    We show how a recently discovered black-ring solution with a rotating 2-sphere can be turned into two new solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The first is a four-dimensional solution describing a pair of oppositely charged, extremal black holes--known as a black dihole--undergoing uniform acceleration. The second is a five-dimensional solution describing a pair of concentric, static extremal black rings carrying opposite dipole charges--a so-called black diring. The properties of both solutions, which turn out to be formally very similar, are analyzed in detail. We also present, in an appendix, an accelerating version of the Zipoy-Voorhees solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity.

  17. Amorphous rare earth magnet powders

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.H.; Branagan, D.J.; Hyde, T.A.; Lewis, L.H.; Panchanathan, V.

    1996-08-01

    Gas atomization (GA) processing does not generally have a high enough cooling rate to produce the initial amorphous microstructure needed to obtain optimal magnetic properties in RE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B alloys. Phase separation and an underquenched microstructure result from detrimental {alpha}-Fe precipitation, and the resulting magnetic domain structure is very coarse. Additionally, there is a dramatic dependence of the magnetic properties on the cooling rate (and therefore the particle size) and the powders can be sensitive to environmental degradation. Alloy compositions designed just for GA (as opposed to melt spinning) are necessary to produce an amorphous structure that can be crystallized to result in a fine structure with magnetic properties which are independent of particle size. The addition of titanium and carbon to the melt has been found to change the solidification process sufficiently to result in an ``overquenched`` state in which most of the powder size fractions have an amorphous component. Crystallization with a brief heat treatment produces a structure which has improved magnetic properties, in part due to the ability to use compositions with higher Fe contents without {alpha}-Fe precipitation. Results from magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and x-ray analyses will be used to contrast the microstructure, domain structure, and magnetic properties of this new generation of amorphous powders with their multiphase predecessors.

  18. Anti-Corrosive Powder Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald; MacDowell, Louis, III

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks partners for a new approach in protecting embedded steel surfaces from corrosion. Corrosion of reinforced steel in concrete structures is a significant problem for NASA structures at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) because of the close proximity of the structures to salt spray from the nearby Atlantic Ocean. In an effort to minimize the damage to such structures, coatings were developed that could be applied as liquids to the external surfaces of a substrate in which the metal structures were embedded. The Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology was developed by NASA at KSC. This technology combines the metallic materials into a uniform particle. The resultant powder can be sprayed simultaneously with a liquid binder onto the surface of concrete structures with a uniform distribution of the metallic pigment for optimum cathodic protection of the underlying steel in the concrete. Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology improves upon the performance of an earlier NASA technology Liquid Galvanic Coating (U.S. Patent No. 6,627,065).

  19. Mesoscale simulations of powder compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomov, Ilya; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-06-01

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to experimental match compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show evidence of hard-to-explain reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line, which have also been observed in the experiments. We found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations, since 2D results tend to underpredict stress levels for high-porosity powders regardless of material properties. We developed a process to extract macroscale information for the simulation which can be directly used in calibration of continuum model for heterogeneous media.

  20. Marketing for Black Alums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  1. The Nearest Black Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor); Garcia, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies.

  2. Synthesis of La{sup 3+} doped nanocrystalline ceria powder by urea-formaldehyde gel combustion route

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, M.; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano LC synthesized by gel combustion, using urea-formaldehyde fuel for first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Largely single crystals were produced in average range of 20-30 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sup 3+} doping increases cell dimension linearly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sup 3+} doping introduces ionic point defects but does not change electronic band gap. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of Ce{sup 3+} indicates that this synthesis route produces reactive powders. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline ceria powders doped with various concentrations of lanthanum oxide have been prepared following gel combustion route using for the first time urea-formaldehyde as fuel. The synthesized products were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, PL and UV-vis spectroscopy. Peak positions of XRD were refined and the lattice parameters were obtained by applying Cohen's method. Unit cell parameter increases with concentration of La{sup 3+} ion and the variation is consistently linear. XRD calculations showed the dependence of crystallite size on dopant concentrations at lower level. TEM observation revealed unagglomerated particles to be single crystals in the average range of 20-30 nm. Band gap of the La{sup 3+} doped ceria materials does not change with doping. Spectroscopic experiments proved the existence of Ce{sup 3+} in the formed powder.

  3. The Non-Black Teacher, Black Literature, and Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Ray Anthony

    1970-01-01

    Criticizes Keneth Kinnamon's advice in his article Afro-American Literature, the Black Revolution, and Ghetto High Schools," English Journal," vol. 5., no. 2 (February 1970), pp. 189-94 (see TE 200 536). (SW)

  4. Compaction and Sintering of Mo Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, Stephen D; Kiggans, Jim; Bryan, Chris

    2013-01-01

    To support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, Mo metal powders were evaluated for compaction and sintering characteristics as they relate to Mo-100 accelerator target disk fabrication. Powders having a natural isotope distribution and enriched Mo-100 powder were examined. Various powder characteristics are shown to have an effect on both the compaction and sintering behavior. Natural Mo powders could be cold pressed directly to >90% density. All of the powders, including the Mo-100 samples, could be sintered after cold pressing to >90% density. As an example, a compacted Mo-100 disk reached 89.7% density (9.52 g/cm3) after sintering at 1000 C for 1 hr. in flowing Ar/4%H2. Higher sintering temperatures were required for other powder samples. The relationships between processing conditions and the resulting densities of consolidated Mo disks will be presented.

  5. Evaluation of suitable porosity for sintered porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate as a bone substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin-Hong; Bae, Ji-Yong; Shim, Jaebum; Jeon, Insu

    2012-09-15

    Structural and mechanical characterization is performed for sintered porous beta tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) to determine the appropriate porosity for use as a bone substitute. Four different types of porous {beta}-TCP specimen with different porosities are fabricated through a sintering process. For structural characterization, scanning electron microscopy and a Microfocus X-ray computed tomography system are used to investigate the pore openings on the specimen's surface, pore size, pore distribution, and pore interconnections. Compression tests of the specimens are performed, and mechanical properties such as the elastic modulus and compressive strength are obtained. Also, the geometric shape and volume of the {beta}-TCP around the contact region of two pores, which need to be initially resolved after implantation in order to increase the size of the pore openings, are evaluated through simple calculations. The results show that porous {beta}-TCP with 42.1% porosity may be a suitable bone substitute candidate in terms of sustaining external loads, and inducing and cultivating bone cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and mechanical characterization was performed for sintered porous {beta}-TCP specimens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For structural characterization, SEM and Microfocus X-ray CT system were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For mechanical characterization, compression tests were performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous {beta}-TCP with 42.1% porosity may be a suitable bone substitute.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10214 - Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha... Poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted carbomonocycle-.omega.-substituted carbomonocycle (generic... identified generically as poly(oxyalkylenediyl),.alpha.-substituted...

  9. 'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-22

    Research programs in the US, Brazil, South Africa and the Philippines on efforts to find a vegetable oil substitute for diesel fuel are reported. A narrowing price gap with diesel fuel and a favourable energy balance improve the prospects for such fuels. Much of the current work is centered on blends, rather than the use of the pure oil.

  10. No Substitute Teacher Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Schools and districts routinely recruit, retain, and support highly qualified teachers to ensure that students receive the best learning opportunities. However, even if one's school employs highly qualified full-time teachers, it is important to acknowledge that substitute teachers also have a significant impact on the education of students. One…

  11. Substitute Teaching: Sink or Swim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duebber, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Advises new substitute teachers to be prepared, tote emergency activity folders, dress professionally (but wear flamingo earrings), be early, figure out the game plan, communicate expectations to students, enforce consequences, have a gimmick to reward cooperation, relish the teachable moment, leave the room tidy, and believe in themselves. (MLH)

  12. Magnetized static black Saturn

    SciTech Connect

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    2008-06-15

    We present a new static solution to the 5D Einstein-Maxwell equations describing a static black hole surrounded by a nonrotating dipole black ring. The configuration is kept in equilibrium by an external magnetic field interacting with the dipole charge of the black ring. The properties of the black Saturn-like configuration are studied and the basic physical quantities are calculated. The solution demonstrates 2-fold continuous nonuniqueness of the 5D magnetized static neutral black objects for fixed total mass and Melvin background.

  13. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  14. Searching for Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garica, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 we proposed to carry out ground-based observations in order to securely identify stellar mass black holes in our galaxy. This type 4 proposal under NASA's UV, Visible, and Gravitational Astrophysics program compliments NASA's space-based research by following up black hole candidates found and studied with space-based observatories, in order to determine if they are indeed black holes. While our primary goal is to securely identify black holes by measuring their masses, a secondary goal is identifying unique visible-range signatures for black holes.

  15. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskin, Gregory

    2014-12-01

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics.

  16. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

    PubMed Central

    Paillet-Loilier, Magalie; Cesbron, Alexandre; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Bourgine, Joanna; Debruyne, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and psychiatric/neurological signs/symptoms (agitation, seizures, paranoia, and hallucinations) are the most common adverse effects reported. Severe toxicity signs compatible with excessive serotonin activity, such as hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, and prolonged rhabdomyolysis, have also been observed. Reinforcing potential observed in animals predicts a high potential

  17. Estimating the Variability of Substitution Rates

    PubMed Central

    Bulmer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Suppose that amino acid or nucleotide data are available for a homologous gene in several species which diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time and that substitution rates between all pairs of species are calculated, correcting as necessary for multiple substitutions and for back and parallel substitutions. The variances and covariances of these corrected substitution rates are evaluated, and are used to construct a new test for uniformity (constancy of the molecular clock) and to find the best estimates of substitution rates in individual lineages with their standard errors. A substantial bias may arise if the effect of correcting the pairwise substitution rates is ignored. PMID:2599371

  18. IMAGES OF BLACK AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Russell, Ann Marie; Williams, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Images of Black Americans are becoming remarkably diverse, enabling Barack Obama to defy simple-minded stereotypes and succeed. Understood through the Stereotype Content Model’s demonstrably fundamental trait dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, images of Black Americans show three relevant patterns. Stereotyping by omission allows non-Blacks to accentuate the positive, excluding any lingering negativity but implying it by its absence; specifically, describing Black Americans as gregarious and passionate suggests warmth but ignores competence and implies its lack. Obama’s credentials prevented him from being cast as incompetent, though the experience debate continued. His legendary calm and passionate charisma saved him on the warmth dimension. Social class subtypes for Black Americans differentiate dramatically between low-income Blacks and Black professionals, among both non-Black and Black samples. Obama clearly fit the moderately warm, highly competent Black-professional subtype. Finally, the campaign’s events (and nonevents) allowed voter habituation to overcome non-Blacks’ automatic emotional vigilance to Black Americans. PMID:24235974

  19. Powder neutron diffraction studies of a carbonate fluorapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Leventouri, Th.; Chakoumakos, B. C.; Moghaddam, H. Y.; Perdikatsis, V.

    2000-02-01

    Atomic positional disorder of a single-phase natural carbonate fluorapatite (francolite) is revealed from analysis of the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) refined from neutron powder diffraction data as a function of temperature and carbonate content. The ADPs of the francolite show a strong disturbance at the P, O3, and F sites. When it is heat treated to partially or completely remove the carbonate, the ADPs as well as the other structural parameters resemble those of a fluorapatite (Harding pegmatite) that was measured under the same conditions. The various structural changes are consistent with a substitution mechanism whereby the planar carbonate group replaces a phosphate group and lies on the mirror plane of the apatite structure. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society.

  20. Powder metallurgy: Solid and liquid phase sintering of copper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Rex; Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Basic powder metallurgy (P/M) principles and techniques are presented in this laboratory experiment. A copper based system is used since it is relatively easy to work with and is commercially important. In addition to standard solid state sintering, small quantities of low melting metals such as tin, zinc, lead, and aluminum can be added to demonstrate liquid phase sintering and alloy formation. The Taguchi Method of experimental design was used to study the effect of particle size, pressing force, sintering temperature, and sintering time. These parameters can be easily changed to incorporate liquid phase sintering effects and some guidelines for such substitutions are presented. The experiment is typically carried out over a period of three weeks.

  1. Sensory/mixability preference evaluation of cholestyramine powder formulations.

    PubMed

    Shaefer, M S; Jungnickel, P W; Miwa, L J; Marquis, N R; Hutton, G D

    1990-05-01

    This double-blind, crossover trial compared the sensory and product preparation characteristics of two cholestyramine powder preparations. The study involved 100 healthy volunteers, aged 22-65 (mean 42 years). Questran, a currently marketed product containing sucrose as a sweetener, was compared with Questran Light, a new formulation substituting aspartame for 90 percent of the sucrose. Comparisons were conducted with the two products mixed in water and orange juice. The subjects expressed a significant overall preference for the new formulation mixed in either water (77 percent) or orange juice (80 percent) (p less than 0.01 in both comparisons). Subjects expressed an overwhelming preference for the old product (99 percent) with respect to ease of preparation, although the ratings of the new product were generally neutral rather than negative. The new product is somewhat more difficult to prepare compared with the old cholestyramine preparation, but offers significantly increased patient acceptance based on sensory evaluations.

  2. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K

    2010-05-31

    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures.

  3. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K

    2010-05-31

    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures. PMID:20176096

  4. [Identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins by differential scanning calorimetry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Li, Ming-hua; Yu, Kun-zi; Dong, Ya-juan; Zhang, Nan-ping; Hu, Xiao-ru; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-04-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a methods for identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins. Hermetic aluminum pan was used to encapsulate samples. The optimal testing conditions were: heating rate 10 degrees C x min(-1), sample weight 3 mg and nitrogen gas flow rate 40 mL x min(-1). The enthalpy values of pearl powder and conch powder was obvious different. Identication of pearl powder and conch powder by DSC is a practical method for its accuracy, convenience and practificality.

  5. [Identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins by differential scanning calorimetry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Li, Ming-hua; Yu, Kun-zi; Dong, Ya-juan; Zhang, Nan-ping; Hu, Xiao-ru; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-04-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a methods for identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins. Hermetic aluminum pan was used to encapsulate samples. The optimal testing conditions were: heating rate 10 degrees C x min(-1), sample weight 3 mg and nitrogen gas flow rate 40 mL x min(-1). The enthalpy values of pearl powder and conch powder was obvious different. Identication of pearl powder and conch powder by DSC is a practical method for its accuracy, convenience and practificality. PMID:26281579

  6. Structure refinements of cadmium substituted lead fluoroapatites by powder X-ray pattern fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badraoui, Béchir; Aissa, Abdallah; Debbabi, Mongi

    2007-02-01

    Solid solutions of cadmium and lead fluoroapatite [Pb(10-x)Cdx(PO4)6F2 (0⩽x⩽5)] were synthesized by a wet process in a basic medium. Replacement of lead by cadmium induces a linear variation of the crystallographic parameters “a” and “c” according to Végard's law. The cadmium content, as obtained from the refinement, is in agreement with the chemical analysis. The distribution of the lead and cadmium ions between two non-equivalent crystallographic sites, M(1) and M(2), was determined by the Rietveld method. The site-occupancy factors of atoms clearly indicate a preference of cadmium for site M(1) in the apatite structure in agreement with its smaller ionic radii. A progressive shift of the F- ion toward the center of the triangles formed by the site M(2) metals has been observed with increasing cadmium content.

  7. Trends in powder processing equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    Spray drying is the most widely used process for producing particles. It is used in industries other than ceramics including food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical. The process involves the atomization of a liquid feed stock into a spray of droplets and contacting the droplets with hot air in a drying chamber. The sprays are produced by either rotary or nozzle atomizers. Evaporation of moisture from the droplets and formation of dry particles proceed under controlled temperature and airflow conditions. Powder is then discharged continuously from the drying chamber. Spray drying equipment is being improved to handle an ever-increasing number of applications. Several developments in particle-size reduction equipment are also described.

  8. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Robert M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:25685987

  9. Novel approaches to improve the intrinsic microbiological safety of powdered infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Kent, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-02-12

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics.

  10. Influence of citrate-nitrate reaction mixture packing on ceramic powder properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zupan, Klementina; Kolar, Drago; Marinšek, Marjan

    Lanthanum chromite-based materials have a good prospect for use in various high temperature applications, as well as an SOFC separator. A citrate-nitrate gel combustion reaction was used for the preparation of submicron crystalline strontium-substituted lanthanum chromite (LSC). The effect of the fuel-oxidant molar ratio and sample form prior to combustion was investigated in terms of reaction period, phase formation, particle size, morphology and agglomerate formation. Several characterization methods including scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, BET measurement, X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis were used to evaluate the influence of reaction mixture packing on powder characteristics for different citrate-nitrate (c/n) ratios. It was shown that the reaction period depends on the fuel/oxidant ratio and reaction mixture packing. The LSC powders prepared via the combustion route exhibited surface areas of about 12 m 2/g for the loose packed layer prepared samples and 7 to 11 m 2/g for samples prepared from a pellet. The nature of the agglomerates was studied from the pore size distribution in the green compacts pressed at different pressures. The sintering behaviour of powders and some of the electrical properties of sintered samples are reported. Sintering tests on LSC powders prepared via the combustion route showed that the sintering process started at about 900°C and proceeded in two steps in the presence of a liquid phase.

  11. Rapid hydrothermal flow synthesis and characterisation of carbonate- and silicate-substituted calcium phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Darr, Jawwad A

    2013-01-01

    A range of crystalline and nano-sized carbonate- and silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite has been successfully produced by using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis technology. Ion-substituted calcium phosphates are better candidates for bone replacement applications (due to improved bioactivity) as compared to phase-pure hydroxyapatite. Urea was used as a carbonate source for synthesising phase pure carbonated hydroxyapatite (CO3-HA) with ≈5 wt% substituted carbonate content (sample 7.5CO3-HA) and it was found that a further increase in urea concentration in solution resulted in biphasic mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the particle size of hydroxyapatite decreased with increasing urea concentration. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy result revealed a calcium deficient apatite with Ca:P molar ratio of 1.45 (±0.04) in sample 7.5CO3-HA. For silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiO4-HA) silicon acetate was used as a silicate ion source. It was observed that a substitution threshold of ∼1.1 wt% exists for synthesis of SiO4-HA in the continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis system, which could be due to the decreasing yields with progressive increase in silicon acetate concentration. All the as-precipitated powders (without any additional heat treatments) were analysed using techniques including Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22983020

  12. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOEpatents

    Welbon, William W.

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  13. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  14. Powder handling for automated fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

    1989-04-09

    Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs.

  15. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOEpatents

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  16. Effects of Sc and Y substitution on the structure and thermoelectric properties of Yb14MnSb11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkemper, Jason H.; Klemenz, Sebastian; Albert, Barbara; Bux, Sabah K.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2016-10-01

    Yb14MnSb11 is the most efficient bulk p-type thermoelectric material for high temperature applications. Materials with Y and Sc substitutions in Yb14MnSb11 were made both in Sn-flux and by ball milling. These small 3+ rare earth (RE) cations were introduced with the goal of providing chemical pressure on the structure. The RE3+ cation is smaller than Yb2+ and also donates one additional electron to this p-type semiconductor. In Yb14-xRExMnSb11 (RE = Sc, Y) the maximum x was about 0.5. X-ray diffraction experiments on the single crystals obtained from Sn-flux showed that Sc preferentially substitutes for Yb(1) and Yb(3), and decreases the size of the unit cell by about 0.3%. Y substitutes on all Yb sites and increases the size of the unit cell by about 0.2%. Samples with Yb14-xRExMnSb11 (x~0.3) were prepared via powder metallurgy and spark plasma sintering for transport and thermal conductivity measurements. Electron microprobe of the Sc-substituted sample showed small regions (≤1 μ m) containing greater amounts of Sc, and X-ray powder diffraction of the ball milled Sc sample could be fitted as phase pure Yb14-xScxMnSb11. Y-substituted samples showed larger regions of excess Y in electron microprobe, and small amounts of Yb4Sb3 in X-ray powder diffraction. The Sc sample has slightly reduced carrier concentration over optimized Yb14MnSb11, while the Y samples have even lower carrier concentrations. These carrier concentrations lead to comparable resistivity to Yb14MnSb11 in the Sc-substituted material, and higher resistivities in the Y-substituted material. All materials had similar Seebeck coefficients that slightly exceed Yb14MnSb11 at high temperatures, with the Sc-substituted sample having the highest despite having a higher carrier concentration. Sc-substituted samples also had a slightly higher thermal conductivity over the Y-substituted samples, which had comparable thermal conductivity to Yb14MnSb11. The zT values of the Sc and Y substituted samples are

  17. Cryolubricity of YBCO powder deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Keeley M.; Krim, Jacqueline

    2010-03-01

    Motivated by recent reports of superconductivity-dependent friction [1] in macroscopic pin-on-disk measurements of steel on YBCO, [2] we have investigated the tribological properties of YBCO powder deposits on metal electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Measurements are performed as a function of temperature over the range 80 - 300K, by monitoring the frequency and amplitude of the QCM both in the presence and absence of adsorbed nitrogen film layers. A pulsed magnetic field was applied to isolate the effect of superconductivity at and around the transition temperature. The powder deposits produce negative shifts in the QCM fundamental frequency, an indication of the strength of their attachment to the surface. The shifts exhibit structure as the temperature passes through the superconducting transition temperature, but the presumed drop in friction is not so large as to produce a decoupling effect which would lead to positive shifts. [3] Measurements on alternate QCM electrodes in the presence of adsorbed film layers are ongoing and will be reported on. Funding provided by NSF DMR. [4pt] [1] Highland, M. and Krim, J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 96, 226107.[0pt] [2] Ding, Q. et al. Wear 2008, 265, 1136.[0pt] [3] Dybwad, G.L. J. Appl. Phys. 1985, 58, 2789.

  18. Resonant photodissociation in substituted benzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Tim; McAcy, Collin; Foote, David; Uiterwaal, Cornelis

    2011-05-01

    Cyclic aromatic molecules are abundant in organic chemistry, with a wide variety of applications, including pharmacology, pollution studies and genetic research. Among the simplest of these molecules is benzene (C6H6) , with many relevant molecules being benzene-like with a single atomic substitution. In such a substitution, the substituent determines a characteristic perturbation of the electronic structure of the molecule. We discuss the substitution of halogens into the ring (C6H5X), and its effects on the dynamics of ionization and dissociation of the molecule without the focal volume effect. In particular, using 800-nm, 50-fs laser pulses, we present results in the dissociation of fluorobenzene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and iodobenzene into the phenyl ring (C6H5) and the atomic halogen, and the subsequent ionization of these fragments. The impact of the ``heavy atom effect'' on a 1 (π , π*) -->3 (n , σ*) singlet-triplet intersystem crossing will be emphasized. Currently under investigation is whether such a dissociation can be treated as an effective source of the neutral substituent. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-0355235.

  19. Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and a process for preparing the same are disclosed. These polysulfones are thermally cured to induce cross-linking and chain extension, producing a polymer system with improved solvent resistance and use temperature. Also disclosed are substituted 4-ethynylbenzoyl chlorides as precursors to the substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and a process for preparing the same.

  20. Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Ethynyl and substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and their synthesis are disclosed. These polysulfones are thermally cured to induce cross-linking and chain extension, producing a polymer system with improved solvent resistance and use temperatures. Also disclosed are substituted 4-ethynylbenzoyl chlorides as precursors to the substituted ethynyl-terminated polysulfones and a process for preparing the same.

  1. 40 CFR 721.9100 - Substituted quinoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted quinoline. 721.9100... Substances § 721.9100 Substituted quinoline. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted quinoline (PMN P-93-1183)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9100 - Substituted quinoline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted quinoline. 721.9100... Substances § 721.9100 Substituted quinoline. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted quinoline (PMN P-93-1183)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  5. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  9. Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in…

  10. 40 CFR 721.323 - Substituted acrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide. 721.323... Substances § 721.323 Substituted acrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted acrylamide (PMN P-90-1687)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.323 - Substituted acrylamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide. 721.323... Substances § 721.323 Substituted acrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted acrylamide (PMN P-90-1687)...

  12. Expectations and Experiences of Substitute Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggleby, Patricia; Badali, Sal

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the expectations of support for and the experiences of substitute teachers in an urban school division in Saskatchewan. Data were collected in semistructured interviews with seven substitute teachers. The purpose of the study was to explore how substitute teachers frame their professional experiences and construct their roles…

  13. Selective laser sintering of amorphous metal powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Blatter, A.; Romano, V.; Weber, H. P.

    2005-02-01

    For the first time, selective sintering of amorphous PtCuNiP powder with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been studied. Upon pulsed interaction, the grains melt only superficially to build necks between the grains. Depending on the laser parameters, the sintered material can be crystallized or retained amorphous. By contrast with crystalline powder, laser sintering of amorphous powder is achieved at substantially lower pulse energies due to its low melting point. The obtained results are compared with previous results from selective laser sintering of titanium powder.

  14. Dendritic microstructure in argon atomized superalloy powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Kumar, Mahundra

    1986-01-01

    The dendritic microstructure of atomized nickel base superalloy powders (Ni-20 pct Cr, NIMONIC-80A, ASTROALOY, and ZHS6-K) was studied. Prealloyed vacuum induction melted ingots were argon-atomized, the powders were cooled to room temperature, and various powder-size fractions were examined by optical metallography. Linear correlations were obtained for the powder size dependence of the secondary dendrite arm spacing, following the expected d-alpha (R) to the m power dependence on the particle size for all four superalloy compositions. However, the Ni-20 pct Cr alloy, which had much coarser arm spacing as compared to the other three alloys, had a much larger value of m.

  15. Styryl dye coated metal oxide powders for the detection of latent fingermarks on non-porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Scott; Maynard, Philip; Kirkbride, Paul; Lennard, Chris; McDonagh, Andrew; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2012-06-10

    Conventional fingermark powders rely on contrast induced by absorption/reflection (e.g. black powder) or luminescence in the visible region (e.g. Blitz Green(®)). In most cases, these powders provide sufficient contrast; however, in some circumstances surface characteristics can interfere with the visualisation of powdered fingermarks. Visualisation in the near infra-red (NIR) region, however, has been shown to eliminate interferences commonly encountered in the visible region. In this study, a mixture of rhodamine 6G and the NIR laser dye styryl 11 (STaR 11) was coated onto an aluminium oxide nanopowder and then mixed with silver magnetic powder to develop and visualise fingermarks in the NIR. When compared to Blitz Green(®), it was determined that the STaR 11 magnetic powder was better suited for marks deposited on textured surfaces and for older marks, whereas Blitz Green(®) performed better on smooth glossy surfaces. The ability of the STaR 11 mixed dye formulation to be visualised in both the visible and NIR regions also provides a significant advantage over conventional luminescent fingermark powders.

  16. Quantization of Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    We show that black holes can be quantized in an intuitive and elegant way with results in agreement with conventional knowledge of black holes by using Bohr's idea of quantizing the motion of an electron inside the atom in quantum mechanics. We find that properties of black holes can also be derived from an ansatz of quantized entropy Δ S = 4π k Δ R/{{-{λ }}}, which was suggested in a previous work to unify the black hole entropy formula and Verlinde's conjecture to explain gravity as an entropic force. Such an Ansatz also explains gravity as an entropic force from quantum effect. This suggests a way to unify gravity with quantum theory. Several interesting and surprising results of black holes are given from which we predict the existence of primordial black holes ranging from Planck scale both in size and energy to big ones in size but with low energy behaviors.

  17. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt. 721.9545 Section 721.9545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  12. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  13. Naked black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-08-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces {ital outside} the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  15. What Black Educators are Saying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nathan, Jr., Ed.

    Contents of this book are comprised of five groups of articles: Part I. The Black Educator: "Education for black humanism; a way of approaching it," Preston Wilcox; "The new black dimension in our society," Olivia Pearl Stokes; "The black teacher and black Power," Leslie Campbell; and, "The difference," Leslie Campbell. Part II. The White…

  16. Stability of Black Holes and Black Branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, Stefan; Wald, Robert M.

    2013-08-01

    We establish a new criterion for the dynamical stability of black holes in D ≥ 4 spacetime dimensions in general relativity with respect to axisymmetric perturbations: Dynamical stability is equivalent to the positivity of the canonical energy, {{E}}, on a subspace, {{T}}, of linearized solutions that have vanishing linearized ADM mass, momentum, and angular momentum at infinity and satisfy certain gauge conditions at the horizon. This is shown by proving that—apart from pure gauge perturbations and perturbations towards other stationary black holes—{{E}} is nondegenerate on {{T}} and that, for axisymmetric perturbations, {{E}} has positive flux properties at both infinity and the horizon. We further show that {{E}} is related to the second order variations of mass, angular momentum, and horizon area by {{E} = δ^2 M -sum_A Ω_A δ^2 J_A - κ/8πδ^2 A}, thereby establishing a close connection between dynamical stability and thermodynamic stability. Thermodynamic instability of a family of black holes need not imply dynamical instability because the perturbations towards other members of the family will not, in general, have vanishing linearized ADM mass and/or angular momentum. However, we prove that for any black brane corresponding to a thermodynamically unstable black hole, sufficiently long wavelength perturbations can be found with {{E} < 0} and vanishing linearized ADM quantities. Thus, all black branes corresponding to thermodynmically unstable black holes are dynamically unstable, as conjectured by Gubser and Mitra. We also prove that positivity of {{E}} on {{T}} is equivalent to the satisfaction of a " local Penrose inequality," thus showing that satisfaction of this local Penrose inequality is necessary and sufficient for dynamical stability. Although we restrict our considerations in this paper to vacuum general relativity, most of the results of this paper are derived using general Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods and therefore can be

  17. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Nightshade poisoning; Morelle noire poisoning; Wonderberry poisoning ... Black nightshade poisoning can affect many areas of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, AND THROAT Dry mouth Enlarged (dilated) pupils ...

  18. Black stain - a review.

    PubMed

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  19. A new approach to assess the chemical composition of powder deposits damaging the stone surfaces of historical monuments.

    PubMed

    Fermo, Paola; Turrion, Raquel Gonzalez; Rosa, Mario; Omegna, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The issue of conservation of the monumental heritage worldwide is mainly related to atmospheric pollution that causes the degradation of stone surfaces. The powder deposits present on the stone monuments reflect the composition of the aerosol particulate matter (PM) to which the surfaces are exposed, so the chemical characterization of the outermost damaged layers is necessary in order to adopt mitigation measurements to reduce PM emissions. In the present paper, a new analytical approach is proposed to investigate the chemical composition of powder deposits present on Angera stone, a dolomitic rock used in the Richini courtyard, a masterpiece of Lombard Baroque and placed in Milan. Inorganic and organic components present in these deposits have been analyzed by IC (ion chromatography) and a new approach mainly bases on thermal analyses, respectively. Gypsum is the main inorganic constituent indicating a composition similar to that of black crusts, hard black patina covering the degraded building surfaces. Ammonium nitrate present in the powder is able to react with the stone substrate to form magnesium nitrate which can migrate into the porous stone. The carbonaceous fraction powder deposits (i.e. OC = Organic Carbon and EC = Elemental Carbon) have been quantified by a new simple thermal approach based on carbon hydrogen nitrogen (CHN) analysis. The presence of high concentration of EC confirms that the powder deposits are evolving to black crust. Low values of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, determined by total organic carbon-TOC), with respect to what is normally found in PM, may indicate a migration process of organic substances into the stone with a worsening of the conservation conditions. The presence of heavy metals of anthropogenic origin and acting as catalysts in the black crust formation process has been highlighted by SEM-EDS (electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer) as well. PMID:25408080

  20. A new approach to assess the chemical composition of powder deposits damaging the stone surfaces of historical monuments.

    PubMed

    Fermo, Paola; Turrion, Raquel Gonzalez; Rosa, Mario; Omegna, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The issue of conservation of the monumental heritage worldwide is mainly related to atmospheric pollution that causes the degradation of stone surfaces. The powder deposits present on the stone monuments reflect the composition of the aerosol particulate matter (PM) to which the surfaces are exposed, so the chemical characterization of the outermost damaged layers is necessary in order to adopt mitigation measurements to reduce PM emissions. In the present paper, a new analytical approach is proposed to investigate the chemical composition of powder deposits present on Angera stone, a dolomitic rock used in the Richini courtyard, a masterpiece of Lombard Baroque and placed in Milan. Inorganic and organic components present in these deposits have been analyzed by IC (ion chromatography) and a new approach mainly bases on thermal analyses, respectively. Gypsum is the main inorganic constituent indicating a composition similar to that of black crusts, hard black patina covering the degraded building surfaces. Ammonium nitrate present in the powder is able to react with the stone substrate to form magnesium nitrate which can migrate into the porous stone. The carbonaceous fraction powder deposits (i.e. OC = Organic Carbon and EC = Elemental Carbon) have been quantified by a new simple thermal approach based on carbon hydrogen nitrogen (CHN) analysis. The presence of high concentration of EC confirms that the powder deposits are evolving to black crust. Low values of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, determined by total organic carbon-TOC), with respect to what is normally found in PM, may indicate a migration process of organic substances into the stone with a worsening of the conservation conditions. The presence of heavy metals of anthropogenic origin and acting as catalysts in the black crust formation process has been highlighted by SEM-EDS (electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer) as well.

  1. Isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from recalcitrant dried berries of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)--a medicinal spice.

    PubMed

    Dhanya, K; Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Syamkumar, S; Sasikumar, B

    2007-10-01

    Black pepper is an important medicinal spice traded internationally. The extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification from dried black pepper is challenging because of the presence of the exceptionally large amount of oxidized polyphenolic compounds, polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites. Here we report a modified hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by incorporating potassium acetate and a final PEG precipitation step to isolate PCR amplifiable genomic DNA from dried and powdered berries of black pepper. The protocol has trade implication as it will help in the PCR characterization of traded black peppers from different countries.

  2. Substitution mechanism of alkali metals for strontium in strontium hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Naddari, Thouraya; Hamdi, Besma; Savariault, Jean Michel; El Feki, Hafed; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid

    2003-01-25

    Strontium hydroxyapatites substituted by alkali metals are synthesized by double decomposition method in basic medium. Structures of Sr{sub 9.50}Na{sub 0.30}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 1.30} (SrNaHAp) and Sr{sub 9.81}K{sub 0.12}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 1.74} (SrKHAp) are determined by X-ray powder diffraction. Both compounds are isotypic and crystallize in hexagonal system (space group P63/m) with the following cells: a=9.751(3) A and c=7.279(3) A for SrNaHAp and a=9.755(4) A and c=7.284(3) A for SrKHAp. Results are compared to those of Sr{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}. According to the site occupancy factors, in SrNaHAp sodium is localized in site (I) and in SrKHAp potassium in site (II). Both structures contain vacancies in hydroxyl and metal sites. The mechanism of alkali metals substitution for strontium proposed explains the vacancies formation.

  3. The characteristics of particle charging and deposition during powder coating processes with ultrafine powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangbo; Zhu, Jingxu Jesse; Zhang, Hui

    2009-03-01

    In a preceding work, the mechanisms of particle charging and deposition during powder coating processes were explored with coarse polyurethane powder. In this paper, the developed mechanisms were further examined with ultrafine polyurethane powder in order to meet the growing needs for ultrafine powder in finishing industries. This study first verified the previous findings in particle deposition, which account for a cone-shaped pattern formed by deposited particles on the substrate and a rise in particle accumulation in the fringe region. It was further demonstrated with ultrafine powder that, as disclosed by using coarse powder, the primary charging of in-flight particles competes with back corona in particle deposition processes, and the highest deposition efficiency is a compromise by balancing their effects. In comparison with coarse powder, ultrafine powder presents a faster reduction in the deposition rate with extended spraying duration, but shows some superiority in the uniformity of the deposited layer. In the case of charging characteristics of the deposited particles, it was further substantiated with ultrafine powder that the secondary charging mechanism takes predominance in determining the distribution of local charge-to-mass ratios. It was also disclosed that ultrafine powder shows a decreasing charge-to-mass ratio with increased charging voltage in the deposited layer, opposite to the increasing tendency of coarse powder. However, it was commonly demonstrated by both coarse and ultrafine powders that the charge-to-mass ratio of the deposited particles decreases with the extended spraying durations. In comparison, ultrafine powder is more likely to produce uniform charge-to-mass ratio distributions in the deposited layer, which contrast sharply with the ones associated with the coarse powder. In conclusion, it is believed that this study supplements the preceding study and is of great help in providing a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms

  4. Influence of Excipients and Spray Drying on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Nutraceutical Capsules Containing Phytochemicals from Black Bean Extract.

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Rempel, Curtis; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-12-03

    Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a rich source of flavonoids and saponins with proven health benefits. Spray dried black bean extract powders were used in different formulations for the production of nutraceutical capsules with reduced batch-to-batch weight variability. Factorial designs were used to find an adequate maltodextrin-extract ratio for the spray-drying process to produce black bean extract powders. Several flowability properties were used to determine composite flow index of produced powders. Powder containing 6% maltodextrin had the highest yield (78.6%) and the best recovery of flavonoids and saponins (>56% and >73%, respectively). The new complexes formed by the interaction of black bean powder with maltodextrin, microcrystalline cellulose 50 and starch exhibited not only bigger particles, but also a rougher structure than using only maltodextrin and starch as excipients. A drying process prior to capsule production improved powder flowability, increasing capsule weight and reducing variability. The formulation containing 25.0% of maltodextrin, 24.1% of microcrystalline cellulose 50, 50% of starch and 0.9% of magnesium stearate produced capsules with less than 2.5% weight variability. The spray drying technique is a feasible technique to produce good flow extract powders containing valuable phytochemicals and low cost excipients to reduce the end-product variability.

  5. Influence of Excipients and Spray Drying on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Nutraceutical Capsules Containing Phytochemicals from Black Bean Extract.

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Rempel, Curtis; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a rich source of flavonoids and saponins with proven health benefits. Spray dried black bean extract powders were used in different formulations for the production of nutraceutical capsules with reduced batch-to-batch weight variability. Factorial designs were used to find an adequate maltodextrin-extract ratio for the spray-drying process to produce black bean extract powders. Several flowability properties were used to determine composite flow index of produced powders. Powder containing 6% maltodextrin had the highest yield (78.6%) and the best recovery of flavonoids and saponins (>56% and >73%, respectively). The new complexes formed by the interaction of black bean powder with maltodextrin, microcrystalline cellulose 50 and starch exhibited not only bigger particles, but also a rougher structure than using only maltodextrin and starch as excipients. A drying process prior to capsule production improved powder flowability, increasing capsule weight and reducing variability. The formulation containing 25.0% of maltodextrin, 24.1% of microcrystalline cellulose 50, 50% of starch and 0.9% of magnesium stearate produced capsules with less than 2.5% weight variability. The spray drying technique is a feasible technique to produce good flow extract powders containing valuable phytochemicals and low cost excipients to reduce the end-product variability. PMID:26633352

  6. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  7. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  8. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  9. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1646 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Bronze powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The....1647 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. Copper powder may be safely used in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with...

  17. 21 CFR 529.2464 - Ticarcillin powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ticarcillin powder. 529.2464 Section 529.2464 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... powder. (a) Specifications. Each vial contains ticarcillin disodium equivalent to 6 grams of...

  18. [Powdered eggshell in the repair of cystic cavities of the jaw. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Baliga, M; Davies, P; Dupoirieux, L

    1998-07-01

    This paper is a clinical report on the use of eggshell as a bone substitute in oral surgery. Five volunteers who presented with a cystic cavity of the jaw with a mean size of 2 x 1 cm, were enrolled in the study. After enucleation of the cyst, the cavity was packed with eggshell powder. The results were assessed by clinical examination and repeated radiological examination at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Two operative sites were checked at 2 months for histological examination. Clinically, the eggshell implants were very well tolerated. In 3 out of 5 patients, a progressive opacification of the cavities with a centripetal ossification occurred within 6 weeks. In one patient, a generalized resorption was noticed. Histological examination confirmed that eggshell powder was not osteoinductive, but it enhanced the bone regeneration from the margins. In conclusions, eggshell powder is a worth-while bone substitute because it is a safe and easily available material. However, only a modest beneficial effect can be expected on bone regeneration. PMID:9697237

  19. The Black Caucus Votes No

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    From a statement on media practices regarding the dissemination of a wide range of documentary and other programming about the state of Black America without any input, consultation, or decisions by black Americans, issued by the Congressional Black Caucus. (JM)

  20. Drying of sweet whey using drum dryer technique and utilization of the produced powder in French-type bread and butter cookies.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, L; Alsaed, A K; Al-Domi, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to dry sweet liquid whey using drum dryer and to utilize the whey powder in French-type bread and cookies as a sugar substitute. The sweet whey powder was characterized chemically for ash, moisture, water activity, protein, salt, acidity and lactose contents. Optimization parameters including drying temperature, drum speed and starch addition for whey drying by drum dryer were tested to produce the best powder characteristics. The optimum temperature was 140°C at a drum speed of 20 rpm with a corn starch level of 2% (weight per weight). Sweet whey powder produced was used as a sugar replacer in French-type bread and butter cookies at substitution levels of 25, 50 and 75% of total sugars. The developed products were analyzed chemically and sensorially. The two developed products were relatively high in protein, ash, lactose and salts compared to the control samples. Regarding the sensory evaluation, the results showed that the sugar substitution of 25 and 50% in bread and cookies were significantly (p<0.05) better than the control. It can be concluded that sweet whey powder can significantly improve the quality of the studied bakery items. PMID:26035954

  1. Drying of sweet whey using drum dryer technique and utilization of the produced powder in French-type bread and butter cookies.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, L; Alsaed, A K; Al-Domi, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to dry sweet liquid whey using drum dryer and to utilize the whey powder in French-type bread and cookies as a sugar substitute. The sweet whey powder was characterized chemically for ash, moisture, water activity, protein, salt, acidity and lactose contents. Optimization parameters including drying temperature, drum speed and starch addition for whey drying by drum dryer were tested to produce the best powder characteristics. The optimum temperature was 140°C at a drum speed of 20 rpm with a corn starch level of 2% (weight per weight). Sweet whey powder produced was used as a sugar replacer in French-type bread and butter cookies at substitution levels of 25, 50 and 75% of total sugars. The developed products were analyzed chemically and sensorially. The two developed products were relatively high in protein, ash, lactose and salts compared to the control samples. Regarding the sensory evaluation, the results showed that the sugar substitution of 25 and 50% in bread and cookies were significantly (p<0.05) better than the control. It can be concluded that sweet whey powder can significantly improve the quality of the studied bakery items.

  2. What happened to blood substitutes?

    PubMed

    Stowell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Concerns about the safety and adequacy of the blood supply have fostered twenty years of research into the so-called "blood substitutes" among them the oxygen carriers based on modified hemoglobin. Although none of these materials has yet been licensed for use in North America or Europe, the results of research and clinical trials have increased our understanding of oxygen delivery and its regulation. In particular, the examination of the basis for the vasoactivity observed with some of the hemoglobin based oxygen carriers has led to the insight that several colligative properties of hemoglobin solutions, such as their diffusion coefficient for oxygen, viscosity and colloid oncotic pressure, are important determinants of efficacy.

  3. Current status of erythrocyte substitutes.

    PubMed Central

    Biro, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    During the last two decades the search for alternatives to whole blood transfusions has led to promising developments in the field of erythrocyte substitutes. Hemoglobin solutions free of fragments of erythrocyte stroma and fluorocarbon emulsions are not blood-type-specific and appear likely to satisfy some proportion of our blood requirements. Both must be modified before becoming clinically useful. The oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin solution must be reduced and its intravascular persistence improved. Fluorocarbons cannot yet contribute significantly to the oxygen supply unless the patient breathes hyperbaric oxygen. Recent advances are leading to solutions for these problems. PMID:6344974

  4. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, L.G.

    1979-08-29

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  5. Powder-lubricated piston ring development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heshmat, H.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder lubrication that would utilize coal ash, either alone or in combination with another powder. The feasibility of this particular lubrication concept for reducing ring/liner wear was demonstrated in a series of experiments utilizing redesigned and properly selected components. Wear performance for suitable ring/liner materials lubricated with a powder that incorporates the abrasive ash particles was evaluated in terms of load capacity, friction, and rate of wear for the best combination of ring design, ring and liner materials, and powder constituents. In addition, the use of a powder-lubricated system in the upper portion of the cylinder isolated the particulates from the lower portions of the engine, thus further reducing engine wear.

  6. Powder-lubricated piston ring development

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new particulate lubrication concept for reducing piston ring/cylinder liner wear in coal-water slurry-fueled diesels by replacing the present oil-lubricated system with powder lubrication that would utilize coal ash, either alone or in combination with another powder. The feasibility of this particular lubrication concept for reducing ring/liner wear was demonstrated in a series of experiments utilizing redesigned and properly selected components. Wear performance for suitable ring/liner materials lubricated with a powder that incorporates the abrasive ash particles was evaluated in terms of load capacity, friction, and rate of wear for the best combination of ring design, ring and liner materials, and powder constituents. In addition, the use of a powder-lubricated system in the upper portion of the cylinder isolated the particulates from the lower portions of the engine, thus further reducing engine wear. (VC)

  7. Powder dispensing robot for sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Fermier, Adam M; Troisi, John; Heritage, Erin C; Drexel, Melissa A; Gallea, Pablo; Swinney, Kelly A

    2003-06-01

    An automated powder dispensing station capable of transferring milligram quantities (1-100 mg) of powder for sample preparation was developed and integrated into a commercial robotic workstation (Zymark Prelude). The system's performance was optimized with respect to vacuum flow rate and powder transfer tube cross sectional area, and shown to possess excellent powder dispensing accuracy (RSD = < or = 0.1% for target weights < or = 15 mg) and precision (RSD = 3.43%) for a vanillin sample. Using the commercial features of the Zymark Prelude workstation (liquid handling, weighing, and vortexing/mixing) and the custom powder dispensing station, multiple sets of analytical calibration standards were prepared and subsequently analyzed by FIA in order to assess the system's robustness for sample preparation.

  8. Dense silica coatings on ceramic powder particles

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, J.F.A.; Mayr, W.

    1995-09-01

    Dense silica coatings on the surface of inorganic powders particles are prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in alcoholic suspensions. In a first reaction step, the TEOS is pre-hydrolysed in acidic solution and afterwards, a suspension of powder particles in this reaction solution is treated with ammonia which results in a dense silica coating of typically 10 - 100 nm thickness. Different luminescent powders which are used in the manufacture of cathode-ray tubes or fluorescent lamps have been coated by this procedure. The silica coating forms a transparent layer and the suspension properties of the coated powders are determined by the silica layer. The silica coating also protects sulfidic luminescent powders from being attacked by oxidizing agents like dichromate ions which are used in the suspension formulations for TV tube fabrication.

  9. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Louis G.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  10. Soluble dietary fibres in Jerusalem artichoke powders: composition and application in bread.

    PubMed

    Praznik, W; Cieślik, E; Filipiak-Florkiewicz, A

    2002-06-01

    Powders of tubers from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, L.), cultivar Gigant, of different harvesting times (autumn and spring) were applied in bakery products, particularly in wheat/rye bread. The quality of this bread was compared to bread with cereal flours substituted with commercial products as Raftilin ST and Raftilose P95. Compared to standard and substituted bread, Jerusalem artichoke bread shows a high quality in organoleptic evaluation (grade I with 36.5 and 37.5 scores). In utilised Jerusalem artichoke powders (JAPs) the amount of fructan (inulin) hydrolysis to fructose during the baking process depends on its initial degree of polymerisation (dp). With JAP of autumn harvest (fructan: dpn = 9.9, dpw = 21.8) less fructose (24.6%) is formed than with those of spring harvest (fructan: dpn = 4.9, dpw = 7.1) (40.7%). Compared to this bread, substitution with commercial products Raftilin ST (inulin: dpn = 8.4, dpw = 17.4) and Raftilose P95 (fructo-oligosaccharides: dpn = 2.7, dpw = 3.0) yields 11.9% and 45.8% of fructose upon total hydrolysis, respectively. The loss of fructan content by the bakery process is 38% in bread with JAP of autumn and 43% in bread with JAP of spring harvest; Raftilin ST- and Raftilose P95-bread come up with loss of fructan content of 35% and 47%, respectively.

  11. Black Studies Year One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard A.

    Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…

  12. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males Left…

  13. The Black Woman's Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  14. Black English: Two Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleederman, Frances

    This paper focuses on the two main schools of thought concerning the structure of Black English and its relationship to other dialects. One approach is that of the social dialectologists who claim that Black English shares features and origins of white non-standard Southern speech; the frequency with which specific features occur in actual speech…

  15. Learning Mathematics while Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2012-01-01

    While research by scholars has contributed greatly to an emerging knowledge base on Black children and mathematics, there continues to be a dire need for insightful research that de-centers longstanding accounts that have contributed to the construction of Black children as mathematically illiterate and as less than ideal learners relative to…

  16. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

  17. Black Women in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tina Sloan; And Others

    An overview of the achievements of black women in sports is presented in this collection of essays, biographical sketches, and philosophical investigations. The work is divided into five chapters, the first of which focuses on prejudice (racial and sexual), absence of black women as subjects in the research base, work/home/family pressures, black…

  18. Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)

  19. Black phosphorus gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmad N; Liu, Bilu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Yuqiang; Cong, Sen; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Köpf, Marianne; Nilges, Tom; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-05-26

    The utilization of black phosphorus and its monolayer (phosphorene) and few-layers in field-effect transistors has attracted a lot of attention to this elemental two-dimensional material. Various studies on optimization of black phosphorus field-effect transistors, PN junctions, photodetectors, and other applications have been demonstrated. Although chemical sensing based on black phosphorus devices was theoretically predicted, there is still no experimental verification of such an important study of this material. In this article, we report on chemical sensing of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using field-effect transistors based on multilayer black phosphorus. Black phosphorus sensors exhibited increased conduction upon NO2 exposure and excellent sensitivity for detection of NO2 down to 5 ppb. Moreover, when the multilayer black phosphorus field-effect transistor was exposed to NO2 concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppb, its relative conduction change followed the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, on the basis of an exponential conductance change, the rate constants for adsorption and desorption of NO2 on black phosphorus were extracted for different NO2 concentrations, and they were in the range of 130-840 s. These results shed light on important electronic and sensing characteristics of black phosphorus, which can be utilized in future studies and applications.

  20. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  1. They Made Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elward, Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of Black music education in the public schools of Washington, D.C., from 1869 through the 1920s. Appended (on pp38-39) are historical notes on Black composers James Weldon Johnson and John Rosamond Johnson, and their song "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing." (Author/SJL)

  2. Application of powder rheometer to determine powder flow properties and lubrication efficiency of pharmaceutical particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, Charu V; Missaghi, Shahrzad; Fassihi, Reza

    2005-10-19

    The objective of this study was to understand the behavior of particulate systems under different conditions of shear dynamics before and after granulation and to investigate the efficiency of powder lubrication. Three drug powders, metronidazole, colloidal bismuth citrate, and tetracycline hydrochloride, were chosen as model drugs representing noncohesive and cohesive powder systems. Each powder was individually granulated with microcrystalline cellulose and 5%PVP as a binder. One portion from each granulation was lubricated with different levels of magnesium stearate for 5 minutes. The powder characterization was performed on the plain powders, nonlubricated and lubricated granules using powder rheometer equipped with a helical blade rotating and moving under experimentally fixed set of parameters. The profiles of interaction during the force-distance measurements indicate that powder compresses, expands, and shears many times in a test cycle. Test profiles also clearly reveal existence of significant differences between cohesive and noncohesive powders. In all cases lubrication normalized the overall interactive nature of the powder by reducing peaks and valleys as observed from the profiles and reduced the frictional effect. The developed methods are easy to perform and will allow formulation scientists to better understand powder behavior and help in predicting potential impact of processing factors on particulate systems.

  3. Improving powder flow properties of a cohesive lactose monohydrate powder by intensive mechanical dry coating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Armstrong, Brian; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the cohesive lactose powder flowability. A cohesive lactose monohydrate powder was processed in either a tumbling blender or an intensive mechanical processor with either magnesium stearate or fumed silica. No substantial changes in particle size were detected by laser diffraction following either treatment. The untreated lactose sample exhibited very poor powder flow. Only limited improvements in powder flowability were indicated after the tumbling blending, intensive mechanical processing with the fumed silica or without additives. However, the intensive mechanical processing of the lactose sample with magnesium stearate demonstrated exceptionally large increases in both poured and tapped density as well as notable improvements in all powder flowability indicators examined. Our findings support the use of intensive mechanical processing technique as an effective method to coat cohesive pharmaceutical powders with selected additives, modify the surface nature of the particles, reduce the interparticle cohesive forces and hence improve powder flowability. The subtle differences in powder flow behaviour of lactose samples between the untreated and tumbling blended powders with magnesium stearate were only detected by the powder rheometer using its dynamic mode, indicating its potential advantages over traditional powder flow characterisation approaches.

  4. Measurement of powder bed density in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, G.; Donmez, A.; Slotwinski, J.; Moylan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Many factors influence the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) processes, resulting in a high degree of variation in process outcomes. Therefore, quantifying these factors and their correlations to process outcomes are important challenges to overcome to enable widespread adoption of emerging AM technologies. In the powder bed fusion AM process, the density of the powder layers in the powder bed is a key influencing factor. This paper introduces a method to determine the powder bed density (PBD) during the powder bed fusion (PBF) process. A complete uncertainty analysis associated with the measurement method was also described. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty, U PBD (k  =  2), was determined as 0.004 g · cm‑3. It was shown that this expanded measurement uncertainty is about three orders of magnitude smaller than the typical powder bed density. This method enables establishing correlations between the changes in PBD and the direction of motion of the powder recoating arm.

  5. Powder Cocaine and Crack Use in the United States: An Examination of Risk for Arrest and Socioeconomic Disparities in Use

    PubMed Central

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Davies, Shelby; Ompad, Danielle C.; Cleland, Charles M.; Weitzman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background In light of the current sentencing disparity (18:1) between crack and powder cocaine possession in the United States, we examined socioeconomic correlates of use of each, and relations between use and arrest, to determine who may be at highest risk for arrest and imprisonment. Methods We conducted secondary data analyses on the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009–2012. Data were analyzed for adults age ≥18 to determine associations between use and arrest. Socioeconomic correlates of lifetime and annual use of powder cocaine and of crack were delineated using multivariable logistic regression and correlates of frequency of recent use were examined using generalized negative binomial regression. Results Crack users were at higher risk than powder cocaine users for reporting a lifetime arrest or multiple recent arrests. Racial minorities were at low risk for powder cocaine use and Hispanics were at low risk for crack use. Blacks were at increased risk for lifetime and recent crack use, but not when controlling for other socioeconomic variables. However, blacks who did use either powder cocaine or crack tended to use at higher frequencies. Higher education and higher family income were negatively associated with crack use although these factors were sometimes risk factors for powder cocaine use. Conclusions Crack users are at higher risk of arrest and tend to be of lower socioeconomic status compared to powder cocaine users. These findings can inform US Congress as they review the proposed Smarter Sentencing Act of 2014, which would help eliminate cocaine-related sentencing disparities. PMID:25702933

  6. Vacancy and Doping States in Monolayer and bulk Black Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2015-01-01

    The atomic geometries and transition levels of point defects and substitutional dopants in few-layer and bulk black phosphorus are calculated. The vacancy is found to reconstruct in monolayer P to leave a single dangling bond, giving a negative U defect with a +/− transition level at 0.24 eV above the valence band edge. The V− state forms an unusual 4-fold coordinated site. In few-layer and bulk black P, the defect becomes a positive U site. The divacancy is much more stable than the monovacancy, and it reconstructs to give no deep gap states. Substitutional dopants such as C, Si, O or S do not give rise to shallow donor or acceptor states but instead reconstruct to form non-doping sites analogous to DX or AX centers in GaAs. Impurities on black P adopt the 8-N rule of bonding, as in amorphous semiconductors, rather than simple substitutional geometries seen in tetrahedral semiconductors. PMID:26383634

  7. Vacancy and Doping States in Monolayer and bulk Black Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2015-09-01

    The atomic geometries and transition levels of point defects and substitutional dopants in few-layer and bulk black phosphorus are calculated. The vacancy is found to reconstruct in monolayer P to leave a single dangling bond, giving a negative U defect with a +/- transition level at 0.24 eV above the valence band edge. The V- state forms an unusual 4-fold coordinated site. In few-layer and bulk black P, the defect becomes a positive U site. The divacancy is much more stable than the monovacancy, and it reconstructs to give no deep gap states. Substitutional dopants such as C, Si, O or S do not give rise to shallow donor or acceptor states but instead reconstruct to form non-doping sites analogous to DX or AX centers in GaAs. Impurities on black P adopt the 8-N rule of bonding, as in amorphous semiconductors, rather than simple substitutional geometries seen in tetrahedral semiconductors.

  8. Use This Test to Spruce Up Your Substitute Teacher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendor, Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Presents and interprets an 18-question test to determine how well a school's substitute teacher program functions. Topics covered include substitute teacher screening and preparation, lists of substitutes, lesson plans, staff and student evaluation of substitutes, substitutes' salaries, legal considerations, and making substitutes feel needed.…

  9. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  10. American Black Duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Clugston, D.A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    A brief summary of the annual cycle of the American Black duck (Anas rubripes) is presented. The history of the American black duck population is tracked by the Mid-Winter Index (MWI) and related to annual harvest. Previous to effective restrictions in the United States in 1982 and later in Canada, the MWI was declining significantly at about 4% annually. Since restrictions were established the black duck population has stabilized, but to reach the goal of 260,000 wintering black ducks in the Atlantic Flyway continued or even more restrictions will be necessary. If the number of breeding pairs can be increased from current levels the black duck population is expected to increase.

  11. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Si and Sr co-substituted hydroxyapatite nanowires using strontium containing calcium silicate as precursors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Zhai, Dong; Chen, Lei; Zou, Zhaoyong; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    In the absence of any organic surfactants and solvents, the silicon (Si) and strontium (Sr) co-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, Si/Sr-HAp] nanowires were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-containing calcium silicate (Sr-CS) powders as the precursors in trisodium phosphate (Na3PO4) aqueous solution. The morphology, phase, chemical compositions, lattice constants and the degradability of the products were characterized. The Si/Sr-HAp nanowires with diameter of about 60nm and up to 2μm in length were obtained after hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-CS precursors. The Sr and Si substitution amount of the HAp nanowires could be well regulated by facile tailoring the Sr substitution level of the precursors and the reaction ratio of the precursor/solution, respectively. The SiO4 tetrahedra and Sr(2+) ions occupied the crystal sites of the HAp, and the lattice constants increased apparently with the increase of the substitution amount. EDS mapping also suggested the uniform distribution of Si and Sr in the synthetic nanowires. Moreover, the Si/Sr-substitution apparently improved the degradability of the HAp materials. Our study suggested that the precursor transformation method provided a facile approach to synthesize the Si/Sr co-substituted HAp nanowires with controllable substitution amount, and the synthetic Si/Sr-HAp nanowires might be used as bioactive materials for hard tissue regeneration applications. PMID:24582251

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Si and Sr co-substituted hydroxyapatite nanowires using strontium containing calcium silicate as precursors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Zhai, Dong; Chen, Lei; Zou, Zhaoyong; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    In the absence of any organic surfactants and solvents, the silicon (Si) and strontium (Sr) co-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, Si/Sr-HAp] nanowires were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-containing calcium silicate (Sr-CS) powders as the precursors in trisodium phosphate (Na3PO4) aqueous solution. The morphology, phase, chemical compositions, lattice constants and the degradability of the products were characterized. The Si/Sr-HAp nanowires with diameter of about 60nm and up to 2μm in length were obtained after hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-CS precursors. The Sr and Si substitution amount of the HAp nanowires could be well regulated by facile tailoring the Sr substitution level of the precursors and the reaction ratio of the precursor/solution, respectively. The SiO4 tetrahedra and Sr(2+) ions occupied the crystal sites of the HAp, and the lattice constants increased apparently with the increase of the substitution amount. EDS mapping also suggested the uniform distribution of Si and Sr in the synthetic nanowires. Moreover, the Si/Sr-substitution apparently improved the degradability of the HAp materials. Our study suggested that the precursor transformation method provided a facile approach to synthesize the Si/Sr co-substituted HAp nanowires with controllable substitution amount, and the synthetic Si/Sr-HAp nanowires might be used as bioactive materials for hard tissue regeneration applications.

  14. Black holes and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2012-11-15

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium substituted biphasic mixtures of controlled hydroxyapatite/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, S.; Lemos, I.A.F.; Rocha, J.H.G.; Ferreira, J.M.F. . E-mail: jmf@cv.ua.pt

    2005-10-15

    The present paper investigates the preparation of magnesium (Mg) substituted biphasic mixtures of different hydroxyapatite (HAP)/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) ratios through aqueous precipitation method. The concentrations of added magnesium (Mg) were varied with the calcium in order to obtain constant (Ca+Mg)/P ratios of 1.67 ranging from 1.62+0.05, 1.58+0.09 and 1.54+0.13, respectively. The as prepared powders were calcined at different temperatures to study the phase behaviour and thermal stability. The powders were characterized by the following analytical techniques: TG-DTA, X-ray diffraction and FT-IR. The results have shown that substitution of Mg in the calcium-deficient apatites resulted in the formation of biphasic mixtures of different HAP/{beta}-TCP ratios after heating above 700 deg. C. The ratios of the formation of phase mixtures were dependent on the calcium deficiency in the apatites with the higher deficiency having the strongest impact on the increased formation of {beta}-TCP and the substituted Mg was found to stabilize the {beta}-TCP phase. - Graphical abstract: Role of Mg in the behaviour of calcium-deficient apatites during calcination to form biphasic mixtures.

  16. Effect of aluminum substitution on structural and electromagnetic properties of nanocrystalline MgCuMn ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, T. E-mail: ramanasarabu@gmail.com; Kumar, S. Senthil; Shinde, R. S.; Murthy, S. R.

    2015-06-24

    The effect of substitution of nonmagnetic Al{sup 3+} ions on the structural and electromagnetic properties were studied in nanocrystalline ferrite series of Mg{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}Al{sub x}Fe{sub 1.95-x}Mn{sub 0.05}O{sub 4} where x varies 0-0.4 in steps of 0.1. This series was synthesized by using microwave hydrothermal method. The nanocrystalline ferrite phase was observed at temperature 150°C/40 min. Synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized powders were densified using microwave sintering method at 950°C/40 min. The sintered samples were characterized using XRD. Surface morphology was observed by using field effective scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The electrical and magnetic properties were measured at room temperature. These results led us to interfere that the values of d.c resistivity increases and dielectric constant, initial permeability, saturation magnetization and Curie temperature were observed to be decreased with the substitution of Al{sup 3+} ions with those of Fe{sup 3+}. The low dielectric and magnetic losses and low magnetization exhibited by aluminum substituted MgCuMn ferrites makes them find applications in microwave devices.

  17. Black Literature vs. Black Studies: Three Lynchings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melvin G.

    When studying Afro-American literature, even in an English class rather than Black Studies class, both student interest and the topic tend to lead discussion toward sociological, not literary, aspects. However, the teacher should emphasize repeatedly the aesthetic dimensions of an artistic work as well as the various literary forms in which a…

  18. Linking flowability and granulometry of lactose powders.

    PubMed

    Boschini, F; Delaval, V; Traina, K; Vandewalle, N; Lumay, G

    2015-10-15

    The flowing properties of 10 lactose powders commonly used in pharmaceutical industries have been analyzed with three recently improved measurement methods. The first method is based on the heap shape measurement. This straightforward measurement method provides two physical parameters (angle of repose αr and static cohesive index σr) allowing to make a first screening of the powder properties. The second method allows to estimate the rheological properties of a powder by analyzing the powder flow in a rotating drum. This more advanced method gives a large set of physical parameters (flowing angle αf, dynamic cohesive index σf, angle of first avalanche αa and powder aeration %ae) leading to deeper interpretations. The third method is an improvement of the classical bulk and tapped density measurements. In addition to the improvement of the measurement precision, the densification dynamics of the powder bulk submitted to taps is analyzed. The link between the macroscopic physical parameters obtained with these methods and the powder granulometry is analyzed. Moreover, the correlations between the different flowability indexes are discussed. Finally, the link between grain shape and flowability is discussed qualitatively.

  19. Dynamic fragmentation of powders in spherical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. M.; Floyd, E.; Longbottom, A. W.; Taylor, P.

    2014-09-01

    Experimental evidence from a wide range of sources shows that the expanding cloud of explosively disseminated material comprises of "particles" or fragments which have different dimensions from those associated with the original material. Photographic evidence shows jets or fingers behind these expanding fragments. Powders and liquids have often been used to surround explosives to act as blast mitigants; this is the main driver for our research. Other examples of areas where these features are observed include fuel air explosives and enhanced blast explosives as well as quasi-static pressure mitigation systems. In this paper, we consider the processes occurring when an explosive interacts with a surrounding layer of powder in spherical geometry. Results from explosive experiments designed to investigate the effects of powder grain size and powder fill-to-burster charge mass ratio (/) are presented and compared with results from numerical modelling to explore what determines the primary fragment size distribution resulting from explosive dissemination of a layer of material and when this process begins. The evidence clearly shows that the process starts during the first wave transit period of the powder material and, despite the surrounding material initially being a loose powder, shows the characteristics of a brittle fracture mechanism. Later time video evidence shows the same number of jets or fingers as are identified by X-rays of the early, primary fragmentation process. The number of fragments is only a very weak function of the initial grain size of the powder.

  20. CVD boron on calcium chromate powder

    SciTech Connect

    Coonen, R.M.

    1984-09-01

    This study was an experimental effort to improve the compositional homogeneity of a pyrotechnic mixture of boron and calcium chromate (CaCrO/sub 4/). Boron was deposited onto calcium chromate powders at 350/sup 0/C from a diborane and hydrogen gas mixture at a pressure of 40 torr by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The B:CaCrO/sub 4/ ratio of the coated powders was analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy and the distribution of the two phases was observed by electron microprobe analysis. The pyrotechnic activity was determined by differential thermal analysis. In addition to varying the composition of the mixture, an attempt was made to vary the boron distribution by coating both sized and unsized CaCrO/sub 4/ powders. Boron was deposited for 2 h onto sized CaCrO/sub 4/ powder, which resulted in a higher weight percentage of boron in comparison to the unsized powder. CVD coated CaCrO/sub 4/ powders began their pyrotechnic activity at an auto ignition temperature that was lower than the auto ignition temperature observed for mechanically blended mixtures. The coating of sized CaCrO/sub 4/ powder improved the uniformity of boron deposition of CaCrO/sub 4/, but it also decreased the pyrotechnic activity.

  1. Formation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes.

    PubMed

    Dauth, Alexander; Rigling, Carla; Tsoung, Jennifer; Love, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    The preparation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes is reported. After exchange of ethylene with a variety of unsymmetrically and symmetrically substituted alkenes, the corresponding rhodium-olefin complexes were oxidized with H2O2 and PhINTs (Ts=p-toluenesulfonyl) to yield the substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes, respectively. Oxarhodacyclobutanes could be prepared with excellent selectivity for incorporation of the oxygen atom on the more substituted carbon atom of the alkene. At the same time, azarhodacyclobutanes showed good-to-excellent selectivity for heteroatom incorporation on the less substituted carbon. Furthermore, it was shown that steric modifications of the ancillary ligand have a significant influence on the selectivity of Rh-olefin complex formation as well as formation of the substituted azametallacycles.

  2. Trends in substitution models of molecular evolution

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Substitution models of evolution describe the process of genetic variation through fixed mutations and constitute the basis of the evolutionary analysis at the molecular level. Almost 40 years after the development of first substitution models, highly sophisticated, and data-specific substitution models continue emerging with the aim of better mimicking real evolutionary processes. Here I describe current trends in substitution models of DNA, codon and amino acid sequence evolution, including advantages and pitfalls of the most popular models. The perspective concludes that despite the large number of currently available substitution models, further research is required for more realistic modeling, especially for DNA coding and amino acid data. Additionally, the development of more accurate complex models should be coupled with new implementations and improvements of methods and frameworks for substitution model selection and downstream evolutionary analysis. PMID:26579193

  3. Trends in substitution models of molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Substitution models of evolution describe the process of genetic variation through fixed mutations and constitute the basis of the evolutionary analysis at the molecular level. Almost 40 years after the development of first substitution models, highly sophisticated, and data-specific substitution models continue emerging with the aim of better mimicking real evolutionary processes. Here I describe current trends in substitution models of DNA, codon and amino acid sequence evolution, including advantages and pitfalls of the most popular models. The perspective concludes that despite the large number of currently available substitution models, further research is required for more realistic modeling, especially for DNA coding and amino acid data. Additionally, the development of more accurate complex models should be coupled with new implementations and improvements of methods and frameworks for substitution model selection and downstream evolutionary analysis. PMID:26579193

  4. Regular black holes: Electrically charged solutions, Reissner-Nordstroem outside a de Sitter core

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-06-15

    To have the correct picture of a black hole as a whole, it is of crucial importance to understand its interior. The singularities that lurk inside the horizon of the usual Kerr-Newman family of black hole solutions signal an endpoint to the physical laws and, as such, should be substituted in one way or another. A proposal that has been around for sometime is to replace the singular region of the spacetime by a region containing some form of matter or false vacuum configuration that can also cohabit with the black hole interior. Black holes without singularities are called regular black holes. In the present work, regular black hole solutions are found within general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. We show that there are objects which correspond to regular charged black holes, whose interior region is de Sitter, whose exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem, and the boundary between both regions is made of an electrically charged spherically symmetric coat. There are several types of solutions: regular nonextremal black holes with a null matter boundary, regular nonextremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, regular extremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, and regular overcharged stars with a timelike matter boundary. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular solutions are analyzed.

  5. Untapped Resources: "Styling" in Black Students' Writing for Black Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Teresa M.

    Two studies compared the impact of black and white audiences on black students' writing style. In the first study, eight students in an all-black intermediate composition class completed one argumentative draft addressed to black opponents and one addressed to white opponents on two different topics. The essays were examined for stylistic features…

  6. The next Black America: Obstacles amidst opportunities for Black families.

    PubMed

    Armah, Tichianaa

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the author offers personal accounts on how she feels about the current Black America and obstacles that people face reaching for opportunities for Black families. Focus relies on the current state of Black America, poverty, schools, academic achievement, raising children in the next Black America and much more. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. The next Black America: Obstacles amidst opportunities for Black families.

    PubMed

    Armah, Tichianaa

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the author offers personal accounts on how she feels about the current Black America and obstacles that people face reaching for opportunities for Black families. Focus relies on the current state of Black America, poverty, schools, academic achievement, raising children in the next Black America and much more. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460716

  8. Black Studies and Black People in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James B.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that the demise of Black Studies would foreshadow the future deterioration of the material conditions of black people, a situation which all elements of the black community want to preclude as a possible future for black people. (Author/AM)

  9. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  10. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  11. Insights on the properties of levofloxacin-adsorbed Sr- and Mg-doped calcium phosphate powders.

    PubMed

    Marques, Catarina F; Matos, Ana C; Ribeiro, Isabel A C; Gonçalves, Lídia M; Bettencourt, Ana; Ferreira, José M F

    2016-07-01

    Several types of biodegradable materials have been investigated for the treatment of osteomyelitis. Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics are among the most performing materials due to their resemblance to human hard tissues in terms of mineralogical composition, and proven ability to adsorb and deliver a number of drugs. This research work was intended to study the suitability of modified CaP powders loaded with a fluoroquinolone as drug delivery systems for osteomyelitis treatment. Levofloxacin (LEV) was chosen due to the well-recognized anti-staphylococcal activity and adequate penetration into osteoarticular tissues. Substituted CaP powders (5 mol% Sr(2+) or 5 mol% Mg(2+)) were synthesised through aqueous precipitation. The obtained powders were characterised by X-ray diffraction, SEM and FTIR analysis. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of HA and β-tricalcium phosphates (β-TCP) phases in doped compositions, especially in the case of Mg-doped system. The fixation of LEV at the surface of the particles occurred only by physisorption. Both the in vitro microbiological susceptibility, against Staphylococcus spp, and biocompatibility of LEV-loaded CaP powders have not been compromised. PMID:27300006

  12. Powder pressing in a macrosonic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protipopescu, A.; Dragan, O.; Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to extend the technology of powder product manufacturing to new forms and sizes, to improve their quality as well as pressing efficiency and to reduce waste. In the course of metal and nonmetal powder briquette pressing, macrosounds were associated with the external static pressing force, which led to an increase in the relative height, density and physicomechanical characteristics of the briquettes. This method permits the extension of the range of products that can be manufactured from powders and the improvement of their quality.

  13. Hugoniot measurements of preheated aluminum nitride powder

    SciTech Connect

    Gourdin, W.H.; Stark, R.L.; Weinland, S.L.

    1984-01-20

    We have attempted to measure the Hugoniot curves for aluminum nitride powder preheated to 500 and 1000/sup 0/C in order to quantitatively assess the effects of initial temperature on the dynamic compaction of this powder. Data indicate that preheating to 500/sup 0/C enhances final densities by only 6 to 8%. Experiments at 1000/sup 0/C, hampered by repeated failures of the diagnostics, yielded only a single datum. This falls within the scatter of data at 500/sup 0/C, and we conclude that our experiments are not of sufficient precision to determine the effects of powder preheating to temperatures of 1000/sup 0/C or greater.

  14. Measuring Electrical Resistivity Of Compacted Powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Slightly modified micrometer used in conjunction with special cup to measure electrical resistance of specimen of powder as function of packing fraction. Powder pressed between anvils of micrometer, which make electrical contact with specimen. Device used in manufacturing batteries to determine effective electrical conductivities of powders loaded into plastic sheets to make battery substrates. Coupled with good mathematical description of expected conductivity of particulate composite as function of packing density. Also serves as tool for evaluating conductivity of dispersed phase, as well as evaluating electrical resistances of interparticle contacts.

  15. Dehalogenation of aromatics by nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    Sadowsky, Daniel; McNeill, Kristopher; Cramer, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution has been implicated as a mechanism for both the biotic and abiotic hydrodehalogenation of aromatics. Two mechanisms for the aqueous dehalogenation of aromatics involving nucleophilic aromatic substitution with hydride as a nucleophile are investigated using a validated density functional and continuum solvation protocol. For chlorinated and brominated aromatics, nucleophilic addition ortho to carbon-halogen bonds via an anionic intermediate is predicted to be the preferred mechanism in the majority of cases, while concerted substitution is predicted to be preferred for most fluorinated aromatics. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions with the hydroxide and hydrosulfide anions as nucleophiles are also investigated and compared.

  16. Toxicity of Lead and Proposed Substitute Shot to Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Andrews, R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Young, L.T.

    1974-01-01

    Poisoning of North American waterfowl resulting from the ingestion of lead shot by ducks, geese, and swans causes an estimated annual mortality of 2 to 3% of the population (Bellrose 1959). To alleviate this problem the search for a suitable substitute for lead has been underway since the early 1950's. Proposed substitutes for lead shot were evaluated in a series of acute toxicity tests with pen-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Most candidate materials were as toxic to ducks as commercial lead shot. Coating or alloying lead with other metals only delayed mortality among dosed ducks. The reputedly 'disintegrable' lead shot with the water-soluble binder and the lead containing biochemical additives were also as toxic to mallards as the commercial lead shot. Mortality was not significantly different among lead-dosed adult or first-year hen and drake pen-reared mallards; lead-dosed adult, wild mallards of both sexes; and lead-dosed adult, male black ducks (Anas rubripes). The ingestion of one lead shot, size 4, by each of 80 pen-reared mallards caused an average 19% mortality. The presence and type of grit in the gizzard had a measurable effect on erosion of ingested shot and on shot retention among dosed mallards. Significantly fewer lead-dosed ducks died when fed crushed oystershell grit than when fed either quartz grit or no grit.

  17. Design tool for symbolic substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathi, Ranjani; Jhunjhunwala, Ashok

    1996-11-01

    A design tool that aids in designing, evaluating, and comparing various implementations of optical symbolic substitution is presented. A hierarchical, modular approach to design similar to that used in digital electronics is supported to facilitate the design of large complex systems. This tool is composed of a schematic capture unit, a simulator unit, and an evaluation unit. Starting with the definition of certain basic or integrated optical elements performing well-defined functions, a schematic capture unit helps to design specific functions. The simulator tool helps to verify the design and the evaluation tool determines its complexity. The usefulness of this design tool is demonstrated with an example design of a simple four- function arithmetic logic unit.

  18. Measuring Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    1999-09-01

    WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.

  19. Magneto-structural transformations in Ni50Mn37.5Sn12.5-xInx Heusler powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziarz, Wojciech; Wójcik, Anna; Czaja, Paweł; Żywczak, Antoni; Dutkiewicz, Jan; Hawełek, Łukasz; Cesari, Eduard

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ball milling and subsequently annealing of melt spun ribbons on magneto-structural transformations in Ni50Mn37.5Sn12.5-xInx (x=0, 2, 4, 6) ribbons is presented. Short time vibration milling allows to obtain chemically homogenous powders of angular particle shapes and size within 10-50 μm. Milling does not change the characteristic temperatures of martensitic transformation in comparison to the melt spun ribbons. The effect of In substitution for Sn on martensitic transformation has a complex mechanism, associated with electron density change. Substitution of Sn by In in both milled and annealed powders leads to decrease of Curie temperature of austenite and increase of martensitic transformation temperature, stabilizing martensitic phase. The coexistence of magnetic transformation of austenite and martensitic transformation at low magnetic field was observed. The intermartensitic transformation of 4O martensite to L10 martensite was observed during cooling at low magnetic field and this was confirmed by TEM microstructure observations. The annealing process of as-milled powders leads to the change of their martensitic structure due to relaxation of internal stresses associated with anisotropic columnar grain microstructure formed during melt spinning process. The level of stresses introduced during milling of ribbons has no significant influence on martensitic transformation. The annealing process of as milled powders leads to enhancement of their magnetic properties, decrease of Curie temperature of austenite, and marginal change of temperature of martenisitic transformation.

  20. Discrimination of smokeless powders by headspace SPME-GC-MS and SPME-GC-ECD, and the potential implications upon training canine detection of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Ross J.; Almirall, Jose R.; Furton, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-01

    This presentation will provide an odour analysis of a variety of smokeless powders & communicate the rapid SPME-GC-ECD method utilized. This paper will also discuss the implications of the headspace analysis of Smokeless Powders upon the choice of training aids for Explosives Detection Canines. Canine detection of explosives relies upon the dogs" ability to equate finding a given explosive odour with a reward, usually in the form of praise or play. The selection of explosives upon which the dogs are trained thus determines which explosives the canines can and potentially cannot find. Commonly, the training is focussed towards high explosives such as TNT and Composition 4, and the low explosives such as Black and Smokeless Powders are added often only for completeness. Powder explosives constitute a major component of explosive incidents throughout the US, and canines trained to detect explosives must be trained across the entire range of powder products. Given the variability in the manufacture and product make-up many smokeless powders do not share common odour chemicals, giving rise to concerns over the extensiveness of canine training. Headspace analysis of a selection of Smokeless Powders by Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography using Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and Electron Capture Detectors (SPME-GC-ECD) has highlighted significant differences in the chemical composition of the odour available from different brands. This suggests that greater attention should be paid towards the choice of Powder Explosives when assigning canine training aids.

  1. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  2. Black Managers in White Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, John P.

    The study examines the major determinants of the career patterns of black managers in white businesses and the effects of corporations on their black managers' identities and relationships to the black community. Analyzed were occupational mobility theories; white and black managers' career patterns, goals, and related factors; company employment…

  3. Applications of high-temperature powder metal aluminum alloys to small gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millan, P. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A program aimed at the development of advanced powder-metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys for high-temperature applications up to 650 F using the concepts of rapid solidification and mechanical alloying is discussed. In particular, application of rapidly solidified PM aluminum alloys to centrifugal compressor impellers, currently used in auxiliary power units for both military and commercial aircraft and potentially for advanced automotive gas turbine engines, is examined. It is shown that substitution of high-temperature aluminum for titanium alloy impellers operating in the 360-650 F range provides significant savings in material and machining costs and results in reduced component weight, and consequently, reduced rotating group inertia requirements.

  4. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, A.J.; Kim, H.

    1999-08-10

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are disclosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder. 9 figs.

  5. Laminated composite of magnetic alloy powder and ceramic powder and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    1999-01-01

    A laminated composite structure of alternating metal powder layers, and layers formed of an inorganic bonding media powder, and a method for manufacturing same are discosed. The method includes the steps of assembling in a cavity alternating layers of a metal powder and an inorganic bonding media of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. Heat, with or without pressure, is applied to the alternating layers until the particles of the metal powder are sintered together and bonded into the laminated composite structure by the layers of sintered inorganic bonding media to form a strong composite structure. The method finds particular application in the manufacture of high performance magnets wherein the metal powder is a magnetic alloy powder.

  6. Advances in beryllium powder consolidation simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, B.J.

    1998-12-01

    A fuzzy logic based multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is introduced and the algorithm is used to optimize micromechanical densification modeling parameters for warm isopressed beryllium powder, HIPed copper powder and CIPed/sintered and HIPed tantalum powder. In addition to optimizing the main model parameters using the experimental data points as objective functions, the GA provides a quantitative measure of the sensitivity of the model to each parameter, estimates the mean particle size of the powder, and determines the smoothing factors for the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 densification. While the GA does not provide a sensitivity analysis in the strictest sense, and is highly stochastic in nature, this method is reliable and reproducible in optimizing parameters given any size data set and determining the impact on the model of slight variations in each parameter.

  7. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products.

  8. Screening and classification of ceramic powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miwa, S.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of the classification technology of ceramic powders. Advantages and disadvantages of the wet and dry screening and classification methods are discussed. Improvements of wind force screening devices are described.

  9. 21 CFR 524.1005 - Furazolidone powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Furazolidone powder. (a) Specifications. The product contains either 4 or 10 percent furazolidone in inert... firing (heat or electrocautery). (iii) (iv) Horses and ponies. For treatment or prevention of...

  10. Advances in food powder agglomeration engineering.

    PubMed

    Cuq, B; Gaiani, C; Turchiuli, C; Galet, L; Scher, J; Jeantet, R; Mandato, S; Petit, J; Murrieta-Pazos, I; Barkouti, A; Schuck, P; Rondet, E; Delalonde, M; Dumoulin, E; Delaplace, G; Ruiz, T

    2013-01-01

    Food powders are used in everyday life in many ways and offer technological solutions to the problem of food production. The natural origin of food powders, diversity in their chemical composition, variability of the raw materials, heterogeneity of the native structures, and physicochemical reactivity under hydrothermal stresses contribute to the complexity in their behavior. Food powder agglomeration has recently been considered according to a multiscale approach, which is followed in the chapter layout: (i) at the particle scale, by a presentation of particle properties and surface reactivity in connection with the agglomeration mechanisms, (ii) at the mechanisms scale, by describing the structuration dynamics of agglomerates, (iii) at the process scale, by a presentation of agglomeration technologies and sensors and by studying the stress transmission mode in the powder bed, and finally (iv) by an integration of the acquired knowledge, thanks to a dimensional analysis carried out at each scale.

  11. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  12. Introducing the Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  13. Charging black Saturn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chng, Brenda; Mann, Robert; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian

    2008-12-01

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordström solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we found contain either a conical or naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  14. Tuberculosis in Blacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States is declining, there is decreased awareness of TB signs and symptoms among health care ... working on projects designed to educate and raise awareness about TB in black communities. In one project, ...

  15. Illuminating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O’Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  16. Black hole accretion.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Ramesh; Quataert, Eliot

    2005-01-01

    Black holes are most often detected by the radiation produced when they gravitationally pull in surrounding gas, in a process called accretion. The efficiency with which the hot gas radiates its thermal energy strongly influences the geometry and dynamics of the accretion flow. Both radiatively efficient thin disks and radiatively inefficient thick disks are observed. When the accreting gas gets close to the central black hole, the radiation it produces becomes sensitive to the spin of the hole and the presence of an event horizon. Analysis of the luminosities and spectra of accreting black holes has yielded tantalizing evidence for both rotating holes and event horizons. Numerical simulations imply that the relativistic jets often seen from accreting black holes may be powered in part by the spin of the hole. PMID:15637269

  17. Astrophysics: Monster black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele

    2011-12-01

    A combination of ground-based and spacecraft observations has uncovered two black holes of 10 billion solar masses in the nearby Universe. The finding sheds light on how these cosmic monsters co-evolve with galaxies.

  18. Janus black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  19. The Illinois Black Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Roger D.; Daley, Harry

    1996-01-01

    Presents an excellent lesson plan discussing the repressive racial legislation that remained enforced in Illinois even after the repeal of slavery. Background material also covers the black communities' response to these racist laws. Includes teaching suggestions, handouts, and activities. (MJP)

  20. [Use of powder metallurgy for development of implants of Co-Cr-Mo alloy powder].

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, J R

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses the application of powder metallurgy for the development of porous implantation materials. Powders obtained from Co-Cr-Mo alloy with different carbon content by water spraying and grinding, have been investigated. Cold pressing and rotary re-pressing methods were used for compressing the powder. It was found that the sintered materials obtained from water spraying have the most advantageous properties. PMID:11388037

  1. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOEpatents

    Barringer, E.A.; Fegley, M.B. Jr.; Bowen, H.K.

    1985-09-24

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 microns can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed. 6 figs.

  2. Hugoniot measurements on unsintered metal powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gourdin, W.H.; Weinland, S.L.

    1983-07-01

    We have determined the Hugoniots of unsintered copper, aluminum alloy, and steel powders using carbon gauges. We find no evidence for an elastic precursor in our specimens. The copper and aluminum Hugoniots are well described by models which assume full densification. Complete densification of the steel powder, however, does not occur for stresses less than 3.0 GPa. Although carbon gauges perform well, systematic errors in gauge calibration are observed.

  3. Synthesis and processing of monosized oxide powders

    DOEpatents

    Barringer, Eric A.; Fegley, Jr., M. Bruce; Bowen, H. Kent

    1985-01-01

    Uniform-size, high-purity, spherical oxide powders are formed by hydrolysis of alkoxide precursors in dilute alcoholic solutions. Under controlled conditions (concentrations of 0.03 to 0.2 M alkoxide and 0.2 to 1.5 M water, for example) oxide particles on the order of about 0.05 to 0.7 micron can be produced. Methods of doping such powders and forming sinterable compacts are also disclosed.

  4. Characterization of proteins by powder diffraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Von Dreele, R.; X-Ray Science Division

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of a protein powder diffraction pattern was stunning in the apparent amount of information that was seen. A subsequent experiment on metmyoglobin gave a powder diffraction pattern that showed very little sample broadening; the peak widths were essentially limited by the instrument resolution. The challenge is to make use of this in protein structure analysis. This talk will recall some of those early experiments and data analyses as well as an overview of current progress and future possibilities.

  5. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  6. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  7. Method and Apparatus for Production of Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be advanced into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

  8. Method and apparatus for production of powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be advanced into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

  9. Relative flow rates of explosive powders

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, V.P.

    1988-05-31

    A study was performed to determine the relative flow rates of various explosive powders and evaluate their adaptability for use in automated dispensing systems. Results showed that PBX 9407, LX-15, RX-26-BH, and HNAB are potential candidates for use in these systems. It was also shown that powders with graphite and stearate additives generated the least amount of static and were the easiest to handle.

  10. 40 CFR 721.5340 - Substituted benzothiazole-azo-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). 721.5340 Section 721.5340 Protection of Environment...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (PMN P-99-897) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5340 - Substituted benzothiazole-azo-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). 721.5340 Section 721.5340 Protection of Environment...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (PMN P-99-897) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5340 - Substituted benzothiazole-azo-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). 721.5340 Section 721.5340 Protection of Environment...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (PMN P-99-897) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5340 - Substituted benzothiazole-azo-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). 721.5340 Section 721.5340 Protection of Environment...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (PMN P-99-897) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5340 - Substituted benzothiazole-azo-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). 721.5340 Section 721.5340 Protection of Environment...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (PMN P-99-897) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10497 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10497 Substituted alkyl... alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (PMNs P-06-276 and P-06-279)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10497 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... products with silica and substituted silane (generic). 721.10497 Section 721.10497 Protection of... ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (PMNs P-06-276 and P-06-279)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (generic). 721.2577 Section 721.2577... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2577 Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (generic). 721.2577 Section 721.2577... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2577 Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as...

  20. Fabrication and Evaluation of Mn-Substituted Ba(Cu1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Y.; Lee, B.-Y.; Yazawa, K.; Funakubo, H.; Iijima, T.; Uchida, H.

    2011-10-01

    Perovskite oxides with higher phase transition temperature receive much attention as promising candidates which possess excellent and stable dielectric properties over wide temperature range. In the present research, dense ceramics of Ba-based perovskite oxides of Ba(Cu1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BCN) were fabricated by powder sintering. Mn-substituted BCN (Mn-BCN) ceramics were also fabricated for improving the insulating property of the BCN ceramics. Mn-BCN ceramics were fabricated by powder sintering using fine precursor powders derived from sol-gel solutions. The chemical composition of the precursors were Ba[(Cu1/3Nb2/3)1-yMny]O3 with Mn content of y = 0-0.05. The cylindrical compacts of the powders were heat-treated at 1200-1350°C for 1-6 h for sintering. All of Mn-BCN ceramics consisted of perovskite-type crystal structure in tetragonal system at room temperature. The relative density of the pure and Mn-BCN ceramics sintered at 1300°C for 1 h were higher than 90%. The densities were degraded by firing at higher temperature and/or for longer time, owing to the thermal decomposition of the BCN crystalline phase. The Mn-substitution for BCN ceramics resulted in disappearing the dielectric relaxation and suppressing the leakage current conduction.