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Sample records for black smoker hydrothermal

  1. The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker Hydrothermal Vents

    PubMed Central

    Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S.D.; Barclay, Andrew H.; Parsons, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues. PMID:17205137

  2. Flow rate perturbations in a black smoker hydrothermal vent in response to a mid-ocean ridge earthquake swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S. D.; McDuff, Russell E.

    2010-03-01

    Although there is indirect evidence for strong connections between tectonic processes and mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal flow, there are no direct observations of these links, primarily because measuring flow in these systems is difficult. Here we use an optical analysis technique to obtain a 44 day record of flow rate changes in a black smoker vent in the Main Endeavour field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We show that variations in the flow rate coincide with an earthquake swarm observed using an ocean bottom seismometer array. These observations indicate that connections between tectonics and flow are indeed strong, that hydraulic connections within this hydrothermal system are long ranging, and that enhanced tidal pumping of fluids may be initiated by earthquake activity. Because the effects of the swarm cross over an intervening vent field, we infer that the upflow zones feeding this field are narrow. Using the time lag between the swarm onset and the flow rate changes we estimate that the bulk permeability of the crust on the Endeavour segment ranges from 3.0 × 10-13 m2 to 6.0 × 10-12 m2.

  3. Microearthquakes in the black smoker hydrothermal field, East Pacific Rise at 21/sup 0/N

    SciTech Connect

    Riedesel, M.; Orcutt, J.A.; MacDonald, K.C.; McClain, J.S.

    1982-12-10

    In July and August 1980, an array of five ocean bottom seismographs was deployed within 3 km of the 350 /sup 0/C hydrothermal vents at the Rivera submersible experiment (RISE) site at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise. Two of these instruments were placed within 600 m of the vents, using a transponder navigation network. The array detected four basic types of events. The first type consisted of local, very small microearthquakes. Locations obtained for 11 of these events place three within 1 km of the vents, with the others elsewhere along the rise crest. They appear to originate either from movement on the faults in the area or from the hydrothermal system beneath this area. A study of the S-P times of this type indicates a maximum hypocentral depth of 2-3 km, implying a similar limit to the depth of hydrothermal circulation and brittle fracturing in the vicinity of the vents. The second type of event found consisted of emergent earthquakes that have many of the characteristics of volcanic harmonic tremor. The frequency of these events falls in the 1-5 Hz range and are similar in appearance to those seen at Mount St. Helens prior to and during its May 1980 eruption. They may be either hydrothermal or volcanic in origin. The third type of event produced a very monochromatic, high-frequency seismogram, with the energy concentrated at 20 Hz. These events also appear to have a local origin.

  4. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably

  5. Thermoelasticity and the formation of black smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, R.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Darcy's Law flow in a permeable medium, consisting of uniform parallel evenly spaced fractures, is used to elucidate how thermoelastic effects may modify the permeability and flow in fracture-controlled hydrothermal systems. Some simple permeability models are then used to investigate whether black smoker venting can result from focussing of low velocity porous flow into fractures at shallow depths ({approx equal} 100 m.). The models indicate that: (a) thermoelastic processes may be important in controlling the temporal evolution of hydrothermal upflow zones; (b) permeability structure, not just the bulk value of the permeability, may be critical for the formation of black smokers; (c) a small zone extending to a depth of {approx equal} 100 m containing a few fractures a factor of 2 or more wider than average may be sufficient to focus upflow into discrete vents provided thermoelastic and chemical effects seal parts of the upper crust.

  6. In-situ Chemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids from Black Smokers in Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Zhang, Z.; Foustoukos, D.; Pester, N. J.

    2005-12-01

    After an off-axis earthquake swarm in 1999, dramatic changes were observed in vent fluids of Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Three month latter, we also recorded this sudden variation using a high temperature in-situ chemical sensor. The results at that time indicated some of the vent temperatures as high as 374°C. This change was also characterized by relatively high in-situ pH, high dissolved H2, and H2S concentrations in the fluids that were in excess of 5, 0.7 mmol/kg and 20 mmol/kg respectively. In order to further track time dependent changes over the past 6 years, we revisited Main Endeavour Field during the recent AT 11-31 cruise in Aug.~Sept. 2005. The high temperature chemical sensor was again used on selected dives with DSV Alvin to conduct in-situ measurements of pH, dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations along with temperatures. The data were obtained in a real time mode of 3 seconds per-reading from a series of measurements at high temperature conditions in the depth of 2200 m. Conventional gas-tight samples were also collected for verification and further study. In this study, Puffer, Sully and Bastille black smoker vent sites were specifically investigated owing to the high fluid temperatures that characterize these vents in comparison with other vents in the area. The measured temperatures for these vents were 362°C, 358°C, and 361°C respectively, which were generally about 20~30°C higher than the others currently in the area, but approximately 10°C lower than the highest temperatures measured in the aftermath of the 1999 seismic-magmatic event. Although the drops in vent temperatures were not substantial, the measured in-situ chemistry showed large departures from previous reported data. The in-situ pH values in these vents ranged from 4.43 to 4.89, in comparison with values above 5 in 1999. This difference may be linked directly to the decrease in temperature. The measured in-situ dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations were 0

  7. Microbial diversity of a sulfide black smoker in main endeavour hydrothermal vent field, Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huaiyang; Li, Jiangtao; Peng, Xiaotong; Meng, Jun; Wang, Fengping; Ai, Yuncan

    2009-06-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are among the least-understood habitats on Earth but have been the intense focus of research in the past 30 years. An active hydrothermal sulfide chimney collected from the Dudley site in the Main Endeavour vent Field (MEF) of Juan de Fuca Ridge was investigated using mineralogical and molecular approaches. Mineral analysis indicated that the chimney was composed mainly of Fe-, Zn-and Cu-rich sulfides. According to phylogenetic analysis, within the Crenarchaeota, clones of the order Desulfurococcales predominated, comprising nearly 50% of archaeal clones. Euryarchaeota were composed mainly of clones belonging to Thermococcales and deep-sea hydrothermal vent Euryarchaeota (DHVE), each of which accounted for about 20% of all clones. Thermophilic or hyperthermophilic physiologies were common to the predominant archaeal groups. More than half of bacterial clones belonged to epsilon-Proteobacteria, which confirmed their prevalence in hydrothermal vent environments. Clones of Proteobacteria (gamma-, delta-, beta-), Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) and Deinococcus-Thermus occurred as well. It was remarkable that methanogens and methanotrophs were not detected in our 16S rRNA gene library. Our results indicated that sulfur-related metabolism, which included sulfur-reducing activity carried out by thermophilic archaea and sulfur-oxidizing by mesophilic bacteria, was common and crucial to the vent ecosystem in Dudley hydrothermal site. PMID:19557339

  8. Black smokers on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.

    Evidence for a variety of active hydrothermal venting phenomena, including black smokers, was discovered at a site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by a research team of government and university scientists. The work was accomplished on a cruise of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ship Researcher during July 1985 as part of the NOAA Vents Program. The site of the venting phenomena is the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) Hydrothermal Field on the east wall of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°N. The TAG Hydrothermal Field was the first hydrothermal field to be found on an oceanic ridge; it was discovered 12 years ago in 1973. However, until the present cruise, only low-temperature hydrothermal activity had been documented, and the existence of higher-temperature hydrothermal activity along slow spreading oceanic ridges (half rate 2 cm/yr), such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, was in question.

  9. Black smokers and the Tree of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linich, Michael

    The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism found in black smokers. This workshop presents the development of the Universal Tree of Life in a historical context and then links together major concepts in the New South Wales senior science programs of Earth and Environmental Science and Biology by examining the biological and geological aspects of changes to black smokers over geological time.

  10. Solid Medium for Culturing Black Smoker Bacteria at Temperatures to 120°C

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Jody W.; Baross, John A.

    1986-01-01

    A solid, highly thermostable medium, based on the new gelling agent GELRITE, was devised to facilitate the culturing of extremely thermophilic microorganisms from submarine hydrothermal vents. The medium remained solid at temperatures to 120°C at vapor pressures and hydrostatic pressures to 265 atm. It proved useful to its maximum tested limits in isolating colonies of black smoker bacteria from hydrothermal fluids recently collected at the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean. Images PMID:16346981

  11. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient α, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of α ≈ 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, α = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of α ≈ 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value α = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important

  12. Terrestrial smokers: Thermal springs due to hydrothermal convection of groundwater connected to surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayani Cardenas, M.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar F.; Andrews, Benjamin J.; Rodolfo, Raymond S.; Cabria, Hillel B.; Zamora, Peter B.; Lapus, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal springs are ubiquitous features whose underground kinematic structure is mostly unknown but are typically thought to originate from deep sources. We documented a type of thermal springs at the banks of a volcanic lake that are discharge zones of hydrothermal convection cells circulating groundwater within the near shore environment. The convection captures lake water through the lakebed, mixes it with deeper groundwater at velocities of 100s of m d-1, then returns the water to the lake via the spring. The convection cell is flushed in a few hours and turns over the lake's volume in a few days. Most volcanic lakes and other relatively cool surface water bodies in areas of elevated geothermal heat fluxes meet the conditions for the occurrence of local hydrothermal circulation of groundwater. The type of spring we studied, the terrestrial version of black smokers, is likely present but perhaps unrecognized at many areas.

  13. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Pickworth, Wallace B.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Wetter, David W.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Method: Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. Results: In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Conclusion: Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. PMID:26180228

  14. Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: Evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R. Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore ); Deming, J.W.; Baross, J.A. ); Somerville, C.C. )

    1990-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml, while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml. Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345{degree}C) flange samples were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357{degree}C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent fluid and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids.

  15. The role of black smokers in the Cu mass balance of the oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannington, Mark D.

    2013-07-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems play an important role in the metal budgets of the oceans via hydrothermal plumes, accumulation of seafloor massive sulfide deposits, and alteration of the oceanic crust. These processes have resulted in large-scale metal anomalies on the Pacific plate, most notably at the Nazca-Pacific plate boundary. This plate-scale variability in metal deposition has important implications for the fluxes of metals to subduction zones and possibly the metal endowment of arc-related mineral deposits. However, the relative contributions to the metal budget from black smokers, deep-sea sediments, Mn nodules and altered crust remain unclear. The Cu contents of more than 10,000 samples of seafloor massive sulfide deposits, subseafloor stockwork mineralization, nodules and sediments reveal that most of the Cu metal originally mobilized by high-temperature hydrothermal convection at the ridges is retained in the crust as subseafloor alteration and mineralization, never reaching the seafloor. This metal accounts for at least 80% of the labile Cu that may be released to subduction fluids driven off a down-going slab. Copper deposited in deep-sea sediments, which account for 17% of the total budget, is derived in part from plume fallout associated with ridge-crest hydrothermal activity but also from pelagic deposition of marine organic matter enriched in Cu metal. Massive sulfide deposits, nodules and manganiferous crusts account for only ˜3% of the Cu metal of the subducting slab.

  16. A fracture-loop thermal balance model of black smoker circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strens, M. R.; Cann, J. R.

    1986-02-01

    This time-dependent model examines the thermal balance between hot rocks and hydrothermal circulation during the formation of volcanogenic ore deposits, in order to establish whether the major heat supply to black smoker systems comes from the rock or from an underlying magma chamber. Flow is modelled as an open thermosyphon in a single fault, which is parallel and very close to the mid-ocean ridge axis. This configuration is based on seafloor and ophiolite evidence of black smoker systems and their structural location. The fault is represented in the model by a series of pipes carrying turbulent flow, which is driven by the buoyancy difference between upflow and downflow. Hydraulic resistance to flow is predominantly in the discharge zone. The fault is allowed to propagate downwards. The horizontal conductive heat flux from the rock is computed analytically, with the water flow treated digitally, so that the heat exchange at the rock-water interface at every position in the loop can be calculated for each time step. The model thus provides the exit water temperature and mass flow rate throughout the lifespan of a hot spring, enabling the resulting ore mass to be estimated. Results show that this system cannot obtain sufficient heat from a thin layer of rock (such as the 1-2 km thick layer of lavas and dykes overlying an axial magma chamber) to sustain long-lived, ore-forming black smokers. If the circulation penetrates through a greater volume of hot rock to the base of a recently-solidified magma chamber, ore masses of a few million tonnes can be formed if conditions are particularly favourable. We conclude that systems producing larger ore masses must tap a magmatic heat supply.

  17. Particulate DNA in Smoker Fluids: Evidence for Existence of Microbial Populations in Hot Hydrothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Straube, W. L.; Deming, J. W.; Somerville, C. C.; Colwell, R. R.; Baross, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples in titanium syringes and Go Flo Niskin bottles from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. The relative purity of the vent fluids collected was determined by Mg content as an indicator of seawater entrainment. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically by using the dye Hoechst 33258. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml (n = 4; meanenz = 0.23 ± 0.05; meanfp = 0.26 ± 0.05), while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml (n = 4; meanenz = 0.97 ± 0.68; meanfp = 1.05 ± 0.54). Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345°C) flange samples (meanenz = 0.14 ± 0.10; meanfp = 0.12 ± 0.14) were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357°C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent field and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids. PMID:16348193

  18. Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems.

    PubMed

    Straube, W L; Deming, J W; Somerville, C C; Colwell, R R; Baross, J A

    1990-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples in titanium syringes and Go Flo Niskin bottles from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. The relative purity of the vent fluids collected was determined by Mg content as an indicator of seawater entrainment. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically by using the dye Hoechst 33258. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml (n = 4; mean(enz) = 0.23 +/- 0.05; mean(fp) = 0.26 +/- 0.05), while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml (n = 4; mean(enz) = 0.97 +/- 0.68; mean(fp) = 1.05 +/- 0.54). Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345 degrees C) flange samples (mean(enz) = 0.14 +/- 0.10; mean(fp) = 0.12 +/- 0.14) were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357 degrees C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent field and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids. PMID:16348193

  19. Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, A; Jørgensen, S L; Bernasconi, S M; Pedersen, R B; Thorseth, I H; Früh-Green, G L

    2012-11-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems harbor rich microbial communities ranging from aerobic mesophiles to anaerobic hyperthermophiles. Among these, members of the archaeal domain are prevalent in microbial communities in the most extreme environments, partly because of their temperature-resistant and robust membrane lipids. In this study, we use geochemical and molecular microbiological methods to investigate the microbial diversity in black smoker chimneys from the newly discovered Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) with vent fluid temperatures of 310-320 °C and pH of 5.5. Archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) and H-shaped GDGTs with 0-4 cyclopentane moieties were dominant in all sulfide samples and are most likely derived from both (hyper)thermophilic Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol has been detected in low abundances in samples derived from the chimney exterior indicating the presence of Thaumarchaeota at lower ambient temperatures. Aquificales and members of the Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial groups detected. Our observations based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes and biomarker lipid analysis provide insight into microbial communities thriving within the porous sulfide structures of active and inactive deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Microbial cycling of sulfur, hydrogen, and methane by archaea in the chimney interior and bacteria in the chimney exterior may be the prevailing biogeochemical processes in this system.

  20. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Jorgensen, Steffen L.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific. PMID:21119639

  1. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Rolf B; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Lilley, Marvin D; Barriga, Fernando J A S; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Jorgensen, Steffen L

    2010-11-23

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific.

  2. Upper Limit to Black Smoker Temperatures Not Yet in Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devey, C. W.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.

    2011-12-01

    The world's hottest-known black smoker vent field (Turtle Pits Field, 4°50'S, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) has previously been reported as showing transient venting temperatures up to 464°C (Koschinsky et al., 2008). The calculated Mg-free endmember fluid has low salinity (ca. 280 mM Cl) suggesting it is a separated vapour phase. This end-member chlorinity has remained constant over the period of 26 months during which samples were repeatedly collected. We present new data showing that venting at Turtle Pits has in fact reached measured exit temperatures of at least 524°C, that the measured temperature is related to where on the smoker samples are collected (with higher temperatures found near the base) and that sampling temperature and salinity are not correlated. These observations can be explained by a simple two-stage model consisting of (1) a stable, high-temperature vapour production region at depth and (2) a region of cooling of the vapours within the smoker structure at the seafloor by heat exchange with ambient seawater. Sub-seafloor vapour transport between these two regions must occur with negligible heat loss to the surrounding rock - deposition of high-temperature minerals (e.g., Cu-sulphides, anhydrite) may, however, occur. Future attempts to sample the vapour before heat exchange will demonstrate its true maximum temperature - there seems to be no a priori reason why it could not approach magmatic temperatures, however. From chemical and phase equilibrium constraints, the vapour production region must lie at pressures of >550 bars (the pressure at which a vapour of the measured salinity will be formed on the two-phase boundary at 524°C), in conflict with the 350 bars given by silica geobarometry of the fluids (Koschinsky et al., 2008). This discrepancy may be related to the absence of quartz in the reaction zone, the very high fluid temperatures (outside the 390-430°C validity region of the Si barometry calibration) or a lack of fluid/rock equilibrium

  3. Predictors of Cessation Pharmacotherapy Use Among Black and Non-Hispanic White Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Katherine K.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Alberg, Anthony J.; Cartmell, Kathleen B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation improves quit rates, but these treatments are underutilized, particularly among Black smokers. Attitudes toward pharmacotherapy may differ between racial/ethnic minorities and Caucasian smokers. It was hypothesized that Black and non-Hispanic White smokers would differ in their attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and that the association between attitudes toward and actual use of pharmacotherapy would differ by race. Methods: The study consisted of a single, cross-sectional telephone-based survey of current smokers (N = 697), which examined the relationship between race, attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, and pharmacotherapy usage in a representative bi-racial sample (39% Black). Results: Black smokers were significantly less likely to report ever use of pharmacotherapy (23%) than Caucasians (39%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.33–0.66). Compared with Caucasians, Blacks had significantly less favorable attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, including disbelief about efficacy (p = .03), addiction concerns (p = .03), harmfulness of pharmacotherapy (p = .008), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (p = .004). In a multiple logistic regression, racial group (Caucasian is referent: OR = 0.55, p = .003), addiction concerns (OR = 0.80, p < .01), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (OR = 1.52, p < .001) were predictive of pharmacotherapy use. Conclusions: These findings replicate and build upon previous research demonstrating underutilization of pharmacotherapy and enduring misconceptions about pharmacotherapy, particularly among Black smokers. Regardless of racial group, misconceptions about pharmacotherapy are related to lower rates of use. Efforts to improve understanding about the efficacy and safety of these products are needed to boost utilization and impact cessation rates. PMID:21464200

  4. The early health consequences of smoking: Relationship with psychosocial factors among treatment-seeking Black smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Blacks suffer disproportionately from the long-term health effects of smoking. Little is known about the prevalence of the early health consequences of smoking in this population or whether psychosocial factors influence the frequency of symptoms. This study investigated the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of smoking-related physical symptoms in Black smokers. Methods: Adult smokers (N = 117, 58% female, Mage = 43.0 years) who smoked at least 5 cigarettes/day completed self-administered assessments of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking duration, alcohol use, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and smoking-related symptoms. Results: The most frequently occurring physical symptoms were shortness of breath (66%), coughing (50%), and headaches (49%). Multivariate analyses showed that smoking history, alcohol use, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms were independently related to smoking-related symptoms, even after controlling for sociodemographic variables and medical diagnoses. Discussion: The early health consequences of smoking appear to be common among Black smokers and can serve as a cue to action for cessation efforts. Alcohol use, stress, and depression appear to negatively influence the early health consequences of smoking and should be assessed routinely in treatment-seeking Black smokers. PMID:19359391

  5. Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Barriga, F. J.; Früh-Green, G.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki’s Castle vent field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge that is bordered by a tectonic terrain dominated by core complexes to the NW, and a ridge flank that is buried by sediments from the Bear Island Fan to the SE. Fluid compositions are anomalous to other basalt-hosted fields and indicate interactions with sediments at depths. The vent field is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting occurs at ultraslow spreading ridges despite the strongly reduced magmatic heat budget. ROV surveys have shown that venting occurs in two areas separated by around 100 m. Micro-bathymetry acquired by a Hugin AUV documents that two 20-30 tall mounds that coalesce at the base have developed around the vent sites. The micro-bathymetry also shows that the venting is located above two normal faults that define the NW margin of a rift that runs along the crest of the volcano. The black smoker fluids reach 317 °C, with an end-member SiO2 content of 16 mmol/kg. End-member chlorinity is around 85% of seawater suggesting that the fluids have phase-separated at depth. The fluid compositions indicate that the rock-water reactions occur around 2 km below the seafloor. The crustal thickness is estimated to be 4 +/- 0.5 km in the area. Whereas the depth of the reaction zone is comparable with faster spreading ridges, the fraction of crust cooled convectively by hydrothermal circulation is two times that of vent fields at ridges with normal crustal thickness.

  6. A Pilot Clinical Trial of Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in Black Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nazir, Niaman; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Owen, Ashli; Pankey, Sydni; Thompson, Nia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Varenicline, a first-line non-nicotine medication, has not been evaluated in Black smokers, and limited attention has been paid to pharmacotherapy adherence in smoking cessation trials. This pilot study estimated quit rates for Black smokers treated with varenicline and tested a behavioral intervention to aid varenicline adherence. Methods: Seventy-two Black smokers (>10 cigarettes per day; cpd) were randomly assigned to adherence support (AS; n = 36) or standard care (n = 36). All participants received 3 months of varenicline and a single counseling session focused on making a quit plan. AS participants received 5 additional counseling sessions to encourage medication use. Outcome measures included salivary cotinine, and carbon monoxide confirmed smoking abstinence, reductions in self-reported cpd, and pill counts of varenicline adherence at Months 1, 2, and 3. Results: Sixty-one participants (84.7%) completed follow-up at Month 3. Participants were female (62.5%), 46.8 years of age, and smoked 16.3 cpd. No treatment group differences were found on the smoking or adherence outcome measures (p > .05). Collapsing across treatment, varenicline adherence was adequate (86.1%), yet despite a reduction of 12.2 (6.5) cpd from baseline to Month 3 (p < 0.001), only 23.6% were confirmed quit at Month 3. Participants who were quit at Month 3 had higher varenicline adherence rates (95.8%) than those who continued to smoke (80.8%, p ≤ .05). Conclusions: Studies are needed to examine the efficacy of varenicline among Black smokers. Interventions to facilitate adherence to pharmacotherapy warrant further attention as adherence is linked to improved tobacco abstinence. PMID:21498427

  7. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in

  8. Composition and dissolution of black smoker particulates from active vents on the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, Richard A.; Lewison, Maureen; Massoth, Gary J.; Robert-Baldo, Gillian; Lavelle, J. William; Byrne, Robert H.; Von Damm, Karen L.; Curl, Herbert C., Jr.

    1987-10-01

    During two Atlantis II/Alvin cruises to the Juan de Fuca Ridge in 1984 active high temperature (140°-284°C) vents were sampled for black smoker particulates using the Grassle Pump. Individual mineral phases were identified using standard X ray diffraction and petrographic procedures. In addition, elemental compositions and particle morphologies were determined by X ray energy spectrometry and scanning electron microscope/X ray energy spectrometry techniques. The vent particulates from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge vent sites were highly enriched in S, Si, Fe, Zn, and Cu and were primarily composed of sphalerite, wurtzite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, barite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, hydrous iron oxides, and elemental sulfur. Two additional unidentified phases which were prevalent in the samples included an Fe-Si phase and a Ca-Si phase. The grain sizes of the individual particle phases ranged from < 2 μm for the sphalerite and Fe oxide particles to > 100 μm for the Fe-Si particles. Grain size and current meter data were used in a deposition model of individual phase dispersal. For many of the larger sulfide and sulfate particles, the model predicts dispersal to occur over length scales of only several hundreds of meters. The high-temperature black smokers from the more northerly Endeavour Segment vents were highly enriched in Fe, S, Ca, Cu, and Zn and were primarily composed of anhydrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, barite, sulfur, pyrite, and other less abundant metal sulfide minerals. The grain sizes of the individual particles ranged from < 10 μm to slightly larger than 500 μm. The composition and size distributions of the mineral phases are highly suggestive of high-temperature mixing between vent fluids and seawater. A series of field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the rates of dissolution of several sulfate and sulfide minerals. The dissolution rates ranged over more than 3 orders of magnitude, from 3.2 × 10-8 cm s-1 for anhydrite to 1.2

  9. Acute effects of black currant consumption on salivary flow rate and secretion rate of salivary immunoglobulin a in healthy smokers.

    PubMed

    Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra; Šavikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Besu, Irina; Menković, Nebojša; Glibetić, Marija; Srdić-Rajić, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    The role of saliva in maintaining oral health and homeostasis is based on its physicochemical properties and biological activities of its components, including salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA). Both salivary rates and immunological status of saliva are found to be compromised in smokers. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute time-dependent effect of smoking and black currant consumption on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary IgA secretion rate (sIgA SR) in healthy smokers. SFR, sIgA levels in saliva, and sIgA SRs were determined in healthy smokers (n=8) at eight times of assessment within three consecutive interventions: at the baseline; 5, 30, and 60 min after smoking; 5, 30, and 60 min after black currant consumption (100 g), followed by smoking; and 5 min after black currant consumption. Smoking induced a significant delayed effect on SFR measured 60 min after smoking (P=.03), while black currant consumption preceding smoking prevented that effect. Salivary IgA concentrations and sIgA flow rates were not acutely influenced by smoking. Black currant consumption preceding smoking induced a significant decrease in sIgA concentrations 5 min after the intervention compared with the baseline (P=.046), with a further increasing trend, statistically significant, 60 min after the intervention (P=.025). Although smoking cessation is the most important strategy in the prevention of chronic diseases, the obtained results suggest that the influence of black currant consumption on negative effects of tobacco smoke on salivary flow and immunological status of saliva could partly reduce the smoking-associated risk on oral health.

  10. A plan for a 5 km-deep borehole at Reykjanes, Iceland, into the root zone of a black smoker on land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Elders, W. A.; Bignall, G.

    2013-11-01

    A summary workshop report describing the progress made so far by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is presented below. The report provides recommendations concerning technical aspects related to deep drilling, and invites international participation in both the engineering and the scientific activities of the next phase of the IDDP. No issues were identified at the workshop that should rule out attempting the drilling, sampling and testing of the proposed IDDP-2 well. Although technically challenging, the consensus of the workshop was that the drilling of such a hot deep well, and producing potentially hostile fluids, is possible but requires careful contingency planning. The future well will be explored for supercritical fluid and/or superheated steam beneath the current production zone of the Reykjanes geothermal field in SW Iceland. This deep borehole will provide the first opportunity worldwide to directly investigate the root zone of a magma-hydrothermal system which is likely to be similar to those beneath the black smokers on the world-encircling mid-ocean rift systems.

  11. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy. PMID:25503053

  12. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.

  13. Associations between black tea and coffee consumption and risk of lung cancer among current and former smokers.

    PubMed

    Baker, Julie A; McCann, Susan E; Reid, Mary E; Nowell, Susan; Beehler, Gregory P; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2005-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking is a clear risk factor for lung cancer, the other determinants of lung cancer risk among smokers are less clear. Tea and coffee contain catechins and flavonoids, which have been shown to exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. Conversely, caffeine may elevate cancer risk through a variety of mechanisms. The current study investigated the effects of regular consumption of black tea and coffee on lung cancer risk among 993 current and former smokers with primary incident lung cancer and 986 age-, sex-, and smoking-matched hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions. Results indicated that lung cancer risk was not different for those with the highest black tea consumption (>or=2 cups/day) compared with nondrinkers of tea [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.66-1.24]. However, elevated lung cancer risk was observed for participants who consumed 2-3 cups of regular coffee daily (aOR=1.34; 95% CI=0.99-1.82) or >or=4 cups of regular coffee daily (aOR=1.51, 95% CI=1.11-2.05). In contrast, decaffeinated coffee drinking was associated with decreased lung cancer risk for both participants who consumed or=2 cups/day (aOR=0.64; 95% CI=0.51-0.80). These results suggest that any chemoprotective effects of phytochemicals in coffee and tea may be overshadowed by the elevated risk associated with caffeine in these beverages.

  14. Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P.; Haymon, R.; MacDonald, K.; White, S.

    2006-12-01

    Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes emanating from the ridge crest. Where significant plumes were detected, the Medea fiber-optic camera sled was used successfully to find and image high-temperature vents on the seafloor. With Medea we discovered and imaged the first active and recently extinct black smokers known along the entire Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), and documented the geologic setting of these vents. The Medea survey imaged numerous inactive vents as well as 3 active high-temperature vent fields along the ridge at 94º 04.5'W (Navidad Site), 91º56.2'W (Iguanas Site) and 91º54.3'W (Pinguinos Site). Two recently extinct vent fields also were identified at 91º23.4'-23.7'W and 91º13.8'W. All of the high-temperature vent sites that we identified along the GSC are found above relatively shallow AMC reflectors and are located in the middle 20% of ridge segments. Without exception the vent sites are located along fissures atop constructional axial volcanic ridges (AVR's) composed of relatively young pillow basalts. In some cases, the vents were associated with collapses adjacent to the fissures. The fissures appear to be eruptive sources of the pillow lavas comprising the AVR's. Video images of the chimneys show mature, cylindrical structures, up to 14m high; little diffuse flow; few animals; and some worm casts and dead clam shells, suggesting prior habitation. We conclude that distribution of the vents is controlled by magmatic processes, (i.e., by locations of shallow AMC magma reservoirs and eruptive fissures above dike intrusions), and that there is

  15. Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor 'black smoker' from vapor to brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Damm, K. L.; Buttermore, L.G.; Oosting, S.E.; Bray, A.M.; Fornari, D.J.; Lilley, M.D.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1997-01-01

    A single hydrothermal vent, 'F' vent, occurring on very young crust at 9??16.8???N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388??C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and high in gases compared to seawater and most sampled seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids. In 1994, when this vent was next sampled, it had cooled to 351??C and was venting fluids ???1.5 times seawater chlorinity. This is the first reported example of a single seafloor hydrothermal vent evolving from vapor to brine. The 1991 and 1994 fluids sampled from this vent are compositionally conjugate pairs to one another. These results support the hypothesis that vapor-phase fluids vent in the early period following a volcanic eruption, and that the liquid-phase brines are stored within the oceanic crust, and vent at a later time, in this case 3 years. These results demonstrate that the venting of brines can occur in the same location, in fact from the same sulfide edifice, where the vapor-phase fluids vented previously.

  16. Hydrothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlantic, and Indian Oceans (e.g., Van Dover et al., 2002) with further evidence - from characteristic chemical anomalies in the ocean water column - of its occurrence in even the most remote and slowly spreading ocean basins ( Figure 3), from the polar seas of the Southern Ocean (German et al., 2000; Klinkhammer et al., 2001) to the extremes of the ice-covered Arctic ( Edmonds et al., 2003). (61K)Figure 3. Schematic map of the global ridge crest showing the major ridge sections along which active hydrothermal vents have already been found (red circles) or are known to exist from the detection of characteristic chemical signals in the overlying water column (orange circles). Full details of all known hydrothermally active sites and plume signals are maintained at the InterRidge web-site: http://triton.ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~intridge/wg-gdha.htm The most spectacular manifestation of seafloor hydrothermal circulation is, without doubt, the high-temperature (>400 °C) "black smokers" that expel fluids from the seafloor along all parts of the global ocean ridge crest. In addition to being visually compelling, vent fluids also exhibit important enrichments and depletions when compared to ambient seawater. Many of the dissolved chemicals released from the Earth's interior during venting precipitate upon mixing with the cold, overlying seawater, generating thick columns of black metal-sulfide and oxide mineral-rich smoke - hence the colloquial name for these vents: "black smokers" (Figure 4). In spite of their common appearance, high-temperature hydrothermal vent fluids actually exhibit a wide range of temperatures and chemical compositions, which are determined by subsurface reaction conditions. Despite their spectacular appearance, however, high-temperature vents may only represent a small fraction - perhaps as little as 10% - of the total hydrothermal heat flux close to ridge axes. A range of studies - most notably

  17. Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava

  18. Differences in the urinary metabolites of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in black and white smokers.

    PubMed

    Richie, J P; Carmella, S G; Muscat, J E; Scott, D G; Akerkar, S A; Hecht, S S

    1997-10-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for lung cancer in the United States are significantly greater in blacks than in whites. This disparity cannot be explained by differences in smoking behavior. We hypothesize that the observed racial differences in risk may be due to differences in the metabolic activation or detoxification of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). To test this, different biomarkers of NNK exposure and metabolism, including the urinary metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and the presumed detoxification product [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)but-1-yl]-beta-O-D-glucosiduronic acid (NNAL-Gluc), were examined along with questionnaire data on lifestyle habits and diet in a metabolic epidemiological study of 34 black and 27 white healthy smokers. Results demonstrated that urinary NNAL-Gluc:NNAL ratios, a likely indicator of NNAL glucuronidation and detoxification, were significantly greater in whites than in blacks (P < 0.02). In addition, two phenotypes were apparent by probit analysis representing poor (ratio < 6) and extensive (ratio > or = 6) glucuronidation groups. The proportion of blacks falling into the former, potentially high-risk group was significantly greater than that of whites (P < 0.05). The absolute levels of urinary NNAL, NNAL-Gluc, and cotinine were also greater in blacks than in whites when adjusted for the number of cigarettes smoked. None of the observed racial differences could be explained by dissimilarities in exposure or other sociodemographic or dietary factors. Also, it is unlikely that the dissimilarities are due to racial differences in preference for mentholated cigarettes, because chronic administration of menthol to NNK-treated rats did not result in either increases in urinary total NNAL or decreases in NNAL-Gluc:NNAL ratios. Altogether, these results suggest that racial differences in NNAL glucuronidation, a putative detoxification pathway

  19. Hydrothermal activity at the Arctic mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Nygård, Tor Eivind; Lilley, Marvin D.; Kelley, Deborah S.

    Over the last 10 years, hydrothermal activity has been shown to be abundant at the ultraslow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges (AMOR). Approximately 20 active and extinct vent sites have been located either at the seafloor, as seawater anomalies, or by dredge sampling hydrothermal deposits. Decreasing spreading rates and decreasing influence of the Icelandic hot spot toward the north along the AMOR result in a north-south change from a shallow and magmatically robust to a deep and magmatically starved ridge system. This contrast gives rise to large variability in the ridge geology and in the nature of the associated hydrothermal systems. The known vent sites at the southern part of the ridge system are either low-temperature or white smoker fields. At the deep, northern parts of the ridge system, a large black smoker field has been located, and seawater anomalies and sulfide deposits suggest that black smoker-type venting is common. Several of these fields may be peridotite-hosted. The hydrothermal activity at parts of the AMOR exceeds by a factor of 2 to 3 what would be expected by extrapolating from observations on faster spreading ridges. Higher fracture/fault area relative to the magma volume extracted seems a likely explanation for this. Many of the vent fields at the AMOR are associated with axial volcanic ridges. Strong focusing of magma toward these ridges, deep rifting of the ridges, and subsequent formation of long-lived detachment faults that are rooted below the ridges may be the major geodynamic mechanisms causing the unexpectedly high hydrothermal activity.

  20. Hydrothermal Exploration of Mid-Ocean Ridges: Where Might the Largest Sulfide Deposits Occur?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Petersen, S.; Hannington, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We review the distribution of modern-day seafloor hydrothermal activity along the global mid-ocean ridge crest (MOR) and the mineral deposits being formed at those sites. To date, one form of hydrothermal activity - "black smoker" venting - has been prospected for along >30% of the global mid ocean ridge crest and some important trends have emerged. Submarine venting can occur along all mid-ocean ridges, of all spreading rates, in all ocean basins. While the abundance of currently active venting (from water column signals), scales linearly with seafloor spreading rate (a proxy for magmatic heat-flux) there is an "excess" of high temperature venting along slow and ultra-slow spreading ridges when compared to early predictions. Consistent with this, no more than half of the sites responsible for "black smoker" plume signals along the slow spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge are associated with magmatic systems with the other half hosted under tectonic control. The latter appear both to be longer-lived than, and to give rise to much larger sulfide deposits than, their magmatic counterparts - presumably as a result of sustained fluid flow. Where these tectonic-hosted systems also involve water-rock interaction with ultramafic sources, seafloor massive sulfide deposits exhibit highly concentrated Cu and Au in surface samples (>10wt.% average Cu content and >3ppm average Au). Intriguingly, first detailed examinations of hydrothermally active sites along ultraslow-spreading ridges seems to indicate that they may depart beyond the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge pattern. Hydrothermal plume distributions may follow the same (~50:50) distribution of "black smoker" plume signals between magmatic and tectonics settings, but the first three "black smoker" sites tracked to source have all revealed large polymetallic sulfide deposits - in both magmatic as well as tectonic settings. Could ultra-slow ridges represent the richest mineral resource potential along the global MOR?

  1. Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places

  2. Making a black shale shine: the interaction of hydrothermal fluids and diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, Sarah; Magnall, Joe; Reynolds, Merilie

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal fluids are important agents of mass and thermal transfer in the upper crust. This is exemplified by shale-hosted massive sulphide deposits (SHMS), which are anomalous accumulations of Zn and Pb sulphides (± barite) in sedimentary basins created by hydrothermal fluids. These deposits occur in passive margin settings and, typically, there is no direct evidence of magmatic input. Recent studies of Paleozoic deposits in the North American Cordillera (MacMillan Pass and Red Dog Districts) have shown that the deposits are formed in a sub-seafloor setting, where the potential for thermal and chemical gradients is high. Mineralization is characterized by the replacement and displacement of unconsolidated, partially lithified and lithified biosiliceous mudstones (± carbonates), and commonly the sulphide mineralization post-dates, and replaces, bedded barite units in the sediments. The Red Dog District (Alaska, USA) contain some of the largest Zn-Pb deposits ever discovered. The host-rocks are dominantly carbonaceous mudstones, with carbonate units and some radiolarites. The ore forms massive sulphide bodies that replace pyritized mudstones, barite and carbonate units. Lithological and textural relationships provide evidence that much of the ore formed in bioturbated, biosiliceous zones that may have had high primary porosity and/or permeability. Sediment permeability may have been further modified by aging of the silica rich sediments and the dissolution/replacement of carbonate and barite beds. At the Tom and Jason deposits (MacMillan Pass, Yukon) the fault-controlled hydrothermal upflow zone is uniquely preserved as an unequivocal vent complex. Here, the metal bearing fluids are hot (300°C), low salinity (6 wt% NaCl equiv.) and acidic (pH < 4.5). These fluids were initially in thermal and chemical disequilibrium with a partially lithified organic rich host-rock but cooled rapidly during fluid rock interaction and the input of diagenetic pore fluids

  3. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  4. Hydrothermal exploration with the Autonomous Benthic Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Christopher R.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Jakuba, Michael; Shank, Timothy M.; Langmuir, Charles H.; Nakamura, Ko-ichi

    We describe a three-phase use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Autonomous Benthic Explorer ( ABE), to locate, map and photograph previously undiscovered fields of high temperature submarine hydrothermal vents. Our approach represents both a complement to and a significant advance beyond the prior state of the art. Previously, hydrothermal exploration relied upon deep-tow instruments equipped with sensors that could locate sites of active "black smoker" venting to within a few kilometers. Follow-on CTD tow-yos could then resolve the sites of seafloor venting to length scales of less than a kilometer but rarely to better than a few hundreds of meters. In our new approach ABE: (i) uses sensors to locate the center of a dispersing non-buoyant hydrothermal plume 100-400 m above the seabed; (ii) makes high-resolution maps of the seafloor beneath the plume center whilst simultaneously detecting interception of any rising, buoyant hydrothermal plumes; and (iii) dives to the seafloor to take photographs in and around any new vent site to characterize its geologic setting and reveal the nature of any chemosynthetic ecosystems it may host. By conducting all of the above under long-baseline navigation, precise sites of venting can be determined to within 5 m. Our approach can be used both to address important scientific issues in their own right and to ensure much more efficient use of other deep-submergence assets such as human occupied vehicles (HOVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) during follow-on studies.

  5. Steady state and a singular event observed at the TAG hydrothermal mound by a long-term monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Aoki, M.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Kato, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2005-12-01

    The steady state variability and occasional O`randomO_L event of hydrothermal activity were observed by several long-term monitoring systems deployed on the TAG hydrothermal mound and observed by submersible video and still cameras in the Mid Atlantic Ridge 26 N. We measured current direction and velocity, visibility, temperature, and salinity of sea water as well as observed newly formed black smokers by video and still camera system. Heat flow measurement system and an OBSH were also deployed around the central black smoker and newly formed black smokers for more than two weeks. Steady state change of the temperature, current direction and velocity, visibility and pressure change by hydrophone show a regular semidiurnal periodic variation, which may be caused by ocean, and earth tides. A singular event occurred during our research at the TAG hydrothermal mound. Small earthquakes beneath the TAG mound were followed by a huge slope failure, which apparently caused by a debris flow, killing swimming eel-like fish. A thin bed of the dead shrimps may be related to a nearly simultaneous increase of hot water flux from vent.

  6. Optimization of continuous hydrothermal treatment for improving the dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    PubMed

    Jerish Joyner, J; Yadav, B K

    2015-12-01

    Black gram kernels with three initial moisture contents (10, 14 & 18 % w.b.) were steam treated in a continuous steaming unit at three inlet steam pressures (2, 3 & 4 kg/cm(2)) for three grain residence times (2, 4 & 6 min) in order to determine best treatment condition for maximizing the dhal yield while limiting the colour change in acceptable range. The dhal yield, dehulling loss and the colour difference (Delta E*) of the dehulled dhal were found to vary respectively, from 56.4 to 78.8 %, 30.8 to 8.6 % and 2.1 to 9.5 with increased severity of treatment. Optimization was done in order to obtain higher dhal yield while limiting the colour difference (Delta E*) within acceptable range i.e. 2.0 to 3.5 using response surface methodology. The best condition was obtained with the samples having 13.1 % initial moisture treated with 4 kg/cm(2) for about 6 min to achieve a dhal yield of 71.2 % and dehulling loss of 15.5 %. PMID:26604354

  7. Optimization of continuous hydrothermal treatment for improving the dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    PubMed

    Jerish Joyner, J; Yadav, B K

    2015-12-01

    Black gram kernels with three initial moisture contents (10, 14 & 18 % w.b.) were steam treated in a continuous steaming unit at three inlet steam pressures (2, 3 & 4 kg/cm(2)) for three grain residence times (2, 4 & 6 min) in order to determine best treatment condition for maximizing the dhal yield while limiting the colour change in acceptable range. The dhal yield, dehulling loss and the colour difference (Delta E*) of the dehulled dhal were found to vary respectively, from 56.4 to 78.8 %, 30.8 to 8.6 % and 2.1 to 9.5 with increased severity of treatment. Optimization was done in order to obtain higher dhal yield while limiting the colour difference (Delta E*) within acceptable range i.e. 2.0 to 3.5 using response surface methodology. The best condition was obtained with the samples having 13.1 % initial moisture treated with 4 kg/cm(2) for about 6 min to achieve a dhal yield of 71.2 % and dehulling loss of 15.5 %.

  8. Drilling the Snake Pit hydrothermal sulfide deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, lat 23/sup 0/22'N

    SciTech Connect

    Detrick, R.S.; Honnorez, J.; Adamson, A.C.; Brass, G.; Gillis, K.M.; Humphris, S.E.; Mevel, C.; Meyer, P.; Petersen, N.; Rautenschlein, M.; Shibata, T.; Staudigel, H.; Yamamoto, K.

    1986-12-01

    A major high-temperature hydrothermal area has been discovered in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley about 25 km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The vent field consists of a wide area (> 40,000 m/sup 2/) of dark hydrothermal deposits, numerous sulfide chimneys and mounds, some up to 11 m high, and high-temperature black-smoker vents. Ten shallow holes, the first ever drilled in an active submarine hydrothermal area, recovered friable, unconsolidated Fe, Cu-Fe, and Zn sulfides and several large fragments of massive sulfide (mainly chalcopyrite) from the locally thick (> 13 m) hydrothermal deposits. The vents are also associated with an unusual biological community of smaller, more mobile organisms than reported from the East Pacific Rise.

  9. Submarine Hydrothermal Systems - No Two Fields Are Alike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Over 300 hydrothermal systems have been discovered since the first finding of Galapagos vents over three decades ago. The size, morphology, chemistry and associated biology show a rich diversity that is in part governed by their host rocks and tectonic setting. Each vent system is unique in terms of the morphology of black smoker edifices and associated diffuse flow, which suggests that local processes and feedback loops govern the nature and evolution of these dynamic systems. In fast-spreading environments (e.g. EPR), vent fields are spaced far apart and individual structures are small in number and size. In contrast, to date, the highest concentrations of fields per kilometer of ridge segment, and the largest individual black smokers occur in intermediate-spreading systems (e.g. Endeavour hosting 45 m-tall chimneys). The largest complexes occur in intermediate and slow-spreading environments (e.g. TAG at 200 m across). The highest temperature vents are transient, with temperature excursions at or above the critical point of seawater. Extremely high temperatures are associated with diking and eruptive events that likely vaporize subsurface fluids, forcing them across the two-phase boundary briefly. Along slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges, the character of vents is strongly controlled by faulting, in particular, long-lived detachment faults that expose variably deformed and altered ultramafic rocks. Here, vent systems evolve from high-temperature black smokers within the axial valley with fluids rich in CO2, to black smokers with mantle and basaltic signatures along the axial valley walls, to end member systems such as the Lost City Field with chimneys and fluid chemistries never before seen: 60 m tall limestone towers that vent 90°C, metal-poor, pH 9-11 fluids devoid of CO2, yet rich in H2, CH4 and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons formed abiotically. This relatively stable environment, free from volcanic events, promotes venting for >150,000 years.

  10. Psychosocial differences between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Pamela J; Edwards, Sharon E; Ingram, Amber; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Despite the well-established adverse birth and childhood health outcomes associated with maternal smoking, smoking rates among pregnant women remain high. Psychosocial health attributes, including anxiety, depression, perceived stress, self-efficacy, and personality characteristics, have especially important roles in smoking behavior. Understanding who smokes during pregnancy and what factors influence this behavior choice may be key to improving the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention programs. We use data from a prospective cohort study of pregnant women to understand the psychosocial health profiles of women who choose to smoke during pregnancy compared to the profiles of women who do not smoke or successfully quit smoking during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on 1518 non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women assessed the association between smoking status and psychosocial health while controlling for demographic characteristics. Higher levels of perceived stress, depression, neuroticism, negative paternal support, and perceived racism among non-Hispanic blacks were associated with higher odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Higher levels of self-efficacy, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, interpersonal support, positive paternal support, and perceived social standing were associated with lower odds of being a smoker than a non-smoker (p<0.05). Our analysis indicates that women who smoked during pregnancy experienced a more negative constellation of psychosocial adversities than women who did not smoke. Given the psychosocial needs and personality profiles experienced by smokers, more attention to the psychosocial strengths and weaknesses of these women may allow for more tailored smoking cessation programs, enhancing both the short- and long-term effectiveness of such interventions.

  11. Potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smoker vents hosting chemosynthetic macrofaunal communities (Spiess et al., 1980), submarine hydrothermal systems and associated biota have attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past couple of decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the hydrothermal vent-endemic animal communities as the primary producer. This type of microorganisms obtains energy from inorganic substances (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, and methane) derived from hydrothermal vent fluids, and is often considered as an important modern analogue to the early ecosystems of the Earth as well as the extraterrestrial life in other planets and moons (e.g., Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Nealson et al., 2005; Takai et al., 2006). Even today, however, the size of this type of chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is largely unknown. Here, we present geophysical and geochemical constraints on potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The estimation of the potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is based on hydrothermal fluid flux calculated from heat flux (Elderfield and Schltz, 1996), maximum chemical energy available from metabolic reactions during mixing between hydrothermal vent fluids and seawater (McCollom, 2007), and maintenance energy requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms (Hoehler, 2004). The result shows that the most of metabolic energy sustaining the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is produced by oxidation reaction of reduced sulfur, although some parts of the energy are derived from hydrogenotrophic and methanotrophic reactions. The overall total of the potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is calculated to be much smaller than that in terrestrial ecosystems including terrestrial plants. The big difference in biomass between the

  12. Seismic exploration methods for hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs: A case study of the Trenton-Black River groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiesoba, Osareni Christopher

    This thesis discusses 3D seismic exploration for hydrothermal dolomite (HTD) reservoirs. During this project, I utilized some of the existing algorithms as well as developed my own methods. I mentioned that HTD reservoirs constitute an important hydrocarbon play-type the world over, and are particularly important within the Ordovician aged Trenton-Black River Group in eastern North America. I noted that 3D seismic is the best tool to explore for HTD but it is adversely affected by random noise and acquisition footprint which must be attenuated. I designed a post-stack processing flow that can be applied to attenuate noise, highlight fault terminations, and increase reflection events continuity. By predicting porosity using seismic attributes, I examined the relationships between porosity distribution and faulting, and between porosity and seismic attributes. Results show that porosity development depends on basement-related faults, and that hydrocarbon production rate depends on the presence of faults, fractures and porosity. The results show that the sag observed to be associated with HTD reservoirs on seismic sections is due to velocity pull-down and that the best porosity is developed in these areas. The methods and results presented in this project can be used in other places with similar geologic settings. By way of semblance, I developed a dual-parameter scanning algorithm that can recover both NMO velocity (vnmo) and the effective anisotropic parameter (etaeff) at the same time, from which interval eta (etaint) is obtained by inversion. Noise-free synthetic data application show 10% maximum deviation between the extracted and actual flint values, while noise-contaminated synthetic data show >20% deviation. Real data application shows that it is possible to discriminate between HTD and limestone. Further testing is required to establish its validity. A velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) extracting algorithm was developed using AVO prestack amplitude inversion. Noise

  13. Smokers at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilner, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Discusses current information on the health consequences of smoking and two types of risks: those associated with all smokers and the higher risks associated with other characteristics, such as to pregnant women, teenagers, heavy smokers, those with cardiovascular disease, users of alcohol, and smokers in certain occupations. (SK)

  14. Isolation of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria from black smoker plume waters of the juan de fuca ridge in the pacific ocean.

    PubMed

    Yurkov, V; Beatty, J T

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described.

  15. Isolation of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria from Black Smoker Plume Waters of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described. PMID:16349490

  16. Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity at the Galapagos Triple Junction, East Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Yu, Z.; Zhang, G.; Tao, C.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smokers on the Gaplapgaos spreading center, over 500 hydrothermal sites have been confirmed on the mid-ocean ridge, arc and back-arc settings (Beaulieu et al., 2013). However, the hydrothermal activity at triple-junction has not received much attention. Consequently, there are outstanding questions regarding the features of the hydrothermal system, and the effect of the hydrothermal circulation on the tectonic activity of the triple-junction. In 2009, the Chinese Dayang Cruise 21 discovered the Precious Stone field (PSF) on the Dietz Semount at the southern flank of the Galapagos triple junction (GTJ). Most studies of the GTJ focus on the topographictectonic and stresssimulation, which suggest that the GTJ had complex evoluation(Smith et al., 2011, 2013; Mitchell et al., 2011,Schouten et al., 2012). Water anomay were clear detected and samples of hydrothermal deposit and rocks were collected by TV-Grab (Figure.1). This study aims to understand the geological features of the PSF related hydrothermal activity. Hydrothermal mineralization Three types of sedimentary hydrothermal deposits representing three different hydrothermal activity stages (Figure 1)are confirmed in the PSF: 1) sediments with native sulfur and pyrite clasts(Type I), 2) Fe—Mn oxides (Type II), and 3) clay minerals mainlynontronite(Type III). Type II sedimentsprecipitate early and the source comprises of clasts of distal hydrothermal plume. The nontronite-rich sediments propably derive from the low-temperature alteration of Fe—Mn oxides. Type 1 sediments are found on the active hydrothermal venting field. Hydrothermal plume Water anomaly were detected at the southewestern PSF. We observed widespreadsedimentary hydrothermal depositsin the western PSF, but no water anomaly. According to the results of five water anomaly dectection lines, we predicted the existence of three hydrothermal vents in the PSF. Seafloor type inversion Multi-beam backscatter data were

  17. Comparison of Smoking Habits of Blacks and Whites in a Case-Control Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…

  18. Geology and hydrothermal evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, Deborah A.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Delaney, John R.

    2007-06-01

    Detailed characterization of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, the most southern and spatially extensive field on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, provides new insights into its geologic and hydrothermal development. Meter-scale bathymetry, side-scan sonar imagery, and direct dive observations show that Mothra is composed of six actively venting sulfide clusters spaced 40-200 m apart. Chimneys within each cluster have similar morphology and venting characteristics, and all clusters host a combination of active and extinct sulfide structures. Black smoker chimneys venting fluids above 300°C are rare, while more common lower-temperature, diffusely venting chimneys support dense colonies of macrofauna and bacterial mat. Hydrothermal sediment and extinct sulfide debris cover 10-15 m of the seafloor surrounding each vent cluster, obscuring the underlying basaltic substrate of light to moderately sedimented pillow, lobate, sheet, and chaotic flows, basalt talus, and collapse terrain. Extinct sulfide chimneys and debris between the clusters indicate that hydrothermal flow was once more widespread and that it has shifted spatially over time. The most prominent structural features in the axial valley at Mothra are regional (020°) trending faults and fissures and north-south trending collapse basins. The location of actively venting clusters within the field is controlled by (1) localization of fluid upflow along the western boundary fault zone, and diversion of these fluids by antithetic faults to feed vent clusters near the western valley wall, and (2) tapping of residual magmatic heat in the central part of the axial valley, which drives flow beneath vent clusters directly adjacent to the collapse basins 70-90 m east of the western valley wall. These processes form the basis for a model of axial valley and hydrothermal system development at Mothra, in which the field is initiated by an eruptive-diking episode and sustained through intense microseismicity

  19. The formation, oxidation and distribution of pyrite nanoparticles emitted from hydrothermal vents: A laboratory and field based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartman, Amy

    Recent research identified the presence of nanoparticulate pyrite in hydrothermal vent black smoker emissions, and suggested that these nanoparticles may be a transport pathway for iron from hydrothermal vents to the larger ocean basin. Here, nanoparticulate pyrite was synthesized via a hydrothermal method and oxidized in air- saturated seawater, in order to explore how hydrothermally emitted pyrite forms, and may behave in oxic seawater. Additionally, hydrothermal emissions from the Mid- Atlantic Ridge were investigated for iron and sulfide speciation and reactions relating to pyrite formation. Pyrite was synthesized via both the Fe(II) + S(0) and the FeS + H 2S pathways of pyrite formation, and factors including surfactant and synthesis time were varied in order to modify morphology. The FeS + H 2S formation pathway, which is likely the pathway of pyrite formation occurring at hydrothermal sites, reproduces the pyrite nano and sub- micron particles found in black smoker emissions most closely. The oxidation of these pyrite particles results in an initial oxidation rate that is first order with respect to both the pyrite and oxygen concentration in seawater. This work is unique to previous studies on pyrite oxidation in that it uses synthesized, rather than ground and sieved pyrite, and uses seawater as the medium of oxidation. Along with the rate data, this study also demonstrates that the initial oxide formed from pyrite oxidation under these conditions is poorly crystalline and contains Fe(II) and Fe(III). Pyrite nanoparticles were identified at each of the three sites investigated at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Rainbow, TAG and Snakepit), and their presence at these sites, when combined with previous data from Lau Basin and EPR 9 °N demonstrates that they are likely to be a ubiquitous component of black- smoker hydrothermal emissions. The Rainbow site exhibited the highest concentration of nanoparticulate pyrite measured anywhere to date (1.15 mM). The potential

  20. Anhydrite precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    . Heinrich, C. A., and P. A. Candela (2014), 13.1 - Fluids and Ore Formation in the Earth's Crust, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), edited by H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian, pp. 1-28, Elsevier, Oxford. Jupp, T., and A. Schultz (2000), A thermodynamic explanation for black smoker temperatures, Nature, 403(6772), 880-883.

  1. Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We

  2. Hydrothermal venting at Vailulu'u Seamount: The smoking end of the Samoan chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.; Hart, S. R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Constable, C.; Workman, R.; Kurz, M.; Baker, E. T.

    2004-02-01

    The summit crater of Vailulu'u Seamount, the youngest volcano in the Samoan chain, hosts an active hydrothermal system with profound impact on the ocean water column inside and around its crater (2 km wide and 407 m deep at a 593 m summit depth). The turbidity of the ocean water reaches 1.4 NTU, values that are higher than in any other submarine hydrothermal system. The water is enriched in hydrothermal Mn (3.8 ppb) and 3He (1 × 10-11 cc/g) and we measured water temperature anomalies near the crater floor up to 0.2°C. The hydrothermal system shows complex interactions with the ocean currents around Vailulu'u that include tidally-modulated vertical motions of about 40-50 m, and replenishment of waters into the crater through breaches in the upper half of the crater wall. Inside and outside potential density gradients suggest that hydrothermal venting exports substantial amounts of water from the crater (1.3 ± 0.2 × 108 m3/day), which is in good agreement with fluxes obtained from a tracer release experiment inside the crater of Vailulu'u (0.8 × 108 m3/day [, 2003]). This mass flux, in combination with the differences in the inside and outside crater temperature, yields a power output of around 760 megawatts, the equivalent of 20-100 MOR black smokers. The Mn output of 300 kg/day is approximately ten times the output of a single black smoker.

  3. Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.; Devey, Colin W.; Dyment, Jérôme; Murton, Bramley J.

    Diversity of Hydrothermal Systems on Slow Spreading Ocean Ridges presents a multidisciplinary overview of the remarkable emerging diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges in the Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic oceans. When hydrothermal systems were first found on the East Pacific Rise and other Pacific Ocean ridges beginning in the late 1970s, the community consensus held that the magma delivery rate of intermediate to fast spreading was necessary to support black smoker-type high-temperature systems and associated chemosynthetic ecosystems and polymetallic sulfide deposits. Contrary to that consensus, hydrothermal systems not only occur on slow spreading ocean ridges but, as reported in this volume, are generally larger, exhibit different chemosynthetic ecosystems, produce larger mineral deposits, and occur in a much greater diversity of geologic settings than those systems in the Pacific. The full diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges, reflected in the contributions to this volume, is only now emerging and opens an exciting new frontier for ocean ridge exploration, including • Processes of heat and chemical transfer from the Earth's mantle and crust via slow spreading ocean ridges to the oceans • The major role of detachment faulting linking crust and mantle in hydrothermal circulation • Chemical reaction products of mantle involvement including serpentinization, natural hydrogen, abiotic methane, and hydrocarbon synthesis • Generation of large polymetallic sulfide deposits hosted in ocean crust and mantle • Chemosynthetic vent communities hosted in the diverse settings The readership for this volume will include schools, universities, government laboratories, and scientific societies in developed and developing nations, including over 150 nations that have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

  4. Cognitive dissonance in tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    McMaster, C; Lee, C

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge and beliefs about smoking of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers were examined within a cognitive dissonance framework. The 186 respondents completed a questionnaire concerned with smoking habits, knowledge of the effects of smoking, beliefs about smoking, and estimates of risk of lung cancer to themselves and to the average Australian smoker. Smokers estimated their risk of contracting lung cancer as greater than the risk non-smokers or ex-smokers saw for themselves, but less than the risk for the average Australian smoker. No differences were found in the amount of factual knowledge about the effects of smoking. However, smokers endorsed significantly more rationalisations and distortions of logic regarding smoking than did non-smokers or ex-smokers. Smokers may experience cognitive dissonance as a result of using tobacco despite its well-publicised ill-effects, and it may be that interventions targeting rationalisations for smoking will be useful in smoking cessation.

  5. Manifestations of hydrothermal discharge from young abyssal hills on the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise flank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haymon, Rachel M.; MacDonald, Ken C.; Benjamin, Sara B.; Ehrhardt, Christopher J.

    2005-02-01

    Spectacular black smokers along the mid-ocean-ridge crest represent a small fraction of total hydrothermal heat loss from ocean lithosphere. Previous models of measured heat flow suggest that 40% 50% of oceanic hydrothermal heat and fluid flux is from young seafloor (0.1 5 Ma) on mid-ocean-ridge flanks. Despite evidence that ridge-flank hydrothermal flux affects crustal properties, ocean chemistry, and the deep-sea biosphere, few ridge-flank vent sites have been discovered. We describe the first known seafloor expressions of hydrothermal discharge from tectonically formed abyssal hills flanking a fast-spreading ridge. Seafloor manifestations of fluid venting from two young East Pacific Rise abyssal hills (0.1 Ma at 10°20‧N, 103°33.2‧W; 0.5 Ma at 9°27‧N, 104°32.3‧W) include fault-scarp hydrothermal mineralization and macrofauna; fault-scarp flocculations containing hyperthermophilic microbes; and hilltop sediment mounds and craters possibly created by fluid expulsion. These visible features can be exploited for hydrothermal exploration of the vast abyssal hill terrain flanking the mid-ocean ridge and for access to the subseafloor biosphere. Petrologic evidence suggests that abyssal hills undergo repeated episodes of transitory fluid discharge, possibly linked to seismic events, and that fluid exit temperatures can be briefly high enough to transport copper (≥250 °C).

  6. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid) Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Walter, Graham; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid) oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in nature than is generally believed, but also is an important mode of energy generation in the habitat. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the bacterial community to be rich and highly diverse, containing many potentially new species. Furthermore, it appears that the worms not only possess a close symbiotic relationship with chemolithotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but also with the metal(loid) oxide transformers. Possibly they protect the worms through reduction of the toxic compounds that would otherwise be harmful to the host.

  7. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid) Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field

    PubMed Central

    Maltman, Chris; Walter, Graham; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid) oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in nature than is generally believed, but also is an important mode of energy generation in the habitat. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the bacterial community to be rich and highly diverse, containing many potentially new species. Furthermore, it appears that the worms not only possess a close symbiotic relationship with chemolithotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but also with the metal(loid) oxide transformers. Possibly they protect the worms through reduction of the toxic compounds that would otherwise be harmful to the host. PMID:26914590

  8. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid) Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Walter, Graham; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid) oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in nature than is generally believed, but also is an important mode of energy generation in the habitat. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the bacterial community to be rich and highly diverse, containing many potentially new species. Furthermore, it appears that the worms not only possess a close symbiotic relationship with chemolithotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but also with the metal(loid) oxide transformers. Possibly they protect the worms through reduction of the toxic compounds that would otherwise be harmful to the host. PMID:26914590

  9. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

    2005-03-01

    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems. PMID:15746419

  10. Hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence measurements with acoustic scintillation instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Iorio, D.; Xu, G.

    2009-12-01

    Acoustically derived measurements of hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence were obtained from the active black smoker Dante in the Main Endeavour vent field, using scintillation analysis from one-way transmissions. The scintillation transmitter and receiver array formed a 93 m acoustic path through the buoyant plume 20 m above the structure. The acoustic path was parallel to the valley sidewall where the M2 tidal currents are approximately aligned along ridge due to topographic steering by the valley walls and hence most of the plume displacement is expected to occur along the acoustic path. On one deployment, data were collected for 6.5 weeks and vertical velocities range from 0.1 to 0.2 m/s showing a strong dependence on the spring/neap tidal cycle. The refractive index fluctuations which can be paramaterized in terms of the root-mean-square temperature fluctuations also shows a strong tidal modulation during spring tide.

  11. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

    2005-03-01

    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems.

  12. Hydrothermal circulation, serpentinization, and degassing at a rift valley-fracture zone intersection: Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15[degree]N, 45[degree]W

    SciTech Connect

    Rona, P.A.; Nelson, T.A. ); Bougault, H.; Charlou, J.L.; Needham, H.D. ); Appriou, P. ); Trefry, J.H. ); Eberhart, G.L.; Barone, A. )

    1992-09-01

    A hydrothermal system characterized by high ratios of methane to both manganese and suspended particulate matter was detected in seawater sampled at the eastern intersection of the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with the Fifteen-Twenty Fracture Zone. This finding contrasts with low ratios in black smoker-type hydrothermal systems that occur within spreading segments. Near-bottom water sampling coordinated with SeaBeam bathymetry and camera-temperature tows detected the highest concentrations of methane at fault zones in rocks with the appearance of altered ultramafic units in a large dome that forms part of the inside corner high at the intersection. The distinct chemical signatures of the two types of hydrothermal systems are inferred to be controlled by different circulation pathways related to reaction of seawater primarily with ultramafic rocks at intersections of spreading segments with fracture zones but with mafic rocks within spreading segments.

  13. Hydrothermal activity along the slow-spreading Lucky Strike ridge segment (Mid-Atlantic Ridge): Distribution, heatflux, and geological controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escartin, J.; Barreyre, T.; Cannat, M.; Garcia, R.; Gracias, N.; Deschamps, A.; Salocchi, A.; Sarradin, P. M.; Ballu, V.

    2015-12-01

    We have reviewed available visual information from the seafloor, and recently acquired microbathymetry for several traverses across the Lucky Strike segment to evaluate the distribution of hydrothermal activity. The Lucky Strike segment hosts three active hydrothermal fields: Capelinhos, Ewan, and the known Main Lucky Strike Hydrothermal Field (MLSHF). Capelinhos is located 1.3 km E of the axis and the MLSHF, and consists of a ~20 m sulfide mound with black smoker vents. Ewan is located ~1.8 km south from the MLSHF along the axial graben, and displays only diffuse flow along and around scarps of collapse structures associated with fault scarps. At the MLSHF we have identified an inactive site, thus broadening the extent of this field. Heat flux estimates from these new sites are relatively low and correspond to ~10% of the heat flux estimated for the Main field, with an integrated heatflux of 200-1200 MW. Overall, most of the flux (up to 80-90%) is associated with diffuse outflow, with the Ewan site showing solely diffuse flow and Capelinhos mostly focused flow. Microbathymetry also reveals a large, off-axis (~2.4 km) hydrothermal field, similar to the TAG mound in size, on the flanks of a rifted volcano. The association of these fields to a central volcano, and the absence of indicators of hydrothermal activity along the ridge segment, suggest that sustained hydrothermal activity is maintained by the enhanced melt supply and the associated magma chamber(s) required to build central volcanoes. Hydrothermal outflow zones at the seafloor are systematically controlled by faults, indicating that hydrothermal circulation in the shallow crust exploits permeable fault zones. Central volcanoes are thus associated with long-lived hydrothermal activity, and these sites may play a major role in the distribution and biogeography of vent communities.

  14. Hydrothermal activity in Tertiary Icelandic crust: Implication for cooling processes along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pałgan, D.; Devey, C. W.; Yeo, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Known hydrothermal activity along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is mostly high-temperature venting, controlled by volcano-tectonic processes confined to ridge axes and neotectonic zones ~15km wide on each side of the axis (e.g. TAG or Snake Pit). However, extensive exploration and discoveries of new hydrothermal fields in off-axis regions (e.g. Lost City, MAR) show that hydrothermalism may, in some areas, be dominated by off-axis venting. Little is known about nature of such systems, including whether low-temperature "diffuse" venting dominates rather than high-temperature black-smokers. This is particularly interesting since such systems may transport up to 90% of the hydrothermal heat to the oceans. In this study we use Icelandic hot springs as onshore analogues for off-shore hydrothermal activity along the MAR to better understand volcano-tectonic controls on their occurrence, along with processes supporting fluid circulation. Iceland is a unique laboratory to study how new oceanic crust cools and suggests that old crust may not be as inactive as previously thought. Our results show that Tertiary (>3.3 Myr) crust of Iceland (Westfjords) has widespread low-temperature hydrothermal activity. Lack of tectonism (indicated by lack of seismicity), along with field research suggest that faults in Westfjords are no longer active and that once sealed, can no longer support hydrothermal circulation, i.e. none of the hot springs in the area occur along faults. Instead, dyke margins provide open and permeable fluid migration pathways. Furthermore, we suggest that the Reykjanes Ridge (south of Iceland) may be similar to Westfjords with hydrothermalism dominated by off-axis venting. Using bathymetric data we infer dyke positions and suggest potential sites for future exploration located away from neotectonic zone. We also emphasise the importance of biological observations in seeking for low-temperature hydrothermal activity, since chemical or optical methods are not sufficient.

  15. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  16. Hydrothermal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2011-03-11

    This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

  17. Microbial Activity and Volatile Fluxes in Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding geographically and biologically the production or utilization of volatile chemical species such as CO2, CH4, and H2 is crucial not only for understanding hydrothermal processes but also for understanding life processes in the oceanic crust. To estimate the microbial effect on the transport of these volatiles, we consider a double-loop single pass model as shown in Figure 1 to estimate the mass fluxes shown. We then use a simple mixing formulation: C4Q4 = C3 (Q1 -Q3)+ C2Q2, where C2 is the concentration of the chemical in seawater, C3 is the average concentration of the chemical in high temperature focused flow, C4 is the expected concentration of the chemical as a result of mixing, and the relevant mass flows are as shown in Figure 1. Finally, we compare the calculated values of CO2, CH4, and H2 in diffuse flow fluids to those observed. The required data are available for both the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the East Pacific Rise 9°50' N systems. In both cases we find that, although individual diffuse flow sites have observed concentrations of some elements that are greater than average, the average concentration of these volatiles is smaller in all cases than the concentration that would be expected from simple mixing. This indicates that subsurface microbes are net utilizers of these chemical constituents at the Main Endeavour Field and at EPR 9°50' N on the vent field scale. Figure 1. Schematic of a 'double-loop' single-pass model above a convecting, crystallizing, replenished AMC (not to scale). Heat transfer from the vigorously convecting, cooling, and replenished AMC across the conductive boundary layer δ drives the overlying hydrothermal system. The deep circulation represented by mass flux Q1 and black smoker temperature T3 induces shallow circulation noted by Q2. Some black smoker fluid mixes with seawater resulting in diffuse discharge Q4, T4, while the direct black smoker mass flux with temperature T3 is reduced

  18. Hydrothermal mineralization at seafloor spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.

    1984-01-01

    ) discrete spreading centers in back-arc basins represented by hydrothermal deposits at sites in marginal seas of the western Pacific. Ore-forming processes appear to be least efficient in the axial zone of volcanic extrusion of oceanic ridges at an advanced stage of opening irrespective of spreading rate, where tight hydrothermal systems dissipate a major portion of contained metals by precipitation and dispersion in particulate form from "black smokers" that discharge into the water column. Ore-forming processes appear to be most efficient at sites in basins at linear sections of the axial zone of volcanic extrusion near transform faults during an early stage of opening, and at marginal zones of active extension along linear sections of a spreading center during an advanced stage of opening, irrespective of spreading rate, where both tight and leaky hydrothermal systems may conserve their contained metals to concentrate large sulfide deposits. Resemblances in mineralization between stockwork sulfides at seafloor spreading centers and porphyry copper-type deposits in volcanogenic rocks on land suggest the possibility for the occurrence of large tonnage, low-grade porphyry copper-like deposits concentrated by leaky hydrothermal systems at spreading centers. Systematic application of composite exploration procedures is leading to the discovery of numerous additional deposits. It is inferred from the limited data base available that the occurrence of hydrothermal mineral deposits is more frequent at intermediate-to-fast-than at slow-spreading centers, but the potential for the accumulation of large hydrothermal mineral deposits is greater at slow-spreading centers. Current knowledge of the distribution of hydrothermal mineral deposits at seafloor spreading centers is limited to about 55 sites at this early stage of exploration. Estimates of the distribution of either fields of hydrothermal mineral deposits or high-intensity ore-forming hydrothermal systems at seafloor

  19. An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30 degrees N.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D S; Karson, J A; Blackman, D K; Früh-Green, G L; Butterfield, D A; Lilley, M D; Olson, E J; Schrenk, M O; Roe, K K; Lebon, G T; Rivizzigno, P

    2001-07-12

    Evidence is growing that hydrothermal venting occurs not only along mid-ocean ridges but also on old regions of the oceanic crust away from spreading centres. Here we report the discovery of an extensive hydrothermal field at 30 degrees N near the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantis fracture zone. The vent field--named 'Lost City'--is distinctly different from all other known sea-floor hydrothermal fields in that it is located on 1.5-Myr-old crust, nearly 15 km from the spreading axis, and may be driven by the heat of exothermic serpentinization reactions between sea water and mantle rocks. It is located on a dome-like massif and is dominated by steep-sided carbonate chimneys, rather than the sulphide structures typical of 'black smoker' hydrothermal fields. We found that vent fluids are relatively cool (40-75 degrees C) and alkaline (pH 9.0-9.8), supporting dense microbial communities that include anaerobic thermophiles. Because the geological characteristics of the Atlantis massif are similar to numerous areas of old crust along the Mid-Atlantic, Indian and Arctic ridges, these results indicate that a much larger portion of the oceanic crust may support hydrothermal activity and microbial life than previously thought.

  20. Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

  1. The origin of life near deep-sea hydrothermal systems during the Cambrian explosion: data from the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Terleev, Alexander; Safonova, Inna; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey; Tokarev, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    On Earth the solar radiation and the hydrothermal circulation both affect life evolution. Recent extensive studies of the World Ocean have shown that the biodiversity of Earth is linked with hydrothermal activity on the oceanic floor. These deep-sea ecosystems use chemical energy, not solar radiation. In the last quarter of the XX century, a new type of hydrothermal systems, so-called black smokers, was discovered in mid-oceanic ridges. As black smokers form sulfide ores and are surrounded by abundant bio-oases or symbioses, identification of their analogues in ancient orogenic belts is necessary for studying life origin and evolution. Of special importance are problems of life associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems acted at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary - the time of Cambrian explosion (Maruyama et al., 2013). During that explosion life significantly evolved and diversified due to dramatic changes of Earth's environment. Consequently, the early Cambrian - late Precambrian Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit of East Tuva in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is of special interest. This deposit was formed on the bottom of ancient back-arc deep-sea basin as a result of black smoker hydrothermal activity and is hosted by volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks altered by the high temperature solutions. The altered Kyzyl Tashtyg basalts have an amygdules (filled by albite, epidote and carbonates), contain brown-green microfossils, often attached to their walls. The microfossils are thin tubes 5 to 25 microns in diameter and 500 microns long. This tubes are empty and have straight, curved or branching shape. Chemically, the tube material is close to epidote. In consideration of microscopic dimensions, simple morphology and similarity with modern tubular microorganisms, the studied tube-shaped microfossils can be related to cyanobacteria. Almost the same fossils, associated with oceanic basalt complexes, were described earlier (Furnes et al., 2007; Mcloughlin et al., 2007

  2. In situ observations of dissolved iron and manganese in hydrothermal vent plumes, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Carol S.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Elrod, Virginia A.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Massoth, Gary J.; Baker, Edward T.

    1994-03-01

    In situ mesaurements of dissolved manganese and total dissolved iron were conducted in hydrothermal plumes over the Juan de Fuca Ridge using a submersible chemical analyzer (Scanner). The Scanner was deployed as part of a conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD)/transmissometer rosette instrument package on both tow-yos and vertical casts during the VENTS Leg I cruise in 1989. Dissolved manganese and total dissolved iron concentrations, along with temperature and light attenuation anomalies, were determined over the ridge crest every 5 s. Discrete samples for laboratory analyses of dissolved iron II, total dissolved iron II+III and manganese were also collected. Metal to heat ratios (Me:Q) measured in situ were extremely variable in one steady state plume, while an event plume had constant Me:Q. Uniform values of Mn:Q in the event plume demonstrate that Mn behaves conservatively in the near-field plume. Variability in the Mn:Q ratios in a steady state plume indicated the presence of at least two hydrothermal sources with distinct Me:Q values. A simple mixing model shows that the contribution of Mn from high Me:Q sources, with a composition characteristic of black smoker vents, varies between 1% and 99% within the core of the steady state plume with an average value of 55%. On average, over 50% of the excess heat within the plume originates from low Me:Q ratio sources, with a composition characteristic of low-temperature, diffuse flow vent fluids. Less than 4% of the volume of hydrothermal fluids in the plume originates from black smokers. The Fe II concentrations were used to provide an estimate of plume age on a transect across the ridge axis. Plume ages were about 2.5 days on axis and greater than 12 days off axis. These plume ages were modeled to provide estimates of plume transport and horizontal diffusion and show excellent agreement with ages determined using Rn-222.

  3. Deep-sea smokers: windows to a subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Deming, J W; Baross, J A

    1993-07-01

    Since the discovery of hyperthermophilic microbial activity in hydrothermal fluids recovered from "smoker" vents on the East Pacific Rise, the widely accepted upper temperature limit for life (based on pure culture data) has risen from below the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to approximately 115 degrees C. Many microbiologists seem willing to speculate that the maximum may be closer to 150 degrees C. We have postulated not only higher temperatures than these (under deep-sea hydrostatic pressures), but also the existence of a biosphere subsurface to accessible seafloor vents. New geochemical information from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicative of subsurface organic material caused us to re-examine both the literature on hyperthermophilic microorganisms cultured from deep-sea smoker environments and recent results of microbial sampling efforts at actively discharging smokers on the Endeavour Segment. Here we offer the case for a subsurface biosphere based on an interdisciplinary view of microbial and geochemical analyses of Endeavour smoker fluids, a case in keeping with rapidly evolving geophysical understanding of organic stability under deep-sea hydrothermal conditions. PMID:11538298

  4. Sulphur Cycling at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Isotopic Evidence From the Logatchev and Turtle Pits Hydrothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmann, B.; Strauss, H.; Koschinsky, A.; Kuhn, T.; Petersen, S.; Schmidt, K.

    2005-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges and associated hydrothermal vent systems represent a unique scenario in which the interaction of hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere and the related element cycling can be studied. Sulphur participates in inorganic and microbially driven processes and plays, thus, an important role at these vent sites. The sulphur isotopic compositions of different sulphur-bearing minerals as well as dissolved sulphur compounds provide a tool for identifying the sulphur source and pertinent processes of sulphur cycling. Here, we present sulphur isotope data from an ongoing study of the Logatchev hydrothermal field at 14°45' N and the Turtle Pits hydrothermal field at 4°48' S. The former is located in 2900 to 3060 m water depth, hosted by ultramafic rocks, while the latter is situated in 2990 m water depth, hosted by basaltic rocks. Different metal sulphides (chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, various copper sulphides), either particles from the emanating hot fluid itself or pieces of active and inactive black smokers, display δ34S values between +2 and +9 ‰. So far, no significant difference is discernible between mineral precipitates from both hydrothermal fields. However, differences exist between different generations of sulphide precipitates. Based on respective data from other sites of hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges, this sulphur isotope range suggests that sulphur in the hydrothermal fluid and mineral precipitates represents a mixture between mantle sulphur and reduced seawater sulphate. Anhydrite precipitates from hydrothermal chimneys, located inside sulphide conduits, and obvious late stage gypsum needles from voids, yielded sulphur isotope values between +17.5 and +20.0 ‰. This clearly identifies seawater sulphate as the principal sulphur source. Variable, but generally low abundances of sulphide and sulphate in differently altered mafic and ultramafic rocks point to a complex fluid-rock interaction. Sulphur isotope values for total

  5. Comparison of Cotinine Salivary Levels in Hookah Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Arbabi-Kalati, Fateme; Alijani, Ebrahim; Tajdari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background At present smoking is considered a great health-related problem. Smoking cigarettes and use of tobacco are on the rise in the Middle East countries; therefore, the number of people exposed to passive cigarette smoke is increasing, too. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare salivary cotinine levels in hookah smokers, individuals exposed to passive cigarette smoke and non-smoker (passive smokers). Methods In the present cross-sectional study, unstimulated salivary samples were collected from 150 subjects, including 50 hookah smokers, 50 passive smokers, and 50 non-smokers. Bioassay Technology Laboratory cotinine kit was used to determine salivary levels of cotinine using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique at a sensitivity rate of 0.019 pg/ml. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Findings The highest salivary cotinine levels were recorded in hookah users (20.24 ± 5.62 ng/ml), followed by passive smokers (16.09 ± 3.51 ng/ml), in descending order. No detectable cotinine levels were observed in non-smokers. Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed a strong and positive correlation between use of hookah and salivary cotinine levels (r = 0.932, P = 0.001). Conclusion Based on the results of the present study, salivary cotinine levels were higher in hookah smokers compared with passive smokers and non-smokers, in descending order. PMID:26885355

  6. Hydrothermal Activity and Volcanism on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, K. M.; Scientific Party, M.

    2005-12-01

    In April 2005 four recently discovered different hydrothermal fields on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) south of the Equator were studied and sampled using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during cruise METEOR 64/1. Three of these hydrothermally active fields (called Turtle Pits, Red Lion, and Wideawake) occur at about 3000 m water depth in the centre of a MAR segment at 4° 48'S which appears to be volcanically very active. The youngest lava flow partly covers the low-temperature, diffuse flow Wideawake mussel field and is thus probably only a few years old. The high-temperature Turtle Pits hydrothermal field with four active vent structures lies some 300 m west of the diffuse vent field and is characterized by boiling fluids with temperatures close to 400° C. The mineral assemblage recovered from inactive hydrothermal mounds includes massive magnetite+hematite+sulfate and differs from that of the presently active vents and indicates more oxidizing conditions during the earlier activity. The vent fluids at Turtle Pits contain relatively high contents of hydrogen which may have formed during iron oxidation processes when basaltic magmas crystallized. The high fluid temperatures, the change to more reducing conditions, and the relatively high hydrogen contents in the fluids are most likely due to the ascent of magmas from the mantle that fed the very recent eruption. The high-temperature Red Lion hydrothermal field lies some 2 km north of the Turtle Pits field and consists of at least four active black smokers surrounded by several inactive sulfide mounds. The composition of the Red Lion fluids differs significantly from the Turtle Pits fluids, possibly owing largely to a difference in the temperature of the two systems. The fourth hydrothermally active field on the southern MAR, the Liliput field, was discovered near 9° 33'S in a water depth of 1500 m and consists of several low-temperature vents. A shallow hydrothermal plume in the water column

  7. Hydrothermal regime of the Iheya-North hydrothermal field inferred from surface heat flow data and, IODP Expedition 331 drilling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Y.; Takai, K.; Mottl, M. J.; Hartnett, H. E.; Kinoshita, M.; IODP Expedition 331 scientists

    2011-12-01

    The Okinawa trough is a backarc basin, located between the Ryukyu arc-trench system and the Asian continent. It is considered to be in a rifting stage of the continental lithosphere. The trough contains both hemipelagic and volcanic sediments, and numerous hydrothermal sites have been discovered inside the trough. Iheya-North hydrothermal field is surrounded by the Iheya-North knolls in the middle Okinawa trough. Active chimneys as well as diffuse venting area has been located and studied in detail through various geological and geophysical surveys. To clarify the spatial scale of the hydrothermal circulation system, intensive heat flow measurements were carried out and 78 heat flow data were obtained from 2002 to 2008 in and around the knolls. In 2010, drilling study was carried out during the IODP Expedition 331, and new subbottom temperature data were obtained around the hydrothermal site. Three distinct zones are identified with different heat flow values which we termed the high-heat-flow zone (>1 W/m^2; HHZ), moderate-heat-flow zone (1-0.1 W/m^2; MHZ), and low-heat-flow zone (<0.1 W/m^2) within 3 km from the active hydrothermal field. In the HHZ located near the western edge of the basin, extremely high and widely scattered heat flow values were measured within ~500 m of the active hydrothermal mounds, venting black smoker fluid of maximum 311 °C. With increasing distance east of the HHZ, heat flow gradually decreases towards MHZ and LHZ. We suggest that such anomalously low heat flow can be explained by the recharge of seawater into the formation, and that hydrothermal vents or diffuse flow in the HHZ can dribe this kilometer-scale hydrothermal circulation. During IODP Expedition 331, we carried out coring and in-situ temperature measurements in the HHZ and LHZ. We could not obtain enough core (less than 1 % core recovery). In the HHZ, the temperature data showed over 55 °C only few meters below the seafloor. After drilling, the temperature in the bore

  8. Ancient hydrothermal ecosystems on earth: a new palaeobiological frontier.

    PubMed

    Walter, M R

    1996-01-01

    Thermal springs are common in the oceans and on land. Early in the history of the Earth they would have been even more abundant, because of a higher heat flow. A thermophilic lifestyle has been proposed for the common ancestor of extant life, and hydrothermal ecosystems can be expected to have existed on Earth since life arose. Though there has been a great deal of recent research on this topic by biologists, palaeobiologists have done little to explore ancient high temperature environments. Exploration geologists and miners have long known the importance of hydrothermal systems, as they are sources for much of our gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. Such systems are particularly abundant in Archaean and Proterozoic successions. Despite the rarity of systematic searches of these by palaeobiologists, already 12 fossiliferous Phanerozoic deposits are known. Five are 'black smoker' type submarine deposits that formed in the deep ocean and preserve a vent fauna like that in the modern oceans; the oldest is Devonian. Three are from shallow marine deposits of Carboniferous age. As well as 'worm tubes', several of these contain morphological or isotopic evidence of microbial life. The oldest well established fossiliferous submarine thermal spring deposit is Cambro-Ordovician; microorganisms of at least three or four types are preserved in this. One example each of Carboniferous and Jurassic sub-lacustrine fossiliferous thermal springs are known. There are two convincing examples of fossiliferous subaerial hydrothermal deposits. Both are Devonian. Several known Proterozoic and Archaean deposits are likely to preserve a substantial palaeobiological record, and all the indications are that there must be numerous deposits suitable for study. Already it is demonstrable that in ancient thermal spring deposits there is a record of microbial communities preserved as stromatolites, microfossils, isotope distribution patterns and hydrocarbon biomarkers.

  9. Acoustic mapping of diffuse flow at a seafloor hydrothermal site: Monolith Vent, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, P. A.; Jackson, D. R.; Wen, T.; Jones, C.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Bemis, K. G.; Dworski, J. G.

    Diffuse flow of hydrothermal solutions commonly occurs in patchy areas up to tens of meters in diameter in seafloor hydrothermal fields. It is recognized as a quantitatively significant component of thermal and chemical fluxes, yet is elusive to map. We report a new acoustic method to detect and map areas of diffuse flow using phase-coherent correlation techniques. The sonar system was modified to record phase information and mounted on DSV SEA CLIFF. The submersible occupied a stationary position on the seafloor and the transducer scanned the seafloor surrounding Monolith Vent, a sulfide edifice venting black smokers, at a nominal range of 17 m at a depth of 2249 m on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Patchy areas of uncorrelated returns clearly stood out from a background of returns that exhibited ping-to-ping correlation. The areas of uncorrelated returns coincided with areas of diffuse flow as mapped by a video survey with the Navy's Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV). Correlated returns were backscattered from invariant seafloor. Uncorrelated returns were distorted by index of refraction inhomogeneities as they passed through diffuse flow between the seafloor and the transducer. The acoustic method presented can synoptically map areas of diffuse flow. When combined with standard in situ measurement and sampling methods the acoustic mapping will facilitate accurate determination of diffuse thermal and chemical fluxes in seafloor hydrothermal fields.

  10. Functional interactions among filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent biofilm.

    PubMed

    Stokke, Runar; Dahle, Håkon; Roalkvam, Irene; Wissuwa, Juliane; Daae, Frida Lise; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pedersen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida Helene

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about how lithoautotrophic primary production is connected to microbial organotrophic consumption in hydrothermal systems. Using a multifaceted approach, we analysed the structure and metabolic capabilities within a biofilm growing on the surface of a black smoker chimney in the Loki's Castle vent field. Imaging revealed the presence of rod-shaped Bacteroidetes growing as ectobionts on long, sheathed microbial filaments (> 100 μm) affiliated with the Sulfurovum genus within Epsilonproteobacteria. The filaments were composed of a thick (> 200 nm) stable polysaccharide, representing a substantial fraction of organic carbon produced by primary production. An integrated -omics approach enabled us to assess the metabolic potential and in situ metabolism of individual taxonomic and morphological groups identified by imaging. Specifically, we provide evidence that organotrophic Bacteroidetes attach to and glide along the surface of Sulfurovum filaments utilizing organic polymers produced by the lithoautotrophic Sulfurovum. Furthermore, in situ expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase by Sulfurovum suggested the ability to assimilate acetate, indicating recycling of organic matter in the biofilm. This study expands our understanding of the lifestyles of Epsilonproteobacteria in hydrothermal vents, their metabolic properties and co-operative interactions in deep-sea hydrothermal vent food webs. PMID:26147346

  11. Functional interactions among filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent biofilm.

    PubMed

    Stokke, Runar; Dahle, Håkon; Roalkvam, Irene; Wissuwa, Juliane; Daae, Frida Lise; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pedersen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida Helene

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about how lithoautotrophic primary production is connected to microbial organotrophic consumption in hydrothermal systems. Using a multifaceted approach, we analysed the structure and metabolic capabilities within a biofilm growing on the surface of a black smoker chimney in the Loki's Castle vent field. Imaging revealed the presence of rod-shaped Bacteroidetes growing as ectobionts on long, sheathed microbial filaments (> 100 μm) affiliated with the Sulfurovum genus within Epsilonproteobacteria. The filaments were composed of a thick (> 200 nm) stable polysaccharide, representing a substantial fraction of organic carbon produced by primary production. An integrated -omics approach enabled us to assess the metabolic potential and in situ metabolism of individual taxonomic and morphological groups identified by imaging. Specifically, we provide evidence that organotrophic Bacteroidetes attach to and glide along the surface of Sulfurovum filaments utilizing organic polymers produced by the lithoautotrophic Sulfurovum. Furthermore, in situ expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase by Sulfurovum suggested the ability to assimilate acetate, indicating recycling of organic matter in the biofilm. This study expands our understanding of the lifestyles of Epsilonproteobacteria in hydrothermal vents, their metabolic properties and co-operative interactions in deep-sea hydrothermal vent food webs.

  12. Geology, sulfide geochemistry and supercritical venting at the Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Cayman Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.

    2015-09-01

    The Beebe Vent Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known hydrothermal system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" vents that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich sulfide mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of sulfide material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the hydrothermal system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest hydrothermal interaction with chalcophile-bearing sulfides in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for basalt hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.

  13. Hydrothermal flow at Main Endeavour Field imaged and measured with Cable Operated Vent Imaging Sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, P. A.; Bemis, K. G.; Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Jones, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    Initial acoustic monitoring of hydrothermal flow in the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) captures the spatial distribution of diffuse and focused discharge and shows potential for flux determinations. Our Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) was connected to the NEPTUNE Canada Endeavour Observatory in September 2010. Using a customized Reson 7125 multi-beam sonar, COVIS acquired a 29 day time series of black smoker plume and associated diffuse hydrothermal flow from Grotto, a 30 m diameter vent cluster in the MEF, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Detection of the spatial patterns of diffuse flow utilizes phase decorrelation of the acoustic signal (200kHz) by buoyancy-driven turbulence (acoustic scintillation) to produce a time series of maps. Substantial fluctuation in the detected diffuse flow area (0.1 - 18 m^2) was observed over the 29 days of observation, although position remained stable. Acoustic imaging of focused flow (400 kHz) utilizes high volume backscatter (attributed to particles and turbulent sound speed fluctuations) to image in 3D the initial tens of meters of rise of buoyant plumes. Spectral analysis of bending inclination of a strong plume from multiple fast smokers on the NW end of Grotto (north tower) indicates that the dominant modes correspond with the ambient mixed semi-diurnal tide (based on current meter data at a mooring 2.9 km to the north and on a tidal model), with at least one secondary mode attributable to sub-inertial flow related to inflow to the axial valley. A weaker plume from several slower smokers is present on the NE end of Grotto. On first analysis, the bending inclination of the weaker plume appears to be affected by the stronger plume. Quantification of flow velocity and volume flux of plumes begins with measuring the Doppler phase shift through plume cross-sections beginning at 5 m above source vents where discharge merges. The volume flux measurements enable calculation of entrainment coefficients, which prior work on the same

  14. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel Alberto; Wakelee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking; however, a substantial minority of patients with the disease have never smoked. In the US it is estimated there are 17,000-26,000 annual deaths from lung cancer in never smokers, which as a separate entity would be the seventh leading cause of cancer mortality. Controversy surrounds the question of whether or not the incidence of lung cancer in never-smokers is increasing, with more data to support this observation in Asia. There are several factors associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer in never smokers including second hand smoke, indoor air pollution, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility among others. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histology of lung cancer in never smokers and in comparison to lung cancer in smokers appears less complex with a higher likelihood to have targetable driver mutations. PMID:26667338

  15. Geochemistry of vent fluid particles formed during initial hydrothermal fluid-seawater mixing along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevenz, Verena; Bach, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Katja; Hentscher, Michael; Koschinsky, Andrea; Petersen, Sven

    2011-10-01

    We present geochemical data of black smoker particulates filtered from hydrothermal fluids with seawater-dilutions ranging from 0-99%. Results indicate the dominance of sulphide minerals (Fe, Cu, and Zn sulphides) in all samples taken at different hydrothermal sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Pronounced differences in the geochemistry of the particles between Logatchev I and 5°S hydrothermal fields could be attributed to differences in fluid chemistry. Lower metal/sulphur ratios (Me/H2S < 1) compared to Logatchev I result in a larger amount of particles precipitated per liter fluid and the occurrence of elemental sulphur at 5°S, while at Logatchev I Fe oxides occur in larger amounts. Systematic trends with dilution degree of the fluid include the precipitation of large amounts of Cu sulphides at a low dilution and a pronounced drop with increasing dilution. Moreover, Fe (sulphides or oxides) precipitation increases with dilution of the vent fluid by seawater. Geochemical reaction path modeling of hydrothermal fluid-seawater mixing and conductive cooling indicates that Cu sulphide formation at Logatchev I and 5°S mainly occurs at high temperatures and low dilution of the hydrothermal fluid by seawater. Iron precipitation is enhanced at higher fluid dilution, and the different amounts of minerals forming at 5°S and Logatchev I are thermodynamically controlled. Larger total amounts of minerals and larger amounts of sulphide precipitate during the mixing path when compared to the cooling path. Differences between model and field observations do occur and are attributable to closed system modeling, to kinetic influences and possibly to organic constituents of the hydrothermal fluids not accounted for by the model.

  16. The Acoustic Signature of High-Temperature Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, T. J.; Wilcock, W. S.; Parsons, J. D.; Barclay, A. H.

    2005-12-01

    Motivated by a desire to find new measurements that might be sensitive to flow rate variations within mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we have conducted field studies to collect passive acoustic measurements at black smoker hydrothermal vents using two versions of a simple dual-hydrophone recording device capable of collecting continuous acoustic data for about one week at sampling rates of 1000--2000 Hz. We deployed the first-generation instrument on the Sully sulfide structure in the Main Endeavour Field of the Juan de Fuca Ridge during September of 2004. We were able to collect approximately 48 hours of data before the instrument was partially destroyed by venting fluid. We are in the process of obtaining additional measurements in the same vent field with a second-generation instrument. For the 2004 deployment, the venting fluid produced an acoustic signal that was far above the background level at all measured frequencies. The acoustic spectrum contains a broadband signal that is weighted toward the low frequencies and extends to the Nyquist frequency at 500 Hz. The spectrum also contains several sharp peaks below 150 Hz. The signal is variable in time, with the broadband and peak amplitudes fluctuating by ~20 dB, and the frequencies of the sharp spectral peaks fluctuating by ~1--3 Hz. The complex nature of the acoustic signal suggests that more than one sound production mechanism is operating within the vent. The sharp peaks suggest the presence of a resonant mechanism such as pipe resonance excited by turbulent flow. The high level of the broadband signal is not predicted by theoretical investigations of low Mach number jet acoustics. It is likely that another broadband sound source is present, which could be related to phase separation or to the mixing of different density fluids. More observations will be required to fully understand the basic mechanisms of sound production within black smoker chimneys.

  17. Direct Measurements of Hydrothermal Heat Output at Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; di Iorio, D.; Genc, G.; Hurt, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.

    2009-12-01

    Heat output and fluid flow are key parameters for characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers. In particular, they are essential for examining partition of heat and geochemical fluxes between discrete and diffuse flow components. Hydrothermal heat output also constrains permeability of young oceanic crust and thickness of the conductive boundary layer separating hydrothermal circulation from the underlying magmatic heat source. Over the past several years, we have deployed a number of relatively simple devices to make direct measurements of focused and diffuse flow. Most recently, we have used cup anemometer and turbine flow meters to measure fluid flow and heat flux at individual high-temperature vents and diffuse flow sites. The turbine flow meter (Figure 1) includes a titanium rotor assembly housed within a stainless steel tube and supported by sapphire bearings. The device can be used at different seafloor settings for measurements of both diffuse and focused flow. The spin of the rotor blades is videotaped to acquire the angular velocity, which is a function of the flow rate determined through calibration. We report data obtained during four cruises to the Main Endeavor and High Rise vent fields, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), between 2007 and 2009. Overall more than 50 successful measurements of heat flow have been made on a variety of high-, medium-, and low-temperature hydrothermal sites on the Endeavor, Mothra, and High Rise structures. For example, the velocity of diffuse flow at Endeavor ranged from ~1 to ~10 cm/sec. The flow velocity from black smokers varied from ~10 cm/sec to ~1 m/sec, which appears to be similar to EPR 9°N. Typical measurements of heat flux obtained at JdFR ranged from ~1 kW for diffuse flow to ~1 MW for black smokers. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the data and obtain the integrated heat output for a vent field on JdFR, the data are used to characterize the heat fluxes from individual vent

  18. Transfer and partitioning of energy and mass through seafloor hydrothermal systems: comparative studies at the Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites (ISS) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems are major players in the transfer of mass and energy from the mantle and crust to the ocean and biosphere. Over the past thirty years, much has been learned about this transfer to the ocean, but considerably less is known about the transfer to the biosphere. Study of hydrothermal systems in a diverse range of geologic settings has shown relationships between spreading rate and hydrothermal heat flux, substrate composition (including rock geochemistry, presence/absence of sediment) and hydrothermal fluid composition, and magmatic/tectonic events and temporal variability of fluid composition (e.g., German and Von Damm, Treatise On Geochemistry, 2004; Baker et al. AGU Monograph Series 91, 1995). Studies in arc and back-arc settings are documenting the effects of magmatic acid volatiles on fluid-rock reaction and fluid and vent deposit compositions (e.g., Ishibashi and Urabe, Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism, 1995). These comparative studies in a wide range of geologic settings, including at the three Ridge2000 ISS, have provided a fairly good understanding of the flux of heat and many elements to the ocean associated with high temperature seafloor hydrothermal systems. Considerably less is known, however, about the partitioning of heat and mass (particularly metals and sulfur) in hydrothermal systems. The deposits that form at vent sites are intimately linked within paths of energy and mass transport from the mantle and crust to the oceans. Transport differs greatly through different types of deposits (e.g., black smokers, white smokers/diffusers, flanges). Estimates of heat flux from measured temperatures of flow (unless integrated over and around an entire vent field) require an understanding of the partitioning of flow between focused black smokers and more diffuse flow from diffusers, flanges, and surfaces of deposits, and from the igneous substrate. Estimates of mass flux into the ocean require an understanding of the

  19. PGE fractionation in seafloor hydrothermal systems: examples from mafic- and ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašava, Jan; Vymazalová, Anna; Petersen, Sven

    2007-04-01

    The distribution of platinum group elements (PGEs) in massive sulfides and hematite-magnetite±pyrite assemblages from the recently discovered basalt-hosted Turtle Pits hydrothermal field and in massive sulfides from the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev vent field both on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was studied and compared to that from selected ancient volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits. Cu-rich samples from black smoker chimneys of both vent fields are enriched in Pd and Rh (Pd up to 227 ppb and Rh up to 149 ppb) when compared to hematite-magnetite-rich samples from Turtle Pits (Pd up to 10 ppb, Rh up to 1.9 ppb). A significant positive correlation was established between Cu and Rh in sulfide samples from Turtle Pits. PGE chondrite-normalized patterns (with a positive Rh anomaly and Pd and Au enrichment), Pd/Pt and Pd/Au ratios close to global MORB, and high values of Pd/Ir and Pt/Ir ratios indicate mafic source rock and seawater involvement in the hydrothermal system at Turtle Pits. Similarly shaped PGE chondrite-normalized patterns and high values of Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in Cu-rich sulfides at Logatchev likely reflect a similar mechanism of PGE enrichment but with involvement of ultramafic source rocks.

  20. Hydrothermal Activity on the Mid-Cayman Rise: ROV Jason sampling and site characterization at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    In January 2012 our multi-national and multi-disciplinary team conducted a series of 10 ROV Jason dives to conduct first detailed and systematic sampling of the Mid Cayman Rise hydrothermal systems at the Von Damm and Piccard hydrothermal fields. At Von Damm, hydrothermal venting is focused at and around a large conical structure that is approximately 120 m in diameter and rises at least 80m from the surrounding, largely sedimented seafloor. Clear fluids emitted from multiple sites around the flanks of the mound fall in the temperature range 110-130°C and fall on a common mixing line with hotter (>200°C) clear fluids emitted from an 8m tall spire at the summit which show clear evidence of ultramafic influence. Outcrop close to the vent-site is rare and the cone itself appear to consist of clay minerals derived from highly altered host rock. The dominant fauna at the summit of Von Damm are a new species of chemosynthetic shrimp but elsewhere the site also hosts two distinct species of chemosynthetic tube worm as well as at least one species of gastropod. The adjacent Piccard site, at ~5000m depth comprises 7 distinct sulfide mounds, 3 of which are currently active: Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods and Beebe Sea. Beebe Vents consists of 5 vigorous black smoker chimneys with maximum temperatures in the range 400-403°C while at Beebe Woods a more highly colonized thicket of up to 8m tall chimneys includes predominantly beehive diffusers with rare black smokers emitting fluids up to 353°C. Beebe Sea a diffuse site emitting fluids at 38°C Tmax, is the largest of the currently active mounds and immediately abuts a tall (8m) rift that strikes NE-SW bisecting the host Axial Volcanic Ridge. The fauna at Piccard are less diverse than at Von Damm and, predominantly, comprise the same species of MCR shrimp, a distinct gastropod species and abundant anemones.

  1. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems.

  2. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. PMID:26410427

  3. Complex hydrothermal alteration and illite K-Ar ages in Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Variscan Badenweiler-Lenzkirch suture zone, Black Forest, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockamp, Olaf; Schlegel, Andreas; Wemmer, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Post-collisional Upper Visean molasse sediments and magmatic rocks of the Badenweiler-Lenzkirch Zone reveal by microscopy of thin sections different degrees of hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and mica particles, and XRD, IR and XRF data of the <2 µm fractions show illitic material as the dominant clay mineral consisting of a mixture of 1M and 2M1 polytypes. Moreover, small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer minerals of R1-ordering are proved in the granites. In the separates, two illite mixing lines with different Fe + Mg contents are verified between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and detrital illite in the molasse sediments, as well as between authigenic illite from feldspar alteration and altered mica flakes in the granites. Fe-rich detrital chlorite is present within the molasse sediments, while mixtures of high aluminous Fe-poor dioctahedral/di-trioctahedral chlorite with randomly interstratified chlorite/smectite mixed-layer minerals are formed from feldspar alteration in the granites. Illite K-Ar dating of the <2 and <0.63 µm fractions yields hydrothermal illitization of feldspar and partial resetting of the K-Ar system of detrital illite and mica flakes in the molasse sediments at ≥200 °C during Upper Permian to Middle Triassic times, while the granites in the eastern part of the study area were not altered contemporaneously. In contrast, hydrothermal activity at ≤200 °C during Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous times occurred in the granites, whereas these temperatures were too low for resetting the older `Permo-Triassic' illite K-Ar ages in the molasse rocks. Within both K-Ar age clusters, the data are seen to decrease with grain size and portion of illite 2M1 polytype. The alteration phenomena indicate multiple hydrothermal episodes in the study area, and they match those from the Central and Western European crust as fluid supply was controlled geodynamically by episodic break up of Pangea.

  4. Continuing Evolution of the Hydrothermal System at the RIDGE2000 ISS, 9-10° N EPR: 1991-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Damm, K. L.; Parker, C. M.; Beers, K. A.; Hyde, A. A.

    2004-12-01

    We have been studying the evolution of the chemical composition of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal system on the East Pacific Rise from 9° 46-51'N since it was impacted by volcanic eruptions in 1991/2. We have been using the chemical and temperature data to infer the processes that are occurring subseafloor in the upper oceanic crust. As of March 2004, the chemical compositions of the vent fluids from this site have not yet stabilized. This observation is helping us to better understand not only the impact of magmatic events on these systems, but also the time scales on which they occur. Centered at the RIDGE2000 ISS "bull's-eye" at 9° 50'N we have noted a striking increase in the number of hydrothermal vents as well as in their measured fluid temperatures beginning after ~2000. In November 2003 we first noted the formation of a black smoker vent at the Tica site (measured T=342° C). In March 2004 we identified another new area of robust flow near the Bio9 vents at 9° 50'N, the 'Alvinellid Mat,' that we anticipate will form an additional black smoker to the three currently active at this site. In March 2004 we measured temperatures of 388° C in fluids from both the Bio9 and Bio9' smokers, putting them essentially on the two phase curve for seawater at this depth. For all of the Bio9 vents, as well as Tica, the fluids contain less than 300 mmoles/kg of Cl, approximately half the local seawater concentration. These high temperature and low Cl concentrations are accompanied by unusually low Si concentrations, <9.5 mmoles/kg. These data suggest a relatively shallow depth of reaction for the fluids, within a few hundred meters of the seafloor. These are the hottest temperatures measured in the Bio9 vents since the eruption in 1992. In contrast, the temperatures at P vent, about 60m south have cooled by ˜15° C since 2002. About 400m south, the chlorinity of the fluids from Ty and Io vents have increased, and Tube Worm Pillar, about 400m further south has

  5. Modelling of hydrothermal fluid circulation in a heterogeneous medium: Application to the Rainbow Vent site (Mid-Atlantic-Ridge, 36°14N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Charlou, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrothermal activity at the axis of mid-ocean ridges is a key driver for energy and matter transfer from the interior of the Earth to the ocean floor. At mid-ocean ridges, seawater penetrates through the permeable young crust, warms at depth and exchanges chemicals with the surrounding rocks. This hot fluid focuses and flows upwards, then is expelled from the crust at hydrothermal vent sites in the form of black or white smokers completed by diffusive emissions. We developed a new numerical tool in the Cast3M software framework to model such hydrothermal circulations. Thermodynamic properties of one-phase pure water were calculated from the IAPWS formulation. This new numerical tool was validated on several test cases of convection in closed-top and open-top boxes. Simulations of hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium also gave results in good agreement with already published simulations. We used this new numerical tool to construct a geometric and physical model configuration of the Rainbow Vent site at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In this presentation, several configurations will be discussed, showing that high temperatures and high mass fluxes measured at the Rainbow site cannot be modelled with hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium. We will show that these high values require the presence of a fault or a preferential pathway right below the venting site. We will propose and discuss a 2-D one-path model that allows us to simulate both high temperatures and high mass fluxes. This modelling of the hydrothermal circulation at the Rainbow site constitutes a first but necessary step to understand the origin of high concentrations of hydrogen issued from this ultramafic-hosted vent field.

  6. Tracing the chemical evolution of fluids during hydrothermal recharge: Constraints from anhydrite recovered in ODP Hole 504B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teagle, Damon A. H.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1998-02-01

    A unique record of the chemical evolution of seawater during hydrothermal recharge into oceanic crust is preserved by anhydrite from the volcanic sequences and sheeted dike complex in ODP Hole 504B. Chemical and isotopic analyses ( 87Sr/ 86Sr, δ18O, δ34S) of anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids due to reaction with basalt. There is a general trend of decreasing 87Sr/ 86Sr of anhydrite, corresponding to the minor incorporation of basaltic strontium with depth in the volcanic rocks. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios decrease rapidly with depth in the dikes to values identical to host basalt (0.7029). Sr/Ca ratios (<0.1 mmol/mol) suggest that recharge fluids have very low Sr concentrations and fluids evolve by first precipitating Sr-bearing phases before extensive exchange of Sr with the host basalt. There is a background trend of decreasing sulfate δ18O with depth from +12-13‰ in the lower volcanics to +7‰ in the lower sheeted dikes recording an increase in recharge fluid temperature from ≈150° to ≈250°C, and confirming the presence of sulfate in hydrothermal fluids at elevated temperatures. From the amount of anhydrite recovered from Hole 504B and the amount of seawater sulfur that has been reduced to sulfide, a minimum seawater recharge flux can be calculated. This value is ≈4-25 times lower than estimates of high-temperature fluid fluxes based on either thermal constraints or global chemical budgets and suggests that there is significant deficit of seawater-derived sulfur in the oceanic crust. Only a minor proportion of the seawater that percolates into the crust near the axis is heated to high temperatures and exits as black smoker-type fluids. A significant proportion of the axial heat loss must be advected at 200-250°C by sulfate-bearing hydrothermal solutions that egress diffusely from the crust. These fluids penetrate into the dikes and exchange both heat and chemical tracers without the extensive clogging of porosity by anhydrite

  7. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital

  8. A dual sensor device to estimate fluid flow velocity at diffuse hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrazin, J.; Rodier, P.; Tivey, M. K.; Singh, H.; Schultz, A.; Sarradin, P. M.

    2009-11-01

    Numerous attempts have been made over the last thirty years to estimate fluid flow rates at hydrothermal vents, either at the exit of black smoker chimneys or within diffuse flow areas. In this study, we combine two methods to accurately estimate fluid flow velocities at diffuse flow areas. While the first method uses a hot film anemometer that performs high-frequency measurements, the second allows a relatively rapid assessment of fluid flow velocity through video imagery and provides in situ data to calibrate the sensor. Measurements of flow velocities on hydrothermal diffuse flow areas were obtained on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). They range from 1.1 to 4.9 mm/s at the substratum level, in low-temperature (4.5-16.4 °C) diffuse flow areas from the Tour Eiffel sulfide edifice. A strong correlation was observed between fluid flow velocities and temperature, supporting the possible use of temperature as a proxy to estimate the flow rates in diffuse flow areas where such a simple linear flow/temperature relation is shown to dominate.

  9. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent Epsilonproteobacteria encode a conserved and widespread nitrate reduction pathway (Nap)

    PubMed Central

    Vetriani, Costantino; Voordeckers, James W; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; O'Brien, Charles E; Giovannelli, Donato; Lutz, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the frequent isolation of nitrate-respiring Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the genes coding for the nitrate reduction pathway in these organisms have not been investigated in depth. In this study we have shown that the gene cluster coding for the periplasmic nitrate reductase complex (nap) is highly conserved in chemolithoautotrophic, nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Furthermore, we have shown that the napA gene is expressed in pure cultures of vent Epsilonproteobacteria and it is highly conserved in microbial communities collected from deep-sea vents characterized by different temperature and redox regimes. The diversity of nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria was found to be higher in moderate temperature, diffuse flow vents than in high temperature black smokers or in low temperatures, substrate-associated communities. As NapA has a high affinity for nitrate compared with the membrane-bound enzyme, its occurrence in vent Epsilonproteobacteria may represent an adaptation of these organisms to the low nitrate concentrations typically found in vent fluids. Taken together, our findings indicate that nitrate reduction is widespread in vent Epsilonproteobacteria and provide insight on alternative energy metabolism in vent microorganisms. The occurrence of the nap cluster in vent, commensal and pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria suggests that the ability of these bacteria to respire nitrate is important in habitats as different as the deep-sea vents and the human body. PMID:24430487

  10. Sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.A.; Stolzenbach, K.D.; Purdy, G.M.

    1990-08-10

    High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the calders wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 0.0001 Pa sq/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. The frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities. Keywords: Seamounts; Flow noise; Underwater acoustics; Acoustic measurement; Geothermy/noise; Ocean ridges; Underwater sound signals; Reprints; North Pacific Ocean. (EDC).

  11. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent Epsilonproteobacteria encode a conserved and widespread nitrate reduction pathway (Nap).

    PubMed

    Vetriani, Costantino; Voordeckers, James W; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; O'Brien, Charles E; Giovannelli, Donato; Lutz, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    Despite the frequent isolation of nitrate-respiring Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the genes coding for the nitrate reduction pathway in these organisms have not been investigated in depth. In this study we have shown that the gene cluster coding for the periplasmic nitrate reductase complex (nap) is highly conserved in chemolithoautotrophic, nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Furthermore, we have shown that the napA gene is expressed in pure cultures of vent Epsilonproteobacteria and it is highly conserved in microbial communities collected from deep-sea vents characterized by different temperature and redox regimes. The diversity of nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria was found to be higher in moderate temperature, diffuse flow vents than in high temperature black smokers or in low temperatures, substrate-associated communities. As NapA has a high affinity for nitrate compared with the membrane-bound enzyme, its occurrence in vent Epsilonproteobacteria may represent an adaptation of these organisms to the low nitrate concentrations typically found in vent fluids. Taken together, our findings indicate that nitrate reduction is widespread in vent Epsilonproteobacteria and provide insight on alternative energy metabolism in vent microorganisms. The occurrence of the nap cluster in vent, commensal and pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria suggests that the ability of these bacteria to respire nitrate is important in habitats as different as the deep-sea vents and the human body.

  12. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27136374

  13. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  15. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  16. Surface morphology and function of human pulmonary alveolar macrophages from smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Ando, M; Sugimoto, M; Nishi, R; Suga, M; Horio, S; Kohrogi, H; Shimazu, K; Araki, S

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages were obtained by saline lavage from 23 healthy male volunteers--10 non-smokers and 13 cigarette smokers. Lavage produced three times as many alveolar macrophages in smokers than in non-smokers. When macrophages from smokers and from non-smokers were incubated in vitro, more cells from smokers adhered to glass, spread out, and showed enhanced nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. The surface morphology of alveolar macrophages from smokers showed more with a plate like appearance and ridge like membrane surface, while the macrophages from non-smokers were predominantly spherical with ruffles. The proportions of cells which stained highly for beta galactosidase were 55% in smokers and 11% in non-smokers. Thus, in a resting state in vitro, alveolar macrophages from smokers were more active than those from non-smokers. When, however, macrophages from smokers and non-smokers were incubated with immunobeads and with opsonised or non-opsonised BCG, the phagocytic activity and stimulated NBT reduction of alveolar macrophages from smokers were similar to or somewhat less than those of non-smokers. Images PMID:6438822

  17. Temporal evolution of magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: Insights from vent fluid chemistry and bathymetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, E. P.; Thal, J.; Schaen, A.; Ono, S.; Seewald, J.; Bach, W.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of hydrothermal fluids from back-arc systems is poorly constrained, despite growing evidence for dynamic magmatic-hydrothermal activity, and imminent commercial mining. Here we discuss surveys of diverse vent fluids from multiple hydrothermal fields in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, sampled in 2006 and 2011. Effects of host rock composition, and dynamic magmatic volatile inputs on fluid chemistry are evaluated to understand changes in these systems. Highly acidic and SO4-rich moderate temperature fluids (~48-215°C), as well as SO4-poor black smoker fluids (up to 358°C), were collected at the PACMANUS, SuSu Knolls and DESMOS areas in 2006 and 2011. Acidic, milky white SuSu and DESMOS fluids, rich in elemental S and SO4, exit the seafloor with Na, K, Mg, and Ca diluted conservatively up to 30% relative to seawater, implying subsurface mixing of seawater with SO2-rich aqueous fluids exsolved from magma, analogous to subaerial fumarole discharge. SO2 disproportionation during cooling and mixing of magmatic fluids contributes acidity, SO4, H2S and S(0)(s), as well as widespread S outcrops on the seafloor. Nearby black smoker fluids indicate entrainment and reaction of magmatic fluid into convecting fluids at depth, and additional hybrid-type fluids appear to consist of evolved seawater and unreacted magmatic fluid SO2 derivatives. Fluids at DESMOS in 2006 indicate increased magmatic SO2 relative to 1995, despite constant low venting temperatures (~120°C). In contrast, dramatic changes in bathymetry and seafloor morphology point to substantial continuous eruption of volcaniclastic material between 2006 and 2011 at SuSu Knolls, burying fumarolic vents from 2006. Compositions of new 2011 acidic, sulfate-rich fluids there suggest reaction with less altered, fresher rock. At the PACMANUS area, farther from the arc, direct magmatic degassing to the seafloor is not occurring presently, but entrainment and reaction of similar acid

  18. Insights From Magnesium Isotopic Compositions on the Oceanic Hydrothermal Circulation: Is Seamount Weathering the Solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, A.; Carder, E.; Elderfield, H.

    2006-12-01

    It has been long recognised that the input of Mg in the ocean by river is removed by precipitation of Mg-rich bearing phases, either directly from the ocean such as dolomite or through hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust. The sampling of hydrothermal fluids demonstrated the efficiency of Mg consumption by the alteration of the oceanic crust, even at temperatures as low as 15°. For high-temperature fluids vented through black or white smokers in the vicinity of the ridge, the Mg concentration is up to 50 time lower than in seawater, and the close relationship between chlorine and Mg led to the idea that seawater was feeding the hydrothermal system and that Mg is quantitatively removed from it during high-T° alteration, the so called zero Mg hypothesis. Despite some hint for a non zero Mg hydrothermal end-member for a handful sites, the low concentration of Mg in oceanic hydrothermal fluids (around 1 mmol/l) has been mainly attributed to contamination by seawater during the sampling. Here we present Mg isotopic composition of 14 seawater samples from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Mediterranean and Red Seas and covering a range of depth of almost 5km and 26 hydrothermal fluids from 7 sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with temperature from 15° to 380°C. We find the magnesium isotope composition of seawater to be constant, with a δ^{26}Mg = -0.82±0.10 ‰ relative to the DSM3 standard. This value is consistent with a long residence time for Mg in seawater. In addition, out of the 26 hydrothermal fluids studied, more than 58% differ from seawater for their Mg isotopic composition by more than 2σ. This number rises up to 88% at 2σmean level and the shift is systematic with the fluids being either indistinguishable from seawater or enriched in light isotopes by up to 2.4‰ in δ^{26}Mg. This clearly demonstrates that fluids having low Mg concentrations are not solely bearing Mg added by contamination during sampling. The isotopic

  19. Numerical Modeling of Multiphase Fluid Flow in Ore-Forming Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, P.; Driesner, T.; Coumou, D.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    Two coexisting fluid phases - a variably saline liquid and a vapor phase - are ubiquitous in ore-forming and other hydrothermal systems. Understanding the dynamics of phase separation and the distinct physical and chemical evolution of the two fluids probably plays a key role in generating different ore deposit types, e.g. porphyry type, high and low sulfidation Cu-Mo-Au deposits. To this end, processes within hydrothermal systems have been studied with a refined numerical model describing fluid flow in transient porous media (CSP~5.0). The model is formulated on a mass, energy and momentum conserving finite-element-finite-volume (FEFV) scheme and is capable of simulating multiphase flow of NaCl-H20 fluids. Fluid properties are computed from an improved equation of state (SOWAT~2.0). It covers conditions with temperatures of up to 1000 degrees~C, pressures of up to 500 MPa, and fluid salinities of 0~to 100%~NaCl. In particular, the new set-up allows for a more accurate description of fluid phase separation during boiling of hydrothermal fluids into a vapor and a brine phase. The geometric flexibility of the FEFV-meshes allows for investigations of a large variety of geological settings, ranging from ore-forming processes in magmatic hydrothermal system to the dynamics of black smokers at mid-ocean ridges. Simulations demonstrated that hydrothermal convection patterns above cooling plutons are primarily controlled by the system-scale permeability structure. In porphyry systems, high fluid pressures develop in a stock rising from the magma chamber which can lead to rock failure and, eventually, an increase in permeability due to hydrofracturing. Comparisons of the thermal evolution as inferred from modeling studies with data from fluid inclusion studies of the Pb-Zn deposits of Madan, Bulgaria are in a strikingly good agreement. This indicates that cross-comparisons of field observations, analytical data and numerical simulations will become a powerful tool towards a

  20. Paying Smokers to Quit May Pay Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... 15, 2016 MONDAY, Aug. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Money may help some smokers stub out their cigarettes ... program started, 44 percent of smokers who received money said they had been abstinent continuously, compared with ...

  1. Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic deep ocean hosts a variety of habitats ranging from fairly uniform sedimentary abyssal plains to highly variable hard bottoms on mid ocean ridges, including biodiversity hotspots like seamounts and hydrothermal vents. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna, and since their discovery in 1977 more than 400 species of animals have been described. This fauna includes various animal groups of which the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. The newly discovered deep sea hydrothermal vents on the Mohns-Knipovich ridge north of Iceland harbour unique biodiversity. The Jan Mayen field consists of two main areas with high-temperature white smoker venting and wide areas with low-temperature seepage, located at 5-700 m, while the deeper Loki Castle vent field at 2400 m depth consists of a large area with high temperature black smokers surrounded by a sedimentary area with more diffuse low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The Jan Mayen sites show low abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups have a few specialized representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas are absent. Slightly more than 200 macrofaunal species have been identified from this vent area, comprising mainly an assortment of bathyal species known from the surrounding area. Analysis of stable isotope data also indicates that the majority of the species present are feeding on phytodetritus and/or phytoplankton. However, the deeper Loki Castle vent field contains a much more diverse vent endemic fauna with high abundances of specialized polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. These specializations also include symbioses with a range of chemosynthetic microorganisms. Our data show that the fauna composition is a result of high degree of local specialization with some similarities to the fauna of cold seeps along the Norwegian margin and wood-falls in the abyssal Norwegian Sea

  2. Lifestyle and dietary differences in smokers and non-smokers from an Italian employee population.

    PubMed

    Bottoni, A; Cannella, C; Del Balzo, V

    1997-05-01

    In a sample of 200 subjects, representative of a population of 1936 civil servants, we tested differences in life style, dietary habits and distribution of risk factors for CHD between smokers and nonsmokers. The two groups (79 smokers) and (121 non-smokers) did not differ significantly by age or sex. The percentage of sedentary subjects, of hypercholesterolaemics and of hypertensives was found to be particularly high among smokers: 67%, 33% and 30% respectively (vs 59%, 27% and 19% in non-smokers). More smokers were obese (11% vs 5%) but mean BMI was the same in smokers/non-smokers but showed a higher fat mass; the association of CHD risk factors indicates only one significant correlation (P < 0.05) between obesity and hypertension. In male smokers, higher values of LDL and triglycerides and lower intake of energy, vitamins C and A are observed and these values are significantly different than those for non-smokers. In women HDL values are higher in non-smokers whereas, in female smokers, the food cholesterol intake is particularly high 271 +/- 295 mg. There are also correlations both for the anthropometric and clinical parameters and for energy and nutrients, indicating that the lifestyle of smokers is less healthy than that of non-smokers. Smokers cat vegetables and fruits less frequently and consume more alcohol than non-smokers, who prefer sweet foods.

  3. Measuring fluid flow and heat output in seafloor hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, Leonid N.; Hurt, Robert S.; Smith, Joshua E.; Genc, Gence; Lowell, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    We review techniques for measuring fluid flow and advective heat output from seafloor hydrothermal systems and describe new anemometer and turbine flowmeter devices we have designed, built, calibrated, and tested. These devices allow measuring fluid velocity at high- and low-temperature focused and diffuse discharge sites at oceanic spreading centers. The devices perform at ocean floor depths and black smoker temperatures and can be used to measure flow rates ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Flow velocity is determined from the rotation rate of the rotor blades or paddle assembly. These devices have an open bearing design that eliminates clogging by particles or chemical precipitates as the fluid passes by the rotors. The devices are compact and lightweight enough for deployment from either an occupied or remotely operated submersible. The measured flow rates can be used in conjunction with vent temperature or geochemical measurements to obtain heat outputs or geochemical fluxes from both vent chimneys and diffuse flow regions. The devices have been tested on 30 Alvin dives on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and 3 Jason dives on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We measured an anomalously low entrainment coefficient (0.064) and report 104 new measurements over a wide range of discharge temperatures (5°-363°C), velocities (2-199 cm/s), and depths (1517-2511 m). These include the first advective heat output measurements at the High Rise vent field and the first direct fluid flow measurement at Middle Valley. Our data suggest that black smoker heat output at the Main Endeavour vent field may have declined since 1994 and that after the 2005-2006 eruption, the high-temperature advective flow at the EPR 9°50'N field may have become more channelized, predominately discharging through the Bio 9 structure. We also report 16 measurements on 10 Alvin dives and 2 Jason dives with flow meters that predate devices described in this work and were used in the process of their development

  4. Discovery of hydrothermally active and extinct talc mounds on the Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, M.; Murton, B. J.; Roberts, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1977, hydrothermal vents have been the subject of intense scientific interest due to their role in cooling the oceanic crust and global geochemical cycles. Until now, two types of hydrothermal system have been identified: one, driven by magmatic heat extruding ';black smoker' fluids; and another, involving serpentinisation of ultramafic rocks and the precipitation of carbonate/brucite chimneys. Here, we present details of a new, off-axis type of hydrothermal system consisting of mounds of predominately botryoidal talc (a magnesium-silicate) with accessory silica and copper sulphides, and chimneys exhaling fluids of moderate temperature and pH. Discovered on the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) in 2010, the Von Damm Vent Field (VDVF) features a NNW-ESE-trending line of four overlapping cones, the largest of which is 75 m high by 150 m in diameter. The VDVF is hosted in the gabbroic footwall of the Mount Dent Oceanic Core Complex (MDOCC), which includes serpentinised peridotite at depth. The largest cone vents clear fluids from two main orifices at its summit, with primary temperatures of 215°C. Elsewhere, both focussed and diffuse flow areas emit fluids with temperatures of up to 150°C. The surrounding ~1 m thick pelagic sediment contains abundant pockmarks that emit methane-rich fluids at temperatures of less than 10°C. During the return to the MCR in early 2013, several other talc mounds were discovered within a kilometre of the active VDVF. These inactive mounds also comprise an assemblage of botryoidal talc, silica, disseminated sulphides (including chalcopyrite) and sulphates. One of these mounds (Mystic Mount) is double the volume of the active VDVF. The unique dominance of talc as the major mineral forming the hydrothermal structures indicates unusual vent fluid compositions that are able to carry both copper (at high-temperatures) and precipitate magnesium silicate. Thermodynamic modelling indicates that talc precipitates on mixing a moderately acidic, silica

  5. Hydrothermal plumes over spreading ridges and related deposits in the northeast Pacific Ocean: The East Pacific Rise near 11 degrees north and 21 degrees north, Explorer Ridge and J. Tuzo Wilson Seamounts

    SciTech Connect

    McConachy, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrothermal plumes emanating from hot springs over spreading ridges in the north east Pacific Ocean have been mapped and sampled using the submersible ALVIN and equipment deployed from surface ships. The geologic setting and polymetallic sulfides of the vent field producing the hydrothermal plume at 11{degree}N have also been examined. At 11{degree}N, two distinct metalliferous components are delivered to the intermediate to far-field from high temperature black smoker discharge as a result of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the lower 32 m of the plume. About 60 volume % of this material is estimated to settle within a 6-km-radius of the vent field, based on the results of SEM-IPS grain-size analyses and their application to a published particle settling model. The second component delivered to the far-field consists of the remaining 40 volume % of fine-grained sulfides and non-sulfides, 10% of dissolved Fe which will eventually precipitate as oxyhydroxides, and {>=} 80% of the hydrothermally injected Mn, Si, and probably Ba. At 21{degree} N by contrast, only 20 volume % of the smoke particles is conservatively estimated to settle within a 8-km-radius of the NGS vent due to their finer grain size and a higher terminal height of the buoyant hydrothermal plume.

  6. Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity in the Southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Troni, G.; Wheat, C. G.; Spelz, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Active hydrothermal venting was previously unknown between Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the East Pacific Rise. MBARI AUV surveys and ROV dives in 2012 and 2015 discovered 7 hydrothermal vent sites with diverse and varied vent communities within that gap. One field in the Pescadero Basin vents clear shimmering fluids at 3685 m depth and four vigorous black smoker fields and several extinct chimney fields are between 2225 and 2400 m depth on the Alarcón Rise. Low-temperature vent sites are present on both of the Pescadero and Tamayo Transforms. The chimneys were discovered in 1-m resolution AUV bathymetric data, with some indicated to be active based on temperature anomalies in the AUV CTD data and confirmed during later ROV dives. The low-temperature vent sites on the transform faults were found on ROV dives while exploring young lava flows and sediment hills uplifted by sill intrusions. Pescadero Basin is a deep extensional basin in the southern Gulf. The smooth, subtly faulted floor is filled with at least 150 m of sediment, as determined from sub-bottom profiles collected by the AUV. Three large chimneys (named Auka by our Mexican collaborators) and several broad mounds are located on the SW margin of the basin. Temperatures to 290°C were measured, the fluids are clear, neutral pH, and contain elevated Na. The chimneys are delicate, white, predominantly Ca-carbonate; barite, sparse sulfides, and some aromatic hydrocarbons are also present. Three active vent fields (Ja Sít, Pericú, and Meyibó) at Alarcón Rise are located near the eruptive fissure of an extensive young sheet flow. The fourth field (Tzab-ek) is 1.1 km NW of the axis on older pillow lavas. The largest chimneys are in the Tzab-ek field: 31 and 33 m tall, with flanges and upside-down waterfalls. They rise from a sulfide mound, suggesting a long-lived hydrothermal system, in contrast to the near-axis fields where the chimneys grow directly on basalt. The Alarcón chimneys are Zn and Cu-rich sulfides

  7. The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than

  8. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than

  9. Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.R.; Robigou, V.; McDuff, R.E. ); Tivey, M.K. )

    1992-12-10

    A high-precision, high-resolution geologic map explicitly documents relationships between tectonic features and large steep-sided, sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits in the vigorously venting Endeavour hydrothermal field near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Location of the most massive sulfide structures appears to be controlled by intersections of ridge-parallel normal faults and other fracture-fissure sets that trend oblique to, and perpendicular to the overall structural fabric of the axial valley. As presently mapped, the field is about 200 by 400 m on a side and contains at least 15 large (> 1,000 m[sup 3]) sulfide edifices and many tens of smaller, commonly inactive, sulfide structures. The larger sulfide structures are also the most vigorously venting features in the field; they are commonly more than 30 m in diameter and up to 20 m in height. Maximum venting temperatures of 375[degrees]C are associated with the smaller structures in the northern portion of the field are consistently 20[degrees]-30[degrees]C lower. Hydrothermal output from individual active sulfide features varies from no flow in the lower third of the edifice to vigorous output from fracture-controlled black smoker activity near the top of the structures. Two types of diffuse venting in the Endeavour field include a lower temperature 8[degrees]-15[degrees]C output through colonies of large tubeworms and 25[degrees]-50[degrees]C vent fluid that seems to percolate through the tops of overhanging flanges. The large size and steep-walled nature of these structures evidently results from sustained venting in a mature hydrothermal system, coupled with dual mineral depositional mechanisms involving vertical growth by accumulation of chimney sulfide debris and lateral growth by means of flange development.

  10. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, Kéiko H.

    1999-09-01

    is usually consumed to form metal sulfides. Therefore, abundant native sulfur at Jade suggests high H 2S/metals ratios of the hydrothermal fluids. The alteration assemblages and isotopic data of hydrothermal minerals from Jade are very similar to those of Kuroko-type barite deposits of middle Miocene age, which formed from fluids of high S/metals ratios at less than 200°C. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature (˜320°C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital grains of montmorillonite in such sediments are coated with Fe-oxyhydroxides during the suspension in seawater before settling on the seafloor. The depths of such metal anomalies in sediments suggest high levels of metalliferous hydrothermal activities from 1,800 to 300 ybp.

  11. First evidence for high-temperature off-axis venting of deep crustal/mantle heat: The Nibelungen hydrothermal field, southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchert, B.; Devey, C. W.; German, C. R.; Lackschewitz, K. S.; Seifert, R.; Walter, M.; Mertens, C.; Yoerger, D. R.; Baker, E. T.; Paulick, H.; Nakamura, K.

    2008-10-01

    During segment-scale studies of the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), 7-12° S, we found evidence in the water column for high-temperature hydrothermal activity, off-axis, east of Ascension Island. Extensive water column and seafloor work using both standard CTD and deep submergence AUV and ROV deployments led to the discovery and sampling of the "Drachenschlund" ("Dragon Throat") black smoker vent at 8°17.87' S/13°30.45' W in 2915 m water depth. The vent is flanked by several inactive chimney structures in a field we have named "Nibelungen". The site is located 6 km south of a non-transform offset between two adjacent 2nd-order ridge-segments and 9 km east of the presently-active, northward-propagating A2 ridge-segment, on a prominent outward-facing fault scarp. Both vent-fluid compositions and host-rock analyses show this site to be an ultramafic-hosted system, the first of its kind to be found on the southern MAR. The thermal output of this single vent, based on plume rise-height information, is estimated to be 60 ± 15 MW. This value is high for a single "black smoker" vent but small for an entire field. The tectonic setting and low He content of the vent fluids imply that high-temperature off-axis venting at "Drachenschlund" is driven not by magmatic processes, as at the majority of on-axis hydrothermal systems, but by residual heat "mined" from the deeper lithosphere. Whether this heat is being extracted from high-temperature mantle peridotites or deep crustal cumulates formed at the "duelling" non-transfrom offset is unclear, in either case the Drachenschlund vent provides the first direct observations of how cooling of deeper parts of the lithosphere, at least at slow-spreading ridges, may be occurring.

  12. Pharmacologically, are smokers the same as non-smokers?

    PubMed

    Bani, Massimo; Andorn, Anne; Heidbreder, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that there are subpopulations of daily smokers ranging from light infrequent users to heavy daily users. In the present review we will investigate whether these differences can be explained by factors such as social context, responsiveness to environmental cues, personality traits, neurochemical and pharmacogenetic differences. We will also assess how controlled abstinence and free choice smoking paradigms in a human laboratory setting may help identify and characterize these differences and what can be learned from these models to accurately predict clinical efficacy in the later phase testing of new chemical entities for the treatment of smoking dependence. PMID:24565011

  13. Subaqueous cryptodome eruption, hydrothermal activity and related seafloor morphologies on the andesitic North Su volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thal, Janis; Tivey, Maurice; Yoerger, Dana R.; Bach, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    North Su is a double-peaked active andesite submarine volcano located in the eastern Manus Basin of the Bismarck Sea that reaches a depth of 1154 m. It hosts a vigorous and varied hydrothermal system with black and white smoker vents along with several areas of diffuse venting and deposits of native sulfur. Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 and 2011 combined with morphologic features identified from repeated bathymetric surveys in 2002 and 2011 documents the emplacement of a volcanic cryptodome between 2006 and 2011. We use our observations and rock analyses to interpret an eruption scenario where highly viscous, crystal-rich andesitic magma erupted slowly into the water-saturated, gravel-dominated slope of North Su. An intense fragmentation process produced abundant blocky clasts of a heterogeneous magma (olivine crystals within a rhyolitic groundmass) that only rarely breached through the clastic cover onto the seafloor. Phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions beneath the seafloor cause mixing of juvenile and pre-existing lithic clasts and produce a volcaniclastic deposit. This volcaniclastic deposit consists of blocky, non-altered clasts next, variably (1-100%) altered clasts, hydrothermal precipitates and crystal fragments. The usually applied parameters to identify juvenile subaqueous lava fragments, i.e. fluidal shape or chilled margin, were not applicable to distinguish between pre-existing non-altered clasts and juvenile clasts. This deposit is updomed during further injection of magma and mechanical disruption. Gas-propelled turbulent clast-recycling causes clasts to develop variably rounded shapes. An abundance of blocky clasts and the lack of clasts typical for the contact of liquid lava with water is interpreted to be the result of a cooled, high-viscosity, crystal-rich magma that failed as a brittle solid upon stress. The high viscosity allows the lava to form blocky and short lobes. The pervasive volcaniclastic cover on North Su is

  14. The Case for a Smoker's License

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152726

  15. Tobacco Dependence Among Intermittent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Stuart G.; Dunbar, Michael S.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Intermittent smokers (ITS) are an increasingly prevalent segment of smokers, yet it is unknown whether or how dependence severity may vary across ITS. Methods: Participants were 217 ITS (70 never daily ITS [NITS], 138 converted ITS [CITS], and 9 unknown), who smoked 4–27 days per month, and 197 daily smokers (DS), recruited for a study on smoking patterns. Participants completed questionnaires on dependence (time to first cigarette after waking, Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence [FTND], Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale [NDSS], Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives [WISDM], and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist [HONC]) and recorded each cigarette in real time over 3 weeks using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Logistic regression assessed differences in dependence between groups (DS vs. ITS; CITS vs. NITS), and least squares regression examined associations between dependence and smoking behavior (mean, maximum cigarettes per day; proportion of days smoked; longest period of abstinence) within ITS. Results: As expected, DS were significantly more dependent than ITS: FTND, NDSS, and WISDM discriminated between ITS and DS with greater than 90% accuracy. Similarly, among ITS, NITS demonstrated lower dependence than CITS. Within ITS, dependence measures also correlated with observed smoking rate and duration of abstinence. Conclusions: The study confirmed that DS are more dependent than ITS and that CITS are more dependent than NITS. Importantly, ITS exhibit features of dependence, and there is meaningful variation in dependence within ITS, suggesting that some aspects of dependence may appear with very infrequent smoking. Future work should examine implications for ITS’ potential progression to daily smoking and cessation outcome. PMID:22529224

  16. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S, Δ33S, ∆36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on

  17. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S, Δ33S, ∆36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on

  18. Barriers to Telephone Quitline Use Among Methadone-Maintained Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Judith L.; Segal, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Drug users have high rates of tobacco use and tobacco-related disease. Telephone quitlines promote smoking cessation, but their reach among drug users is unknown. We thus aimed to assess utilization of and barriers to telephone quitlines among methadone-maintained smokers. Methods: Subjects were opioid-dependent smokers in Bronx, New York, methadone treatment programs who were enrolled in a clinical trial of varenicline. All subjects were offered referral to a free, proactive quitline. We examined quitline records, surveyed barriers to quitline use, and queried reasons for declining referral. Results: Of the 112 subjects enrolled, 47% were male, 54% were Hispanic, and 28% were Black. All subjects were offered referral, and 25 (22% of study participants) utilized the quitline. Quitline utilizers (vs. nonutilizers) were significantly more likely to have landline phone service (72 vs. 42%, p = .01), interest in quitline participation (92 vs. 62%, p < .01), and willingness to receive calls (96 vs. 76%, p = .02). Nonutilizers were significantly more likely to report cell phone service lapse (38 vs. 14%, p = .04), and difficulty charging cell phones (19 vs. 0%, p = .02). Reasons for quitline refusal included: (a) skepticism of quitline efficacy; (b) aversion to telephone communication; (c) competing life demands (e.g., drug treatment, shelter); and (d) problems with cell phone service or minutes. Conclusions: Despite several limitations to quitline access among methadone-maintained smokers, routine quitline referral was associated with 22% utilization. To expand provision of smoking cessation treatment to opioid-dependent smokers, interventions to promote routine quitline referral in substance abuse treatment programs warrant investigation. PMID:26180217

  19. Unplanned Quitting in a Triethnic Sample of U.S. Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, Ken; Zhou, Yan; Nollen, Nicole L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers who report quitting without prior planning have been shown to report longer abstinence compared with those who planned. Little is known about unplanned quitting (UQ) among U.S. smokers, minorities, or nondaily and light smokers. Methods: Using an online panel, we recruited equal numbers of Black, White, and Latino nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers. Of the 1,127 who reported a past-year quit attempt, we queried whether it was planned and the maximum number of days abstinent. Results: Overall, 38% reported that their last quit attempt was unplanned. The impact of planned versus unplanned quitting interacted with smoking level and race. Among White moderate/heavy smokers, mean days abstinent was 99 for those who reported an unplanned quit attempt compared with 60 days for those who reported a planned attempt (p = .02). Among Black moderate/heavy smokers, the mean days abstinent was higher among those whose last attempt was planned, 92 days, compared with 56 days among those whose last attempt was unplanned (p = .09). The pattern among Latinos resembled Whites but was not significant. Results remained after adjusting for confounds such as age, gender, education, income, time to first cigarette, and menthol use. There were no significant differences in abstinence by quit type for light or nondaily smokers. Conclusions: Future studies are needed to elucidate why UQ appears to have differential effectiveness across racial/ethnic groups and different levels of cigarette use. Research examining the impact of UQ on long-term quitting, which is not addressed here, is needed. PMID:24420329

  20. Contingencies for change in complacent smokers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Morral, Andrew R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Javors, Martin A; Galbicka, Gregory; Iguchi, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The majority of smokers have no plans to quit in the near future. These complacent smokers are less likely to quit than other smokers, and few interventions are known to reduce smoking in this population. Although monetary incentives can reduce complacent smokers' breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels, it is not clear whether these effects can be sustained beyond the several weeks that past studies have examined. The authors compared complacent smokers randomly assigned to receive incentives for BCO reductions (n=18) or noncontingent incentives (n=19) for 3 months. Contingent incentives were associated with (a) reduced BCO; (b) more BCO samples indicative of abstinence; (c) fewer cigarettes smoked and more days abstinent at study end; and (d) lower salivary cotinine. These behaviors can predict future cessation, and 2 of the 18 smokers (11%) receiving BCO-contingent incentives reported quitting as compared with none in the control group. Contingency management procedures, such as those used here, may effectively promote cessation among complacent smokers and provide a model for understanding the possible effects of some environmental interventions (like workplace smoking bans) on the behavior of complacent smokers.

  1. A survey of smoking and quitting patterns among black Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Orleans, C T; Schoenbach, V J; Salmon, M A; Strecher, V J; Kalsbeek, W; Quade, D; Brooks, E F; Konrad, T R; Blackmon, C; Watts, C D

    1989-01-01

    A sample of adult Black policyholders of the nation's largest Black-owned life insurance company was surveyed in 1986 to add to limited data on smoking and quitting patterns among Black Americans, and to provide direction for cessation initiatives targeted to Black smokers. Forty per cent of 2,958 age-eligible policyholders for whom current addresses were available returned a completed questionnaire. Population estimates for smoking status agree closely with national estimates for Blacks age 21-60 years: 50 per cent never-smokers; 36 per cent current smokers; 14 per cent ex-smokers. Current and ex-smokers reported a modal low-rate/high nicotine menthol smoking pattern. Current smokers reported a mean of 3.8 serious quit attempts, a strong desire and intention to quit smoking, and limited past use of effective quit smoking treatments and self-help resources. Correlates of motivation to quit smoking were similar to those found among smokers in the general population, including smoking-related illnesses and medical advice to quit smoking, previous quit attempts, beliefs in smoking-related health harms/quitting benefits, and expected social support for quitting. Methodological limitations and implications for the design of needed Black-focused quit smoking initiatives are discussed. PMID:2913836

  2. [Personality disorders in smokers: a review].

    PubMed

    Fernández del Río, Elena; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

    2010-01-01

    The association between psychopathology and nicotine dependence in smokers has been a relevant topic in recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about personality disorders in smokers. The aim of this article is to review research published nationally and internationally which analyzes the relation between tobacco use and personality disorders. Our review permits us to affirm that research on the presence of Axis II disorders in smokers is rather scarce. Of 12 studies analyzed, it can be concluded that the prevalence of personality disorders in smokers is highly variable (between 9% and 45%), and that, in the majority of the studies, smoking is associated first with the presence of cluster C disorders (dependent, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive), and second, with cluster B disorders (histrionic, narcissistic, borderline and antisocial). Finally, we note the various limitations of previous studies and stress the need to better understand these disorders, given their relevance to the treatment of smokers.

  3. The structures and evolution of Smoker in an ultrasonic field.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lixin; Ying, Chongfu; Li, Chao; Deng, Jingjun

    2012-07-01

    The structures and evolution of Smoker in a 20 kHz ultrasonic field were investigated experimentally with high-speed photography. The spine-plume structure of Smoker was discovered. A few large bubbles align themselves along the central line and form the spine of Smoker. Numerous small bubbles move towards the spine and form the plume structures. The size of large bubbles differs almost by an order of magnitude from that of small bubbles. The evolution of cavitation structure from Flare to Smoker was found. When a Flare appears near a Smoker, the Flare may merge into the plume structures of the Smoker, or form a double-tipped Smoker. A double-tipped Smoker seldom splits into two Smokers, while two separate Smokers tend to merge as one. The large bubbles (or dense plume structures) in the middle part of the two separate Smokers attract each other, driving the two Smokers to bend towards each other and merge.

  4. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has lately been recognized as a unique disease based on rapidly gained knowledge from genomic changes to treatment responses. The focus of this article is on current knowledge and challenges with regard to LCINS expanded from recent reviews highlighting five areas: (1) distribution of LCINS by temporal trends, geographic regions, and populations; (2) three well-recognized environmental risk factors; (3) other plausible environmental risk factors; (4) prior chronic lung diseases and infectious diseases as risk factors; and (5) lifestyles as risk or protective factors. This article will also bring attention to recently published literature in two pioneering areas: (1) histological characteristics, clinical features with emerging new effective therapies, and social and psychological stigma; and (2) searching for susceptibility genes using integrated genomic approaches. PMID:21500120

  5. Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9-10°N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouxel, O.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Bach, W.; Edwards, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    differences between δ56Fe values in both high-temperature, Fe-rich black smokers and lower-temperature, Fe-depleted vents.

  6. Are college student smokers really a homogeneous group? A latent class analysis of college student smokers

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wolfson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: College smokers are often considered to be one homogenous group, those reporting smoking on at least one of the past 30 days. However, considerable heterogeneity exists among college students who report current smoking. The aim of this paper is to characterize disparate patterns of smoking among college students using latent class analysis (LCA). Methods: The sample consisted of 1,102 past-month smokers from 10 colleges in North Carolina who completed a Web-based survey. LCA was used to create homogeneous groups of smokers with similar patterns defined by multiple indicators of smoking behavior, including quantity and frequency of smoking, smoking contexts, and weekly patterns of smoking. Results: Five subclasses of smokers were identified: “heavy smokers” (28%), moderate smokers (22%), social smokers (19%), puffers (26%), and no-context smokers (4%). Demographic characteristics that varied among these subgroups were year in school, Greek membership, and residence location. Puffers were more likely to be younger students than heavy and social smokers, suggesting a transition from experimentation to regular use over time. Social smokers and puffers were more likely to be involved in Greek organizations than were heavy and moderate smokers. Moderate and social smokers were more likely to be current drinkers and to have engaged in binge drinking in the past month than were heavy smokers. This finding suggests that, for moderate and social smokers, a strong relationship exists between alcohol and tobacco use. Discussion: The results highlight the heterogeneity of college student smokers and underscore the need for targeted interventions. PMID:19264866

  7. Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Gittings, H.; Tivey, M. K.

    2003-12-01

    To map out the thermal and chemical regimes within vent deposits where micro-and macro-organisms reside requires accurate modeling of mixing and reaction between hydrothermal fluid and seawater within the vent structures. However, a critical piece of information, quantitative knowledge of the permeability of vent deposits, and how it relates to porosity and pore geometry, is still missing. To address this, systematic laboratory measurements of permeability and porosity were conducted on 3 large vent structures from the Mothra Hydrothermal vent field on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Twenty-five cylindrical cores with diameters of 2.54 cm and various lengths were taken from Phang (a tall sulfide-dominated spire that was not actively venting when sampled), Roane (a lower temperature spire with dense macrofaunal communities growing on its sides that was venting diffuse fluid of < 300° C) and Finn (an active black smoker with a well-defined inner conduit that was venting 302° C fluids prior to recovery (Delaney et al., 2000; Kelley et al, 2000)). Measurements were made to obtain porosity and permeability of these drill cores using a helium porosimeter (UltraPoreTM300) and a nitrogen permeameter (UltrapermTM400) from Core Laboratories Instruments. The porosimeter uses Boyle's law to determine pore volume from the expansion of a know mass of helium into a calibrated sample holder, whereas the permeameter uses Darcy's law to determine permeability by measuring the steady-state flow rate through the sample under a given pressure gradient. A moderate confining pressure of 1.38 MPa was applied during the measurements to prevent leakage between the sample surface and the sample holder. The permeability and porosity relationship is best described by two different power law relationships with exponents of ˜9 (group I) and ˜3 (group II), respectively. Microstructural observations suggest that the difference in the two permeability-porosity relationships

  8. Implications of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project for improving understanding of hydrothermal processes at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating producing geothermal energy from magma-hydrothermal systems at supercritical conditions. This requires drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km where temperatures should be in the range of 450-600°C or higher. Modeling studies suggest producing superheated steam from supercritical temperatures >450°C could increase power output tenfold relative to steam produced from a 300°C reservoir. The first IDDP well was drilled at Krafla within a volcanic caldera in the active rift zone of NE Iceland. At the end of June 2009, drilling was terminated at only 2100 m depth when a >900°C rhyolitic magma flowed into the drill hole. The well was completed with a casing cemented a few meters above the magma. Depending on the result of a planned flow test, there is the possibility of creating the world's hottest "Engineered Geothermal System" by injecting water in a nearby well to produce superheated steam from the magma. An advantage of such a strategy would be that the acidic gases likely to be given off by the magma could be neutralized by injecting suitably treated water. Two new wells, ˜4 km deep, are planned to be drilled during 2010-2012 at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in SW Iceland to explore for supercritical zones. The Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater. This presents an ideal situation to study a high-temperature magma-hydrothermal system at depth analogous to those responsible for the black smokers at submarine divergent plate margins.

  9. Hydrogen and thiosulfate limits for growth of a thermophilic, autotrophic Desulfurobacterium species from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy C; Llewellyn, James G; Butterfield, David A; Lilley, Marvin D; Holden, James F

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal fluids (341°C and 19°C) were collected < 1 m apart from a black smoker chimney and a tubeworm mound on the Boardwalk edifice at the Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean to study anaerobic microbial growth in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Geochemical modelling of mixed vent fluid and seawater suggests the mixture was anoxic above 55°C and that low H2 concentrations (79 μmol kg(-1) in end-member hydrothermal fluid) limit anaerobic hydrogenotrophic growth above this temperature. A thermophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfur reducer, Desulfurobacterium strain HR11, was isolated from the 19°C fluid raising questions about its H2 -dependent growth kinetics. Strain HR11 grew at 40-77°C (Topt 72-75°C), pH 5-8.5 (pHopt 6-7) and 1-5% (wt vol(-1) ) NaCl (NaClopt 3-4%). The highest growth rates occurred when S2 O3 (2-) and S° were reduced to H2 S. Modest growth occurred by NO3 (-) reduction. Monod constants for its growth were Ks of 30 μM for H2 and Ks of 20 μM for S2 O3 (2-) with a μmax of 2.0 h(-1) . The minimum H2 and S2 O3 (2-) concentrations for growth were 3 μM and 5 μM respectively. Possible sources of S2 O3 (2-) and S° are from abiotic dissolved sulfide and pyrite oxidation by O2 . PMID:26696328

  10. Hydrogen and thiosulfate limits for growth of a thermophilic, autotrophic Desulfurobacterium species from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy C; Llewellyn, James G; Butterfield, David A; Lilley, Marvin D; Holden, James F

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal fluids (341°C and 19°C) were collected < 1 m apart from a black smoker chimney and a tubeworm mound on the Boardwalk edifice at the Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean to study anaerobic microbial growth in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Geochemical modelling of mixed vent fluid and seawater suggests the mixture was anoxic above 55°C and that low H2 concentrations (79 μmol kg(-1) in end-member hydrothermal fluid) limit anaerobic hydrogenotrophic growth above this temperature. A thermophilic, hydrogenotrophic sulfur reducer, Desulfurobacterium strain HR11, was isolated from the 19°C fluid raising questions about its H2 -dependent growth kinetics. Strain HR11 grew at 40-77°C (Topt 72-75°C), pH 5-8.5 (pHopt 6-7) and 1-5% (wt vol(-1) ) NaCl (NaClopt 3-4%). The highest growth rates occurred when S2 O3 (2-) and S° were reduced to H2 S. Modest growth occurred by NO3 (-) reduction. Monod constants for its growth were Ks of 30 μM for H2 and Ks of 20 μM for S2 O3 (2-) with a μmax of 2.0 h(-1) . The minimum H2 and S2 O3 (2-) concentrations for growth were 3 μM and 5 μM respectively. Possible sources of S2 O3 (2-) and S° are from abiotic dissolved sulfide and pyrite oxidation by O2 .

  11. [Sensitivity of cough with capsaicin in smokers].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Cetin Aydin; Celik, Pinar; Havlucu, Yavuz; Coşkun, Evşen; Yorgancioğlu, Arzu; Sakar, Ayşin; Dinç, Gönül

    2008-01-01

    In this study, effect of long term smoking on sensitivity of cough reflex was investigated. Healthy, current smoker male and female was evaluated by capsaicin cough challenge test and they were compared with healthy, non-smoker persons with similar age and gender, prospectively. In current smokers, there were 50 male and 39 female, in non-smoker control group, there were 20 male and 21 female. Mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker and non-smoker groups and mean and log C5 dosage in current smoker according to gender were calculated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results of capsaicin cough challenge test in current and non-smoker groups were evaluated by using Pearson Chi-Square test and Fisher's Exact test. In current smokers comparison of results of capsaicin cough challenge test with smoking history (age with first smoking, duration, pocket year and smoking per day) was evaluated by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in current smokers when they were compared to control group (p< 0.00). In current smoker group mean C5 and mean log C5 dosage were found decreased in male (p< 0.002). When the results of capsaicin cough challenge test were compared between current smoker and control groups, sensitivity of cough reflex in concentration with 0.49, 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6 microM was significantly decreased in current smoker group. Also there was a significant correlation between concentration with 0.98, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6, 31.2 microM, and duration of smoking and pocket year of smoking. Also there was a correlation between concentration with 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125 microM and smoking per day. This results were correlated with hypothesis about inhibition of C-fibers with nicotin or decrease of C-fibers' sensitivity due to induction of neuropeptide wasting. PMID:18330750

  12. Evidence for deep sea hydrothermal fluid-mineral equilibrium from multiple S isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J.

    2010-12-01

    The multiple sulfur isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids and associated sulfide mineral deposits collected in 2006 in the eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea, provide an opportunity to better understand the processes of mineral precipitation, pore fluid composition, chemosynthetic energy sources, and metal-rich ore deposition in a felsic-hosted back arc hydrothermal system. Recent advances in multiple-stable isotope analytical techniques now enable the precise determination of all four stable isotopes of sulfur in hydrothermal vent fluids and co-precipitated sulfide mineral deposits, which may be used as a tracer to distinguish between sulfide derived from igneous rock, microbial sulfate reduction, and thermochemical reduction of seawater sulfate [1]. Multiple-stable isotopes of sulfur may also help constrain the relative contribution of sulfur derived by degassing of magmatic SO2 and sedimentary sulfide mineral inputs, as either process could generate the isotopically light δ34S (< 0‰) observed in some vent fluids, chalcopyrite chimney linings, and native sulfur collected at Manus Basin. We have analyzed the sulfur isotopic composition of high temperature black smoker vent fluid and associated chalcopyrite lining the inner walls of active conduits from two vent fields within the Manus Basin, including PACMANUS, located on the neovolcanic Pual ridge, and vents on discrete volcanic domes at SuSu Knolls. Preliminary results yield vent fluid δ34SH2S values ranging from -4.89 ± 0.02 to 5.41 ± 0.01, which closely match coexisting inner wall δ34Schalcopyrite values, ranging from -4.43 ± 0.01 to 5.64 ± 0.01. These results contrast with previous studies that report systematic differences in vent fluid δ34SH2S and sulfide minerals from the inner conduits of chimney structures [1, 2, 3]. The Δ33SH2S values of vent fluids range from -0.031 ± 0.027 to 0.011 ± 0.016, and those of chalcopyrite range from -0.042 ± 0.012 to 0.012 ± 0.010. Preliminary results

  13. Evaluation of young smokers and non-smokers with Electrogustometry and Contact Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pavlos, Pavlidis; Vasilios, Nikolaidis; Antonia, Anogeianaki; Dimitrios, Koutsonikolas; Georgios, Kekes; Georgios, Anogianakis

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking is the cause of inducing changes in taste functionality under conditions of chronic exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate taste sensitivity in young smokers and non-smokers and identify any differences in the shape, density and vascularisation of the fungiform papillae (fPap) of their tongue. Methods Sixty-two male subjects who served in the Greek military forces were randomly chosen for this study. Thirty-four were non-smokers and 28 smokers. Smokers were chosen on the basis of their habit to hold the cigarette at the centre of their lips. Taste thresholds were measured with Electrogustometry (EGM). The morphology and density of the fungiform papillae (fPap) at the tip of the tongue were examined with Contact Endoscopy (CE). Results There was found statistically important difference (p < 0.05) between the taste thresholds of the two groups although not all smokers presented with elevated taste thresholds: Six of them (21%) had taste thresholds similar to those of non-smokers. Differences concerning the shape and the vessels of the fungiform papillae between the groups were also detected. Fewer and flatter fPap were found in 22 smokers (79%). Conclusion The majority of smokers shown elevated taste thresholds in comparison to non-smokers. Smoking is an important factor which can lead to decreased taste sensitivity. The combination of methods, such as EGM and CE, can provide useful information about the vascularisation of taste buds and their functional ability. PMID:19695082

  14. Response of choroidal blood flow to carbogen breathing in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wimpissinger, B; Resch, H; Berisha, F; Weigert, G; Schmetterer, L; Polak, K

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate a potential difference in ocular vascular reactivity during carbogen breathing in optic nerve head, choroid, and retina between healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods: 25 (13 smokers and 12 non-smokers) healthy male volunteers participated in this observer masked, two cohort study. During inhalation of carbogen (5% CO2 and 95% O2) over 10 minutes measurements were taken using laser Doppler flowmetry to assess submacular choroidal and optic nerve head blood flow, laser interferometry to assess fundus pulsation amplitudes, and retinal vessel analyser (RVA) to assess retinal vessel diameters. Results: At baseline choroidal blood flow was higher (p = 0.018, ANOVA) in smokers than in non-smokers. During administration of carbogen the response in choroidal blood flow was significantly different between the two groups: there was an increase in non-smokers after carbogen breathing (p = 0.048) compared with relatively stable blood flow in smokers (p = 0.049 between groups, ANOVA). A similar response pattern was seen for fundus pulsation amplitude, which increased notably after carbogen breathing in non-smokers but not in smokers (p<0.001 between groups, ANOVA). Optic nerve head blood flow and retinal vessel diameters were reduced in both groups to a comparable degree during carbogen breathing. Conclusion: The study indicated abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers. These early haemodynamic changes may be related to the increased risk to smokers of developing ocular vascular diseases. The specific mechanisms underlying abnormal choroidal vascular reactivity in chronic smokers remain to be characterised. PMID:15148211

  15. Comparative metagenomics of microbial communities inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys with contrasting chemistries

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Wang, Fengping; Guo, Lei; Chen, Zeling; Sievert, Stefan M; Meng, Jun; Huang, Guangrui; Li, Yuxin; Yan, Qingyu; Wu, Shan; Wang, Xin; Chen, Shangwu; He, Guangyuan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Anlong

    2011-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys harbor a high diversity of largely unknown microorganisms. Although the phylogenetic diversity of these microorganisms has been described previously, the adaptation and metabolic potential of the microbial communities is only beginning to be revealed. A pyrosequencing approach was used to directly obtain sequences from a fosmid library constructed from a black smoker chimney 4143-1 in the Mothra hydrothermal vent field at the Juan de Fuca Ridge. A total of 308 034 reads with an average sequence length of 227 bp were generated. Comparative genomic analyses of metagenomes from a variety of environments by two-way clustering of samples and functional gene categories demonstrated that the 4143-1 metagenome clustered most closely with that from a carbonate chimney from Lost City. Both are highly enriched in genes for mismatch repair and homologous recombination, suggesting that the microbial communities have evolved extensive DNA repair systems to cope with the extreme conditions that have potential deleterious effects on the genomes. As previously reported for the Lost City microbiome, the metagenome of chimney 4143-1 exhibited a high proportion of transposases, implying that horizontal gene transfer may be a common occurrence in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In addition, genes for chemotaxis and flagellar assembly were highly enriched in the chimney metagenomes, reflecting the adaptation of the organisms to the highly dynamic conditions present within the chimney walls. Reconstruction of the metabolic pathways revealed that the microbial community in the wall of chimney 4143-1 was mainly fueled by sulfur oxidation, putatively coupled to nitrate reduction to perform inorganic carbon fixation through the Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle. On the basis of the genomic organization of the key genes of the carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation pathways contained in the large genomic fragments, both obligate and facultative

  16. Sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic smokers.

    PubMed

    Selit, I; Basha, M; Maraee, A; El-Naby, S H; Nazeef, N; El-Mehrath, R; Mostafa, T

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) smokers. In all, 140 subjects were included and classified into fertile nonsmokers, fertile smokers, OAT nonsmokers and OAT smokers. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, assessment of sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities. The results showed that an increased percentage of abnormal sperm DNA and RNA was demonstrated in fertile smokers compared with fertile nonsmokers and in OAT smokers compared with OAT nonsmokers. Increased percentage of severe, moderate sperm DNA and RNA damage was demonstrated in fertile heavy smokers compared with fertile light smokers and in OAT heavy smokers compared with OAT light smokers. It is concluded that smoking has a negative impact on sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities that is accentuated in heavy smokers compared with light smokers.

  17. Evaluation of Vibration Response Imaging (VRI) Technique and Difference in VRI Indices Among Non-Smokers, Active Smokers, and Passive Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongying; Chen, Jichao; Cao, Jinying; Mu, Lan; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a new technology for lung imaging. Active smokers and non-smokers show differences in VRI findings, but no data are available for passive smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of VRI and to assess the differences in VRI findings among non-smokers, active smokers, and passive smokers. Material/Methods Healthy subjects (n=165: 63 non-smokers, 56 active smokers, and 46 passive smokers) with normal lung function were enrolled. Medical history, physical examination, lung function test, and VRI were performed for all subjects. Correlation between smoking index and VRI scores (VRIS) were performed. Results VRI images showed progressive and regressive stages representing the inspiratory and expiratory phases bilaterally in a vertical and synchronized manner in non-smokers. Vibration energy curves with low expiratory phase and plateau were present in 6.35% and 3.17%, respectively, of healthy non-smokers, 41.07% and 28.60% of smokers, and 39.13% and 30.43% of passive smokers, respectively. The massive energy peak in the non-smokers, smokers, and passive-smokers was 1.77±0.27, 1.57±0.29, and 1.66±0.33, respectively (all P<0.001). A weak but positive correlation was observed between VRIS and smoking index. Conclusions VRI can intuitively show the differences between non-smokers and smokers. VRI revealed that passive smoking can also harm the lungs. VRI could be used to visually persuade smokers to give up smoking. PMID:26212715

  18. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

  19. METEORIC-HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, Robert E.; Taylor, Hugh P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the salient characteristics of meteoric-hydrothermal systems, emphasing the isotopic systematics. Discussions of permeable-medium fluid dynamics and the geology and geochemistry of modern geothermal systems are also provided, because they are essential to any understanding of hydrothermal circulation. The main focus of the paper is on regions of ancient meteoric-hydrothermal activity, which give us information about the presently inaccessible, deep-level parts of modern geothermal systems. It is shown oxygen and hydrogen isotopes provide a powerful method to discover and map fossil hydrothermal systems and to investigate diverse associated aspects of rock alteration and ore deposition.

  20. [The comparative test of nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Alfaro Monge, J M; Soda Merhy, A

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the changes produced in the nasal respiratory epithelium in individuals with an important smoking habit. The purpose of this study is to compare the nasal mucociliary function in healthy subjects, smokers and non-smokers. The nasal mucociliary transport of aspartame particles was measured in 50 healthy non-smokers and in 50 healthy smokers under similar conditions. The average time taken for the displacement of the test substance from the middle third of the inferior turbinate to the oropharynx was found to be in the smokers 13.62 min., and in the non-smokers, 10.34 min. The results were compared using student's "t" test and a significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between both groups. This result is taken as a simple clinical test that evaluates the smoking effects on the nasal mucociliary function.

  1. Mapping the Piccard Hydrothermal Field - The World's Deepest Known Vent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, J. C.; German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    We report the recent mapping and exploration of the Piccard Hydrothermal Field on the Mid-Cayman Rise. Two previous expeditions in 2009 and 2010 led to the discovery of the site, which at 5000m hosts the world's deepest known vents. The site was mapped and explored in January 2012 and the Piccard Field was found to be larger than previously appreciated. The site includes 3 separate currently active hydrothermal mounts together with 4 additional extinct depo-centers. The 3 active centers are the Beebe Vents, Beebe Woods, and Beebe Sea sites. Beebe Vents is an active black smoker system with maximum temperatures of 400-403 degrees Celsius. Beebe Woods contains a set of tall beehive smokers with temperatures of approximately 353 degrees Celsius. Beebe Sea, the largest sulfide mound in the field, contains diffuse venting together with numerous extinct chimneys that indicate significant past active focused flow. Observations of the 4 extinct mounds indicate differences in their apparent ages based on the texture and morphology of the extinct sulfides at the summit of each mound. The entire field is located on top of an axial volcanic ridge with extrusive pillow mounds prominent. A major fault traverses the mound along its long axis, from Southwest to Northeast. Beebe Woods, Beebe Sea, and extinct Beebe mound D abut this fault directly with an apparent monotonic age progression from youngest (Beebe Woods) in the SW to relict mound 'D' in the NE. Similarly, the Beebe Vents site and mound is located at the SW limit of a parallel set of mounds, offset from the fault by approximately 100m, which also ages progressively through extinct Beebe Mounds 'E', 'F' and 'G'. The major fault that bisects the axial volcanic ridge at Piccard evidently serves as a controlling mechanism for the mounds abutting that fault however the mechanism for the second line of mounds remains to be determined. Bathymetry suggests the presence of a second, smaller fault which may serve as the control

  2. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  3. In situ Raman-based detections of the hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Du, Zengfeng; Zheng, Ronger; Luan, Zhendong; Qi, Fujun; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Bing; Ye, Wangquan; Liu, Xiaorui; Chen, Changan; Guo, Jinjia; Li, Ying; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, and their associated biological communities play an important role in global carbon and sulphur biogeochemical cycles. Most of the studies of fluid composition geochemistry are based on recovered samples, both with gas-tight samplers and as open specimens, but the in situ conditions are difficult to maintain in recovered samples. Determination in situ of the chemical signals of the emerging fluids are challenging due to the high pressure, often strongly acidic and temperature in which few sensors can survive. Most of those sensors used so far are based on electrochemistry, and can typically detect only a few chemical species. Here we show that direct measurement of critical chemical species of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps can be made rapidly and in situ by means of a new hybrid version of earlier deep-sea pore water Raman probe carried on the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian. The fluid was drawn through the probe by actuating a hydraulic pump on the ROV, and measured at the probe optical cell through a sapphire window. We have observed the concentrations of H2S, HS‑, SO42‑, HSO4‑, CO2, and H2 in hydrothermal vent fluids from the Pacmanus and Desmos vent systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea. Two black smokers (279° C and 186° C) at the Pacmanus site showed the characteristic loss of SO42‑, and the increase of CO2 and well resolved H2S and HS‑ peaks. At the white smoker of Onsen site the strong HSO4‑peak observed at high temperature quickly dropped with strong accompanying increase of SO42‑and H2 peaks when the sample contained in the Raman sensing cell was removed from the hot fluid due to rapid thermal deprotonation. We report here also the finding of a new lower temperature (88° C) white smoker "Kexue" field at the Desmos site with strong H2S, HS‑ and CO2 signals. We also have detected the concentrations of CH4,H2S, HS‑, SO42‑, and S8 in cold seep fluids and the surrounding

  4. In situ Raman-based detections of the hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Du, Zengfeng; Zheng, Ronger; Luan, Zhendong; Qi, Fujun; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Bing; Ye, Wangquan; Liu, Xiaorui; Chen, Changan; Guo, Jinjia; Li, Ying; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, and their associated biological communities play an important role in global carbon and sulphur biogeochemical cycles. Most of the studies of fluid composition geochemistry are based on recovered samples, both with gas-tight samplers and as open specimens, but the in situ conditions are difficult to maintain in recovered samples. Determination in situ of the chemical signals of the emerging fluids are challenging due to the high pressure, often strongly acidic and temperature in which few sensors can survive. Most of those sensors used so far are based on electrochemistry, and can typically detect only a few chemical species. Here we show that direct measurement of critical chemical species of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps can be made rapidly and in situ by means of a new hybrid version of earlier deep-sea pore water Raman probe carried on the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian. The fluid was drawn through the probe by actuating a hydraulic pump on the ROV, and measured at the probe optical cell through a sapphire window. We have observed the concentrations of H2S, HS-, SO42-, HSO4-, CO2, and H2 in hydrothermal vent fluids from the Pacmanus and Desmos vent systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea. Two black smokers (279° C and 186° C) at the Pacmanus site showed the characteristic loss of SO42-, and the increase of CO2 and well resolved H2S and HS- peaks. At the white smoker of Onsen site the strong HSO4-peak observed at high temperature quickly dropped with strong accompanying increase of SO42-and H2 peaks when the sample contained in the Raman sensing cell was removed from the hot fluid due to rapid thermal deprotonation. We report here also the finding of a new lower temperature (88° C) white smoker "Kexue" field at the Desmos site with strong H2S, HS- and CO2 signals. We also have detected the concentrations of CH4,H2S, HS-, SO42-, and S8 in cold seep fluids and the surrounding sediment pore water from

  5. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  6. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers.

    PubMed

    Woud, Marcella L; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  7. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  8. Noble Gas geochemistry of the newly discovered hydrothermal fields in the Gulf of California: preliminary He-isotope ratios from the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero basin vent sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spelz, R. M.; Lupton, J. E.; Evans, L. J.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Neumann, F.; Paduan, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous submarine deep-sea hydrothermal vents related to volcanic activity of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) are situated along the Pacific margins of Mexico. Until recently, active hydrothermal venting was unknown between the Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the EPR. MBARI's recent oceanographic surveys have added 7 new active vent sites. In this study, we aimed to sample the high-temperature hydrothermal fluids emanating from two distinct vent sites, named Meyibo and Auka, located in the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero Basin, respectively. Mantle-derived He have long been identified in hydrothermal fluid releases. The presence of He in aqueous fluids with 3He/4He ratios greater than in-situ production values (~0.05 RA, where RA = air He or 1.4 x 10-6) indicates the presence of mantle-derived melts. Preliminary analyses of He-isotope ratios derived from the newly discovered Meyibo and Auka hydrothermal fields show high 3He/4He ratios (~8RA), typical of MORB's. Auka vent field, characterized by chimneys composed of light carbonate minerals and oil-like hydrocarbons, and temperatures between 250-290oC, show average values of ~7.87RA. In contrast, the black-smokers at the Meyibo field, composed of dark sulfide minerals and temperatures over 350oC, yielded a higher He ratio of ~8.24RA. Recently, it has become clear that regional maximum mantle He values correlate with the velocity structure in the mantle, therefore, He has the potential to map regions of the underlying mantle that are undergoing partial melting. Seismic records could then be compared with the geochemical He ratio signal and supply information regarding tectonics and other processes involved in the generation of these gases. The data presented here will be completing a totally new inventory of He results from hydrothermal vents in the EPR and fault-termination basins distributed along the P-NA plate boundary in the Gulf of California. The results will be further coupled with the analysis of other geochemical

  9. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  10. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lüdicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations – lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count – both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α – higher in smokers) and platelet activation (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 – higher in smokers) (p ≤ 0.0001). These results provide further evidence showing that cardiovascular biomarkers can discriminate smokers from non-smokers, and could be used to evaluate the risks associated with tobacco products. PMID:26616146

  11. Beliefs and attitudes about lung cancer screening among smokers.

    PubMed

    Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Bergamo, Cara; Lin, Jenny J; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Diefenbach, Michael; Smith, Cardinale; Nelson, Judith E; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2012-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) recently reported that annual computed tomography (CT) screening is associated with decreased lung cancer mortality in high-risk smokers. Beliefs about lung cancer and screening, particularly across race and ethnicity, and their influence on CT screening utilization are largely unexamined. Our study recruited asymptomatic, high-risk smokers, 55-74 years of age from primary care clinics in an academic urban hospital. Guided by the self-regulation theory, we evaluated cognitive and affective beliefs about lung cancer. Intention to screen for lung cancer with a CT scan was assessed by self-report. We used univariate and logistic regression analyses to compare beliefs about screening and intention to screen among minority (Blacks and Hispanics) and non-minority participants. Overall, we enrolled 108 participants, of which 40% were Black and 34% were Hispanic; the mean age was 62.3 years, and median pack-years of smoking was 26. We found that intention to screen was similar among minorities and non-minorities (p=0.19); however, Hispanics were less likely to report intention to screen if they had to pay for the test (p=0.02). Fatalistic beliefs, fear of radiation exposure, and anxiety related to CT scans were significantly associated with decreased intention to screen (p<0.05). Several differences were observed in minority versus non-minority participants' beliefs toward lung cancer and screening. In conclusion, we found that concerns about cost, which were particularly prominent among Hispanics, as well as fatalism and radiation exposure fears may constitute barriers to lung cancer screening. Lung cancer screening programs should address these factors to ensure broad participation, particularly among minorities.

  12. Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

  13. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  14. Nicotine concentrations in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Feyerabend, C; Higenbottam, T; Russell, M A

    1982-01-01

    Nicotine concentrations were measured in saliva and urine samples collected from 82 smokers and 56 non-smokers after a morning at work. Each subject answered a series of questions related to their recent intentional or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. All non-smokers had measurable amounts of nicotine in both saliva and urine. Those non-smokers who reported recent exposure to tobacco smoke had significantly higher nicotine concentrations (p less than 0.001) than those who had not been exposed; their concentrations overlapped those of smokers who had smoked up to three cigarettes before sampling had the greatest influence on nicotine concentrations (r=0.62 for saliva and r=0.51 for urine). Neither the nicotine for yield of cigarettes nor the self-reported degree of inhalation had any significant effect on nicotine concentrations. PMID:6802384

  15. Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, D.

    Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years) of solar nergy was discovered. Besides the spectacular and unexpected communities of invertebrates based on symbiotic associations with chemo-litho-autotrophic bacteria, prokaryotic communities associated with high temperature black smokers fascinated microbiologists of extreme environments. Within mineral structures where temperature gradients may fluctuate from ambient seawater temperatures (2°C) up to 350°C, thermophilic (optimal growth above 60°C) and hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80°C) microorganisms thrived under very severe conditions due to elevated hydrostatic pressure, toxic compounds or strong ionizing radiations. These organisms belong to both domains of Bacteria and Archaea and live aerobically but mostly anaerobically, using a variety of inorganic and organic carbon sources, and a variety of electron donnors and acceptors as well. The most thermophilic organism known on Earth was isolated from a mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrotermal vent: Pyrolobus fumarii grows optimally at 110°c and its upper temperature limit for life is 113°C. Such an organism survived to autoclaving conditions currently used for sterilization procedures. Many other hyperthermophilic organisms were isolated and described, including fermenters, sulphate and sulphur reducers, hydrogen oxidizers, nitrate reducers, methanogens, etc. Although most of anaerobes are killed when exposed to oxygen, several deep-sea hyperthermophiles appeared to survive to both oxygen and starvation exposures, indicating that they probably can colonize rather distant environments Because of elevated hydrostatic pressure that exists at

  16. Modeling the Growth of Hyperthermophiles in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Diffuse Fluids and Sulfide Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ver Eecke, H. C.; Oslowski, D. M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008 and 2009, 534 hydrothermal fluid samples and 5 actively-venting black smoker chimneys were collected using Alvin for correlative microbiological and chemical analyses as part of the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano Geochemistry and Ecology Research (EAGER) program. Hyperthermophilic, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers, methanogens, and sulfur-reducing heterotrophs were enriched for at 85 and 95°C using most-probable-number estimates from 28 diffuse fluid and 8 chimney samples. Heterotrophs were the most abundant of the three groups in both diffuse fluids and black-smoker chimneys. Iron reducers were more abundant than methanogens, and more abundant in sulfide-hosted vents than in basalt-hosted vents. Fluid chemistry suggests that there is net biogenic methanogenesis at the Marker 113/62 diffuse vent at Axial Volcano but nowhere else sampled. The growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens and heterotrophs was modeled in the lab using pure cultures. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii grew at 82°C in a 2-liter reactor with continuous gas flow at H2 concentrations between 20 and 225 µM with a H2 km of 100 µM. Correlating H2 end-member mixing curves from vent fluids and seawater with our laboratory modeling study suggests that H2 concentrations are limiting for Methanocaldococcus growth at most Mothra, Main Field, and High Rise vent sites at Endeavour but sufficient to support growth at some Axial Volcano vents. Therefore, hyperthermophilic methanogens may depend on H2 syntrophy at low H2 sites. Twenty-one pure hyperthermophilic heterotroph strains each grew on α-1,4 and β-1,4 linked sugars and polypeptides with concomitant H2 production. The H2 production rate (cell-1 doubling-1) for Pyrococcus furiosus at 95°C without sulfur was 29 fmol, 36 fmol, and 53 fmol for growth on α-1,4 sugars, β-1,4 sugars, and peptides, respectively. The CH4 production rate for M. jannaschii was 390 fmol cell-1 doubling-1; therefore, we estimate that it would take approximately

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Walton, Richard I.

    2012-05-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

  18. Time-series studies of hydrothermal flux following the EPR 9N 2006 Eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C.; Manganini, S.; Adams, D.; Rouxel, O.; Edwards, K.; Shank, T.; Mullineaux, L.

    2006-12-01

    Investigating a volcanic eruption and its aftermath has been a major goal for Ridge 2000. One model for a general case (e.g. Butterfield et al., 1997) proposes that, following a volcanic eruption, a vapor-phase is expelled first, followed by emission of a "brine" phase which may relax back to "normal" black smoker fluids. In response to the recent eruptions at 9°47-55N EPR we deployed two sediment traps close to the seafloor at latitudes corresponding to the Tica and Bio9 vents. The traps were initially deployed for 6 weeks and collected 21 fresh samples each at 2 day intervals (Cruise PI: J.Cowen, U.Hawaii), May 16 through June 27. These traps were then re-deployed during a 2nd response cruise in June-July 2006 (K.Von Damm, PI) for further servicing in Fall 2006 (A.Thurnherr: Cruise PI). From October 2006, a full suite of 5 time-series sediment traps will be deployed on current meter moorings spanning 9°10-50N with a long-term goal to investigate the cycling of Fe and its impact on ocean biogeochemistry in two contrasting (Fe-rich vs Fe & H2S-rich) hydrothermal systems, in both buoyant and non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes. A first priority, however, is to investigate how near-field hydrothermal fluxes vary in the short term following a volcanic eruption. At Tica and Bio9, mass fluxes showed a significant change in plume fall-out, common to both sites, around day 14 of the deployments (May 30th). Prior to that, fluxes to both traps were 5-10mg.m-2.dy-1 but, following May 30th, this increased to ca.20mg.m-2.dy-1 through 13 June, decreasing once more to ca.15mg.m-2.dy-1 (i.e. still significantly greater than the initial 2 weeks of sampling) during the final sampling period (June 13-27). What caused this change in mass flux? To address that question we will present compositional variations on a weekly basis for: organic and inorganic carbon, Fe, Mn, Mg, Al, Si & Ca.

  19. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p < 0.05). The frequency domain analysis showed an increase in the LF and LF/HF components with a subsequent decrease in the HF component. The HRV features were analyzed for classification of the smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  20. How do smokers control their cigarette expenditures?

    PubMed

    White, Victoria M; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2005-08-01

    When faced with high cigarette prices, smokers can potentially control cigarette expenditures by limiting consumption or seeking cheaper cigarettes. The present study examined both these options and whether the use of price-minimizing strategies (the second option) could counteract a further price increase without smokers having to reduce consumption. Data for 5,109 smokers who purchased manufactured cigarettes were from the 2002 cross-sectional, population-based, random-digit-dialed California Tobacco Survey. We used logistic regression to examine which smokers used consumption-limiting or price-minimizing strategies, and multiple linear regression to determine how much price-minimizing strategies reduced the average price paid per pack. Overall, 32.3% of California smokers said they limited consumption and 74.1% used at least one of the five price-minimizing strategies identified: choosing cheaper retail outlets (61.1%), using promotional offers (35.2%), choosing cheaper brands (28.7%), purchasing by the carton (27.7%), and using low-tax or nontaxed sources (6.3%). Different groups of smokers used different strategies. Except for the use of promotional offers, all price-minimizing strategies significantly reduced the price paid per pack. Carton purchasers saved 1.01 US dollars/pack, and those buying from low-tax or nontaxed sources saved 1.23 US dollars/pack. However, pack buyers were reluctant to purchase cartons, mostly because they thought they might smoke too much, or because they considered the upfront cost unaffordable. The average California smoker could potentially save 0.33-0.66 US dollars/pack or 6.00-12.00 US dollars/month by using other price-minimizing strategies. Reducing consumption by 3 cigarettes/day could save a smoker 18.00 US dollars/month. Whereas price-minimizing strategies appeared to save money, cutting consumption could save even more. Thus further substantial tax increases would likely have the desired effect. PMID:16085532

  1. Cryopreservation increases DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of smokers.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Serif; Senturk, Gozde Erkanli; Ercan, Feriha

    2013-05-01

    Smoking causes subfertility due to deterioration of spermatozoa including decreased concentration and abnormal morphology. Although evidence on the deleterious effects of smoking on spermatozoa parameters is well known, its interference with cryopreservation is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cryopreservation on sperm parameters and DNA fragmentation in non-smokers and smokers. Semen samples were obtained from 40 normospermic male volunteers of whom 20 were non-smokers and 20 smokers. Samples were analyzed in terms of motility, concentration, morphology, and DNA fragmentation before freezing and 1 and 3 months after freezing and thawing. Ultrastructural alterations were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Sperm morphology seemed to be more affected after cryopreservation in samples obtained from smokers. Ultrastructural examination showed alterations in the integrity of the membranes and increased subacrosomal swelling. Before freezing, the increase in DNA fragmentation rate in smokers was not statistically significant compared to that of non-smokers. However, after thawing, the DNA fragmentation rates were significantly high in both non-smokers and smokers compared to their respective rates before freezing. The extent of the increase in DNA fragmentation rate was significantly higher in smokers after thawing compared to that of non-smokers. In conclusion, cryopreservation causes alterations in membrane integrity and increases DNA fragmentation, thus triggering relatively negative effects on the sperm samples of smokers compared to that of non-smokers.

  2. The Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases on Purchasing Behaviors Among New York City Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Micaela H.; Chan, Christina A.; Mbamalu, Ijeoma G.; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between cigarette excise tax increases and tax-avoidant purchasing behaviors among New York City adult smokers. Methods. We analyzed data from the city’s annual Community Health Survey to assess changes in rates of tax avoidance over time (2003–2010) and smokers’ responses to the 2008 state cigarette tax increase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of buying more cigarettes on the street in response to the increase. Results. After the 2002 tax increase, the percentage of smokers engaged in tax-avoidant behavior decreased with time from 30% in 2003 to 13% in 2007. Following the 2008 tax increase, 21% of smokers reported buying more cigarettes from another person on the street. Low-income, younger, Black, and Hispanic smokers were more likely than respondents with other sociodemographic characteristics to purchase more cigarettes on the street. Conclusions. To maximize public health impact, cigarette tax increases should be paired with efforts to limit the flow of untaxed cigarettes entering jurisdictions with high cigarette pack prices. PMID:23597382

  3. Distribution of Particulates in Hydrothermal Plumes of the Endeavour Axial Valley: Preliminary Results from the Sea Breeze Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, T. H.; McDuff, R. E.; Robigou, V.; Stahr, F.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent plumes provide zones for chemical reactions between vent fluids and seawater, potential habitats for anaerobic bacteria and zooplankton, and a probable mechanism for the dispersal of vent larvae. Within the Endeavour Integrated Study Site are five known vent fields situated along the axial valley of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (N.E. Pacific Ocean). Each of these fields has a particle rich neutrally buoyant plume above it almost constantly, a common characteristic of vent systems worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) how plume particle distribution varies along the Endeavour segment axial valley; 2) whether a correlation exists between vent activity and particle density in the surrounding water, and 3) if the peak signals in backscatter and light transmission fall within a consistent range of potential density values along the axial valley. Light transmission and backscatter data were collected from vertically oscillating CTD casts at 21 stations along the axial valley covering the fields of Mothra, Main Endeavour, High Rise, Salty Dawg, and Sasquatch during the Sea Breeze - REVEL 2004 seagoing program. Plume particle density within ocean water was measured using a Wetlabs transmissometer and a Seapoint turbidity sensor. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between "black smoker" activity and signal strength in backscatter and light transmission. Main Endeavour and High Rise, known to exhibit the most rigorous hydrothermal activity, show correspondingly high amplitude signals in both backscatter and light transmission. Predicted diurnal currents seem to effect lateral plume particle movement away from vent sources, greatly impacting the particle density in surrounding areas. Peak signals in backscatter and light transmission occur in less dense water moving northward from Mothra to Salty Dawg.

  4. Geological setting of hydrothermal activity at 12°50'N on the East Pacific Rise: A submersible study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, R. D.; Hekinian, Roger; Francheteau, Jean

    1984-07-01

    A detailed submersible investigation of a 20-km segment of the East Pacific Rise near 12°50'N between the Orozco and Clipperton fracture zones has resulted in the localization of 24 active hydrothermal vent fields and over 80 sites of sulfide accumulations. The active vents range from low-temperature vents characterized by exotic benthic communities to high-temperature "black smokers" and the deposition of polymetallic sulfides. The study is based upon a combination of fine scale topography obtained using the SEABEAM sonar system on N/O "Jean Charcot", camera lowerings along the axis using the RAIE vehicle, and 32 dives by the submersible "Cyana" operating from N/O "Le Suroit". The observations made between the Orozco and Clipperton fracture zones show topographic highs situated along the strike of the accreting plate segment separated by a small ridge offset at 11°49'N. This offset divides this portion of the ridge into two separate spreading segments each of which has a primary topographic high along strike. Secondary highs are associated with each segment of the ridge separated by either small offsets (or relay zones) or in some cases, zones where spreading centers overlap. Dives made on the tops of both primary highs (12°50'N and 11°30'N) confirm the presence inferred from previous surface work of high-temperature vent fields while one reconnaissance dive (14°20'N) near the Orozco fracture zone/ridge axis intersection reveals the absence of any hydrothermal activity in the present or recent past. The vast majority of vent fields investigated were found at the topographic high near 12°50'N, are associated with the most recent period of volcanism, and are confined to lava ponds situated within the axial graben.

  5. Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doe, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best

  6. Probing the characteristics of metal- and sulfide-binding proteins in hydrothermal vent polychaetes using HPLC/IES-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Martineu, P.; Juniper, S.K.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Thompson, J.

    1995-12-31

    Alvinellids polychaetes colonizing the surfaces of black smokers from Eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents occupy extreme environments with high levels of heavy metals and sulfide. Investigations of mechanisms that enable them to tolerate these extreme conditions indicate sulfide-binding capacity in the blood serum of Paralvinella palmiformis and accumulation of heavy metals in their tissues. A need to characterize metal-binding proteins lead the authors to improve purification and separation of metallothioneins (MTs) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS). A first separation step of small proteins from crude homogenates of worm tissues is performed on a size exclusion column following by accurate molecular weight identification with on-line LC-MS. This powerful technique has refined separation of isoform MT standards and weight characterization, and has provided an analytical tool to analyze metal-binding proteins from vent polychaetes. The authors are also applying this technique to separation of sulfide-binding proteins in blood serum and to identify ligands involved in sulfide detoxication and transport.

  7. Cardiac autonomic function in healthy young smokers.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Alim; Ayhan, Suzi Selim; Öztürk, Serkan; Özlü, Mehmet Fatih; Alcelik, Aytekin; Sahin, Safak; Tosun, Mehmet; Erdem, Fatma Hizal; Gumustekin, Kenan; Yazici, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the heart rate turbulence (HRT) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in healthy young smokers (<40 years) to assess the effects of smoking on cardiac autonomic function. The study included 75 smokers with a history of habitual smoking for at least 1 year (41 males and 34 females; mean age, 29.3 ± 7.3 years) and 30 nonsmokers (hospital staff; 16 males and 14 females; mean age, 29.0 ± 6.1 years). Addiction to smoking was evaluated using the modified Fagerström test for nicotine-dependence index (NDI). HRT, HRV, basic clinical and echocardiographic, and Holter test parameters were compared between groups. No significant differences between the two groups were found in the basic clinical and echocardiographic variables. Turbulence onset (TO) was significantly higher in the smoking group than in the controls, and turbulence slope was significantly lower in the smokers, than in the controls (p < 0.05). Standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (NN) interval index (SDNNI) was the only HRV parameter that was significantly different between the smoking and control groups (p < 0.05). The NDI was positively correlated with the TO (p < 0.05). Smoking impairs the baroregulatory function in healthy young smokers, particularly the HRT parameters and SDNNI. Our findings highlight the importance of complete smoking cessation.

  8. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  9. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk. PMID:26879965

  10. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Magnan, Renee E; Köblitz, Amber R; McCaul, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers' perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers' self-descriptions and nonsmokers' perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers' perceptions rather than smokers' reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker.

  11. Contrasting sulfur isotope compositions of sulfide minerals between on-ridge and off-ridge hydrothermal fields in the southern Mariana back-arc region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakegawa, T.

    2004-12-01

    New submarine hydrothermal fields were discovered in the southern Mariana back-arc spreading region during the Yokosuka-Shinkai 6500 cruise (October, 2003). One is located on the ridge of spreading center and the other is located on the off-rige site: A low-temperature hydrothermal activity and 10 m-high sulfide chimneys were found on the ridge site and the black-smoker activity with various sulfide chimneys was found on the top of the off-ridge seamount. Both hydrothermal fields were directly drilled by the benthic-multiple coring system during the Hakurei 2 cruise (February, 2004), in order to examine the subsurface hydrothermal processes. Elemental maps of drilled core samples and surface chimneys were constructed using X-ray scanning microscope, and an alteration pattern and types of sulfide minerals were examined. Forming steps of Fe-rich clays near the seafloor were traced and vesicle-filling process by clays and sulfides were found in the examined samples. Sulfur isotope analyses were performed using EA-IRMS on the separated sulfide and sulfate minerals. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfate minerals are the identical to the seawater sulfate value. Sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides range from +2.9 to +8.7?n at the on-ridge site and _|3.2 to +3.6 ?n at the off-ridge site, respectively. Such regional difference in sulfur isotope compositions of sulfides is probably reflecting the difference in crustal processes: either (1) involvement of sulfate reduction near the discharge zone or (2) isotope exchange among several sulfide and sulfate phases in the deep reaction zone. Chronological change of sulfur isotope compositions was also found in each region: lighter sulfur isotope compositions were found in the younger generation of sulfides. This suggests the style of sulfur cycle in the basaltic crusts (e.g., depth and temperature change for sulfate reduction, potential biological process, etc.) are varying through the development and/or decay of each

  12. Thermo-chemical fluxes, reactions and mixing in hydrothermal plumes at Oceanic Core complexes (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 13°30'N and 13°20'N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destrigneville, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Olive, J. A. L.; Leleu, T.; Rommevaux, C.; Escartin, J.; Jamieson, J. W.; Petersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Large-offset detachment faults are widespread along the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), exhume ultramafic rocks, and host a great diversity of hydrothermal systems. During the ODEMAR'13 cruise, the fully developed 13º20'N and 13º30'N oceanic core complexes (OCC) along MAR were investigated to constrain the tectonic, hydrothermal and magmatic processes enabling detachment formation. Here we focus on the composition and fluxes of hydrothermal fluids discharging out of these OCCs. ROV Victor6000 dives confirmed the occurrence of active discharge near the breakaway side of the 13º30'N OCC (Semenov-2), and observed high-temperature venting on the striated fault surface of the 13º20'N OCC (Irinovskoe). Black smoker fluids and hydrothermal plume waters (2-110ºC) were collected using gas-tight titanium syringes and in-situ pumping fluid samplers mounted on the ROV, respectively. The Semenov-2 fluids (3 vent sites at 317ºC) are characterized by lower chlorinity than seawater (Cl = 525 mmol/l) and extremely low metal concentrations (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn < ~20 μmol/l). By contrast, the Irinovskoe fluids (2 vent sites at 364ºC) exhibit higher chlorinity than seawater at Cl = 605 mmol/l, high Fe and Mn concentrations, and yet low metal concentrations. Temperature and concentration of conservative species were also measured along the centerlines of selected plumes within the first ~3 m above the vents. These measurements were inverted to constrain vent heat and mass fluxes using a plume entrainment model, yielding for individual plumes values of ~1-95 MW and 1-60 10-3 m3/s, respectively. We use these to calculate annual filterable iron fluxes at both sites of the 13º20'N OCC of 2.6 - 3.9 106 mol/yr, which are 4 orders of magnitude higher than those calculated for the 13º30'N OCC. We estimate, however, that ~94% of this Fe flux is lost through precipitation when rising hydrothermal fluids mix with entrained seawater.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of lutetium disilicate nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Xiaoping; Gao Yanfeng; Chen Hongfei; Luo Hongjie

    2012-04-15

    A simple, low-cost hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize irregular-and rod-shaped lutetium disilicate (Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}) powders with sizes ranging from 71 to 340 nm. The synthesis temperature was 260 Degree-Sign C, which is nearly 1300 Degree-Sign C lower than that required for the solid-state reaction. The results indicated that both the hydrothermal temperature and pH values had great influences on the composition, crystalline phase and morphology of the powders. The formation mechanism, basic thermophysical properties, stability and anticorrosion properties of the Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders were also investigated. The obtained powders possessed low thermal conductivity, a suitable thermal expansion coefficient (3.92-5.17 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}) with the silicon-based substrate and excellent thermal and structural stability. During hot corrosion testing, the surfaces of the samples appeared to react with the water and molten salt vapors, but no serious failure occurred. - Graphical abstract: An image for the as-prepared Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders (left) and XRD pattern (right) (inset shows the SEM graph of powders). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders via a hydrothermal process at 260 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline phase and morphology of the powders changed with experimental parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot corrosion was determined in an airflow environment containing alkaline vapor.

  14. Altered antigenic profiling and infectivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Iris; Hutcherson, Justin A.; Lamont, Richard J.; Demuth, Donald R.; Gumus, Pinar; Nizam, Nejat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Scott, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smokers are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and are more likely to be infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis than non-smokers. Furthermore, smoking is known to alter the expression of P. gingivalis surface components and to compromise IgG generation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether IgG response to P. gingivalis is suppressed in smokers in vivo and whether previously established in vitro tobacco-induced phenotypic P. gingivalis changes would be reflected in vivo. Methods We examined the humoral response to several P. gingivalis strains as well as specific tobacco-regulated outer membrane proteins (FimA and RagB) by ELISA in biochemically-validated (salivary cotinine) smokers and non-smokers with chronic (CP, n = 13) or aggressive (AP, n = 20) periodontitis. We also monitored the local and systemic presence of P. gingivalis DNA by PCR. Results Smoking was associated with decreased total IgG responses against clinical (10512, 5607, and 10208C; all p < 0.05) but not laboratory (ATCC 33277, W83) P. gingivalis strains. Smoking did not influence IgG produced against specific cell surface proteins, although a non-significant pattern towards increased total FimA-specific IgG in CP subjects, but not AP subjects, was observed. Seropositive smokers were more likely to be infected orally and systemically with P. gingivalis (p < 0.001), as determined by 16S RNA analysis. Conclusions Smoking alters the humoral response against P. gingivalis, strengthening the evidence that mechanisms of periodontal disease progression in smokers may differ from non-smokers with the same disease classification. PMID:24147843

  15. Adolescents Discriminate between Types of Smokers and Related Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Millstein, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies concerning cigarette smoking and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents use categories such as "casual" or "regular" smoker to define different types of smokers. It is not clear whether adolescents themselves differentiate between different types of smokers. The present study sought to examine whether and how adolescents…

  16. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  17. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  18. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  19. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems.

    PubMed

    Steen, Ida H; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  20. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  1. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  2. On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active vent fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these vent fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active vent fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for hydrothermal activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect hydrothermal plumes. A majority of the vents discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with < 60 mm/yr full spreading rate. Discoveries at ultra-slow MORs in the past decade included the deepest known vent (Beebe at Mid-Cayman Rise) and high-temperature black smoker vents (e.g., Dragon at SWIR and Loki's Castle at Mohns Ridge), and the highest temperature vent was measured at the slow-spreading S MAR (Turtle Pits). Using a previously published equation for the linear relationship between the number of active vent fields per 100 km strike length (F_s) vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 vent fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the vents that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (< 40 mm/yr) and about 1/3 at intermediate rates (40-80 mm

  3. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s-1; 1.5 °C Δ T C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s-1; p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  4. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people (“everyday” and “everyday or sometimes”) were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. Results While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62–1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79–4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Conclusions Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality

  5. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  6. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids at the Hatoma Knoll in Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, T.; Shinjo, R.; Ishibashi, J.; Tsunogai, U.; Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Yamanaka, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Ueno, Y.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Hatoma knoll is a caldera volcano which exists in the southern part of Okinawa Trough, and the hydrothermal field was discovered in the caldera in 1999. A lava dome exists in the center part of the caldera, and clear smokers up to 324.5°C, benthic organism colony and liquid CO2, and CO2 hydrate have been observed around the dome. Since 2000, the investigation cruise (NT00-06, YK07-04, NT07-12, NT08-13, and NT09-10) by "Shinkai2000", "Shinkai6500" and the "HYPER-DOLPHIN 3K" has been carried out. Hydrothermal fluid samples were taken from the hydrothermal system, and chemical and isotopic compositions of the hydrothermal fluid samples were investigated. The chemical composition of hydrothermal fluid has high pH compared with the hydrothermal fluid in the mid-ocean ridge, and ammonium concentration is high, suggesting that the sediments covered the Okinawa Trough contribute to the chemical composition of hydrothermal fluid. The end-members of hydrothermal fluid show a variation, but the ratios of the end-members are consistent with each other, suggesting that the hydrothermal system has a single source and subcritical phase separation occurs below the seafloor. The equilibrium temperature with the quartz based on Si concentration was 350-400°C at 1-2 km below the seafloor. CO2 concentration in hydrothermal fluid showed the high-level value in the hydrothermal system in the world. The origin of the abundant CO2 is the carbonate on the subducting plate and the sediment in the Okinawa Trough based on the carbon isotope and the helium isotope. Methane is also the high-level concentration in the hydrothermal system in the world. Most of methane is generated through methanogenesis based on the carbon isotope ratio. Sr isotopic ratio in the hydrothermal fluid suggests the influence of sediment. However, the knoll surface was covered by rhyolite, the influence of sediment would occur in the recharge zone of the hydrothermal system. The methane would be microbially produced

  7. Distinct SNP Combinations Confer Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Smokers and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031), in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971) being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR) than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0. PMID:23284801

  8. Distinct SNP combinations confer susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Schwender, Holger; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja; Golka, Klaus; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031), in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971) being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR) than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0.

  9. Current Major Depression Among Smokers Using a State Quitline

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Kiandra K.; Cummins, Sharon E.; Hernandez, Sandra; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers seeking treatment to quit smoking are generally not assessed for current depression, yet depression among smokers may influence quitting outcome. Purpose This study aims to formally assess current major depression among smokers calling a state tobacco quitline. Methods A total of 844 smokers calling the California Smokers’ Helpline in 2007 were screened for depression by the mood module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was also administered to these callers. Two months after the screening, follow-up evaluations were conducted to assess cessation outcome. Results In all, 24.2% of smokers met criteria for current major depression and 16.5% reported symptoms indicating mild depression. Callers with current major depression were more likely to be heavy smokers and on Medicaid. Moreover, 74.0% of smokers with current major depression had substantial social and occupational functioning deficits. Two months later, those with major depression at baseline were significantly less likely to have quit smoking (18.5% vs 28.4%). Conclusions Almost one in four smokers to the California Smokers’ Helpline met criteria for current major depression. Over 400,000 smokers call state quitlines in the U.S. for help with quitting each year, which means that as many as 100,000 smokers with serious depressive symptoms are using these services annually. The large number of depressed smokers who seek help suggests a need to develop appropriate interventions to help them quit successfully. PMID:21146767

  10. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Hayati, Zahra; Rezaei, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the development of oral mucosal lesions such as leukoplakia and hairy tongue. Controversy exists in the literature, however, about the prevalence of oral lesions in smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral lesions in male smokers compared with nonsmokers in Hamadan. A total of 516 male participants were assessed, 258 of whom were smokers and 258 of whom were healthy nonsmokers. The prevalence of lesions was evaluated by clinical observation and biopsy. We found that the most prevalent lesions among smokers were gingival problems and coated tongue; smokers had significantly more lesions than did nonsmokers. Malignant and premalignant lesions were found in a higher age range. Among all participants in our study, we found a large number of oral mucosal lesions in smokers that had a strong correlation with smoking. Dental services need to implement care and health education for smokers to promote health. PMID:24010068

  11. Smokers' perceptions of smokeless tobacco and harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Sami, Mojgan; Timberlake, David S; Nelson, Russ; Goettsch, Brittany; Ataian, Naeem; Libao, Penney; Vassile, Elanora

    2012-05-01

    Existing survey data indicate that most smokers are not receptive to harm reduction incentives of switching to smokeless tobacco (SLT). Little is known about the underlying reasons for these views. To explore smokers' perceptions of SLT, we conducted a focus group (eight in total) study of daily smokers between 2009 and 2010 at the University of California, Irvine. We transcribed each 2-hour focus group verbatim and analyzed it using domain analysis. The discussions revealed several reasons why smokers are not receptive to SLT. First, smokers associated new spit-less SLT (that is, Snus) with historic images of chewing tobacco. Second, smokers viewed smoking as an incentive to take a break from their daily routine. Third, smokers expressed lack of control over nicotine delivery when using SLT, relative to cigarettes. These findings challenge tobacco manufacturers' strategies to market a smokeless alternative as a growing number of smoke-free policies are introduced.

  12. DNA damage and repair capacity by comet assay in lymphocytes of white-collar active smokers and passive smokers (non- and ex-smokers) at workplace.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Doria, Denise; Franceschetti, Paola; Perbellini, Luigi; Romeo, Luciano

    2006-12-01

    The comet assay has been widely used to quantify DNA damage in isolated lymphocytes from subjects exposed to several environmental or occupational substances, especially for estimation of oxidative damage in the DNA, which is well-known to be induced by tobacco smoke. Passive smoking or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been included among those substances that cause cancer with sufficient evidence in humans. In this study, we analyzed, by the alkaline version of comet assay, the lymphocyte DNA damage of white-collar active smokers and non- and ex-smokers exposed to ETS at the workplace. We investigated basal DNA damage, DNA oxidation by formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg), the repair capacity H2O2-induced DNA damage by kinetics studies and lymphocyte GSH levels, the major intracellular defense against exogenous oxidative stress imposed by cigarette smoking. Our results indicated high basal DNA damage with clear significant correlations with urinary nicotine and cotinine, number of cigarettes/day, and an inverse significant correlation with GSH cellular content in active smokers. Significant Fpg-sensitive sites were found in smokers (> 85%), considerably high but not significant in passive non- and ex-smokers (> 51% and 37%, respectively). The DNA repair capacity had seriously decreased in non-smokers > smokers > ex-smokers, while the same damage was repaired in a short time in never smokers. PMID:17027201

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV-POSITIVE CIGARETTE SMOKERS: A SAMPLE OF SMOKERS FACING MULTIPLE CHALLENGES

    PubMed Central

    Humfleet, Gary L.; Delucchi, Kevin; Kelley, Kevin; Hall, Sharon M.; Dilley, James; Harrison, George

    2009-01-01

    HIV-positive populations have high smoking rates and smoking puts HIV-positive individuals at higher risk for HIV-related health problems. Little information is available on the characteristics of HIV-positive smokers. The present study examines the baseline psychosocial characteristics of 184 HIV-positive cigarette smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. The sample was 82% male, and 53% Caucasian. Over half were unemployed and 43.8% reported an income of less than $10,000. Mean cigarettes per day was 19.2 and the mean Fagerström Test Nicotine Dependence score was 4.8. The majority reported a strong desire to quit however, only 45% endorsed a goal of complete abstinence. On average, 43.2% of the smokers' social support was made up of other smokers. Both licit and illicit drug use was common and there were significant rates of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in this cohort of smokers. It is critical to evaluate interventions that consider the specific needs of this group. PMID:19537954

  14. Characteristics of HIV-positive cigarette smokers: a sample of smokers facing multiple challenges.

    PubMed

    Humfleet, Gary L; Delucchi, Kevin; Kelley, Kevin; Hall, Sharon M; Dilley, James; Harrison, George

    2009-06-01

    HIV-positive populations have high smoking rates and smoking puts HIV-positive individuals at higher risk for HIV-related health problems. Little information is available on the characteristics of HIV-positive smokers. The present study examines the baseline psychosocial characteristics of 184 HIV-positive cigarette smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. The sample was 82% male, and 53% Caucasian. Over half were unemployed and 43.8% reported an income of less than $10,000. Mean cigarettes per day was 19.2 and the mean Fagerström Test Nicotine Dependence score was 4.8. The majority reported a strong desire to quit however, only 45% endorsed a goal of complete abstinence. On average, 43.2% of the smokers' social support was made up of other smokers. Both licit and illicit drug use was common and there were significant rates of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in this cohort of smokers. It is critical to evaluate interventions that consider the specific needs of this group. PMID:19537954

  15. [Salivary, urinary and plasma thiocyanate in smokers and non-smokers].

    PubMed

    Ngogang, J; Eben-Moussi, E; Raisonnier, A

    1983-03-01

    Thiocyanate is a major metabolic product of hydrocyanic acid. Its concentration in the serum, urine and saliva of individuals with little exposure to hydrocyanic acid (i.e. non smokers) is very low. But about three fold higher concentrations of thiocyanate are found in the sera, urine and saliva of smokers as compared to non smokers, because of cyanide provided by cigarette smoke. The concentrations of thiocyanate in the three biological fluids studied were different and it appeared to be no correlation in the distribution of thiocyanate concentrations in these fluids when individual subjects were compared. Urinary and salivary concentration power showed decreased kidney excretion of thiocyanate in smokers. The appearance or the disappearance of thiocyanates in the saliva and the urine takes place slowly. The salivary or urinary levels of thiocyanates are therefore good indicators of chronic intoxication from tobacco because it is not very sensitive to daily variations in tobacco smoking; it reflects the slow transformation of cyanide as well as the final elimination of this ion from urine which is slowed down in smokers. PMID:6343971

  16. Simultaneous Vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2014-08-30

    Background: Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. Methods: A Cross-Sectional Study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (p>0.05). Conclusion: No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technologies teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  18. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers, and coal miners.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rajiv K; McClure, Michael E; Hays, Michael D; Green, Francis H Y; McPhee, Laura J; Vallyathan, V; Gilmour, M Ian

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, miners, and control subjects and explore the relationship between EC level, exposure history, and the extent of chronic lung disease. The samples comprised three subgroups representing never smokers (8), chronic cigarette smokers (26), and coal miners (6). Following the dissolution of lung tissue, the extracted EC residue was quantified using a thermal-optical transmission (TOT) carbon analyzer. Mean EC levels in the lungs of the control group were 56.68 ± 24.86 (SD) μg/g dry lung weight. Respective mean EC values in lung samples from the smokers and coal miners were 449.56 ± 320.3 μg/g and 6678.2 ± 6162 μg/g. These values were significantly higher than those obtained from the never-smoker group. EC levels in the lung and pack-years of cigarette smoking correlated significantly, as did EC levels and the severity of small airway disease. This study provides one of the first quantitative assessments of EC in human lungs from populations at high relative risk for the development of chronic lung disease.

  19. Water-Rock Reaction, Substrate Composition, Magmatic Degassing, and Mixing as Major Factors Controlling Vent Fluid Compositions in Manus Basin Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seewald, J.; Reeves, E.; Saccocia, P.; Rouxel, O.; Walsh, E.; Price, R.; Tivey, M.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.

    2006-12-01

    A major objective of cruise MGLN06MV to the Manus Basin, north of Papua New Guinea, was the use of vent fluid chemistry as a guide to sub-seafloor processes occurring within four major areas of hydrothermal activity. A broad spectrum of high and low temperature fluids were sampled using gas-tight and syringe style "major" samplers from black smoker chimneys, white smoker spires, and igneous and sediment substrates. The majority of fluids exhibit salinities lower or higher than seawater, consistent with phase separation having occurred at or below the seafloor. Preliminary shipboard analyses of 273 to 285C vent fluids at the basalt- hosted Vienna Woods system (Manus Spreading Center) indicate that black/grey smoker fluids are characterized by compositions and pH similar to fluids sampled from other basalt-hosted (e.g., mid-ocean ridge (MOR)) systems. In contrast, the majority of fluids sampled from felsic-hosted hydrothermal systems in the eastern Manus Basin exhibit substantially lower pH and greater compositional variability within an individual vent field. High temperature fluids from four different areas of venting at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea Australia Canada Manus) vent field exhibit temperatures from 271 to 356C, pH from 2.3 to 2.8, H2 from 8 to 325 umol/l, H2S from 2.5 to 26 mmol/l, and CH4 from 8 to 39 umol/l. The low pH of these fluids (relative to MOR fluids) may reflect water-rock reaction with felsic rocks, input of magmatic volatiles (as proposed for the Mariner Field on the Valu Fa Ridge), and subsurface deposition of metal sulfides. Lower temperature fluids (80 to 180C) at PACMANUS exhibit higher pH (4.9 to 3.4). White smoker fluids (70 to 115C) collected at the DESMOS Caldera, were extraordinarily acidic (pH = 1.0 to 1.5), with very low H2S and CH4 concentrations. The composition of these fluids supports the hypothesis of Gamo et al. (Geology 25, 1997) that they reflect a mixture of magmatic volatiles and heated seawater. Fluids collected from

  20. The Lassen hydrothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Clor, Laura; Evans, William C.

    2016-01-01

    The active Lassen hydrothermal system includes a central vapor-dominated zone or zones beneath the Lassen highlands underlain by ~240 °C high-chloride waters that discharge at lower elevations. It is the best-exposed and largest hydrothermal system in the Cascade Range, discharging 41 ± 10 kg/s of steam (~115 MW) and 23 ± 2 kg/s of high-chloride waters (~27 MW). The Lassen system accounts for a full 1/3 of the total high-temperature hydrothermal heat discharge in the U.S. Cascades (140/400 MW). Hydrothermal heat discharge of ~140 MW can be supported by crystallization and cooling of silicic magma at a rate of ~2400 km3/Ma, and the ongoing rates of heat and magmatic CO2 discharge are broadly consistent with a petrologic model for basalt-driven magmatic evolution. The clustering of observed seismicity at ~4–5 km depth may define zones of thermal cracking where the hydrothermal system mines heat from near-plastic rock. If so, the combined areal extent of the primary heat-transfer zones is ~5 km2, the average conductive heat flux over that area is >25 W/m2, and the conductive-boundary length <50 m. Observational records of hydrothermal discharge are likely too short to document long-term transients, whether they are intrinsic to the system or owe to various geologic events such as the eruption of Lassen Peak at 27 ka, deglaciation beginning ~18 ka, the eruptions of Chaos Crags at 1.1 ka, or the minor 1914–1917 eruption at the summit of Lassen Peak. However, there is a rich record of intermittent hydrothermal measurement over the past several decades and more-frequent measurement 2009–present. These data reveal sensitivity to climate and weather conditions, seasonal variability that owes to interaction with the shallow hydrologic system, and a transient 1.5- to twofold increase in high-chloride discharge in response to an earthquake swarm in mid-November 2014.

  1. A comparative study of the oral hygiene status of smokers and non-smokers in Ibadan, Oyo state

    PubMed Central

    Arowojolu, Modupe O.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.; Dosumu, Elizabeth B.; Opeodu, O. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tobacco smoking on gingival health and the oral hygiene status of respondents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 213 adults from three communities in the Ibadan North local government was carried out. Respondents were divided into two groups comprising of 117 smokers (cases) and 96 non-smokers (control). Intra oral examination was done using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Gingival index (GI). Results: The mean age of the smokers was 31.2 ± 12.6 years and that of the non-smokers 32.8 ± 9.5 years. The mean Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was 1.15 ± 0.51 for the non-smokers and 2.19 ± 0.62 for the smokers (P < 0.05). The mean GI was 1.06 ± 0.55 for the non-smokers and 1.62 ± 0.58 for the smokers (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study shows that smoking is associated with increased severity of gingival disease. It is, therefore, recommended that smokers should be encouraged to visit a dentist for preventive procedure more regularly than the non-smokers and better still, smokers should be encouraged to quit smoking as gingival disease is not without consequences if allowed to persist. PMID:24249949

  2. Impulsivity and Cigarette Craving among Adolescent Daily and Occasional Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Burris, Jessica L.; Froeliger, Brett; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is robustly related to cigarette smoking. While underlying factors that account for this relation are not well understood, craving has been proposed as a central mechanism linking impulsivity to smoking. In order to further refine our understanding of associations between impulsivity and cigarette craving, the current study examined the association between impulsivity and tonic and cue-elicited craving among a sample of adolescent smokers. We expected trait impulsivity would be positively associated with both tonic and cue-elicited craving, and that this relationship would be stronger among daily vs. occasional smokers. Methods 106 smokers (ages 16–20) completed questionnaires and reported their cigarette craving prior to and immediately following presentation of each of three counterbalanced cue types: (a) in vivo smoking, (b) alcohol, and (c) neutral cue. Results Impulsivity was positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers (β=.38; p=.005), but not occasional smokers (β=.01; p=.95), with a significant impulsivity x smoker group interaction (β=1.31; p=.03). Impulsivity was unrelated to craving following smoking or alcohol cue, regardless of smoker group (all p’s>.16). Conclusions Results suggest a moderated effect in which impulsivity is positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers, but not occasional smokers. Tonic craving may serve as a mechanism linking impulsivity, smoking persistence, and nicotine dependence among daily smokers. PMID:25665916

  3. Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit. PMID:23909540

  4. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sansores, Raúl H; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Pérez-Bautista, Oliver; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic. Objective To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS) were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire. Results Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5%) smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5%) had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961) and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637). From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL) was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers. Conclusion Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may contribute to prevent early diagnosis. PMID:26586941

  5. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  6. Tide-related variability of TAG hydrothermal activity observed by deep-sea monitoring system and OBSH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Kantaro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kato, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Misumi; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Kinoshita, Masataka; Nishizawa, Azusa

    1997-12-01

    Hydrothermal activities were monitored by an ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone (OBSH) and a composite measuring system (Manatee) including CTD, current meter, transmission meter and cameras at a small depression on the TAG hydrothermal mound in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Low-frequency pressure pulses detected by the hydrophone with semi-diurnal periodicity seem to correspond to cycles of hydrothermal upflow from a small and short-lived smoker vent close to the observing site. The peaks of pressure pulses are synchronous with the maximum gradient of areal strain decrease due to tidal load release. Microearthquakes with very near epicenters occur sporadically and do not appear to be directly correlatable to hydrothermal venting. Temporal variations in bottom water temperature also have semi-diurnal periodicity but are more complicated than the pressure events. Temperatures may be affected both by upwelling of hot water and by lateral flow of the bottom current changing its directions with ocean tide.

  7. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of a novel deep-sea hydrothermal system at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takai, Ken; Suzuki, Yohey; Hirayama, Hisako; Konno, Uta; Tsunogai, Urumu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2006-01-01

    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the north-east lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc have been explored and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. White smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity centre of the field and represented the maximal temperature of 170 degrees C and the lowest pH of 1.6. The chimney structures, all consisting of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney), were also unique to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) have been investigated by culture-dependent and -independent analyses. 16S rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of 'deep-sea hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotal group'. Cultivation analysis suggested that the chemolithoautotrophs might play a significant ecological role as primary producers utilizing gas and sulfur compounds provided from hydrothermal fluids.

  8. Low virulent oral Candida albicans strains isolated from smokers.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Izidoro, Ana Claudia Santos; Semprebom, Andressa Marafon; Baboni, Fernanda Brasil; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    It is widely accepted that tabagism is a predisposing factor to oral candidosis and cumulate data suggest that cigarette compounds may increase candidal virulence. To verify if enhanced virulence occurs in Candida albicans from chronic smokers, a cohort of 42 non-smokers and other of 58 smokers (all with excellent oral conditions and without signs of candidosis) were swabbed on tong dorsum and jugal mucosa. Results showed that oral candidal loads do not differ between smoker and non-smokers. Activities of secreted aspartyl-protease (Sap), phospholipase, chondroitinase, esterase-lipase, and haemolysin secretions were screened for thirty-two C. albicans isolates. There were detected significant increments in phospholipasic and chondroitinasic activities in isolates from non-smokers. For other virulence factors, no differences between both cohorts were achieved. PMID:21924704

  9. Offering telephone counseling to smokers using pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Raymond G; Solberg, Leif I; Asche, Stephen E; Boucher, Jackie L; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Jensen, Catharine J

    2005-04-01

    Whereas telephone-based counseling has been found to be effective in supporting smokers interested in quitting smoking, it is not known whether proactive efforts to reach smokers receiving cessation medications will enhance their likelihood of successful quitting. We had an opportunity to test, in a health plan setting, an offer of telephone-based counseling with smokers identified from health plan records as recently filling a prescription for nicotine replacement therapy or bupropion. After we removed 31 members determined to be ineligible, 1,329 were randomly allocated to receive an invitation either to telephone-based counseling (n = 663) or to a control group (n = 666). On average, 7 days (range = 3-15 days) elapsed from the day of the prescription fill until the Center for Health Promotion began calling to invite members to participate in telephone counseling. The Center for Health Promotion was able to reach 49% of those in the intervention group (323/663). Of these members, 118 (37%) declined any participation. Therefore, in response to the proactive contact, 63% (205/323) of those reached and 31% (205/663) of those eligible participated in some smoking cessation counseling. At the 3-month follow-up, we observed an increased quit rate (33.1% vs. 27.4%) among health plan members randomized to telephone-based smoking cessation counseling. The results varied by gender and amount smoked. In addition, the variables associated with quitting in a multivariate logistic regression model included older age and using more than 30 days of medication. PMID:16036266

  10. Loneliness in HIV-infected smokers

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Moadel, Alyson B.; Kim, Ryung S.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Shuter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Loneliness is common in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Lonely people smoke at higher rates than the general population, and loneliness is a likely contributor to the ongoing smoking epidemic among PLWH. We explored factors associated with loneliness in a cohort of 272 PLWH smokers enrolled in two separate tobacco treatment trials. Loneliness was independently associated with lack of a spouse or partner, lower educational attainment, “other or unknown” HIV exposure category, depression, anxiety, recent alcohol consumption, and higher daily cigarette consumption. Referral to group therapy reduced loneliness whereas referral to an individual web-based tobacco treatment did not. PMID:25298196

  11. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  12. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  13. Loneliness in HIV-infected smokers.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Cassandra A; Moadel, Alyson B; Kim, Ryung S; Weinberger, Andrea H; Shuter, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness is common in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Lonely people smoke at higher rates than the general population, and loneliness is a likely contributor to the ongoing smoking epidemic among PLWH. We explored factors associated with loneliness in a cohort of 272 PLWH smokers enrolled in two separate tobacco treatment trials. Loneliness was independently associated with lack of a spouse or partner, lower educational attainment, "other or unknown" HIV exposure category, depression, anxiety, recent alcohol consumption, and higher daily cigarette consumption. Referral to group therapy reduced loneliness, whereas referral to an individual web-based tobacco treatment did not.

  14. Oral exfoliative cytology in female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C R; Sarma, P R; Kameswari, V R

    1975-01-01

    1. The Karyopyknotic index of the palatal and lingual mucosa is increased in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 2. The Karyopyknotic index of the buccal mucosa did not show any change in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 3. The Karyopyknotic index did not show any change with age in the non-smoking females. 4. Very few cases show epithelial atypia in palatal smears from female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

  15. Hydrothermal reactivity of saponite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, G.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and extent of the reactions of synthetic Fe-free saponite have been investigated under experimental hydrothermal conditions as a first step towards understanding saponite reactivity under relatively simple conditions. Saponite crystallizes from amorphous gel of ideal saponite composition within 7 days at 300o-550oC under P = 1 kbar. Reactions subsequent to this initial crystallization depend on reaction T and interlayer cations. Saponite is found to react hydrothermally, over a period of 200 days, at T down to 400oC, at least 150oC lower than previously reported, but showed no signs of reaction below 400oC. At 450oC, a mixture of talc/saponite and saponite/phlogopite clays forms from K-saponite via intracrystalline layer transformations, while above 450oC the initial K-saponite dissolves, with talc and phlogopite forming as discrete phases. After 200 days reactions at 400-450oC were not complete, so that given sufficient time to reach equilibrium, a lower hydrothermal stability limit for saponite is possible. Further study of the Fe-bearing saponite system will be required before experimental results can be applied to natural systems.-D.F.B.

  16. Evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Mothra Hydrothermal Field (MHF) is a 600 m long, high-temperature hydrothermal field. It is located 2.7 km south of the Main Endeavour Field at the southern end of the central Endeavour Segment. Mothra is the most areally extensive field along the Endeavour Segment, composed of six active sulfide clusters that are 40-200 m apart. Each cluster contains rare black smokers (venting up to 319°C), numerous diffusely venting chimneys, and abundant extinct chimneys and sulfide talus. From north to south, these clusters include Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, Crab Basin, Cuchalainn, and Stonehenge. As part of the Endeavour Integrated Study Site (ISS), the MHF is a site of intensive interdisciplinary studies focused on linkages among geology, geochemistry, fluid chemistry, seismology, and microbiology. Axial valley geology at MHF is structurally complex, consisting of lightly fissured flows that abut the walls and surround a core of extensively fissured, collapsed terrain. Fissure abundance and distribution indicates that tectonism has been the dominant process controlling growth of the axial graben. Past magmatic activity is shown by the 200 m long chain of collapse basins between Crab Basin and Stonehenge, which may have held at least ~7500 m3 of lava. Assuming a flow thickness of 0.5 m, this amount of lava could cover over half the valley floor during a single volcanic event. At a local scale, MHF clusters vary in size, activity, and underlying geology. They range in size from 400-1600 m2 and consist of isolated chimneys and/or coalesced cockscomb arrays atop ramps of sulfide talus. In the northern part of the field, Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, and Crab Basin are located near the western valley wall, bounded by basalt talus and a combination of collapsed sheet flows, intermixed lobate and sulfide, disrupted terrain, and isolated pillow ridges. The southern clusters, Cuchalainn and Stonehenge, are associated with collapse basins in the central valley

  17. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  18. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase (Nar) in pure cultures and microbial communities from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Bohnert, Kenneth A; Cuebas, Mariola; Keddis, Ramaydalis; Vetriani, Costantino

    2013-11-01

    Over the past few years the relevance of nitrate respiration in microorganisms from deep-sea hydrothermal vents has become evident. In this study, we surveyed the membrane-bound nitrate reductase (Nar) encoding gene in three different deep-sea vent microbial communities from the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Additionally, we tested pure cultures of vent strains for their ability to reduce nitrate and for the presence of the NarG-encoding gene in their genomes. By using the narG gene as a diagnostic marker for nitrate-reducing bacteria, we showed that nitrate reductases related to Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Marinobacter were numerically prevalent in the clone libraries derived from a black smoker and a diffuse flow vent. In contrast, NarG sequences retrieved from a community of filamentous bacteria located about 50 cm above a diffuse flow vent revealed the presence of a yet to be identified group of enzymes. 16S rRNA gene-inferred community compositions, in accordance with previous studies, showed a shift from Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria to Epsilonproteobacteria as the vent fluids become warmer and more reducing. Based on these findings, we argue that Nar-catalyzed nitrate reduction is likely relevant in temperate and less reducing environments where Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria are more abundant and where nitrate concentrations reflect that of background deep seawater.

  19. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities.

  20. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

  1. Modafinil and nicotine interactions in abstinent smokers.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Waters, Andrew J; Mooney, Marc

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of a wakefulness-promoting medication, modafinil, alone and with the nicotine lozenge, on subjective, physiological and cognitive measures as well as on nicotine withdrawal in overnight abstinent cigarette smokers. Nineteen smokers, 13 male and 6 female, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. In each of three experimental sessions, subjects were treated orally with a single 200 mg or 400 mg dose of modafinil or placebo. Two hours and 10 min following the medication treatment, subjects received a single 2 mg nicotine lozenge. Both doses of modafinil alone increased the rating of elated-depressed on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscale in the direction of depressed and increased ratings of negative affect on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). In contrast, the 200 mg modafinil dose combined with a 2 mg nicotine lozenge, increased the rating of energetic-tired in the direction of energetic on the POMS subscale. Modafinil attenuated self-reported rating of 'drug strength' in response to the nicotine lozenge. Modafinil, alone or in combination with the nicotine lozenge, did not affect tobacco withdrawal symptoms. There was an increase in baseline heart rate and systolic blood pressure under modafinil treatment. In addition, modafinil speeded reaction times on a modified Stroop task. The clinical utility of modafinil for smoking cessation needs to be determined in future studies. PMID:17868195

  2. Hydrothermal Mineralization Along the Volcanically Active Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ronde, C. E.; Hein, J. R.; Embley, R. W.; Stern, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    In March and April, 2004, ROPOS ROV dives took place from the R/V T.G. Thompson along the volcanically active Mariana arc to ground truth CTD data collected a year earlier that indicated hydrothermal activity. Dives took place on seven volcanoes, six of which showed hydrothermal activity. We present data on samples collected from NW Rota-1 (14° , 36'N, 144° , 46'E), E. Diamante (15° , 56'N, 145° , 41'E), and NW Eifuku (21° , 29'N, 144° , 03'E), the three sites most studied. All the hydrothermal systems found are associated with volcano summits, or with resurgent domes inside a caldera. Brimstone vent at NW Rota-1 provided a dramatic display of thick, bellowing, yellow plumes that contained ash and molten sulfur. This site occurs at 500 m water depth and clearly shows closely associated magmatic-hydrothermal discharge. Sulfur was the dominant hydrothermal mineral deposited around the vent and occurs as spheres in the surrounding volcaniclastic sediment, fracture fill and veins, and massive deposits. The Black Forest vent field at E Diamante consists of a sulfide-sulfate chimney system developed at about 650 m water depth. This is the only mature system discovered and consists of numerous tall (up to 9 m) chimneys. The measured fluid temperature of 240° C produces boiling at the depth of the vents. The chimneys and mounds are composed of varying amounts of pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, barite, and anhydrite. Hydrothermal Mn oxides occur on the surface of inactive chimneys. This mineralogy contrasts with the other two systems, which deposit sulfur as the dominant hydrothermal product. The Cu-Zn-Fe-Ba mineralization is perhaps largely controlled by water/rock interaction. A unique hydrothermal field (Champagne field) was found at NW Eifuku where liquid CO2 is discharging from focused- and diffuse-flow vents at 1600 m water depth. The focused-flow vents consist of small chimneys and mounds up to a meter high that are composed of sulfur and yet to be

  3. Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

  4. Hydrothermal calcite in the Elephant Moraine

    SciTech Connect

    Faure, G.; Taylor, K.S.; Jones, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the course of geologic mapping of the Elephant Moraine on the east antarctic ice sheet, Faure and Taylor (1985) collected several specimens of black botryoidal calcite, composed of radiating acicular crystals that resemble stromatolites. Calcite from this and other specimens is significantly enriched in strontium-87 (the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratio equals 0.71417 +/- 0.00002), carbon-12 (delta carbon-13 equals -22.9 parts per thousand, PDB standard) and oxygen-16 (delta oxygen-18 equals -21.1 parts per thousand, standard mean ocean water) compared with calcite of marine origin. The enrichment in carbon-12 is similar to that of calcite associated with coal in the Allan Hills. The enrichment in oxygen-16 indicates that the calcite from the Elephant Moraine could only have precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with glacial melt water. Therefore, the temperature at which the black calcite precipitated from water of that isotope composition was about 85/sup 0/C. A temperature of this magnitude implies that the black calcite formed as a result of volcanic activity under the east antarctic ice sheet. The enrichment of the black calcite in carbon-12 suggests that it formed in part from carbon dioxide derived from the coal seams of the Weller Formation in the Beacon Supergroup. The isotopic composition of strontium in the black calcite is similar to that of carbonate beds and concretions in the Beacon rocks of southern Victoria Land. A volcanic-hydrothermal origin is also consistent with the very low total organic carbon content of 0.15% in the calcite.

  5. Cue reactivity in smokers: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F; Evans, David E; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson and Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N = 21) and non-smokers (N = 21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers' evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with

  7. Trends in serum cotinine concentrations among daily cigarette smokers: data from NHANES 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2014-02-15

    To the best of our knowledge, there have been no apparent studies of the trends in serum cotinine levels among smokers. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 1999-2010 were used to evaluate trends for serum cotinine levels; average number of cigarettes smoked per day; and Cambridge filter method (CFM) tar and CFM nicotine levels by gender, race/ethnicity, and cigarette mentholation status. Regression models were fitted to evaluate the factors associated with serum cotinine levels. Serum cotinine levels increased over time for both males and females, non-Hispanic whites and others. CFM nicotine levels also rose over time for cigarettes smoked by both males and females and by both non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. Average number of cigarettes smoked per day decreased over time for females, non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks. CFM tar levels fell only for Mexican Americans. Exposure to second hand smoke at home was found to be associated with more than 1 ng/ml increase in serum cotinine levels. This large study on a nationally representative sample of daily smokers suggested that increasing concentrations of CFM nicotine in cigarettes over time led to elevated serum cotinine levels even though the number of cigarettes smoked daily remained relatively constant. PMID:24291557

  8. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  9. Cody hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    The hot springs of Colter's Hell are the surface manifestations of a much larger hydothermal system. That system has been studied to define its extent, maximum temperature, and mechanism of operation. The study area covers 2700 km/sup 2/ (1040 mi/sup 2/) in northwest Wyoming. Research and field work included locating and sampling the hot springs, geologic mapping, thermal logging of available wells, measuring thermal conductivities, analyzing over 200 oil and gas well bottom-hole temperatures, and compiling and analyzing hydrologic data. These data were used to generate a model for the hydrothermal system.

  10. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  11. Optimistic Bias and Perceived Control among Cigarette Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltenbaugh, Adam W.; Zagummy, Matthew J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies have shown that cigarette smokers are generally aware of increased health risks associated with smoking, but that smokers tend to underestimate their own susceptibility to disease. In general, optimistic bias has been shown to increase with greater perceived control over an event or behavior; however, this phenomenon has not been examined…

  12. Recruiting Unmotivated Smokers into a Smoking Induction Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…

  13. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  14. Internet and Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for College Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, William; Obermayer, Jami; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed a smoking cessation program using mobile phone text messaging to provide tailored and stage-specific messages to college smokers. Participants and Methods: The authors recruited 31 daily smokers who desired to quit from a college campus and asked them to use an Internet and mobile phone text messaging program to…

  15. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  16. Cigarette brand preference among middle and high school students who are established smokers - United States, 2004 and 2006.

    PubMed

    2009-02-13

    Studies have suggested a link between exposure to tobacco advertising and cigarette brand preference. Knowing the brand preferences of young established smokers can provide insight into what influences young smokers to start and continue to smoke. A report of 2005 data indicated that the three most heavily advertised brands, Marlboro, Newport, and Camel, were preferred by 81% of U.S. youths aged 12-17 years. To assess the cigarette brand preferences among middle school and high school students who were established smokers, CDC analyzed data from the 2004 and 2006 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that among established student smokers in middle and high school, Marlboro was the preferred brand (43.3% and 52.3%, respectively), followed by Newport (26.4% and 21.4%, respectively). The use of Newport was significantly higher among blacks in middle school (59.7%) and high school (78.6%) compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Information on brand preferences and tobacco marketing strategies that are attractive to students can be used by tobacco control programs and community initiatives in the design of tobacco countermarketing campaigns. These countermarketing campaigns have been shown to be effective as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program to decrease the initiation of tobacco use among youths and young adults. PMID:19214160

  17. Craving among long-abstinent smokers: An Internet survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This survey estimated the prevalence and correlates of craving among long-abstinent smokers. Methods: We surveyed 403 former smokers (abstinent 1–10 years) via an Internet consumer sample (www.zoomerang.com). Results: Although the majority (59%) of former smokers reported a desire to smoke in the last year, this desire appeared to be clinically significant in only 11%. Those with significant prolonged craving were more nicotine dependent and appeared to have more mental health problems but did differ from other former smokers on demographics or family history of smoking. Discussion: A minority of smokers appears to continue to struggle with cravings long after cessation. Replications in larger more generalizable surveys are needed. In addition, whether prolonged craving indicates risk for relapse needs to be determined. PMID:20164170

  18. Leukokeratosis nicotina glossi-smokers' tongue.

    PubMed

    Farman, A G; Van Wyk, C W

    1977-12-01

    "Leukokeratosis nicotina glossi" or "smokers' tongue" is a homogeneous leukoplakia with evenly distributed pin-point hemispherical depressions. Histologically, there is a loss of glossal papillae, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of large drop-shaped rete pegs with central clefting and occasional parakeratotic plugging. Mitotic activity and atypia are not marked and there is no evidence of Candida species infection. In some respects the lesion histologically resembles verrucous carcinoma but, unlike that condition, papillomatosis is not clinically noticeable and an invasive "leading edge" is not apparent. All but one of the subjects in which the lesion was seen were men, all had concurrent leukokeratosis nicotina palati and two gave histories of laryngeal carcinoma.

  19. Hair cadmium level of smoker and non-smoker human volunteers in and around Calcutta City

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Samaddar, K.R. ); Joshi, H.C. )

    1990-08-01

    In recent years considerable interest has arisen concerning cadmium accumulation in man. In general, the body burden of cadmium of an urban population is due to occupational exposure, as well as non-occupational contamination. Several reports indicate that cadmium body burden of cigarette smokers or tobacco users is more than of non-smokers. Measurement of cadmium in human hair has been suggested as an indicator of body burden. Most industrialized countries have regular monitoring programs for measuring cadmium accumulation in humans. There has been little or no work done thus far in India regarding the level of cadmium in humans. The objective of this investigation was to survey the levels of cadmium in hair of random samples of human volunteers. The influences of smoking habits, urban or rural life and age of the volunteers on the level of cadmium in hair were examined.

  20. Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Potts, Geoffrey F.; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs-of-abuse may increase the salience of drug cues by sensitizing the dopaminergic (DA) system (Robinson & Berridge, 1993), leading to differential attention to smoking stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) have been used to assess attention to smoking cues but not using an ERP component associated with DA-mediated salience evaluation. In this study the DA-related P2a and the P3, were compared in smokers (N=21) and non-smokers (N=21) during an attention selection cue exposure task including both cigarette and neutral images. We predicted that both the P2a and P3 would be larger to targets than non-targets, but larger to non-target cigarette images than non-target neutral images only in the smokers, reflecting smokers’ evaluation of smoking stimuli as relevant even when they were not targets. Results indicated that smokers showed behavioral cue reactivity, with more false alarms to cigarette images (responding to cigarette images when they were not targets) than non-smokers; however, both smokers and non-smokers had a larger P2a and P3 to cigarette images. Thus, while smokers showed behavioral evidence of differential salience evaluation of the cigarette images, this group difference was not reflected in differential brain activity. These findings may reflect characteristics of the ERPs (both ERP components were smaller in the smokers), the smoking sample (they were not more impulsive, i.e. reward sensitive, than the non-smokers, in contrast to prior studies) and the design (all participants were aware that the aim of the study was related to smoking). PMID:23958866

  1. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan completed…

  2. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Pierce, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing

  3. Distribution and Sources of Trace Metals in Volcaniclastic Sediments of the SuSu Knolls Hydrothermal Field, Eastern Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrischeva, E. H.; Scott, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    fragments do not exhibit clear metal anomalies. Local strong anomalies in metal concentrations caused by dispersal of chimney sulfides in the volcaniclastic sediments were found on the rim of the mound. More widespread anomalies were detected down to 80 cm depth in greenish-brown and greenish- black volcaniclastic sediments from the western slope of the mound. Metal anomalies in these sediments may be a result of dispersal of fine-grained particles of secondary minerals, such as atacamite and Fe-oxyhydroxides, derived from oxidation of sulfide chimneys. Another possible source of the metals is hydrothermal particles that were deposited in the sediments within fecal pellets. With the exception of local anomalies in surface sediments around active chimneys, the current particulate plume emanating from black smokers does not leave a clear signal in the sediments covering the mound.

  4. Understanding college students' salient attitudes and beliefs about smoking: distinctions between smokers, nonsmokers, and ex-smokers.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kelly; Banas, John; Burke, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This research examines the salient attitudes and beliefs that college students hold about cigarette smoking. An exploratory survey was employed that contained a combination of semantic differential items and open-ended questions. The data indicated that smoking status (i.e., whether a student is a nonsmoker, smoker, or ex-smoker) was related to attitudes about the attractiveness, riskiness, and intelligence of cigarette smoking. Additionally, salient beliefs about smoking include that nonsmokers report never smoking due to health reasons, smokers and ex-smokers both report peer pressure as the primary reason for starting to smoke, and the main reason smokers continue to smoke is because they are addicted. The best thing reported about smoking was that it relieves stress, and the worst thing reported about smoking was the smell. Several suggestions are made for future interventions targeted toward college students. PMID:15255159

  5. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups. PMID:25721074

  6. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  7. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  8. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  9. Distribution, structure and temporal variability of hydrothermal outflow at a slow-spreading hydrothermal field from seafloor image mosaics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, Thibaut; Escartin, Javier; Cannat, Mathilde; Garcia, Rafael; Science Party, Momar'08; Science Party, Bathyluck'09

    2010-05-01

    The Lucky Strike hydrothermal site, located South of the Azores along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is one of the largest and best-known active hydrothermal fields along the ridge system. This site within the MoMAR area is also the target for the installation in 2010 of a pilot deep-sea observatory with direct telemetry to land, to be part of the European Seafloor Observatory Network (ESONET). The Lucky Strike hydrothermal site has seen extensive high-resolution, near-bottom geophysical surveys in 1996 (Lustre'96), 2006 (Momareto06), 2008 (MOMAR08) and 2009 (Bathyluck09). Vertically acquired black-and-white electronic still camera images have been projected and georeferenced to obtain 3 image mosaics covering the zone of active venting, extending ~ 700x800 m2, and with full image resolution (~10 mm pixels). These data allow us to study how hydrothermal outflow is structured, including the relationships between the zones of active high-temperature venting, areas of diffuse outflow, and the geological structure (nature of the substrate, faults and fissures, sediments, etc.). Hydrothermal outflow is systematically associated with bacterial mats that are easily identified in the imagery, allowing us to study temporal variability at two different scales. Over the 13-year period we can potentially track changes in both the geometry and intensity of hydrothermal activity throughout the system; our preliminary study of the Eiffel Tower, White Castle and Mt Segur indicate that activity has been sustained in recent times, with small changes in the detailed geometry of the diffuse outflow and its intensity. At longer times scales (hundreds to 1000 years?) imagery also shows evidence of areas of venting that are no longer active, often associated with the active structures. In combination with the high-resolution bathymetry, the imagery data thus allow us to characterize the shallow structure of hydrothermal outflow at depth, the structural and volcanic control, and ultimately

  10. Tidally-driven effluent detected by long-term temperature monitoring at the TAG hydrothermal mound, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Matsubayashi, O.; Fujioka, K.

    1998-06-01

    During Aug. 13-21, 1994, temperatures and current velocity were simultaneously monitored on the TAG hydrothermal mound. Three `Giant Kelps (GKs)', vertical thermistor arrays of 50 m height, were moored on the periphery of the central black smoker complex (CBC). A `Manatee', multi-monitoring system including current velocity, was deployed 50 m east of CBC. Four `Daibutsu' geothermal probes penetrated the sediment south to west of CBC. Compilation of all data revealed semi-diurnal variations in water temperatures and current velocity, and allowed us to discuss the source of these anomalies. Temperature anomalies of GKs correlate well with current velocity, and are interpreted to be caused by the main plume from CBC that was bent over by the tidal current. We identified two types of asymmetric, periodic temperature variations at Daibutsu Probes 2 and 8, located 20 m to the south of CBC. By comparing temperatures and current velocity, they are attributed to non-buoyant effluents laterally advected by the tidal current. The source of one variation is located east to ESE of the probes, and the source of the other is located to the north. On Aug. 31, a new periodic anomaly emerged on Probe 2 with its amplitude up to 0.8°C. The 6-h offset between the new anomaly and the previous one suggests that the source of the new anomaly lies to the west of Probe 2. The heat flux of these non-buoyant effluents is estimated to range from 30 to 100 kW/m 2, which is of the same order as direct estimates of diffuse flow at the TAG mound. It suggests that a significant amount of diffuse effluent is laterally advected by the prevailing current near the seafloor.

  11. Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. Nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-reducing Archaeon from a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P was isolated from black smoker chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N, 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3%), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 52.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, and propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = JCM 12859(sup T) = DSM 14981(sup T)).

  12. Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2degN, 33.9degW). The cells of strain OGL-20P(T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within a pH range of 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), an NaCl concentration range of 1-5%(w/v) (optimum 3%)and a temperature range of 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloram phenicol, kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G + C content of the DNA is 52.9 mol% The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, for which we propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (=JCM 12859(exp T) = DSM 14981(exp T)=ATCC BAA-394(exp T)).

  13. Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. nov., A Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim K.; Garriott, Owen

    2003-01-01

    A novel hyperthermophilic organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed to occur within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3 %), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). Novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent from elemental sulfur as electron acceptor, but it cannot reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products that can be utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction are: peptone, bactotryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 57.1 mol% . Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is most closely related to Thermococcus celer and 'T. barossii', but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = DSM 1498(sup T)).

  14. Thermococcus sulfurophilus sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic, Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Whitman, William B.; Marsic, Damien; Garriott, Owen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P, was isolated from "black smoker" chimney material at the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site in the Atlantic Ocean (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P have irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth occurs within pH range of 5.5-8.2 (optimal at pH 7.0-7.2), salinity range of 1-5% NaCl (optimal concentration 3% NaCl wt/vol), and temperature range of +55 C to +94 C (optimal growth at +83 C to +85 C). Strain OGL-20P is resistant to freezing (at -20 C). New isolate is strictly anaerobic with sulfur-type of respiration. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including peptone, becto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract but does not grow with separate amino acids. Sulfur and Iron can be used as electron acceptors; but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate or nitrate. Strain OGL-20P is resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin. Growth of str. OGL20P is inhibited by tetracyclin but not by Na2MoO4. The G+C content of DNA is 57.2 mol%. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis allows one to classify strain OGL-20P as a representative of a now species of Thermococcus genus. The name Thermococcus sulfurophilus op. nov., was suggested for the new isolate, type strain OGL-20P (sup T) (= ATCC BAA_394 (sup T) = DSM...(supT)).

  15. Proactive tobacco cessation outreach to smokers of low socioeconomic status: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jennifer S.; Linder, Jeffrey A.; Park, Elyse R.; Gonzalez, Irina; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Klinger, Elissa V.; Kontos, Emily Z.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Marinacci, Lucas X.; Hubert, Stella St.; Fleegler, Eric W.; Williams, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Widening socioeconomic disparities in mortality in the United States are largely explained by slower declines in tobacco use between low- and high-socioeconomic status (SES) groups, suggesting the need for targeted tobacco cessation interventions. Documentation of smoking status in electronic health records (EHRs), provides health systems with an opportunity to proactively offer tobacco treatment to disadvantaged smokers. Objective To evaluate a proactive strategy to provide tobacco treatment that addresses socio-contextual mediators of tobacco use for low-SES smokers. Design, Setting, Participants Prospective, randomized controlled trial for low-SES adult smokers who described their race/ethnicity as black, Hispanic or white and received primary care at one of 13 practices in greater-Boston (intervention n=399, control n=308). Intervention We used interactive voice response (IVR)-facilitated outreach to eligible individuals using EHR-coded smoking status. Consenting patients were randomized to a control group which received usual care from their health care team or to an intervention group that included a treatment program of: (1) telephone-based motivational counseling, (2) 6-weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), (3) access to community-based referrals to address socio-contextual mediators of tobacco use, and (4) integration of this program with an individual’s care team through the EHR. Main Outcome Self-reported past 7-day tobacco abstinence 9-months after randomization (“quitting”), assessed by automated caller or blinded study staff. Results The intervention group had a higher quit rate than the usual care group (17.8% vs. 8.1%, odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.0, number-needed-to-treat=10). We examined whether use of intervention components was associated with quitting among individuals in the intervention group; individuals who participated in the telephone counseling were more likely to quit compared to those who

  16. Mood differences between male and female light smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    File, Sandra E; Dinnis, Abigail K; Heard, Joy E; Irvine, Elaine E

    2002-06-01

    In an open study, we determined whether there were sex differences in the mood ratings of non-deprived light smokers and nonsmokers under baseline conditions and after completing a battery of cognitive tests that were mildly stressful. Male and female students who were light smokers (5-12 cigarettes a day) were tested immediately after smoking their usual cigarette, at a time that they normally smoked. They were compared with a group of male and female students who were nonsmokers and did not differ on age, IQ, personality measures, anxiety or depression. Compared with the nonsmokers, both male and female smokers felt overall significantly more discontented, troubled, tense, quarrelsome, furious, impatient, hostile, annoyed and disgusted and experienced greater dizziness. The performance of distracting cognitive tasks did not reveal anxiolytic effects of smoking, and after performance of these tasks, both smokers and nonsmokers became more discontented and anxious. In addition, after the cognitive testing, both male and female smokers showed greater increases than nonsmokers in feeling spiteful, rebellious, incompetent and in sweating, suggesting that they experienced greater mood changes in response to cognitive stress. There were no overall differences between the smokers and nonsmokers in the performance of divided or sustained attention tasks or in episodic memory. It is unlikely that either nicotine withdrawal or differences in cognitive performance could account for the greater anxiety, discontent and aggressive mood that was found in smokers.

  17. Exploration strategies for hydrothermal deposits.

    PubMed

    Horn, R A

    1996-01-01

    With unlimited money the most certain strategy for finding most hydrothermal metal deposits would be by drilling to 5000 m at 50 m spacing. However, the cost would far outweigh the benefit of the discoveries. Geological knowledge and exploration techniques may be used to obtain the greatest benefit for minimum cost, and to concentrate human and material resources in the most economic way in areas with the highest probability of discovery. This paper reviews the economic theory of exploration based on expected value, and the application of geological concepts and exploration techniques to exploration for hydrothermal deposits. Exploration techniques for hydrothermal-systems on Mars would include geochemistry and particularly passive geophysical methods.

  18. Extended treatment of older cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Reus, Victor I.; Robbins, Julie A.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Tobacco dependence treatments achieve abstinence rates of 25–30% at 1 year. Low rates may reflect failure to conceptualize tobacco dependence as a chronic disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the efficacy of extended cognitive behavioral and pharmacological interventions in smokers ≥ 50 years of age, and to determine if gender differences in efficacy existed. Design Open randomized clinical trial. Setting A free-standing, smoking treatment research clinic. Participants A total of 402 smokers of ≥ 10 cigarettes per day, all 50 years of age or older. Intervention Participants completed a 12-week treatment that included group counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion. Participants, independent of smoking status, were then assigned randomly to follow-up conditions: (i) standard treatment (ST; no further treatment); (ii) extended NRT (E-NRT; 40 weeks of nicotine gum availability); (iii) extended cognitive behavioral therapy (E-CBT; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions over a 40-week period); or (iv) E-CBT plus E-NRT (E-combined; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions plus 40 weeks nicotine gum availability). Measurements Primary outcome variable was 7-day point prevalence cigarette abstinence verified biochemically at weeks 24, 52, 64 and 104. Findings The most clinically important findings were significant main effects for treatment condition, time and the treatment × time interaction. The E-CBT condition produced high cigarette abstinence rates that were maintained throughout the 2-year study period [(week 24 (58%), 52 (55%), 64 (55%) and 104 (55%)], and was significantly more effective than E-NRT and ST across that period. No other treatment condition was significantly different to ST. No effects for gender were found. Conclusions Extended cognitive behavioral treatments can produce high and stable cigarette abstinence rates for both men and women. NRT does not add to the efficacy of extended CBT, and may hamper its efficacy

  19. The Role of Magmatic Volatile Input, Near-surface Seawater Entrainment and Sulfide Deposition in Regulating Metal Concentrations Within Manus Basin Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, P. R.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J. S.; Rouxel, O.; Bach, W.

    2007-12-01

    Analyses of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Co and Sb in vent fluid samples from four hydrothermal systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, were carried out by ICP-MS. Vienna Woods is located on the well- defined, basalt-dominated Manus Spreading Center, while the other systems are hosted in felsic volcanics on the Pual Ridge (PACMANUS), within a caldera (DESMOS), and on volcanic cones (SuSu Knolls). Metal concentrations were coupled with other fluid data (pH, SO4, Ca, H2S) to discriminate effects of deep- seated water-rock reaction and magmatic volatile input from near surface seawater entrainment, mixing, and consequent mineral precipitation and metal remobilization. Both magmatic volatile input (e.g. SO2, HCl, HF) and sulfide precipitation can increase fluid acidity and thus affect the aqueous mobility of metals. At Vienna Woods, 280°C end-member (Mg = 0) fluids have high pH (>4.2) and low metal contents (Fe <160 uM, Cu <10 uM, Zn <40 uM) relative to most mid-ocean ridge (MOR) vent fluids. The high pH and lack of evidence for magmatic volatile input are consistent with fluid compositions regulated by subsurface seawater- basalt/andesite reactions. Despite low aqueous Zn concentrations, Zn-rich (wurtzite-lined) chimneys are common at Vienna Woods active vents, reflecting deposition from fluids characterized by low Fe and Cu and high pH. At PACMANUS, black smoker fluids (T >300°C, pH ~ 2.7) are enriched in sulfide-forming metals by an order of magnitude relative to Vienna Woods fluids. Enrichments at PACMANUS reflect efficient leaching of metals at low pH, with the lower pH likely a result of input of magmatic volatiles. In addition, some vents fluids show clear evidence for seawater entrainment, subsurface precipitation of Cu-Fe-sulfides and preferential remobilization of Zn-sulfides (lower T, non-zero Mg, lower Fe, Cu, H2S and pH (2.3-2.4), but higher Zn, Pb, Cd and Ag, compared to black smokers). The higher metal concentrations and lower pH of

  20. Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,

    SciTech Connect

    Sleep, N.H.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the initial entry of hydrothermal seawater into deep levels of the oceanic crust, the effectiveness of hydrothermal circulation in cooling the crust, the geometry of hydrothermal circulation, the relationship between the hydrothermal circulation and the magma chamber, the reaction of the oceanic crust with the seawater, and the identification of the hydrothermal fluid which alters a rock sample. Topics considered include the crack front, observation relevant to the crack front, the limitations of the crack front hypothesis, the observed pattern of hydrothermal alteration, the nature of the hydrothermal fluid, the physics of large scale convection, and convection through crack zones. Knowledge of hydrothermal circulation at the ridge axis is based on sampling of the hydrothermal fluid, indirect geophysical measurements of the oceanic crust, and studies of rocks which are believed to have undergone hydrothermal alteration at the ridge axis. Includes 2 drawings.

  1. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England

    PubMed Central

    Csikar, Julia; Kang, Jing; Wyborn, Ceri; Dyer, Tom A.; Marshman, Zoe; Godson, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Smoking has been identified as the second greatest risk factor for global death and disability and has impacts on the oral cavity from aesthetic changes to fatal diseases such as oral cancer. The paper presents a secondary analysis of the National Adult Dental Health Survey (2009). The analysis used descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression models to report the self-reported oral health status and dental attendance of smokers and non-smokers in England. Of the 9,657 participants, 21% reported they were currently smoking. When compared with smokers; non-smokers were more likely to report ‘good oral health’ (75% versus 57% respectively, p<0.05). Smokers were twice as likely to attend the dentist symptomatically (OR = 2.27, CI = 2.02–2.55) compared with non-smoker regardless the deprivation status. Smokers were more likely to attend symptomatically in the most deprived quintiles (OR = 1.99, CI = 1.57–2.52) and perceive they had poorer oral health (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.42–2.20). The present research is consistent with earlier sub-national research and should be considered when planning early diagnosis and management strategies for smoking-related conditions, considering the potential impact dental teams might have on smoking rates. PMID:26863107

  2. Black Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  3. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  4. Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

  5. Phylogenetic diversity of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Andrew J.; Dorn, Ruth; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Lutz, Richard A.; Vetriani, Costantino

    2009-09-01

    Microbial communities of methanogenic, sulfate-reducing and methanotrophic prokaryotes from deep-sea environments were investigated by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of the genes encoding for the methyl coenzyme M reductase ( mcrA), dissimilatory sulfite reductase ( dsrAB) and particulate methane monoxygenase ( pmoA), respectively. Clone libraries of PCR amplified genes were constructed using DNA extracted from deep-sea vent chimneys (Rainbow and Logatchev hydrothermal vent fields, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Atlantic Ocean; 9°N East Pacific Rise, Pacific Ocean) and from vertically subsampled sediment cores from cold-seep areas (Blake Ridge, western Atlantic Ocean; Florida Escarpment, Gulf of Mexico). Recombinant clones were screened by RFLP and representative dsrAB, mcrA and pmoA genes were sequenced. The dsrAB sequences grouped primarily within the orders Desulfobacterales, Syntrophobacterales and the Gram-positive order Clostridales. Cold-seep mcrA sequences were distributed among the ANME-2c, -2d and -2e groups, which were previously shown to be associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane. This study also reports the first mcrA sequences from a high-temperature, black smoker chimney (Logatchev) to group within the ANME-2e subgroup. The majority of the remaining hydrothermal vent mcrA sequences were primarily related to thermophilic members of the anaerobic, methanogenic order Methanococcales. A shift in the dominant ANME-2 group with depth in the sediment for both Florida Escarpment and Blake Ridge mcrA libraries was detected. ANME-2d related clones were detected in the top zones of both cores, with the frequency of ANME-2e related clones increasing with depth. All pmoA sequences retrieved from the cold-seep sites were found to be related to Type I methanotrophic members of the γ-proteobacteria, and were primarily distributed among three major clusters of sequences. No Type II pmoA sequences related to methanotrophic

  6. The female smoker: from addiction to recovery.

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2003-10-01

    Millions of American girls and women have been drawn to smoking by an industry that has been clearly and systematically targeting women of all ages and life circumstances. Big tobacco's well-timed marketing strategies skillfully link cigarette use to typical female values: independence, self-reliance, weight control, stress management, social progress and popularity, personal attractiveness, autonomy, self-fulfillment, youth, happiness, personal success, health, and active, vigorous, and strenuous lifestyles. Biologically speaking, women are especially vulnerable to the legion of health problems of tobacco use. Smoking is a critical hazard for women in their reproductive years, particularly when they are pregnant. The US Public Health Service 2000 Clinical Practice Guideline provides helpful guidance and sound general recommendations for the treatment of women of all ages for tobacco use and dependence. Women and girls who smoke represent diverse subgroups of the population with unique issues and needs. The 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Women and Smoking stresses the importance of multistrategy programs for treating female smokers. This approach includes antitobacco media campaigns, increases in tobacco prices, promotion of nonsmoking in public places, curbs on tobacco advertising and promotion, enforcement of legislation to reduce youth access to tobacco products, and effective tobacco use treatment programs. PMID:14557740

  7. Smokers and non‐smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Objective Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Design Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Setting Three locations in Sydney, Australia. Participants 63 smokers and 75 non‐smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18–24, 35–44, 55–64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Measurements Semi‐structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Results Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de‐legitimised in conversation. Conclusions Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self‐evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility. PMID:16998175

  8. Correlation between nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual (water pipe) smokers among Arab Americans

    PubMed Central

    El-Shahawy, Omar; Haddad, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that dual cigarette and water pipe use is growing among minority groups, particularly among Arab Americans. Differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to smoking cessation among such dual smokers have not been previously examined in this population. We examined potential differences that might exist between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers (cigarette and water pipe) pertaining to nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation among Arab Americans. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of self-identified Arab immigrant smokers (n=131) living in the Richmond, VA metropolitan area. Data were collected using four questionnaires: Demographic and Cultural Information questionnaire, Tobacco Use questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire, and Barriers to Cessation questionnaire. We examined differences in nicotine dependence and barriers to cessation between exclusive cigarette smokers and dual smokers of cigarettes and water pipe. Furthermore, we explored the correlations of these measures with select variables. Results There was a significant difference in the FTND scores between the exclusive cigarette smokers (mean M=2.55, standard deviation [SD] =2.10) and dual smokers (M=3.71, SD =2.42); t(129) = (2.51), P=0.0066. There was also a significant difference in the Barriers to Cessation scores between exclusive cigarette smokers (M=38.47, SD =13.07) and dual smokers (M=45.21, SD =9.27); t(129) = (2.56), P=0.0058. Furthermore, there was a highly significant correlation among FTND scores, Barriers to Cessation scores, and past quit attempts among dual smokers. Conclusion Water pipe tobacco smoking seems to be both adding to the dependence potential of cigarette smoking and enhancing barriers to cessation in our study sample. However, the high correlation between quit attempts, FTND, and barriers to cessation needs further investigation to ascertain the possible

  9. Hydrothermal Chemotrophic Biosignatures on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.; Campbell, K. A.; Gautret, P.; Bréhéret, J.; Foucher, F.; Vago, J.; Kminek, G.; Hubert, A.; Hickman-Lewis, K.; Cockell, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrothermal chemotrophic biosignatures (morphological and geo-organochemical) were common in shallow water on the anaerobic early Earth, preserved by silicification. They are representative also of shallow crustal biosignatures.

  10. Arterial Compliance and Autonomic Functions in Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Yogesh; Gupta, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is known to augment sympathetic activity and may lead to increased arterial stiffness. Several studies have reported association of increased sympathetic activity and arterial stiffness to cardiovascular risks among smokers. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) of peripheral arteries, instead of aorta can be used as a non-invasive indicator of arterial stiffness. Aim To measure non-invasively, the autonomic functions and peripheral arterial stiffness in smokers, and to find out whether the aforementioned factors are modified by the level of physical activity in these smokers. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, HIMS, Dehradun, over a period of 12 months (2013-2014) on 100 adult males (20-40 years); 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers. The parameters analysed include relevant anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters, Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), sustained Hand Grip Test (HGT) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) domains. Data interpretation and analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Comparison of the above mentioned parameters amongst groups was done with unpaired t-test. The relationship of pack-years & physical activity with vascular functions was assessed by Pearson’s correlation. Interaction of various grades of smoking and physical activity with Cardiovascular System (CVS) parameters was assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results Smokers had higher values of PWV (5.7±0.5m/s) as compared to non-smokers (4.8±0.4m/s) (p<0.001). ΔDBP during HGT was lower (7±3.18mmHg) among smokers as compared to non-smokers (19.4±3.5mmHg) (p<0.001). Smoking (pack-years) was positively related to PWV (r= .03) but showed a weak negative relationship with change in Diastolic Blood Pressure (ΔDBP) (r= -0.084, p=0.56) showing that, more the frequency of smoking, the more was arterial stiffening and the lesser was the sympathetic response to the HGT. The smokers had significantly higher sympathetic activity; Low

  11. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  12. Quantification of plasma microRNAs in a group of healthy smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers and correlation to biomarkers of tobacco exposure

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Camacho, Oscar M.; Minet, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The stability of circulating miRNAs, their non-invasive sampling techniques and deregulation in diseases make them potential candidate biomarkers of biological effect. Here, we profiled the level of 84 plasma miRNAs in 30 smokers, 20 non-smokers and 20 ex-smokers. A robust statistical strategy was applied with replicate samples to account for reproducibility of the results. We identified differential expression of miR-124 and let-7a between the smoking and control groups. We further explored the dose–response relationship of miR-124 and let-7a with two biomarkers of tobacco exposure and found that this relationship was affected by adjustments based on age, pack-year and gender. PMID:25598229

  13. Depression Symptoms among Homeless Smokers: Effect of Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cendrine; Rogers, Charles R.; Okuyemi, Kola

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is higher among homeless individuals than the general population. Homeless individuals are also more likely to have symptoms of depression. Depression symptoms may add to the burden of homelessness by increasing psychological distress and serve as a barrier to quitting smoking. Objectives The primary goal of this study was to assess the impact of depression symptoms on psychological distress in homeless smokers. The effect of depression symptoms on abstinence and the effect of Motivational Interviewing (MI) on cessation among smokers was also explored. Methods Homeless smokers (N=430) enrolled in a smoking cessation study were randomized to Motivational Interviewing (MI) or standard care (SC). Participants received nicotine replacement therapy and were followed for 26 weeks. Participants were categorized into a depression symptoms (DS) group or control group using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Between group differences of perceived stress, hopelessness, confidence, craving and abstinence were assessed at weeks 8 and 26. The interaction between depression symptoms (levels: DS and control) and the intervention (levels: MI and SC) was also assessed. Results Homeless smokers in the DS group reported higher levels of hopelessness, perceived stress, and craving. There was no effect of DS status on abstinence at week 8 or week 26. There was no significant interaction between depression symptoms (DS vs. Control) and the intervention (MI vs. SC). Conclusion Despite reporting greater psychological distress, homeless smokers with depression symptoms in this sample had abstinence levels similar to the control group. Future research should explore protective factors among depressed smokers. PMID:27267588

  14. Spontaneous action representation in smokers when watching movie characters smoke.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dylan D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Sargent, James D; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2011-01-19

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontoparietal network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan, or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and 17 nonsmokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowed us to keep both smoking and nonsmoking participants naive to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by movie scenes of smoking was contrasted with nonsmoking control scenes that were matched for frequency and duration. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking versus control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking.

  15. Recruiting unmotivated smokers into a smoking induction trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S; Staggs, Vincent S; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult smokers with low motivation to quit. Over 15 months, 33% of smokers who inquired about the study were enrolled. Common recruitment methods included word-of-mouth, print advertisements and clinic referrals. Frequently mentioned reasons for participating included to: gain financial incentives (44.7%), learn about research or help others quit (43%), learn about smoking and risks (40%) and help with future quits (i.e. Quit Assistance, 23.9%). Separate regression models predicting study outcomes at 26 weeks indicated that smokers who said they participated for Quit Assistance reported higher motivation to quit (B 1.26) and were more likely to have made a quit attempt (OR 2.03) compared to those not mentioning this reason, when baseline characteristics were controlled. Understanding reasons for unmotivated smokers' interest in treatment can help practitioners and researchers design effective strategies to engage this population. PMID:27081187

  16. Neural Reward and Punishment Sensitivity in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Geoffrey F.; Bloom, Erika; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotine addiction remains a major public health problem but the neural substrates of addictive behavior remain unknown. One characteristic of smoking behavior is impulsive choice, selecting the immediate reward of smoking despite the potential long-term negative consequences. This suggests that drug users, including cigarette smokers, may be more sensitive to rewards and less sensitive to punishment. Methods We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that smokers are more responsive to reward signals and less responsive to punishment, potentially predisposing them to risky behavior. We conducted two experiments, one using a reward prediction design to elicit a Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN) and one using a reward- and punishment-motivated flanker task to elicit an Error Related Negativity (ERN), ERP components thought to index activity in the cortical projection of the dopaminergic reward system. Results and Conclusions The smokers had a greater MFN response to unpredicted rewards, and non-smokers, but not smokers, had a larger ERN on punishment motivated trials indicating that smokers are more reward sensitive and less punishment sensitive than nonsmokers, overestimating the appetitive value and underestimating aversive outcomes of stimuli and actions. PMID:25292454

  17. Smokers' expectancies for abstinence: preliminary results from focus groups.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Wood, Sabrina B; Hall, Sharon M

    2009-06-01

    Smokers' expectancies regarding the effects of cigarette use are powerful predictors of smoking motivation and behavior. However, studies have not investigated the consequences that smokers expect when they attempt to quit smoking: abstinence-related expectancies. The primary goal of this qualitative study was to gain initial insight into smokers' expectancies for abstinence. Eight focus groups were conducted with 30 smokers diverse with respect to age, gender, and ethnoracial background. Content analyses indicated that smokers anticipate a variety of outcomes from abstinence. The most frequently reported expectancies included pharmacologic withdrawal symptoms, behavioral withdrawal symptoms, decreased monetary expense, and immediate improvement of certain aspects of physical functioning and health. Additional expectancies concerned weight gain, improved attractiveness, enhanced social functioning/self-esteem, long-term health outcomes, and loss of relationships. Finally, a number of relatively unheralded expectancies were revealed. These involved nicotine replacement therapy effectiveness, alcohol and other drug use, cue reactivity, cessation-related social support, aversion to smoking, and "political process" implications. This study provides a preliminary step in understanding smokers' expectancies for abstinence from cigarettes. PMID:19586157

  18. Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and δ18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that

  19. Male Smokers' and Non-Smokers' Response Inhibition in Go/No-Go Tasks: Effect of Three Task Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaoting; Zan, Xiangyi; Jin, Ge; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition plays a major role in many addictive behaviors. However, in studies using go/no-go tasks, findings regarding the presence of response inhibition deficits in nicotine-dependent individuals are mixed. This might be due to differences between studies on a number of task parameters. Here we aimed to identify task conditions under which go/no-go task performance deficits can be observed in smokers and to characterize the nature of such deficits. Sixty-one male students (30 smokers, 31 non-smokers) performed a go/no-go task while independently manipulating three task parameters: (1) percentage no-go trials (50% or 25%), (2) stimulus presentation time (600 ms or 200 ms), and (3) nature of no-go stimuli (cigarette related or cigarette unrelated). Three measures, reaction time on go trials and percentage correct responses on go and no-go trials, served as performance indicators. Under 200-ms but not 600-ms stimulus presentation conditions, the smokers responded faster on go trials and made more errors on both go and no-go trials than the non-smokers did. These differences occurred irrespective of the percentage of no-go trials and nature of no-go stimuli. The accuracy differences disappeared after controlling for the response time differences, suggesting a strong speed-accuracy trade-off. This study contributes to unraveling the conditions under which smokers display impaired inhibition performance and helps to characterize the nature of this impairment. Under task conditions prompting fast responding, smokers are more prone to increase response speed and to make more errors than non-smokers. PMID:27500831

  20. Male Smokers' and Non-Smokers' Response Inhibition in Go/No-Go Tasks: Effect of Three Task Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaoting; Zan, Xiangyi; Jin, Ge; Maes, Joseph H R

    2016-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition plays a major role in many addictive behaviors. However, in studies using go/no-go tasks, findings regarding the presence of response inhibition deficits in nicotine-dependent individuals are mixed. This might be due to differences between studies on a number of task parameters. Here we aimed to identify task conditions under which go/no-go task performance deficits can be observed in smokers and to characterize the nature of such deficits. Sixty-one male students (30 smokers, 31 non-smokers) performed a go/no-go task while independently manipulating three task parameters: (1) percentage no-go trials (50% or 25%), (2) stimulus presentation time (600 ms or 200 ms), and (3) nature of no-go stimuli (cigarette related or cigarette unrelated). Three measures, reaction time on go trials and percentage correct responses on go and no-go trials, served as performance indicators. Under 200-ms but not 600-ms stimulus presentation conditions, the smokers responded faster on go trials and made more errors on both go and no-go trials than the non-smokers did. These differences occurred irrespective of the percentage of no-go trials and nature of no-go stimuli. The accuracy differences disappeared after controlling for the response time differences, suggesting a strong speed-accuracy trade-off. This study contributes to unraveling the conditions under which smokers display impaired inhibition performance and helps to characterize the nature of this impairment. Under task conditions prompting fast responding, smokers are more prone to increase response speed and to make more errors than non-smokers. PMID:27500831

  1. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-10

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  2. Immune response to vaccine against influenza in smokers, non-smokers and, in individuals holding respiratory complications.

    PubMed

    Mancini, D A; Mendonça, R M; Mendonça, R Z; do Prado, J A; Andrade, C de M

    1998-01-01

    Levels of antibody against influenza virus were evaluated in serum pairing samples from individuals immunized against influenza by Hemagglutination Inhibition and Single Radial Hemolysis tests. For this purpose, groups of smokers, non-smokers and, of those holding respiratory complications, were formed. Results of serologic titrations pointed out to an increase in the level of antibodies for the smoker and non-smoker groups, with significant degrees of difference up to P < 0.001 difference between both averages after immunization. However, in the group of respiratory complications no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found out between the averages antibody levels for the subtype A (H1N1) and the Type B (vaccine components); an increase only at the level of antibodies was registered, with differences among the averages of the antibody levels, for the subtype A (H3N2) (vaccine component) at degrees of P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 on the titration of the SRH and HI tests, respectively. It can demonstrate that immunization against influenza presents a good protection for the smoker and non-smoker groups; however, in the group of respiratory complications it only occurred with the subtype A (H3N2), indicating that this subtype presents good antigenicity since it has induced better formation of antibodies, even in defective organisms.

  3. Smokers who use internet and smokers who don't: data from the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Jacqueline L; Augustson, Erik M

    2006-12-01

    Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) have proliferated in recent years, but little is known about those such sites are reaching and those who might be reached in the future. A better understanding of factors that differentiate smokers who do and do not use the Internet could help developers of smoking cessation resources optimize the content and dissemination of resources to these two groups. Using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults, we compared smokers using the Internet (n=728) with smokers not using the Internet (n=516) on demographics, smoking history, healthcare (status, care, access, and use), beliefs about lung cancer risks, and media preferences. Our results showed that compared with smokers not on the Internet, those using the Internet had a higher income and were more likely to be employed, despite having a younger age. Internet-connected smokers also reported less psychological distress, fewer barriers to healthcare, and a greater interest in quitting smoking. Preferences for media also differed by Internet status: Those on the Internet spent less time on television and more time with newspapers and magazines than those not on the Internet. These and other differences may assist the public health community with both the design and dissemination of resources to help smokers quit.

  4. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotto, G.; Simoes, A.Z.; Foschini, C.R.; Zaghete, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles were grown by hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The soaking time is effective in improving phase formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement reveals an orthorhombic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed magnetism of the BFO crystallites is a consequence of particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HTMW is a genuine technique for low temperatures and short times of synthesis. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BFO) in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C with times ranging from 5 min to 1 h. BFO nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray analyses, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, TG-DTA and FE-SEM. X-ray diffraction results indicated that longer soaking time was benefit to refraining the formation of any impurity phases and growing BFO crystallites into almost single-phase perovskites. Typical FT-IR spectra for BFO nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH{sup -} groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. Compared with the conventional solid-state reaction process, submicron BFO crystallites with better homogeneity could be produced at the temperature as low as 180 Degree-Sign C. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain BFO nanoparticles in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C for 1 h.

  5. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The

  6. Mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in symptomatic smokers without COPD.

    PubMed

    Elbehairy, Amany F; Guenette, Jordan A; Faisal, Azmy; Ciavaglia, Casey E; Webb, Katherine A; Jensen, Dennis; Ramsook, Andrew H; Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2016-09-01

    Dyspnoea and activity limitation can occur in smokers who do not meet spirometric criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.Detailed pulmonary function tests and sensory-mechanical relationships during incremental exercise with respiratory pressure measurements and diaphragmatic electromyography (EMGdi) were compared in 20 smokers without spirometric COPD and 20 age-matched healthy controls.Smokers (mean±sd post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity 75±4%, mean±sd FEV1 104±14% predicted) had greater activity-related dyspnoea, poorer health status and lower physical activity than controls. Smokers had peripheral airway dysfunction: higher phase-III nitrogen slopes (3.8±1.8 versus 2.6±1.1%·L(-1)) and airway resistance (difference between airway resistance measured at 5 Hz and 20 Hz 19±11 versus 12±7% at 5 Hz) than controls (p<0.05). Smokers had significantly (p<0.05) lower peak oxygen uptake (78±40 versus 107±45% predicted) and ventilation (61±26 versus 97±29 L·min(-1)). Exercise ventilatory requirements, operating lung volumes and cardio-circulatory responses were similar. However, submaximal dyspnoea ratings, resistive and total work of breathing were increased in smokers compared with controls (p<0.05); diaphragmatic effort (transdiaphragmatic pressure/maximumal transdiaphragmatic pressure) and fractional inspiratory neural drive to the diaphragm (EMGdi/maximal EMGdi) were also increased (p<0.05) mainly reflecting the reduced denominator.Symptomatic smokers at risk for COPD had greater exertional dyspnoea and lower exercise tolerance compared with healthy controls in association with greater airways resistance, contractile diaphragmatic effort and fractional inspiratory neural drive to the diaphragm. PMID:27492828

  7. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed

  8. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat…

  9. Talking Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    This book contains essays which focus on the systems of communication that operate within and between various social segments of Afro-American communities in the United States. The essays are presented under the following headings: (1) "Getting Into It: Black Talk, Black Life and the Academic," (2) "'Talking My Talk': Black Talk Varieties and…

  10. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  11. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  12. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Khemiss, Mehdi; Khelifa, Mohamed Ben; Rejeb, Mohamed Ben; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH) of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60) and ECS (n=60) groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively). Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively). However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04) and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively) and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively). Conclusions Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss. PMID:27370513

  13. The influence of smokers' degree of dependence on the effectiveness of message framing for capturing smokers for a Quitline.

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2010-06-01

    Smoking is a worldwide public health problem, and various communication strategies aimed at its cessation have been used. The objective of this paper was to explore differences over time of two communication strategies (gain-framed versus loss-framed) in encouraging calls to a Quitline, according to smoker's degree of dependence. A study was conducted for four weeks among passengers of two selected subway stations in the city of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (N(average) = 12,500 passengers a day per station). The interventions - large posters with images and text based on central theme "shortness-of-breath" - also contained the Quitline number. Call rate differences between the strategies, overall and specific per study week, were calculated. Light smokers exposed to the positive-content message called on average 2.2 times more often than those exposed to the negative-content message (p < 0.001). The absolute difference in call rates decreased after the first week of the study (p for the additive interaction between intervention and study week, 0.02). For heavy smokers, no differences between the two stations were observed. Additive interaction was found between type of smoker - light or heavy - and intervention (p = 0.02). The results suggest that short-term positive-content campaigns based on issues pertaining to individuals' daily routine could be effective in capturing light smokers. These results may have considerable public health impact, as the prevalence of less dependent smokers is much higher than that of heavier smokers. PMID:20163919

  14. Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

  15. Pain intensity and smoking behavior among treatment seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Ditre, Joseph W; Langdon, Kirsten J; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Paulus, Daniel J; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-03-30

    Empirical evidence supporting the interplay between pain intensity and tobacco smoking has been growing. The current investigation advances this work in three important ways: (1) controlling for negative affectivity and gender; (2) examining pain intensity in smokers from a community sample, rather than specialized pain treatment centers; and, (3) studying smokers who are highly motivated to quit. Participants were adult smokers (N=112; 35% female; Mage=41.4, SD=13.1) participating in a larger study examining barriers to cessation during a self-guided quit attempt. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures on pain intensity and smoking severity outcomes. As hypothesized, more intense pain was significantly associated with all four smoking severity variables: years as a daily smoker, current cigarettes per day, cigarettes per day during the heaviest lifetime smoking period, and current level of nicotine dependence. These associations remained when taking into account the variance accounted for by gender and negative affectivity. These data provide evidence that more intense pain is related to more severe smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Pain reduction could be an important target in regard to smokers with chronic pain.

  16. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  17. Strategies to help a smoker who is struggling to quit.

    PubMed

    Rigotti, Nancy A

    2012-10-17

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Stopping tobacco use benefits virtually every smoker. Most of the 19% of US residents who smoke want to quit and have tried to do so. Most individual quit attempts fail, but two-thirds of smokers use no treatment when trying to quit. Treating tobacco dependence is one of the most cost-effective actions in health care. With a brief intervention, physicians can prompt smokers to attempt to quit and connect them to evidence-based treatment that includes pharmacotherapy and behavioral support (ie, counseling). Physicians can link smokers to effective counseling support offered by a free national network of telephone quit lines. Smokers who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, or varenicline when trying to quit double their odds of success. The most effective way to use NRT is to combine the long-acting nicotine patch with a shorter-acting product (lozenge, gum, inhaler, or nasal spray) and extend treatment beyond 12 weeks. Observational studies have not confirmed case reports of behavior changes associated with varenicline and bupropion, and these drugs' benefits outweigh potential risks. A chronic disease management model is effective for treating tobacco dependence, which deserves as high a priority in health care systems as treating other chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension. PMID:23073954

  18. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan M.; Mirbaba, Michael M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the United States. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability adjusted life years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than non-smokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared to non-drinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies including: varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily. PMID:26507831

  19. Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

    2014-06-01

    Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  1. Hydrothermal systems and volcano geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The upward intrusion of magma from deeper to shallower levels beneath volcanoes obviously plays an important role in their surface deformation. This chapter will examine less obvious roles that hydrothermal processes might play in volcanic deformation. Emphasis will be placed on the effect that the transition from brittle to plastic behavior of rocks is likely to have on magma degassing and hydrothermal processes, and on the likely chemical variations in brine and gas compositions that occur as a result of movement of aqueous-rich fluids from plastic into brittle rock at different depths. To a great extent, the model of hydrothermal processes in sub-volcanic systems that is presented here is inferential, based in part on information obtained from deep drilling for geothermal resources, and in part on the study of ore deposits that are thought to have formed in volcanic and shallow plutonic environments.

  2. Introduction to Atlantic Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.; Thompson, Geoffrey

    1993-06-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal research has advanced rapidly from local to global scope through a sequence of discoveries. Hydrothermal research at seafloor spreading centers began in the mid-1960s with the discovery of hot metalliferous brines and sediments ponded in deeps along the slow spreading (half rate 1 cm yr-1) axis of the Red Sea [Chamock, 1964; Miller, 1964; Swallow and Crease, 1965; Miller et al., 1966; Hunt et al., 1967; Bischoff, 1969]. At the same time a hydrothermal metalliferous component was identified in sediments of the East Pacific Rise [Skomyakova, 1965; Arrhenins and Bonatti, 1965; Boström and Peterson, 1966]. Geophysicists recognized that heat flow measurements at spreading centers could only be explained by convective cooling of the crust with circulating seawater [Elder, 1967; Lister, 1972].

  3. Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dando, P. R.; Stüben, D.; Varnavas, S. P.

    1999-08-01

    Hydrothermalism in the Mediterranean Sea results from the collision of the African and European plates, with the subduction of the oceanic part of the African plate below Europe. High heat flows in the resulting volcanic arcs and back-arc extensional areas have set-up hydrothermal convection systems. Most of the known hydrothermal sites are in shallow coastal waters, <200 m depth, so that much of the reported fluid venting is of the gasohydrothermal type. The hydrothermal liquids are of varying salinities, both because of phase separation as a result of seawater boiling at the low pressures and because of significant inputs of rainfall into the hydrothermal reservoirs at some sites. The major component of the vented gas is carbon dioxide, with significant quantities of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, methane and hydrogen also being released. Acid leaching of the underlying rocks leads to the mobilisation of heavy metals, many of which are deposited sub-surface although there is a conspicuous enrichment of metals in surficial sediments in venting areas. Massive polymetalic sulphides have been reported from some sites. No extant vent-specific fauna have been described from Mediterranean sites. There is a reduced diversity of fauna within the sediments at the vents. In contrast, a high diversity of epifauna has been reported and the vent sites are areas of settlement for exotic thermophilic species. Large numbers of novel prokaryotes, especially hyperthermophilic crenarchaeota, have been isolated from Mediterranean hydrothermal vents. However, their distribution in the subsurface biosphere and their role in the biogeochemistry of the sites has yet to be studied.

  4. Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. )

    1990-09-01

    K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

  5. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.

  6. Smoking a virtual cigarette increases craving among smokers.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Weidberg, Sara; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) environments that reproduce smoking-related stimuli for increasing self-reported craving and psychophysiological reactivity in smokers. However, no study to date has attempted to simulate smoking behavior itself by means of VR technology. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of smoking a virtual cigarette on self-reported craving levels and heart rate (HR) in a sample of smokers. Participants were 45 smokers randomly assigned to three VR conditions built into a virtual pub: smoking a virtual cigarette, throwing virtual darts at a virtual dartboard or just being in the virtual pub. Results showed that smoking a virtual cigarette significantly increased self-reported craving and HR when compared to the other two conditions. These results reveal that simulation of smoking behavior in a VR environment functions as an efficacious proximal cue that can be used for triggering craving under the cue-exposure paradigm.

  7. Differences in reasons for smoking between younger and older smokers.

    PubMed

    Oei, T P; Tilley, D; Gow, K

    1991-01-01

    The reasons why older people smoke have not been examined in the literature. This paper attempted to examine the differences in motivation and maintenance factors of elderly and young smokers using the Horn-Waingrow Why do you smoke questionnaire. One hundred and thirteen clinical patients and 112 non-patient controls were used in this study. The clinical group was divided into an elderly group (n = 58) and a younger group (n = 55). The results of a discriminant analysis showed that patients significantly differed from non-patients on 'automatic habit and stimulation', and 'crutch/tension reduction' factors. Elderly patients were found to be significantly differentiated from both younger patients and the control group on the 'pleasurable relaxation' factor. These findings offer support for the US Surgeon Generals' report that elderly smokers do have different motivating factors for their smoking behaviours from younger smokers.

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Calcium Profile in Whole Saliva From Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Generalized Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Kashyap, Rajesh; Maiya, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Measures of in vivo calcium status are important in understanding the mineralization capacity as it is an essential mineral component of both teeth and bone; and also play a vital role in the lipid profile and hormonal balance. Aim To evaluate the existence of any disturbances in calcium metabolism and absorption induced by smoking, by quantitatively assessing the variations in the salivary calcium level between smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and relating to their periodontal status. Materials and Methods A total of 50 male patients were selected and categorized as Group I (smokers with chronic generalized periodontitis) and Group II (non-smoker/ non-tobacco users with chronic generalized periodontitis). Clinical parameters such as Calculus Index and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. Subsequently two ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and subjected to biochemical analysis for the estimation of salivary calcium which was carried out in the next 20 min. Results Salivary calcium levels were significantly higher in Group I (2.2700) compared to Group II (1.7260). Higher calculus index and CPI index score were also seen in Group I when compared to Group II. Conclusion Elevated salivary calcium level among the Group I emphasize the decreased calcium absorption efficiency among the smokers. High salivary calcium content hardens plaque more rapidly, indirectly influencing the level of oral hygiene. PMID:26155563

  9. Ventral Striatum Connectivity During Reward Anticipation in Adolescent Smokers.

    PubMed

    Jollans, Lee; Zhipeng, Cao; Icke, Ilknur; Greene, Ciara; Kelly, Clare; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Paus, Tomáš; Smolka, Michael N; Walter, Henrik; Schumann, Gunter; Whelan, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Substance misusers, including adolescent smokers, often have reduced reward system activity during processing of non-drug rewards. Using a psychophysiological interaction approach, we examined functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during reward anticipation in a large (N = 206) sample of adolescent smokers. Increased smoking frequency was associated with (1) increased connectivity with regions involved in saliency and valuation, including the orbitofrontal cortex and (2) reduced connectivity between the ventral striatum and regions associated with inhibition and risk aversion, including the right inferior frontal gyrus. These results demonstrate that functional connectivity during reward processing is relevant to adolescent addiction. PMID:27074029

  10. A comparison of diabetic smokers and non-smokers who undergo lower extremity amputation: a retrospective review of 112 patients

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. Joseph; Boone, Joshua; Hansen, Myron; Spencer, Loren; Fowler, Zflan

    2012-01-01

    Background A diabetic foot or lower extremity amputation may be exacerbated by or related to the smoking habits and history of the patient. Patients and methods Of the 112 diabetic patients in this retrospective study, 46 were non-smokers and 66 were smokers. The smokers were further categorized into patients who: 1) did not cease smoking; 2) ceased in the immediate post-operative period but resumed within 3 months; and 3) ceased up to and at the 3-month post-operative period. The patients were also divided by their amputation level of forefoot, midfoot/rearfoot, and proximal leg. Results Smoking diabetic patients underwent more amputations, as well as more proximal amputations than those who did not smoke. The higher amount of smoking in pack years followed an increasing trend of more proximal amputations as well. Conclusion Neither the amputation level nor the amputation itself was enough motivation for the patients to participate in smoking cessation. PMID:23082237

  11. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  12. Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Experimental results in and near the supercritical region

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, M.E.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr. ); Janecky, D.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Experiments have been performed with Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity and diabase, basalt, and plagioclase bearing mineral mixtures at 350-425{degree}C and 250-400 bars to help constrain hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. Dissolved Ca, Na, and pH for all experiments responded systematically to differences in dissolved SiO{sub 2} concentrations and the compositions of plagioclase reactants. Diabase alteration at low fluid/rock mass ratios (0.5 to 1) produces fluids undersaturated with respect to quartz during hydration of primary olivine and orthopyroxene, whereas basalt alteration under similar conditions yields fluids slightly supersaturated with respect to quartz during breakdown of glass to smectite and amphibole. Fluid chemistry in all experiments appears to approach a partial equilibrium state with the albite and anorthite components in plagioclase and approaches a pH consistent with plagioclase alteration to epidote. Trace element data from vent fluids, specifically B and Sr, together with major element chemistry, provides evidence that the reaction zone for black-smoker fluids at mid-ocean ridges is composed of only slightly altered diabase and is characterized by small amounts of epidote, nearly fresh plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and partially to completely hydrated olivine and orthopyroxene. Using equilibrium between plagioclase, the dominant reactant, and epidote, the dominant reaction product in experiments, the authors estimate that temperatures in reaction zones are in excess of 375{degree}C for most vent systems. These temperatures are higher than measured vent temperatures, suggesting that hot spring fluids commonly loose heat during ascent to the sea floor.

  13. Comparison of Barriers to Cessation among Arab American Smokers of Cigarettes and Waterpipe

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Linda; El-Shahawy, Omar; Ghadban, Roula

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the differences in barriers to cessation and reasons for quitting smoking among dual smokers of cigarettes and waterpipe tobacco, exclusive cigarette smokers and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Participants were Arab American adults residing in Richmond, Virginia, who were recruited from Middle Eastern grocery stores, restaurants/lounges and faith and charity organizations. The study yielded several key findings: (1) Exclusive cigarette and waterpipe smokers had similar mean barriers to quitting and were more concerned about their health than dual smokers. (F(2, 150) = 5.594, p = 0.0045). This implies that barriers to smoking and health concerns could be a function of the individual who smokes rather than the modality of smoking itself. (2) Exclusive cigarette or waterpipe smokers and dual smokers may have different reasons for quitting, since they have different reasons for smoking. The proportion of smokers who endorsed smoking as a messy habit as the reason among exclusive cigarette smokers was 0.37, whereas the proportion among exclusive waterpipe smokers was 0.04 and among dual smokers 0.39. The difference in proportions is significant, χ2 (df = 2, N = 154) = 13.17, p = 0.0014. In summary, this study supports the need to further investigate dual cigarette and waterpipe smokers, as the study results indicate greater barriers to smoking cessation in this group. Recognition and understanding of these barriers among dual tobacco users would be important for any future tobacco intervention among waterpipe smokers. PMID:25226410

  14. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  15. Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,

    SciTech Connect

    Rona, P.A.; Bostrom, K.; Laubier, L.; Smith, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book examines research on the description and interpretation of hydrothermal and associated phenomena at seafloor spreading centers. An interdisciplinary overview of the subject is presented, including geological, geophysical, geochemical, and biological discoveries. The implications of the discoveries for understanding the earth's heat transfer, geochemical mass balances and cycles, mineralization, and biological adaptation are discussed. Topics considered include geologic setting (e.g., the four dimensions of the spreading axis, geological processes of the mid-ocean ridge), hydrothermal convection (e.g., oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies, the basic physics of water penetration into hot rock), Iceland and oceanic ridges (e.g., chemical evidence from Icelandic geothermal systems, the physical environment of hydrothermal systems), mass balances and cycles (e.g., reduced gases and bacteria in hydrothermal fluids, the effects of hydrothermal activity on sedimentary organic matter), ferromanganese deposits, hydrothermal mineralization, and the biology of hydrothermal vents.

  16. Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close…

  17. How Can We Balance Ethics and Law When Treating Smokers?

    PubMed Central

    Senderovich, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A physician is a valued member of society on whom many individuals rely for both professional advice and support during times when they may feel to be at a disadvantage, whether it be physically or mentally. An issue on the rise today concerns the population of smokers in our society. Many are coming to share the opinion that physicians should not provide treatments for smokers. Some of the opinions are based on the claim that smokers are morally responsible for their medical conditions. But, providing care in a fair manner includes not treating differently those who suffer from addiction. Moreover, it is important to recognize that allocating medical resources based on moral responsibility will undermine the physician–patient relationship which is necessary for the practice of medicine. Many countries have codes and policies that physicians must legally follow in terms of providing treatments. With acceptance of the fact that the patient may be unable to execute the decisions made by the physician, it is the legal duty of the physician to provide care and not abandon the patient. An analysis of the many policies around the world brings forward certain changes that must be made in order to make sure that physicians fulfil their legal duty, which is to provide care. As such, this article looks into the existing ethical dilemma in treating smokers around the world, with a review of some policies that will guide our approach in this matter. PMID:27101222

  18. Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

    2007-01-01

    This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

  19. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  20. [Smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

    2014-12-01

    One out of two smokers who smoke throughout their lifetime will die from a disease related to smoking. Tobacco smoking therefore represents a major global public health issue. Smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Projections for 2020 indicate that by then, COPD will have become the third cause of death and the fifth cause of disability worldwide. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing COPD and is an essential treatment for this inflammatory disease. Smoking cessation decreases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, number of hospitalizations, and decline in FEV1, as well as exacerbation frequency and overall mortality. Among the patients, 38-77% with COPD are smokers. Their daily cigarette consumption and level of nicotine dependence are often high. The combination of high intensity behavioral interventions and medication treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) is the most effective strategy for smokers with COPD. In contrast, behavioral interventions without medication are not more effective than simple advice to stop. Two factors seem to predict the success of the attempt to quit in smokers with COPD: a strong motivation to quit and the use of smoking cessation medications.

  1. Transtheoretical Model of Change Among Hospitalized African American Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Connie L.; Fish, Larry; Davies, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine predicted relationships among transtheoretical model of change measures in a sample of 211 low-income, African American hospitalized smokers. Methods: We used discriminant analysis to examine differences in decisional balance and self-efficacy across stages of change for quitting. Results: Differences in decisional balance…

  2. College Student Smokers' Cognitive Appraisal of High-Risk Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Amy L.; Kulesza, Magdalena; Patterson, Scott M.; Terlecki, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Students who smoke are more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as binge drinking and unprotected sex (Schnieder and Morris, "Environ Behav." 1999; 23:575-591). The goals of the present study were to determine whether smokers assess these behaviors as lower risk than nonsmokers, and if smoking rate influences risk perceptions.…

  3. Factors in Nonadherence to Quitline Services: Smoker Characteristics Explain Little

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emily K.; Levinson, Arnold H.; Deaton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quitlines offer evidence-based, multisession coaching support for smoking cessation in the 50 U.S. states, Canada, and several other countries. Smokers who enroll in quitline services have, "ipso facto," shown readiness to attempt to quit, but noncompletion of coaching services appears widespread and has not been widely investigated.…

  4. Behavioral Strategies for Nonsmokers: Avoiding and Confronting Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.

    Nonsmokers repeatedly breathe smoke-polluted air in various settings, despite the evidence demonstrating the deleterious consequences upon such passive smokers. The extent of exposure to environmental irritants during a 17-day baseline period was tested, and the efficacy of two simple behavioral strategies in reducing smoke were documented…

  5. Putting It on the Line: Telephone Counseling for Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedeschi, Gary J.; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Anderson, Christopher M.; Cummins, Sharon; Ribner, Neil G.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an adolescent counseling intervention used by the California Smokers' Helpline and test in the largest randomized trials to date. In this study, more than 1,400 teen clients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received telephone counseling…

  6. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy-Drinking Smokers.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Mirbaba, Michael M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco use and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the US. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability-adjusted life-years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than nonsmokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared with nondrinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors, including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD, and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. In this review, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy-drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies, including varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation, and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizeable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily.

  7. Smokers vs. Nonsmokers: Toward an Understanding of Their Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Joanne M.; Bell, Roger A.

    This research was conducted to contribute to the general knowledge concerning differences between smokers and nonsmokers. The data were obtained from a major epidemiologic study conducted in 1973 in the southeastern United States. A survey instrument composed of 403 questions and administered to 2029 randomly selected adults was designed to elicit…

  8. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  9. The subgingival microbiome of clinically healthy current and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew R; Preshaw, Philip M; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Dabdoub, Shareef M; Rahman, Anis; Kumar, Purnima S

    2015-01-01

    Dysbiotic oral bacterial communities have a critical role in the etiology and progression of periodontal diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which smoking increases risk for disease by influencing the composition of the subgingival microbiome in states of clinical health. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 200 systemically and periodontally healthy smokers and nonsmokers. 16S pyrotag sequencing was preformed generating 1,623,713 classifiable sequences, which were compared with a curated version of the Greengenes database using the quantitative insights into microbial ecology pipeline. The subgingival microbial profiles of smokers and never-smokers were different at all taxonomic levels, and principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clustering of the microbial communities based on smoking status. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, pathogen-rich, commensal-poor, anaerobic microbiome that is more closely aligned with a disease-associated community in clinically healthy individuals, suggesting that it creates an at-risk-for-harm environment that is primed for a future ecological catastrophe. PMID:25012901

  10. Gut Microbial Diversity Is Reduced in Smokers with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Jorrit L.; Plassais, Jonathan; van Mil, Saskia W. C.; Achouri, Emna; Pichaud, Matthieu; Siersema, Peter D.; Cervino, Alessandra C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking has a negative impact on Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We compared the gut microbiota composition of smoking with nonsmoking patients with CD using a metagenomic approach. Methods: Stool samples and clinical data were collected from current smokers and nonsmokers with CD from France and the Netherlands, matched for country, gender, age, disease activity, and body mass index. Fecal DNA was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500. On average, 40 million paired-end reads were generated per sample. Gene richness and the Shannon index were computed to assess microbial diversity. Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests for paired samples were performed to detect differences between the 2 groups. Results: In total, 21 smoking and 21 nonsmoking patients with CD were included. Compared with nonsmoking patients, gut microbial gene richness (P = 0.01), genus diversity (P < 0.01), and species diversity (P = 0.01) were decreased in smoking patients. This was accompanied by a reduced relative abundance of the genera Collinsella (P = 0.02), Enterorhabdus (P = 0.02), and Gordonibacter (P = 0.02) in smokers. No statistically significant differences at the species level were observed, although smokers had lower proportions of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.10). Conclusions: Gut microbial diversity is reduced in smokers with CD compared with nonsmokers with CD. The microbial profile differs between these groups at the genus level. Future studies should evaluate whether intestinal microbes mediate the adverse effects of smoking in CD. PMID:27542127

  11. Effect of smoking characteristics on cognitive dissonance in current and former smokers.

    PubMed

    Halpern, M T

    1994-01-01

    The effect of smoking characteristics on the development of cognitive dissonance in current and former smokers is examined. Smoking characteristics (number of cigarettes per day, number of years smoked, and years since quitting) and health beliefs were obtained from over 9,000 respondents to the 1986 Adult Use of Tobacco Survey. Overall, current smokers exhibited more cognitive dissonance involving smoking-related beliefs than did former smokers. Logistic regression analysis indicated that heavier current smokers (those smoking > or = 20 cigarettes per day) were more likely to exhibit cognitive dissonance over smoking-related health beliefs than were lighter smokers. In contrast, number of cigarettes consumed per day had only minor effects on former smokers' beliefs; former smokers who had smoked for more years (> or = 17), or who had quite recently (within the last 8 years), were more likely to showed greater dissonance than former smokers without these characteristics. The factors underlying these results and their implications for smoking cessation programs are discussed.

  12. Coronary CT angiography findings based on smoking status: Do ex-smokers and never-smokers share a low probability of developing coronary atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Yi, Minkyung; Chun, Eun Ju; Lee, Min Su; Lee, Jaebong; Choi, Sang Il

    2015-12-01

    The relationship of coronary artery disease (CAD) in ex-smokers has not been elucidated, although smoking is considered to be one of the major risk factors of CAD. We investigate subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (SCA) in asymptomatic subjects with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), according to smoking status, and determine whether ex-smokers share a low probability of developing CAD with never-smokers. We retrospectively enrolled 6930 self-referred asymptomatic adults who underwent both coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and CCTA. The prevalence and characteristics of SCA were assessed according to smoking status (never-, ex- and current smokers). After adjusting for variable risk factors, we used multivariate logistic regression for adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of high CACS (>100), SCA (any plaque), significant stenosis (>50 % in luminal stenosis) and each plaque type (non-calcified, mixed and calcified plaque) among the three groups. The prevalence of SCA was highest in the ex-smokers (35.4 %) and the prevalence of significant stenosis in ex-smokers (6.9 %) was as high as in current smokers (6.4 %). However, after adjusting for variable risk factors, SCA was significantly correlated with both ex-smokers (AOR; 1.21) and current smokers (AOR; 1.25), whereas significant stenosis was correlated only with current smokers (AOR; 1.91). The association between SCA and ex-smokers is as strong as with current smokers, although significant stenosis is only correlated with current smokers; thus, not only quitting smoking but also never initiating smoking would be helpful to reduce the progression of the SCA.

  13. Metal flux in black shale sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Parnell, J. . School of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    Black shales are important to the models used by many metallogenists to explain the concentration of metals in and around ore prospects. In some cases, black shales are inferred to be a ready source of metals which can be leached and concentrated to form a mineral deposit. For others, black shales are a chemical trap in which organic matter absorbs metals from migrating groundwaters and hydrothermal fluids. Clearly, these source and sink models confer fundamentally opposite roles to black shales in the metal budget of a sedimentary base. An assessment of whether one of these roles is predominant must include consideration of the physico-chemical mechanism involved and their timing during basin history. A release of metals from shales can be a consequence of intrinsic diagenetic processes, in addition to scavenging by hydrothermal fluids (i.e. an external source). Major processes in siliciclastic diagenesis include compaction, silica precipitation/dissolution, clay authigenesis and carbonate/sulphate dissolution; the latter two in particular can be a source of metals due to expulsion from the lattice during mineral transformation. Both of these processes can occur on a large scale and liberate large quantities of metal over a short time period. One of several approaches to assessing the metal budget in/out of shales is to compare metal contents in shales outside and inside early diagenetic carbonate concretions which should protect their contents from the processes of deep burial. Results of such analyses suggest that black shales are more likely to absorb than lose metals.

  14. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus

  15. Clinical and Radiologic Disease in Smokers With Normal Spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth A.; Lynch, David A.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Austin, John H. M.; Grenier, Philippe A.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bailey, William C.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Casaburi, Richard H.; Friedman, Paul; Van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Hokanson, John E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Beaty, Terri H.; Washko, George R.; Han, MeiLan K.; Kim, Victor; Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Washington, Lacey; McEvoy, Charlene E.; Tanner, Clint; Mannino, David M.; Make, Barry J.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Airflow obstruction on spirometry is universally used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and current or former smokers without airflow obstruction may assume that they are disease free. OBJECTIVE To identify clinical and radiologic evidence of smoking-related disease in a cohort of current and former smokers who did not meet spirometric criteria for COPD, for whom we adopted the discarded label of Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 0. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cross-sectional observational study completed spirometry, chest computed tomography (CT) scans, a 6-minute walk, and questionnaires. Participants were recruited from local communities at 21 sites across the United States. The GOLD 0 group (n = 4388) (ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] to forced vital capacity >0.7 and FEV1 ≥80% predicted) from the COPDGene study was compared with a GOLD 1 group (n = 794), COPD groups (n = 3690), and a group of never smokers (n = 108). Recruitment began in January 2008 and ended in July 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Physical function impairments, respiratory symptoms, CT abnormalities, use of respiratory medications, and reduced respiratory-specific quality of life. RESULTS One or more respiratory-related impairments were found in 54.1% (2375 of 4388) of the GOLD 0 group. The GOLD 0 group had worse quality of life (mean [SD] St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 17.0 [18.0] vs 3.8 [6.8] for the never smokers; P < .001) and a lower 6-minute walk distance, and 42.3% (127 of 300) of the GOLD 0 group had CT evidence of emphysema or airway thickening. The FEV1 percent predicted distribution and mean for the GOLD 0 group were lower but still within the normal range for the population. Current smoking was associated with more respiratory symptoms, but former smokers had greater emphysema and gas trapping

  16. Evaluation of the level of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Hrubá, D; Zachovalová, L; Fiala, J; Kyasová, M

    2003-09-01

    The questionnaire containing ten items evaluated the degree of dependence in students-volunteers from Brno secondary and vocational schools (ages ranging from 15 to 17 years) and the anamnestic data were compared with the specific (urinary cotinine) and non-specific (CO in the air exhaled) biological tests of exposure to smoking. The sample of 147 students examined contained 42% non-smokers, 25% occasional smokers and almost 33% of those who smoked every day. Almost 10% children smoked more than 10 cigarettes a day, and more than 20% children stated that they smoked 60 and more cigarettes a week. In accordance with the pre-developed degrees of dependence, compiled by the scores of the individual responses, 59% of the respondents (including the non-smokers) were ranked among the non-dependent. The second most frequent group contained the "strongly dependent" (almost 17% of all persons, e.g. 30% of smokers), 3.4% of examined persons (6% of smokers) were ranked in the sub-group of persons with a very high degree of dependence. Highly positive correlations were found between the evaluation of the dependence degree according to the anamnestic data and the exposure bio-markers (urinary cotinine/creatinine and CO in the air exhaled): the values of correlation coefficients were 0.615 and 0.764, resp. Both bio-markers also correlated negatively with the time of the last exposure to both active and passive smoking. The individual items in the dependence questionnaire had positive correlations with the objective exposure indicators which had statistical significance. The strongest relationship was observed in the question about the first morning cigarette--the highest correlation coefficients, being followed by signs evaluating the smoking frequency and the usual number of cigarettes smoked per day and in a week. The lowest relationships concerned the occasions for smoking and the unpleasant symptoms associated with the withdrawal. The anamnestic questionnaire could explain

  17. Drill core-based facies reconstruction of a deep-marine felsic volcano hosting an active hydrothermal system (Pual Ridge, Papau New Guinea, ODP Leg 193)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulick, H.; Vanko, D. A.; Yeats, C. J.

    2004-02-01

    Pual Ridge is a deep-marine, felsic volcanic edifice in the eastern Manus back-arc basin (Papua New Guinea) with an estimated volume of ˜6 to 9 km 3. It is 1-1.5 km wide, 20 km long and rises 500-600 m above the surrounding ocean floor. The active PACMANUS hydrothermal field on the crest of Pual Ridge at 1640-1690 m below sea level was the target of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 193. Variably altered dacite lavas have been recovered from the subsurface of a low-T discharge site (Snowcap) and a high-T black smoker site (Roman Ruins) reaching a maximum depth of 380 m below seafloor (mbsf). Volcanic facies interpretation of these cores is difficult due to incomplete recovery and widespread pseudoclastic textures generated by fracturing and multi-phase, incomplete fluid-dacite interaction. However, distinction of genuine volcaniclastic facies and facies with alteration-related clastic appearance is important in order to define paleo-seafloor positions within the volcanic stratigraphy, that may be prospective for massive sulfide mineralization. This has been accomplished using remnant primary characteristics indicative of transportation such as polymictic composition, grading or textural evidence for differential movement of individual clasts. Three phases of volcanic activity can be distinguished and a proximal facies association dominated by coherent facies of dacite lavas exists below Snowcap. At Roman Ruins, a medial facies association consists of lava flows with about equal proportions of coherent and volcaniclastic facies. Endogenous growth was an important process during lava flow emplacement and groundmass textures such as perlite, flow banding and spherulites indicate that cooling rates were variable, locally allowing for high-temperature devitrification. A tube pumice breccia unit is interpreted as the resedimented facies of a quench fragmented, highly vesicular dacite lava carapace. Sulfide accumulations in the subsurface are restricted to Roman Ruins

  18. Reward and Affective Regulation in Depression-Prone Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Wileyto, E. Paul; Ashare, Rebecca; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a disproportionately high smoking prevalence among individuals who are prone to depression. While depression has been conceptualized as a disorder of dysregulated positive affect and disrupted reward processing, little research has been conducted to determine the role of smoking in these processes among depression-prone smokers. Methods Depression-prone smokers (DP+; n = 34) and smokers not depression-prone (DP-; n=49) underwent two laboratory sessions, once while smoking abstinent and once while smoking ad-libitum, to assess the relative reinforcing value of smoking and reward sensitivity. Using experience sampling methods, participants completed self-report measures of subjective reward, positive affect, and negative affect across three days while smoking as usual and three days while smoking abstinent. Results DP+ were two times more likely to work for cigarette puffs versus money in a progressive ratio, choice task (OR 2.05; CI 95% 1.04 to 4.06, p=0.039) compared to DP-. Reward sensitivity as measured by the signal detection task did not yield any significant findings. Mixed models regressions revealed a 3-way interaction (depression group, smoking phase, and time) for subjective reward, negative affect and positive affect. For all three of these outcomes, the slopes for DP- and DP+ differed significantly from each other (p's < 0.05), and the effect of smoking (vs. abstinence) over time was greater for DP+ than DP- smokers (p's <0.05). Conclusions These findings indicate that the effects of smoking on reward and positive affect regulation are specific to DP+ smokers and highlight novel targets for smoking cessation treatment in this population. PMID:24947541

  19. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  20. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk for developing lung and other cancers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  1. Focus Groups with Smokers To Develop a Smoke-Free Home Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Romilla; Dwyer, John J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted focus groups with daily smokers to identify key themes and strategies that would be effective in influencing attitudinal and behavioral change in homes that allowed smoking to occur. Smokers preferred messages that addressed the health of children, respected smokers, were based on research, provided information and assistance on…

  2. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  3. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  4. COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

  5. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

  6. Boron isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids from submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Hong, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Gamo, T.; Kawahata, H.

    2013-12-01

    Boron is highly mobile in submarine hydrothermal systems and useful to trace the process of water-rock reaction. In this study, we measured the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids collected from arc-backarc hydrothermal systems in the western Pacific. In sediment-starved hydrothermal systems (Manus Basin, Suiyo Seamount, and Mariana Trough), the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids are dependent on type of host rock. The end member fluids from MORB-like basalt-hosted Vienna Woods in the Manus Basin showed low boron content and high δ11B value (0.53 mM, 29.8‰), while dacite-hosted PACMANUS and the Suiyo Seamount showed high boron contents and low δ11B values (1.45 and 1.52 mM, 13.6 and 18.5‰, respectively). The Alice Springs and Forecast Vent field in the Mariana Trough showed values intermediate between them (0.72 and 0.63 mM, 19.9 and 24.0‰, respectively), reflecting reaction of seawater and basalt influenced by slab material. In phase separated hydrothermal systems (North Fiji Basin), boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids (0.44-0.56 mM, 34.5-35.9‰) were similar to those in the Vienna Woods. Considering little fractionation of boron and boron isotope during phase separation demonstrated by the previous experimental studies, it is suggested that the host rock in the North Fiji Basin is MORB-like basalt. In sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (Okinawa Trough), the reaction with boron-enriched sediment following seawater-rock reaction resulted in significantly high boron contents and low δ11B values of vent fluids (4.4-5.9 mM, 1.5-2.6‰). The water-sediment ratio was estimated to be ~2. In spite of the different geological settings, the end member fuids from all vent fields are enriched in B relative to seawater (0.41 mM, 39.6‰) and the δ11B values are inversely propotional to the boron concentrations. It suggests that boron isotopic composition of vent fluid predominantly depends on the amount of

  7. Magmatic contributions to hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muffler, L. J. Patrick; Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.; Kesler, Stephen E.; Izawa, Eiji

    Although there is agreement that many hydrothermal systems in the upper crust derive their thermal energy from magmas, debate continues over the extent to which magmas contribute water, metals, and sulfur to hydrothermal systems. A multidisciplinary seminar was held November 10-16, 1991, in Ebino and Kagoshima, Japan, to establish current understanding about this topic and to explore the major unanswered questions and the most promising research directions. The thirty-eight participants were from Japan (eighteen), the U.S. (thirteen), Canada and New Zealand (two each), and England, the Philippines, and Russia (one each). Disciplines represented were volcanology, geochemistry (volcanic-gas, water, isotopes, experimental, and modeling), igneous petrology, geothermal geology, economic geology, fluid-inclusion study, geophysics, and physical modeling.

  8. [Contribution to the study of the phagocytosing ability of broncho-alveolar macrophages in smokers and non-smokers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kleisbauer, J P; Poirier, R; Colonna, J; Laval, P

    1980-01-01

    Broncho-alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchial washing from 20 pairs of matched smokers and non-smokers. The following parameters were studied: phagocytosing ability of macrophages on silica in cell culture in the presence or absence of cotinin, a biocompound of nicotin; migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin in sera of patients. The results are reported as a function of absolute number of macrophages obtained, their viability, the amount of cigarettes smoked, and the action of cotinin. MIF was stronger in the smokers. There was no difference between the groups as far as power and level of alpha 1-antitrypsin are concerned. Cotinin provokes important lesions in the macrophages. The phagocytic power was not significantly different in smokers and non smokers, but the results were better in non-smokers. PMID:7003666

  9. A dual center study to compare breath volatile organic compounds from smokers and non-smokers with and without COPD.

    PubMed

    Gaida, A; Holz, O; Nell, C; Schuchardt, S; Lavae-Mokhtari, B; Kruse, L; Boas, U; Langejuergen, J; Allers, M; Zimmermann, S; Vogelmeier, C; Koczulla, A R; Hohlfeld, J M

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) have the potential to support the diagnosis and management of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. In this study we used a novel breath sampling device to search for COPD related VOCs. We included a large number of healthy controls and patients with mild to moderate COPD, recruited subjects at two different sites and carefully controlled for smoking. 222 subjects were recruited in Hannover and Marburg, and inhaled cleaned room air before exhaling into a stainless steel reservoir under exhalation flow control. Breath samples (2.5 l) were continuously drawn onto two Tenax(®) TA adsorption tubes and analyzed in Hannover using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Data of 134 identified VOCs from 190 subjects (52 healthy non-smokers, 52 COPD ex-smokers, 49 healthy smokers, 37 smokers with COPD) were included into the analysis. Active smokers could be clearly discriminated by higher values for combustion products and smoking related VOCs correlated with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the validity of our data. Subjects from the study sites could be discriminated even after exclusion of cleaning related VOCs. Linear discriminant analysis correctly classified 89.4% of COPD patients in the non/ex-smoking group (cross validation (CV): 85.6%), and 82.6% of COPD patients in the actively smoking group (CV: 77.9%). We extensively characterized 134 breath VOCs and provide evidence for 14 COPD related VOCs of which 10 have not been reported before. Our results show that, for the utilization of breath VOCs for diagnosis and disease management of COPD, not only the known effects of smoking but also site specific differences need to be considered. We detected novel COPD related breath VOCs that now need to be tested in longitudinal studies for reproducibility, response to treatment and changes in disease severity. PMID:27082437

  10. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account.

  11. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account. PMID:25050819

  12. Smoking-related behavior, beliefs, and social environment of young black women in subsidized public housing in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, C; Lacey, L; Warnecke, R; Buis, M

    1992-02-01

    Survey data indicate that young Black female smokers living in public housing are heavier smokers and have weaker motivation to quit, health beliefs and social environment less conducive to cessation, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit than other young Black female smokers in metropolitan Chicago. Compared with White women, the latter, other Black women smoke fewer cigarettes daily and have a stronger desire to quit and more concern about health reasons for quitting, but have a weaker belief in the risk of lung cancer from smoking, greater concern about quitting difficulties, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit. Low education, not race, is associated with higher smoking prevalence and less social pressure to quit or support for quitting.

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Nanowires as Advanced Conductive Agents for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Li, Xuan; Zhao, Xinyi; Feng, Jinkui; Qian, Yitai

    2015-09-01

    Copper nanowires (CuNW) are synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method and test as advanced conductive agents for lithium ion batteries. Anode prepared with CuNW and graphite show improved rate ability and excellent cycling stability even at high rate. AC-impedance of CuNW added electrode is much lower than that of electrodes containing carbon black only. This implies the CuNW could lower the electronical resistance. PMID:26716306

  14. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.L.

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  15. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Stein, J L

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  16. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O’Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods In fall 2005, a random sample of 4,100 students completed an online survey. Results 29% reported current smoking, of which 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers, nondaily smokers were younger, African American (compared to White), had mothers with higher education, belonged to Greek organizations, and attended private (vs. public) schools. Nondaily smokers were less likely to have used illicit drugs. Conclusions Nondaily and daily smokers differed on several demographic and contextual factors, but reported mostly similar health risk behaviors. PMID:22370259

  17. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: disposition in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Haley, N J; Sepkovic, D W; Hoffmann, D

    1989-01-01

    We have evaluated differences in the elimination of cotinine, a major nicotine metabolite, in smokers who quit smoking and never-smokers who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) under controlled conditions. The mean biological half-life of cotinine in urine, collected from the nine smokers was 16.5 +/- 1.2 h, in never-smokers exposed to ETS, 27.3 +/- 1.9 h. Differences in the mode of uptake and absorption of nicotine and possible differences in nicotine metabolism may play roles in the clearance rate differences between smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:2751025

  18. Who smokes in Hollywood? Characteristics of smokers in popular films from 1940 to 1989.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, W D; Bazzini, D G; Smith, S M; Wayne, S M

    1998-01-01

    We examined how smokers were depicted in 100 popular films spanning 5 decades. Smokers were depicted as more romantically and sexually active than nonsmokers and as marginally more intelligent than nonsmokers. Smokers and nonsmokers did not differ in terms of attractiveness, goodness, socioeconomic status, aggression, friendliness, or outcome at film's end. Thus, if anything, smokers are depicted a bit more positively than nonsmokers. We compared Hollywood's depiction of smokers to real-world demographics on smoking and found that Hollywood's depiction of smoking tends to ignore the negative consequences and correlates (e.g., ill health, low socioeconomic status, aggressive behavior) of smoking. PMID:9668937

  19. Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems of the Central and Northern Kuril Island Arc - a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, E.; Taran, Y.; Voloshina, E.; Ptashinsky, L.

    2015-12-01

    More than 20 active volcanoes with historical eruptions are known on 17 islands composing the Central and Northern part of the Kurilian Arc. Six islands - Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Rasshua, Ushishir, Ketoy and Simushir - are characterized by hydrothermal activity, complementary to the fumarolic activity in their craters. There are several types of volcano-hydrothermal systems on the islands. At Paramushir, Shiashkotan and Ketoy the thermal manifestations are acidic to ultra-acidic water discharges associated with hydrothermal aquifers inside volcano edifices and formed as the result of the absorption of magmatic gases by ground waters. A closest known analogue of such activity is Satsuma-Iwojima volcano-island at the Ryukyu Arc. Another type of hydrothermal activity are wide spread coastal hot springs (Shiashkotan, Rasshua), situated as a rule within tide zones and formed by mixing of the heated seawater with cold groundwater or, in opposite, by mixing of the steam- or conductively heated groundwater with seawater. This type of thermal manifestation is similar to that reported for other volcanic islands of the world (Satsuma Iwojima, Monserrat, Ischia, Socorro). Ushishir volcano-hydrothermal system is formed by the absorption of magmatic gases by seawater. Only Ketoy Island hosts a permanent acidic crater lake. At Ebeko volcano (Paramushir) rapidly disappearing small acidic lakes (formed after phreatic eruptions) have been reported. The main hydrothermal manifestation of Simushir is the Zavaritsky caldera lake with numerous coastal thermal springs and weak steam vents. The last time measured temperatures of fumaroles at the islands are: >500ºC at Pallas Peak (Ketoy), 480ºC at Kuntamintar volcano (Shiashkotan), variable and fast changing temperatures from 120º C to 500ºC at Ebeko volcano (Paramushir), 150ºC in the Rasshua crater, and > 300ºC in the Chirpoy crater (Black Brothers islands). The magmatic and rock-forming solute output by the Kurilian volcano-hydrothermal

  20. Molecular evidence for microorganisms participating in Fe, Mn, and S biogeochemical cycling in two low-temperature hydrothermal fields at the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiwei; Peng, Xiaotong; Zhou, Huaiyang; Li, Jiangtao; Sun, Zhilei

    2013-06-01

    We examined two low-temperature hydrothermal deposits rich in Fe-Si-Mn collected from the recently discovered hydrothermal fields at the Southwest Indian Ridge using mineralogical, geochemical, and molecular biological techniques. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses indicated that the low-temperature hydrothermal fields would provide a warm and chemical species-rich habitat for chemosynthetic-based hydrothermal ecosystems. Analyses of 16S rRNA sequences showed that ζ-Proteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Leptothrix, and Pseudomonas were potential Fe and Mn oxidizers in the low-temperature hydrothermal environments, but they were not present in equal abundance among the subniches. Some potential Fe and Mn reducers were also recovered; they were more commonly found in the exterior black Fe-Mn oxides. The difference between the exterior black Fe-Mn oxides and the interior Opal-A could be related to differences in in situ physicochemical conditions. We also identified microbial players that may participate in sulfur (S) geochemical cycling in these low-temperature hydrothermal environments via analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and the aprA functional gene. The results indicated that members of γ-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria were involved in the S oxidation process, while members of δ-Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, and Archaea might participate in the S reduction process. Fe, Mn, and S oxidizers and reducers might actively participate in hydrothermal biogeochemical processes, which could influence the transfer of chemical species and the formation of biogenic minerals.

  1. Multiple Analytical Approaches Reveal Distinct Gene-Environment Interactions in Smokers and Non Smokers in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Rakhshan; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Yadav, Dhirendra Singh; Kaushal, Mishi; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Zomawia, Eric; Verma, Yogesh; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2011-01-01

    Complex disease such as cancer results from interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studying these factors singularly cannot explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. Multi-analytical approach, including logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), was applied in 188 lung cancer cases and 290 controls to explore high order interactions among xenobiotic metabolizing genes and environmental risk factors. Smoking was identified as the predominant risk factor by all three analytical approaches. Individually, CYP1A1*2A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.69;95%CI = 1.11–2.59,p = 0.01), whereas EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His conferred reduced risk (OR = 0.40;95%CI = 0.25–0.65,p<0.001 and OR = 0.51;95%CI = 0.33–0.78,p = 0.002 respectively). In smokers, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphisms reduced the risk of lung cancer, whereas CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C and GSTP1 Ile105Val imparted increased risk in non-smokers only. While exploring non-linear interactions through CART analysis, smokers carrying the combination of EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His), SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg) or AA (His/His) and GSTM1 null genotypes showed the highest risk for lung cancer (OR = 3.73;95%CI = 1.33–10.55,p = 0.006), whereas combined effect of CYP1A1*2A 6235CC or TC, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg) and betel quid chewing showed maximum risk in non-smokers (OR = 2.93;95%CI = 1.15–7.51,p = 0.01). MDR analysis identified two distinct predictor models for the risk of lung cancer in smokers (tobacco chewing, EPHX1 Tyr113His, and SULT1A1 Arg213His) and non-smokers (CYP1A1*2A, GSTP1 Ile105Val and SULT1A1 Arg213His) with testing balance accuracy (TBA) of 0.6436 and 0.6677 respectively. Interaction entropy interpretations of MDR results showed non-additive interactions of tobacco chewing

  2. Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

    2006-12-01

    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (<200 m). They also are characterized by wide ranges in chemical composition, hundreds of redox disequilibria that translate to potential metabolisms, and broad phylogenetic diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation

  3. The Role of Interleukin-23 in the Early Development of Emphysema in HIV1+ Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barjaktarevic, Igor Z.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is upregulated in alveolar macrophages (AM) of HIV1+ smokers who develop emphysema. Knowing that lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of HIV1+ smokers contains increased levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to HIV1− smokers, we hypothesized that upregulation of lung cytokines in HIV1+ smokers may be functionally related to increased MMP-9 expression. Methods. Cytokine arrays evaluated cytokine protein levels in ELF obtained from 5 groups of individuals: HIV1− healthy nonsmokers, HIV1− healthy smokers, HIV1− smokers with low diffusing capacity (DLCO), HIV1+ nonsmokers, and HIV1+ smokers with low DLCO. Results. Increased levels of the Th17 related cytokine IL-23 were found in HIV1− smokers with low DLCO and HIV1+ smokers and nonsmokers. Relative IL-23 gene expression was increased in AM of HIV1+ individuals, with greater expression in AM of HIV1+ smokers with low DLCO. Infection with HIV1 in vitro induced IL-23 expression in normal AM. IL-23 stimulation of AM/lymphocyte cocultures in vitro induced upregulation of MMP-9. Lung T lymphocytes express receptor IL-23R and interact with AM in order to upregulate MMP-9. Conclusion. This mechanism may contribute to the increased tissue destruction in the lungs of HIV1+ smokers and suggests that Th17 related inflammation may play a role. PMID:27446965

  4. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    PubMed Central

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  5. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers.

  6. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-10-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p-value<0.001). Among lower income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation.

  7. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Do, Kathy T; Galván, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers.

  8. The Role of Interleukin-23 in the Early Development of Emphysema in HIV1(+) Smokers.

    PubMed

    Barjaktarevic, Igor Z; Crystal, Ronald G; Kaner, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is upregulated in alveolar macrophages (AM) of HIV1(+) smokers who develop emphysema. Knowing that lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of HIV1(+) smokers contains increased levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to HIV1(-) smokers, we hypothesized that upregulation of lung cytokines in HIV1(+) smokers may be functionally related to increased MMP-9 expression. Methods. Cytokine arrays evaluated cytokine protein levels in ELF obtained from 5 groups of individuals: HIV1(-) healthy nonsmokers, HIV1(-) healthy smokers, HIV1(-) smokers with low diffusing capacity (DLCO), HIV1(+) nonsmokers, and HIV1(+) smokers with low DLCO. Results. Increased levels of the Th17 related cytokine IL-23 were found in HIV1(-) smokers with low DLCO and HIV1(+) smokers and nonsmokers. Relative IL-23 gene expression was increased in AM of HIV1(+) individuals, with greater expression in AM of HIV1(+) smokers with low DLCO. Infection with HIV1 in vitro induced IL-23 expression in normal AM. IL-23 stimulation of AM/lymphocyte cocultures in vitro induced upregulation of MMP-9. Lung T lymphocytes express receptor IL-23R and interact with AM in order to upregulate MMP-9. Conclusion. This mechanism may contribute to the increased tissue destruction in the lungs of HIV1(+) smokers and suggests that Th17 related inflammation may play a role. PMID:27446965

  9. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Do, Kathy T; Galván, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  10. Using motives for smoking to distinguish between different college student smoker typologies.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Juliana Da Rocha; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Henry, Kimberly L

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about how to categorize different types of smokers, especially occasional smokers. Because of the prevalence of occasional smoking among college students, the current study aimed to gain an understanding of the different typologies of smokers on campus. To accomplish this, a latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted using 17 motives for smoking items (N = 327). The LCA revealed that four smoker groups were present: (1) addicted smokers who endorsed smoking due to pleasure and habit/addiction; (2) stress smokers, who endorsed smoking to relax, to reduce levels of stress, and to regulate mood; (3) social smokers, who endorsed smoking because of social factors such as to fit in or because friends smoke; and (4) nonendorsing smokers, who had a low endorsement for all the items. An additional LCA with covariates revealed that age of initiation, current smoking patterns, smoker self-classification, and quit likelihood differentiated these groups of smokers whereas current age and alcohol use did not. These typologies should be considered when designing interventions for occasional smokers.

  11. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M.; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli to be motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended one laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures, and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified three spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PMID:25436840

  12. Imaging-based assessment of dyspnea in cigarette smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Chang, Paul J.; Schwartz, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Helmers, Richard; Mori, Masaki

    1994-05-01

    Patients with pulmonary fibrosis frequently smoke cigarettes. The cause of dyspnea in these patients is often complex because of the coexistence of multiple disease processes. We investigated 10 cigarette smokers with pulmonary fibrosis who were referred for evaluation of new onset or worsening dyspnea. Chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests were obtained in addition to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). In those patients with HRCT evidence of both diseases, spirometry and lung volumes were most often normal. Although plain films provided a reasonable assessment of fibrosis, they underestimated the severity of emphysema. Quantitation of both emphysema and fibrosis by HRCT was reproducible and correlated with key pulmonary function tests. Our findings indicate that the HRCT scan is a useful diagnostic test in patients with pulmonary fibrosis who are also cigarette smokers.

  13. Aesthetic Depigmentation of Gingival Smoker's Melanosis Using Carbon Dioxide Lasers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Costa, José Adriano; da Câmara, Marco Infante; Albuquerque, Rui; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Figueira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Melanic pigmentation results from melanin produced by the melanocytes present in the basal layer of the oral epithelium. One of the most common causes of oral pigmentation is smoker melanosis, a condition associated with the melanocyte stimulation caused by cigarette smoke. This paper aims to illustrate the use of a carbon dioxide laser in the removal of the gingival melanic pigmentation for aesthetic reasons in a 27-year-old female patient with history of a smoking habit. The carbon dioxide laser vaporisation was performed on the gingival mucosa with effective and quick results and without any complications or significant symptoms after the treatment. We conclude that a carbon dioxide laser could be a useful, effective, and safe instrument to treat the aesthetic complications caused by oral smoker melanosis. PMID:25954535

  14. Self-report distortions of puffing topography in daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Pulcu, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    Under-reporting tobacco consumption is common, although there is lack of evidence whether under-reporting is associated with health risk perception. In this study, smoking topography from 110 smokers was recorded over 24 hours, aiming to capture a representative average of smoking behaviour. Participants significantly under-reported the duration of secondary exposure, and there was a significant interaction between self-report distortion type and risk perception. Analysis showed that smokers under-reporting puff number declared perceiving significantly less susceptibility to acquiring airway diseases, which is correlating significantly with the level of under-reporting. The present findings may suggest that under-reporting smoking behaviour has psychological functions beyond achieving social desirability.

  15. Smokers' decision making: more than mere risk taking.

    PubMed

    Ert, Eyal; Yechiam, Eldad; Arshavsky, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The fact that smoking is bad for people's health has become common knowledge, yet a substantial amount of people still smoke. Previous studies that sought to better understand this phenomenon have found that smoking is associated with the tendency to take risk in other areas of life as well. The current paper explores factors that may underlie this tendency. An experimental analysis shows that smokers are more easily tempted by immediate high rewards compared to nonsmokers. Thus the salience of risky alternatives that produce large rewards most of the time can direct smokers to make bad choices even in an abstract situation such as the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings suggest that the risk taking behavior associated with smoking is not related to the mere pursuit of rewards but rather reflects a tendency to yield to immediate temptation.

  16. Beliefs, Experience, and Interest in Pharmacotherapy among Smokers with HIV

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, Amy; Shacham, Enbal; Sumner, Walton; Overton, E. Turner

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine beliefs, prior use, and interest in using pharmacotherapy among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods Cross-sectional survey of smokers in a midwestern HIV clinic. Results The sample (N = 146) included 69% men, 82% African American, 45% were in precontemplation for quitting, and 46% were interested in using pharmacotherapy. Primary reasons for non-use included cost and a belief that they would be able to quit on their own. Physician’s assistance was the strongest correlate of prior use. Perceived benefits and self-efficacy were the strongest correlates of willingness to use pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Future interventions should address misconceptions, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy for using cessation aids. Physicians should offer pharmacotherapy to all smokers. PMID:24629557

  17. Understanding smoking cessation: the role of smokers' quit history.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco C; van den Putte, Bas

    2006-09-01

    Many studies have found smokers' quit history to correlate with quitting smoking, but little is known about the psychological processes explaining this relationship. This study uses the integrative model of behavioral prediction to examine how quit history affects quit intention. Data from 3,428 Dutch smokers demonstrate that quit history affects (a) beliefs about quitting and (b) the degree to which self-efficacy predicts quit intention. It seems that a relatively unsuccessful history of prior quit attempts reduces self-efficacy over quitting and strengthens the relationship of self-efficacy with the intention to quit. The results are used to call for more process-oriented research in order to advance our understanding of the relationship between quit history and quit intention. PMID:16938076

  18. Constant-load exercise decreases the serum concentration of myeloperoxidase in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Holz, Olaf; Roepcke, Stefan; Watz, Henrik; Tegtbur, Uwe; Lahu, Gezim; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing demand for easily accessible biomarkers related to pathophysiological processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Short-term intense exercise is known to increase the peripheral blood levels of cytokines. Therefore, we tested the potential and the repeatability of an exercise challenge to amplify seven serum biomarkers (interleukin 6 [IL6], C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], leukotriene B4, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and von Willebrand factor [VWF]) in smokers with and without COPD. Twenty-three smokers with moderate COPD (GOLD 2) and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy smokers underwent up to 30-minute submaximal, constant-load exercise (75% of maximum work load) on two occasions separated by 4 weeks (second challenge n=19/20). Serum samples were obtained before, 5 minutes after the start, at the end of exercise (maximum 30 minutes or until exhaustion), and after additional 20 minutes of rest. The median (interquartile range) exercise time until exhaustion in the two challenges was 10.0 (4.0) minutes and 10.0 (8.0) minutes in smokers with COPD and 22.0 (16.0) minutes and 26.5 (14.5) minutes in healthy smokers. The exercise challenge significantly increased the serum concentrations of IL6 and VWF, but decreased the concentrations of MPO. Healthy smokers showed a significantly greater increase (at the end of exercise compared to before exercise) in IL6 (P=0.01) and a larger decline (P=0.03) in MPO. The overall profile of the serum markers during the exercise challenge was shown to be repeatable in the second challenge. In summary, intense load exercise is capable of changing the concentration of inflammatory and endothelial function markers. Especially, the decline in the level of MPO, a marker closely related to cardiovascular risk, appears to be of clinical interest, as the exercise-induced decline might be related to the beneficial effects of physical activity

  19. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Methods Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Results All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be

  20. T1 Relaxation Time in Lungs of Asymptomatic Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Alamidi, Daniel F.; Kindvall, Simon S. I.; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; Young, Simon S.; Naish, Josephine H.; Waterton, John C.; Wollmer, Per; Diaz, Sandra; Olsson, Marita; Hockings, Paul D.; Lagerstrand, Kerstin M.; Parker, Geoffrey J. M.; Olsson, Lars E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interest in using T1 as a potential MRI biomarker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has recently increased. Since tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for development of COPD, the aim for this study was to examine whether tobacco smoking, pack-years (PY), influenced T1 of the lung parenchyma in asymptomatic current smokers. Materials and Methods Lung T1 measurements from 35 subjects, 23 never smokers and 12 current smokers were retrospectively analyzed from an institutional review board approved study. All 35 subjects underwent pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and lung T1, with similar T1 measurement protocols. A backward linear model of T1 as a function of FEV1, FVC, weight, height, age and PY was tested. Results A significant correlation between lung T1 and PY was found with a negative slope of -3.2 ms/year (95% confidence interval [CI] [-5.8, -0.6], p = 0.02), when adjusted for age and height. Lung T1 shortens with ageing among all subjects, -4.0 ms/year (95%CI [-6.3, -1.7], p = 0.001), and among the never smokers, -3.7 ms/year (95%CI [-6.0, -1.3], p = 0.003). Conclusions A correlation between lung T1 and PY when adjusted for both age and height was found, and T1 of the lung shortens with ageing. Accordingly, PY and age can be significant confounding factors when T1 is used as a biomarker in lung MRI studies that must be taken into account to detect underlying patterns of disease. PMID:26958856

  1. Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M; Marshall, Grayson W

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker's and non-smoker's saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPHSpectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers' instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher's protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker's and nonsmoker's saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker's or nonsmoker's saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group.

  2. Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Malarcher, Ann; O’Halloran, Alissa; Kruger, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate state cigarette excise tax pass-through rates for selected price-minimizing strategies. Design Multivariate regression analysis of current smokers from a stratified, national, dual-frame telephone survey. Setting United States. Participants A total of 16 542 adult current smokers aged 18 years or older. Measurements Cigarette per pack prices paid with and without coupons were obtained for pack versus carton purchase, use of generic brands versus premium brands, and purchase from Indian reservations versus outside Indian reservations. Findings The average per pack prices paid differed substantially by price-minimizing strategy. Smokers who used any type of price-minimizing strategies paid substantially less than those who did not use these strategies (P < 0.05). Premium brand users who purchased by pack in places outside Indian reservations paid the entire amount of the excise tax, together with an additional premium of 7–10 cents per pack for every $1 increase in excise tax (pass-through rate of 1.07–1.10, P < 0.05). In contrast, carton purchasers, generic brand users or those who were likely to make their purchases on Indian reservations paid only 30–83 cents per pack for every $1 tax increase (pass-through rate of 0.30–0.83, P < 0.05). Conclusions Many smokers in the United States are able to avoid the full impact of state excise tax on cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. PMID:24861973

  3. Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Arthur L; Mukhin, Alexey G; La Charite, Jaime; Ta, Karen; Farahi, Judah; Sugar, Catherine A.; Mamoun, Michael S.; Vellios, Evan; Archie, Meena; Kozman, Maggie; Phuong, Jonathan; Arlorio, Franca; Mandelkern, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes. Previous brain imaging studies demonstrate that smoking (without regard to cigarette type) leads to up-regulation of β2*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We sought to determine if menthol cigarette usage results in greater nAChR up-regulation than non-menthol cigarette usage. Altogether, 114 participants (22 menthol cigarette smokers, 41 non-menthol cigarette smokers and 51 non-smokers) underwent positron emission tomography scanning using the α4β2* nAChR radioligand 2-[18F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA). In comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, an overall test of 2-FA total volume of distribution values revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from menthol smokers having 9–28% higher α4β2* nAChR densities than non-menthol smokers across regions. In comparing the entire group of smokers to non-smokers, an overall test revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from smokers having higher α4β2* nAChR levels in all regions studied (36–42%) other than thalamus (3%). Study results demonstrate that menthol smokers have greater up-regulation of nAChRs than non-menthol smokers. This difference is presumably related to higher nicotine exposure in menthol smokers, although other mechanisms for menthol influencing receptor density are possible. These results provide additional information about the severity of menthol cigarette use and may help explain why these smokers have more trouble quitting in standard treatment programmes. PMID:23171716

  4. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  5. Depressed smokers and stage of change: implications for treatment interventions.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Judith J; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Rosen, Amy B; Tsoh, Janice Y; Humfleet, Gary L; Eisendrath, Stuart J; Meisner, Marc R; Hall, Sharon M

    2004-11-11

    Tobacco Dependence among smokers with psychiatric disorders has been under-addressed by the mental health, addictions, and tobacco control communities. This study examined depressed smokers' readiness to quit and the applicability of the Stages of Change framework to a psychiatric sample. Currently depressed smokers (N=322) were recruited from four outpatient psychiatric clinics. Participants averaged 16 cigarettes per day (S.D.=10) and 24 years (S.D.=13) of smoking. The majority (79%) reported intention to quit smoking with 24% ready to take action in the next 30 days. Individuals in the preparation stage reported more prior quit attempts, a greater commitment to abstinence, increased recognition of the cons of smoking, and greater use of the processes of change. Precontemplators were least likely to identify a goal related to their smoking behavior. Depressive symptom severity and history of recurrent depressive episodes were unrelated to readiness to quit. This study is one of the first to examine the smoking behaviors of currently depressed psychiatric outpatients. The level and longevity of their tobacco use underscore the need for cessation interventions. The consistency in hypothesized patterns among theoretical constructs of the Stages of Change model supports the transfer of stage-tailored interventions to this clinical population. PMID:15488338

  6. Acceptance of nicotine dependence treatment among currently depressed smokers.

    PubMed

    Haug, Nancy A; Hall, Sharon M; Prochaska, Judith J; Rosen, Amy B; Tsoh, Janice Y; Humfleet, Gary; Delucchi, Kevin; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Eisendrath, Stuart

    2005-04-01

    This study reports on baseline characteristics associated with acceptance and refusal of available smoking treatment among currently depressed smokers in a psychiatric outpatient clinic who were enrolled in a larger clinical trial. The sample (N=154) was 68% female and 72% White, with a mean age of 41.4 years and average smoking rate of 17 cigarettes/day. All participants were assigned to a repeated contact experimental condition; received a stage-based expert system program to facilitate treatment acceptance; and were then offered smoking treatment, consisting of behavioral counseling, nicotine patch, and bupropion. Acceptors (n=53) were defined as those accepting behavioral counseling and pharmacological treatment at some point during the 18-month study, whereas refusers (n=101) received only the expert system. The number of days to treatment acceptance was significantly predicted by stage of change, with those in preparation entering treatment more quickly than contemplators or precontemplators. In a logistic regression, the variables most strongly associated with accepting treatment were current use of psychiatric medication and perceived success for quitting. Severity of depressive symptoms, duration of depression history, and history of recurrent depression were not related to treatment acceptance. Findings have implications for the psychiatric assessment and treatment of smokers in clinical settings. Psychiatric medication may play a significant role in smoking cessation treatment acceptance by currently depressed smokers. PMID:16036278

  7. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  8. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  9. 'Every space is claimed': smokers' experiences of tobacco denormalisation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kirsten; McCullough, Lucy; Salmon, Amy; Bell, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade, the strategy of 'denormalising' tobacco use has become one of the cornerstones of the global tobacco control movement. Although tobacco denormalisation policies primarily affect people on the lowest rungs of the social ladder, few qualitative studies have explicitly set out to explore how smokers have experienced and responded to these legislative and social changes in attitudes towards tobacco use. Drawing on a qualitative study of interviews with 25 current and ex-smokers living in Vancouver, Canada, this paper examines the ways they interpret and respond to the new socio-political environment in which they must manage the increasingly problematised practice of tobacco smoking. Overall, while not opposed to smoking restrictions per se, study participants felt that recent legislation, particularly efforts to prohibit smoking in a variety of outdoor settings, was overly restrictive and that all public space had increasingly been 'claimed' by non-smokers. Also apparent from participants' accounts was the high degree of stigma attached to smoking. However, although the 'denormalisation' environment had encouraged several participants to quit smoking, the majority continued to smoke, raising ethical and practical questions about the value of denormalisation strategies as a way of reducing smoking-related mortality and morbidity.

  10. Masticatory changes as a result of oral disorders in smokers.

    PubMed

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber Dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-10-01

    Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  11. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N

    2005-03-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production.

  12. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M; Tindle, Hilary A; Anderson, Stewart J; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  13. Smoking cessation, obesity and weight concerns in black women: a call to action for culturally competent interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain. PMID:16396055

  14. Black Lawyers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Gilbert

    1977-01-01

    Notes that blacks are destined to remain strangers in the land of opportunity and in the system of justice, except as persons suspected, accused, arrested, prosecuted, imprisoned, executed--all in disproportionate numbers. (Author/AM)

  15. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other ... that men who get more phytoestrogens in their diet have a lower risk of developing lung cancer ...

  16. Black psyllium

    MedlinePlus

    Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugarBlack psyllium might decrease blood sugar by decreasing how much ... absorbs from foods. Taking it along with other herbs and supplements that might also lower blood sugar ...

  17. Magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Virginia Claire

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the possible role of hydrothermally driven ground-water outflow in the formation of fluvial valleys on Mars. Although these landforms have often been cited as evidence for a past warmer climate and denser atmosphere, recent theoretical modeling precludes such climatic conditions on early Mars when most fluvial valleys formed. Because fluvial valleys continued to form throughout Mars' geological history and the most Earth-like stream valleys on Mars formed well after the decline of the early putative Earth-like climate, it may be unnecessary to invoke drastically different climatic conditions for the formation of the earliest stream valleys. The morphology of most Martian fluvial valleys indicates formation by ground-water sapping which is consistent with a subsurface origin. Additionally, many Martian fluvial valleys formed on volcanoes, impact craters, near fractures, or adjacent to terrains interpreted as igneous intrusions; all are possible locales of vigorous, geologically long-lived hydrothermal circulation. Comparison of Martian valley morphology to similar features on Earth constrains valley genesis scenarios. Volumes of measured Martian fluvial valleys range from 1010 to 1013 m3. Based on terrestrial analogs, total water volumes required to erode these valleys range from approximately 1010 to 1015 m3. The clustered distribution of Martian valleys within a given terrain type, the sapping dominated morphology, and the general lack of associated runoff valleys all indicate the importance of localized ground-water outflow in the formation of these fluvial systems. An analytic model of a conductively cooling cylindrical intrusion is coupled with the U.S. Geological Survey's numerical ground-water computer code SUTRA to evaluate the magnitude of ground-water outflow expected from magmatically-driven hydrothermal systems on Mars. Results indicate that magmatic intrusions of several 102 km3 or larger can provide sufficient ground

  18. Why do smokers try to quit without medication or counselling? A qualitative study with ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Objective When tobacco smokers quit, between half and two-thirds quit unassisted: that is, they do not consult their general practitioner (GP), use pharmacotherapy (nicotine-replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline), or phone a quitline. We sought to understand why smokers quit unassisted. Design Qualitative grounded theory study (in-depth interviews, theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and data analysis). Participants 21 Australian adult ex-smokers (aged 28–68 years; 9 males and 12 females) who quit unassisted within the past 6 months to 2 years. 12 participants had previous experience of using assistance to quit; 9 had never previously used assistance. Setting Community, Australia. Results Along with previously identified barriers to use of cessation assistance (cost, access, lack of awareness or knowledge of assistance, including misperceptions about effectiveness or safety), our study produced new explanations of why smokers quit unassisted: (1) they prioritise lay knowledge gained directly from personal experiences and indirectly from others over professional or theoretical knowledge; (2) their evaluation of the costs and benefits of quitting unassisted versus those of using assistance favours quitting unassisted; (3) they believe quitting is their personal responsibility; and (4) they perceive quitting unassisted to be the ‘right’ or ‘better’ choice in terms of how this relates to their own self-identity or self-image. Deep-rooted personal and societal values such as independence, strength, autonomy and self-control appear to be influencing smokers’ beliefs and decisions about quitting. Conclusions The reasons for smokers’ rejection of the conventional medical model for smoking cessation are complex and go beyond modifiable or correctable problems relating to misperceptions or treatment barriers. These findings suggest that GPs could recognise and respect smokers’ reasons for rejecting assistance, validate and approve

  19. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jinbo; Wu, Lili; Zou, Ke

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  20. Cigarette-smoke-induced priming of neutrophils from smokers and non-smokers for increased oxidative burst response is mediated by TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, Bärbel; Neumann, Ute; Schüller, Jutta; Peck, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    In vitro treatment of human peripheral blood neutrophils from smokers and non-smokers with an aqueous cigarette smoke (CS) extract resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in surface expression of CD11b and CD66b and a corresponding decrease of CD62L, together with a concentration-dependent release of MMP-8, MMP-9, and lactoferrin, indicating considerable activation and degranulation. However, the burst response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) was unchanged in CS-stimulated neutrophils from both smokers and non-smokers. When supernatants from CS-treated monocytic MonoMac-6 (MM6) cells were used for activation of neutrophils, concentration-dependent changes in surface marker expression, granule protein release, and the oxidative burst response to fMLP were observed, again with no major differences between smokers and non-smokers. CS-treated MM6 cells released significant amounts of IL-8 and TNF-α into the culture supernatant. However, antibody blocking experiments showed that only TNF-α mediated the increased burst response in neutrophils. These data show that, in the presence of secondary cells, CS is able to prime neutrophils for an increased burst response to fMLP which is mediated by TNF-α, released from the secondary cells in response to CS. Following stimulation with priming agents, peripheral blood neutrophils from healthy smokers show an equal burst response compared to those from non-smokers.

  1. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people’s perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Methods Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15–22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents’ views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. Results After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. Conclusions To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents. PMID:24156515

  2. How Do Light and Intermittent Smokers Differ from Heavy Smokers in Young Adulthood: The Role of Smoking Restraint Strategies.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Ferguson, Stuart G; Bühler, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Light and intermittent smoking has become a prevalent pattern of use among young adults. Little is known about which factors differentiate light and intermittent smokers (LITS) from heavy smokers (HS) in young adulthood. In this study, we compare young adult LITS with HS with regard to demographic- and smoking-related variables, self-control abilities, and concrete strategies of smoking restraint. The data were collected as part of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 137 German young adult smokers (M Age = 21.1 years, 46.0% female; 76 HS [≥10 cigarettes/day] and 61 LITS [≤5 cigarettes/day]). Participants were recruited over the Internet and completed a baseline questionnaire online. Several variables differentiated LITS and HS in a multiple logistic regression analysis: LITS reported fewer smoking friends (p < .001) and a higher self-efficacy to resist smoking (p < .01). Further, LITS smoking status was associated with reporting a past quit attempt (p < .05) and the use of smoking restraint strategies (counting, limiting, and purposefully not smoking cigarettes; p < .05). Notably, nicotine dependence and trait self-control abilities did not differentiate between LITS and HS. Our results point to the role of smoking restraint strategies and self-monitoring of smoking to limit the daily number of cigarettes smoked.

  3. Success of dental implants in smokers and non-smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Barboza, E dS Porto

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in marginal bone loss and implant failure rates between smokers and non-smokers with respect to the follow-up period. An extensive electronic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify relevant articles published up to February 2015. The eligibility criteria included randomized and non-randomized clinical studies. After an exhaustive selection process, 15 articles were included. The meta-analysis was expressed in terms of the odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. There was a statistically significant difference in marginal bone loss favouring the non-smoking group (SMD 0.49, 95% CI 0.07-0.90; P=0.02). An independent analysis revealed an increase in marginal bone loss in the maxilla of smokers, compared to the mandible (SMD 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.55; P<0.00001). A statistically significant difference in implant failure in favour of the non-smoking group was also observed (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.68-2.30; P<0.00001). However, the subgroup analysis for follow-up time revealed no significant increase in implant failure proportional to the increase in follow-up time (P=0.26).

  4. A fluorescein tracer release experiment in the hydrothermally active crater of Vailulu'u volcano, Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S. R.; Staudigel, H.; Workman, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Girard, A. P.

    2003-08-01

    On 3 April 2001, a 20 kg point source of fluorescein dye was released 30 m above the bottom of the active summit caldera of Vailulu'u submarine volcano, Samoa. Vailulu'u crater is 2000 m wide and at water depths of 600-1000 m, with the bottom 200 m completely enclosed; it thus provides an ideal site to study the hydrodynamics of an active hydrothermal system. The magmatically driven hydrothermal system in the crater is currently exporting massive amounts of particulates, manganese, and helium. The dispersal of the dye was tracked for 4 days with a fluorimeter in tow-yo mode from the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea. Lateral dispersion of the dye ranged from 80 to 500 m d-1; vertical dispersion had two components: a diapycnal diffusivity component averaging 21 cm2 s-1, and an advective component averaging 0.025 cm s-1. These measurements constrain the mass export of water from the crater during this period to be 8-1.3+4.6 × 107 m3 d-1, which leads to a "turnover" time for water in the crater of ˜3.2 days. Coupled with temperature data from CTD profiles and Mn analyses of water samples, the power output from the crater is 610-100+350 MW, and the manganese export flux is ˜240 kg d-1. The Mn/Heat ratio of 4.7 ng J-1 is significantly lower than ratios characteristic of hot smokers and diffuse hydrothermal flows on mid-ocean ridges and points to phase separation processes in this relatively shallow hydrothermal system.

  5. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  6. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M.; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D.; Lagua, Ian Joseph N.; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J.; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Alexander, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers. PMID:26844173

  7. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

    2015-03-12

    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical 'footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus. PMID:25762281

  8. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

    2015-03-12

    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical 'footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus.

  9. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  10. Translucency of monolithic and core zirconia after hydrothermal aging

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Salma M.; El-Fallal, Abeer A.; El-Negoly, Salwa A.; El Bedawy, Abu Baker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the hydrothermal aging effect on the translucency of partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia with yttria (Y-TZP) used as monolithic or fully milled zirconia and of core type. Methods: Twenty disc-shaped specimens (1 and 10 mm) for each type of monolithic and core Y-TZP materials were milled and sintered according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The final specimens were divided into two groups according to the type of Y-TZP used. Translucency parameter (TP) was measured over white and black backgrounds with the diffuse reflectance method; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to analyze the microstructure of both Y-TZP types before and after aging. Data for TP values was statistically analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results: Monolithic Y-TZP showed the highest TP mean value (16.4 ± 0.316) before aging while core Y-TZP showed the lowest TP mean value (7.05 ± 0.261) after aging. There was a significant difference between the two Y-TZP types before and after hydrothermal aging. XRD analysis showed increases in monoclinic content in both Y-TZP surfaces after aging. Conclusion: Monolithic Y-TZP has a higher chance to low-temperature degradation than core type, which may significantly affect the esthetic appearance and translucency hence durability of translucent Y-TZP. PMID:27335897

  11. The effectiveness of nicotine patch and nicotine lozenge in very heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Di Marino, Michael E; Pillitteri, Janine L

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) among very heavy and highly dependent smokers was examined in a secondary analysis of two randomized clinical trials of NRT. In the first trial, smokers were assigned to active patch (n=249) or placebo (n=253) plus intensive behavioral treatment. In the second trial, smokers were assigned to active 4-mg nicotine lozenge (n=450) or placebo (n=451) plus brief behavioral treatment. Nicotine patch and lozenge significantly increased 6-month continuous abstinence quit rates in both very heavy (>or=40 cigarettes per day) and highly dependent (Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire or Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score >7) smokers. The effect of active NRT treatment did not differ significantly by smoking rate or nicotine dependence, with the exception that the nicotine patch was significantly more effective than placebo in highly dependent smokers. The nicotine patch and lozenge are effective (vs. placebo) even in heavy and highly dependent smokers. PMID:15723732

  12. Black Literature vs. Black Studies: Three Lynchings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Melvin G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers three works by black authors, all dealing with lynchings, that may be used in a black literature course to introduce students to the esthetic dimension of black literature, as well as to its cultural and racial significance. (GW)

  13. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N; Casado, Begona; Pannell, Lewis K; McGarvey, Peter B; Boschetto, Piera; Luisetti, Maurizio; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7) and smokers with normal lung function (n=13), mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11), obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15), and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10) were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of Ig joining chain compared to other groups. Emphysema subjects’ sputum was unique, with high plasma proteins and components of neutrophil extracellular traps, such as histones and defensins. In contrast, defensins were correlated with epithelial proteins in all other groups. Protein-network interactions were unique to each group. Conclusion The proteomes were interpreted as complex “biosignatures” that suggest distinct pathophysiological mechanisms for mucin 5AC hypersecretion, airflow obstruction, and inflammatory emphysema phenotypes. Proteomic phenotyping may improve genotyping studies by selecting more homogeneous study groups. Each phenotype may require its own mechanistically based diagnostic, risk-assessment, drug- and other

  14. Contingency management for cigarette smokers with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; López-Núñez, Carla; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba

    2015-10-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among smokers from the general population, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on smoking treatment outcomes, and even less research has been carried out in the context of contingency management (CM). The authors conducted a secondary analysis to assess the interrelation between treatment condition, depressive symptoms and treatment outcomes among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample was made up of 147 treatment-seeking smokers who were randomly allocated 2 treatment conditions: cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; n = 74), or CBT + CM (n = 73). CBT was applied in 1-hr group-based sessions over 6 weeks. The CM protocol was voucher-based with maximum earnings of €300 (US$339). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Smoking abstinence was verified though cotinine and carbon monoxide. Several analyses were conducted to explore the effect of treatment condition and baseline depressive symptoms on treatment outcomes, as well as the effect of treatment condition and smoking status on depressive symptoms. The CBT + CM condition was more effective than CBT, independent of depressive symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms decreased the number of days of continuous smoking abstinence. Participants with a greater number of days of continuous smoking abstinence had fewer depressive symptoms than those with fewer days of continuous smoking abstinence. Findings suggest that health care providers should consider encouraging their patients with depressive symptoms to seek smoking cessation services that include both smoking cessation protocols and behavioral activation for mood management, thus maximizing both smoking and depressive outcomes.

  15. Connecting low-income smokers to tobacco treatment services.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jonathan S; Nelson, Christina L; Parks, Michael J; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for using population-level incentive-based interventions, and cigarette smoking is one of the most significant health behaviors driving costs and adverse health in low-income populations. Telehealth offers an opportunity to facilitate delivery of evidence-based smoking cessation services as well as incentive-based interventions to low-income populations. However, research is needed on effective strategies for linking smokers to services, how to couple financial incentives with telehealth, and on how to scale this to population-level practice. The current paper evaluates primary implementation and follow-up results of two strategies for connecting low-income, predominantly female smokers to a telephone tobacco quitline (QL). The population-based program consisted of participant-initiated phone contact and two recruitment strategies: (1) direct mail (DM) and (2) opportunistic telephone referrals with connection (ORC). Both strategies offered financial incentives for being connected to the QL, and all QL connections were made by trained patient navigators through a central call center. QL connections occurred for 97% of DM callers (N=870) and 33% of ORC callers (N=4550). Self-reported continuous smoking abstinence (i.e., 30 smoke-free days at seven-month follow-up) was 20% for the DM group and 16% for ORC. These differences between intervention groups remained in ordered logistic regressions adjusting for smoking history and demographic characteristics. Each recruitment strategy had distinct advantages; both successfully connected low-income smokers to cessation services and encouraged quit attempts and continuous smoking abstinence. Future research and population-based programs can utilize financial incentives and both recruitment strategies, building on their relative strengths. PMID:26489597

  16. Contingency management for cigarette smokers with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; López-Núñez, Carla; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba

    2015-10-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among smokers from the general population, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on smoking treatment outcomes, and even less research has been carried out in the context of contingency management (CM). The authors conducted a secondary analysis to assess the interrelation between treatment condition, depressive symptoms and treatment outcomes among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample was made up of 147 treatment-seeking smokers who were randomly allocated 2 treatment conditions: cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; n = 74), or CBT + CM (n = 73). CBT was applied in 1-hr group-based sessions over 6 weeks. The CM protocol was voucher-based with maximum earnings of €300 (US$339). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Smoking abstinence was verified though cotinine and carbon monoxide. Several analyses were conducted to explore the effect of treatment condition and baseline depressive symptoms on treatment outcomes, as well as the effect of treatment condition and smoking status on depressive symptoms. The CBT + CM condition was more effective than CBT, independent of depressive symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms decreased the number of days of continuous smoking abstinence. Participants with a greater number of days of continuous smoking abstinence had fewer depressive symptoms than those with fewer days of continuous smoking abstinence. Findings suggest that health care providers should consider encouraging their patients with depressive symptoms to seek smoking cessation services that include both smoking cessation protocols and behavioral activation for mood management, thus maximizing both smoking and depressive outcomes. PMID:26280589

  17. Estimation of major immunoglobulins in smokers and gutkha chewers

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Ketankumar Jayantilal; Chawda, Jyoti G

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the level of IgG and IgA major immunoglobulins in patients having the habit of smoking, gutkha chewing and in patients without any tobacco habit as control. Materials and Methods: Estimation of major immunoglobulins IgG and IgA was carried out by automated Nephelometry method in ten patients (control group), forty patients who had habit of smoking either bidi or cigarette and forty patients who had the habit of gutkha chewing. Among forty patients who smoked, twenty patients were without any lesion while twenty patients had homogenous leukoplakia. Among the forty patients who had habit of gutkha chewing, twenty patients were without any lesion while twenty patients had oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). The obtained data were analyzed using independent sample t-test. Results: IgG and IgA levels were higher in smokers and gutkha chewers as compared to control group and were higher in gutkha chewers as compared to smokers. IgG and IgA levels of non- lesional smokers and gutkha chewers showed no change as compared to the controls while it was increased in patients with homogenous leukoplakia and patients with OSMF as compared to control group. IgG and IgA levels were also significantly higher in patients with OSMF as compared to that of homogenous leukoplakia. IgG and IgA levels were higher in all the grades of OSMF as compared to the controls and both IgG and IgA levels were directly correlated with the grades of OSMF. Conclusion: Higher major immunoglobulins levels in present study among the study groups indicate the use of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis and would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of the lesions. PMID:27601812

  18. Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles: Controlled hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jinxue; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Lu, Yibin; Zhang, Xiao; Kuang, Shaoping; Hou, Wanguo

    2012-12-15

    Monodisperse FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles with specific spindle-like morphology have been synthesized in the presence of citric acid through hydrothermal process. In the synthesis route, citric acid played four roles such as the reducing agent, chelating regents, structure-directing agent and stabilizing agents. In addition, the morphology of FeWO{sub 4} was dramatically tuned by the pH value of the precursor medium. The optical properties of FeWO{sub 4} were investigated with UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that the decomposition efficiency of the monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles is 74% after 30 min of UV irradiation, which displayed remarkable enhanced photodegradation activity compared with ordinary FeWO{sub 4} sample (57%) and normal TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts P-25 (56%). - Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activities. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monodisperse spindle-like FeWO{sub 4} were synthesized with hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid plays key roles in the hydrothermal synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their morphology can be tuned with pH value of the precursor medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They show enhanced photocatalytic activities with irradiation of UV light.

  19. SEPAR-ALAT Consensus Document on Antipneumoccal Vaccination in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Buljubasich, Daniel; Sansores, Raúl; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Guerreros Benavides, Alfredo; Luhning, Susana; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zabert, Gustavo; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio; Solano Reina, Segismundo; Casas Herrera, Alejandro; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for several clinical syndromes, such as community-acquired pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, and others. The most severe clinical entity caused by this bacteria is undoubtedly invasive pneumococcal disease. Certain factors are known to increase the risk of presenting invasive pneumococcal disease, the most important being smoking habit and underlying concomitant diseases. This article comprises a consensus document on antipneumococcal vaccination in smokers, drawn up by a Smoking Expert Group from the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery and the Latin American Chest Association.

  20. Analysis of smoking patterns and contexts among college student smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cronk, Nikole J.; Harris, Kari Jo; Harrar, Solomon W.; Conway, Kathrene; Catley, Delwyn; Good, Glenn E.

    2011-01-01

    Many who smoke in college do so infrequently and smoking conditions are not well-understood. We examined smoking patterns among college fraternity and sorority members (N=207) from a Midwestern university in three successive fall semesters in 2006–2008. Participants completed calendar-assisted retrospective assessments of 30-day smoking at up to 5 assessment points over 96 days. Overall smoking rates declined over the course of each semester and higher smoking on weekends was observed, with more variability among daily smokers. The most frequent categories of events to cue recall of smoking were socializing, work, and school. Findings can be used to target prevention efforts. PMID:21210723

  1. Smokers vs. nonsmokers in the work place: clearing the air.

    PubMed

    Massengill, D; Petersen, D J

    As the antismoking movement grows, employees are becoming more vociferous about their right to a work environment free from tobacco smoke and its toxic effects. In response to these concerns, ordinances regulating smoke in public places and in some cases banning it altogether have been passed in several states and some cities. Likewise, courts have addressed the issue of nonsmokers' rights in the work place. In the following article, the authors examine the scope of regulation thus far and the prospect of future regulation on smoking in the work place. They also examine court, National Labor Relations Board, and arbitration decisions that have dealt with the rights of smokers and nonsmokers.

  2. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist

  3. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    PubMed

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed.

  4. Formation of hydrothermal deposits at Kings Triple Junction, northern Lau back-arc basin, SW Pacific: The geochemical perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paropkari, Anil L.; Ray, Durbar; Balaram, V.; Surya Prakash, L.; Mirza, Imran H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Gnaneshwar Rao, T.; Kaisary, Sujata

    2010-04-01

    An inactive hydrothermal field was discovered near Kings Triple Junction (KTJ) in northern Lau back-arc basin during 19th cruise of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1990. The field consisted of a large elongated basal platform 'the pedestal' with several 'small' chimneys on its periphery and one 'main mound' superposed over it. The surrounding region is carpeted with lava pillows having ferromanganese 'precipitate' as infillings. The adjoining second field consisted of small chimney like growths termed as 'Christmas Tree' Field. The basal pedestal, the peripheral chimneys and small 'Christmas Tree' like growths (samples collected by MIR submersibles), though parts of the same hydrothermal field, differ significantly in their mineralogy and elemental composition indicating different history of formation. The pedestal slab consisting of chalcopyrite and pyrite as major minerals and rich in Cu is likely to have formed at higher temperatures than sphalerite dominated peripheral chimney. Extremely low concentration of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) and enrichment of light REE in these sulfides indicate prominent influence of aqueous arc-magma, rich in subduction components. The oxide growths in the 'Christmas Tree' Field have two distinct layers, Fe rich orange-red basal part which seems to have formed at very low temperature as precipitates from diffused hydrothermal flows from the seafloor whereas Mn rich black surface coating is formed from hydrothermal fluids emanated from the seafloor during another episode of hydrothermal activity. Perhaps this is for the first time such unique hydrothermal oxide growths are being reported in association with hydrothermal system. Here, we discuss the possible processes responsible for the formation of these different hydrothermal deposits based on their mineralogy and geochemistry.

  5. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  6. Tungsten enriched in submarine hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Koichi; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Okamura, Kei; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro

    2004-06-01

    Here we report the first data for W in hydrothermal vent fluids in the deep oceans. Vented hydrothermal fluids were collected from the Kairei Field, a mid ocean ridge hydrothermal field at the Rodriguez Triple Junction, Central Indian Ridge, and from arc-backarc hydrothermal systems at the Suiyo Seamount in the Izu-Bonin Arc, North Pacific Ocean and at the Hatoma and Yonaguni Knolls in the Okinawa Trough, East China Sea. While the dissolved W concentration in hydrothermal fluids linearly increased with a decrease in the Mg concentration for each system, the W concentration in endmember fluids was very different. It was 0.21 nmol/kg at the Kairei Field, 15 nmol/kg at the Suiyo Seamount, and 123 nmol/kg at the Hatoma Knoll, which was 4 orders of magnitude above the ambient level in seawater. The W concentration was not a simple function of Cl, alkalinity, B, and NH 4. The hydrothermal fields are efficiently enriched with W through reaction with fractionated calc-alkaline dacite and with terrigenous sediments. Although Mo is a chemical analogue of W in oxic seawater, the Mo concentration decreased in the hydrothermal fluids to 2-7 nmol/kg probably due to precipitation of Mo sulfide.

  7. Arctic Ocean: hydrothermal activity on Gakkel Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise

    2004-03-01

    In the hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, sea water penetrates the fractured crust, becomes heated by its proximity to the hot magma, and returns to the sea floor as hot fluids enriched in various chemical elements. In contradiction to earlier results that predict diminishing hydrothermal activity with decreasing spreading rate, a survey of the ultra-slowly spreading Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) by Edmonds et al. and Michael et al. suggests that, instead of being rare, the hydrothermal activity is abundant--exceeding by at least a factor of two to three what would be expected by extrapolation from observation on faster spreading ridges. Here we use helium-3 (3He), a hydrothermal tracer, to show that this abundance of venting sites does not translate, as would be expected, into an anomalous hydrothermal 3He output from the ridge. Because of the wide implications of the submarine hydrothermal processes for mantle heat and mass fluxes to the ocean, these conflicting results call for clarification of the link between hydrothermal activity and crustal production at mid-ocean ridges.

  8. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  9. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  10. Hydrothermal Occurrences in Gusev Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, S. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Milliken, R.; Mills, V. W.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration of the Gusev crater landing site by the Spirit rover has revealed for the first time, in situ evidence of hydrothermal activity on Mars. Most compelling are eroded outcrops of opaline silica found adjacent to "Home Plate" [1], an eroded stack of volcaniclastic deposits stratigraphically overlain by a vesicular basalt unit [2]. Recent work [3] demonstrates that the silica outcrops occur in a stratiform unit that possibly surrounds Home Plate. The outcrops are dominated by opal-A with no evidence for diagenesis to other silica phases. No other hydrous or alteration phases have been identified within the outcrops; most notable is a lack of sulfur phases. The outcrops have porous and in some cases, brecciated microtextures. Taken together, these observations support the interpretation that the opaline silica outcrops were produced in a hot spring or perhaps geyser environment. In this context, they are silica sinter deposits precipitated from silica-rich hydrothermal fluids, possibly related to the volcanism that produced the Home Plate volcanic rocks. On Earth, debris aprons in which sinter is brecciated, reworked, and cemented, are common features of hot springs and geysers and are good analogs for the Martian deposits. An alternative hypothesis is that the silica resulted from acid-sulfate leaching of precursor rocks by fumarolic steam condensates. But stratigraphic, textural, and chemical observations tend to diminish this possibility [3]. We are conducting extensive laboratory and field investigations of silica from both hot spring/geyser and fumarole environments to understand the full range of mineralogical, chemical, textural, and morphological variations that accompany its production, in order to shed more light on the Home Plate occurrence. The recent discovery of abundant Mg-Fe carbonate (16-34 wt%) in outcrops named Comanche provides possible evidence for additional hydrothermal activity in Gusev [4]. However, the carbonate is hosted by olivine

  11. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  12. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking. PMID:27757078

  13. [Reasons that make individuals in a higher education institution to become or not to become smokers].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Stephani Amanda Lukasewicz; Teixeiraa, Carolina de Castilhos; Corrêa, Ana Paula Almeida; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Echerc, Isabel Cristina

    2011-06-01

    This is a cross-sectional study that aims to identify reasons that make individuals in a higher education institution to become or not to become smokers. The data were collected in 2009, with specific questionnaires analyzed statistically. The sample was of 426 subjects, of which 21 (5%) smokers, 26 (6.1%) ex-smokers and 376 (88.9%) non-smokers. The main reasons for smokers to quit smoking are the health problems that arise from it. Nicotine addiction is among the factors that make this process difficult. Ex-smokers say that emotional issues and the pleasure of smoking can make them smoke again, but they remain abstinent because they are determined not to smoke. Non-smokers report they don't like the cigarette, its smell and its smoke. The reasons to be a smoker or a non-smoker can help implementing health education actions that prevent people from starting to smoke and that help them stop.

  14. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  15. Testing the transtheoretical model in predicting smoking relapse among Malaysian adult smokers receiving assistance in quitting.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Retneswari, Masilamani; Moy, Foong Ming; Taib, Khairul Mizan; Isahak, Marzuki; Koh, David

    2013-01-01

    The role of The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in predicting relapse is limited. We aimed to assess whether this model can be utilised to predict relapse during the action stage. The participants included 120 smokers who had abstained from smoking for at least 24 hours following two Malaysian universities' smoking cessation programme. The smokers who relapsed perceived significantly greater advantages related to smoking and increasing doubt in their ability to quit. In contrast, former smokers with greater self-liberation and determination to abstain were less likely to relapse. The findings suggest that TTM can be used to predict relapse among quitting smokers.

  16. Asthma and its relation to smoking behavior and cessation motives among adult daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Avallone, Kimberly M; McLeish, Alison C; Zvolensky, Michael J; Kraemer, Kristen M; Luberto, Christina M; Jeffries, Emily R

    2013-06-01

    Despite the negative effects of smoking on lung functioning and overall health, smoking is more prevalent among individuals with asthma compared to those without asthma. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive ability of asthma diagnosis in terms of smoking behavior and reasons for quitting. Participants were 251 regular daily smokers: 125 smokers with self-reported, physician-diagnosed asthma and 126 smokers without asthma. Asthma diagnosis significantly predicted age of regular smoking onset, number of quit attempts, and reasons for quitting related to self-control suggesting that smokers with asthma may have more difficulty quitting and unique reasons for quitting.

  17. [Length and surface density of the resorption villi's blood vessels in smokers placentas].

    PubMed

    Zigić, Zlata; Bogdanović, Gordana; Ramić, Suada

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted with intention to reveal the quantitative values of feto-maternal nutrition exchange in smokers placentas, considering the great importance of harmful influence of smoking in pregnancy. The study was done on 90 human placentas. We have divided them into three groups: 30 placentas of moderate smokers, 30 placentas of heavy smokers and control group (non-smokers). Stereologic analysis was done with multipurpose test system M42. Pregnant smokers (both moderate and heavy) had significantly lower length density of the blood vessels compared to the control group. Significantly higher surface density of the blood vessels was found in the pregnant heavy smokers. The least absolute length density of the resorption villi's blood vessels was in the pregnant heavy smokers and it was significantly lower compared to pregnant moderate smokers and control group. In the group of the pregnant heavy smokers there was statistically higher average absolute surface of the blood vessels. The intensity of smoking effects the structural changes of the placenta. Intensity of smoking during pregnancy had a great impact on the proportion of the morphologic changes of the placentas. It leads to hypoxia, which in turn may be the cause of fetal growth and developmental retardation.

  18. What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.

    1995-01-01

    Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

  19. Catastrophic volcanic collapse: relation to hydrothermal processes.

    PubMed

    López, D L; Williams, S N

    1993-06-18

    Catastrophic volcanic collapse, without precursory magmatic activity, is characteristic of many volcanic disasters. The extent and locations of hydrothermal discharges at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia, suggest that at many volcanoes collapse may result from the interactions between hydrothermal fluids and the volcanic edifice. Rock dissolution and hydrothermal mineral alteration, combined with physical triggers such as earth-quakes, can produce volcanic collapse. Hot spring water compositions, residence times, and flow paths through faults were used to model potential collapse at Ruiz. Caldera dimensions, deposits, and alteration mineral volumes are consistent with parameters observed at other volcanoes.

  20. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  1. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 288: 321-333, 2002. [ PubMed abstract ] Gunn TR, Wright IM: The use of black and blue cohosh in labour. New Zealand Medical Journal 109: 410-411, 1996. [ PubMed abstract ] Finkle RS, ...

  2. Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This paper, presented as part of a military lecture series given by the Division of Continuing Education and Community Service Speakers' Bureau of the University of Hawaii to military personnel at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter, investigates the origins and present status of Black English. A discussion of early studies in the Gullah dialect…

  3. Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged…

  4. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Drought in the Black Hills     View ... and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging ... the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the  albedo  at the surface increased. Albedo measures the ...

  5. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…

  6. Using numerical models and volume rendering to interpret acoustic imaging of hydrothermal flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, K. G.; Bennett, K.; Takle, J.; Rona, P. A.; Silver, D.

    2009-12-01

    Our acoustic imaging system will be installed onto the Neptune Canada observatory at the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge, which is a Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Site. Thereafter, 16-30 Gb of acoustic imaging data will be collected daily. We are developing a numerical model of merging plumes that will be used to guide expectations and volume rendering software that transforms volumetric acoustic data into photo-like images. Hydrothermal flow is modeled as a combination of merged point sources which can be configured in any geometry. The model stipulates the dissipation or dilution of the flow and uses potential fields and complex analysis to combine the entrainment fields produced by each source. The strengths of this model are (a) the ability to handle a variety of scales especially the small scale as the potential fields can be specified with an effectively infinite boundary condition, (b) the ability to handle line, circle and areal source configurations, and (c) the ability to handle both high temperature focused flow and low temperature diffuse flow. This model predicts the vertical and horizontal velocities and the spatial distribution of effluent from combined sources of variable strength in a steady ambient velocity field. To verify the accuracy of the model’s results, we compare the model predictions of plume centerlines for the merging of two relatively strong point sources with the acoustic imaging data collected at Clam Acres, Southwest Vent Field, EPR 21°N in 1990. The two chimneys are 3.5 m apart and the plumes emanating from their tops merge approximately 18 mab. The model is able to predict the height of merging and the bending of the centerlines. Merging is implicitly observed at Grotto Vent, Main Endeavour Field, in our VIP 2000 data from July 2000: although there are at least 5 vigorous black smokers only a single plume is discernable in the acoustic imaging data. Furthermore, the observed Doppler velocity data increases with height

  7. Gender and racial Differences in Smoking of Long/Ultra-long and King size Cigarettes among U.S. adult Smokers, NHANES 1999–2012

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Vardavas, Constantine I.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette rod length as a design feature may play a specific role in harm perception and tobacco use. Internal tobacco industry documents have shown targeting of females with long/ultra-long cigarettes. This study assessed trends and differences in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes among U.S. smokers aged ≥20 years during 1999 through 2012. Methods Data were obtained from the 1999/2000 through 2011/2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The proportion of current smokers who reported using long/ultra-long cigarettes during each survey year was calculated and compared using χ2 statistics. Linear and quadratic trends during 1999 through 2012 were assessed using binary logistic regression (p<0.05). Multi-variable analyses were performed to assess current disparities in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes. Results Despite overall declines in current smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during the 1999 through 2012 period (p<0.001 for both linear and quadratic trends), the proportion of smokers of long/ultra-long brands increased in recent years, with over a third (38.7%) of current smokers reporting smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during 2011/2012. Current smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were more likely to be female compared to males (aOR=3.09; 95%C.I:2.09–4.58), of black race compared to whites (aOR=2.07; 95%C.I:1.30–3.28), or aged 45–64, or ≥65 years (aOR=2.39 and 5.27 respectively), compared to 18–24 year olds. Conclusions Specific gender, age and race/ethnic characteristics of smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were noted, hence potentially contributing to the widening of health disparities. Cigarette rod length should be considered an important aspect of cigarette engineering/design in regulatory efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco-related disease. PMID:24417962

  8. Olfactory Cue-reactivity in Nicotine-Dependent Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Bernadette M.; Uhde, Thomas W.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Stein, Sarah V.; Freeman, W. Connor; McClernon, F. Joseph; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Cue-elicited reactivity is a significant factor in relapse during smoking quit attempts. Previous research has focused primarily on visual smoking cues, with very limited research examining reactivity to olfactory triggers. Twenty-six adult, non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent smokers were exposed to seven odorants during a cue-reactivity session measuring heart rate, skin conductance, and subjective craving. Cues included 2 cigarette odors (fresh tobacco and cigarette smoke), 2 odors previously identified as smoking-related (freshly mowed grass and coffee), 2 odors previously identified as unrelated to smoking (lavender and burned rubber), and 1 odorless control (propylene glycol). Pairwise comparisons demonstrated that subjective intensity of craving was significantly higher following exposure to the fresh tobacco odor compared to the odorless control (p<.01). A significant main effect for cue type on a physiological measure of arousal was also revealed, with a fresh tobacco odor-elicited significant increase in skin conductance level compared to the odorless control. No main effect of cue type on heart rate, however, was found (p=.25). The results of the present study indicate that cigarette odor is an effective olfactory cue that heightens both subjective craving and increases skin conductance in smokers. Future research is needed to evaluate whether avoidance of these odors, or extinction of responses to them, can reduce relapse risk during smoking quit attempts. PMID:25180553

  9. Attentional avoidance of smoking cues in former smokers.

    PubMed

    Peuker, Ana Carolina; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2014-02-01

    It has been speculated that attentional bias (AB) to smoking cues is a permanent feature of addiction. The objective of the present study was to investigate if abstinence duration has an influence on AB. Performance on a visual probe task of three groups (recent, intermediate and prolonged) of ex-smokers (n=62, mean age 50±11 years) with different abstinence durations was compared. Target/Control images were presented at three stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: 200, 500, and 2000 ms) on a 17-inch monitor. Former smokers avoided target images (TIs). Mean reaction time to control images was shorter than to TIs, confirming the attentional avoidance of TIs. Attentional avoidance of TIs and the lower emotional valence of these stimuli may have been a strategy to avoid relapse. Sustained avoidance to smoking-related cues may be a predictor of long-term abstinence. Direct training of AB away from drug cues may improve the results of smoking cessation therapy. PMID:24074848

  10. Time to First Cigarette and Hypertension in Korean Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saerom; Jang, Miae; Noh, Hye-Mi; Oh, Hye-Young; Song, Hong Ji; Park, Kyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Morning blood pressure surge affects to cardiovascular disease risk. Short time to first cigarette (TTFC) after waking can enhance morning blood pressure surge, and accelerate atherosclerosis Methods We investigated that the relationship between TTFC and blood pressure. The study subjects included male current smokers (n=211) who had health check-up in Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from July to September, 2014. We categorized the subjects into 2 groups according to TTFC; early TTFC (TTFC <30 minutes) and late TTFC (TTFC ≥30 minutes), and the subjects who were taking antihypertensive medications or had a high blood pressure (>140 mm Hg or 90 mm Hg) were defined as hypertensive group. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to investigate the association between TTFC and hypertensive group. Results Compared with late TTFC, early TTFC had higher odds (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-7.94) for hypertensive group. After adjusting confounding factors, early TTFC was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 1.84-10.70). Conclusion early TTFC after waking is associated with hypertension. It suggests delaying TTFC might help to control of blood pressure among the current smokers who are not ready to immediately quit smoking. PMID:26435812

  11. Culturally specific interventions for African American smokers: an efficacy experiment.

    PubMed

    Webb, Monica S

    2009-09-01

    This pilot study sought to dismantle the efficacy of culturally specific print materials for smoking cessation. Two-hundred sixty-one African American smokers were randomized into 1 of 2 conditions: standard booklet or culturally specific booklet. The content and length of the interventions were identical yet varied in their degree of cultural specificity. Three-month follow-up assessments were completed by 70% (N = 183) of participants. Dependent variables included content evaluation, readiness to quit smoking, and actual behavior change. Evidence suggested that the culturally specific material was more effective at capturing attention, providing encouragement and gaining interest compared to standard materials; however, greater credibility was found for standard materials. In addition, greater readiness to quit and more 24-hour quit attempts were found in the standard condition. No differences were found in abstinence rates. In conclusion, culturally specific interventions may be preferred over standard approaches among African American smokers. Culturally specific approaches, however, may not result in greater behavior change. Implications for written interventions and cultural specificity are discussed. PMID:19806851

  12. Leptin Influence in Craving and Relapse of Alcoholics and Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar-Nemer, Aline S.; Toffolo, Mayla C. F.; da Silva, Claudio Jeronimo; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Silva-Fonseca, Vilma A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptin inhibits signaling of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, suggesting its role in regulating stress and its possible involvement in the neurobiology of reward system. The aim of this study was to review of the literature on the influence of leptin in the craving for alcohol and tobacco and whether there is already evidence that leptin may be a biomarker to indicate risk for craving and relapse. The review used as data bases Medline, LILACS and SciElo in the period between 2000 and 2012. Keywords were leptin, substance use disorders, craving and withdrawal, in Portuguese and English. Only 12 articles were met the inclusion criteria, relating leptin with craving in alcoholics (n = 10) and smokers (n = 2). No studies were found in the LILACS database. Leptin levels increase during abstinence and this may be related to a reduction of dopaminergic action in mesolimbic system, resulting in a greater intensity of craving and maintenance of addictive behavior. Although there are few studies, the most recent results indicate the usefulness of leptin as a marker of risk for relapse among smokers and alcoholics in abstinence. PMID:23671541

  13. Smoking, but not smokers: identity among college students who smoke cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Arnold H; Campo, Shelly; Gascoigne, Jan; Jolly, Olivia; Zakharyan, Armen; Tran, Zung Vu

    2007-08-01

    Cigarette smoking in college is often described as social smoking, but the term lacks definition and implicitly discounts dependence. We report on college students' use of the terms social smoker and smoker. Students who currently smoked cigarettes were asked whether they considered themselves smokers, and whether they smoked because they were social smokers. The survey was conducted during 1999-2004 at eight colleges; analysis was limited to 1,401 students aged 18-24 years. More than half of students (56.3%) denied being smokers ("deniers") despite current smoking behavior. Half of deniers, and fewer than half of admitters, called themselves social smokers. Deniers were highly likely to smoke infrequently, to say they were not addicted to cigarettes, to have mostly nonsmokers as close friends, to prefer dating nonsmokers, and to smoke for reasons other than stress relief. In contrast, social-