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Sample records for black smoker hydrothermal

  1. The sound generated by mid-ocean ridge black smoker hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Crone, Timothy J; Wilcock, William S D; Barclay, Andrew H; Parsons, Jeffrey D

    2006-12-27

    Hydrothermal flow through seafloor black smoker vents is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these vents radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. Vent sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues.

  2. High-resolution surveys along the hot spot-affected Gálapagos Spreading Center: 3. Black smoker discoveries and the implications for geological controls on hydrothermal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haymon, Rachel M.; White, Scott M.; Baker, Edward T.; Anderson, Peter G.; MacDonald, Ken C.; Resing, Joseph A.

    2008-12-01

    To explore effects of hot spots on mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we conducted nested sonar, hydrothermal plume, and near-bottom photographic surveys along the portion of the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) influenced by the Galápagos hot spot, from longitude 95°-89.5°W. We report the first active high-temperature black smokers to be found on the GSC, at longitudes 94°4.5'W and 91°56.2'-54.3'W; describe two areas of recently inactive smokers, at longitudes 91°23.4'-23.7'W and 91°13.8'W; and document an older inactive site, at longitude 90°33.4'W. All imaged vents issue either from dike-induced fissures along linear axial volcanic ridges and collapses or from a caldera. Magmatic control of hydrothermal systems also is revealed by spatial clustering of plumes within the topographically elevated middles of volcanic ridge segments with inferred centralized melt supply. In searched areas, smokers are more typical than diffuse flow vents, but total GSC plume incidence is half of that expected from the spreading rate. Why? Dike-fed fissures provide permeable pathways for efficient hydrothermal extraction of magmatic heat, but cones without calderas do not. Among many point-source cones surveyed, only the two with calderas had detectable plumes. Possibly, dominance of point-source over linear-source melt delivery on the GSC decreases plume incidence. Also, similar maturities of observed vents and their host lava flows indicate that hydrothermally active volcanic segments along the western GSC are contemporaneously in a waning phase of volcanic-hydrothermal activity. Perhaps ridge/hot spot interaction produces melt pulses that drive near-synchronous volcanic-hydrothermal activity on the volcanic segments spanning the hot spot. During active periods, hydrothermally active dike-fed fissures and calderas may be more abundant than we currently observe.

  3. Microearthquakes in the black smoker hydrothermal field, East Pacific Rise at 21/sup 0/N

    SciTech Connect

    Riedesel, M.; Orcutt, J.A.; MacDonald, K.C.; McClain, J.S.

    1982-12-10

    In July and August 1980, an array of five ocean bottom seismographs was deployed within 3 km of the 350 /sup 0/C hydrothermal vents at the Rivera submersible experiment (RISE) site at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise. Two of these instruments were placed within 600 m of the vents, using a transponder navigation network. The array detected four basic types of events. The first type consisted of local, very small microearthquakes. Locations obtained for 11 of these events place three within 1 km of the vents, with the others elsewhere along the rise crest. They appear to originate either from movement on the faults in the area or from the hydrothermal system beneath this area. A study of the S-P times of this type indicates a maximum hypocentral depth of 2-3 km, implying a similar limit to the depth of hydrothermal circulation and brittle fracturing in the vicinity of the vents. The second type of event found consisted of emergent earthquakes that have many of the characteristics of volcanic harmonic tremor. The frequency of these events falls in the 1-5 Hz range and are similar in appearance to those seen at Mount St. Helens prior to and during its May 1980 eruption. They may be either hydrothermal or volcanic in origin. The third type of event produced a very monochromatic, high-frequency seismogram, with the energy concentrated at 20 Hz. These events also appear to have a local origin.

  4. Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser, Cora C.; Viljoen, Fanus; Petersen, Sven; Vorster, Clarisa

    2015-06-01

    The key for understanding the trace metal inventory of currently explored VHMS deposits lies in the understanding of trace element distribution during the formation of these deposits on the seafloor. Recrystallization processes already occurring at the seafloor might liberate trace elements to later hydrothermal alteration and removement. To investigate the distribution and redistribution of trace elements we analyzed sulfide minerals from 27 black smoker samples derived from three different seafloor hydrothermal fields: the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the basaltic-hosted Turtle Pits field on the mid-atlantic ridge, and the felsic-hosted PACMANUS field in the Manus basin (Papua New Guinea). The sulfide samples were analyzed by mineral liberation analyser for the modal abundances of sulfide minerals, by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for As, Sb, Se, Te, and Au. The samples consist predominantly of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena and minor isocubanite as well as inclusions of tetrahedrite-tennantite. Laser ablation spectra were used to evaluate the solubility limits of trace elements in different sulfide minerals at different textures. The solubility of As, Sb, and Au in pyrite decreases with increasing degree of recrystallization. When solubility limits are reached these elements occur as inclusions in the different sulfide phases or they are expelled from the mineral phase. Most ancient VHMS deposits represent felsic or bimodal felsic compositions. Samples from the felsic-hosted PACMANUS hydrothermal field at the Pual ridge (Papua New Guinea) show high concentrations of Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Hg, and Te, which is likely the result of an additional trace element contribution derived from magmatic volatiles. Co-precipitating pyrite and chalcopyrite are characterized by equal contents of Te, while chalcopyrite that replaced pyrite (presumably

  5. Thermoelasticity and the formation of black smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, R.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Darcy's Law flow in a permeable medium, consisting of uniform parallel evenly spaced fractures, is used to elucidate how thermoelastic effects may modify the permeability and flow in fracture-controlled hydrothermal systems. Some simple permeability models are then used to investigate whether black smoker venting can result from focussing of low velocity porous flow into fractures at shallow depths ({approx equal} 100 m.). The models indicate that: (a) thermoelastic processes may be important in controlling the temporal evolution of hydrothermal upflow zones; (b) permeability structure, not just the bulk value of the permeability, may be critical for the formation of black smokers; (c) a small zone extending to a depth of {approx equal} 100 m containing a few fractures a factor of 2 or more wider than average may be sufficient to focus upflow into discrete vents provided thermoelastic and chemical effects seal parts of the upper crust.

  6. Thermoelasticity and the formation of black smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, Robert P.

    Darcy's Law flow in a permeable medium, consisting of uniform parallel evenly spaced fractures, is used to elucidate how thermoelastic effects may modify the permeability and flow in fracture-controlled hydrothermal systems. Some simple permeability models are then used to investigate whether black smoker venting can result from focussing of low velocity porous flow into fractures at shallow depths (≃ 100 m.). The models indicate that: (a) thermoelastic processes may be important in controlling the temporal evolution of hydrothermal upflow zones; (b) permeability structure, not just the bulk value of the permeability, may be critical for the formation of black smokers; (c) a small zone extending to a depth of ≃ 100 m containing a few fractures a factor of 2 or more wider than average may be sufficient to focus upflow into discrete vents provided thermoelastic and chemical effects seal parts of the upper crust.

  7. A comparison of black smoker hydrothermal plume behavior at Monolith Vent and at Clam Acres Vent Field: Dependence on source configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, Karen G.; Rona, Peter A.; Jackson, Darrell; Jones, Christopher; Silver, Deborah; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko

    Quantitative visualization of acoustic images is used to compare the properties and behavior of high temperature hydrothermal plumes at two sites with different source configurations, increasing our understanding of how plume behavior reflects source configuration. Acoustic imaging experiments were conducted at the Clam Acres area of the Southwest Vent Field, 21°N East Pacific Rise and at Monolith Vent, North Cleft segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. At Clam Acres, black smokers discharge from two adjacent chimneys which act as point sources, whereas multiple vents at Monolith Vent define a distributed elliptical source. Both plumes exhibit consistent dilution patterns, reasonable fits to the expected power law increase in centerline dilution with height, and simple bending of plume centerlines in response to ambient currents. Our data suggest that point source vents are associated with ordered plume structure, normal entrainment rates, and initial expansion of isosurfaces while distributed source vents are associated with disorganized plume structure, variable entrainment rates, and initial contraction of isosurfaces.

  8. In-situ Chemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids from Black Smokers in Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Zhang, Z.; Foustoukos, D.; Pester, N. J.

    2005-12-01

    After an off-axis earthquake swarm in 1999, dramatic changes were observed in vent fluids of Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Three month latter, we also recorded this sudden variation using a high temperature in-situ chemical sensor. The results at that time indicated some of the vent temperatures as high as 374°C. This change was also characterized by relatively high in-situ pH, high dissolved H2, and H2S concentrations in the fluids that were in excess of 5, 0.7 mmol/kg and 20 mmol/kg respectively. In order to further track time dependent changes over the past 6 years, we revisited Main Endeavour Field during the recent AT 11-31 cruise in Aug.~Sept. 2005. The high temperature chemical sensor was again used on selected dives with DSV Alvin to conduct in-situ measurements of pH, dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations along with temperatures. The data were obtained in a real time mode of 3 seconds per-reading from a series of measurements at high temperature conditions in the depth of 2200 m. Conventional gas-tight samples were also collected for verification and further study. In this study, Puffer, Sully and Bastille black smoker vent sites were specifically investigated owing to the high fluid temperatures that characterize these vents in comparison with other vents in the area. The measured temperatures for these vents were 362°C, 358°C, and 361°C respectively, which were generally about 20~30°C higher than the others currently in the area, but approximately 10°C lower than the highest temperatures measured in the aftermath of the 1999 seismic-magmatic event. Although the drops in vent temperatures were not substantial, the measured in-situ chemistry showed large departures from previous reported data. The in-situ pH values in these vents ranged from 4.43 to 4.89, in comparison with values above 5 in 1999. This difference may be linked directly to the decrease in temperature. The measured in-situ dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations were 0

  9. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient α, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of α ≈ 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, α = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of α ≈ 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value α = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important

  10. Balnearium lithotrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph isolated from a black smoker chimney in the Suiyo Seamount hydrothermal system.

    PubMed

    Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Sako, Yoshihiko; Horikoshi, Koki

    2003-11-01

    A novel, extremely thermophilic bacterium, designated strain 17S(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney at the Suiyo Seamount in the Izu-Bonin Arc, Japan. The cells were rods with no apparent motility, most of which were narrow in the middle in the exponential-growth phase and had several polar flagella at both ends. Growth was observed between 45 and 80 degrees C (optimum temperature, 70-75 degrees C; doubling time, 80 min) and between pH 5.0 and 7.0 (optimum pH, 5.4). The isolate was a strictly anaerobic chemolithoautotroph that was capable of using molecular hydrogen as its sole energy source and carbon dioxide as its sole carbon source. Elemental sulfur (S(0)) was required for growth as an electron acceptor. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the isolate was related to Thermovibrio ruber ED11/3LLK(T) and Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum BSA(T), whilst it appeared to be a novel lineage prior to the divergence of these genera. This isolate could also be differentiated from both T. ruber ED11/3LLK(T) and D. thermolithotrophum BSA(T) on the basis of physiological properties. The name Balnearium lithotrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this isolate (type strain, 17S(T)=JCM 11970(T)=ATCC BAA-736(T)).

  11. Particulate DNA in smoker fluids: Evidence for existence of microbial populations in hot hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Straube, W.L.; Colwell, R.R. Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore ); Deming, J.W.; Baross, J.A. ); Somerville, C.C. )

    1990-05-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary study of hydrothermal vents on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, we used the submersible ALVIN to collect 57 fluid samples from 17 different hot vents (smokers and flanges) and their environs for the purpose of extracting particulate DNA. Particulate material concentrated from these samples was lysed enzymatically (enz) and by a combination of enzyme and French press treatment (fp). Concentrations of partially purified DNA recovered from these lysates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Ambient seawater surrounding the vents was found to contain low DNA concentrations, 0.18 to 0.32 ng of DNA per ml, while low-temperature vent samples yielded significantly higher concentrations of 0.37 to 2.12 ng of DNA per ml. Although DNA recovery values from superheated (210 to 345{degree}C) flange samples were not significantly different from ambient seawater values, most of the superheated (174 to 357{degree}C) smoker fluid samples contained particulate DNA in concentrations too high to be attributable to entrained seawater. Detailed sampling at one smoker site demonstrated not only the existence of significant levels of particulate DNA in the superheated smoker fluids but also the presence of an elevated microbial population in the buoyant plume 20 to 100 m above the smoker. These results underscore the heterogeneity of smoker environments within a given hydrothermal vent fluid and indicate that microorganisms exist in some superheated fluids.

  12. Microbial diversity of Loki's Castle black smokers at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, A; Jørgensen, S L; Bernasconi, S M; Pedersen, R B; Thorseth, I H; Früh-Green, G L

    2012-11-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems harbor rich microbial communities ranging from aerobic mesophiles to anaerobic hyperthermophiles. Among these, members of the archaeal domain are prevalent in microbial communities in the most extreme environments, partly because of their temperature-resistant and robust membrane lipids. In this study, we use geochemical and molecular microbiological methods to investigate the microbial diversity in black smoker chimneys from the newly discovered Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent field on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) with vent fluid temperatures of 310-320 °C and pH of 5.5. Archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) and H-shaped GDGTs with 0-4 cyclopentane moieties were dominant in all sulfide samples and are most likely derived from both (hyper)thermophilic Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Crenarchaeol has been detected in low abundances in samples derived from the chimney exterior indicating the presence of Thaumarchaeota at lower ambient temperatures. Aquificales and members of the Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant bacterial groups detected. Our observations based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes and biomarker lipid analysis provide insight into microbial communities thriving within the porous sulfide structures of active and inactive deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Microbial cycling of sulfur, hydrogen, and methane by archaea in the chimney interior and bacteria in the chimney exterior may be the prevailing biogeochemical processes in this system.

  13. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Rolf B; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Lilley, Marvin D; Barriga, Fernando J A S; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Jorgensen, Steffen L

    2010-11-23

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific.

  14. Discovery of a black smoker vent field and vent fauna at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Rapp, Hans Tore; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Lilley, Marvin D.; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Baumberger, Tamara; Flesland, Kristin; Fonseca, Rita; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.; Jorgensen, Steffen L.

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) represents one of the most slow-spreading ridge systems on Earth. Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting, as well as the provenance of vent fauna at this northern and insular termination of the global ridge system, have been unsuccessful. Here, we report the first discovery of a black smoker vent field at the AMOR. The field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge (AVR) and is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting and long-lived hydrothermal systems exist at ultraslow-spreading ridges, despite their strongly reduced volcanic activity. The vent field hosts a distinct vent fauna that differs from the fauna to the south along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The novel vent fauna seems to have developed by local specialization and by migration of fauna from cold seeps and the Pacific. PMID:21119639

  15. Hydrogenimonas thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph within the epsilon-Proteobacteria, isolated from a black smoker in a Central Indian Ridge hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Takai, Ken; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2004-01-01

    A novel thermophilic bacterium, strain EP1-55-1%T, was isolated from an in-situ colonization system deployed in a superheated, deep-sea, hydrothermal vent emission at the Kairei Field on the Central Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean. The cells were highly motile rods, each possessing a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed between 35 and 65 degrees C (optimum temperature, 55 degrees C; 70 min doubling time) and between pH 4.9 and 7.2 (optimum, pH 5.9). The isolate was a microaerobic-to-anaerobic chemolithoautotroph capable of using molecular hydrogen as the sole energy source and carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source. Molecular oxygen, nitrate or elemental sulfur (S0) could serve as electron acceptors to support growth. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that strain EP1-55-1%T represents the first strain for which taxonomic properties have been characterized within the previously uncultivated phylogroup classified as belonging to the uncultivated epsilon-Proteobacteria group A; the name Hydrogenimonas thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with strain EP1-55-1%T (=JCM 11971T=ATCC BAA-737T) as the type strain.

  16. Heat flux from black smokers on the Endeavour and Cleft segments, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginster, Ursula; Mottl, Michael J.; von Herzen, Richard P.

    1994-03-01

    We have estimated the heat flux from black smoker vents on the Juan de Fuca Ridge to evaluate their importance for heat transfer from young oceanic crust. The velocity and temperature of smoker effluent were measured from the manned submersible Alvin within a few centimeters of vent orifices, using a turbine flowmeter with an attached temperature probe. Exit velocity was calculated from a simple plume model, and vent orifices were measured in photographs and video records. The estimated power output from smokers alone is 49 plus or minus 13 MW for the Plume site, Vent 1 and Vent 3 on the southern Cleft segment near 45 deg N; 364 plus or minus 73 MW for the main vent field on the Endeavour Segment near 48 deg N; and 122 plus or minus 61 MW for the Tubeworm field 2 km north. The estimates for the Cleft and Tubeworm fields could be too low because of undiscovered vents. These values constitute only 4% to 14% of the total advective heat flux estimated for these vent fields from measurements in the nonbuoyant plume and of diffuse flow at the seafloor, indicating that most of the heat advected at these hydrothermal vent sites is carried by diffuse rather than focused flow. Values for individual smokers vary from 0.1 to 94 MW, with an average of 6.2 MW at the Endeavour field and 3.1 MW at the Cleft field. Our estimates agree well at all scales with those of Bemis et al. (1993) based on measurements made during the same dives, in some cases simultaneously, up to 50 m high in the buoyant plume. The good agreement between the two techniques implies that little diffuse flow at either high or low temperature is incorporated into the buoyant plumes generated by smokers at these sites. Velocity-temperature measurements at vents excavated by Alvin could not be modeled successfully, suggesting that vent structures may grow in equilibrium with the force of the exiting water such that orifice size is determined by volume flux. At the Endeavour field the heat flux is focused by

  17. Upper Limit to Black Smoker Temperatures Not Yet in Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devey, C. W.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.

    2011-12-01

    The world's hottest-known black smoker vent field (Turtle Pits Field, 4°50'S, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) has previously been reported as showing transient venting temperatures up to 464°C (Koschinsky et al., 2008). The calculated Mg-free endmember fluid has low salinity (ca. 280 mM Cl) suggesting it is a separated vapour phase. This end-member chlorinity has remained constant over the period of 26 months during which samples were repeatedly collected. We present new data showing that venting at Turtle Pits has in fact reached measured exit temperatures of at least 524°C, that the measured temperature is related to where on the smoker samples are collected (with higher temperatures found near the base) and that sampling temperature and salinity are not correlated. These observations can be explained by a simple two-stage model consisting of (1) a stable, high-temperature vapour production region at depth and (2) a region of cooling of the vapours within the smoker structure at the seafloor by heat exchange with ambient seawater. Sub-seafloor vapour transport between these two regions must occur with negligible heat loss to the surrounding rock - deposition of high-temperature minerals (e.g., Cu-sulphides, anhydrite) may, however, occur. Future attempts to sample the vapour before heat exchange will demonstrate its true maximum temperature - there seems to be no a priori reason why it could not approach magmatic temperatures, however. From chemical and phase equilibrium constraints, the vapour production region must lie at pressures of >550 bars (the pressure at which a vapour of the measured salinity will be formed on the two-phase boundary at 524°C), in conflict with the 350 bars given by silica geobarometry of the fluids (Koschinsky et al., 2008). This discrepancy may be related to the absence of quartz in the reaction zone, the very high fluid temperatures (outside the 390-430°C validity region of the Si barometry calibration) or a lack of fluid/rock equilibrium

  18. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (IV) Interpretations of Black Smoker Fluid Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, M. H.; Palandri, J. L.; Elders, W.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2008-12-01

    One scientific goal of the IDDP is to understand high-temperature reaction zones such as those that feed hydrothermal fluids to active mid-ocean ridge black smoker vents. Smoker fluids emerge from a reservoir of composition, pressure and temperature resembling those expected in a supercritical IDDP well in the Reykjanes geothermal system. We have reconstructed black smoker fluids based on published analyses, and then computed mineral saturation indices, log(Q/K), for a wide range of P-T conditions, from which we identify a pressure and temperature where a group of probable alteration minerals equilibrated with the fluid. The estimated reservoir conditions commonly reflect approximately 60°C of cooling at the vent in excess of that from adiabatic decompression. Saturation index surfaces distinctly converge to zero in a narrow range of pressure and temperature, but the small angle of intersection of most curves yield substantial uncertainty, especially in pressure. Feldspars, quartz, garnet, actinolite, wairakite and chlorite have a stronger pressure dependence than do others, so they become the principal indicators of pressure, which is especially reflected in pH and silica solubility. An accurate reconstructed in situ pH is essential. In reconstructing fluids, we recompute pH to high P-T starting from the pH measured on shipboard in cooled fluid samples. Aside from temperature effects, the pH in such samples is elevated by mixing with cold seawater and lowered by precipitation of vent sulfides. To examine our understanding of pH, we scrutinized the saturation states of sulfides in the reconstructed vent fluids. For example, in 21°N EPR HG vent, we find that sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite are approximately saturated at the vent conditions (350°C, 260bar), and that pyrite is supersaturated and bornite is undersaturated. The former three are common vent sulfides. In the same fluid, silicates indicate reservoir conditions of approximately 450°C and 600

  19. Loki's Castle: Discovery and geology of a black smoker vent field at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Lilley, M. D.; Barriga, F. J.; Früh-Green, G.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Previous attempts to locate hydrothermal vent fields and unravel the nature of venting at the ultraslow spreading and magma starved parts of the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge (AMOR) have been unsuccessful. A black smoker vent field was eventually discovered at the Mohns-Knipovich bend at 73.5°N in 2008, and the field was revisited in 2009 and 2010. The Loki’s Castle vent field is located on the crest of an axial volcanic ridge that is bordered by a tectonic terrain dominated by core complexes to the NW, and a ridge flank that is buried by sediments from the Bear Island Fan to the SE. Fluid compositions are anomalous to other basalt-hosted fields and indicate interactions with sediments at depths. The vent field is associated with an unusually large hydrothermal deposit, which documents that extensive venting occurs at ultraslow spreading ridges despite the strongly reduced magmatic heat budget. ROV surveys have shown that venting occurs in two areas separated by around 100 m. Micro-bathymetry acquired by a Hugin AUV documents that two 20-30 tall mounds that coalesce at the base have developed around the vent sites. The micro-bathymetry also shows that the venting is located above two normal faults that define the NW margin of a rift that runs along the crest of the volcano. The black smoker fluids reach 317 °C, with an end-member SiO2 content of 16 mmol/kg. End-member chlorinity is around 85% of seawater suggesting that the fluids have phase-separated at depth. The fluid compositions indicate that the rock-water reactions occur around 2 km below the seafloor. The crustal thickness is estimated to be 4 +/- 0.5 km in the area. Whereas the depth of the reaction zone is comparable with faster spreading ridges, the fraction of crust cooled convectively by hydrothermal circulation is two times that of vent fields at ridges with normal crustal thickness.

  20. Solid fuel production by hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shimin; Li, Xianglan; Fan, Juan; Chang, Jie

    2012-04-01

    Formaldehyde was used as a polymerization agent to perform hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor for solid fuel production from 220 to 285°C. Compared to hydrochar prepared without formaldehyde, hydrochar produced in the presence of a 2.8wt.% formaldehyde solution (hydrochar-F) had 1.27-2.13 times higher yield, 1.02-1.36 times higher heating value (HHV), 1.20-2.31 times higher C recovery efficiency, 1.20-2.44 times higher total energy recovery efficiency, 0.51-0.64 times lower sulfur content, and 0.48-0.89 times lower ash content. The HHV of hydrochar-Fs ranged from 2.2×10(4) to 3.0×10(4)kJ/kg, while the HHV of hydrochar-F produced at 285°C was 1.90 times greater than that of the raw material (black liquor solid). These considerable improvements indicated that formaldehyde was an effective additive in hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

  1. Diversity of microbial communities of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultra-slow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, A.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Früh-Green, G.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present an organic geochemical study of Loki’s Castle, a black smoker field recently discovered at the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea at around 73.2°N. Located at the Mohn-Knipovich Ridge, which is one of the slowest spreading ridge segments on Earth, Loki’s Castle is the most northerly major hydrothermal vent field known to date. The vent field is composed of five actively venting (320°C) black-smoker chimneys that tower on top of a large mound of hydrothermal sulfide deposits. Loki’s Castle is a basalt-hosted hydrothermal system, but high methane and ammonium contents in the vent fluids strongly indicate a sedimentary component below the volcanic ridge. In 2009, another site of low-temperature hydrothermal venting hosting numerous barite chimneys was discovered in the vicinity of the black smokers, which probably results from subsurface mixing of diffuse hydrothermal fluid with seawater. In our study, variations in microbial communities associated with the formation of actively venting, sulfide and sulfate chimneys in this essentially unexplored ultraslow spreading ridge system are assessed based on biomarker lipid and compound-specific carbon isotope analyses. Lipid extracts from an active, high-temperature sulfide chimney yielded abundant archaeal di- and tetraether lipids as well as irregular isoprenoidal hydrocarbons (PMIs) that are associated with archaeal methanogens and methanotrophs. Predominant archaeal biomarker lipids include archaeol, sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol as well as glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) containing 0-4 cyclopentyl moieties. In addition, GDGTs with an additional covalent bond between the isoprenoid hydrocarbon chains, so-called H-shaped GDGTs, containing 0-4 cyclopentyl rings were also found to be abundant components and are indicative of hyperthermophilic methanogens. Biomarkers characteristic of eukaryotes (sterols) and bacteria (fatty acids and hopanoids) were less prevalent in

  2. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathleen F.

    2014-01-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N = 944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous six months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<.001). Over two-thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous six months, with a 14% increase each month (p<.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (Mean= 25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the internet and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, “catching up” with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy. PMID:25503053

  3. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.

  4. Visual Observations and Geologic Settings of the Newly-Discovered Black Smoker Vent Sites Across the Galapagos Ridge-Hotspot Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P.; Haymon, R.; MacDonald, K.; White, S.

    2006-12-01

    Nearly one-fifth of the global mid-ocean ridge is hotspot-affected, yet very little is known about how hotspots affect quantity and distribution of high-temperature hydrothermal vents along the ridge. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, acoustic and plume sensor surveys were conducted across the Galapagos ridge- hotspot intersection, lon. 94.5ºW- lon. 89.5ºW, to map fine scale geologic features and locate hydrothermal plumes emanating from the ridge crest. Where significant plumes were detected, the Medea fiber-optic camera sled was used successfully to find and image high-temperature vents on the seafloor. With Medea we discovered and imaged the first active and recently extinct black smokers known along the entire Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC), and documented the geologic setting of these vents. The Medea survey imaged numerous inactive vents as well as 3 active high-temperature vent fields along the ridge at 94º 04.5'W (Navidad Site), 91º56.2'W (Iguanas Site) and 91º54.3'W (Pinguinos Site). Two recently extinct vent fields also were identified at 91º23.4'-23.7'W and 91º13.8'W. All of the high-temperature vent sites that we identified along the GSC are found above relatively shallow AMC reflectors and are located in the middle 20% of ridge segments. Without exception the vent sites are located along fissures atop constructional axial volcanic ridges (AVR's) composed of relatively young pillow basalts. In some cases, the vents were associated with collapses adjacent to the fissures. The fissures appear to be eruptive sources of the pillow lavas comprising the AVR's. Video images of the chimneys show mature, cylindrical structures, up to 14m high; little diffuse flow; few animals; and some worm casts and dead clam shells, suggesting prior habitation. We conclude that distribution of the vents is controlled by magmatic processes, (i.e., by locations of shallow AMC magma reservoirs and eruptive fissures above dike intrusions), and that there is

  5. Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor 'black smoker' from vapor to brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Damm, Karen L.; Buttermore, L.G.; Oosting, S.E.; Bray, A.M.; Fornari, D.J.; Lilley, M.D.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1997-01-01

    A single hydrothermal vent, 'F' vent, occurring on very young crust at 9??16.8???N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388??C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and high in gases compared to seawater and most sampled seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids. In 1994, when this vent was next sampled, it had cooled to 351??C and was venting fluids ???1.5 times seawater chlorinity. This is the first reported example of a single seafloor hydrothermal vent evolving from vapor to brine. The 1991 and 1994 fluids sampled from this vent are compositionally conjugate pairs to one another. These results support the hypothesis that vapor-phase fluids vent in the early period following a volcanic eruption, and that the liquid-phase brines are stored within the oceanic crust, and vent at a later time, in this case 3 years. These results demonstrate that the venting of brines can occur in the same location, in fact from the same sulfide edifice, where the vapor-phase fluids vented previously.

  6. Hydrothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlantic, and Indian Oceans (e.g., Van Dover et al., 2002) with further evidence - from characteristic chemical anomalies in the ocean water column - of its occurrence in even the most remote and slowly spreading ocean basins ( Figure 3), from the polar seas of the Southern Ocean (German et al., 2000; Klinkhammer et al., 2001) to the extremes of the ice-covered Arctic ( Edmonds et al., 2003). (61K)Figure 3. Schematic map of the global ridge crest showing the major ridge sections along which active hydrothermal vents have already been found (red circles) or are known to exist from the detection of characteristic chemical signals in the overlying water column (orange circles). Full details of all known hydrothermally active sites and plume signals are maintained at the InterRidge web-site: http://triton.ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~intridge/wg-gdha.htm The most spectacular manifestation of seafloor hydrothermal circulation is, without doubt, the high-temperature (>400 °C) "black smokers" that expel fluids from the seafloor along all parts of the global ocean ridge crest. In addition to being visually compelling, vent fluids also exhibit important enrichments and depletions when compared to ambient seawater. Many of the dissolved chemicals released from the Earth's interior during venting precipitate upon mixing with the cold, overlying seawater, generating thick columns of black metal-sulfide and oxide mineral-rich smoke - hence the colloquial name for these vents: "black smokers" (Figure 4). In spite of their common appearance, high-temperature hydrothermal vent fluids actually exhibit a wide range of temperatures and chemical compositions, which are determined by subsurface reaction conditions. Despite their spectacular appearance, however, high-temperature vents may only represent a small fraction - perhaps as little as 10% - of the total hydrothermal heat flux close to ridge axes. A range of studies - most notably

  7. Sediment in the black smoker area of the East Pacific Rise (18.5°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchig, Vesna; Erzinger, Jörg; Heinze, Peter-Matthias

    1986-08-01

    A sediment profile perpendicular to the East Pacific Rise (EPR) was investigated in an area in which massive sulfides have been observed along the axis of the EPR. A Holocene to Late Pleistocene age is concluded for all of the up-to-3-m-long cores leading to sedimentation rates of 0.3-2.6 cm/1000 a. The sediments are composed of hydrothermal precipitate, calcareous tests and, in traces, hyaloclastic material. The proportion of carbonate increases with increasing distance from the spreading center. The hyaloclastic material is more or less weathered and is concentrated near the spreading center. The hydrothermal component is composed mainly of iron and manganese hydroxides. The proportion of hydrothermal matter in the sediment is higher near the axis of the EPR. Also near the axis, the elements B, P, Cr, and V are enriched in the hydrothermal component whereas Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, and As are depleted. The core profiles show a fluctuation in the proportion of hydrothermal material. Periods of higher hydrothermal input correlate with periods of the best calcite preservation. Diagenetic alteration of the sediment increases with increasing distance from the spreading center, i.e. with decreasing sedimentation rate. Mo, Zr, Co, Ni, Rb, Th, Y, Ba, La, and REE are enriched in the sediment by diagenetic processes.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Piezophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus kukulkanii NCB100 Isolated from the Rebecca's Roost Hydrothermal Vent in the Guaymas Basin.

    PubMed

    Oger, Philippe M; Callac, Nolwenn; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Jebbar, Mohamed; Godfroy, Anne

    2017-02-16

    Members of the order Thermococcales are common inhabitants of high-temperature hydrothermal vent systems (black smokers) that are represented in clone libraries mostly by isolates from the Thermococcus genus. We report the complete sequence of a novel species from the Pyrococcus genus, P. kukulkanii strain NCB100, which has been isolated from a flange fragment of the Rebecca's Roost hydrothermal vent system in the Guaymas Basin.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hyperthermophilic Piezophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus kukulkanii NCB100 Isolated from the Rebecca’s Roost Hydrothermal Vent in the Guaymas Basin

    PubMed Central

    Callac, Nolwenn; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the order Thermococcales are common inhabitants of high-temperature hydrothermal vent systems (black smokers) that are represented in clone libraries mostly by isolates from the Thermococcus genus. We report the complete sequence of a novel species from the Pyrococcus genus, P. kukulkanii strain NCB100, which has been isolated from a flange fragment of the Rebecca’s Roost hydrothermal vent system in the Guaymas Basin. PMID:28209839

  10. Major off-axis hydrothermal activity on the northern Gorda Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rona, Peter A.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Fisk, M. R.; Howard, K. J.; Taghon, G. L.; Klitgord, Kim D.; McClain, James S.; McMurray, G. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The first hydrothermal field on the northern Gorda Ridge, the Sea Cliff hydrothermal field, was discovered and geologic controls of hydrothermal activity in the rift valley were investigated on a dive series using the DSV Sea Cliff. The Sea Cliff hydrothermal field was discovered where predicted at the intersection of axis-oblique and axis-parallel faults at the south end of a linear ridge at mid-depth (2700 m) on the east wall. Preliminary mapping and smpling of the field reveal: a setting nested on nearly sediment-free fault blocks 300 m above the rift valley floor 2.6 km from the axis; a spectrum of venting types from seeps to black smokers; high conductive heat flow estimated to be equivalent to the convective flux of multiple black smokers through areas of the sea floor sealed by a caprock of elastic breccia primarily derived from basalt with siliceous cement and barite pore fillings; and a vent biota with Juan de Fuca Ridge affinites. These findings demonstrate the importance of off-axis hydrothermal activity and the role of the intersection of tectonic lineations in controlling hydrothermal sites at sea-floor spreading centers.

  11. Hydrothermal activity at the Arctic mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.; Nygård, Tor Eivind; Lilley, Marvin D.; Kelley, Deborah S.

    Over the last 10 years, hydrothermal activity has been shown to be abundant at the ultraslow spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridges (AMOR). Approximately 20 active and extinct vent sites have been located either at the seafloor, as seawater anomalies, or by dredge sampling hydrothermal deposits. Decreasing spreading rates and decreasing influence of the Icelandic hot spot toward the north along the AMOR result in a north-south change from a shallow and magmatically robust to a deep and magmatically starved ridge system. This contrast gives rise to large variability in the ridge geology and in the nature of the associated hydrothermal systems. The known vent sites at the southern part of the ridge system are either low-temperature or white smoker fields. At the deep, northern parts of the ridge system, a large black smoker field has been located, and seawater anomalies and sulfide deposits suggest that black smoker-type venting is common. Several of these fields may be peridotite-hosted. The hydrothermal activity at parts of the AMOR exceeds by a factor of 2 to 3 what would be expected by extrapolating from observations on faster spreading ridges. Higher fracture/fault area relative to the magma volume extracted seems a likely explanation for this. Many of the vent fields at the AMOR are associated with axial volcanic ridges. Strong focusing of magma toward these ridges, deep rifting of the ridges, and subsequent formation of long-lived detachment faults that are rooted below the ridges may be the major geodynamic mechanisms causing the unexpectedly high hydrothermal activity.

  12. Hydrothermal Exploration of Mid-Ocean Ridges: Where Might the Largest Sulfide Deposits Occur?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Petersen, S.; Hannington, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We review the distribution of modern-day seafloor hydrothermal activity along the global mid-ocean ridge crest (MOR) and the mineral deposits being formed at those sites. To date, one form of hydrothermal activity - "black smoker" venting - has been prospected for along >30% of the global mid ocean ridge crest and some important trends have emerged. Submarine venting can occur along all mid-ocean ridges, of all spreading rates, in all ocean basins. While the abundance of currently active venting (from water column signals), scales linearly with seafloor spreading rate (a proxy for magmatic heat-flux) there is an "excess" of high temperature venting along slow and ultra-slow spreading ridges when compared to early predictions. Consistent with this, no more than half of the sites responsible for "black smoker" plume signals along the slow spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge are associated with magmatic systems with the other half hosted under tectonic control. The latter appear both to be longer-lived than, and to give rise to much larger sulfide deposits than, their magmatic counterparts - presumably as a result of sustained fluid flow. Where these tectonic-hosted systems also involve water-rock interaction with ultramafic sources, seafloor massive sulfide deposits exhibit highly concentrated Cu and Au in surface samples (>10wt.% average Cu content and >3ppm average Au). Intriguingly, first detailed examinations of hydrothermally active sites along ultraslow-spreading ridges seems to indicate that they may depart beyond the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge pattern. Hydrothermal plume distributions may follow the same (~50:50) distribution of "black smoker" plume signals between magmatic and tectonics settings, but the first three "black smoker" sites tracked to source have all revealed large polymetallic sulfide deposits - in both magmatic as well as tectonic settings. Could ultra-slow ridges represent the richest mineral resource potential along the global MOR?

  13. Volcanic and Hydrothermal Activity of the North Su Volcano: New Insights from Repeated Bathymetric Surveys and ROV Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thal, J.; Bach, W.; Tivey, M.; Yoerger, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bathymetric data from cruises in 2002, 2006, and 2011 were combined and compared to determine the evolution of volcanic activity, seafloor structures, erosional features and to identify and document the distribution of hydrothermal vents on North Su volcano, SuSu Knolls, eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea). Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 (WHOI Jason-2) and 2011 (MARUM Quest-4000) combined with repeated bathymetric surveys from 2002 and 2011 are used to identify morphologic features on the slopes of North Su and to track temporal changes. ROV MARUM Quest-4000 bathymetry was used to develop a 10 m grid of the top of North Su to precisely depict recent changes. In 2006, the south slope of North Su was steeply sloped and featured numerous white smoker vents discharging acid sulfate waters. These vents were covered by several tens of meters of sand- to gravel-sized volcanic material in 2011. The growth of this new cone changed the bathymetry of the south flank of North Su up to ~50 m and emplaced ~0.014 km3 of clastic volcanic material. This material is primarily comprised of fractured altered dacite and massive fresh dacite as well as crystals of opx, cpx, olivine and plagioclase. There is no evidence for pyroclastic fragmentation, so we hypothesize that the fragmentation is likely related to hydrothermal explosions. Hydrothermal activity varies over a short (~50 m) lateral distance from 'flashing' black smokers to acidic white smoker vents. Within 2 weeks of observation time in 2011, the white smoker vents varied markedly in activity suggesting a highly episodic hydrothermal system. Based on ROV video recordings, we identified steeply sloping (up to 30°) slopes exposing pillars and walls of hydrothermal cemented volcaniclastic material representing former fluid upflow zones. These features show that hydrothermal activity has increased slope stability as hydrothermal cementation has prevented slope collapse. Additionally, in some places

  14. Making a black shale shine: the interaction of hydrothermal fluids and diagenetic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, Sarah; Magnall, Joe; Reynolds, Merilie

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal fluids are important agents of mass and thermal transfer in the upper crust. This is exemplified by shale-hosted massive sulphide deposits (SHMS), which are anomalous accumulations of Zn and Pb sulphides (± barite) in sedimentary basins created by hydrothermal fluids. These deposits occur in passive margin settings and, typically, there is no direct evidence of magmatic input. Recent studies of Paleozoic deposits in the North American Cordillera (MacMillan Pass and Red Dog Districts) have shown that the deposits are formed in a sub-seafloor setting, where the potential for thermal and chemical gradients is high. Mineralization is characterized by the replacement and displacement of unconsolidated, partially lithified and lithified biosiliceous mudstones (± carbonates), and commonly the sulphide mineralization post-dates, and replaces, bedded barite units in the sediments. The Red Dog District (Alaska, USA) contain some of the largest Zn-Pb deposits ever discovered. The host-rocks are dominantly carbonaceous mudstones, with carbonate units and some radiolarites. The ore forms massive sulphide bodies that replace pyritized mudstones, barite and carbonate units. Lithological and textural relationships provide evidence that much of the ore formed in bioturbated, biosiliceous zones that may have had high primary porosity and/or permeability. Sediment permeability may have been further modified by aging of the silica rich sediments and the dissolution/replacement of carbonate and barite beds. At the Tom and Jason deposits (MacMillan Pass, Yukon) the fault-controlled hydrothermal upflow zone is uniquely preserved as an unequivocal vent complex. Here, the metal bearing fluids are hot (300°C), low salinity (6 wt% NaCl equiv.) and acidic (pH < 4.5). These fluids were initially in thermal and chemical disequilibrium with a partially lithified organic rich host-rock but cooled rapidly during fluid rock interaction and the input of diagenetic pore fluids

  15. Controls on the physics and chemistry of seafloor hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A.; Elderfield, H.

    Low temperature diffuse hydrothermal circulation is a natural consequence of the cooling of the oceanic lithosphere. Diffuse flow is expected to be ubiquitous, and will be present both within mid-ocean ridge crest axial zones of young age (0-1 Ma), and also on the older ridge crest flanks and limbs. If underlying thermal models are correct, hydrothermal circulation should persist for oceanic lithosphere of age 0-65 Ma, and is present over half the total area of the ocean basins. By using numerical models of hydrothermal circulation in cracked permeable media, we show qualitatively how diffuse flow is an intrinsic feature of high temperature axial (0-1 Ma) hydrothermal systems, and is not restricted to older (more than 1 Ma) lithosphere. This is in agreement with our field observations which suggest that in such high temperature vent fields the greatest part of the heat and volume flux is due to lower temperature diffuse flow, rather than high temperature black smoker venting. By combining direct measurements of the physical properties of diffusely flowing effluent within axial hydrothermal systems with concurrent sampling of the chemical properties of that effluent, and by considering also the chemistry of unmixed black smoker endmember fluids from the same hydrothermal systems, the processes of mineral deposition and dissolution can be studied directly. By referring to the present-day lithology of such areas, it is possible to examine the balance between concurrent mineral deposition and dissolution processes, and the retention rate of specific mineral assemblages integrated over the history of the hydrothermal system. Thus details of the episodicity of hydrothermal venting within the system may be revealed. An example of this method of combining a variety of direct measurements of diffuse and high temperature effluent properties is given from the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Long time series observations of the physical properties of diffuse and

  16. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  17. Steady state and a singular event observed at the TAG hydrothermal mound by a long-term monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Aoki, M.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Kato, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2005-12-01

    The steady state variability and occasional O`randomO_L event of hydrothermal activity were observed by several long-term monitoring systems deployed on the TAG hydrothermal mound and observed by submersible video and still cameras in the Mid Atlantic Ridge 26 N. We measured current direction and velocity, visibility, temperature, and salinity of sea water as well as observed newly formed black smokers by video and still camera system. Heat flow measurement system and an OBSH were also deployed around the central black smoker and newly formed black smokers for more than two weeks. Steady state change of the temperature, current direction and velocity, visibility and pressure change by hydrophone show a regular semidiurnal periodic variation, which may be caused by ocean, and earth tides. A singular event occurred during our research at the TAG hydrothermal mound. Small earthquakes beneath the TAG mound were followed by a huge slope failure, which apparently caused by a debris flow, killing swimming eel-like fish. A thin bed of the dead shrimps may be related to a nearly simultaneous increase of hot water flux from vent.

  18. VERY High Temperature Hydrothermal Record in Plagioclase of BLACK Gabbros in Oman Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudier, F. I.; Mainprice, D.; Nicolas, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The lower crustal section in Oman ophiolite includes 'black gabbros' that have escaped the common medium-low temperature hydrous alteration. Their plagioclases are totally fresh, but contain in their mass, nebulous inclusions most times below the resolution of optical microscope, or expressed as solid silicate phases clinopyroxene and pargasitic amphibole, up to 10 µm sized, having T equilibrium above 900°C with their host plagioclase. These gabbros have a well-expressed magmatic foliation, relayed by plastic strain marked by stretched olivine crystals, and pinching twins in plagioclase. In addition to major elements analyses, the crystallographic relationships of these Mg silicate inclusions to their host plagioclase are explored by Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) processing. - Diopsidic clinopyroxene inclusions are dominant over pargasitic amphibole that tend to locate close to the margins of host plagioclase (Fig 1). Some inclusions are mixed clinopyroxene-amphibole, separated by a non-indexed phase that could represent a pyribole-type structure, suggesting transformation from clinopyroxene to amphibole during cooling. High chlorine content in the amphibole sign the seawater contamination at least during the development of this phase. - Preliminary statistical pole figures (Fig. 2) in the six joined plagioclase grains studied, show that both plagioclase and diopside inclusions have a strong crystal preferred orientation (CPO) connected such that the strong [010]pl maximum coincide with the strong [100]di. In addition, a coincidence appears between three sub-maxima of [100]pl and [001]di. These interesting relationships are refined. It is inferred that clinopyroxene developed through corrosion of the plagioclase by a Mg-bearing hydrous fluid, penetrating possibly via twin interface and diffusing at T~1100°C, upper limit of clinopyroxene stability in hydrous conditions. Development of pargasite implies increasing hydration during cooling.

  19. Drilling the Snake Pit hydrothermal sulfide deposit on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, lat 23/sup 0/22'N

    SciTech Connect

    Detrick, R.S.; Honnorez, J.; Adamson, A.C.; Brass, G.; Gillis, K.M.; Humphris, S.E.; Mevel, C.; Meyer, P.; Petersen, N.; Rautenschlein, M.; Shibata, T.; Staudigel, H.; Yamamoto, K.

    1986-12-01

    A major high-temperature hydrothermal area has been discovered in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge rift valley about 25 km south of the Kane Fracture Zone. The vent field consists of a wide area (> 40,000 m/sup 2/) of dark hydrothermal deposits, numerous sulfide chimneys and mounds, some up to 11 m high, and high-temperature black-smoker vents. Ten shallow holes, the first ever drilled in an active submarine hydrothermal area, recovered friable, unconsolidated Fe, Cu-Fe, and Zn sulfides and several large fragments of massive sulfide (mainly chalcopyrite) from the locally thick (> 13 m) hydrothermal deposits. The vents are also associated with an unusual biological community of smaller, more mobile organisms than reported from the East Pacific Rise.

  20. Role of tectonic and volcanic activity in hydrothermal systems at the southern Mariana Trough: detailed bathymetric characteristics of the hydrothermal sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Okino, K.; Asada, M.; Nogi, Y.; Mochizuki, N.; Nakamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present the detailed bathymetric characterization of field-scale geological features associated with hydrothermal systems in the southern Mariana Trough near 12°57'N, 143°37'E, using near-bottom swath mapping data collected by the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Urashima during cruise YK09-08 and dive observation data acquired by the submersible Shinkai6500 during cruise YK10-11. In the study area, two of the hydrothermal sites are located on the active backarc spreading axis (the Snail and Yamanaka sites), one is located at the eastern foot of the axial high (the Archean site), and two are located on an off-axis knoll about 5 km from the spreading axis (the Pika and Urashima sites). We examined 1) the nature of' tectonic and volcanic controls on the hydrothermal systems, and 2) the relationship between geomorphological characteristics and hydrothermal activity based on the survey results (Yoshikawa et al., 2012). The two on-axis hydrothermal sites are possibly locally developed on a 4th order spreading segment, in association with diking events (on the basis of comparisons with previously studied cases on the East Pacific Rise). The three off-axis sites (the Archean, Urashima, and Pika sites) appear to represent locations of sustained hydrothermal activity that has created relatively large-scale hydrothermal features compared with those in the on-axis area. The formation of off-axis hydrothermal sites is likely to be closely related to an off-axis magma upwelling system, as evidenced by the absence of fault systems and the undeformed morphology of the mound and knoll. The three off-axis hydrothermal sites are composed mainly of breccia assemblages that probably originated from hydrothermal activity with black smoker venting. These areas are characterized by numerous ridge lines (height, mainly 1-6 m), conical mounds (height: < 100 m, diameter: < 300 m), and bumpy seabed. Most of the ridge lines have formed as a result of collapse of the seafloor. The

  1. Potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first discovery of black smoker vents hosting chemosynthetic macrofaunal communities (Spiess et al., 1980), submarine hydrothermal systems and associated biota have attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past couple of decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the hydrothermal vent-endemic animal communities as the primary producer. This type of microorganisms obtains energy from inorganic substances (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, and methane) derived from hydrothermal vent fluids, and is often considered as an important modern analogue to the early ecosystems of the Earth as well as the extraterrestrial life in other planets and moons (e.g., Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Nealson et al., 2005; Takai et al., 2006). Even today, however, the size of this type of chemosynthetic deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is largely unknown. Here, we present geophysical and geochemical constraints on potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The estimation of the potential biomass in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is based on hydrothermal fluid flux calculated from heat flux (Elderfield and Schltz, 1996), maximum chemical energy available from metabolic reactions during mixing between hydrothermal vent fluids and seawater (McCollom, 2007), and maintenance energy requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms (Hoehler, 2004). The result shows that the most of metabolic energy sustaining the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is produced by oxidation reaction of reduced sulfur, although some parts of the energy are derived from hydrogenotrophic and methanotrophic reactions. The overall total of the potential biomass in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem is calculated to be much smaller than that in terrestrial ecosystems including terrestrial plants. The big difference in biomass between the

  2. Isolation of Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria from Black Smoker Plume Waters of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A strain of the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was isolated from a deep-ocean hydrothermal vent plume environment. The in vivo absorption spectra of cells indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into light-harvesting complex I and a reaction center. The general morphological and physiological characteristics of this new isolate are described. PMID:16349490

  3. Geology and hydrothermal evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, Deborah A.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Delaney, John R.

    2007-06-01

    Detailed characterization of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, the most southern and spatially extensive field on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, provides new insights into its geologic and hydrothermal development. Meter-scale bathymetry, side-scan sonar imagery, and direct dive observations show that Mothra is composed of six actively venting sulfide clusters spaced 40-200 m apart. Chimneys within each cluster have similar morphology and venting characteristics, and all clusters host a combination of active and extinct sulfide structures. Black smoker chimneys venting fluids above 300°C are rare, while more common lower-temperature, diffusely venting chimneys support dense colonies of macrofauna and bacterial mat. Hydrothermal sediment and extinct sulfide debris cover 10-15 m of the seafloor surrounding each vent cluster, obscuring the underlying basaltic substrate of light to moderately sedimented pillow, lobate, sheet, and chaotic flows, basalt talus, and collapse terrain. Extinct sulfide chimneys and debris between the clusters indicate that hydrothermal flow was once more widespread and that it has shifted spatially over time. The most prominent structural features in the axial valley at Mothra are regional (020°) trending faults and fissures and north-south trending collapse basins. The location of actively venting clusters within the field is controlled by (1) localization of fluid upflow along the western boundary fault zone, and diversion of these fluids by antithetic faults to feed vent clusters near the western valley wall, and (2) tapping of residual magmatic heat in the central part of the axial valley, which drives flow beneath vent clusters directly adjacent to the collapse basins 70-90 m east of the western valley wall. These processes form the basis for a model of axial valley and hydrothermal system development at Mothra, in which the field is initiated by an eruptive-diking episode and sustained through intense microseismicity

  4. The formation, oxidation and distribution of pyrite nanoparticles emitted from hydrothermal vents: A laboratory and field based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartman, Amy

    Recent research identified the presence of nanoparticulate pyrite in hydrothermal vent black smoker emissions, and suggested that these nanoparticles may be a transport pathway for iron from hydrothermal vents to the larger ocean basin. Here, nanoparticulate pyrite was synthesized via a hydrothermal method and oxidized in air- saturated seawater, in order to explore how hydrothermally emitted pyrite forms, and may behave in oxic seawater. Additionally, hydrothermal emissions from the Mid- Atlantic Ridge were investigated for iron and sulfide speciation and reactions relating to pyrite formation. Pyrite was synthesized via both the Fe(II) + S(0) and the FeS + H 2S pathways of pyrite formation, and factors including surfactant and synthesis time were varied in order to modify morphology. The FeS + H 2S formation pathway, which is likely the pathway of pyrite formation occurring at hydrothermal sites, reproduces the pyrite nano and sub- micron particles found in black smoker emissions most closely. The oxidation of these pyrite particles results in an initial oxidation rate that is first order with respect to both the pyrite and oxygen concentration in seawater. This work is unique to previous studies on pyrite oxidation in that it uses synthesized, rather than ground and sieved pyrite, and uses seawater as the medium of oxidation. Along with the rate data, this study also demonstrates that the initial oxide formed from pyrite oxidation under these conditions is poorly crystalline and contains Fe(II) and Fe(III). Pyrite nanoparticles were identified at each of the three sites investigated at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Rainbow, TAG and Snakepit), and their presence at these sites, when combined with previous data from Lau Basin and EPR 9 °N demonstrates that they are likely to be a ubiquitous component of black- smoker hydrothermal emissions. The Rainbow site exhibited the highest concentration of nanoparticulate pyrite measured anywhere to date (1.15 mM). The potential

  5. Anhydrite precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    . Heinrich, C. A., and P. A. Candela (2014), 13.1 - Fluids and Ore Formation in the Earth's Crust, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), edited by H. D. Holland and K. K. Turekian, pp. 1-28, Elsevier, Oxford. Jupp, T., and A. Schultz (2000), A thermodynamic explanation for black smoker temperatures, Nature, 403(6772), 880-883.

  6. Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We

  7. Hydrothermal Alteration in the PACMANUS Hydrothermal Field: Implications From Secondary Mineral Assemblages and Mineral Chemistry, OPD Leg 193

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackschewitz, K. S.; Kummetz, M.; Kummetz, M.; Ackermand, D.; Botz, R.; Devey, C. W.; Singer, A.; Stoffers, P.

    2001-12-01

    Leg 193 of the Ocean Drilling Program investigated the subsurface nature of the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field in the Manus backarc basin near Papua New Guinea. Drilling in different areas on the felsic neovolcanic Pual Ridge, including the high-temperature black smoker complex of Roman Ruins and the low-temperature Snowcap site with diffusive discharge yielded a complex alteration history with a regional primary alteration being overprinted by a secondary mineralogy. The intense hydrothermal alteration at both sites shows significant differences in the secondary mineralogy. At Roman Ruins, the upper 25 m of hydrothermally altered rocks are characterized by a rapid change from secondary cristobalite to quartz, implying a high temperature gradient. From 10 to 120 mbsf the clay mineralogy is dominated by illite and chlorite. The chlorite formation temperature calculated from oxygen isotope data lies at 250° C in 116 mbsf which is similar to the present fluid outflow temperatures of 240-250° C (Douville et al., 1999, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 627-643). Drilling in the Snowcap field recovered evidence for several stages of hydrothermal alteration. Between 50 and 150 mbsf, cristobalite and chlorite are the most abundant alteration minerals while hydrothermal pyrophyllite becomes abundant in some places At 67 mbsf, the isotopic composition of pyrophyllite gives a temperature for ist formation at 260° C whereas at 77 and 116 mbsf the pyrophyllite displays the highest temperatures of formation (>300° C). These temperatures are close to the maximum measured borehole temperatures of 313° C. The appearance of assemblages of chlorite, chlorite-vermiculite, chlorite-vermiculite-smectite and illite-smectite as well as the local development of corrensite below 150 mbsf suggests that the alteration at Snowcap may be more complex than that beneath Roman Ruins. Detailed geochemical studies of the authigenic clay mineral phases will provide further insights into the

  8. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid) Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Walter, Graham; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid) oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in nature than is generally believed, but also is an important mode of energy generation in the habitat. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the bacterial community to be rich and highly diverse, containing many potentially new species. Furthermore, it appears that the worms not only possess a close symbiotic relationship with chemolithotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but also with the metal(loid) oxide transformers. Possibly they protect the worms through reduction of the toxic compounds that would otherwise be harmful to the host.

  9. A Diverse Community of Metal(loid) Oxide Respiring Bacteria Is Associated with Tube Worms in the Vicinity of the Juan de Fuca Ridge Black Smoker Field

    PubMed Central

    Maltman, Chris; Walter, Graham; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Epibiotic bacteria associated with tube worms living in the vicinity of deep sea hydrothermal vents of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the Pacific Ocean were investigated for the ability to respire anaerobically on tellurite, tellurate, selenite, selenate, metavanadate and orthovanadate as terminal electron acceptors. Out of 107 isolates tested, 106 were capable of respiration on one or more of these oxides, indicating that metal(loid) oxide based respiration is not only much more prevalent in nature than is generally believed, but also is an important mode of energy generation in the habitat. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the bacterial community to be rich and highly diverse, containing many potentially new species. Furthermore, it appears that the worms not only possess a close symbiotic relationship with chemolithotrophic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, but also with the metal(loid) oxide transformers. Possibly they protect the worms through reduction of the toxic compounds that would otherwise be harmful to the host. PMID:26914590

  10. Marinitoga hydrogenitolerans sp. nov., a novel member of the order Thermotogales isolated from a black smoker chimney on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Postec, Anne; Le Breton, Claire; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Lesongeur, Françoise; Pignet, Patricia; Querellou, Joël; Ollivier, Bernard; Godfroy, Anne

    2005-05-01

    A novel, thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium that is able to tolerate hydrogen was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney collected at the Rainbow field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Cells were rod-shaped and surrounded by a sheath-like outer structure (toga); they were weakly motile by means of a polar flagellum. They appeared singly, in pairs or in short chains. They grew at 35-65 degrees C (optimum 60 degrees C), pH 4.5-8.5 (optimum pH 6.0) and 10-65 g sea salts l(-1) (optimum 30-40 g l(-1)). The isolate was organotrophic, and able to grow on various carbohydrates or complex proteinaceous substrates. Growth was not inhibited under 100 % hydrogen or in the presence of 2 % oxygen in the gas phase. The isolate reduces sulfur, although sulfur reduction is not required for growth. The fermentation products identified on glucose were acetate, ethanol, formate, hydrogen and CO(2). The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 28 +/- 1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene placed the strain within the genus Marinitoga, order Thermotogales, in the bacterial domain. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and physiological characteristics, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Marinitoga hydrogenitolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AT1271(T) (=DSM 16785(T) = JCM 12826(T)).

  11. Metalliferous sediments adjacent to hydrothermal fields: Distribution and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Cherkashev, G.A. )

    1990-06-01

    The study of metalliferous sediments located at small distances from their sources (10-15 km), such as modern or ancient hydrothermal fields, indicate essential differences in geochemistry compared with metalliferous sediments that occur at greater distances from geothermal fields. Thus, within areas of well-known metalliferous sediment, such as the TAG hydrothermal field, Galapagos Ridge, northern East Pacific Rise (near 13{degree}N), and triple junction zone in the Indian Ocean, are areas of sediment showing the following compositional features: (1) anomalously high concentrations of metals building up sulfide edifices in the central parts of hydrothermal fields (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb); (2) high noble metal concentrations; (3) rare-earth element patterns characterized by a europium anomaly (Eu/Eu* >1) and with no negative cerium anomaly (Ce/Ce* {>=}1), the latter being a peculiar feature of rare-earth composition of normal metalliferous sediments. The first two features may not always be distinguished based on examination of the bulk rock. Metalliferous sediments of this type are commonly restricted to exposed igneous rocks that supply lithogenic material (volcanic glass, clastic basalt) to the sediments during subsea weathering. Most elemental concentrations (including nonferrous and noble metals) are diluted by this lithogenic material. The diluting effect can be eliminated by recalculation on a detrital-free basis using the concentration of titanium, the element enriched in the detrital component and depleted in hydrothermal sedimentary component. The geochemical anomalies are caused by genetic features, namely that the metals are derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals either previously building up the hydrothermal body (and transported by bottom currents after oxidation) or incorporated into black smokers (suspension in fluids).

  12. COPD in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, Mary Ann; Vollmer, William M.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Welte, Tobias; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa; Studnicka, Michael; Bateman, Eric; Anto, Josep M.; Burney, Peter; Mannino, David M.; Buist, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 countries that participated in the international, population-based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Participants were aged ≥ 40 years and completed postbronchodilator spirometry testing plus questionnaires about respiratory symptoms, health status, and exposure to COPD risk factors. A diagnosis of COPD was based on the postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to current GOLD (Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease) guidelines. In addition to this, the lower limit of normal (LLN) was evaluated as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results: Among 4,291 never smokers, 6.6% met criteria for mild (GOLD stage I) COPD, and 5.6% met criteria for moderate to very severe (GOLD stage II+) COPD. Although never smokers were less likely to have COPD and had less severe COPD than ever smokers, never smokers nonetheless comprised 23.3% (240/1,031) of those classified with GOLD stage II+ COPD. This proportion was similar, 20.5% (171/832), even when the LLN was used as a threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Predictors of COPD in never smokers include age, education, occupational exposure, childhood respiratory diseases, and BMI alterations. Conclusion: This multicenter international study confirms previous evidence that never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Our data suggest that, in addition to increased age, a prior diagnosis of asthma and, among women, lower education levels are associated with an increased risk for COPD among never smokers. PMID:20884729

  13. A serpentinite-hosted ecosystem: the Lost City hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Deborah S; Karson, Jeffrey A; Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Yoerger, Dana R; Shank, Timothy M; Butterfield, David A; Hayes, John M; Schrenk, Matthew O; Olson, Eric J; Proskurowski, Giora; Jakuba, Mike; Bradley, Al; Larson, Ben; Ludwig, Kristin; Glickson, Deborah; Buckman, Kate; Bradley, Alexander S; Brazelton, William J; Roe, Kevin; Elend, Mitch J; Delacour, Adélie; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Lilley, Marvin D; Baross, John A; Summons, Roger E; Sylva, Sean P

    2005-03-04

    The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate chimneys 30 to 60 meters tall. A low diversity of microorganisms related to methane-cycling Archaea thrive in the warm porous interiors of the edifices. Macrofaunal communities show a degree of species diversity at least as high as that of black smoker vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but they lack the high biomasses of chemosynthetic organisms that are typical of volcanically driven systems.

  14. Hydrothermal activity in Tertiary Icelandic crust: Implication for cooling processes along slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pałgan, D.; Devey, C. W.; Yeo, I. A.

    2015-12-01

    Known hydrothermal activity along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is mostly high-temperature venting, controlled by volcano-tectonic processes confined to ridge axes and neotectonic zones ~15km wide on each side of the axis (e.g. TAG or Snake Pit). However, extensive exploration and discoveries of new hydrothermal fields in off-axis regions (e.g. Lost City, MAR) show that hydrothermalism may, in some areas, be dominated by off-axis venting. Little is known about nature of such systems, including whether low-temperature "diffuse" venting dominates rather than high-temperature black-smokers. This is particularly interesting since such systems may transport up to 90% of the hydrothermal heat to the oceans. In this study we use Icelandic hot springs as onshore analogues for off-shore hydrothermal activity along the MAR to better understand volcano-tectonic controls on their occurrence, along with processes supporting fluid circulation. Iceland is a unique laboratory to study how new oceanic crust cools and suggests that old crust may not be as inactive as previously thought. Our results show that Tertiary (>3.3 Myr) crust of Iceland (Westfjords) has widespread low-temperature hydrothermal activity. Lack of tectonism (indicated by lack of seismicity), along with field research suggest that faults in Westfjords are no longer active and that once sealed, can no longer support hydrothermal circulation, i.e. none of the hot springs in the area occur along faults. Instead, dyke margins provide open and permeable fluid migration pathways. Furthermore, we suggest that the Reykjanes Ridge (south of Iceland) may be similar to Westfjords with hydrothermalism dominated by off-axis venting. Using bathymetric data we infer dyke positions and suggest potential sites for future exploration located away from neotectonic zone. We also emphasise the importance of biological observations in seeking for low-temperature hydrothermal activity, since chemical or optical methods are not sufficient.

  15. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  16. Hydrothermal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2011-03-11

    This chapter is a contribution to a book on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass being edited by Prof. Robert Brown of Iowa State University. It describes both hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal gasification of biomass to fuels.

  17. Hydrothermal mineralization at seafloor spreading centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.

    1984-01-01

    ) discrete spreading centers in back-arc basins represented by hydrothermal deposits at sites in marginal seas of the western Pacific. Ore-forming processes appear to be least efficient in the axial zone of volcanic extrusion of oceanic ridges at an advanced stage of opening irrespective of spreading rate, where tight hydrothermal systems dissipate a major portion of contained metals by precipitation and dispersion in particulate form from "black smokers" that discharge into the water column. Ore-forming processes appear to be most efficient at sites in basins at linear sections of the axial zone of volcanic extrusion near transform faults during an early stage of opening, and at marginal zones of active extension along linear sections of a spreading center during an advanced stage of opening, irrespective of spreading rate, where both tight and leaky hydrothermal systems may conserve their contained metals to concentrate large sulfide deposits. Resemblances in mineralization between stockwork sulfides at seafloor spreading centers and porphyry copper-type deposits in volcanogenic rocks on land suggest the possibility for the occurrence of large tonnage, low-grade porphyry copper-like deposits concentrated by leaky hydrothermal systems at spreading centers. Systematic application of composite exploration procedures is leading to the discovery of numerous additional deposits. It is inferred from the limited data base available that the occurrence of hydrothermal mineral deposits is more frequent at intermediate-to-fast-than at slow-spreading centers, but the potential for the accumulation of large hydrothermal mineral deposits is greater at slow-spreading centers. Current knowledge of the distribution of hydrothermal mineral deposits at seafloor spreading centers is limited to about 55 sites at this early stage of exploration. Estimates of the distribution of either fields of hydrothermal mineral deposits or high-intensity ore-forming hydrothermal systems at seafloor

  18. An off-axis hydrothermal vent field near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 30 degrees N.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D S; Karson, J A; Blackman, D K; Früh-Green, G L; Butterfield, D A; Lilley, M D; Olson, E J; Schrenk, M O; Roe, K K; Lebon, G T; Rivizzigno, P

    2001-07-12

    Evidence is growing that hydrothermal venting occurs not only along mid-ocean ridges but also on old regions of the oceanic crust away from spreading centres. Here we report the discovery of an extensive hydrothermal field at 30 degrees N near the eastern intersection of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the Atlantis fracture zone. The vent field--named 'Lost City'--is distinctly different from all other known sea-floor hydrothermal fields in that it is located on 1.5-Myr-old crust, nearly 15 km from the spreading axis, and may be driven by the heat of exothermic serpentinization reactions between sea water and mantle rocks. It is located on a dome-like massif and is dominated by steep-sided carbonate chimneys, rather than the sulphide structures typical of 'black smoker' hydrothermal fields. We found that vent fluids are relatively cool (40-75 degrees C) and alkaline (pH 9.0-9.8), supporting dense microbial communities that include anaerobic thermophiles. Because the geological characteristics of the Atlantis massif are similar to numerous areas of old crust along the Mid-Atlantic, Indian and Arctic ridges, these results indicate that a much larger portion of the oceanic crust may support hydrothermal activity and microbial life than previously thought.

  19. Propidium Monoazide-based Method for Identifying Phylogenetic Association of Necromass Near Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Gustavo; Edwards, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Black Smoker hydrothermal systems are geologically driven systems located near subduction zones and spreading centers associated with plate margins. The high temperature and low pH of fluids that are often associated with basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems select for unique microbial communities primarily comprised of prokaryotes capable of S and Fe cycling. High temperature fluids, where temperatures exceed 300° C, are likely to have a lethal effect on transient deep water planktonic communities and, over long temporal scales, may influence the molecular composition of pelleted necromass aggregates near the chimney system. We have developed a method for discriminative sequencing permitting intra vs. extracellular 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal community differences between biologically-relevant and necromass-associated DNA. This method has only recently been applied to marine environments and, here, we propose its use as relevant tool for studying the molecular ecology of high temperature hydrothermal systems, as physical drivers of massive transient community die offs and associated detrital 16S rDNA community shifts. Ultimately, we aim to understand the fraction of 16S rDNA communities that do not represent living taxa, or the information-containing fraction of total necromass pool, to better frame ecological hypotheses regarding environmental biogeochemical cycling in hydrothermal system environments.

  20. The origin of life near deep-sea hydrothermal systems during the Cambrian explosion: data from the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Terleev, Alexander; Safonova, Inna; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey; Tokarev, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    On Earth the solar radiation and the hydrothermal circulation both affect life evolution. Recent extensive studies of the World Ocean have shown that the biodiversity of Earth is linked with hydrothermal activity on the oceanic floor. These deep-sea ecosystems use chemical energy, not solar radiation. In the last quarter of the XX century, a new type of hydrothermal systems, so-called black smokers, was discovered in mid-oceanic ridges. As black smokers form sulfide ores and are surrounded by abundant bio-oases or symbioses, identification of their analogues in ancient orogenic belts is necessary for studying life origin and evolution. Of special importance are problems of life associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems acted at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary - the time of Cambrian explosion (Maruyama et al., 2013). During that explosion life significantly evolved and diversified due to dramatic changes of Earth's environment. Consequently, the early Cambrian - late Precambrian Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit of East Tuva in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is of special interest. This deposit was formed on the bottom of ancient back-arc deep-sea basin as a result of black smoker hydrothermal activity and is hosted by volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks altered by the high temperature solutions. The altered Kyzyl Tashtyg basalts have an amygdules (filled by albite, epidote and carbonates), contain brown-green microfossils, often attached to their walls. The microfossils are thin tubes 5 to 25 microns in diameter and 500 microns long. This tubes are empty and have straight, curved or branching shape. Chemically, the tube material is close to epidote. In consideration of microscopic dimensions, simple morphology and similarity with modern tubular microorganisms, the studied tube-shaped microfossils can be related to cyanobacteria. Almost the same fossils, associated with oceanic basalt complexes, were described earlier (Furnes et al., 2007; Mcloughlin et al., 2007

  1. Deep-sea smokers: windows to a subsurface biosphere?

    PubMed

    Deming, J W; Baross, J A

    1993-07-01

    Since the discovery of hyperthermophilic microbial activity in hydrothermal fluids recovered from "smoker" vents on the East Pacific Rise, the widely accepted upper temperature limit for life (based on pure culture data) has risen from below the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to approximately 115 degrees C. Many microbiologists seem willing to speculate that the maximum may be closer to 150 degrees C. We have postulated not only higher temperatures than these (under deep-sea hydrostatic pressures), but also the existence of a biosphere subsurface to accessible seafloor vents. New geochemical information from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicative of subsurface organic material caused us to re-examine both the literature on hyperthermophilic microorganisms cultured from deep-sea smoker environments and recent results of microbial sampling efforts at actively discharging smokers on the Endeavour Segment. Here we offer the case for a subsurface biosphere based on an interdisciplinary view of microbial and geochemical analyses of Endeavour smoker fluids, a case in keeping with rapidly evolving geophysical understanding of organic stability under deep-sea hydrothermal conditions.

  2. Microbial mediated formation of low-temperature hydrothermal barite chimneys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Steen, I. H.; Eickmann, B.; Dahle, H.; Baumberger, T.; Peters, M.; Strauss, H.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    A low-temperature (20 degrees C) venting area with numerous active and extinct barite chimneys (up to 1 m tall) are located on the eastern flank of the hydrothermal mound of Loki's Castle black smoker field at the Mohns-Knipovich bend of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The active barite chimneys are covered by white mats containing abundant microbial cells and extracellular material with attached barite crystals. Within the chimneys microbial cells are partly embedded in barite and crystals are covered by extracellular material. These observations indicate that the microbial material serve as a substrate for nucleation and precipitation of barite with the potential of having an important control on the construction of the chimneys. In addition, the presence of framboidal pyrite in black interior flow channels and in the underlying hydrothermal sediment further suggests that the chimney formation is linked to microbial sulphate reduction (MSR). To further investigate the relationship between chimney growth and microbial activity we used a combination of biomolecular and isotope analyses. Pyrosequencing of PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA followed by taxonomic classification revealed that sulphide oxidizers (Sulfurimonas) within the Epsilonproteobacteria dominate the microbial mats and the white barite of the chimney wall. In the black interior flow channel a more diverse microbial community was observed indicating methane, sulphur and ammonia oxidation as well as heterotrophic processes. Multiple isotope analyses (δ18O, δ34S, Δ33S) reveal that the barite chimneys precipitated from a fluid that was modified by subseafloor MSR in the sulphide mound. This is supported by the sulphur isotope signature of the framboidal pyrite, pore water, and mono- and disulphides extracted from the hydrothermal sediment as well as the biomolecular data. We suggest that the MSR was triggered by mixing of the H2 and CH4 rich high-temperature (320 degrees C) fluids and percolating seawater, which

  3. Carbon and Sulphur Geochemistry of Rift Valley Sediments and Hydrothermal Fluids at the Ultra-Slow Spreading Southern Knipovich Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumberger, T.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Pedersen, R. B.; Thorseth, I. H.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Lilley, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    The rift valley of the ultra-slow spreading southern Knipovich Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea (73°N) is partly buried by a thick sediment cover, as at Middle Valley, Escanaba Trough and Guaymas Basin. These glacial and post-glacial sediments (12000-20000 years) derived from the nearby Bear Island fan likely act as a thermal and hydrogeological boundary to heat and fluid flow and influence hydrothermal fluid compositions. Geochemical studies of the rift valley sediments and the hydrothermal vent fluids of the recently discovered black smoker vent field Loki's Castle provide insights into the influence of the sediment cover on the composition of the hydrothermal fluids at the southern Knipovich Ridge. Here we present an overview of preliminary data on the carbon and sulphur geochemistry of the sedimentary and hydrothermal components at Loki's Castle and compare these with other sedimented and un-sedimented mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. The hydrothermal vent fluids have a pH of 5.5 and are characterized by elevated concentrations of hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia, which reflect a strong sedimentary input. Short gravity cores of the rift valley sediments show relatively constant total carbon contents of approximately 1 wt%, but locally reach up to 4 wt%. Varying carbon isotope compositions reflect a mix of marine carbonates with organic carbon. Extracted sediment pore fluids show an increase in alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations with increasing burial depth. The corresponding δ13CDIC values show a clear depletion with increasing alkalinity and DIC concentrations. The vent fluid compositions and carbon and sulphur isotope geochemistry provide constraints on redox conditions and thermocatalysis of organic carbon during fluid-sediment interaction, and are distinct from un- sedimented mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids.

  4. Sulphur Cycling at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Isotopic Evidence From the Logatchev and Turtle Pits Hydrothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmann, B.; Strauss, H.; Koschinsky, A.; Kuhn, T.; Petersen, S.; Schmidt, K.

    2005-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges and associated hydrothermal vent systems represent a unique scenario in which the interaction of hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere and the related element cycling can be studied. Sulphur participates in inorganic and microbially driven processes and plays, thus, an important role at these vent sites. The sulphur isotopic compositions of different sulphur-bearing minerals as well as dissolved sulphur compounds provide a tool for identifying the sulphur source and pertinent processes of sulphur cycling. Here, we present sulphur isotope data from an ongoing study of the Logatchev hydrothermal field at 14°45' N and the Turtle Pits hydrothermal field at 4°48' S. The former is located in 2900 to 3060 m water depth, hosted by ultramafic rocks, while the latter is situated in 2990 m water depth, hosted by basaltic rocks. Different metal sulphides (chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, various copper sulphides), either particles from the emanating hot fluid itself or pieces of active and inactive black smokers, display δ34S values between +2 and +9 ‰. So far, no significant difference is discernible between mineral precipitates from both hydrothermal fields. However, differences exist between different generations of sulphide precipitates. Based on respective data from other sites of hydrothermal activity at mid-ocean ridges, this sulphur isotope range suggests that sulphur in the hydrothermal fluid and mineral precipitates represents a mixture between mantle sulphur and reduced seawater sulphate. Anhydrite precipitates from hydrothermal chimneys, located inside sulphide conduits, and obvious late stage gypsum needles from voids, yielded sulphur isotope values between +17.5 and +20.0 ‰. This clearly identifies seawater sulphate as the principal sulphur source. Variable, but generally low abundances of sulphide and sulphate in differently altered mafic and ultramafic rocks point to a complex fluid-rock interaction. Sulphur isotope values for total

  5. An Atlantic hydrothermal plume: Trans-Atlantic geotraverse (TAG) area, Mid-Atlantic Ridge crest near 26°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, Peter A.; Speer, Kevin G.

    1989-10-01

    The physical characteristics of an Atlantic hydrothermal plume and its seafloor sources are described from the first data set of water column properties associated with a high-temperature source area at a slow-spreading oceanic ridge. The observations comprise five near-bottom tows of a camera(color video and still)-temperature sensor array through the buoyant portion and 23 conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles through the neutrally buoyant portion of the plume made at the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse Hydrothermal Field in the rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26°08'N, 44°49'W in July 1985. The source area is a mound up to 250 m wide and 50 m high constructed primarily of massive sulfides between depths of 3620 and 3670 m at the base of the east wall. Flow and discharge regimes systematically changed from the center to the edge of the mound. High-temperature black smokers vented at fast rates (>1 m/s) from discrete sulfide chimneys and at slow rates from fractures, and clear solutions vented at slow rates from diffuse sources in the inner zone of the mound; intermediate-temperature blue-white and white smokers vented at slow rates from discrete sulfide/sulfate chimneys, and clear solutions vented from diffuse sources in the middle zone; patchy, diffuse discharge of clear solutions through sulfide talus occurred in the outer zone. The diffuse discharge of clear solutions and the discrete discharge from the white smokers were observed to turbulently rise up to several meters above the seafloor where the discharge was laterally advected in prevailing laminar flow at several centimeters per second. A convective heat flux of 8.8×106 W for only the black smokers that vented from fractures was estimated by applying a buoyant plume model to temperature anomalies measured with the towed array; this value is intermediate between values estimated for entire vent fields at the fast-spreading East Pacific Rise. Discharge from the black smokers rose to form the

  6. Discovery of a new hydrothermal vent based on an underwater, high-resolution geophysical survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kentaro; Toki, Tomohiro; Mochizuki, Nobutatsu; Asada, Miho; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nogi, Yoshifumi; Yoshikawa, Shuro; Miyazaki, Jun-ichi; Okino, Kyoko

    2013-04-01

    A new hydrothermal vent site in the Southern Mariana Trough has been discovered using acoustic and magnetic surveys conducted by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology's (JAMSTEC) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), Urashima. The high-resolution magnetic survey, part of a near-bottom geophysical mapping around a previously known hydrothermal vent site, the Pika site, during the YK09-08 cruise in June-July 2009, found that a clear magnetization low extends ˜500 m north from the Pika site. Acoustic signals, suggesting hydrothermal plumes, and 10 m-scale chimney-like topographic highs were detected within this low magnetization zone by a 120 kHz side-scan sonar and a 400 kHz multibeam echo sounder. In order to confirm the seafloor sources of the geophysical signals, seafloor observations were carried out using the deep-sea manned submersible Shinkai 6500 during the YK 10-10 cruise in August 2010. This discovered a new hydrothermal vent site (12°55.30'N, 143°38.89'E; at a depth of 2922 m), which we have named the Urashima site. This hydrothermal vent site covers an area of approximately 300 m×300 m and consists of black and clear smoker chimneys, brownish-colored shimmering chimneys, and inactive chimneys. All of the fluids sampled from the Urashima and Pika sites have chlorinity greater than local ambient seawater, suggesting subseafloor phase separation or leaching from rocks in the hydrothermal reaction zone. End-member compositions of the Urashima and Pika fluids suggest that fluids from two different sources feed the two sites, even though they are located on the same knoll and separated by only ˜500 m. We demonstrate that investigations on hydrothermal vent sites located in close proximity to one another can provide important insights into subseafloor hydrothermal fluid flow, and also that, while such hydrothermal sites are difficult to detect by conventional plume survey methods, high-resolution underwater geophysical surveys provide an

  7. Hydrothermal Activity and Volcanism on the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, K. M.; Scientific Party, M.

    2005-12-01

    In April 2005 four recently discovered different hydrothermal fields on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) south of the Equator were studied and sampled using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during cruise METEOR 64/1. Three of these hydrothermally active fields (called Turtle Pits, Red Lion, and Wideawake) occur at about 3000 m water depth in the centre of a MAR segment at 4° 48'S which appears to be volcanically very active. The youngest lava flow partly covers the low-temperature, diffuse flow Wideawake mussel field and is thus probably only a few years old. The high-temperature Turtle Pits hydrothermal field with four active vent structures lies some 300 m west of the diffuse vent field and is characterized by boiling fluids with temperatures close to 400° C. The mineral assemblage recovered from inactive hydrothermal mounds includes massive magnetite+hematite+sulfate and differs from that of the presently active vents and indicates more oxidizing conditions during the earlier activity. The vent fluids at Turtle Pits contain relatively high contents of hydrogen which may have formed during iron oxidation processes when basaltic magmas crystallized. The high fluid temperatures, the change to more reducing conditions, and the relatively high hydrogen contents in the fluids are most likely due to the ascent of magmas from the mantle that fed the very recent eruption. The high-temperature Red Lion hydrothermal field lies some 2 km north of the Turtle Pits field and consists of at least four active black smokers surrounded by several inactive sulfide mounds. The composition of the Red Lion fluids differs significantly from the Turtle Pits fluids, possibly owing largely to a difference in the temperature of the two systems. The fourth hydrothermally active field on the southern MAR, the Liliput field, was discovered near 9° 33'S in a water depth of 1500 m and consists of several low-temperature vents. A shallow hydrothermal plume in the water column

  8. The menthol smoker: tobacco industry research on consumer sensory perception of menthol cigarettes and its role in smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-04-01

    The use of menthol in cigarettes is actively promoted by the tobacco industry for its perceived sensory benefits, and smokers of menthol cigarettes commonly differ from nonmenthol smokers in markers of smoking behavior and addiction. In this study, we analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to describe the relationships between sensory perception and the attitudes, preferences, and patterns of cigarette use among menthol smokers. Two unique types of menthol smoker emerged from this analysis: those who cannot tolerate the harshness and irritation associated with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes, and those who seek out the specific menthol flavor and associated physical sensation. Among the first segment of menthol smokers, menthol reduces negative sensory characteristics associated with smoking. This segment of smokers may include a large proportion of occasional smokers or young people, as well as smokers who have "traded down" to a less strong cigarette because of perceived harshness or negative health effects. Some established menthol smokers, on the other hand, appear to be tolerant of and even actively seek stronger sensory attributes, including higher menthol levels. Smokers of these "stronger" menthols have traditionally been disproportionately Black and male. Some beginning or occasional smokers may adopt menthols for their mild properties and to cover up the taste of tobacco, but then develop a stronger desire for the menthol taste over time. Future research measuring smoking behavior and evaluating cessation outcomes of menthol smokers should consider the duration of menthol use and differentiate smokers according to their reasons for using menthols.

  9. Ancient hydrothermal ecosystems on earth: a new palaeobiological frontier.

    PubMed

    Walter, M R

    1996-01-01

    Thermal springs are common in the oceans and on land. Early in the history of the Earth they would have been even more abundant, because of a higher heat flow. A thermophilic lifestyle has been proposed for the common ancestor of extant life, and hydrothermal ecosystems can be expected to have existed on Earth since life arose. Though there has been a great deal of recent research on this topic by biologists, palaeobiologists have done little to explore ancient high temperature environments. Exploration geologists and miners have long known the importance of hydrothermal systems, as they are sources for much of our gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. Such systems are particularly abundant in Archaean and Proterozoic successions. Despite the rarity of systematic searches of these by palaeobiologists, already 12 fossiliferous Phanerozoic deposits are known. Five are 'black smoker' type submarine deposits that formed in the deep ocean and preserve a vent fauna like that in the modern oceans; the oldest is Devonian. Three are from shallow marine deposits of Carboniferous age. As well as 'worm tubes', several of these contain morphological or isotopic evidence of microbial life. The oldest well established fossiliferous submarine thermal spring deposit is Cambro-Ordovician; microorganisms of at least three or four types are preserved in this. One example each of Carboniferous and Jurassic sub-lacustrine fossiliferous thermal springs are known. There are two convincing examples of fossiliferous subaerial hydrothermal deposits. Both are Devonian. Several known Proterozoic and Archaean deposits are likely to preserve a substantial palaeobiological record, and all the indications are that there must be numerous deposits suitable for study. Already it is demonstrable that in ancient thermal spring deposits there is a record of microbial communities preserved as stromatolites, microfossils, isotope distribution patterns and hydrocarbon biomarkers.

  10. Geology, sulfide geochemistry and supercritical venting at the Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Cayman Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.

    2015-09-01

    The Beebe Vent Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known hydrothermal system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" vents that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich sulfide mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of sulfide material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the hydrothermal system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest hydrothermal interaction with chalcophile-bearing sulfides in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for basalt hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.

  11. Smokers Prone to Problems After Joint Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164137.html Smokers Prone to Problems After Joint Replacement: Study Cessation programs help reduce the rate ... that smokers do worse than non-smokers after joint replacements, and now this research shows there's good ...

  12. Hydrothermal flow at Main Endeavour Field imaged and measured with Cable Operated Vent Imaging Sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, P. A.; Bemis, K. G.; Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Jones, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    Initial acoustic monitoring of hydrothermal flow in the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) captures the spatial distribution of diffuse and focused discharge and shows potential for flux determinations. Our Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar (COVIS) was connected to the NEPTUNE Canada Endeavour Observatory in September 2010. Using a customized Reson 7125 multi-beam sonar, COVIS acquired a 29 day time series of black smoker plume and associated diffuse hydrothermal flow from Grotto, a 30 m diameter vent cluster in the MEF, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Detection of the spatial patterns of diffuse flow utilizes phase decorrelation of the acoustic signal (200kHz) by buoyancy-driven turbulence (acoustic scintillation) to produce a time series of maps. Substantial fluctuation in the detected diffuse flow area (0.1 - 18 m^2) was observed over the 29 days of observation, although position remained stable. Acoustic imaging of focused flow (400 kHz) utilizes high volume backscatter (attributed to particles and turbulent sound speed fluctuations) to image in 3D the initial tens of meters of rise of buoyant plumes. Spectral analysis of bending inclination of a strong plume from multiple fast smokers on the NW end of Grotto (north tower) indicates that the dominant modes correspond with the ambient mixed semi-diurnal tide (based on current meter data at a mooring 2.9 km to the north and on a tidal model), with at least one secondary mode attributable to sub-inertial flow related to inflow to the axial valley. A weaker plume from several slower smokers is present on the NE end of Grotto. On first analysis, the bending inclination of the weaker plume appears to be affected by the stronger plume. Quantification of flow velocity and volume flux of plumes begins with measuring the Doppler phase shift through plume cross-sections beginning at 5 m above source vents where discharge merges. The volume flux measurements enable calculation of entrainment coefficients, which prior work on the same

  13. Permeability changes due to mineral diagenesis in fractured crust: implications for hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Fabrice Jh.; Rabinowicz, Michel; Boulègue, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    black or white 'smokers'. We show that the development of this front is independent of the Rayleigh number of the hydrothermal flow, indicating that the mineral precipitation causes cold, diffusive vents. Finally, we present a model suggesting that the development of smokers is possible when successive tectonic/volcanic events produce a network of new permeable fissures that can overcome the permeability decrease caused by mineral precipitation. Such a model is consistent with recent seismic data showing hydrothermal vents located at seismologically active ridge segments.

  14. Direct Measurements of Hydrothermal Heat Output at Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; di Iorio, D.; Genc, G.; Hurt, R. S.; Lowell, R. P.; Holden, J. F.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.

    2009-12-01

    Heat output and fluid flow are key parameters for characterizing seafloor hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers. In particular, they are essential for examining partition of heat and geochemical fluxes between discrete and diffuse flow components. Hydrothermal heat output also constrains permeability of young oceanic crust and thickness of the conductive boundary layer separating hydrothermal circulation from the underlying magmatic heat source. Over the past several years, we have deployed a number of relatively simple devices to make direct measurements of focused and diffuse flow. Most recently, we have used cup anemometer and turbine flow meters to measure fluid flow and heat flux at individual high-temperature vents and diffuse flow sites. The turbine flow meter (Figure 1) includes a titanium rotor assembly housed within a stainless steel tube and supported by sapphire bearings. The device can be used at different seafloor settings for measurements of both diffuse and focused flow. The spin of the rotor blades is videotaped to acquire the angular velocity, which is a function of the flow rate determined through calibration. We report data obtained during four cruises to the Main Endeavor and High Rise vent fields, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR), between 2007 and 2009. Overall more than 50 successful measurements of heat flow have been made on a variety of high-, medium-, and low-temperature hydrothermal sites on the Endeavor, Mothra, and High Rise structures. For example, the velocity of diffuse flow at Endeavor ranged from ~1 to ~10 cm/sec. The flow velocity from black smokers varied from ~10 cm/sec to ~1 m/sec, which appears to be similar to EPR 9°N. Typical measurements of heat flux obtained at JdFR ranged from ~1 kW for diffuse flow to ~1 MW for black smokers. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the data and obtain the integrated heat output for a vent field on JdFR, the data are used to characterize the heat fluxes from individual vent

  15. Stereotyping the smoker: adolescents' appraisals of smokers in film

    PubMed Central

    McCool, J; Cameron, L; Petrie, K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between demographic factors and film smoking stereotypes in adolescents and the potential influence of smoker stereotypes on smoking susceptibility. Design: A cross sectional questionnaire survey of school students (n = 3041) aged 12–13 and 16–17 years who were asked to describe the personal characteristics of female and male smokers in films. Setting: 15 primary or intermediate schools and 10 secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. Results: Appraisals of smokers in film were strongly influenced by age and sex with younger adolescents and males more likely to see female smokers as sexy, intelligent and healthy whereas older students and females more often appraised female smokers as stressed bored and depressed. Overall, image stereotypes (sexy, stylish) were more likely to be significantly associated with smoking susceptibility than emotional sensitivity stereotypes (stressed, depressed etc). Conclusions: Adolescents differ significantly in their appraisal of smokers in films; however, image based stereotypes, rather than emotional sensitivity stereotypes, are significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. PMID:15333889

  16. Rare earth elements as indicators of hydrothermal processes within the East Scotia subduction zone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Catherine S.; James, Rachael H.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Hathorne, Ed C.

    2014-09-01

    The East Scotia subduction zone, located in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, hosts a number of hydrothermal sites in both back-arc and island-arc settings. High temperature (>348 °C) 'black smoker' vents have been sampled at three locations along segments E2 and E9 of the East Scotia back-arc spreading ridge, as well as 'white smoker' (<212 °C) and diffuse (<28 °C) hydrothermal fluids from within the caldera of the Kemp submarine volcano. The composition of the endmember fluids (Mg = 0 mmol/kg) is markedly different, with pH ranging from <1 to 3.4, [Cl-] from ∼90 to 536 mM, [H2S] from 6.7 to ∼200 mM and [F-] from 35 to ∼1000 μM. All of the vent sites are basalt- to basaltic andesite-hosted, providing an ideal opportunity for investigating the geochemical controls on rare earth element (REE) behaviour. Endmember hydrothermal fluids from E2 and E9 have total REE concentrations ranging from 7.3 to 123 nmol/kg, and chondrite-normalised distribution patterns are either light REE-enriched (LaCN/YbCN = 12.8-30.0) with a positive europium anomaly (EuCN/Eu∗CN = 3.45-59.5), or mid REE-enriched (LaCN/NdCN = 0.61) with a negative Eu anomaly (EuCN/Eu∗CN = 0.59). By contrast, fluids from the Kemp Caldera have almost flat REE patterns (LaCN/YbCN = 2.1-2.2; EuCN/Eu∗CN = 1.2-2.2). We demonstrate that the REE geochemistry of fluids from the East Scotia back-arc spreading ridge is variably influenced by ion exchange with host minerals, phase separation, competitive complexation with ligands, and anhydrite deposition, whereas fluids from the Kemp submarine volcano are also affected by the injection of magmatic volatiles which enhances the solubility of all the REEs. We also show that the REE patterns of anhydrite deposits from Kemp differ from those of the present-day fluids, potentially providing critical information about the nature of hydrothermal activity in the past, where access to hydrothermal fluids is precluded.

  17. PGE fractionation in seafloor hydrothermal systems: examples from mafic- and ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal fields at the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašava, Jan; Vymazalová, Anna; Petersen, Sven

    2007-04-01

    The distribution of platinum group elements (PGEs) in massive sulfides and hematite-magnetite±pyrite assemblages from the recently discovered basalt-hosted Turtle Pits hydrothermal field and in massive sulfides from the ultramafic-hosted Logatchev vent field both on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was studied and compared to that from selected ancient volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits. Cu-rich samples from black smoker chimneys of both vent fields are enriched in Pd and Rh (Pd up to 227 ppb and Rh up to 149 ppb) when compared to hematite-magnetite-rich samples from Turtle Pits (Pd up to 10 ppb, Rh up to 1.9 ppb). A significant positive correlation was established between Cu and Rh in sulfide samples from Turtle Pits. PGE chondrite-normalized patterns (with a positive Rh anomaly and Pd and Au enrichment), Pd/Pt and Pd/Au ratios close to global MORB, and high values of Pd/Ir and Pt/Ir ratios indicate mafic source rock and seawater involvement in the hydrothermal system at Turtle Pits. Similarly shaped PGE chondrite-normalized patterns and high values of Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in Cu-rich sulfides at Logatchev likely reflect a similar mechanism of PGE enrichment but with involvement of ultramafic source rocks.

  18. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems.

  19. First Discovery and Investigation of a High-Temperature Hydrothermal Vent Field on the Ultra- Slow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Lin, J.; Guo, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Wu, G.; Han, X.; German, C. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, N.; Su, X.; Baker, E. T.; Party, S.

    2007-12-01

    Two recent cruises on board the Chinese research vessel Dayang Yihao have successfully investigated the first active hydrothermal vent field to be located along the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) and collected hydrothermal sulfide deposit samples. The newly discovered hydrothermal vent field is located on the western end of a magmatically robust spreading segment immediately west of the Gallieni transform fault. Preliminary evidence of strong turbidity anomalies was first measured during a Nov. 2005 cruise on board Dayang Yihao (InterRidge News, vol. 15, pp. 33-34, 2006). Color video footages of the seafloor in the vent-field area were first obtained by a deep-towed video camera in February 2007 during DY115-19 Leg 1, when significant water column turbidity anomalies, noticeable temperature anomalies and methane anomalies were also measured. The vent field was then precisely located, mapped, and photographed in great detail in February- March 2007 during the DY115-19 Leg 2, using the autonomous underwater vehicle ABE of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. A high-resolution bathymetric map, more than 5,000 near-bottom color photos, and several types of water column data were all obtained during three phases of ABE dives. Within the approximately 120-m-long by 100-m-wide hydrothermal field, three groups of active high-temperature vents were identified and color images of black smokers and associated biological communities were obtained from ABE, flying 5 m above the seafloor. Hydrothermal sulfide deposits were then successfully obtained using a TV-guided grab.

  20. First Discovery and Investigation of a High-Temperature Hydrothermal Vent Field on the Ultra- Slow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, C.; Lin, J.; Guo, S.; Chen, Y. J.; Wu, G.; Han, X.; German, C. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, N.; Su, X.; Baker, E. T.; Party, S.

    2004-12-01

    Two recent cruises on board the Chinese research vessel Dayang Yihao have successfully investigated the first active hydrothermal vent field to be located along the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) and collected hydrothermal sulfide deposit samples. The newly discovered hydrothermal vent field is located on the western end of a magmatically robust spreading segment immediately west of the Gallieni transform fault. Preliminary evidence of strong turbidity anomalies was first measured during a Nov. 2005 cruise on board Dayang Yihao (InterRidge News, vol. 15, pp. 33-34, 2006). Color video footages of the seafloor in the vent-field area were first obtained by a deep-towed video camera in February 2007 during DY115-19 Leg 1, when significant water column turbidity anomalies, noticeable temperature anomalies and methane anomalies were also measured. The vent field was then precisely located, mapped, and photographed in great detail in February- March 2007 during the DY115-19 Leg 2, using the autonomous underwater vehicle ABE of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. A high-resolution bathymetric map, more than 5,000 near-bottom color photos, and several types of water column data were all obtained during three phases of ABE dives. Within the approximately 120-m-long by 100-m-wide hydrothermal field, three groups of active high-temperature vents were identified and color images of black smokers and associated biological communities were obtained from ABE, flying 5 m above the seafloor. Hydrothermal sulfide deposits were then successfully obtained using a TV-guided grab.

  1. Continuing Evolution of the Hydrothermal System at the RIDGE2000 ISS, 9-10° N EPR: 1991-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Damm, K. L.; Parker, C. M.; Beers, K. A.; Hyde, A. A.

    2004-12-01

    We have been studying the evolution of the chemical composition of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal system on the East Pacific Rise from 9° 46-51'N since it was impacted by volcanic eruptions in 1991/2. We have been using the chemical and temperature data to infer the processes that are occurring subseafloor in the upper oceanic crust. As of March 2004, the chemical compositions of the vent fluids from this site have not yet stabilized. This observation is helping us to better understand not only the impact of magmatic events on these systems, but also the time scales on which they occur. Centered at the RIDGE2000 ISS "bull's-eye" at 9° 50'N we have noted a striking increase in the number of hydrothermal vents as well as in their measured fluid temperatures beginning after ~2000. In November 2003 we first noted the formation of a black smoker vent at the Tica site (measured T=342° C). In March 2004 we identified another new area of robust flow near the Bio9 vents at 9° 50'N, the 'Alvinellid Mat,' that we anticipate will form an additional black smoker to the three currently active at this site. In March 2004 we measured temperatures of 388° C in fluids from both the Bio9 and Bio9' smokers, putting them essentially on the two phase curve for seawater at this depth. For all of the Bio9 vents, as well as Tica, the fluids contain less than 300 mmoles/kg of Cl, approximately half the local seawater concentration. These high temperature and low Cl concentrations are accompanied by unusually low Si concentrations, <9.5 mmoles/kg. These data suggest a relatively shallow depth of reaction for the fluids, within a few hundred meters of the seafloor. These are the hottest temperatures measured in the Bio9 vents since the eruption in 1992. In contrast, the temperatures at P vent, about 60m south have cooled by ˜15° C since 2002. About 400m south, the chlorinity of the fluids from Ty and Io vents have increased, and Tube Worm Pillar, about 400m further south has

  2. Seafloor hydrothermal clay alteration at Jade in the back-arc Okinawa Trough: Mineralogy, geochemistry and isotope characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Marumo, Katsumi; Hattori, K.H.

    1999-09-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal activity at Jade has resulted in extensive alteration of the host epiclastic sediments and pumiceous tuffs, forming mica, kaolins (kaolinite and halloysite), Mg-rich chlorite, talc, montmorillonite, and a mixed-layer mineral of dioctahedral chlorite and montmorillonite (Chl/Mont). Clay mineral assemblages show a vertical variation, which reflects variable amounts of cold seawater incorporated into hot hydrothermal fluids in subsurface sediments and tuff. However, mixing alone cannot explain the occurrence of abundant kaolin minerals at Jade. The formation of kaolin minerals requires much more acidic fluid than expected from simple mixing of hydrothermal fluids and cold seawater. Low pH values are likely attained by oxidation of H{sub 2}S either dissolved in the hydrothermal fluid or released from the fluid during decompression. The fluid reaching the seafloor is discharged into cold seawater, which caused precipitation of sulfides close to vents and native sulfur and barite at the margins of the vent areas. Halloysite, barite and anhydrite show Sr isotope compositions similar to marine Sr, indicating the derivation of marine Sr directly from seawater or by the dissolution of calcareous nannoplanktons. At Jade, there is only one black smoker actively discharging high temperature ({approximately}320 C) fluid, but there are many fossil sulfide chimneys and mounds in the area. The mineralogy and high Au and Cu in these precipitates suggest highly metalliferous hydrothermal activity in the past. These activities likely resulted in discharge of hydrothermal plumes and fall-outs of sulfides and sulfates on the seafloor. These fall-outs were incorporated in sediments far from the vent areas. They are now recorded as high metal contents in sediments with no petrographic and mineralogical evidence of in-situ hydrothermal activity. Some are high as 8,100 ppm for Cu, 12,500 ppm for Zn, 1,000 ppm for As, 100 ppm for Ag and 21,000 ppm for Pb. Detrital

  3. Geochemical Evidence for Submarine Hydrothermal Activity in the Gulf of Aden, Northwestern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamo, T.; Hasumoto, H.; Okamura, K.; Hatanaka, H.; Mori, M.; Chinen, M.; Tanaka, J.; Komatsu, D.; Tamaki, K.; Fujimoto, H.; Tsunogai, U.; Kouzuma, F.; Hirota, A.

    2001-12-01

    We searched for hydrothermal plumes along spreading axes in the Gulf of Aden, between 45\\deg36'E and 52\\deg42'E, using a CTD multi-water sampling system, mapping water column distributions of light transmission and chemical tracers (Mn, Fe, CH4 etc.) in December 2000 and January 2001. In addition to water sampling for chemical analysis, an in-situ chemical analyzer GAMOS was attached to the CTD-system to conduct tow-yo observations. We found typical hydrothermal plumes (anomalies of light transmission and chemical tracers) at 600-800 m depth over twin peak seamounts (60 miles southeast of Aden) which may be hot spot volcanoes associated with the Afar mantle plume. Strong light transmission anomalies imply the existence of black smoker fluids. The maximum concentrations of Mn, Fe, and CH4 are 46 nM, 251 nM, and 15 nM, respectively. An estimated \\delta13C(CH4) value for an endmember fluid of approximately -15\\permil indicates magmatic CH4 with little contribution of CH4 from organic material decomposition in sediments.

  4. The sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Sarah A.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.; Purdy, G. Michael

    1990-08-01

    High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the caldera wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 10-4Pa2/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. Hie frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities.

  5. Sound field near hydrothermal vents on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, S.A.; Stolzenbach, K.D.; Purdy, G.M.

    1990-08-10

    High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active hydrothermal vent on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring hydrothermal vent activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of vent signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the calders wall. No continuous vent signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 0.0001 Pa sq/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. The frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities. Keywords: Seamounts; Flow noise; Underwater acoustics; Acoustic measurement; Geothermy/noise; Ocean ridges; Underwater sound signals; Reprints; North Pacific Ocean. (EDC).

  6. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  7. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Temporal evolution of magmatic-hydrothermal systems in the Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: Insights from vent fluid chemistry and bathymetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, E. P.; Thal, J.; Schaen, A.; Ono, S.; Seewald, J.; Bach, W.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of hydrothermal fluids from back-arc systems is poorly constrained, despite growing evidence for dynamic magmatic-hydrothermal activity, and imminent commercial mining. Here we discuss surveys of diverse vent fluids from multiple hydrothermal fields in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, sampled in 2006 and 2011. Effects of host rock composition, and dynamic magmatic volatile inputs on fluid chemistry are evaluated to understand changes in these systems. Highly acidic and SO4-rich moderate temperature fluids (~48-215°C), as well as SO4-poor black smoker fluids (up to 358°C), were collected at the PACMANUS, SuSu Knolls and DESMOS areas in 2006 and 2011. Acidic, milky white SuSu and DESMOS fluids, rich in elemental S and SO4, exit the seafloor with Na, K, Mg, and Ca diluted conservatively up to 30% relative to seawater, implying subsurface mixing of seawater with SO2-rich aqueous fluids exsolved from magma, analogous to subaerial fumarole discharge. SO2 disproportionation during cooling and mixing of magmatic fluids contributes acidity, SO4, H2S and S(0)(s), as well as widespread S outcrops on the seafloor. Nearby black smoker fluids indicate entrainment and reaction of magmatic fluid into convecting fluids at depth, and additional hybrid-type fluids appear to consist of evolved seawater and unreacted magmatic fluid SO2 derivatives. Fluids at DESMOS in 2006 indicate increased magmatic SO2 relative to 1995, despite constant low venting temperatures (~120°C). In contrast, dramatic changes in bathymetry and seafloor morphology point to substantial continuous eruption of volcaniclastic material between 2006 and 2011 at SuSu Knolls, burying fumarolic vents from 2006. Compositions of new 2011 acidic, sulfate-rich fluids there suggest reaction with less altered, fresher rock. At the PACMANUS area, farther from the arc, direct magmatic degassing to the seafloor is not occurring presently, but entrainment and reaction of similar acid

  9. Temperature variation records at diffuse and focused outflow in Lucky Strike hydrothermal field: toward a characterization of the outflow dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, T.; Escartin, J.; Sohn, R. A.; Cannat, M.; Ballu, V.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity along mid-ocean ridges accounts for a large proportion of the Earth's heat loss, but the space-time variation of both heat and chemical fluxes of venting at individual sites remains largely unconstrained. As part of the MOMAR experiment to monitor hydrothermal activity, we used an ROV to deploy autonomous temperatures sensors at black smoker chimneys, cracks, and diffuse flow areas throughout the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, ~37°17'N) between summer 2009 and summer 2012. We deployed a set of high- and low-temperature thermal probes (<350°C and <125°C respectively) sampling at intervals that varied from <1 min to 24 min. Microseismicity and bottom pressure was also recorded with an ocean bottom seismometer network and a pressure gauge. We place particular emphasis on temporal variability at semi-diurnal tidal periods, and use poroelastic theory to constrain hydrologic parameters of the sub-surface circulation system. We identify two main types of temporal variability in the temperature records : (1) episodic variability with rapid temperature changes of ~5-150°C over time periods of few hours to several days, and (2) systematic variability at tidal periods with amplitudes ranging from a few tens of a degree to a few degrees, depending largely on mean outflow temperature. The episodic variability is stochastic (i.e., typically not correlated between mutitple probes among vents at the scale of the site), and does not appear to be correlated with local nor regional seismicity. The episodic events are observed primarily in diffuse flow records. The lack of spatial and temporal correlation of these events among probes, even at distances of <5 m within the same mound, suggests that they represent episodes of seawater mixing within the shallowmost crust underlying individual vents, or within the hydrothermal edifice itself. Most temperature records display systematic tide-related variability, with the strongest signal at

  10. Culture dependent and independent analyses of 16S rRNA and ATP citrate lyase genes: a comparison of microbial communities from different black smoker chimneys on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Voordeckers, James W; Do, My H; Hügler, Michael; Ko, Vivian; Sievert, Stefan M; Vetriani, Costantino

    2008-09-01

    The bacterial and archaeal communities of three deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR; Rainbow, Logatchev and Broken Spur) were investigated using an integrated culture-dependent and independent approach. Comparative molecular phylogenetic analyses, using the 16S rRNA gene and the deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes were carried out on natural microbial communities, on an enrichment culture obtained from the Broken Spur chimney, and on novel chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and reference strains originally isolated from several different deep-sea vents. Our data showed that the three MAR hydrothermal vent chimneys investigated in this study host very different microbial assemblages. The microbial community of the Rainbow chimney was dominated by thermophilic, autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur- and nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria related to the genus Caminibacter. The detection of sequences related to sulfur-reducing bacteria and archaea (Archaeoglobus) indicated that thermophilic sulfate reduction might also be occurring at this site. The Logatchev bacterial community included several sequences related to mesophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, while the archaeal component of this chimney was dominated by sequences related to the ANME-2 lineage, suggesting that anaerobic oxidation of methane may be occurring at this site. Comparative analyses of the ATP citrate lyase encoding genes from natural microbial communities suggested that Epsilonproteobacteria were the dominant primary producers using the reverse TCA cycle (rTCA) at Rainbow, while Aquificales of the genera Desulfurobacterium and Persephonella were prevalent in the Broken Spur chimney.

  11. Investigations of a novel fauna from hydrothermal vents along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic deep ocean hosts a variety of habitats ranging from fairly uniform sedimentary abyssal plains to highly variable hard bottoms on mid ocean ridges, including biodiversity hotspots like seamounts and hydrothermal vents. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna, and since their discovery in 1977 more than 400 species of animals have been described. This fauna includes various animal groups of which the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. The newly discovered deep sea hydrothermal vents on the Mohns-Knipovich ridge north of Iceland harbour unique biodiversity. The Jan Mayen field consists of two main areas with high-temperature white smoker venting and wide areas with low-temperature seepage, located at 5-700 m, while the deeper Loki Castle vent field at 2400 m depth consists of a large area with high temperature black smokers surrounded by a sedimentary area with more diffuse low-temperature venting and barite chimneys. The Jan Mayen sites show low abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups have a few specialized representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas are absent. Slightly more than 200 macrofaunal species have been identified from this vent area, comprising mainly an assortment of bathyal species known from the surrounding area. Analysis of stable isotope data also indicates that the majority of the species present are feeding on phytodetritus and/or phytoplankton. However, the deeper Loki Castle vent field contains a much more diverse vent endemic fauna with high abundances of specialized polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. These specializations also include symbioses with a range of chemosynthetic microorganisms. Our data show that the fauna composition is a result of high degree of local specialization with some similarities to the fauna of cold seeps along the Norwegian margin and wood-falls in the abyssal Norwegian Sea

  12. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    PubMed

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3-7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  13. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    PubMed Central

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05). Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05). Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  14. Measuring fluid flow and heat output in seafloor hydrothermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, Leonid N.; Hurt, Robert S.; Smith, Joshua E.; Genc, Gence; Lowell, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    We review techniques for measuring fluid flow and advective heat output from seafloor hydrothermal systems and describe new anemometer and turbine flowmeter devices we have designed, built, calibrated, and tested. These devices allow measuring fluid velocity at high- and low-temperature focused and diffuse discharge sites at oceanic spreading centers. The devices perform at ocean floor depths and black smoker temperatures and can be used to measure flow rates ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Flow velocity is determined from the rotation rate of the rotor blades or paddle assembly. These devices have an open bearing design that eliminates clogging by particles or chemical precipitates as the fluid passes by the rotors. The devices are compact and lightweight enough for deployment from either an occupied or remotely operated submersible. The measured flow rates can be used in conjunction with vent temperature or geochemical measurements to obtain heat outputs or geochemical fluxes from both vent chimneys and diffuse flow regions. The devices have been tested on 30 Alvin dives on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and 3 Jason dives on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). We measured an anomalously low entrainment coefficient (0.064) and report 104 new measurements over a wide range of discharge temperatures (5°-363°C), velocities (2-199 cm/s), and depths (1517-2511 m). These include the first advective heat output measurements at the High Rise vent field and the first direct fluid flow measurement at Middle Valley. Our data suggest that black smoker heat output at the Main Endeavour vent field may have declined since 1994 and that after the 2005-2006 eruption, the high-temperature advective flow at the EPR 9°50'N field may have become more channelized, predominately discharging through the Bio 9 structure. We also report 16 measurements on 10 Alvin dives and 2 Jason dives with flow meters that predate devices described in this work and were used in the process of their development

  15. Dual-scale hydrothermal circulation inferred from detailed heat flow measurements in the Suiyo Seamount Hydrothermal System, Izu-Bonin Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomado, M.; Kinoshita, M.

    2002-12-01

    Hydrothermal activity within the caldera of Suiyo Seamount was investigated in detail using manned or remotely-operated submersibles, and by deep-tow imagery and seismic surveys. Hydrothermal regime in the Suiyo-seamount is characterized by a geochemically uniform fluid, shallow reservoir depth, very permeable seafloor, and venting without creating big chimneys. Detailed heat flow surveys were carried out through four research cruises conducted in 2001-2002. Geothermal probes, called SAHF (Stand-Alone Heat Flow) meter, are 1m in length, and five thermistors are installed at 11-12 cm intervals. Heat flow is highest (> 10 W/m2) within the active area. These values were obtained close to black smokers, thus are affected by the venting or very shallow reservoirs. To the east, heat flow is uniform around 4 W/m2. Since there were no indications of discharge, this area is dominated by thermal conduction, and its heat source would be a hydrothermal reservoir capped by some impermeable layer. To the west, we detected very low heat flow values of less than 0.3 W/m2, only several tens of meters away from the active area. A similar heat flow anomaly was detected in the TAG hyudrothermal mound of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Becker et al., 1996). We penetrated at 1-2 m away from two isolated active sulfide mounds. At both sites subbottom temperatures were about 40 degC at 10-20 cm depth, then they decreased to about 20 degC at 30-40cm. The temperature reversals suggest a meter-scale hydrothermal circulation, where a hot fluid discharges as a branch flow from the main vent to the mound. An impermeable structure of the mound and a permeable sediment surrounding the mound would make this very local circulation possible. We suggest a dual scale hydrothermal circulation system, one with several meters scale, and the other with few tens of meters scale. The former would be driven by a suction created by discrete venting of high temperature fluid, and the latter is a regional

  16. Discovery of hydrothermally active and extinct talc mounds on the Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, M.; Murton, B. J.; Roberts, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1977, hydrothermal vents have been the subject of intense scientific interest due to their role in cooling the oceanic crust and global geochemical cycles. Until now, two types of hydrothermal system have been identified: one, driven by magmatic heat extruding ';black smoker' fluids; and another, involving serpentinisation of ultramafic rocks and the precipitation of carbonate/brucite chimneys. Here, we present details of a new, off-axis type of hydrothermal system consisting of mounds of predominately botryoidal talc (a magnesium-silicate) with accessory silica and copper sulphides, and chimneys exhaling fluids of moderate temperature and pH. Discovered on the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) in 2010, the Von Damm Vent Field (VDVF) features a NNW-ESE-trending line of four overlapping cones, the largest of which is 75 m high by 150 m in diameter. The VDVF is hosted in the gabbroic footwall of the Mount Dent Oceanic Core Complex (MDOCC), which includes serpentinised peridotite at depth. The largest cone vents clear fluids from two main orifices at its summit, with primary temperatures of 215°C. Elsewhere, both focussed and diffuse flow areas emit fluids with temperatures of up to 150°C. The surrounding ~1 m thick pelagic sediment contains abundant pockmarks that emit methane-rich fluids at temperatures of less than 10°C. During the return to the MCR in early 2013, several other talc mounds were discovered within a kilometre of the active VDVF. These inactive mounds also comprise an assemblage of botryoidal talc, silica, disseminated sulphides (including chalcopyrite) and sulphates. One of these mounds (Mystic Mount) is double the volume of the active VDVF. The unique dominance of talc as the major mineral forming the hydrothermal structures indicates unusual vent fluid compositions that are able to carry both copper (at high-temperatures) and precipitate magnesium silicate. Thermodynamic modelling indicates that talc precipitates on mixing a moderately acidic, silica

  17. Hydrothermal plumes over spreading ridges and related deposits in the northeast Pacific Ocean: The East Pacific Rise near 11 degrees north and 21 degrees north, Explorer Ridge and J. Tuzo Wilson Seamounts

    SciTech Connect

    McConachy, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrothermal plumes emanating from hot springs over spreading ridges in the north east Pacific Ocean have been mapped and sampled using the submersible ALVIN and equipment deployed from surface ships. The geologic setting and polymetallic sulfides of the vent field producing the hydrothermal plume at 11{degree}N have also been examined. At 11{degree}N, two distinct metalliferous components are delivered to the intermediate to far-field from high temperature black smoker discharge as a result of the physical and chemical processes that occur in the lower 32 m of the plume. About 60 volume % of this material is estimated to settle within a 6-km-radius of the vent field, based on the results of SEM-IPS grain-size analyses and their application to a published particle settling model. The second component delivered to the far-field consists of the remaining 40 volume % of fine-grained sulfides and non-sulfides, 10% of dissolved Fe which will eventually precipitate as oxyhydroxides, and {>=} 80% of the hydrothermally injected Mn, Si, and probably Ba. At 21{degree} N by contrast, only 20 volume % of the smoke particles is conservatively estimated to settle within a 8-km-radius of the NGS vent due to their finer grain size and a higher terminal height of the buoyant hydrothermal plume.

  18. Seafloor Hydrothermal Activity in the Southern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Lundsten, L.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Troni, G.; Wheat, C. G.; Spelz, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Active hydrothermal venting was previously unknown between Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the East Pacific Rise. MBARI AUV surveys and ROV dives in 2012 and 2015 discovered 7 hydrothermal vent sites with diverse and varied vent communities within that gap. One field in the Pescadero Basin vents clear shimmering fluids at 3685 m depth and four vigorous black smoker fields and several extinct chimney fields are between 2225 and 2400 m depth on the Alarcón Rise. Low-temperature vent sites are present on both of the Pescadero and Tamayo Transforms. The chimneys were discovered in 1-m resolution AUV bathymetric data, with some indicated to be active based on temperature anomalies in the AUV CTD data and confirmed during later ROV dives. The low-temperature vent sites on the transform faults were found on ROV dives while exploring young lava flows and sediment hills uplifted by sill intrusions. Pescadero Basin is a deep extensional basin in the southern Gulf. The smooth, subtly faulted floor is filled with at least 150 m of sediment, as determined from sub-bottom profiles collected by the AUV. Three large chimneys (named Auka by our Mexican collaborators) and several broad mounds are located on the SW margin of the basin. Temperatures to 290°C were measured, the fluids are clear, neutral pH, and contain elevated Na. The chimneys are delicate, white, predominantly Ca-carbonate; barite, sparse sulfides, and some aromatic hydrocarbons are also present. Three active vent fields (Ja Sít, Pericú, and Meyibó) at Alarcón Rise are located near the eruptive fissure of an extensive young sheet flow. The fourth field (Tzab-ek) is 1.1 km NW of the axis on older pillow lavas. The largest chimneys are in the Tzab-ek field: 31 and 33 m tall, with flanges and upside-down waterfalls. They rise from a sulfide mound, suggesting a long-lived hydrothermal system, in contrast to the near-axis fields where the chimneys grow directly on basalt. The Alarcón chimneys are Zn and Cu-rich sulfides

  19. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than

  20. The Discovery of New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more complex than

  1. Geology of a vigorous hydrothermal system on the Endeavour segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, J.R.; Robigou, V.; McDuff, R.E. ); Tivey, M.K. )

    1992-12-10

    A high-precision, high-resolution geologic map explicitly documents relationships between tectonic features and large steep-sided, sulfide-sulfate-silica deposits in the vigorously venting Endeavour hydrothermal field near the northern end of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Location of the most massive sulfide structures appears to be controlled by intersections of ridge-parallel normal faults and other fracture-fissure sets that trend oblique to, and perpendicular to the overall structural fabric of the axial valley. As presently mapped, the field is about 200 by 400 m on a side and contains at least 15 large (> 1,000 m[sup 3]) sulfide edifices and many tens of smaller, commonly inactive, sulfide structures. The larger sulfide structures are also the most vigorously venting features in the field; they are commonly more than 30 m in diameter and up to 20 m in height. Maximum venting temperatures of 375[degrees]C are associated with the smaller structures in the northern portion of the field are consistently 20[degrees]-30[degrees]C lower. Hydrothermal output from individual active sulfide features varies from no flow in the lower third of the edifice to vigorous output from fracture-controlled black smoker activity near the top of the structures. Two types of diffuse venting in the Endeavour field include a lower temperature 8[degrees]-15[degrees]C output through colonies of large tubeworms and 25[degrees]-50[degrees]C vent fluid that seems to percolate through the tops of overhanging flanges. The large size and steep-walled nature of these structures evidently results from sustained venting in a mature hydrothermal system, coupled with dual mineral depositional mechanisms involving vertical growth by accumulation of chimney sulfide debris and lateral growth by means of flange development.

  2. Ulcerative colitis in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Guillermo; Beltrán, Belén

    2011-06-14

    Smoking is a major environmental factor that interferes in the establishment and clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC). Firstly, the risk of smoking status impact in the development of UC is reviewed, showing that current smoking has a protective association with UC. Similarly, being a former smoker is associated with an increased risk of UC. The concept that smoking could have a role in determining the inflammatory bowel disease phenotype is also discussed. Gender may also be considered, as current smoking delays disease onset in men but not in women. No clear conclusions can be driven from the studies trying to clarify whether childhood passive smoking or prenatal smoke exposure have an influence on the development of UC, mainly due to methodology flaws. The influence of smoking on disease course is the second aspect analysed. Some studies show a disease course more benign in smokers that in non-smokers, with lower hospitalizations rates, less flare-ups, lower use of oral steroids and even less risk of proximal extension. This is not verified by some other studies. Similarly, the rate of colectomy does not seem to be determined by the smoking status of the patient. The third issue reviewed is the use of nicotine as a therapeutic agent. The place of nicotine in the treatment of UC is unclear, although it could be useful in selected cases, particularly in recent ex-smokers with moderate but refractory attacks of UC. Finally, the effect of smoking cessation in UC patients is summarised. Given that smoking represents a major worldwide cause of death, for inpatients with UC the risks of smoking far outweigh any possible benefit. Thus, physicians should advise, encourage and assist UC patients who smoke to quit.

  3. Subaqueous cryptodome eruption, hydrothermal activity and related seafloor morphologies on the andesitic North Su volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thal, Janis; Tivey, Maurice; Yoerger, Dana R.; Bach, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    North Su is a double-peaked active andesite submarine volcano located in the eastern Manus Basin of the Bismarck Sea that reaches a depth of 1154 m. It hosts a vigorous and varied hydrothermal system with black and white smoker vents along with several areas of diffuse venting and deposits of native sulfur. Geologic mapping based on ROV observations from 2006 and 2011 combined with morphologic features identified from repeated bathymetric surveys in 2002 and 2011 documents the emplacement of a volcanic cryptodome between 2006 and 2011. We use our observations and rock analyses to interpret an eruption scenario where highly viscous, crystal-rich andesitic magma erupted slowly into the water-saturated, gravel-dominated slope of North Su. An intense fragmentation process produced abundant blocky clasts of a heterogeneous magma (olivine crystals within a rhyolitic groundmass) that only rarely breached through the clastic cover onto the seafloor. Phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions beneath the seafloor cause mixing of juvenile and pre-existing lithic clasts and produce a volcaniclastic deposit. This volcaniclastic deposit consists of blocky, non-altered clasts next, variably (1-100%) altered clasts, hydrothermal precipitates and crystal fragments. The usually applied parameters to identify juvenile subaqueous lava fragments, i.e. fluidal shape or chilled margin, were not applicable to distinguish between pre-existing non-altered clasts and juvenile clasts. This deposit is updomed during further injection of magma and mechanical disruption. Gas-propelled turbulent clast-recycling causes clasts to develop variably rounded shapes. An abundance of blocky clasts and the lack of clasts typical for the contact of liquid lava with water is interpreted to be the result of a cooled, high-viscosity, crystal-rich magma that failed as a brittle solid upon stress. The high viscosity allows the lava to form blocky and short lobes. The pervasive volcaniclastic cover on North Su is

  4. Hydrothermal Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.; Havig, J.; Windman, T.; Meyer-Dombard, D.; Michaud, A.; Hartnett, H.

    2006-12-01

    Life in hot spring ecosystems is confronted with diverse challenges, and the responses to those challenges have dynamic biogeochemical consequences over narrow spatial and temporal scales. Within meters along hot spring outflow channels at Yellowstone, temperatures drop from boiling, and the near-boiling conditions of hot chemolithotrophic communities, to those that permit photosynthesis and on down to conditions where nematodes and insects graze on the edges of photosynthetic mats. Many major and trace element concentrations change only mildly in the water that flows through the entire ecosystem, while concentrations of other dissolved constituents (oxygen, sulfide, ammonia, total organic carbon) increase or decrease dramatically. Concentrations of metals and micronutrients range from toxic to inadequate for enzyme synthesis depending on the choice of hot spring. Precipitation of minerals may provide continuous growth of microbial niches, while dissolution and turbulent flow sweeps them away. Consequently, microbial communities change at the meter scale, and even more abruptly at the photosynthetic fringe. Isotopic compositions of carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass reflect dramatic and continuous changes in metabolic strategies throughout the system. Chemical energy sources that support chemolithotrophic communities can persist at abundant or useless levels, or change dramatically owing to microbial activity. The rate of temporal change depends on the selection of hot spring systems for study. Some have changed little since our studies began in 1999. Others have shifted by two or more units in pH over several years, with corresponding changes in other chemical constituents. Some go through daily or seasonal desiccation cycles, and still others exhibit pulses of changing temperature (up to 40°C) within minutes. Taken together, hydrothermal ecosystems provide highly manageable opportunities for testing how biogeochemical processes respond to the scale of

  5. The Case for a Smoker's License

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a “smoker's license” and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic—the tobacco industry—and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor. PMID:23152726

  6. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter from Deep-sea Floor Hydrothermal Vents in South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, F.; Yamanaka, T.

    2004-12-01

    In South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center, a few active hydrothermal fields are located. We investigated a characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from hydrothermal vents in this area, in order to clarify the biosphere beneath deep-sea floor. Hot water sample was collected from a drilled hole (APM01 located in Fryer site, 12o 55.22fN, 143o 37.16fE, depth 2850m) during the ROPOS/TN167A cruise in March 2004. The hole had been drilled during Hakurei-Maru 2 cruise in January 2004. Another hot water sample was collected from a natural black smoker located in Pika site (12o 55.15fN, 143o 36.96fE, depth 2773m) during YK03-09 cruise. In this investigation, we developed a standalone filtration system in order to collect and enrich dissolved organic matter of quite low concentration. This system was designed to be put near hydrothermal vents for at least 24h. This system has an ODS disk (EmporeTM High Performance Extraction Disk C18 90mmφ) with a pre-filter (Whatman GMF 1 μ)m filter paper) to adsorb dilute organics. We collected DOM from the APM01 casing pipe for about 30h (Tmax = 25-30 o C, the estimated volume of filtrated water is max. 300L) using this filtration system. Adsorbed organics were eluted with methanol for 12h twice and toluene once using soxhlet extractor. Recovered amounts of methanol eluents are 72.8mg for APM01, and 89.7mg for the black smoker. Prior to GCMS analysis, we carried out high resolution 1 H-NMR measurement (400MHz), together with the DOM samples collected from the Suiyo Seamount in July-August 2001 and August 2002. Most of the samples show signals in the region of 3-4 ppm, and the samples from the vents of relatively low temperatures (APM01 and AP04: the natural vent at the Suiyo Seamount, temperature 8-48o C ) show signals also in the region of 0.8-1.6 ppm.

  7. Variations in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in smokers.

    PubMed

    Castleden, C M; Cole, P V

    1974-12-28

    Three experiments on smokers have been performed to determine variations in blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) throughout the day and night and whether a random measurement of COHb gives a true estimation of a smoker's mean COHb level. In the individual smoker the COHb level does not increase gradually during the day but is kept within relatively narrow limits. Moderately heavy smokers rise in the morning with a substantially raised COHb level because the half life of COHb is significantly longer during sleep than during the day. Women excrete their carbon monoxide faster than men. A random COHb estimation gives a good indication of the mean COHb level of an individual.

  8. Barite in hydrothermal environments as a recorder of subseafloor processes: a multiple-isotope study from the Loki's Castle vent field.

    PubMed

    Eickmann, B; Thorseth, I H; Peters, M; Strauss, H; Bröcker, M; Pedersen, R B

    2014-07-01

    Barite chimneys are known to form in hydrothermal systems where barium-enriched fluids generated by leaching of the oceanic basement are discharged and react with seawater sulfate. They also form at cold seeps along continental margins, where marine (or pelagic) barite in the sediments is remobilized because of subseafloor microbial sulfate reduction. We test the possibility of using multiple sulfur isotopes (δ34S, Δ33S, ∆36S) of barite to identify microbial sulfate reduction in a hydrothermal system. In addition to multiple sulfur isotopes, we present oxygen (δ18O) and strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotopes for one of numerous barite chimneys in a low-temperature (~20 °C) venting area of the Loki's Castle black smoker field at the ultraslow-spreading Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR). The chemistry of the venting fluids in the barite field identifies a contribution of at least 10% of high-temperature black smoker fluid, which is corroborated by 87Sr/86 Sr ratios in the barite chimney that are less radiogenic than in seawater. In contrast, oxygen and multiple sulfur isotopes indicate that the fluid from which the barite precipitated contained residual sulfate that was affected by microbial sulfate reduction. A sulfate reduction zone at this site is further supported by the multiple sulfur isotopic composition of framboidal pyrite in the flow channel of the barite chimney and in the hydrothermal sediments in the barite field, as well as by low SO4 and elevated H2S concentrations in the venting fluids compared with conservative mixing values. We suggest that the mixing of ascending H2- and CH4-rich high-temperature fluids with percolating seawater fuels microbial sulfate reduction, which is subsequently recorded by barite formed at the seafloor in areas where the flow rate is sufficient. Thus, low-temperature precipitates in hydrothermal systems are promising sites to explore the interactions between the geosphere and biosphere in order to evaluate the microbial impact on

  9. EVALUATION OF CLINICAL PERIODONTAL CONDITIONS IN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Luzzi, Lucinara Ignez Tavares; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; Passanezi, Euloir; Sant'ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Cestari, Tânia Mary

    2007-01-01

    Given that tobacco smoking habit is a risk factor for periodontal diseases, the aim of this study was to compare clinical periodontal aspects between smokers and non-smokers. The clinical status were assessed in 55 patients, 29 smokers and 26 non-smokers, aged 30 to 50 years, with mean age of 40. The clinical parameters used were: probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (GR) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) for arches (upper and lower) and teeth (anterior and posterior). Tooth loss was also evaluated in both groups. Multiple regression analysis showed: tendency of greater probing depth and clinical attachment level means for smokers; greater amount of plaque in smokers in all regions; greater gingival index means for non-smokers with clinical significance (p<0.05) in all regions. Although, without statistical significance, the analysis showed greater gingival bleeding index means almost always for non-smokers; similar gingival recession means in both groups and tendency of upper tooth loss in smokers and lower tooth loss in non-smokers. The findings of this study showed that clinical periodontal parameters may be different in smokers when compared to non-smokers and that masking of some periodontal signs can be a result of nicotine's vasoconstrictor effect. PMID:19089190

  10. The Chemistry of Hydrothermal Plumes Along the Galapagos Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Baker, E.; Lebon, G.; Walker, S.; Haymon, R.; Nakamura, K.; Lupton, J.

    2006-12-01

    During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 300 n.m.-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot between 94.5° and 89.5°W. Hydrothermal plumes were located by placing a variety of sensors on the clump weight of the DSL-120, which was towed approximately 100 m above the seafloor. These sensors included the vents in situ analyzer (nee SUAVE), which measured Fe, Mn, and pH; a redox potential (Eh) sensor; an optical backscatter sensor; a METs methane analyzer; and a CTD. These sensors were uploaded in real time allowing us to monitor for plumes during the tow. In addition, the tow line of the DSL-120 carried a vertical array of optical backscatter sensors (MAPRs). Almost all of the plumes found were identified solely from the data uploaded to the ship in real time and were confirmed from the vertical MAPR array. The MAPR array provided information on the rise height and vertical extent of the plumes. Many plumes were then also located and sampled by vertical and towed CTD hydrocasts. The CTD hydrocast samples were sampled for Fe, Mn, pH, helium isotopes, methane, and total suspended matter composition. Many of the plumes were characterized by fairly low amounts of total dissolved metals and variable Fe:Mn ratios. Plumes over the discovered black smoker vents carried elevated total dissolved metals and Fe:Mn ratios typical of other midocean ridge plumes. Data will be presented on the chemical makeup of the plumes from the sensors on the DSL-120 clump weight and from the CTD hydrocast samples.

  11. A survey of smoking and quitting patterns among black Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Orleans, C T; Schoenbach, V J; Salmon, M A; Strecher, V J; Kalsbeek, W; Quade, D; Brooks, E F; Konrad, T R; Blackmon, C; Watts, C D

    1989-01-01

    A sample of adult Black policyholders of the nation's largest Black-owned life insurance company was surveyed in 1986 to add to limited data on smoking and quitting patterns among Black Americans, and to provide direction for cessation initiatives targeted to Black smokers. Forty per cent of 2,958 age-eligible policyholders for whom current addresses were available returned a completed questionnaire. Population estimates for smoking status agree closely with national estimates for Blacks age 21-60 years: 50 per cent never-smokers; 36 per cent current smokers; 14 per cent ex-smokers. Current and ex-smokers reported a modal low-rate/high nicotine menthol smoking pattern. Current smokers reported a mean of 3.8 serious quit attempts, a strong desire and intention to quit smoking, and limited past use of effective quit smoking treatments and self-help resources. Correlates of motivation to quit smoking were similar to those found among smokers in the general population, including smoking-related illnesses and medical advice to quit smoking, previous quit attempts, beliefs in smoking-related health harms/quitting benefits, and expected social support for quitting. Methodological limitations and implications for the design of needed Black-focused quit smoking initiatives are discussed. PMID:2913836

  12. Contingencies for change in complacent smokers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Morral, Andrew R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Javors, Martin A; Galbicka, Gregory; Iguchi, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The majority of smokers have no plans to quit in the near future. These complacent smokers are less likely to quit than other smokers, and few interventions are known to reduce smoking in this population. Although monetary incentives can reduce complacent smokers' breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels, it is not clear whether these effects can be sustained beyond the several weeks that past studies have examined. The authors compared complacent smokers randomly assigned to receive incentives for BCO reductions (n=18) or noncontingent incentives (n=19) for 3 months. Contingent incentives were associated with (a) reduced BCO; (b) more BCO samples indicative of abstinence; (c) fewer cigarettes smoked and more days abstinent at study end; and (d) lower salivary cotinine. These behaviors can predict future cessation, and 2 of the 18 smokers (11%) receiving BCO-contingent incentives reported quitting as compared with none in the control group. Contingency management procedures, such as those used here, may effectively promote cessation among complacent smokers and provide a model for understanding the possible effects of some environmental interventions (like workplace smoking bans) on the behavior of complacent smokers.

  13. Adaptive angiogenesis in placentas of heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Pfarrer, C; Macara, L; Leiser, R; Kingdom, J

    1999-07-24

    Smoking in pregnancy increases perinatal morbidity and mortality, suggesting impaired placental function, though placental weight is increased. We used scanning electron microscopy to show adaptive angiogenesis in term placental villi from smokers (n=4) and non-smokers (n=4). These images may aid communication of the dangers of smoking in pregnancy.

  14. Imaging and Quantifying Seafloor HydrothermaL Flow Using Sound and Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rona, P. A.; Bemis, K. G.; Jones, C. D.; Jackson, D. R.; Mitsuzawa, K.; Silver, D.

    2006-05-01

    We are developing and applying methods using acoustics and light to image and measure seafloor hydrothermal flow in order to advance understanding of the role of this flow in mass and energy transfer. We show, with examples from the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the capabilities we have developed and applied in acoustic imaging of hydrothermal flows. These capabilities include reconstructing in 3-D and measuring scalar and vector properties of buoyant plumes of black smokers, mapping areas of diffuse flow, and monitoring these hydrothermal flows on scales from individual vents, to vent clusters, and eventually to entire hydrothermal fields. 1. Hydrothermal plumes: Our acoustic imaging of buoyant hydrothermal plumes is based on intensity of backscatter primarily from suspended metallic mineral particles that are small relative to the wavelength of the acoustic frequency of pulses projected from a sonar transducer (~1 cm at 200 to 330 kHz; particle diameter 1-1000 microns): (a) Scalar properties of plume: Specialized software is used to construct a centerline as a reference for the distribution of properties within a plume and to measure scalar properties as defined in a time-integrated buoyant plume model. These properties include mass and distribution of suspended particulate matter, volume, surface and cross-sectional area and shape, radius with altitude above a vent, connectivity of constituent parts, and degree of bending. (b)Vector properties of plume: Doppler algorithms are used to measure flow velocity in sonar line-of-sight cross-sections with a geometric correction to obtain mean vertical velocity with altitude on the assumption that net velocity in a buoyant plume is vertical. 2. Diffuse flow: Our AST (Acoustic Scintillation Thermography) method uses echo-to echo correlation to detect distortion by index-of-refraction fluctuations of consecutive pings as they pass through warm water and reflect back from the seafloor to a sonar

  15. Integrated Fe- and S-isotope study of seafloor hydrothermal vents at East Pacific Rise 9-10°N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rouxel, O.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Bach, W.; Edwards, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    differences between δ56Fe values in both high-temperature, Fe-rich black smokers and lower-temperature, Fe-depleted vents.

  16. Global synthesis and analysis of deep-sea hydrothermal time-series data: Toward a characterization of the outflow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, T.; Sohn, R. A.; Crone, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Time-series records of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluid properties and flow rates have the potential to help constrain the hydrogeology, subsurface circulation patterns, heat, mass, and chemical fluxes, and habitat conditions within young oceanic crust. This potential has motivated a concerted international effort to acquire such records from a variety of geologically distinct vent fields at numerous locations along the mid-ocean ridge system. However up until now, the global database has not been systematically explored. These records have only been analyzed in a piecemeal fashion, which is problematic because hydrothermal time-series records from individual sites typically exhibit enigmatic modes of episodic and periodic variability that are difficult to interpret in isolation. In this study, we conduct a systematic analysis of the extant set of hydrothermal time-series records from several mid-ocean ridge sites where observatory-style experiments have been conducted (including, LSHF, TAG, EPR 9°50'N and MEF). We show that most temperature records, regardless of location or geological setting, display systematic tide-related variability, with the strongest signal at the principal semidiurnal tidal periods (M2, S2, N2 and K2). Cross-spectral multi-taper methods applied to the temperature and bottom pressure records reveal robust phase relationships, particularly for the high-temperature, black-smoker records, as predicted by poroelastic theory. These results suggest that tidal pressures diffusely propagate through the formation, perturbing fluid velocities and temperatures, resulting in phase lags between the seafloor loading and the exit-fluid temperatures. Here, we use multi-layer analytical and numerical models to constrain the subseafloor permeability, skin depth, and Darcy velocities required to explain the phase lag observations.

  17. Patterns of airway inflammation and MMP-12 expression in smokers and ex-smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Babusyte, Agne; Stravinskaite, Kristina; Jeroch, Jolanta; Lötvall, Jan; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Sitkauskiene, Brigita

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking activates and recruits inflammatory cells and proteases to the airways. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 may be a key mediator in smoke induced emphysema. However, the influence of smoking and its cessation on airway inflammation and MMP-12 expression during COPD is still unknown. We aimed to analyse airway inflammatory cell patterns in induced sputum (IS) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from COPD patients who are active smokers and who have ceased smoking >2 years ago. Methods 39 COPD outpatients – smokers (n = 22) and ex-smokers (n = 17) were studied. 8 'healthy' smokers and 11 healthy never-smokers were tested as the control groups. IS and BAL samples were obtained for differential and MMP-12+-macrophages count analysis. Results The number of IS neutrophils was higher in both COPD groups compared to both controls. The amount of BAL neutrophils was higher in COPD smokers compared to healthy never-smokers. The number of BAL MMP-12+-macrophages was higher in COPD smokers (1.6 ± 0.3 × 106/ml) compared to COPD ex-smokers, 'healthy' smokers and healthy never-smokers (0.9 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.2, 0.2 ± 0.1 × 106/ml respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusion The lower amount of BAL neutrophils in COPD ex-smokers, compared to COPD smokers, suggests positive alterations in alveolar compartment after smoking cessation. Smoking and disease itself may stimulate MMP-12 expression in airway compartments (IS and BAL) from COPD patients. PMID:18001475

  18. METEORIC-HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, Robert E.; Taylor, Hugh P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the salient characteristics of meteoric-hydrothermal systems, emphasing the isotopic systematics. Discussions of permeable-medium fluid dynamics and the geology and geochemistry of modern geothermal systems are also provided, because they are essential to any understanding of hydrothermal circulation. The main focus of the paper is on regions of ancient meteoric-hydrothermal activity, which give us information about the presently inaccessible, deep-level parts of modern geothermal systems. It is shown oxygen and hydrogen isotopes provide a powerful method to discover and map fossil hydrothermal systems and to investigate diverse associated aspects of rock alteration and ore deposition.

  19. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

  20. Barite chimneys from two hydrothermal sites along the slow-spreading Arctic Ridge system: Initial isotope and mineralogical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmann, B.; van Zuilen, M. A.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Two hydrothermal sites along the slow-spreading Arctic Ridge systems, the Jan Mayen vent fields (JMVFs) and the recently discovered Loki’s Castle hydrothermal field (LCHF) contains numerous barite chimneys partially covered by microbial mats. The JMVFs are located at 71°N on the south-western Mohns Ridge, approximately 50 km north of the Jan Mayen fracture zone. The LCHF is located at 73.5°N on an axial volcanic ridge where the Mohns Ridge transitions into the Knipovich Ridge and consists of two venting areas. Active hydrothermal venting at both sites is confirmed by elevated hydrogen sulphide concentrations and discharge of high-temperature fluids, reaching 270°C in the JMVFs and 317°C in the LCHF. Barite chimneys from the JMVFs are composed of barite, silica and abundant pyrite-dominated sulphide minerals that display a conspicuous concentric morphology. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the central regions of these concentric sulphide minerals points to the existence of mackinawite (FeS). Furthermore, the existence of greigite (Fe3S4) surrounding the mackinawite is suggested. This observation confirms the general conclusion of earlier experimental studies that these phases act as the metastable precursors of pyrite. In contrast, the barite chimneys of the LCHF consist mainly of pure barite with lesser amounts of sulphide minerals. The difference in the mineralogical composition between the two sites is also expressed in its sulphur isotopic composition. δ34Ssulphate values of the barite chimneys from the JMVFs are lower than δ34S of seawater sulphate (δ34S = +21‰) and δ34Ssulphide values point to a magmatic sulphur source (δ34S = 0‰). This implies that the JMHFs barite chimneys have been formed by a mixture of seawater and hydrothermal fluids, similar to the origin of black smokers. In contrast to the JMVFs, the δ34Ssulphate values from the LCHF barite chimneys are higher than δ34S values for seawater sulphate, but show remarkable differences

  1. HIV symptom distress and smoking outcome expectancies among HIV+ smokers: a pilot test.

    PubMed

    Grover, Kristin W; Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Smoking occurs at high rates among people with HIV/AIDS, but little attention has been paid to understanding the nature of tobacco use among HIV+ smokers, especially the role that HIV symptoms may play in cognitive smoking processes. Accordingly, the present investigation examined the relation between HIV symptom distress (i.e., the degree to which HIV symptoms are bothersome) and smoking outcome expectancies. Fifty-seven HIV+ adult smokers (82.50% male; M(age)=47.18; 45.6% White, 28.1% Black, 17.5% Hispanic) were recruited from AIDS service organizations and hospital-based clinics. On average, participants reported knowing their HIV+ status for 16 years and the majority of participants reported that they acquired HIV through unprotected sex (66.6%). Participants completed measures pertaining to HIV symptoms, smoking behavior, and smoking outcome expectancies. HIV symptom distress was positively related to negative reinforcement, negative consequences, and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies after accounting for relevant covariates. The present research suggests that HIV symptom distress may play an important role in understanding smoking outcome expectancies for smokers with HIV/AIDS. Clinical implications for HIV+ smokers are discussed, including the importance of developing effective smoking cessation treatments that meet the unique needs of this group of smokers.

  2. Use of the current population survey to characterize subpopulations of continued smokers: a national perspective on the "hardcore" smoker phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Augustson, Erik; Marcus, Stephen

    2004-08-01

    The existence of "hardcore" smokers, those most likely to have substantial difficulty quitting, may have far reaching impact on how to best allocate cessation resources. It has been suggested that hardcore smokers make up only a small fraction of current smokers and therefore do not represent a significant public health problem. However, little is known about the prevalence and nature of this subgroup of smokers in the United States. Based on a national sample, the 1998-1999 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, we categorized, based on smoking pattern, groups of current smokers who were over age 25 years (N=33,568). We compared hardcore smokers with other groups of current smokers on demographic, environmental, and smoking variables to assess whether hardcore smokers represent a unique group. Hardcore smokers were defined as established daily smokers, consuming 15 or more cigarettes per day with no reported history of quit attempts. Hardcore smokers represent 13.7% of all current smokers and 17.6% of all established smokers. They are more likely to be male, unmarried, not in the work force, and have lower education. They also are more likely to have started smoking at a younger age, smoke more, and are less likely to report contact with smoking restrictions. This analysis suggests that hardcore smokers are distinct from other groups of smokers. These results also indicate that hardcore smokers account for a substantial proportion of smokers and as such may represent a significant public health challenge that needs to be addressed.

  3. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  4. Insights into Spatial Sulfur Variation within the Modified Gill-Chamber of the Epibiont-Colonized Hydrothermal Vent Shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempfert, K. R.; Sievert, S. M.; Hansel, C. M.; Webb, S. M.; Thomas, F.

    2013-12-01

    Rimicaris exoculata dominates the megafaunal biomass at numerous Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents. Within the gill chamber of the shrimp exists a rich epibiotic community. These shrimp swarm around active black smoker chimneys at the Snake Pit vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and have been hypothesized to utilize the mixing zone between ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluid to supply these epibionts with a redox environment suitable for the promotion of chemoautotrophic growth. Investigation of the oxidation state, distribution, and concentration of sulfur of different compartments within the shrimp's gill chamber was conducted using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. Principle component analysis of point XANES spectra yielded four reference components indentified as elemental sulfur, sulfate, monosulfide (likely iron sulfide), and an organosulfur thiol compound. Energy specific micro-XRF mapping of these reference components in both the modified mouthparts and inner lining of the carapace enclosing the gill chamber displayed spatial heterogeneity in sulfur oxidation state and coordination. Sulfate, organosulfur thiol compounds, and phosphate tended to correlate with chitin structural features, while elemental sulfur was concentrated in areas where epibionts were observed. DNA extraction and sequencing from epibiont populations within each of the modified mouthparts and carapace was conducted to provide insight into the community structure at each of these distinct areas of the gill chamber. Here we demonstrate the complexity of sulfur speciation and mineralization in association with the host epibiont community composition.

  5. In situ Raman-based detections of the hydrothermal vent and cold seep fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Du, Zengfeng; Zheng, Ronger; Luan, Zhendong; Qi, Fujun; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Bing; Ye, Wangquan; Liu, Xiaorui; Chen, Changan; Guo, Jinjia; Li, Ying; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, and their associated biological communities play an important role in global carbon and sulphur biogeochemical cycles. Most of the studies of fluid composition geochemistry are based on recovered samples, both with gas-tight samplers and as open specimens, but the in situ conditions are difficult to maintain in recovered samples. Determination in situ of the chemical signals of the emerging fluids are challenging due to the high pressure, often strongly acidic and temperature in which few sensors can survive. Most of those sensors used so far are based on electrochemistry, and can typically detect only a few chemical species. Here we show that direct measurement of critical chemical species of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps can be made rapidly and in situ by means of a new hybrid version of earlier deep-sea pore water Raman probe carried on the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian. The fluid was drawn through the probe by actuating a hydraulic pump on the ROV, and measured at the probe optical cell through a sapphire window. We have observed the concentrations of H2S, HS-, SO42-, HSO4-, CO2, and H2 in hydrothermal vent fluids from the Pacmanus and Desmos vent systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea. Two black smokers (279° C and 186° C) at the Pacmanus site showed the characteristic loss of SO42-, and the increase of CO2 and well resolved H2S and HS- peaks. At the white smoker of Onsen site the strong HSO4-peak observed at high temperature quickly dropped with strong accompanying increase of SO42-and H2 peaks when the sample contained in the Raman sensing cell was removed from the hot fluid due to rapid thermal deprotonation. We report here also the finding of a new lower temperature (88° C) white smoker "Kexue" field at the Desmos site with strong H2S, HS- and CO2 signals. We also have detected the concentrations of CH4,H2S, HS-, SO42-, and S8 in cold seep fluids and the surrounding sediment pore water from

  6. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  7. Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossey, Laura J.; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Schmandt, Brandon; Crow, Ryan R.; Colman, Daniel R.; Cron, Brandi; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Northup, Diana E.; Hilton, David R.; Ricketts, Jason W.; Lowry, Anthony R.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of oceanic black (and white) smokers revolutionized our understanding of mid-ocean ridges and led to the recognition of new organisms and ecosystems. Continental smokers, defined here to include a broad range of carbonic springs, hot springs, and fumaroles that vent mantle-derived fluids in continental settings, exhibit many of the same processes of heat and mass transfer and ecosystem niche differentiation. Helium isotope (3He/4He) analyses indicate that widespread mantle degassing is taking place in the western U.S.A., and that variations in mantle helium values correlate best with low seismic-velocity domains in the mantle and lateral contrasts in mantle velocity rather than crustal parameters such as GPS, proximity to volcanoes, crustal velocity, or composition. Microbial community analyses indicate that these springs can host novel microorganisms. A targeted analysis of four springs in New Mexico yield the first published occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Zetaproteobacteria in a continental setting. These observations lead to two linked hypotheses: that mantle-derived volatiles transit through conduits in extending continental lithosphere preferentially above and at the edges of mantle low velocity domains. High CO2 and other constituents ultimately derived from mantle volatiles drive water-rock interactions and heterogeneous fluid mixing that help structure diverse and distinctive microbial communities.

  8. Identifying Subgroups among Hardcore Smokers: a Latent Profile Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bommelé, Jeroen; Kleinjan, Marloes; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Burk, William J.; van den Eijnden, Regina; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hardcore smokers are smokers who have little to no intention to quit. Previous research suggests that there are distinct subgroups among hardcore smokers and that these subgroups vary in the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. Identifying these subgroups could help to develop individualized messages for the group of hardcore smokers. In this study we therefore used the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting to identify profiles among hardcore smokers. Methods A sample of 510 hardcore smokers completed an online survey on the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting. We used these perceived pros and cons in a latent profile analysis to identify possible subgroups among hardcore smokers. To validate the profiles identified among hardcore smokers, we analysed data from a sample of 338 non-hardcore smokers in a similar way. Results We found three profiles among hardcore smokers. ‘Receptive’ hardcore smokers (36%) perceived many cons of smoking and many pros of quitting. ‘Ambivalent’ hardcore smokers (59%) were rather undecided towards quitting. ‘Resistant’ hardcore smokers (5%) saw few cons of smoking and few pros of quitting. Among non-hardcore smokers, we found similar groups of ‘receptive’ smokers (30%) and ‘ambivalent’ smokers (54%). However, a third group consisted of ‘disengaged’ smokers (16%), who saw few pros and cons of both smoking and quitting. Discussion Among hardcore smokers, we found three distinct profiles based on perceived pros and cons of smoking. This indicates that hardcore smokers are not a homogenous group. Each profile might require a different tobacco control approach. Our findings may help to develop individualized tobacco control messages for the particularly hard-to-reach group of hardcore smokers. PMID:26207829

  9. Noble Gas geochemistry of the newly discovered hydrothermal fields in the Gulf of California: preliminary He-isotope ratios from the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero basin vent sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spelz, R. M.; Lupton, J. E.; Evans, L. J.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Neumann, F.; Paduan, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous submarine deep-sea hydrothermal vents related to volcanic activity of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) are situated along the Pacific margins of Mexico. Until recently, active hydrothermal venting was unknown between the Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the EPR. MBARI's recent oceanographic surveys have added 7 new active vent sites. In this study, we aimed to sample the high-temperature hydrothermal fluids emanating from two distinct vent sites, named Meyibo and Auka, located in the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero Basin, respectively. Mantle-derived He have long been identified in hydrothermal fluid releases. The presence of He in aqueous fluids with 3He/4He ratios greater than in-situ production values (~0.05 RA, where RA = air He or 1.4 x 10-6) indicates the presence of mantle-derived melts. Preliminary analyses of He-isotope ratios derived from the newly discovered Meyibo and Auka hydrothermal fields show high 3He/4He ratios (~8RA), typical of MORB's. Auka vent field, characterized by chimneys composed of light carbonate minerals and oil-like hydrocarbons, and temperatures between 250-290oC, show average values of ~7.87RA. In contrast, the black-smokers at the Meyibo field, composed of dark sulfide minerals and temperatures over 350oC, yielded a higher He ratio of ~8.24RA. Recently, it has become clear that regional maximum mantle He values correlate with the velocity structure in the mantle, therefore, He has the potential to map regions of the underlying mantle that are undergoing partial melting. Seismic records could then be compared with the geochemical He ratio signal and supply information regarding tectonics and other processes involved in the generation of these gases. The data presented here will be completing a totally new inventory of He results from hydrothermal vents in the EPR and fault-termination basins distributed along the P-NA plate boundary in the Gulf of California. The results will be further coupled with the analysis of other geochemical

  10. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lüdicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations – lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count – both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α – higher in smokers) and platelet activation (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 – higher in smokers) (p ≤ 0.0001). These results provide further evidence showing that cardiovascular biomarkers can discriminate smokers from non-smokers, and could be used to evaluate the risks associated with tobacco products. PMID:26616146

  11. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Lüdicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations - lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count - both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α - higher in smokers) and platelet activation (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 - higher in smokers) (p ≤ 0.0001). These results provide further evidence showing that cardiovascular biomarkers can discriminate smokers from non-smokers, and could be used to evaluate the risks associated with tobacco products.

  12. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  13. Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

  14. Borders of life: lessons from Microbiology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieur, D.

    Thirty years ago, the deep-sea was known as a low density biotope due to coldness, darkness and famine-like conditions. The discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Eastern Pacific in 1977 and the associated black smokers in 1979 considerably changed our views about life on Earth. For the first time, an ecosystem almost independent (at least for tens of years) of solar nergy was discovered. Besides the spectacular and unexpected communities of invertebrates based on symbiotic associations with chemo-litho-autotrophic bacteria, prokaryotic communities associated with high temperature black smokers fascinated microbiologists of extreme environments. Within mineral structures where temperature gradients may fluctuate from ambient seawater temperatures (2°C) up to 350°C, thermophilic (optimal growth above 60°C) and hyperthermophilic (optimal growth above 80°C) microorganisms thrived under very severe conditions due to elevated hydrostatic pressure, toxic compounds or strong ionizing radiations. These organisms belong to both domains of Bacteria and Archaea and live aerobically but mostly anaerobically, using a variety of inorganic and organic carbon sources, and a variety of electron donnors and acceptors as well. The most thermophilic organism known on Earth was isolated from a mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrotermal vent: Pyrolobus fumarii grows optimally at 110°c and its upper temperature limit for life is 113°C. Such an organism survived to autoclaving conditions currently used for sterilization procedures. Many other hyperthermophilic organisms were isolated and described, including fermenters, sulphate and sulphur reducers, hydrogen oxidizers, nitrate reducers, methanogens, etc. Although most of anaerobes are killed when exposed to oxygen, several deep-sea hyperthermophiles appeared to survive to both oxygen and starvation exposures, indicating that they probably can colonize rather distant environments Because of elevated hydrostatic pressure that exists at

  15. Modeling the Growth of Hyperthermophiles in Deep-sea Hydrothermal Diffuse Fluids and Sulfide Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ver Eecke, H. C.; Oslowski, D. M.; Butterfield, D. A.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Holden, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008 and 2009, 534 hydrothermal fluid samples and 5 actively-venting black smoker chimneys were collected using Alvin for correlative microbiological and chemical analyses as part of the Endeavour Segment and Axial Volcano Geochemistry and Ecology Research (EAGER) program. Hyperthermophilic, autotrophic Fe(III) oxide reducers, methanogens, and sulfur-reducing heterotrophs were enriched for at 85 and 95°C using most-probable-number estimates from 28 diffuse fluid and 8 chimney samples. Heterotrophs were the most abundant of the three groups in both diffuse fluids and black-smoker chimneys. Iron reducers were more abundant than methanogens, and more abundant in sulfide-hosted vents than in basalt-hosted vents. Fluid chemistry suggests that there is net biogenic methanogenesis at the Marker 113/62 diffuse vent at Axial Volcano but nowhere else sampled. The growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens and heterotrophs was modeled in the lab using pure cultures. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii grew at 82°C in a 2-liter reactor with continuous gas flow at H2 concentrations between 20 and 225 µM with a H2 km of 100 µM. Correlating H2 end-member mixing curves from vent fluids and seawater with our laboratory modeling study suggests that H2 concentrations are limiting for Methanocaldococcus growth at most Mothra, Main Field, and High Rise vent sites at Endeavour but sufficient to support growth at some Axial Volcano vents. Therefore, hyperthermophilic methanogens may depend on H2 syntrophy at low H2 sites. Twenty-one pure hyperthermophilic heterotroph strains each grew on α-1,4 and β-1,4 linked sugars and polypeptides with concomitant H2 production. The H2 production rate (cell-1 doubling-1) for Pyrococcus furiosus at 95°C without sulfur was 29 fmol, 36 fmol, and 53 fmol for growth on α-1,4 sugars, β-1,4 sugars, and peptides, respectively. The CH4 production rate for M. jannaschii was 390 fmol cell-1 doubling-1; therefore, we estimate that it would take approximately

  16. A variety of Microbial Mats cover the Chimney Walls of the Loki's Castle Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahle, H.; Roalkvam, I.; Jørgensen, S. L.; Stokke, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.; Steen, I.

    2010-12-01

    Active vent chimneys of the Loki’s castle hydrothermal field at 73°N are the most northerly black smokers ever located. Vent fluids reach temperatures of >300°C, have a pH of around 5.5 and high concentrations of reduced compounds representing important energy sources for microbial life. Particularly they are extremely rich in methane (13.5 mM) and hydrogen (4.9 mM) while hydrogen sulphide concentrations are more typical for black smoker fluids (4.1 mM). Another characteristic of Loki’s castle is the unusually high abundance of microbial mats on the exterior of the chimneys. During a cruise in 2009 we used a ROV equipped with a hydraulic sampling cylinder (biosyringe) to collect samples of five mats varying in color and texture. Pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences yielded 9000 - 25000 reads per sample. Although all mats were dominated by a relatively low number of OTUs, we observed large differences in microbial composition, richness, and evenness of the mats. Also, the most dominating metabolic process occurring in each mat seemed to vary considerably. Two of the mats were largely dominated (60-90% of the reads) by relatives of mesophilic sulfur oxidizing ɛ-Proteobacteria (e.g. Sulfurovum) while another mat was dominated (48 % of the reads) by organisms affiliated with methanotrophic Methylococcales. In the last two mats we found a high abundance ( >20% - >40% of the reads) of organisms clustering among thermophilic organisms such as Thermodesulfobacteriales, Archaeoglobales, Thermococcales, Thermotogales, and Aquificales. The observed variation of the microbial composition between the different mats is possibly linked to variations in temperature and chemistry of fluids diffusely venting from the chimney. The study was supplemented by pyrosequencing of environmental cDNA from three of the samples (totally 1 100 000 reads). This dataset, which is currently being analyzed, will provide more information about the most active phylotypes in the

  17. Comparative study of pulmonary functions and oxidative stress in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Shah Mohammad Abbas; Mobarak, Mohd Hossain; Islam, Najmul; Ahmad, Zuber

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) is projected to rank third leading cause of deaths by 2030 as per WHO. COPD is a multi-etiological disease. The airflow dysfunction is usually progressive, associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gasses. As the lung is exposed to high levels of oxygen, it is more susceptible to oxidants mediated injury. Gender based differences are identifiable risk factors. Smoking is found to be a major risk factor in the causation of COPD resulting in oxidative stress . The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidant antioxidant imbalance in healthy non smoker controls and smokers with COPD. A total of 60 control (healthy non smokers) and 121 smokers having COPD were studied. The mean age is more in smoker group as compared to healthy controls, which identifies advancing age as a risk factor for COPD. The mean BMI and weight of smoker group is reduced as compared to control group. GOLD 2008 criteria was used to assess lung functions. Lung functions namely FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEV1% Predicted showed significant reduction in smoker group as compared to healthy non smoker controls. MDA in control and smoker group (1.09 +/- 0.09 and 1.41 +/- 0.23 nmol/ml respectively) showed significant changes (P < 0.001). Our results also demonstrate significant reduction in anti oxidant enzymes namely SOD (units/mg of serum protein), Catalase (units/mg of serum protein) and GPX (nmol of NADPH oxidized/ min/mg of serum protein) in smoker group as compared to healthy controls. On the basis of study it is concluded that smoking, gender and oxidant antioxidant imbalance are identifiable risk factors in COPD.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis map of bismuth titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Walton, Richard I.

    2012-05-15

    The hydrothermal synthesis of four bismuth titanate materials from common bismuth and titanium precursors under hydrothermal conditions is described. Reaction of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and anatase TiO{sub 2} in concentrated NaOH solution at 240 Degree-Sign C is shown to produce perovskite and sillenite phases Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}, depending on the ratio of metal precursors used. When KOH solution is used and a 1:1 ratio of the same precursors, a pyrochlore Bi{sub 1.43}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 0.29}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.66} is formed. The use of a mixture of HNO{sub 3} and NaOH is shown to facilitate the formation of the Aurivillius-type bismuth titanate Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The phases have been isolated separately as phase-pure powders and profile refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data allows comparisons with comparable materials reported in the literature. Analysis of Bi L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the materials shows the oxidation state of bismuth is +3 in all of the hydrothermally derived products. - Graphical abstract: Use of NaBiO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} as reagents under hydrothermal conditions allows the phase-pure preparation of four crystalline bismuth titanate materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaBiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} under hydrothermal conditions allow formation of bismuth titanates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of four distint phases has been mapped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi LIII-edge XANES shows Bi is reduced to oxidation state +3 in all materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new hydrated bismuth titanate pyrochlore has been isolated.

  19. Increasing Prevalence of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Smokers Hospitalized in 5 US Cities, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Kathleen F.; Richter, Kimber; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Sherman, Scott E.; Grossman, Ellie; Chang, Yuchiao; Tindle, Hilary A.; Ylioja, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the pattern of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use over time or among smokers with medical comorbidity. Methods: We assessed current cigarette smokers’ use of e-cigarettes during the 30 days before admission to 9 hospitals in 5 geographically dispersed US cities: Birmingham, AL; Boston, MA; Kansas City, KS; New York, NY; and Portland, OR. Each hospital was conducting a randomized controlled trial as part of the NIH-sponsored Consortium of Hospitals Advancing Research on Tobacco (CHART). We conducted a pooled analysis using multiple logistic regression to examine changes in e-cigarette use over time and to identify correlates of e-cigarette use. Results: Among 4,660 smokers hospitalized between July 2010 and December 2013 (mean age 57 years, 57% male, 71% white, 56% some college, average 14 cigarettes/day), 14% reported using an e-cigarette during the 30 days before admission. The prevalence of e-cigarette use increased from 1.1% in 2010 to 10.3% in 2011, 10.2% in 2012, and 18.4% in 2013; the increase was statistically significant (p < .0001) after adjustment for age, sex, education, and CHART study. Younger, better educated, and heavier smokers were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Smokers who were Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and who had Medicaid or no insurance were less likely to use e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use also varied by CHART project and by geographic region. Conclusions: E-cigarette use increased substantially from 2010 to 2013 among a large sample of hospitalized adult cigarette smokers. E-cigarette use was more common among heavier smokers and among those who were younger, white, and who had higher socioeconomic status. PMID:25168031

  20. Time-series studies of hydrothermal flux following the EPR 9N 2006 Eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C.; Manganini, S.; Adams, D.; Rouxel, O.; Edwards, K.; Shank, T.; Mullineaux, L.

    2006-12-01

    Investigating a volcanic eruption and its aftermath has been a major goal for Ridge 2000. One model for a general case (e.g. Butterfield et al., 1997) proposes that, following a volcanic eruption, a vapor-phase is expelled first, followed by emission of a "brine" phase which may relax back to "normal" black smoker fluids. In response to the recent eruptions at 9°47-55N EPR we deployed two sediment traps close to the seafloor at latitudes corresponding to the Tica and Bio9 vents. The traps were initially deployed for 6 weeks and collected 21 fresh samples each at 2 day intervals (Cruise PI: J.Cowen, U.Hawaii), May 16 through June 27. These traps were then re-deployed during a 2nd response cruise in June-July 2006 (K.Von Damm, PI) for further servicing in Fall 2006 (A.Thurnherr: Cruise PI). From October 2006, a full suite of 5 time-series sediment traps will be deployed on current meter moorings spanning 9°10-50N with a long-term goal to investigate the cycling of Fe and its impact on ocean biogeochemistry in two contrasting (Fe-rich vs Fe & H2S-rich) hydrothermal systems, in both buoyant and non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes. A first priority, however, is to investigate how near-field hydrothermal fluxes vary in the short term following a volcanic eruption. At Tica and Bio9, mass fluxes showed a significant change in plume fall-out, common to both sites, around day 14 of the deployments (May 30th). Prior to that, fluxes to both traps were 5-10mg.m-2.dy-1 but, following May 30th, this increased to ca.20mg.m-2.dy-1 through 13 June, decreasing once more to ca.15mg.m-2.dy-1 (i.e. still significantly greater than the initial 2 weeks of sampling) during the final sampling period (June 13-27). What caused this change in mass flux? To address that question we will present compositional variations on a weekly basis for: organic and inorganic carbon, Fe, Mn, Mg, Al, Si & Ca.

  1. Smoking and intention to quit among a large sample of black sexual and gender minorities.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jenna N; Everett, Kevin D; Ge, Bin; McElroy, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking and intention to quit from a sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) Black individuals (N = 639) through analysis of data collected at Pride festivals and online. Frequencies described demographic characteristics; chi-square analyses were used to compare tobacco-related variables. Black SGM smokers were more likely to be trying to quit smoking than White SGM smokers. However, Black SGM individuals were less likely than White SGM individuals to become former smokers. The results of this study indicate that smoking behaviors may be heavily influenced by race after accounting for SGM status.

  2. [Determination of tobacco mosaic viruses and tar carcinogens using electromagnetic resonance in smokers].

    PubMed

    Bradna, J

    1999-04-01

    Distance monitoring of viral diseases in the zone of MHz frequencies makes rapid non-contact investigation of the presence of tobacco mosaic viruses (VTM) in cigarettes and secretions of smokers possible by using electromagnetic resonance. The incidence of VTM in common cigarettes was assessed as well as in several smokers, in dermatitis, arthralgias and in tumours (of the large intestiner, in mastopathy). Also in neuritis of the optic nerve, in suspected sclerosis multiplex of smokers. After sanation of VTM by resonance therapy with Sanator (Bradna AO 272,361) VTM disappeared as well as symptoms of this viral mosaic disease. Electromagnetic resonance with tar made it possible to make this investigation in cigarettes filters after smoking as well as in the secretions of smokers. The authors proved the hastening effect of cigarette smoke with tar on the growth of VTM on cultivation as well as an increase of the bioelectric activity of tumours. It proved possible to abolish the electromagnetic distance action of tar by interaction with pyridsoxine similarly as in foods containing tar (smoked meat, fish, frankfurters, black coffee, cocoa). Filters with pyridoxine proved useful. VTM monitoring was quick, in tumours it was possible to follow the accompanying viral agent as well as the action of cancerogens on their bioelectromagnetic activity. It also made it possible to follow up disintegrating action of MHz resonance frequencies of the Sanator.

  3. Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doe, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best

  4. Distribution of Particulates in Hydrothermal Plumes of the Endeavour Axial Valley: Preliminary Results from the Sea Breeze Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, T. H.; McDuff, R. E.; Robigou, V.; Stahr, F.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent plumes provide zones for chemical reactions between vent fluids and seawater, potential habitats for anaerobic bacteria and zooplankton, and a probable mechanism for the dispersal of vent larvae. Within the Endeavour Integrated Study Site are five known vent fields situated along the axial valley of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (N.E. Pacific Ocean). Each of these fields has a particle rich neutrally buoyant plume above it almost constantly, a common characteristic of vent systems worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) how plume particle distribution varies along the Endeavour segment axial valley; 2) whether a correlation exists between vent activity and particle density in the surrounding water, and 3) if the peak signals in backscatter and light transmission fall within a consistent range of potential density values along the axial valley. Light transmission and backscatter data were collected from vertically oscillating CTD casts at 21 stations along the axial valley covering the fields of Mothra, Main Endeavour, High Rise, Salty Dawg, and Sasquatch during the Sea Breeze - REVEL 2004 seagoing program. Plume particle density within ocean water was measured using a Wetlabs transmissometer and a Seapoint turbidity sensor. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between "black smoker" activity and signal strength in backscatter and light transmission. Main Endeavour and High Rise, known to exhibit the most rigorous hydrothermal activity, show correspondingly high amplitude signals in both backscatter and light transmission. Predicted diurnal currents seem to effect lateral plume particle movement away from vent sources, greatly impacting the particle density in surrounding areas. Peak signals in backscatter and light transmission occur in less dense water moving northward from Mothra to Salty Dawg.

  5. Probing the characteristics of metal- and sulfide-binding proteins in hydrothermal vent polychaetes using HPLC/IES-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Martineu, P.; Juniper, S.K.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Thompson, J.

    1995-12-31

    Alvinellids polychaetes colonizing the surfaces of black smokers from Eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents occupy extreme environments with high levels of heavy metals and sulfide. Investigations of mechanisms that enable them to tolerate these extreme conditions indicate sulfide-binding capacity in the blood serum of Paralvinella palmiformis and accumulation of heavy metals in their tissues. A need to characterize metal-binding proteins lead the authors to improve purification and separation of metallothioneins (MTs) by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES/MS). A first separation step of small proteins from crude homogenates of worm tissues is performed on a size exclusion column following by accurate molecular weight identification with on-line LC-MS. This powerful technique has refined separation of isoform MT standards and weight characterization, and has provided an analytical tool to analyze metal-binding proteins from vent polychaetes. The authors are also applying this technique to separation of sulfide-binding proteins in blood serum and to identify ligands involved in sulfide detoxication and transport.

  6. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  7. Subgingival microbial profiles of smokers with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Shchipkova, A Y; Nagaraja, H N; Kumar, P S

    2010-11-01

    The subgingival microbiome is largely uncultivated, and therefore, cultivation-based and targeted molecular approaches have limited value in examining the effect of smoking on this community. We tested the hypothesis that the subgingival biofilm is compositionally different in current and never-smokers by using an open-ended molecular approach for bacterial identification. Subgingival plaque from deep sites of current and never-smokers matched for disease was analyzed by 16S sequencing. Smokers demonstrated greater abundance of Parvimonas, Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, and Treponema and lower levels of Veillonella, Neisseria, and Streptococcus. Several uncultivated Peptostreptococci, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter gracilis, Treponema socranskii, Dialister pneumosintes, and Tannerella forsythia were elevated in this group, while Veillonella sp. oral clone B2, Neisseria sp. oral clone 2.24, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Capnocytophaga sp. clone AH015 were at lower levels. The microbial profile of smoking-associated periodontitis is distinct from that of non-smokers, with significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of disease-associated and health-compatible organisms.

  8. Stories from Former Smokers | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    You are not alone. You can learn a lot about quitting from others who have quit smoking. As you build your quit plan, think about the ways these former smokers were able to stop smoking and stay smokefree. On this page: James Mary Lisa

  9. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21–30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk. PMID:26879965

  10. Characterizing and comparing young adult intermittent and daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H; Forster, Jean L; Rode, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    We interviewed 732 smokers (from five US upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006 to examine young adult smoking patterns. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers-low (who smoked for 1-14 days in the past 30 days) and high (who smoked for 15-29 days in the past 30 days), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends than high intermittent smokers. Daily smokers were more likely to feel addicted and have trouble quitting smoking than high intermittent smokers. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future studies will be discussed.

  11. Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163390.html Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer Such testing ... 2017 THURSDAY, Feb. 2, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Most current and former smokers in the United States don' ...

  12. Thermo-chemical fluxes, reactions and mixing in hydrothermal plumes at Oceanic Core complexes (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 13°30'N and 13°20'N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destrigneville, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Olive, J. A. L.; Leleu, T.; Rommevaux, C.; Escartin, J.; Jamieson, J. W.; Petersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Large-offset detachment faults are widespread along the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), exhume ultramafic rocks, and host a great diversity of hydrothermal systems. During the ODEMAR'13 cruise, the fully developed 13º20'N and 13º30'N oceanic core complexes (OCC) along MAR were investigated to constrain the tectonic, hydrothermal and magmatic processes enabling detachment formation. Here we focus on the composition and fluxes of hydrothermal fluids discharging out of these OCCs. ROV Victor6000 dives confirmed the occurrence of active discharge near the breakaway side of the 13º30'N OCC (Semenov-2), and observed high-temperature venting on the striated fault surface of the 13º20'N OCC (Irinovskoe). Black smoker fluids and hydrothermal plume waters (2-110ºC) were collected using gas-tight titanium syringes and in-situ pumping fluid samplers mounted on the ROV, respectively. The Semenov-2 fluids (3 vent sites at 317ºC) are characterized by lower chlorinity than seawater (Cl = 525 mmol/l) and extremely low metal concentrations (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn < ~20 μmol/l). By contrast, the Irinovskoe fluids (2 vent sites at 364ºC) exhibit higher chlorinity than seawater at Cl = 605 mmol/l, high Fe and Mn concentrations, and yet low metal concentrations. Temperature and concentration of conservative species were also measured along the centerlines of selected plumes within the first ~3 m above the vents. These measurements were inverted to constrain vent heat and mass fluxes using a plume entrainment model, yielding for individual plumes values of ~1-95 MW and 1-60 10-3 m3/s, respectively. We use these to calculate annual filterable iron fluxes at both sites of the 13º20'N OCC of 2.6 - 3.9 106 mol/yr, which are 4 orders of magnitude higher than those calculated for the 13º30'N OCC. We estimate, however, that ~94% of this Fe flux is lost through precipitation when rising hydrothermal fluids mix with entrained seawater.

  13. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non-smokers: cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Vink, Jacqueline M; Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-03-01

    The molecular mechanisms causing smoking-induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome-wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers, 1686 never smokers and 890 ex-smokers were available from two population-based cohorts from the Netherlands. In addition, data of 56 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ever smoking were used. One hundred thirty-two genes were differentially expressed between current smokers and never smokers (P < 1.2 × 10(-6) , Bonferroni correction). The most significant genes were G protein-coupled receptor 15 (P < 1 × 10(-150) ) and leucine-rich repeat neuronal 3 (P < 1 × 10(-44) ). The smoking-related genes were enriched for immune system, blood coagulation, natural killer cell and cancer pathways. By taking the data of ex-smokers into account, expression of these 132 genes was classified into reversible (94 genes), slowly reversible (31 genes), irreversible (6 genes) or inconclusive (1 gene). Expression of 6 of the 132 genes (three reversible and three slowly reversible) was confirmed to be reactive to smoking as they were differentially expressed in monozygotic pairs discordant for smoking. Cis-expression quantitative trait loci for GPR56 and RARRES3 (downregulated in smokers) were associated with increased number of cigarettes smoked per day in a large genome-wide association meta-analysis, suggesting a causative effect of GPR56 and RARRES3 expression on smoking behavior. In conclusion, differential gene expression patterns in smokers are extensive and cluster in several underlying disease pathways. Gene expression differences seem mainly direct consequences of smoking, and largely reversible after smoking cessation. However, we also identified DNA variants that may influence smoking behavior via the mediating gene expression.

  14. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non‐smokers: cause or consequence?

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The molecular mechanisms causing smoking‐induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome‐wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers, 1686 never smokers and 890 ex‐smokers were available from two population‐based cohorts from the Netherlands. In addition, data of 56 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ever smoking were used. One hundred thirty‐two genes were differentially expressed between current smokers and never smokers (P < 1.2 × 10−6, Bonferroni correction). The most significant genes were G protein‐coupled receptor 15 (P < 1 × 10−150) and leucine‐rich repeat neuronal 3 (P < 1 × 10−44). The smoking‐related genes were enriched for immune system, blood coagulation, natural killer cell and cancer pathways. By taking the data of ex‐smokers into account, expression of these 132 genes was classified into reversible (94 genes), slowly reversible (31 genes), irreversible (6 genes) or inconclusive (1 gene). Expression of 6 of the 132 genes (three reversible and three slowly reversible) was confirmed to be reactive to smoking as they were differentially expressed in monozygotic pairs discordant for smoking. Cis‐expression quantitative trait loci for GPR56 and RARRES3 (downregulated in smokers) were associated with increased number of cigarettes smoked per day in a large genome‐wide association meta‐analysis, suggesting a causative effect of GPR56 and RARRES3 expression on smoking behavior. In conclusion, differential gene expression patterns in smokers are extensive and cluster in several underlying disease pathways. Gene expression differences seem mainly direct consequences of smoking, and largely reversible after smoking cessation. However, we also identified DNA variants that may influence smoking behavior via the mediating gene

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of lutetium disilicate nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Xiaoping; Gao Yanfeng; Chen Hongfei; Luo Hongjie

    2012-04-15

    A simple, low-cost hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize irregular-and rod-shaped lutetium disilicate (Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}) powders with sizes ranging from 71 to 340 nm. The synthesis temperature was 260 Degree-Sign C, which is nearly 1300 Degree-Sign C lower than that required for the solid-state reaction. The results indicated that both the hydrothermal temperature and pH values had great influences on the composition, crystalline phase and morphology of the powders. The formation mechanism, basic thermophysical properties, stability and anticorrosion properties of the Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders were also investigated. The obtained powders possessed low thermal conductivity, a suitable thermal expansion coefficient (3.92-5.17 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}) with the silicon-based substrate and excellent thermal and structural stability. During hot corrosion testing, the surfaces of the samples appeared to react with the water and molten salt vapors, but no serious failure occurred. - Graphical abstract: An image for the as-prepared Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders (left) and XRD pattern (right) (inset shows the SEM graph of powders). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized Lu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} powders via a hydrothermal process at 260 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline phase and morphology of the powders changed with experimental parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hot corrosion was determined in an airflow environment containing alkaline vapor.

  16. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  17. [Tooth decay and its complication prognosis in smokers].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, L Iu; Osipova, M V

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on complicated and non-complicated tooth decay course and prognosis in smokers. Oral status, prevention and treatment effectiveness was assessed in 330 non-smokers and 345 smoking patients. The results allowed concluding with guidelines for tooth decay prevention and treatment in smokers.

  18. Lower task persistence in smokers with schizophrenia as compared to non-psychiatric control smokers.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Marc L; Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Foulds, Jonathan; Brandon, Thomas H

    2010-12-01

    One contributing factor to difficulty in quitting smoking may be task persistence, which can be viewed as a behavioral manifestation of distress tolerance, and describes the act of persisting in a difficult or effortful task. Task persistence was assessed in smokers with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA; N = 71) and non-psychiatric controls (N = 78) before a quit attempt. These data support the hypothesis that smokers with SZ/SA display less task persistence than do non-psychiatric controls when persistence is measured via mirror tracing and a 2-item persistence measure. Lower persistence may partially explain the reduced smoking cessation successes of smokers with SZ/SA as compared to the general population. These data also replicate findings regarding relationships between histories of ability to quit smoking and task persistence and expand them to a new population of smokers. The absence of a diagnostic status by length of previous abstinence interaction suggests that the contribution of task persistence to smoking cessation is similar for smokers with and without schizophrenia. Future studies should evaluate the ability of task persistence to predict abstinence from cigarettes prospectively among smokers with schizophrenia.

  19. Putamen functional connectivity during inhibitory control in smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, Sophie E A; Luijten, Maartje; van Rooij, Daan; Franken, Ingmar H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2016-12-05

    The putamen has been shown to play a key role in inhibitory control and addiction, and consists of distinct subregions associated with distinct functions. The anterior putamen is thought to be specialized in goal-directed control or response-monitoring in connection with frontal regions, whereas the posterior part is specialized in habitual or automatic responding in connection with sensorimotor regions. The present study is the first to delineate functional networks of the anterior and posterior putamen in a Go-NoGo response inhibition task, and to examine differences between smokers (n = 25) and non-smokers (n = 23) within these networks. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted on fMRI data from a Go-NoGo study, using the generalized form of psychophysiological interaction with anterior and posterior putamen seed regions. In the context of inhibition, the anterior putamen exhibited connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus (pFWE  < .05), which was in line with previous literature. Conversely, the posterior putamen showed connectivity with regions implicated in sensorimotor processing. When we compared smokers to non-smokers, we did not observe the expected weaker connectivity between the anterior putamen and ACC during inhibition in smokers. Instead, our study revealed stronger inhibition-related connectivity between the anterior putamen and right insula in smokers. This finding highlights the involvement of putamen - insula interactions in addiction and impulse control.

  20. Subgingival dysbiosis in smoker and non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Coretti, Lorena; Cuomo, Mariella; Florio, Ermanno; Palumbo, Domenico; Keller, Simona; Pero, Raffaela; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Lembo, Francesca; Cafiero, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common oral inflammatory diseases, and results in connective tissue degradation and gradual tooth loss. It manifests with formation of periodontal pockets, in which anaerobic and Gram‑negative bacteria proliferate rapidly. Consequently, alteration of the subgingival microbiota is considered the primary etiologic agent of periodontitis. Previous studies have reported that smokers are at increased risk of periodontal disease, in both prevalence and severity, indicating that smoking is a risk factor for the onset and progression of the pathology. In the present study, 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to assess the subgingival microbiota in 6 smoker patients with chronic periodontitis, 6 non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis and 8 healthy controls. The results demonstrated significant alterations in the microbial structure of periodontitis patients. High relative abundance of Parvimonans, Desulfubulbus, Paludibacter, Haemophilus, and Sphaerochaeta genera characterized subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients, both smokers and non‑smokers. Due to the high precision and sensitivity of the 16S rRNA sequencing method, analysis for low‑abundant genera (including Pedobacter, Granulicatella, Paracoccus, Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Oridobacteriu, Peptococcus, Oscillospira and Akkermansia) was feasible, and revealed novel phylotypes associated with periodontitis. Of note, a major microbial community alteration was evident in smoker patients, suggesting an association between smoking and severity of subgingival dysbiosis. The present study confirmed that chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease where changes in the equilibrium of subgingival microbiota contribute to severity of pathology.

  1. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-05-31

    The term “hydrothermal” used here refers to the processing of biomass in water slurries at elevated temperature and pressure to facilitate the chemical conversion of the organic structures in biomass into useful fuels. The process is meant to provide a means for treating wet biomass materials without drying and to access ionic reaction conditions by maintaining a liquid water processing medium. Typical hydrothermal processing conditions are 523-647K of temperature and operating pressures from 4-22 MPa of pressure. The temperature is sufficient to initiate pyrolytic mechanisms in the biopolymers while the pressure is sufficient to maintain a liquid water processing phase. Hydrothermal gasification is accomplished at the upper end of the process temperature range. It can be considered an extension of the hydrothermal liquefaction mechanisms that begin at the lowest hydrothermal conditions with subsequent decomposition of biopolymer fragments formed in liquefaction to smaller molecules and eventually to gas. Typically, hydrothermal gasification requires an active catalyst to accomplish reasonable rates of gas formation from biomass.

  2. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  3. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  4. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems.

    PubMed

    Steen, Ida H; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B; Thorseth, Ingunn H

    2015-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field

  5. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  6. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people (“everyday” and “everyday or sometimes”) were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. Results While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62–1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79–4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Conclusions Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality

  7. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Moyen, N E; Ganio, M S; Burchfield, J M; Tucker, M A; Gonzalez, M A; Dougherty, E K; Robinson, F B; Ridings, C B; Veilleux, J C

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for > 4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature (T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p >  .05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s(-1)) to 1.5 °C ΔT C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s(-1); p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s(-1); 1.5 °C ΔT C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s(-1); p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated (p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  8. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s-1; 1.5 °C Δ T C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s-1; p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  9. Differential effects of dietary supplements on metabolomic profile of smokers versus non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is well-known to associate with accelerated skin aging as well as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, in large part due to oxidative stress. Because metabolites are downstream of genetic variation, as well as transcriptional changes and post-translational modifications of proteins, they are the most proximal reporters of disease states or reversal of disease states. Methods In this study, we explore the potential effects of commonly available oral supplements (containing antioxidants, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids) on the metabolomes of smokers (n = 11) compared to non-smokers (n = 17). At baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation, metabolomic analysis was performed on serum by liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS and GC-MS). Furthermore, clinical parameters of skin aging, including cutometry as assessed by three dermatologist raters blinded to subjects' age and smoking status, were measured. Results Long-chain fatty acids, including palmitate and oleate, decreased in smokers by 0.76-fold (P = 0.0045) and 0.72-fold (P = 0.0112), respectively. These changes were not observed in non-smokers. Furthermore, age and smoking status showed increased glow (P = 0.004) and a decrease in fine wrinkling (P = 0.038). Cutometry showed an increase in skin elasticity in smokers (P = 0.049) but not in non-smokers. Complexion analysis software (VISIA) revealed decreases in the number of ultraviolet spots (P = 0.031), and cutometry showed increased elasticity (P = 0.05) in smokers but not non-smokers. Conclusions Additional future work may shed light on the specific mechanisms by which long-chain fatty acids can lead to increased glow, improved elasticity measures and decreased fine wrinkling in smokers' skin. Our study provides a novel, medicine-focused application of available metabolomic technology to identify changes in sera of human subjects with oxidative stress, and suggests that oral supplementation (in particular

  10. On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active vent fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these vent fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active vent fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for hydrothermal activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect hydrothermal plumes. A majority of the vents discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with < 60 mm/yr full spreading rate. Discoveries at ultra-slow MORs in the past decade included the deepest known vent (Beebe at Mid-Cayman Rise) and high-temperature black smoker vents (e.g., Dragon at SWIR and Loki's Castle at Mohns Ridge), and the highest temperature vent was measured at the slow-spreading S MAR (Turtle Pits). Using a previously published equation for the linear relationship between the number of active vent fields per 100 km strike length (F_s) vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 vent fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the vents that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (< 40 mm/yr) and about 1/3 at intermediate rates (40-80 mm

  11. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  12. Impact of Menthol Smoking on Nicotine Dependence for Diverse Racial/Ethnic Groups of Daily Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Soulakova, Julia N.; Danczak, Ryan R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to evaluate whether menthol smoking and race/ethnicity are associated with nicotine dependence in daily smokers. Methods: The study used two subsamples of U.S. daily smokers who responded to the 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The larger subsample consisted of 18,849 non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and Hispanic (HISP) smokers. The smaller subsample consisted of 1112 non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), non-Hispanic Asian (ASIAN), non-Hispanic Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (HPI), and non-Hispanic Multiracial (MULT) smokers. Results: For larger (smaller) groups the rates were 45% (33%) for heavy smoking (16+ cig/day), 59% (51%) for smoking within 30 min of awakening (Sw30), and 14% (14%) for night-smoking. Overall, the highest prevalence of menthol smoking corresponded to NHB and HPI (≥65%), followed by MULT and HISP (31%–37%), and then by AIAN, NHW, and ASIAN (22%–27%) smokers. For larger racial/ethnic groups, menthol smoking was negatively associated with heavy smoking, not associated with Sw30, and positively associated with night-smoking. For smaller groups, menthol smoking was not associated with any measure, but the rates of heavy smoking, Sw30, and night-smoking varied across the groups. Conclusions: The diverse associations between menthol smoking and nicotine dependence maybe due to distinction among the nicotine dependence measures, i.e., individually, each measure assesses a specific smoking behavior. Menthol smoking may be associated with promoting smoking behaviors. PMID:28085040

  13. MD2 expression is reduced in large airways of smokers and COPD smokers.

    PubMed

    Pace, Elisabetta; Ferraro, Maria; Chiappara, Giuseppina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Pipitone, Loredana; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling requires a number of accessory proteins to initiate a signal. MD-2 is one of the accessory proteins with a relevant role in lipopolysaccharide responses. Although cigarette smoke increases TLR4 expression, TLR4 signaling is altered in smokers and in smokers COPD patients. The main aims of this study were to explore whether MD2 is altered in large and small airways of COPD and of smokers without COPD. The expression of MD2 ex vivo was assessed by immunohistochemistry in surgical specimens from current smokers COPD (s-COPD; n = 14), smokers without COPD (S; n = 7), and from non-smoker non-COPD subjects (C; n = 11. The in vitro effects of cigarette smoke extracts on the MD2 expression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE) were also assessed by flow cytometry. MD2 is reduced in the epithelium and in the submucosa in large airways but not in the epithelium and in the submucosa in small airways of smokers and of s-COPD. The expression of MD2 in the submucosa of the large airways is significantly higher in comparison to the submucosa of the small airways in all the studied groups. In vitro, cigarette smoke is able to increase TLR4 but it reduces MD2 in a dose-dependent manner in bronchial epithelial cells. Cigarette smoke may alter innate immune responses reducing the expression of the MD2, a molecule with an important role in TLR4 signaling.

  14. Motivating and Helping Smokers to Stop Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, John R

    2003-01-01

    Smokers try to quit only once every 2 to 3 years and most do not use proven treatments. Repeated, brief, diplomatic advice increases quit rates. Such advice should include a clear request to quit, reinforcing personal risks of smoking and their reversibility, offering solutions to barriers to quitting, and offering treatment. All smokers should be encouraged to use both medications and counseling. Scientifically proven, first-line medications are nicotine gum, inhaler, lozenge, and patch plus the nonnicotine medication bupropion. Proven second-line medications are clonidine, nicotine nasal spray, and nortriptyline. These medications are equally effective and safe and the incidence of dependence is very small. The proven psychosocial therapies are behavioral and supportive therapies. These are as effective as medications and are effective via individual counseling, group, and telephone formats. The writing of this article was supported in part by Senior Scientist Award DA-00450 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. PMID:14687265

  15. Nicotine reinforcement in never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Angela N.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Reissig, Chad J.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Global tobacco-related mortality dwarfs that of all other drugs. Nicotine is believed to be the primary agent responsible for tobacco use and addiction. However, nicotine is a relatively weak and inconsistent reinforcer in nonhumans and nicotine reinforcement has not been demonstrated in never-smokers. Objectives This study investigated the discriminative, subjective, and reinforcing effects of nicotine in never-smokers. Methods Eighteen never-smokers (<50 lifetime nicotine exposures) participated in a double-blind study. During a drug discrimination phase, volunteers ingested oral nicotine and placebo capsules (quasi-random order) at least 2 hours apart and rated subjective effects repeatedly for 2 hours after ingestion in daily sessions. Blocks of 10 sessions were continued until significant discrimination was achieved (p≤.05, binomial test; ≥8 of 10). Following discrimination, nicotine choice was tested by having volunteers choose which capsule set to ingest on each daily session. Successive blocks of 10 sessions were conducted until choice for nicotine or placebo met significance within each volunteer (≥8 of 10 sessions). Results All 18 volunteers significantly discriminated nicotine from placebo; the lowest dose discriminated ranged from 1.0–4.0 mg/70kg. Nine volunteers significantly chose nicotine (choosers) and nine significantly chose placebo (nicotine avoiders). The choosers reported predominately positive nicotine subjective effects (e.g., alert/attentive, good effects, liking), while avoiders tended to report negative effects (e.g., dizzy, upset stomach, disliking). Both choosers and avoiders attributed their choice to the qualitative nature of drug effects. Conclusions These results provide the first evidence that nicotine can function as a reinforcer in some never-smokers. PMID:26345343

  16. Metabolomic profiles of current cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ping-Ching; Lan, Renny S; Brasky, Theodore M; Marian, Catalin; Cheema, Amrita K; Ressom, Habtom W; Loffredo, Christopher A; Pickworth, Wallace B; Shields, Peter G

    2017-02-01

    Smoking-related biomarkers for lung cancer and other diseases are needed to enhance early detection strategies and to provide a science base for tobacco product regulation. An untargeted metabolomics approach by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF MS) totaling 957 assays was used in a novel experimental design where 105 current smokers smoked two cigarettes 1 h apart. Blood was collected immediately before and after each cigarette allowing for within-subject replication. Dynamic changes of the metabolomic profiles from smokers' four blood samples were observed and biomarkers affected by cigarette smoking were identified. Thirty-one metabolites were definitively shown to be affected by acute effect of cigarette smoking, uniquely including menthol-glucuronide, the reduction of glutamate, oleamide, and 13 glycerophospholipids. This first time identification of a menthol metabolite in smokers' blood serves as proof-of-principle for using metabolomics to identify new tobacco-exposure biomarkers, and also provides new opportunities in studying menthol-containing tobacco products in humans. Gender and race differences also were observed. Network analysis revealed 12 molecules involved in cancer, notably inhibition of cAMP. These novel tobacco-related biomarkers provide new insights to the effects of smoking which may be important in carcinogenesis but not previously linked with tobacco-related diseases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Heavy smokers have higher bcl-2 mutation frequency and risk for lymphoma than non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Cortopassi, G.A.; Bell, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    Early detection of cells carrying somatic mutations at oncogenic loci could prove useful for identifying individuals at high risk for cancer and permit intervention prior to the onset of clinically recognizable disease. We have determined the frequency of rare t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocations at the bcl-2 proto-oncogene locus in the peripheral blood of 85 smokers and 35 nonsmokers using a sensitive nested PCR assay. The identical translocation occurs in 85% of follicular lymphoma tumors, and about 50% of all non-Hodgkin`s Lymphoma. Smokers with the highest exposure had a 3.6-fold higher mutation frequency relative to the nonsmokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that of the variables tested (age, race, sex, current smoking, years of smoking, and pack-years), the cumulative smoking measure (pack-years) was the best predictor of t(14;18) frequency (p=0.004). These observations are consistent with two recent epidemiological studies showing 2.3-fold and 3.8-fold increased risk for Non-Hodgkins lymphoma among heavy smokers. The results support the hypothesis that smokers have an increased burden of lymphocytes bearing bcl-2 mutations which raises their individual risk for future lymphoid tumors. We speculate that the increased frequency of oncogenic translocations in smokers may result either from the mutagenic or antigenic activity of cigarette smoke.

  18. Mood, mood regulation expectancies and frontal systems functioning in current smokers versus never-smokers in China and Australia.

    PubMed

    Lyvers, Michael; Carlopio, Cassandra; Bothma, Vicole; Edwards, Mark S

    2013-11-01

    Indices of mood, mood regulation expectancies and everyday executive functioning were examined in adult current smokers and never-smokers of both genders in Australia (N = 97), where anti-smoking campaigns have dramatically reduced smoking prevalence and acceptability, and in China (N = 222), where smoking prevalence and public acceptance of smoking remain high. Dependent measures included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), the Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) expectancies scale, the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVAs) controlling for demographic and recruitment related variables revealed highly significant differences between current smokers and never-smokers in both countries such that smokers indicated worse moods and poorer functioning than never-smokers on all dependent measures. Chinese smokers scored significantly worse on all dependent measures than Australian smokers whereas Chinese and Australian never-smokers did not differ on any of the same measures. Although nicotine dependence level as measured by FTND was significantly higher in Chinese than Australian smokers and was significantly correlated with all other dependent measures, inclusion of FTND scores as another covariate in MANCOVA did not eliminate the highly significant differences between Chinese and Australian smokers. Results are interpreted in light of the relative ease of taking up and continuing smoking in China compared to Australia today.

  19. [Ascorbic acid consumption and serum levels in smokers and non-smokers adult men in Hermosillo, Sonora, México].

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa Olivia; Wyatt, C Jane; Saavedra, Javier; Ornelas, Alicia

    2002-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the important antioxidant nutrients that can aid in the prevention of oxidative cellular damage. Adequate dietary intake is essential as humans can not synthesize this vitamin. It has been reported that smokers require higher dietary intakes to maintain their serum levels. The objective of this study was to determine serum levels of ascorbic acid in young male smokers and non smokers in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. In addition, their dietary intake of ascorbic acid was determined by a 24 h dietary recall. The dietary intake of ascorbic acid in 12 smokers was 64 +/- 11 mg/d and in 13 non smokers it was 70 +/- 12 mg/d. The smokers in this study did not meet the dietary recommendation of 100 mg/d. Serum ascorbic acid values in smokers and non smokers were 24.2 +/- 6.9 mumol/L and 30.9 +/- 3.7 mumol/L respectively. No significant difference was found among the 2 groups. Although the average serum ascorbic acid values fell within the range considered normal, 50% of the smokers had individual values that were below 23 mumol/L, indicating that these subjects have hipovitaminosis. A positive correlation between intake and serum levels was obtained for smokers (r = 0.71; p = 0.03). The results of this study suggest smokers may be at increased risk for chronic diseases due to their low intake and low serum levels of ascorbic acid.

  20. Hydrothermal Reactivity of Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, K.; Shock, E.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Gould, I.

    2013-12-01

    The reactivity of aqueous amines depends on temperature, pH, and redox state [1], all of which are highly variable in hydrothermal systems. Temperature and pH affect the ratio of protonated to unprotonated amines (R-NH2 + H+ = R-NH3+), which act as nucleophiles and electrophiles, respectively. We hypothesize that this dual nature can explain the pH dependence of reaction rates, and predict that rates will approach a maximum at pH = pKa where the ratio of protonated and unprotonated amines approaches one and the two compounds are poised to react with one another. Higher temperatures in hydrothermal systems allow for more rapid reaction rates, readily reversible reactions, and unique carbon-nitrogen chemistry in which water acts as a reagent in addition to being the solvent. In this study, aqueous benzylamine was used as a model compound to explore the reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and equilibria of amines under hydrothermal conditions. Experiments were carried out in anoxic silica glass tubes at 250°C (Psat) using phosphate-buffered solutions to observe changes in reaction rates and product distributions as a function of pH. The rate of decomposition of benzylamine was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 9, consistent with the prediction that benzylamine acts as both nucleophile and an electrophile, and our estimate that the pKa of benzylamine is ~5 at 250°C and Psat. Accordingly, dibenzylamine is the primary product of the reaction of two benzylamine molecules, and this reaction is readily reversible under hydrothermal conditions. Extremely acidic or basic pH can be used to suppress dibenzylamine production, which also suppresses the formation of all other major products, including toluene, benzyl alcohol, dibenzylimine, and tribenzylamine. This suggests that dibenzylamine is the lone primary product that then itself reacts as a precursor to produce the above compounds. Analog experiments performed with ring-substituted benzylamine derivatives and chiral

  1. The Lassen hydrothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Clor, Laura; Evans, William C.

    2016-01-01

    The active Lassen hydrothermal system includes a central vapor-dominated zone or zones beneath the Lassen highlands underlain by ~240 °C high-chloride waters that discharge at lower elevations. It is the best-exposed and largest hydrothermal system in the Cascade Range, discharging 41 ± 10 kg/s of steam (~115 MW) and 23 ± 2 kg/s of high-chloride waters (~27 MW). The Lassen system accounts for a full 1/3 of the total high-temperature hydrothermal heat discharge in the U.S. Cascades (140/400 MW). Hydrothermal heat discharge of ~140 MW can be supported by crystallization and cooling of silicic magma at a rate of ~2400 km3/Ma, and the ongoing rates of heat and magmatic CO2 discharge are broadly consistent with a petrologic model for basalt-driven magmatic evolution. The clustering of observed seismicity at ~4–5 km depth may define zones of thermal cracking where the hydrothermal system mines heat from near-plastic rock. If so, the combined areal extent of the primary heat-transfer zones is ~5 km2, the average conductive heat flux over that area is >25 W/m2, and the conductive-boundary length <50 m. Observational records of hydrothermal discharge are likely too short to document long-term transients, whether they are intrinsic to the system or owe to various geologic events such as the eruption of Lassen Peak at 27 ka, deglaciation beginning ~18 ka, the eruptions of Chaos Crags at 1.1 ka, or the minor 1914–1917 eruption at the summit of Lassen Peak. However, there is a rich record of intermittent hydrothermal measurement over the past several decades and more-frequent measurement 2009–present. These data reveal sensitivity to climate and weather conditions, seasonal variability that owes to interaction with the shallow hydrologic system, and a transient 1.5- to twofold increase in high-chloride discharge in response to an earthquake swarm in mid-November 2014.

  2. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found for thiocyanate in plasma and urine, and ATCA showed significant differences in plasma and saliva. Additionally, biomarker concentration ratios, correlations between markers of cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  3. Somatotype, physical growth, and sexual maturation in young male smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Lall, K B; Singhi, S; Gurnani, M; Singhi, P; Garg, O P

    1980-01-01

    One thousand school boys aged 8 to 16 were examined for their somatotype, physical growth, sexual maturation, and smoking habits. Fifty-two boys were found to be smokers, of whom 30 were regularly smoking between two and 20 bidis or cigarettes a day for a mean duration of 2.5 years. The mean height and weight of the smokers was significantly lower than that of the non-smokers at all ages, more so in regular than occasional smokers. Sixty-nine per cent of the smokers had mesomorphic type of body build; about 65% of the non-smokers had ectomorphic somatotype (P less than 0.001). Onset of puberty occurred significantly earlier among smokers compared with non-smokers, as was evident from the early appearance of genital stage 2, and an early and rapid increase in testicular size. Genital stage 2 appeared at a mean age of 11 years in smokers and 11.6 years in non-smokers. However, the appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair was delayed. The possible significance of this is discussed. PMID:7241030

  4. Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

    2013-08-05

    In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit.

  5. Impulsivity and Cigarette Craving among Adolescent Daily and Occasional Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Burris, Jessica L.; Froeliger, Brett; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is robustly related to cigarette smoking. While underlying factors that account for this relation are not well understood, craving has been proposed as a central mechanism linking impulsivity to smoking. In order to further refine our understanding of associations between impulsivity and cigarette craving, the current study examined the association between impulsivity and tonic and cue-elicited craving among a sample of adolescent smokers. We expected trait impulsivity would be positively associated with both tonic and cue-elicited craving, and that this relationship would be stronger among daily vs. occasional smokers. Methods 106 smokers (ages 16–20) completed questionnaires and reported their cigarette craving prior to and immediately following presentation of each of three counterbalanced cue types: (a) in vivo smoking, (b) alcohol, and (c) neutral cue. Results Impulsivity was positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers (β=.38; p=.005), but not occasional smokers (β=.01; p=.95), with a significant impulsivity x smoker group interaction (β=1.31; p=.03). Impulsivity was unrelated to craving following smoking or alcohol cue, regardless of smoker group (all p’s>.16). Conclusions Results suggest a moderated effect in which impulsivity is positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers, but not occasional smokers. Tonic craving may serve as a mechanism linking impulsivity, smoking persistence, and nicotine dependence among daily smokers. PMID:25665916

  6. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in asymptomatic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sansores, Raúl H; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; Pérez-Bautista, Oliver; Villalba-Caloca, Jaime; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians do not routinely recommend smokers to undergo spirometry unless they are symptomatic. Objective To test the hypothesis that there are a significant number of asymptomatic smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we estimated the prevalence of COPD in a group of asymptomatic smokers. Methods Two thousand nine hundred and sixty-one smokers with a cumulative consumption history of at least 10 pack-years, either smokers with symptoms or smokers without symptoms (WOS) were invited to perform a spirometry and complete a symptom questionnaire. Results Six hundred and thirty-seven (21.5%) smokers had no symptoms, whereas 2,324 (78.5%) had at least one symptom. The prevalence of COPD in subjects WOS was 1.5% when considering the whole group of smokers (45/2,961) and 7% when considering only the group WOS (45/637). From 329 smokers with COPD, 13.7% were WOS. Subjects WOS were younger, had better lung function and lower cumulative consumption of cigarettes, estimated as both cigarettes per day and pack-years. According to severity of airflow limitation, 69% vs 87% of subjects were classified as Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages I–II in the WOS and smokers with symptoms groups, respectively (P<0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mL) was the only predictive factor for COPD in asymptomatic smokers. Conclusion Prevalence of COPD in asymptomatic smokers is 1.5%. This number of asymptomatic smokers may be excluded from the benefit of an “early” intervention, not just pharmacological but also from smoking cessation counseling. The higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second may contribute to prevent early diagnosis. PMID:26586941

  7. Opioid antagonism of cannabinoid effects: differences between marijuana smokers and nonmarijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    In non-human animals, opioid antagonists block the reinforcing and discriminative-stimulus effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), while in human marijuana smokers, naltrexone (50 mg) enhances the reinforcing and subjective effects of THC. The objective of this study was to test a lower, more opioid-selective dose of naltrexone (12 mg) in combination with THC. The influence of marijuana-use history and sex was also investigated. Naltrexone (0, 12 mg) was administered 30 min before oral THC (0-40 mg) or methadone (0-10 mg) capsules, and subjective effects, task performance, pupillary diameter, and cardiovascular parameters were assessed in marijuana smoking (Study 1; n=22) and in nonmarijuana smoking (Study 2; n=21) men and women. The results show that in marijuana smokers, low-dose naltrexone blunted the intoxicating effects of a low THC dose (20 mg), while increasing ratings of anxiety at a higher THC dose (40 mg). In nonmarijuana smokers, low-dose naltrexone shifted THC's effects in the opposite direction, enhancing the intoxicating effects of a low THC dose (2.5 mg) and decreasing anxiety ratings following a high dose of THC (10 mg). There were no sex differences in these interactions, although among nonmarijuana smokers, men were more sensitive to the effects of THC alone than women. To conclude, a low, opioid-selective dose of naltrexone blunted THC intoxication in marijuana smokers, while in nonmarijuana smokers, naltrexone enhanced THC intoxication. These data demonstrate that the interaction between opioid antagonists and cannabinoid agonists varies as a function of marijuana use history.

  8. Fear-potentiated startle to threat, and prepulse inhibition among young adult non-smokers, abstinent smokers, and non-abstinent smokers

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, Christian; Avenevoli, Shelli; Daurignac, Elsa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that the transition from experimental to regular smoking is facilitated by the influence of tobacco on affective and attentional mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine affective and attentional responses in young adult smokers using fear-potentiated startle and prepulse inhibition. Methods Participants were 56 college non smokers, non-abstinent smokers, and overnight-abstinent smokers. The fear-potentiated startle test examined phasic responses to imminent threat cues and more sustained responses to unpredictable aversive events. Prepulse inhibition investigated responses to attended and ignored prepulse stimuli. Results Abstinent and non-abstinent smokers showed increased sustained potentiation of startle to contextual cues, compared to controls. Abstinent smokers showed increased fear-potentiated startle to threat cues, compared to non-smokers. PPI did not discriminate between abstinent or non-abstinent smokers and controls. Conclusion These findings suggest that negative affectivity or anxiety is associated with smoking, particularly during withdrawal. Potentiated startle may provide a valuable tool in understanding the biologic mechanisms underlying nicotine withdrawal and inform cessation and prevention efforts. PMID:17543892

  9. Racial/ethnic differences in electronic cigarette knowledge, social norms, and risk perceptions among current and former smokers.

    PubMed

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2017-04-01

    Psychosocial factors that may affect electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) initiation or maintenance among racial/ethnic minorities are not well-understood. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and social norms among current and former smokers. Individuals with a tobacco smoking history and an awareness of e-cigarettes (N=285) were recruited from the community from June to August 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, smoking status, and e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and normative beliefs. Analyses of covariance and multinomial logistic regression tested associations by race/ethnicity. Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, White participants scored significantly higher on e-cigarette knowledge, compared to both Hispanics and African Americans/Blacks. Knowledge was lower among African Americans/Blacks compared to Hispanics. Compared to both Whites and Hispanics, African American/Black participants held lower perceptions regarding e-cigarette health risks and were less likely to view e-cigarettes as addictive. Normative beliefs did not differ by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, e-cigarette knowledge, health risk perceptions, and perceived addictiveness differed by race/ethnicity. The variation in e-cigarette knowledge and beliefs among smokers and former smokers has implications for use, and potentially, dual use. Understanding these relationships in unrepresented populations can inform future research and practice.

  10. Does Moralization Motivate Smokers to Quit? A Longitudinal Study of Representative Samples of Smokers in the United States and Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Moralization refers to the gradual cultural and personal process by which objects or activities move from being morally neutral to morally contemptuous. Research suggests important cross-cultural differences in how smokers react to being targets of moralization. However, research has not examined whether smokers who agree with moralized sentiments about smoking are more willing to quit or reduce their smoking. Additionally, the mediating role of perceived personal risk has not been examined. Methods: In this study, representative samples of smokers in Denmark (a smoking lenient country; N = 429) and the United States (a smoking prohibitive country; N = 431) completed surveys 6 months apart. Results: As expected, Danish smokers (compared to U.S. smokers) moralized less and estimated that their personal risk of lung cancer was smaller. Furthermore, moralization at T1 predicted an increase in perceived personal risk at T2 (for Danish smokers and marginally for U.S. smokers), a decrease in smoking behaviors (for Danish smokers only), and an increase in quitting intentions (marginally for Danish smokers only). For Danish smokers, perceived personal risk mediated the relationship between moralization and quitting intentions. Conclusions: Moralization predicted an increase in perceived personal risk, an increase in quitting intentions, and a reduction in smoking behaviors, especially for the Danish sample. Future research should examine the effects of moralization in different cultural contexts. PMID:24907242

  11. Loneliness in HIV-infected smokers

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Moadel, Alyson B.; Kim, Ryung S.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Shuter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Loneliness is common in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Lonely people smoke at higher rates than the general population, and loneliness is a likely contributor to the ongoing smoking epidemic among PLWH. We explored factors associated with loneliness in a cohort of 272 PLWH smokers enrolled in two separate tobacco treatment trials. Loneliness was independently associated with lack of a spouse or partner, lower educational attainment, “other or unknown” HIV exposure category, depression, anxiety, recent alcohol consumption, and higher daily cigarette consumption. Referral to group therapy reduced loneliness whereas referral to an individual web-based tobacco treatment did not. PMID:25298196

  12. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  13. Geomicrobiological exploration and characterization of a novel deep-sea hydrothermal system at the TOTO caldera in the Mariana Volcanic Arc.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Takai, Ken; Suzuki, Yohey; Hirayama, Hisako; Konno, Uta; Tsunogai, Urumu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2006-01-01

    Novel hydrothermal activities accompanying effluent white smokers and elemental sulfur chimney structures at the north-east lava dome of the TOTO caldera depression in the Mariana Volcanic Arc have been explored and characterized by geochemical and microbiological surveys. White smoker hydrothermal fluids were observed in the potential hydrothermal activity centre of the field and represented the maximal temperature of 170 degrees C and the lowest pH of 1.6. The chimney structures, all consisting of elemental sulfur (sulfur chimney), were also unique to the TOTO caldera hydrothermal field. Microbial community structures in a sulfur chimney and its formation hydrothermal fluid with a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide (15 mM) have been investigated by culture-dependent and -independent analyses. 16S rRNA gene clone analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that epsilon-Proteobacteria dominated the microbial communities in the sulfur chimney structure and formed a dense microbial mat covering the sulfur chimney surface. Archaeal phylotypes were consistently minor components in the communities and related to the genera Thermococcus, Pyrodictium, Aeropyrum, and the uncultivated archaeal group of 'deep-sea hydrothermal vent euryarchaeotal group'. Cultivation analysis suggested that the chemolithoautotrophs might play a significant ecological role as primary producers utilizing gas and sulfur compounds provided from hydrothermal fluids.

  14. Comparison of Army Flight School Performance in Smokers and Nonsmokers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    memory function in smokers, and Hull (1924) found an increase in arithmetic ability among smokers compared to nonsmokers. Ague ’ (1974) found that smokers...9 Bibliography Ague ’, C. 1974. Cardiovascular variables, skin conductance and time estimation: Changes after the administration of small doses of...Relation to the Tasks of Today’s Aircrew . North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Report No. AGARD-CP-152. (February) Elgerot, A. 1976. Note on selective

  15. Oral exfoliative cytology in female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C R; Sarma, P R; Kameswari, V R

    1975-01-01

    1. The Karyopyknotic index of the palatal and lingual mucosa is increased in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 2. The Karyopyknotic index of the buccal mucosa did not show any change in female reverse smokers when compared to non-smoking females. 3. The Karyopyknotic index did not show any change with age in the non-smoking females. 4. Very few cases show epithelial atypia in palatal smears from female reverse smokers having stomatitis nicotina.

  16. Hydrothermal reactivity of saponite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, G.

    1983-01-01

    The nature and extent of the reactions of synthetic Fe-free saponite have been investigated under experimental hydrothermal conditions as a first step towards understanding saponite reactivity under relatively simple conditions. Saponite crystallizes from amorphous gel of ideal saponite composition within 7 days at 300o-550oC under P = 1 kbar. Reactions subsequent to this initial crystallization depend on reaction T and interlayer cations. Saponite is found to react hydrothermally, over a period of 200 days, at T down to 400oC, at least 150oC lower than previously reported, but showed no signs of reaction below 400oC. At 450oC, a mixture of talc/saponite and saponite/phlogopite clays forms from K-saponite via intracrystalline layer transformations, while above 450oC the initial K-saponite dissolves, with talc and phlogopite forming as discrete phases. After 200 days reactions at 400-450oC were not complete, so that given sufficient time to reach equilibrium, a lower hydrothermal stability limit for saponite is possible. Further study of the Fe-bearing saponite system will be required before experimental results can be applied to natural systems.-D.F.B.

  17. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  18. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  19. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  20. Evolution of the Mothra Hydrothermal Field, Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickson, D.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Mothra Hydrothermal Field (MHF) is a 600 m long, high-temperature hydrothermal field. It is located 2.7 km south of the Main Endeavour Field at the southern end of the central Endeavour Segment. Mothra is the most areally extensive field along the Endeavour Segment, composed of six active sulfide clusters that are 40-200 m apart. Each cluster contains rare black smokers (venting up to 319°C), numerous diffusely venting chimneys, and abundant extinct chimneys and sulfide talus. From north to south, these clusters include Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, Crab Basin, Cuchalainn, and Stonehenge. As part of the Endeavour Integrated Study Site (ISS), the MHF is a site of intensive interdisciplinary studies focused on linkages among geology, geochemistry, fluid chemistry, seismology, and microbiology. Axial valley geology at MHF is structurally complex, consisting of lightly fissured flows that abut the walls and surround a core of extensively fissured, collapsed terrain. Fissure abundance and distribution indicates that tectonism has been the dominant process controlling growth of the axial graben. Past magmatic activity is shown by the 200 m long chain of collapse basins between Crab Basin and Stonehenge, which may have held at least ~7500 m3 of lava. Assuming a flow thickness of 0.5 m, this amount of lava could cover over half the valley floor during a single volcanic event. At a local scale, MHF clusters vary in size, activity, and underlying geology. They range in size from 400-1600 m2 and consist of isolated chimneys and/or coalesced cockscomb arrays atop ramps of sulfide talus. In the northern part of the field, Cauldron, Twin Peaks, Faulty Towers, and Crab Basin are located near the western valley wall, bounded by basalt talus and a combination of collapsed sheet flows, intermixed lobate and sulfide, disrupted terrain, and isolated pillow ridges. The southern clusters, Cuchalainn and Stonehenge, are associated with collapse basins in the central valley

  1. Yamadazyma barbieri f.a. sp. nov., an ascomycetous anamorphic yeast isolated from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal site (-2300 m) and marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Coton, Monika; Jacques, Noémie; Debaets, Stella; Maciel, Natália O P; Rosa, Carlos A; Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo; Casaregola, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Two yeast strains that are members of the same species were isolated from different marine habitats, i.e. one from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ocean water samples located in the direct vicinity of black smokers near the Rainbow deep-sea hydrothermal vent and one from Brazilian marine water samples off the Ipanema beach. Strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts affiliated to the Yamadazyma clade of Saccharomycetales. Interestingly, these strains were phylogenetically and distinctly positioned into a group of species comprising all species of the genus Yamadazyma isolated from marine habitats including deep-sea hydrothermal vents, i.e.Candida atmosphaerica,C. spencermartinsiae,C. atlantica,C. oceani and C. taylorii. These strains differed significantly in their D1/D2 domain sequences of the LSU rRNA gene from the closely related species mentioned above, by 2.6, 3.0, 3.4, 3.8 and 6.0 %, respectively. Internal transcribed spacer region sequence divergence was also significant and corresponded to 4.6, 4.7, 4.7, 12.0 and 24.7 % with C. atlantica,C. atmosphaerica, C. spencermartinsiae,C. oceani and C. taylorii, respectively. Phenotypically, strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 could be distinguished from closely related species by their inability to assimilate l-sorbose. CLIB 1964T (=CBS 14301T=UBOCC-A-214001T) is the designated type strain for Yamadazyma barbieri sp. nov. The MycoBank number is MB 815884.

  2. Lutibacter profundi sp. nov., isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal system on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge and emended description of the genus Lutibacter.

    PubMed

    Le Moine Bauer, Sven; Roalkvam, Irene; Steen, Ida Helene; Dahle, Hakon

    2016-04-26

    A bacterial strain, designated LP1T, was isolated from a microbial mat growing on the surface of a black smoker chimney at the Loki's Castle hydrothermal system, which is located on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences positioned strain LP1T within the family Flavobacteriaceae with Lutibacter holmesii as the closest relative (97.5 % 16S rRNA gene similarity). Strain LP1T was rod-shaped, Gram-staining negative and non-motile. It grew in a modified artificial seawater medium supplemented with tryptone and vitamins at pH 5.5-7.5 (optimum at 6 - 6.5), within a temperature range of 13-34 °C (optimum at 23 °C), and under microaerophilic or aerobic conditions. The most abundant fatty acids (>10%) were iso-C15:0 (25.2%) and iso-C15:0 3-OH (14.5%). The genome has a DNA G+C content of 29.8 mol%. Based on the results of the polyphasic characterization presented here, strain LP1T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Lutibacter, for which the name Lutibacter profundi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LP1T (=DSM 100437T =JCM 30585 T). The genus Lutibacter has been amended to fit the description of strain LP1T.

  3. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase (Nar) in pure cultures and microbial communities from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Bohnert, Kenneth A; Cuebas, Mariola; Keddis, Ramaydalis; Vetriani, Costantino

    2013-11-01

    Over the past few years the relevance of nitrate respiration in microorganisms from deep-sea hydrothermal vents has become evident. In this study, we surveyed the membrane-bound nitrate reductase (Nar) encoding gene in three different deep-sea vent microbial communities from the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Additionally, we tested pure cultures of vent strains for their ability to reduce nitrate and for the presence of the NarG-encoding gene in their genomes. By using the narG gene as a diagnostic marker for nitrate-reducing bacteria, we showed that nitrate reductases related to Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Marinobacter were numerically prevalent in the clone libraries derived from a black smoker and a diffuse flow vent. In contrast, NarG sequences retrieved from a community of filamentous bacteria located about 50 cm above a diffuse flow vent revealed the presence of a yet to be identified group of enzymes. 16S rRNA gene-inferred community compositions, in accordance with previous studies, showed a shift from Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria to Epsilonproteobacteria as the vent fluids become warmer and more reducing. Based on these findings, we argue that Nar-catalyzed nitrate reduction is likely relevant in temperate and less reducing environments where Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria are more abundant and where nitrate concentrations reflect that of background deep seawater.

  4. A modeling approach of the influence of local hydrodynamic conditions on larval dispersal at hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Bailly-Bechet, Marc; Kerszberg, Michel; Gaill, Françoise; Pradillon, Florence

    2008-12-07

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent animal communities along oceanic ridges are both patchy and transient. Larval dispersal is a key factor in understanding how these communities function and are maintained over generations. To date, numerical approaches simulating larval dispersal considered the effect of oceanic currents on larval transportation over hundreds of kilometers but very seldom looked at the effect of local conditions within meters around chimneys. However, small scale significant variations in the hydrodynamics may influence larval fate in its early stages after release, and hence have a knock-on effect on both dispersal and colonization processes. Here we present a new numerical approach to the study of larval dispersal, considering small scales within the range of the biological communities, called "bio-hydrodynamical" scale, and ranging from a few centimeters to a few meters around hydrothermal sources. We use a physical model for the vent based on jet theory and compute the turbulent velocity field around the smoker. Larvae are considered as passive particles whose trajectories are affected by hydrodynamics, topography of the vent chimney and larval biological properties. Our model predicts that bottom currents often dominate all other factors either by entraining all larvae away from the vent or enforcing strong colonization rates. When bottom currents are very slow (<1 mms(-1)), general larvae motion is upwards due to entrainment by the main smoker jet. In this context, smokers with vertical slopes favor retention of larvae because larval initial trajectory is nearly parallel to the smoker wall, which increases the chances to settle. This retention phenomenon is intensified with increasing velocity of the main smoker jet because entrainment in the high velocity plume is preceded by a phase when larvae are attracted towards the smoker wall, which occurs earlier with higher velocity of the main jet. Finally, the buoyancy rate of the larvae, measured to be

  5. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    P. Kolte, Abhay; A. Kolte, Rajashri; N. Lathiya, Vrushali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and severe. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001). The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association. PMID:28096949

  6. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    P Kolte, Abhay; A Kolte, Rajashri; N Lathiya, Vrushali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and severe. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001). The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  7. [Occupational exposure and lung cancer in smokers].

    PubMed

    Mahuad, R; Pezotto, S; Poletto, L

    1994-06-01

    High male lung cancer incidence and mortality in Rosario city, Argentina, have been found in previous studies. A project was undertaken for the purpose of evaluating the life-time occupational history as well as the duration and intensity of cigarette smoking as determinants of histologic cell types in 211 male patients with primary lung cancer. Their histologic cell types were: squamous 39%, adenocarcinoma 29%, small cell 18%, and others and not specified 14%. An association was found between histologic cell types and occupations (p < 0.0001), adenocarcinoma being more prevalent in office personnel, teachers, accountants, lawyers, and squamous in the other, supposedly dirtier working environments, mainly in those men who had begun to work in farming and later transferred to mechanics and metallurgy. These latter ones were diagnosed at a younger age than those in other occupations, with a significant difference for squamous and small cell. No differences in the smoking intensity were found between the occupational groups. The mean age these patients began to smoke at was 15 years for those with squamous and small cell, and 17 years for those with adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001). An interesting finding was the difference at their mean-age at diagnosis, 58 years for smokers and 68 for ex-smokers (p < 0.0001). Studies are needed to elucidate the interplay of risk factors in the etiology of histologic subtypes of lung cancer.

  8. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities.

  9. Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

  10. Organic matter in hydrothermal metal ores and hydrothermal fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Spiker, E. C.; Kotra, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Massive polymetallic sulfides are currently being deposited around active submarine hydrothermal vents associated with spreading centers. Chemoautolithotrophic bacteria are responsible for the high production of organic matter also associated with modern submarine hydrothermal activity. Thus, there is a significant potential for organic matter/metal interactions in these systems. We have studied modern and ancient hydrothermal metal ores and modern hydrothermal fluids in order to establish the amounts and origin of the organic matter associated with the metal ores. Twenty-six samples from modern and ancient hydrothermal systems were surveyed for their total organic C contents. Organic C values ranged from 0.01% to nearly 4.0% in these samples. Metal ores from modern and ancient sediment-covered hydrothermal systems had higher organic C values than those from modern and ancient hydrothermal systems lacking appreciable sedimentary cover. One massive pyrite sample from the Galapagos spreading center (3% organic C) had stable isotope values of -27.4% (??13C) and 2.1% (??15N), similar to those in benthic siphonophors from active vents and distinct from seep sea sedimentary organic matter. This result coupled with other analyses (e.g. 13C NMR, pyrolysis/GC, SEM) of this and other samples suggests that much of the organic matter may originate from chemoautolithotrophic bacteria at the vents. However, the organic matter in hydrothermal metal ores from sediment covered vents probably arises from complex sedimentary organic matter by hydrothermal pyrolysis. The dissolved organic C concentrations of hydrothermal fluids from one site (Juan de Fuca Ridge) were found to be the same as that of background seawater. This result may indicate that dissolved organic C is effectively scavenged from hydrothermal fluids by biological activity or by co-precipitation with metal ores. ?? 1990.

  11. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with

  12. Does Hydrothermal Circulation Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S.; von Herzen, R. P.; Fisher, A. T.

    2006-05-01

    Determining Earth's energy budget and the sources and mechanisms for heat transfer within it depends largely on assumptions of the heat loss from the formation and cooling of oceanic lithosphere, which covers about 60% of Earth's surface. Recently Hofmeister and Criss (2005) have suggested that the total global heat flow is about 30 TW, about 25% less than previously estimated by Pollack et al. (1993). The main difference between the two estimates is whether the effects of heat transfer by hydrothermal circulation are included. Thermal models describe the evolution of the lithosphere by the conductive cooling of hot material as it moves away from spreading centers. The frequently used half-space (boundary layer) and "plate" models generally successfully represent heat flow, depth, and geoid values with age, and depth-dependent properties such as flexural thickness, maximum depth of intraplate earthquakes, and lithospheric thickness. However, such models overpredict the measured heat flow from ridge crest to about 65 Myr crust. This difference is generally assumed to reflect water flow in the crust transporting heat, as shown by the spectacular hot springs at midocean ridges. If so, the observed heat flow is lower than the model's predictions, which assume that all heat is transferred by conduction. Because hydrothermal heat transport is hard to quantify, heat flow is about 50% larger than directly measured. This estimate is consistent with observations of hydrothermal circulation which indicate that the discrepancy is largely a result of the water fluxing along the oceanic basement and upwelling at isolated basement highs and outcrops. Detailed studies at such areas often show high heat flow near these outcrops and low heat flow in the surrounding areas. Hence isolated measurements are biased towards lower values and underpredict the total heat flow.

  13. Recruiting Unmotivated Smokers into a Smoking Induction Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…

  14. Faculty and Student Views of College Student Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Authier, Charlene; Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Chambliss, Catherine

    Seventy-two nonsmoker and four smoker college faculty/staff members and 160 nonsmoker and 52 smoker college students from a small liberal arts college in a suburban area in the Northeast United States completed a 15-item survey concerning views of smoking. Participants were asked to rate "when you watch someone else smoke, how do they appear?" on…

  15. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  16. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  17. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  18. Functional small airways defence in symptomless cigarette smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Pavia, D; Clarke, S W

    1986-01-01

    Smoking induced changes in the secretory cells of bronchiolar epithelium by facilitating secretion of cross linked glycoprotein mucus may influence the efficiency of mucus-cilia coupling. The functional impact on mucociliary transport in small (peripheral) airways has been studied by comparing data on aerosol deposition and clearance from symptomless cigarette smokers (30 tests, 18 subjects) with data from age matched non-smokers (30 tests, 19 subjects). Gamma camera images, assessed in terms of a penetration index comparing peripheral with inner zone deposition, indicated closely similar initial deposition in the two groups. Alveolar deposition, however, assessed in terms of particle retention at 24 hours, was significantly (p less than 0.01) less in the smokers. Given the similarity of initial deposition, this implies that an increased proportion of small conducting airways are protected by mucociliary defence in the smokers' lungs. Clearance from conducting airways of the peripheral zone in tests with relatively high peripheral deposition (14 tests on smokers, and 12 on non-smokers) nevertheless proceeded at the same rate in smokers as in non-smokers. PMID:3787532

  19. Cody hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    The hot springs of Colter's Hell are the surface manifestations of a much larger hydothermal system. That system has been studied to define its extent, maximum temperature, and mechanism of operation. The study area covers 2700 km/sup 2/ (1040 mi/sup 2/) in northwest Wyoming. Research and field work included locating and sampling the hot springs, geologic mapping, thermal logging of available wells, measuring thermal conductivities, analyzing over 200 oil and gas well bottom-hole temperatures, and compiling and analyzing hydrologic data. These data were used to generate a model for the hydrothermal system.

  20. Enceladus: Starting Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Davies, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a process for starting the hydrothermal activity in Enceladus' South Polar Region. The process takes advantage of fissures that reach the water table, about 1 kilometer below the surface. Filling these fissures with fresh ocean water initiates a flow of water up from an ocean that can be self-sustaining. In this hypothesis the heat to sustain the thermal anomalies and the plumes comes from a slightly warm ocean at depth. The heat is brought to the surface by water that circulates up, through the crust and then returns to the ocean.

  1. Current and never smokers: differentials in characteristics, knowledge and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Youssef, R M; Abou-Khatwa, S A; Fouad, H M

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional interview survey of tobacco use was conducted in Alexandria, Egypt, comparing current smokers with never smokers. Among men, the risk of current tobacco use was significantly higher among married participants (OR = 1.74), especially those with low educational or occupational status. In contrast, although few women smoked, tobacco use was significantly higher among those holding a university degree (OR = 15.33). Never smokers were significantly more knowledgeable than current smokers about tobacco-related health hazards. Never smokers had significantly better perceptions of the danger of tobacco use, susceptibility to health-related hazards and the benefits of being tobacco-free. Multivariate analysis revealed that tobacco use is independently predicted by participants' sex, age and educational attainment as well as their perceptions.

  2. Leukokeratosis nicotina glossi-smokers' tongue.

    PubMed

    Farman, A G; Van Wyk, C W

    1977-12-01

    "Leukokeratosis nicotina glossi" or "smokers' tongue" is a homogeneous leukoplakia with evenly distributed pin-point hemispherical depressions. Histologically, there is a loss of glossal papillae, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of large drop-shaped rete pegs with central clefting and occasional parakeratotic plugging. Mitotic activity and atypia are not marked and there is no evidence of Candida species infection. In some respects the lesion histologically resembles verrucous carcinoma but, unlike that condition, papillomatosis is not clinically noticeable and an invasive "leading edge" is not apparent. All but one of the subjects in which the lesion was seen were men, all had concurrent leukokeratosis nicotina palati and two gave histories of laryngeal carcinoma.

  3. Hair cadmium level of smoker and non-smoker human volunteers in and around Calcutta City

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Samaddar, K.R. ); Joshi, H.C. )

    1990-08-01

    In recent years considerable interest has arisen concerning cadmium accumulation in man. In general, the body burden of cadmium of an urban population is due to occupational exposure, as well as non-occupational contamination. Several reports indicate that cadmium body burden of cigarette smokers or tobacco users is more than of non-smokers. Measurement of cadmium in human hair has been suggested as an indicator of body burden. Most industrialized countries have regular monitoring programs for measuring cadmium accumulation in humans. There has been little or no work done thus far in India regarding the level of cadmium in humans. The objective of this investigation was to survey the levels of cadmium in hair of random samples of human volunteers. The influences of smoking habits, urban or rural life and age of the volunteers on the level of cadmium in hair were examined.

  4. Gene expression subtraction of non-cancerous lung from smokers and non-smokers with adenocarcinoma, as a predictor for smokers developing lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stav, David; Bar, Ilan; Sandbank, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in developed countries. Adenocarcinoma is becoming the most common form of lung cancer. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for lung cancer. Long-term cigarettes smoking may be characterized by genetic alteration and diffuse injury of the airways surface, named field cancerization, while cancer in non-smokers is usually clonally derived. Detecting specific genes expression changes in non-cancerous lung in smokers with adenocarcinoma may give us instrument for predicting smokers who are going to develop this malignancy. Objectives We described the gene expression in non-cancerous lungs from 21 smoker patients with lung adenocarcinoma and compare it to gene expression in non-cancerous lung tissue from 10 non-smokers with primary lung adenocarcinoma. Methods Total RNA was isolated from peripheral non-cancerous lung tissue. The cDNA was hybridized to the U133A GeneChip array. Hierarchical clustering analysis on genes obtained from smokers and non-smokers, after subtracting were exported to the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software for further analysis. Results The genes subtraction resulted in disclosure of 36 genes with high score. They were subsequently mapped and sorted based on location, cellular components, and biochemical activity. The gene functional analysis disclosed 20 genes, which are involved in cancer process (P = 7.05E-5 to 2.92E-2). Conclusion Detected genes may serve as a predictor for smokers who may be at high risk of developing lung cancer. In addition, since these genes originating from non-cancerous lung, which is the major area of the lungs, a sample from an induced sputum may represent it. PMID:18811983

  5. Smoker Characteristics and Smoking-Cessation Milestones

    PubMed Central

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Piper, Megan E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Roberts, Linda J.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual variables often predict long-term abstinence, but little is known about how these variables exert their effects. These variables could influence abstinence by affecting the ability to quit at all, or by altering risk of lapsing, or progressing from a lapse to relapse. Purpose To examine the effect of common predictors of smoking-cessation failure on smoking-cessation processes. Methods The current study (N = 1504, 58% female, 84% Caucasian; recruited from January 2005 to June 2007; data analyzed in 2009) uses the approach advocated by Shiffman et al., (2006), which measures cessation outcomes on three different cessation milestones (achieving initial abstinence, lapse risk, and the lapse-relapse transition) to examine relationships of smoker characteristics (dependence, contextual and demographic factors) with smoking-cessation process. Results High nicotine dependence strongly predicted all milestones: not achieving initial abstinence, and a higher risk of both lapse and transitioning from lapse to complete relapse. Numerous contextual and demographic variables were associated with higher initial cessation rates and/or decreased lapse risk at 6 months post-quit (e.g., ethnicity, gender, marital status, education, smoking in the workplace, number of smokers in the social network, and number of supportive others). However, aside from nicotine dependence, only gender significantly predicted the risk of transition from lapse to relapse. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that: (1) higher nicotine dependence predicted worse outcomes across every cessation milestone; (2) demographic and contextual variables are generally associated with initial abstinence rates and lapse risk and not the lapse-relapse transition. These results identify groups who are at risk for failure at specific stages of the smoking-cessation process, and this may have implications for treatment. PMID:21335259

  6. Sex-Related Cochlear Impairment in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lisowska, Grażyna; Jochem, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Agata; Misiołek, Maciej; Ścierski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Background A number of studies have documented the influence of cigarette smoking on hearing. However, the association between sex and hearing impairment in smokers as measured by otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to analyze sex-specific effects of smoking on hearing via conventional and ultra-high-frequency pure tone audiometry (PTA), and OAEs, specifically spontaneous OAEs, click-evoked OAEs, and distortion-product OAEs. Material/Methods The study included 84 healthy volunteers aged 25–45 years (mean 34), among them 46 women (25 non-smokers and 21 smokers) and 38 men (16 non-smokers and 22 smokers). The protocol of the study included otoscopic examination, tympanometry, low-, moderate-, and ultra-high-frequency PTA, evaluation of spontaneous click-evoked (CEAOEs) and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), assessment of the DP-grams for 2f1-f2 (f1 from 977 to5 164 Hz), and input/output function at L2 primary tone level of 40–70 dB SPL. Results Smokers and non-smokers did not differ significantly in terms of their hearing thresholds assessed with tone audiometry. Male smokers presented with significantly lower levels of CEAOEs and DPOAEs than both male non-smokers and female smokers. Conclusions Smoking does not modulate a hearing threshold determined with PTA at low, moderate, and ultra-high frequencies, but causes a significant decrease in OAE levels. This effect was observed only in males, which implies that they are more susceptible to smoking-induced hearing impairment. Sex-specific differences in otoacoustic emissions level may reflect influences of genetic, hormonal, behavioral, and/or environmental factors. PMID:28110343

  7. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Zhou, Yalu; Schwartz, Joel L.; Adami, Guy R.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic. PMID:26544609

  8. Similar Squamous Cell Carcinoma Epithelium microRNA Expression in Never Smokers and Ever Smokers.

    PubMed

    Kolokythas, Antonia; Zhou, Yalu; Schwartz, Joel L; Adami, Guy R

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral tumors in patients who never used mutagenic agents such as tobacco is increasing. In an effort to better understand these tumors we studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in tumor epithelium of never tobacco users, tumor epithelium of ever tobacco users, and nonpathological control oral epithelium. A comparison of levels among 372 miRNAs in 12 never tobacco users with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) versus 10 healthy controls was made using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A similar analysis was done with 8 ever tobacco users with OSCC. These comparisons revealed miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-31-5p as enriched in the tumor epithelium in OSCC of both never and ever tobacco users. Examination of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project miRNA data on 305 OSCCs and 30 controls revealed 100% of those miRNAs enriched in never smoker OSCCs in this patient group were also enriched in ever smoker OSCCs. Nonsupervised clustering of TCGA OSCCs was suggestive of two or four subgroups of tumors based on miRNA levels with limited evidence for differences in tobacco exposure among the groups. Results from both patient groups together stress the importance of miR196a-5p in OSCC malignancy in both never and ever smokers, and emphasize the overall similarity of miRNA expression in OSCCs in these two risk groups. It implies that there may be great similarity in etiology of OSCC in never and ever smokers and that classifying OSCC based on tobacco exposure may not be helpful in the clinic.

  9. A study of deterioration of pulmonary function parameters among smokers and recovery among ex-smokers in bus depot workers.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, B Sudha; Sunitha, M S; Nataraj, S M; Dhar, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has deleterious effects on Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) parameters; however, evidences about recovery in ex-smokers are ambiguous. Therefore present study was conducted to quantify relative deterioration of PFT parameters and to assess reversibility of the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 bus-depot workers consisting of equal number of smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. PFT observations were obtained using Medspiror following standard methods and precautions. Comparisons among three groups were performed employing one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests. There were substantial effects of smoking on PFT parameters (deterioration was up-to half). Partial recovery was found in all the parameters of ex-smokers. Frequency and duration of smoking were negatively correlated with some of the parameters. In conclusion, present study has demonstrated considerable deterioration of PFT parameters in smokers and indications of recovery in ex-smokers. Further detailed study with larger sample size and stricter definition of ex-smokers is recommended.

  10. Hydrothermal processes above the Yellowstone magma chamber: Large hydrothermal systems and large hydrothermal explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, W.C. Pat; Pierce, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal explosions are violent and dramatic events resulting in the rapid ejection of boiling water, steam, mud, and rock fragments from source craters that range from a few meters up to more than 2 km in diameter; associated breccia can be emplaced as much as 3 to 4 km from the largest craters. Hydrothermal explosions occur where shallow interconnected reservoirs of steam- and liquid-saturated fluids with temperatures at or near the boiling curve underlie thermal fields. Sudden reduction in confi ning pressure causes fluids to fl ash to steam, resulting in signifi cant expansion, rock fragmentation, and debris ejection. In Yellowstone, hydrothermal explosions are a potentially signifi cant hazard for visitors and facilities and can damage or even destroy thermal features. The breccia deposits and associated craters formed from hydrothermal explosions are mapped as mostly Holocene (the Mary Bay deposit is older) units throughout Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and are spatially related to within the 0.64-Ma Yellowstone caldera and along the active Norris-Mammoth tectonic corridor. In Yellowstone, at least 20 large (>100 m in diameter) hydrothermal explosion craters have been identifi ed; the scale of the individual associated events dwarfs similar features in geothermal areas elsewhere in the world. Large hydrothermal explosions in Yellowstone have occurred over the past 16 ka averaging ??1 every 700 yr; similar events are likely in the future. Our studies of large hydrothermal explosion events indicate: (1) none are directly associated with eruptive volcanic or shallow intrusive events; (2) several historical explosions have been triggered by seismic events; (3) lithic clasts and comingled matrix material that form hydrothermal explosion deposits are extensively altered, indicating that explosions occur in areas subjected to intense hydrothermal processes; (4) many lithic clasts contained in explosion breccia deposits preserve evidence of repeated fracturing

  11. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  12. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  13. Oesophageal cancer in never-smokers and never-drinkers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K K; Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Lam, T H

    1995-03-16

    Alcohol, tobacco and diet are the most important determinants of oesophageal cancer. Previous studies which examined smoking in non-drinkers and drinking in non-smokers did not report the main effects of dietary factors or the smoking and drinking effects adjusted for dietary factors. Data from a hospital-based case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese were used to examine the effects of dietary variables as well as tobacco and alcohol in never-drinkers and never-smokers. Among the 400 cases, there were 68 never-smokers and 53 never-drinkers; 540 were never-smokers and 407 were never-drinkers among 1598 controls. In never-smokers, alcohol drinking was strongly associated with risk. Use of green leafy vegetables and citrus fruits was protective. Among never-drinkers, smokers had increased risk, but the protective effect of vegetables and fruits did not reach statistical significance. In never-smokers and in never-drinkers alike, frequent consumption of pickled vegetables and being born in Teochew or Hokkien were associated with increased risks. This study provides further support for the independent effects of alcohol, tobacco and diet in oesophageal cancer.

  14. It's complicated: Examining smokers' relationships with their cigarette brands.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Schmitt, Carol L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers' attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers' attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and "top of mind" worksheets, the discussion examined participants' attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: MOLECULAR PROFILES AND THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rudin, Charles M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Harris, Curtis C.; Herman, James G.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Pao, William; Schwartz, Ann G.; Vahakangas, Kirsi H.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of lung cancers are caused by long term exposure to the several classes of carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. While a significant fraction of lung cancers in never smokers may also be attributable to tobacco, many such cancers arise in the absence of detectable tobacco exposure, and may follow a very different cellular and molecular pathway of malignant transformation. Recent studies summarized here suggest that lung cancers arising in never smokers have a distinct natural history, profile of oncogenic mutations, and response to targeted therapy. The majority of molecular analyses of lung cancer have focused on genetic profiling of pathways responsible for metabolism of primary tobacco carcinogens. Limited research has been conducted evaluating familial aggregation and genetic linkage of lung cancer, particularly among never smokers in whom such associations might be expected to be strongest. Data emerging over the past several years demonstrates that lung cancers in never smokers are much more likely to carry activating mutations of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a key oncogenic factor and direct therapeutic target of several newer anti-cancer drugs. EGFR mutant lung cancers may represent a distinct class of lung cancers, enriched in the never smoking population, and less clearly linked to direct tobacco carcinogenesis. These insights followed initial testing and demonstration of efficacy of EGFR-targeted drugs. Focused analysis of molecular carcinogenesis in lung cancers in never smokers is needed, and may provide additional biologic insight with therapeutic implications for lung cancers in both ever smokers and never smokers. PMID:19755392

  16. Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2degN, 33.9degW). The cells of strain OGL-20P(T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within a pH range of 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), an NaCl concentration range of 1-5%(w/v) (optimum 3%)and a temperature range of 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, Fe(III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, Casamino acids and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloram phenicol, kanamycin and gentamicin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G + C content of the DNA is 52.9 mol% The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, for which we propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (=JCM 12859(exp T) = DSM 14981(exp T)=ATCC BAA-394(exp T)).

  17. Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. Nov., a Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-reducing Archaeon from a Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Marsic, Damien; Itoh, Takashi; Bej, Asim K.; Tang, Jane; Whitman, William B.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    A hyperthermophilic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P was isolated from black smoker chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N, 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3%), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). The novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent upon elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor, but it does not reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products (peptone, bacto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract) are utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 52.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is closely related to Thermococcus coalescens and related species, but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, we conclude that strain OGL-20P(sup T) represents a new separate species within the genus Thermococcus, and propose the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = JCM 12859(sup T) = DSM 14981(sup T)).

  18. Thermococcus Thioreducens sp. nov., A Novel Hyperthermophilic, Obligately Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon from a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Bej, Asim K.; Garriott, Owen

    2003-01-01

    A novel hyperthermophilic organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P(sup T), was isolated from 'black smoker' chimney material from the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P(sup T) have an irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth was observed to occur within the pH range 5.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), NaCl concentration range 1-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3 %), and temperature range 55-94 C (optimum 83-85 C). Novel isolate is strictly anaerobic and obligately dependent from elemental sulfur as electron acceptor, but it cannot reduce sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, iron (III) or nitrate. Proteolysis products that can be utilized as substrates during sulfur-reduction are: peptone, bactotryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract. Strain OGL-20P(sup T) is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin, but sensitive to tetracycline and rifampicin. The G+C content of DNA is 57.1 mol% . Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain OGL-20P(sup T) is most closely related to Thermococcus celer and 'T. barossii', but no significant homology by DNA-DNA hybridization was observed between those species and the new isolate. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties of the new isolate, the name Thermococcus thioreducens sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is OGL-20P(sup T) (= ATCC BAA-394(sup T) = DSM 1498(sup T)).

  19. Thermococcus sulfurophilus sp. nov., a New Hyperthermophilic, Sulfur-Reducing Archaeon Isolated from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Whitman, William B.; Marsic, Damien; Garriott, Owen; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfur-reducing, organo-heterotrophic archaeon, strain OGL-20P, was isolated from "black smoker" chimney material at the Rainbow hydrothermal vent site in the Atlantic Ocean (36.2 N; 33.9 W). The cells of strain OGL-20P have irregular coccoid shape and are motile with a single flagellum. Growth occurs within pH range of 5.5-8.2 (optimal at pH 7.0-7.2), salinity range of 1-5% NaCl (optimal concentration 3% NaCl wt/vol), and temperature range of +55 C to +94 C (optimal growth at +83 C to +85 C). Strain OGL-20P is resistant to freezing (at -20 C). New isolate is strictly anaerobic with sulfur-type of respiration. A limited number of compounds are utilized as electron donors, including peptone, becto-tryptone, casamino-acids, and yeast extract but does not grow with separate amino acids. Sulfur and Iron can be used as electron acceptors; but not sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate or nitrate. Strain OGL-20P is resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamycin. Growth of str. OGL20P is inhibited by tetracyclin but not by Na2MoO4. The G+C content of DNA is 57.2 mol%. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis allows one to classify strain OGL-20P as a representative of a now species of Thermococcus genus. The name Thermococcus sulfurophilus op. nov., was suggested for the new isolate, type strain OGL-20P (sup T) (= ATCC BAA_394 (sup T) = DSM...(supT)).

  20. En Echelon Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. P.; Carr, P. M.; Daniels, D. L.; Sutphin, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    En echelon hydrothermal systems develop within the porous rocks that surround, in three-dimensions, their distinctive plan-form and cross-sectional basaltic intrusion geometry. Examples that span several (self-similar) spatial scales include the en echelon off-set area of the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; the Northeast Rift Zone of Mauna Loa Volcano; the intrusive-eruptive fissures of the Krafla Central Volcano, Northeast Iceland; the ensemble of the three Icelandic central volcanoes Theistarekir-Krafla-Fremrinamur; major segments of the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; and several paleo-hydrothermal systems of the Mesozoic basins of eastern North America, including the Culpeper Basin. An en echelon hydrothermal system comprises two or more en echelon--arranged magma-filled fractures enclosed in a fluid-saturated porous matrix. Blocks of country rock between individual offset fracture segments are similarly porous and fluid-saturated. In 3-D, the system resembles the fan blades of a turbine rotor, with blades (dikes) emanating from a deep "master" fracture and turning smoothly in response to the local variations in the least compressive regional stress component. The primary geometric, hydrologic and thermal attributes of the system (on a horizontal plane) include dike thickness, dike-to-dike offset and overlap, the (initial) intrusion temperature, duration of magma flow, dike widths and lengths, the mean seepage velocity of regional subsurface aqueous fluid flow, and the mean flow azimuth in relationship to the plan-form geometry of the en echelon array. Finite element single phase models in horizontal cross-section have been developed for dike widths of 100 m, dike lengths of 1,500 m, overlaps of 500 m, dike-to-dike offsets of 500 m, intrusion temperatures of 1,200 C, horizontal seepage fluxes imposed at the sides of ~ 1,000 g cm-2 yr-1, and a matrix permeability of 10-14 m2. The regional flow field has been parameterized in dike

  1. In axial spondyloarthritis, never smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers show a gradient of increasing disease severity - results from the Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis (SIRAS).

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth T; Ratz, Tiara; Dean, Linda E; Macfarlane, Gary J; Atzeni, Fabiola

    2016-11-29

    Objectives To examine the relationship between smoking, smoking cessation, and disease characteristics/quality of life (QoL) in spondyloarthritis. Methods The Scotland Registry for Ankylosing Spondylitis collects data from clinically diagnosed patients with spondyloarthritis. Clinical data, including Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis indices of disease activity (BASDAI) and function (BASFI), was obtained from medical records. Postal questionnaires provided information on smoking status and QoL (Ankylosing Spondylitis QoL questionnaire; ASQoL). Linear and logistic regression quantified the effect of smoking, and smoking cessation, on various disease-specific and QoL outcomes, adjusting for age, sex, deprivation, education and alcohol status. Results are presented as regression coefficients (β) or odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results 946 participants provided data (male 73.5%, mean age 52yrs). Current smoking was reported by 22%, and 38% were ex-smokers. Ever smokers experienced poorer BASDAI (β = 0.5; 0.2 to 0.9) and BASFI (β = 0.8; 0.4 to 1.2), and reported worse QoL (ASQoL, β = 1.5; 0.7 to 2.3). Compared to current smokers, ex-smokers reported lower disease activity (BASDAI, β = -0.5; -1.0 to -0.04) and significantly better QoL (ASQoL, β = -1.2; -2.3 to -0.2). They also were more likely to have a uveitis history (OR = 2.4; 1.5 to 3.8). Conclusions Smokers with spondyloarthritis experience worse disease than never smokers. However, we provide new evidence that, among smokers, smoking cessation is associated with lower disease activity and better physical function and QoL. Clinicians should specifically promote smoking cessation as an adjunct to usual therapy in patients with spondyloarthritis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  3. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  4. The Role of Magmatic Volatile Input, Near-surface Seawater Entrainment and Sulfide Deposition in Regulating Metal Concentrations Within Manus Basin Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, P. R.; Tivey, M. K.; Seewald, J. S.; Rouxel, O.; Bach, W.

    2007-12-01

    Analyses of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, Cd, Co and Sb in vent fluid samples from four hydrothermal systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea, were carried out by ICP-MS. Vienna Woods is located on the well- defined, basalt-dominated Manus Spreading Center, while the other systems are hosted in felsic volcanics on the Pual Ridge (PACMANUS), within a caldera (DESMOS), and on volcanic cones (SuSu Knolls). Metal concentrations were coupled with other fluid data (pH, SO4, Ca, H2S) to discriminate effects of deep- seated water-rock reaction and magmatic volatile input from near surface seawater entrainment, mixing, and consequent mineral precipitation and metal remobilization. Both magmatic volatile input (e.g. SO2, HCl, HF) and sulfide precipitation can increase fluid acidity and thus affect the aqueous mobility of metals. At Vienna Woods, 280°C end-member (Mg = 0) fluids have high pH (>4.2) and low metal contents (Fe <160 uM, Cu <10 uM, Zn <40 uM) relative to most mid-ocean ridge (MOR) vent fluids. The high pH and lack of evidence for magmatic volatile input are consistent with fluid compositions regulated by subsurface seawater- basalt/andesite reactions. Despite low aqueous Zn concentrations, Zn-rich (wurtzite-lined) chimneys are common at Vienna Woods active vents, reflecting deposition from fluids characterized by low Fe and Cu and high pH. At PACMANUS, black smoker fluids (T >300°C, pH ~ 2.7) are enriched in sulfide-forming metals by an order of magnitude relative to Vienna Woods fluids. Enrichments at PACMANUS reflect efficient leaching of metals at low pH, with the lower pH likely a result of input of magmatic volatiles. In addition, some vents fluids show clear evidence for seawater entrainment, subsurface precipitation of Cu-Fe-sulfides and preferential remobilization of Zn-sulfides (lower T, non-zero Mg, lower Fe, Cu, H2S and pH (2.3-2.4), but higher Zn, Pb, Cd and Ag, compared to black smokers). The higher metal concentrations and lower pH of

  5. A Retrievable Mineral Microcosm for Examining Microbial Colonization and Mineral Precipitation at Seafloor Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, E. E.; Holloway, J. R.; Cary, S.; Voglesonger, K. M.; Ashbridge, D. A.; O'Day, P. A.

    2002-12-01

    Although seafloor hydrothermal vent environments are known to support thriving ecosystems, the microscale physical and chemical environment suitable for microbial colonization and the identity of pioneering organisms is unknown. Because of the fragility of young chimneys and their ephemeral nature, novel methods for sample retrieval and analysis are required. The mineral microcosm consists of four titanium mesh chambers containing crushed minerals mounted on a titanium base that allows for fluid flow through the chambers. The chambers can be filled with different minerals or mineral mixtures (or no minerals) to supply different substrates for microbial colonization and different local microenvironments as minerals react with the surrounding fluids. The device sets on top of an active hydrothermal vent for a period of days to weeks to allow colonization and mineral reaction. The mineral microcosm was deployed during the Atlantis/Alvin Extreme 2001 Cruise (Oct.- Nov.,2001) to 9° 50'N on the East Pacific Rise a total of three times, for ~ 24, ~ 96, and ~ 48 hours each. It was deployed in two different environments, twice in lower temperature (<300°C), diffuse-flow environments and once (for ~96 hours) in a higher temperature black smoker environment (>350°C).Seed minerals included sulfides, sulfates, magnetite, apatite, and quartz, both individually and in mixtures. In the first 24-hour deployment, dissolution of anhydrite but not sulfide minerals within the chambers indicated high temperatures in chamber interiors and rapid reaction rates. Temperatures measured on chamber exteriors before retrieval ranged from 4° -98°C. The 96-hour deployment on a hot vent (fluid ~370°C before deployment) resulted in extensive mineral precipitation and chimney growth inside the mineral chambers, on the outer surfaces of the chambers, and on the platform as a whole, creating micro-chimneys several centimeters tall. The young chimneys were mainly composed of pyrite with lesser

  6. Change in Smoking, Diet, and Walking for Exercise in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Thomas, Janet L.; An, Lawrence C.; Guo, Hongfei; Collins, Tracie; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Positive changes in one health behavior may be accompanied by other constructive health behavior changes. Thus, the authors investigated the association of smoking reduction and cessation to changes in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and engaging in walking for exercise. This study included 539 Black light smokers ([less than or equal to]10…

  7. Lung Adenocarcinoma of Never Smokers and Smokers Harbor Differential Regions of Genetic Alteration and Exhibit Different Levels of Genomic Instability

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Kelsie L.; Vucic, Emily A.; Chari, Raj; Zhang, Wei; Lockwood, William W.; English, John C.; Fu, Rong; Wang, Pei; Feng, Ziding; MacAulay, Calum E.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the observed clinical distinctions between lung tumors in smokers and never smokers (NS) extend beyond specific gene mutations, such as EGFR, EML4-ALK, and KRAS, some of which have been translated into targeted therapies. However, the molecular alterations identified thus far cannot explain all of the clinical and biological disparities observed in lung tumors of NS and smokers. To this end, we performed an unbiased genome-wide, comparative study to identify novel genomic aberrations that differ between smokers and NS. High resolution whole genome DNA copy number profiling of 69 lung adenocarcinomas from smokers (n = 39) and NS (n = 30) revealed both global and regional disparities in the tumor genomes of these two groups. We found that NS lung tumors had a greater proportion of their genomes altered than those of smokers. Moreover, copy number gains on chromosomes 5q, 7p, and 16p occurred more frequently in NS. We validated our findings in two independently generated public datasets. Our findings provide a novel line of evidence distinguishing genetic differences between smoker and NS lung tumors, namely, that the extent of segmental genomic alterations is greater in NS tumors. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that these lung tumors are globally and genetically different, which implies they are likely driven by distinct molecular mechanisms. PMID:22412972

  8. Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,

    SciTech Connect

    Sleep, N.H.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the initial entry of hydrothermal seawater into deep levels of the oceanic crust, the effectiveness of hydrothermal circulation in cooling the crust, the geometry of hydrothermal circulation, the relationship between the hydrothermal circulation and the magma chamber, the reaction of the oceanic crust with the seawater, and the identification of the hydrothermal fluid which alters a rock sample. Topics considered include the crack front, observation relevant to the crack front, the limitations of the crack front hypothesis, the observed pattern of hydrothermal alteration, the nature of the hydrothermal fluid, the physics of large scale convection, and convection through crack zones. Knowledge of hydrothermal circulation at the ridge axis is based on sampling of the hydrothermal fluid, indirect geophysical measurements of the oceanic crust, and studies of rocks which are believed to have undergone hydrothermal alteration at the ridge axis. Includes 2 drawings.

  9. Fe isotope fractionation between chalcopyrite and dissolved Fe during hydrothermal recrystallization: An experimental study at 350 °C and 500 bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syverson, Drew D.; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Tan, Chunyang; Borrok, David M.; Ding, Kang; Seyfried, William E.

    2017-03-01

    Equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between chalcopyrite and dissolved Fe was determined in acidic chloride-bearing fluid at 350 °C and 500 bars. The study utilized deformable gold-cell technology, which allowed time-series sampling of solution during chalcopyrite recrystallization and isotope exchange. A key element of the experimental design involved the addition of anomalous dissolved 57Fe to an on-going experiment as a means of determining the degree and rate of isotope exchange. Taking explicit account of imposed chemical and isotopic mass balance constraints of Fe in fluid and mineral (chalcopyrite) reservoirs, these data indicate that no more than 1000 h is required for the isotopically anomalous dissolved Fe reservoir to exchange completely with the coexisting chalcopyrite. The experimental calibration of the rate of Fe isotope exchange for the δ57Fe-spiked experiment provides critical insight for the time necessary to achieve Fe isotope exchange in two non-spiked, but otherwise identical experiments. The Fe isotope data indicate that the equilibrium fractionation between chalcopyrite and dissolved Fe, Δ56FeCpy-Fe (aq), at 350 °C is small, 0.09 ± 0.17‰ (2σ), and is in good agreement with recent theoretical equilibrium predictions. Owing to the apparent rate of Fe isotope exchange at 350 °C, it is likely that chalcopyrite formed at high temperature deep-sea vents (black smoker systems) achieves isotopic equilibrium, and effectively records the Fe isotopic composition of the coexisting end-member hydrothermal fluid. Comparison of the experimental mineral-fluid equilibrium fractionation factors with conjugate chalcopyrite and dissolved Fe pairs sampled from high temperature hydrothermal vent systems at Axial Caldera and Main Endeavour Field (Juan de Fuca Ridge) are in agreement with this inference. The experimental data were further used to determine the mineral-mineral equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation between pyrite-chalcopyrite, Δ56Fe

  10. Most Smokers with Mental Illness Want to Kick the Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163073.html Most Smokers With Mental Illness Want to Kick the Habit But psychiatrists and ... News) -- Nearly six in 10 Americans with severe mental illness smoke, and a new study suggests that many ...

  11. [Rate of recurrence of duodenal ulcer in smokers and nonsmokers].

    PubMed

    Bretzke, G

    1988-07-15

    In 70 patients (35 non-smokers and smokers each) with an endoscopically established duodenal ulcer the number of recidivations was investigated. In this case in the group of smokers an inclination to recidivations was found which was nearly double the size. Patients with a great consumption of nicotine per day were particularly affected. Apart from this the question was investigated whether the form of the ulcer has any influence on the frequency of recidivations. No remarkable differences between the forms of ulcer round, irregular, oval and linear could be proved. The economic disadvantages by inability to work considerably differ in the two groups. The number of days at which was not worked on account of putting the patients on the sick-list is nearly thrice as great in the group of smokers.

  12. Helping a Smoker Quit: Do's and Don'ts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco Helping a Smoker Quit: Do’s and Don’ts General hints for friends and family Do respect ... way. Quitting smoking is a BIG DEAL! Don’t doubt the smoker’s ability to quit. Your faith ...

  13. Population health and the hardcore smoker: Geoffrey Rose revisited.

    PubMed

    Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; Frank, John

    2008-09-01

    The "hardening hypothesis" suggests that as smoking prevalence decreases, lighter smokers will quit first, leaving more "hardcore" smokers in the population. At a population level, however, the weight of evidence suggests that no hardening is occurring. By understanding the lessons from Geoffrey Rose's model of population-level risk factor change, we argue that the hardening of the smoking population is not inevitable. The Rose model predicts that the effect of policy interventions, and changes in social norms, can shift the population-level risk distribution for continuing to be a smoker, making it more likely that all smokers will quit. This analysis also suggests that further reductions in smoking prevalence will not come without further changes in the underlying--and largely cultural--root causes of smoking in a population.

  14. Clinical Significance of Symptoms in Smokers with Preserved Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Prescott G.; Barr, R. Graham; Bleecker, Eugene; Christenson, Stephanie A.; Couper, David; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Kanner, Richard E.; Kleerup, Eric; Lazarus, Stephen C.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Paine, Robert; Rennard, Stephen; Tashkin, Donald P.; Han, MeiLan K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) of less than 0.70 as assessed by spirometry after bronchodilator use. However, many smokers who do not meet this definition have respiratory symptoms. METHODS We conducted an observational study involving 2736 current or former smokers and controls who had never smoked and measured their respiratory symptoms using the COPD Assessment Test (CAT; scores range from 0 to 40, with higher scores indicating greater severity of symptoms). We examined whether current or former smokers who had preserved pulmonary function as assessed by spirometry (FEV1:FVC ≥0.70 and an FVC above the lower limit of the normal range after bronchodilator use) and had symptoms (CAT score, ≥10) had a higher risk of respiratory exacerbations than current or former smokers with preserved pulmonary function who were asymptomatic (CAT score, <10) and whether those with symptoms had different findings from the asymptomatic group with respect to the 6-minute walk distance, lung function, or high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scan of the chest. RESULTS Respiratory symptoms were present in 50% of current or former smokers with preserved pulmonary function. The mean (±SD) rate of respiratory exacerbations among symptomatic current or former smokers was significantly higher than the rates among asymptomatic current or former smokers and among controls who never smoked (0.27± 0.67 vs. 0.08±0.31 and 0.03±0.21 events, respectively, per year; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Symptomatic current or former smokers, regardless of history of asthma, also had greater limitation of activity, slightly lower FEV1, FVC, and inspiratory capacity, and greater airway-wall thickening without emphysema according to HRCT than did asymptomatic current or former smokers. Among symptomatic current or former smokers, 42% used

  15. Mindfulness and Tobacco Dependence in Cigarette Smokers: Mediating Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-26

    smoking  status   (smoker,  non-­‐ smoker)   drinking  status   (frequent  binge,   non-­‐drinker)     Mindfulness  ( FMI ... FMI  =   Freiburg  Mindfulness  Inventory;  D-­‐IAT  =  Depression  Implicit  Association  Test;  M  =  male;  MBSR

  16. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  17. Quantification of plasma microRNAs in a group of healthy smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers and correlation to biomarkers of tobacco exposure.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anisha; Waters, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Minet, Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    The stability of circulating miRNAs, their non-invasive sampling techniques and deregulation in diseases make them potential candidate biomarkers of biological effect. Here, we profiled the level of 84 plasma miRNAs in 30 smokers, 20 non-smokers and 20 ex-smokers. A robust statistical strategy was applied with replicate samples to account for reproducibility of the results. We identified differential expression of miR-124 and let-7a between the smoking and control groups. We further explored the dose-response relationship of miR-124 and let-7a with two biomarkers of tobacco exposure and found that this relationship was affected by adjustments based on age, pack-year and gender.

  18. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  19. Distal airway dysfunction identifies pulmonary inflammation in asymptomatic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Kenneth I.; Pradhan, Deepak R.; Goldring, Roberta M.; Oppenheimer, Beno W.; Rom, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking induced inflammation leads to distal airway destruction. However, the relationship between distal airway dysfunction and inflammation remains unclear, particularly in smokers prior to the development of airway obstruction. Seven normal controls and 16 smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were studied. Respiratory function was assessed using the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Abnormal FOT was defined as elevated resistance at 5 Hz (R5). Parameters reflecting distal lung function included frequency dependence of resistance (R5–20) and dynamic elastance (X5). Inflammation was quantified in concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage utilising cell count differential and cytokines expressed as concentration per mL epithelial lining fluid. All control subjects and seven smokers had normal R5. Nine smokers had elevated R5 with abnormal R5–20 and X5, indicating distal lung dysfunction. The presence of abnormal FOT was associated with two-fold higher lymphocyte and neutrophil counts (p<0.025) and with higher interleukin (IL)-8, eotaxin and fractalkine levels (p<0.01). Reactivity of R5–20 and X5 correlated with levels of IL-8, eotaxin, fractalkine, IL-12p70 and transforming growth factor-α (r>0.47, p<0.01). Distal airway dysfunction in smokers without COPD identifies the presence of distal lung inflammation that parallel reported observations in established COPD. These findings were not evident on routine pulmonary function testing and may allow the identification of smokers at risk of progression to COPD. PMID:27995132

  20. Spontaneous action representation in smokers when watching movie characters smoke.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Dylan D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Sargent, James D; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2011-01-19

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontoparietal network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan, or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and 17 nonsmokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowed us to keep both smoking and nonsmoking participants naive to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by movie scenes of smoking was contrasted with nonsmoking control scenes that were matched for frequency and duration. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking versus control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking.

  1. Increased gastric secretory capacity in smokers without gastrointestinal lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Massarrat, S; Enschai, F; Pittner, P M

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between smoking and gastric secretory capacity was studied in 201 25-40 year old healthy subjects with normal laboratory data and no gastrointestinal lesions. Basal acid output (BAO) and peak acid output (PAO) were determined in all, and basal and stimulated pepsin outputs were measured in 85 participants. The accuracy of the patients' statements was checked by urinary nicotine assay. Basal acid output and PAO were significantly higher in male smokers (n = 55) than in male non-smokers (n = 49). In women PAO in smokers (n = 38) was higher than in non-smokers (n = 59). Female smokers (n = 38) had a higher pepsin output than female non-smokers (n = 23). Eight variables were considered in relation to BAO and PAO: age, height, weight, alcohol abuse, smoking habits, duration of smoking habit, number of cigarettes per day, and the product of years of smoking multiplied by daily number of cigarettes. The daily number of cigarettes X years of smoking was most closely correlated with BAO and PAO by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. It was concluded that smoking is related to increased gastric acid capacity. PMID:3082724

  2. Oral tobacco products: preference and effects among smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Jensen, Joni; Anderson, Amanda; Broadbent, Berry; Allen, Sharon; Zhang, Yan; Severson, Herb

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, oral tobacco products have been marketed specifically towards cigarette smokers. These products come in different nicotine doses and formulations (snus vs. lozenge). To date, little research has been conducted to determine how smokers respond to these products. The goal of this study was to examine if smokers prefer certain oral tobacco products based on their specific characteristics. Methods Smokers interested in quitting underwent a sampling phase and a treatment phase. The sampling phase consisted of testing five different products varying in nicotine dose (high vs. moderate vs. low) and formulation (snus vs. lozenge): General Snus, Camel Snus, Marlboro Snus, Stonewall and Ariva. Each product was sampled in the natural environment on separate days. At the end of the sampling period, subjects chose which product they would use during the 2-week cigarette abstinence phase. Results General Snus (high nicotine) was not preferred by any smoker. No significant differences in preferences were observed across the other tobacco products. During the smoking cessation phase, Camel Snus was generally associated with greater craving relief and satisfaction, reduced use of cigarettes, and greater abstinence during follow-up compared to other products. Conclusion There were no differences in preferences for four of the five oral tobacco products but higher nicotine oral tobacco products were associated with better cessation outcomes among smokers who chose these products. PMID:21515003

  3. Distal airway dysfunction identifies pulmonary inflammation in asymptomatic smokers.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kenneth I; Pradhan, Deepak R; Goldring, Roberta M; Oppenheimer, Beno W; Rom, William N; Segal, Leopoldo N

    2016-10-01

    Smoking induced inflammation leads to distal airway destruction. However, the relationship between distal airway dysfunction and inflammation remains unclear, particularly in smokers prior to the development of airway obstruction. Seven normal controls and 16 smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were studied. Respiratory function was assessed using the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Abnormal FOT was defined as elevated resistance at 5 Hz (R5). Parameters reflecting distal lung function included frequency dependence of resistance (R5-20) and dynamic elastance (X5). Inflammation was quantified in concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage utilising cell count differential and cytokines expressed as concentration per mL epithelial lining fluid. All control subjects and seven smokers had normal R5. Nine smokers had elevated R5 with abnormal R5-20 and X5, indicating distal lung dysfunction. The presence of abnormal FOT was associated with two-fold higher lymphocyte and neutrophil counts (p<0.025) and with higher interleukin (IL)-8, eotaxin and fractalkine levels (p<0.01). Reactivity of R5-20 and X5 correlated with levels of IL-8, eotaxin, fractalkine, IL-12p70 and transforming growth factor-α (r>0.47, p<0.01). Distal airway dysfunction in smokers without COPD identifies the presence of distal lung inflammation that parallel reported observations in established COPD. These findings were not evident on routine pulmonary function testing and may allow the identification of smokers at risk of progression to COPD.

  4. [Levels of carboxyhemoglobin in smokers and non-smokers from 2 cities of the Mexican high plateaux].

    PubMed

    Cicero Sabido, R; Becerril, G; Ramírez, E; Salinas, F

    1991-01-01

    Carboxyhemoglobin levels (COHb) were determined in residents of two Mexican cities (Mexico City and Toluca) at altitudes of 2200 and 2600 meters above sea level. The figures in non-smokers of both cities were slightly higher than those seen at sea level by others: 1.63% in Mexico City and 1.54% in Toluca versus 0.5-1% at sea level. There were no intercity differences in smokers and non-smokers, but there were intergroup differences in both cities (p less than 0.01 in Mexico City, and p less than 0.05 in Toluca). Our findings suggest that the most important source of carbon monoxide in smokers is tobacco smoking, and that the COHb level may be reliable index to establish active smoking.

  5. COPD in a Population-Based Sample of Never-Smokers: Interactions among Sex, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    This observational epidemiological study investigates sex/gender and racial differences in prevalence of COPD among never-smokers. Data were derived from the 2012 Center for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample consisted of 129,535 non-Hispanic whites and blacks 50 years of age and older who had never smoked. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were conducted, with the latter using a series of logistic regression models predicting COPD status by sex/gender and race, adjusting for age, height, socioeconomic position (SEP), number of household members, marital status, and health insurance coverage. Black women have the highest prevalence of COPD (7.0%), followed by white women (5.2%), white men (2.9%), and black men (2.4%). Women have significantly higher odds of COPD than men. When adjusting for SEP, black and white women have comparably higher odds of COPD than white men (black women OR = 1.66; 99% CI = 1.46, 1.88; white women OR = 1.49; 99% CI = 1.37, 1.63), while black men have significantly lower odds (OR = 0.62; 99% CI = 0.49, 0.79). This research provides evidence that racial inequalities in COPD (or lack thereof) may be related to SEP. PMID:28054032

  6. Scottish court dismisses a historic smoker's suit

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, L; Daynard, R

    2007-01-01

    The decision in a Scottish smoker's case, McTear v. Imperial Tobacco Limited, that there was no scientific proof of causation between the plaintiff's smoking and his death from lung cancer, accepted all of the traditional arguments that the tobacco industry has made throughout the history of tobacco litigation, including that epidemiology is not an adequate branch of science to draw a conclusion of causation, that the tobacco industry has no knowledge that its products are dangerous to consumers, and that, despite this lack of knowledge, the plaintiff had sufficient information to make an informed decision about the dangers of smoking. This case relied on outmoded methods of reasoning and placed too great a faith in the tobacco industry's timeworn argument that “everybody knew, nobody knows”. Further, the judge found it prejudicial that the plaintiff's expert witnesses were not paid for their services because she was indigent, believing that the lack of payment placed in doubt their credibility and claiming that the paid tobacco expert witnesses had more motive to testify independently because they had been paid, a perverse and novel line of reasoning. The McTear case contrasts unfavourably with the recent decision in United States v. Philip Morris, a United States decision that found the tobacco industry defendants to be racketeers, based both on the weight of a huge amount of internal tobacco industry documents showing that the tobacco industry knew their products were addictive and were made that way purposely to increase sales, and on the testimony of expert witnesses who, like those who testified in McTear, have made the advancement of the public health their life's work and are not “hired guns”. The McTear case's reasoning seems outdated and reminiscent of early litigation in the United States. Hopefully, it will not take courts outside of the United States 40 more years to acknowledge the current scientific knowledge about smoking and health. PMID

  7. Health education for pregnant smokers: its behavioral impact and cost benefit.

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, R A; Lowe, J B; Perkins, L L; Smith-Yoder, D; Artz, L; Crawford, M; Amburgy, K; Boyd, N R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. A randomized trial (the Birmingham Trial II) was conducted to evaluate the behavioral impact of health education methods among 814 female smokers at four public health maternity clinics. METHODS. Four hundred patients were randomly assigned to an Experimental (E) Group, and 414 were assigned to a Control (C) Group. Self-reports and saliva cotinine tests confirmed smoking status at the first visit, at midpregnancy, and at end of pregnancy. RESULTS. The E Group exhibited a 14.3% quit rate and the C Group an 8.5% quit rate. A Historical Comparison (C) Group exhibited a 3.0% quit rate. Black E and C Group patients had higher quit rates than White E and C Group patients. A cost-benefit analysis found cost-to-benefit ratios of $1:$6.72 (low estimate) and $1:$17.18 (high estimate) and an estimated savings of $247,296 (low estimate) and $699,240 (high estimate). CONCLUSION. Health education methods are efficacious and cost beneficial for pregnant smokers in public health maternity clinics. PMID:8427323

  8. Two dimensional protein patterns of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from non-smokers, smokers, and subjects exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, M.; Ekström, T.; Sörensen, J.; Tagesson, C.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid contains a large number of proteins which comprise a potential resource for studying respiratory effects due to occupational and environmental exposures. A study was undertaken to compare protein patterns of BAL fluid from non-smokers, smokers, and subjects exposed to asbestos. METHODS: BAL fluid samples were analysed with two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The separated proteins were detected, quantified, and pattern-matched between different individuals with a computerised imaging system designed for evaluations of 2-DE patterns. RESULTS: About 200 different protein spots were detected in each sample of BAL fluid. As is the case with blood plasma, the BAL fluid samples contained large amounts of albumin, transferrin, and immunoglobulins. Higher levels of basic proteins were found in smokers than in non-smokers, while subjects exposed to asbestos had increased amounts of several high molecular weight proteins as well as basic proteins. Lower levels of albumin and higher levels of immunoglobulins were found in smokers than in non-smokers, while higher levels of transferrin were found in asbestos exposed subjects than in unexposed subjects. Moreover, in the group exposed to asbestos differences were found between patients with pleuritis and patients with pleural plaque, and one protein spot was found only in two patients with progressive pleural disease. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that both smokers and asbestos exposed subjects have significant changes in their airway protein expression compared with non-smokers and unexposed subjects. It is inferred that analysis of protein patterns in the BAL fluid with 2-DE may be used to detect and characterise, at a molecular level, respiratory effects due to occupational and environmental exposures. Images PMID:8977605

  9. Male Smokers' and Non-Smokers' Response Inhibition in Go/No-Go Tasks: Effect of Three Task Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaoting; Zan, Xiangyi; Jin, Ge; Maes, Joseph H R

    2016-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition plays a major role in many addictive behaviors. However, in studies using go/no-go tasks, findings regarding the presence of response inhibition deficits in nicotine-dependent individuals are mixed. This might be due to differences between studies on a number of task parameters. Here we aimed to identify task conditions under which go/no-go task performance deficits can be observed in smokers and to characterize the nature of such deficits. Sixty-one male students (30 smokers, 31 non-smokers) performed a go/no-go task while independently manipulating three task parameters: (1) percentage no-go trials (50% or 25%), (2) stimulus presentation time (600 ms or 200 ms), and (3) nature of no-go stimuli (cigarette related or cigarette unrelated). Three measures, reaction time on go trials and percentage correct responses on go and no-go trials, served as performance indicators. Under 200-ms but not 600-ms stimulus presentation conditions, the smokers responded faster on go trials and made more errors on both go and no-go trials than the non-smokers did. These differences occurred irrespective of the percentage of no-go trials and nature of no-go stimuli. The accuracy differences disappeared after controlling for the response time differences, suggesting a strong speed-accuracy trade-off. This study contributes to unraveling the conditions under which smokers display impaired inhibition performance and helps to characterize the nature of this impairment. Under task conditions prompting fast responding, smokers are more prone to increase response speed and to make more errors than non-smokers.

  10. Smokers who use internet and smokers who don't: data from the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Jacqueline L; Augustson, Erik M

    2006-12-01

    Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI) have proliferated in recent years, but little is known about those such sites are reaching and those who might be reached in the future. A better understanding of factors that differentiate smokers who do and do not use the Internet could help developers of smoking cessation resources optimize the content and dissemination of resources to these two groups. Using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults, we compared smokers using the Internet (n=728) with smokers not using the Internet (n=516) on demographics, smoking history, healthcare (status, care, access, and use), beliefs about lung cancer risks, and media preferences. Our results showed that compared with smokers not on the Internet, those using the Internet had a higher income and were more likely to be employed, despite having a younger age. Internet-connected smokers also reported less psychological distress, fewer barriers to healthcare, and a greater interest in quitting smoking. Preferences for media also differed by Internet status: Those on the Internet spent less time on television and more time with newspapers and magazines than those not on the Internet. These and other differences may assist the public health community with both the design and dissemination of resources to help smokers quit.

  11. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotto, G.; Simoes, A.Z.; Foschini, C.R.; Zaghete, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles were grown by hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The soaking time is effective in improving phase formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement reveals an orthorhombic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed magnetism of the BFO crystallites is a consequence of particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HTMW is a genuine technique for low temperatures and short times of synthesis. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BFO) in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C with times ranging from 5 min to 1 h. BFO nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray analyses, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, TG-DTA and FE-SEM. X-ray diffraction results indicated that longer soaking time was benefit to refraining the formation of any impurity phases and growing BFO crystallites into almost single-phase perovskites. Typical FT-IR spectra for BFO nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH{sup -} groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. Compared with the conventional solid-state reaction process, submicron BFO crystallites with better homogeneity could be produced at the temperature as low as 180 Degree-Sign C. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain BFO nanoparticles in the temperature of 180 Degree-Sign C for 1 h.

  12. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The

  13. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed

  14. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  15. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  16. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  17. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Khemiss, Mehdi; Khelifa, Mohamed Ben; Rejeb, Mohamed Ben; Saad, Helmi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH) of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60) and ECS (n=60) groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively). Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively). However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04) and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively) and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively). Conclusions Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss. PMID:27370513

  18. Genome-wide unmasking of epigenetically silenced genes in lung adenocarcinoma from smokers and never smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yingling, Christin M.; Liu, Yushi; Tellez, Carmen S.; Van Neste, Leander; Baylin, Stephen S.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (NS) shows striking demographic, clinicopathological and molecular distinctions from the disease in smokers (S). Studies on selected genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung cancer identified that the frequency and profile of some abnormalities significantly differ by smoking status. This study compared the transcriptome of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from S (n = 3) and NS (n = 3) each treated with vehicle (control), histone deacetylation inhibitor (trichostatin A) or DNA methylation inhibitor (5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine). Among 122 genes reexpressed following 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine but not trichostatin A treatment in two or more cell lines (including 32 genes in S-only and 12 NS-only), methylation was validated for 80% (98/122 genes). After methylation analysis of 20 normal tissue samples and 14 additional non–small cell lung cancer cell lines (total 20), 39 genes frequently methylated in normal (>20%, 4/20) and 21 genes rarely methylated in non–small cell lung cancer (≤10%, 2/20) were excluded. The prevalence for methylation of the remaining 38 genes in lung adenocarcinomas from S (n = 97) and NS (n = 75) ranged from 8–89% and significantly differs between S and NS for CPEB1, CST6, EMILIN2, LAYN and MARVELD3 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, methylation of EMILIN2, ROBO3 and IGDCC4 was more prevalent in advanced (Stage II–IV, n = 61) than early (Stage I, n = 110) tumors. Knockdown of MARVELD3, one of the novel epigenetically silenced genes, by small interfering RNA significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth of lung cancer cells (P < 0.001). Collectively, this study has identified multiple, novel, epigenetically silenced genes in lung cancer and provides invaluable resources for the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:24398667

  19. Pharmacological Options for Smoking Cessation in Heavy Drinking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan M.; Mirbaba, Michael M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of comorbid tobacco and alcohol use disorder (AUD), affecting more than 6 million people in the United States. Globally, tobacco and alcohol use rank fourth and fifth, respectively, for disability adjusted life years lost. Levels of alcohol use are higher in smokers than non-smokers, and the prevalence of smoking is higher in heavy drinkers compared to non-drinkers. This relationship is driven by many different factors including genetics, neurobiological mechanisms, conditioning processes, and psychosocial influences. Although this unique population tends to experience more negative health consequences, more severe AUD and poorer response to treatment than those with either AUD or tobacco use disorder alone, there are currently no available treatment protocols tailored to this comorbid condition. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of ongoing clinical research into smoking cessation options for heavy drinking smokers (HDS) through an evaluation of the effect of promising novel pharmacotherapies as well as combination therapies including: varenicline, naltrexone, the combination of varenicline and naltrexone, and the combination of naltrexone and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). These treatments are considered in light of the standard of care for smoking cessation and seek to improve upon the available guidelines for this sizable subgroup of smokers, namely those smokers who drink heavily. PMID:26507831

  20. Strategies to Help a Smoker Who is Struggling to Quit

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Stopping tobacco use benefits virtually every smoker. Most of the 19% of Americans who smoke want to quit and have tried to do so. Most individual quit attempts fail, but two-thirds of smokers use no treatment when trying to quit. Treating tobacco dependence is one of the most cost-effective actions in health care. With a brief intervention, physicians can prompt smokers to attempt to quit and connect them to evidence-based treatment that includes pharmacotherapy and behavioral support (i.e., counseling). Physicians can link smokers to effective counseling support offered by a free national network of telephone quitlines (1-800-QUIT-NOW). Smokers who use nicotine replacement (NRT), bupropion, or varenicline when trying to quit double their odds of success. The most effective way to use NRT is to combine the long-acting nicotine patch with a shorter-acting product (lozenge, gum, inhaler, nasal spray) and extend treatment beyond 12 weeks. Observational studies have not confirmed case reports of behavior changes associated with varenicline and bupropion, and these drugs’ benefits outweigh potential risks. A chronic disease management model is effective for treating tobacco dependence, which deserves as high a priority in health care systems as treating other chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension. PMID:23073954

  1. Natural killer cell activity in cigarette smokers and asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ginns, L.C.; Ryu, J.H.; Rogol, P.R.; Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Larsson, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking and asbestos exposure on cellular immunity, the authors tested a group of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers for natural killer (NK) activity in the peripheral blood. The mean NK activity in cigarette smokers was lower than in normal subjects (13.7 +/- 1.6 versus 29.0 +/- 3%; p less than 0.05). As a group, the mean NK activity for the asbestos-exposed group was also reduced compared with that of the nonsmoking control group (22.6 +/- 3.2%; p less than 0.05). When divided according to the smoking status, the asbestos workers who were nonsmokers or ex-smokers showed similar decreases in NK activity compared with normal subjects (19.5 +/- 6.2 and 21.2 +/- 4.5%, respectively; p less than 0.05). A subgroup of asbestos-exposed subjects who currently smoked showed no decrease in NK activity. The data show that NK activity is reduced in the peripheral blood of cigarette smokers and asbestos workers. The relatively normal NK activity found in asbestos workers who also smoked is unexplained. Impairment of NK activity is a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of infection and cancer in smokers and neoplasia in asbestos workers.

  2. Menthol Preference Among Smokers: Association With TRPA1 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Donna; Behm, Frederique M.; Rose, Jed E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Preference for smoking menthol cigarettes differs from individual to individual and population to population in ways that may provide higher levels of nicotine intake and contribute to smoking’s morbidity and mortality. Menthol acts at sites that include the transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channel that is expressed by nociceptors in the lung and airways, suggesting that individual and population differences in TRPA1 sequences might contribute to observed differences in menthol preference among smokers. Methods: We have thus sought association between menthol preference and common variants in the TRPA1 gene in heavier and lighter European-American smokers. Smokers were recruited for studies of smoking cessation in North Carolina and of substance abuse genetics in Maryland. Results: A common TRPA1 haplotype is defined by 1 missense and 10 intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms that display significant (.006 < p < .05; χ2) association with preference for mentholated cigarettes in heavy smokers (odds ratio ca. 1.3). There are smaller trends in the same direction in lighter smokers. Conclusions: This TRPA1 haplotype provides a novel biological basis for individual differences in menthol preference and possibly for actions of other agents that act at TRPA1. PMID:21719896

  3. Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers.

    PubMed

    Alshaarawy, Omayma; Xiao, Jie; Shankar, Anoop

    2013-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. Identifying novel risk factors for hypertension, including widely prevalent environmental exposures, is therefore important. Active smoking is a well-known risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine, and high blood pressure among never smokers. We examined 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Our exposure of interest was secondhand smoke exposure among never smokers, estimated by serum cotinine level, and our main outcome was hypertension (n=1004). We found that in never smokers, higher serum cotinine levels were positively associated with hypertension. In comparison with those with serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.025 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of hypertension among those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 0.218 ng/mL was 1.44 (1.01-2.04). In addition, higher serum cotinine was positively associated with mean change in systolic blood pressure (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.24 [0.86-5.63]; P=0.0061). However, no association was present with diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in never smokers, higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with systolic blood pressure and hypertension independent of age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, glycohemoglobin, total cholesterol, and other confounders.

  4. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  5. E-Cigarette Use among Smokers with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Grana, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined electronic cigarette (EC) use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. Methods Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers) in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009–2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10) cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14) years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. Findings EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18–26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. Interpretation Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study. PMID:25419703

  6. Affective Motives for Smoking Among Early Stage Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wahlquist, Amy E.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Gray, Kevin M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As most smokers initiate smoking during adolescence, assessment of smoking motives that underlie trajectories of dependence is critical for both prevention and cessation efforts. In the current study, we expected participants with higher nicotine dependence would smoke (a) less for positive reinforcement (PR) and (b) more for negative reinforcement (NR) motives. We secondarily assessed the relative contribution of PR to NR motives across levels of dependence. Methods: Data were drawn from a study on cue-elicited craving among occasional versus daily adolescent smokers aged 16–20 years (N = 111). Smoking motives were assessed in relation to 3 commonly used measures of nicotine dependence: (a) Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), (b) Autonomy over Smoking Scale (AUTOS), and (c) Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). Results: Compared to occasional smokers, daily smokers had significantly higher scores on each dependence measure and endorsed more prominent NR smoking motives. Each measure of nicotine dependence was strongly associated with NR motives for smoking, although measures differed in their association with PR motives. As expected, the FTND, AUTOS, and NDSS each significantly predicted smoking motive difference score (PR − NR), such that higher dependence was associated with more prominent NR motives for smoking. Conclusions: Results are consistent with our understanding of dependence and provide further support for 3 common measures of nicotine dependence among early stage smokers. PMID:24924155

  7. Hydrothermal systems and volcano geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The upward intrusion of magma from deeper to shallower levels beneath volcanoes obviously plays an important role in their surface deformation. This chapter will examine less obvious roles that hydrothermal processes might play in volcanic deformation. Emphasis will be placed on the effect that the transition from brittle to plastic behavior of rocks is likely to have on magma degassing and hydrothermal processes, and on the likely chemical variations in brine and gas compositions that occur as a result of movement of aqueous-rich fluids from plastic into brittle rock at different depths. To a great extent, the model of hydrothermal processes in sub-volcanic systems that is presented here is inferential, based in part on information obtained from deep drilling for geothermal resources, and in part on the study of ore deposits that are thought to have formed in volcanic and shallow plutonic environments.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  9. Likelihood of Unemployed Smokers vs Nonsmokers Attaining Reemployment in a One-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Michalek, Anne K.; Brown-Johnson, Catherine; Daza, Eric J.; Baiocchi, Michael; Anzai, Nicole; Rogers, Amy; Grigg, Mia; Chieng, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Importance Studies in the United States and Europe have found higher smoking prevalence among unemployed job seekers relative to employed workers. While consistent, the extant epidemiologic investigations of smoking and work status have been cross-sectional, leaving it underdetermined whether tobacco use is a cause or effect of unemployment. Objective To examine differences in reemployment by smoking status in a 12-month period. Design, Setting, and Participants An observational 2-group study was conducted from September 10, 2013, to August 15, 2015, in employment service settings in the San Francisco Bay Area (California). Participants were 131 daily smokers and 120 nonsmokers, all of whom were unemployed job seekers. Owing to the study's observational design, a propensity score analysis was conducted using inverse probability weighting with trimmed observations. Including covariates of time out of work, age, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived health status as predictors of smoking status. Mainoutcomes and measures Reemployment at 12-month follow-up. Results Of the 251 study participants, 165 (65.7) were men, with a mean (SD) age of 48 (11) years; 96 participants were white (38.2%), 90 were black (35.9%), 24 were Hispanic (9.6%), 18 were Asian (7.2%), and 23 were multiracial or other race (9.2%); 78 had a college degree (31.1%), 99 were unstably housed (39.4%), 70 lacked reliable transportation (27.9%), 52 had a criminal history (20.7%), and 72 had received prior treatment for alcohol or drug use (28.7%). Smokers consumed a mean (SD) of 13.5 (8.2) cigarettes per day at baseline. At 12-month follow-up (217 participants retained [86.5%]), 60 of 108 nonsmokers (55.6%) were reemployed compared with 29 of 109 smokers (26.6%) (unadjusted risk difference, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15-0.42). With 6% of analysis sample observations trimmed, the estimated risk difference indicated that nonsmokers were 30% (95% CI, 12%-48%) more likely on average to be reemployed at 1 year

  10. Isolated and skeptical: social engagement and trust in information sources among smokers.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Lila J Finney; Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W; Ackerson, Leland K

    2011-09-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08) and former smokers (OR = 2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR = 4.59) and former smokers (OR = 1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR = 1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR = 1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR = 1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers.

  11. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    PubMed

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers.

  12. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Calcium Profile in Whole Saliva From Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Generalized Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Kashyap, Rajesh; Maiya, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Measures of in vivo calcium status are important in understanding the mineralization capacity as it is an essential mineral component of both teeth and bone; and also play a vital role in the lipid profile and hormonal balance. Aim To evaluate the existence of any disturbances in calcium metabolism and absorption induced by smoking, by quantitatively assessing the variations in the salivary calcium level between smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and relating to their periodontal status. Materials and Methods A total of 50 male patients were selected and categorized as Group I (smokers with chronic generalized periodontitis) and Group II (non-smoker/ non-tobacco users with chronic generalized periodontitis). Clinical parameters such as Calculus Index and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. Subsequently two ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and subjected to biochemical analysis for the estimation of salivary calcium which was carried out in the next 20 min. Results Salivary calcium levels were significantly higher in Group I (2.2700) compared to Group II (1.7260). Higher calculus index and CPI index score were also seen in Group I when compared to Group II. Conclusion Elevated salivary calcium level among the Group I emphasize the decreased calcium absorption efficiency among the smokers. High salivary calcium content hardens plaque more rapidly, indirectly influencing the level of oral hygiene. PMID:26155563

  14. Mesozoic hydrothermal alteration associated with gold mineralization in the Mercur district, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.N.; Parry, W.T. )

    1990-09-01

    K/Ar dates and chemical data show that a Mesozoic gold-bearing hydrothermal system altered black shales of the Mississippian Great Blue Limestone throughout an area encompassing the Mercur gold district, Utah. K/Ar dates of illite veins and illite-rich, clay-sized separates of altered shales that are enriched in Au, As, Hg, Sc, and other heavy metals indicate that hydrothermal activity occurred from 193 to 122 Ma. Several ages from within the Mercur district cluster near 160 Ma and may date the minimum age of gold mineralization.

  15. Stable isotopes in seafloor hydrothermal systems: Vent fluids, hydrothermal deposits, hydrothermal alteration, and microbial processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, Wayne C.

    2001-01-01

    The recognition of abundant and widespread hydrothermal activity and associated unique life-forms on the ocean floor is one of the great scientific discoveries of the latter half of the twentieth century. Studies of seafloor hydrothermal processes have led to revolutions in understanding fluid convection and the cooling of the ocean crust, the chemical and isotopic mass balance of the oceans, the origin of stratiform and statabound massive-sulfide ore-deposits, the origin of greenstones and serpentinites, and the potential importance of the subseafloor biosphere. Stable isotope geochemistry has been a critical and definitive tool from the very beginning of the modern era of seafloor exploration.

  16. Smoker-Free Workplace Policies: Developing a Model of Public Health Consequences of Workplace Policies Barring Employment to Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Brian; Siegel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A marked shift in tobacco-related workplace health promotion intervention involves the adoption of policies barring employment to smokers. We discuss the potential public health consequences of these policies on those affected – smokers, their families, the surrounding community, and society at large. We find a lack of published evidence evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of these policies. By developing a model of policy effects, we outline possible unintended consequences. With such large gaps in the evidence base and the potential for deleterious consequences, we argue for increased discussion about the use of smoker-free employment policies as a public health intervention and for increased engagement of employers by the public health community in worksite health promotion. PMID:19168490

  17. Electricity generation from hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryadi, Y.; Rizal, I. S.; Fadhli, M. N.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrothermal vent is a kind of manifestation of geothermal energy on seabed. It produces high temperature fluid through a hole which has a diameter in various range between several inches to tens of meters. Hydrothermal vent is mostly found over ocean ridges. There are some 67000 km of ocean ridges, 13000 of them have been already studied discovering more than 280 sites with geothermal vents. Some of them have a thermal power of up to 60 MWt. These big potential resources of energy, which are located over subsea, have a constraint related to environmental impact to the biotas live around when it becomes an object of exploitation. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a method of exploiting heat energy to become electricity using organic fluid. This paper presents a model of exploitation technology of hydrothermal vent using ORC method. With conservative calculation, it can give result of 15 MWe by exploiting a middle range diameter of hydrothermal vent in deep of 2000 meters below sea level. The technology provided here really has small impact to the environment. With an output energy as huge as mentioned before, the price of constructing this technology is low considering the empty of cost for drilling as what it should be in conventional exploitation. This paper also presents the comparison in several equipment which is more suitable to be installed over subsea.

  18. Pulmonary functions of narghile smokers compared to cigarette smokers: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Helmi Ben; Khemiss, Mehdi; Nhari, Saida; Essghaier, Mejda Ben; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the lung function profiles of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) are few, have some methodological limits, and present contradictory conclusions. The present study aimed to compare the plethysmographic profiles of ENS with age- and height-matched exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS). Methods Males aged 35–60 living in Sousse, Tunisia, who have been smoking narghile exclusively for more than 10 narghile-years (n=36) or cigarettes exclusively for more than 10 pack-years (n=106) were recruited to participate in this case–control study. The anthropometric and plethysmographic data were measured according to international recommendations using a body plethysmograph (ZAN 500 Body II, Meβgreräte GmbH, Germany). Large-airway-obstructive-ventilatory-defect (LAOVD) was defined as: first second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) below the lower-limit-of-normal (LLN). Restrictive-ventilatory-defect (RVD) was defined as total lung capacity < LLN. Lung hyperinflation was defined as residual volume > upper-limit-of-normal. Student t-test and χ2 test were used to compare plethysmographic data and profiles of the two groups. Results The subjects in the ENS and ECS groups are well matched in age (45±7 vs. 47±5 years) and height (1.73±0.06 vs. 1.72±0.06 m) and used similar quantities of tobacco (36±22 narghile-years vs. 35±19 pack-years). Compared to the ENS group, the ECS group had significantly lower FEV1 (84±12 vs. 60±21%), FVC (90±12 vs. 76±18%), and FEV1/FVC (99±7 vs. 83±17%). The two groups had similar percentages of RVD (31 vs. 36%), while the ECS group had a significantly higher percentage of LAOVD (8 vs. 58%) and lung hyperinflation (36 vs.57%). Conclusion Chronic exclusive narghile smoking has less adverse effects on pulmonary function tests than chronic exclusive cigarette smoking. PMID:24382307

  19. Effectiveness of individual counseling for smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asymptomatic smokers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ping; Liu, Zhijun; Luo, Hong; Cai, Shan

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of individual counseling for smoking cessation in China. The present study evaluated the efficacy of individual counseling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asymptomatic smokers. This prospective randomized study evaluated 85 smokers with COPD and 105 asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. The individuals were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Subjects in the intervention group were provided with individual cognitive counseling based on face-to-face individual consultation, self-help materials and nine telephone follow-ups. Subjects in the control group were provided with simple smoking cessation advice. The smoking status for all subjects and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD patients were assessed at baseline, week 4 and month 6. The COPD patient exacerbations during the 6 months were recorded. In the total study population, individual counseling resulted in higher abstinence rates compared with those in the control: Intervention vs. control, 23.4 vs. 10.4% (P=0.007), respectively. Similar results were observed in the smokers with COPD: Intervention vs. control, 40.5 vs. 18.6% (P=0.027), respectively. However, for asymptomatic smokers, the effect of individual counseling was identified to be statistically insignificant: Intervention vs. control, 9.6 vs. 3.8% (P=0.230), respectively. SGRQ scores and COPD exacerbations were significantly improved in patients who abstained from smoking compared with those in the patients who failed to stop smoking. Airway obstruction, quitting motivation and individual counseling were predictors associated with smoking cessation. Airway obstruction was the most significant predictor of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 4.215; 95% confidence interval, 2.215-7.865). The results of the present study show that individual counseling is an effective method for smoking cessation, particularly in COPD patients. However

  20. Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: Experimental results in and near the supercritical region

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, M.E.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr. ); Janecky, D.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Experiments have been performed with Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids of seawater chlorinity and diabase, basalt, and plagioclase bearing mineral mixtures at 350-425{degree}C and 250-400 bars to help constrain hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges. Dissolved Ca, Na, and pH for all experiments responded systematically to differences in dissolved SiO{sub 2} concentrations and the compositions of plagioclase reactants. Diabase alteration at low fluid/rock mass ratios (0.5 to 1) produces fluids undersaturated with respect to quartz during hydration of primary olivine and orthopyroxene, whereas basalt alteration under similar conditions yields fluids slightly supersaturated with respect to quartz during breakdown of glass to smectite and amphibole. Fluid chemistry in all experiments appears to approach a partial equilibrium state with the albite and anorthite components in plagioclase and approaches a pH consistent with plagioclase alteration to epidote. Trace element data from vent fluids, specifically B and Sr, together with major element chemistry, provides evidence that the reaction zone for black-smoker fluids at mid-ocean ridges is composed of only slightly altered diabase and is characterized by small amounts of epidote, nearly fresh plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and partially to completely hydrated olivine and orthopyroxene. Using equilibrium between plagioclase, the dominant reactant, and epidote, the dominant reaction product in experiments, the authors estimate that temperatures in reaction zones are in excess of 375{degree}C for most vent systems. These temperatures are higher than measured vent temperatures, suggesting that hot spring fluids commonly loose heat during ascent to the sea floor.

  1. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  2. Motion and twisting of magnetic particles ingested by alveolar macrophages in non-smokers and smokers: Implementation of viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Winfried; Felten, Kathrin; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Häussinger, Karl; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.

    2007-04-01

    Ferrimagnetic iron oxide particles were inhaled by 17 healthy volunteers (9 non-smokers, 8 smokers), and the retained particles were magnetized and detected by a SQUID. Stochastic particle transport due to cytoskeletal reorganizations within macrophages (relaxation) and directed particle motion in a weak magnetic twisting field were investigated with respect to viscous and elastic properties of the cytoskeleton. Relaxation and cytoskeletal stiffness were not influenced by cigarette smoking. Relaxation and particle twisting revealed a non-Newtonian viscosity with a pure viscous and a viscoelastic compartment. Viscous and elastic data obtained from relaxation correlated with particle twisting, indicating that the proposed simple model is a reasonable approximation of cytoskeletal mechanical properties.

  3. Hydrothermal processes at seafloor spreading centers,

    SciTech Connect

    Rona, P.A.; Bostrom, K.; Laubier, L.; Smith, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book examines research on the description and interpretation of hydrothermal and associated phenomena at seafloor spreading centers. An interdisciplinary overview of the subject is presented, including geological, geophysical, geochemical, and biological discoveries. The implications of the discoveries for understanding the earth's heat transfer, geochemical mass balances and cycles, mineralization, and biological adaptation are discussed. Topics considered include geologic setting (e.g., the four dimensions of the spreading axis, geological processes of the mid-ocean ridge), hydrothermal convection (e.g., oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies, the basic physics of water penetration into hot rock), Iceland and oceanic ridges (e.g., chemical evidence from Icelandic geothermal systems, the physical environment of hydrothermal systems), mass balances and cycles (e.g., reduced gases and bacteria in hydrothermal fluids, the effects of hydrothermal activity on sedimentary organic matter), ferromanganese deposits, hydrothermal mineralization, and the biology of hydrothermal vents.

  4. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  5. Gut Microbial Diversity Is Reduced in Smokers with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Opstelten, Jorrit L.; Plassais, Jonathan; van Mil, Saskia W. C.; Achouri, Emna; Pichaud, Matthieu; Siersema, Peter D.; Cervino, Alessandra C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking has a negative impact on Crohn's disease (CD), but the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We compared the gut microbiota composition of smoking with nonsmoking patients with CD using a metagenomic approach. Methods: Stool samples and clinical data were collected from current smokers and nonsmokers with CD from France and the Netherlands, matched for country, gender, age, disease activity, and body mass index. Fecal DNA was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500. On average, 40 million paired-end reads were generated per sample. Gene richness and the Shannon index were computed to assess microbial diversity. Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests for paired samples were performed to detect differences between the 2 groups. Results: In total, 21 smoking and 21 nonsmoking patients with CD were included. Compared with nonsmoking patients, gut microbial gene richness (P = 0.01), genus diversity (P < 0.01), and species diversity (P = 0.01) were decreased in smoking patients. This was accompanied by a reduced relative abundance of the genera Collinsella (P = 0.02), Enterorhabdus (P = 0.02), and Gordonibacter (P = 0.02) in smokers. No statistically significant differences at the species level were observed, although smokers had lower proportions of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.10). Conclusions: Gut microbial diversity is reduced in smokers with CD compared with nonsmokers with CD. The microbial profile differs between these groups at the genus level. Future studies should evaluate whether intestinal microbes mediate the adverse effects of smoking in CD. PMID:27542127

  6. Factors in Nonadherence to Quitline Services: Smoker Characteristics Explain Little

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emily K.; Levinson, Arnold H.; Deaton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quitlines offer evidence-based, multisession coaching support for smoking cessation in the 50 U.S. states, Canada, and several other countries. Smokers who enroll in quitline services have, "ipso facto," shown readiness to attempt to quit, but noncompletion of coaching services appears widespread and has not been widely investigated.…

  7. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Fields, Sherecce; Collins, Christine; Leraas, Kristen; Reynolds, Brady

    2009-10-01

    Robust associations have been identified between impulsive personality characteristics and cigarette smoking during adolescents, indicating that impulsive behavior may play an important role in the initiation of cigarette smoking. The present study extended this research by using laboratory behavioral assessments to explore relationships between three specific dimensions of impulsive behavior (impulsive decision-making, inattention, and disinhibition) and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants were male and female adolescent smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 50). Adolescent smokers were more impulsive on a measure of decision-making; however, there were significant smoking status by gender interaction effects for impulsive inattention and disinhibition. Male smokers were most impulsive on the measure of inattention, but male smokers were least impulsive on the measure of disinhibition. Correlations between biomarkers of smoking and impulsive inattention and disinhibition were found for females but not males. The current findings, coupled with previous findings (Reynolds et al., 2007), indicate there may be robust gender difference in associations between certain types of impulsive behavior and cigarette smoking during adolescence.

  8. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  9. Smokers vs. Nonsmokers: Toward an Understanding of Their Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Joanne M.; Bell, Roger A.

    This research was conducted to contribute to the general knowledge concerning differences between smokers and nonsmokers. The data were obtained from a major epidemiologic study conducted in 1973 in the southeastern United States. A survey instrument composed of 403 questions and administered to 2029 randomly selected adults was designed to elicit…

  10. How Can We Balance Ethics and Law When Treating Smokers?

    PubMed Central

    Senderovich, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A physician is a valued member of society on whom many individuals rely for both professional advice and support during times when they may feel to be at a disadvantage, whether it be physically or mentally. An issue on the rise today concerns the population of smokers in our society. Many are coming to share the opinion that physicians should not provide treatments for smokers. Some of the opinions are based on the claim that smokers are morally responsible for their medical conditions. But, providing care in a fair manner includes not treating differently those who suffer from addiction. Moreover, it is important to recognize that allocating medical resources based on moral responsibility will undermine the physician–patient relationship which is necessary for the practice of medicine. Many countries have codes and policies that physicians must legally follow in terms of providing treatments. With acceptance of the fact that the patient may be unable to execute the decisions made by the physician, it is the legal duty of the physician to provide care and not abandon the patient. An analysis of the many policies around the world brings forward certain changes that must be made in order to make sure that physicians fulfil their legal duty, which is to provide care. As such, this article looks into the existing ethical dilemma in treating smokers around the world, with a review of some policies that will guide our approach in this matter. PMID:27101222

  11. Willingness among College Students to Help a Smoker Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Gerber, Tracy A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Patten, Christi A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Offord, Kenneth P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Between February and March 2003, the authors examined college students' willingness to help a smoker quit and assessed demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with willingness to help. Participants: Survey respondents were 701 college students (474 women, 227 men) aged 18 to 24 years who indicated there was someone close…

  12. Perception of nasal pungency in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

    1982-10-01

    Two experiments explored the difference in common chemical sensitivity between smokers and nonsmokers. The first experiment confirmed and extended our previous finding that smokers have a higher threshold than nonsmokers for a short-latency, reflex transitory apnea in response to a nasal irritant (carbon dioxide). The experiment revealed that even short periods of smoking (6-10 min) just before the measurement will further impair the smokers's sensitivity to an irritant. Application of the novel scaling technique magnitude matching, whereby persons judged the perceived magnitude of various levels of an irritant, odorant, and tone in the same session, implied that smokers actually perceive irritation less keenly than nonsmokers. The psychophysical functions for pungency in the two groups suggested that the insensitivity may arise from conductive factors (e.g., thickening of the mucus barrier) rather than from neural factors. The results of the scaling and those for the threshold for transitory apnea showed excellent quantitative agreement and indicated that the threshold for the reflex occurred at a criterion level of perceived pungency.

  13. [Smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

    2014-12-01

    One out of two smokers who smoke throughout their lifetime will die from a disease related to smoking. Tobacco smoking therefore represents a major global public health issue. Smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Projections for 2020 indicate that by then, COPD will have become the third cause of death and the fifth cause of disability worldwide. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing COPD and is an essential treatment for this inflammatory disease. Smoking cessation decreases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, number of hospitalizations, and decline in FEV1, as well as exacerbation frequency and overall mortality. Among the patients, 38-77% with COPD are smokers. Their daily cigarette consumption and level of nicotine dependence are often high. The combination of high intensity behavioral interventions and medication treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) is the most effective strategy for smokers with COPD. In contrast, behavioral interventions without medication are not more effective than simple advice to stop. Two factors seem to predict the success of the attempt to quit in smokers with COPD: a strong motivation to quit and the use of smoking cessation medications.

  14. Clinical and Radiologic Disease in Smokers With Normal Spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Elizabeth A.; Lynch, David A.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Austin, John H. M.; Grenier, Philippe A.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bailey, William C.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Casaburi, Richard H.; Friedman, Paul; Van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Hokanson, John E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Beaty, Terri H.; Washko, George R.; Han, MeiLan K.; Kim, Victor; Kim, Song Soo; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Washington, Lacey; McEvoy, Charlene E.; Tanner, Clint; Mannino, David M.; Make, Barry J.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Airflow obstruction on spirometry is universally used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and current or former smokers without airflow obstruction may assume that they are disease free. OBJECTIVE To identify clinical and radiologic evidence of smoking-related disease in a cohort of current and former smokers who did not meet spirometric criteria for COPD, for whom we adopted the discarded label of Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 0. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cross-sectional observational study completed spirometry, chest computed tomography (CT) scans, a 6-minute walk, and questionnaires. Participants were recruited from local communities at 21 sites across the United States. The GOLD 0 group (n = 4388) (ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] to forced vital capacity >0.7 and FEV1 ≥80% predicted) from the COPDGene study was compared with a GOLD 1 group (n = 794), COPD groups (n = 3690), and a group of never smokers (n = 108). Recruitment began in January 2008 and ended in July 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Physical function impairments, respiratory symptoms, CT abnormalities, use of respiratory medications, and reduced respiratory-specific quality of life. RESULTS One or more respiratory-related impairments were found in 54.1% (2375 of 4388) of the GOLD 0 group. The GOLD 0 group had worse quality of life (mean [SD] St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 17.0 [18.0] vs 3.8 [6.8] for the never smokers; P < .001) and a lower 6-minute walk distance, and 42.3% (127 of 300) of the GOLD 0 group had CT evidence of emphysema or airway thickening. The FEV1 percent predicted distribution and mean for the GOLD 0 group were lower but still within the normal range for the population. Current smoking was associated with more respiratory symptoms, but former smokers had greater emphysema and gas trapping

  15. Preliminary results from Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 - NE Lau: First explorations of hydrothermally active volcanoes across the supra-subduction zone and a return to the West Mata eruption site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Embley, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    Several expeditions in the past few years have shown that the NE Lau basin has one of the densest concentrations of volcanically and hydrothermally active volcanoes on the planet. In 2008 two active submarine volcanic eruptions were discovered during a one week period and subsequent dives with the Jason remotely operated vehicle at one of the sites (West Mata) revealed an active boninite eruption taking place at 1200 m depth. Two dives at the other revealed evidence for recent eruption along the NE Lau Spreading Center. Several more expeditions in 2010-11 discovered additional evidence about the extent and types of hydrothermal activity in this area. Data from CTDO (conductivity, temperature, depth, optical) vertical casts, tow-yos, and towed camera deployments revealed more than 15 hydrothermal sites at water depths from ~800 to 2700 m that include sites from the magmatic arc, the "rear arc," and the back arc spreading centers. These sites range from high temperature black smoker sulfide-producing systems to those dominated by magmatic degassing. Dives by remotely operated vehicle (Quest 4000) in September 2012 will explore these sites and return samples for chemical, biological and geologic studies. One of the dives will be a return visit to West Mata volcano, the site of the deepest submarine eruption yet observed (in 2009). Recent multibeam data reveal large changes in West Mata's summit, suggesting that the nature of the eruption and the location of the erupting vents may have changed. In addition to the preliminary results from the science team, we will also discuss our use and experience with continuous live video transmission (through the High Definition video camera on the Quest 4000) back to shore via satellite and through the internet. Submarine Ring of Fire 2012 Science Team: Bradley Tebo, Bill Chadwick, Ed Baker, Ken Rubin, Susan Merle, Timothy Shank, Sharon Walker, Andra Bobbitt, Nathan Buck, David Butterfield, Eric Olson, John Lupton, Richard Arculus

  16. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.

  17. Analysis of lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, A. Vikramsimha; Killampalli, Lakshmi Keerthana; Prakash, A. Ravi; Naag, Sushma; Sreenath, G.; Biraggari, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipids play an important role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity. Lipid profile is a panel of blood tests that serve as an initial medical screening for abnormalities in lipids and approximate risk for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatitis, etc., The present study evaluates the alterations in lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers and aims to achieve a correlation between them. Materials and Methods: The study is an in vitro type of cross-sectional study with 25 oral cancer patients, 25 chronic smokers (habit persisting for 15 years or more), and 15 nonsmokers as control group. Blood samples had been collected, and triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were analyzed using a lipid profile kit and an autoanalyzer. The results were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and ANOVA test (P < 0.05). Results: There was a significant increase in TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL and decrease in HDL in the smokers group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A significant increase in LDL, but a decrease in values of HDL, VLDL, TG, and TC was observed in the cancer patients group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There is an inverse relationship between serum lipid profile in smokers and cancer patients. The decrease in lipid profile in cancer patients might be due to their increased utilization of lipids by neoplastic cells in membrane biogenesis. Therefore, a decrease in lipid profile in smokers can be assumed that they might be more prone to develop cancerous conditions. PMID:28182070

  18. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  19. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p<0.0001). Smoking remained a risk factor for mortality across increasing strata of CAC scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality

  20. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  1. Focus Groups with Smokers To Develop a Smoke-Free Home Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Romilla; Dwyer, John J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted focus groups with daily smokers to identify key themes and strategies that would be effective in influencing attitudinal and behavioral change in homes that allowed smoking to occur. Smokers preferred messages that addressed the health of children, respected smokers, were based on research, provided information and assistance on…

  2. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  3. COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

  4. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

  5. Boron isotope systematics of hydrothermal fluids from submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, K.; Hong, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Gamo, T.; Kawahata, H.

    2013-12-01

    Boron is highly mobile in submarine hydrothermal systems and useful to trace the process of water-rock reaction. In this study, we measured the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids collected from arc-backarc hydrothermal systems in the western Pacific. In sediment-starved hydrothermal systems (Manus Basin, Suiyo Seamount, and Mariana Trough), the boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids are dependent on type of host rock. The end member fluids from MORB-like basalt-hosted Vienna Woods in the Manus Basin showed low boron content and high δ11B value (0.53 mM, 29.8‰), while dacite-hosted PACMANUS and the Suiyo Seamount showed high boron contents and low δ11B values (1.45 and 1.52 mM, 13.6 and 18.5‰, respectively). The Alice Springs and Forecast Vent field in the Mariana Trough showed values intermediate between them (0.72 and 0.63 mM, 19.9 and 24.0‰, respectively), reflecting reaction of seawater and basalt influenced by slab material. In phase separated hydrothermal systems (North Fiji Basin), boron content and isotopic composition of vent fluids (0.44-0.56 mM, 34.5-35.9‰) were similar to those in the Vienna Woods. Considering little fractionation of boron and boron isotope during phase separation demonstrated by the previous experimental studies, it is suggested that the host rock in the North Fiji Basin is MORB-like basalt. In sediment-hosted hydrothermal system (Okinawa Trough), the reaction with boron-enriched sediment following seawater-rock reaction resulted in significantly high boron contents and low δ11B values of vent fluids (4.4-5.9 mM, 1.5-2.6‰). The water-sediment ratio was estimated to be ~2. In spite of the different geological settings, the end member fuids from all vent fields are enriched in B relative to seawater (0.41 mM, 39.6‰) and the δ11B values are inversely propotional to the boron concentrations. It suggests that boron isotopic composition of vent fluid predominantly depends on the amount of

  6. Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is a class of ternary oxides that are known for their stable properties under extreme conditions, higher electron mobility compared to its binary counterparts and other interesting optical properties. The material is thus ideal for applications from solar cells and sensors to photocatalysts. Among the different methods of synthesizing ZTO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is an attractive green process that is carried out at low temperatures. In this review, we summarize the conditions leading to the growth of different ZTO nanostructures using the hydrothermal method and delve into a few of its applications reported in the literature. PMID:27877377

  7. A dual center study to compare breath volatile organic compounds from smokers and non-smokers with and without COPD.

    PubMed

    Gaida, A; Holz, O; Nell, C; Schuchardt, S; Lavae-Mokhtari, B; Kruse, L; Boas, U; Langejuergen, J; Allers, M; Zimmermann, S; Vogelmeier, C; Koczulla, A R; Hohlfeld, J M

    2016-04-15

    There is increasing evidence that breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) have the potential to support the diagnosis and management of inflammatory diseases such as COPD. In this study we used a novel breath sampling device to search for COPD related VOCs. We included a large number of healthy controls and patients with mild to moderate COPD, recruited subjects at two different sites and carefully controlled for smoking. 222 subjects were recruited in Hannover and Marburg, and inhaled cleaned room air before exhaling into a stainless steel reservoir under exhalation flow control. Breath samples (2.5 l) were continuously drawn onto two Tenax(®) TA adsorption tubes and analyzed in Hannover using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Data of 134 identified VOCs from 190 subjects (52 healthy non-smokers, 52 COPD ex-smokers, 49 healthy smokers, 37 smokers with COPD) were included into the analysis. Active smokers could be clearly discriminated by higher values for combustion products and smoking related VOCs correlated with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), indicating the validity of our data. Subjects from the study sites could be discriminated even after exclusion of cleaning related VOCs. Linear discriminant analysis correctly classified 89.4% of COPD patients in the non/ex-smoking group (cross validation (CV): 85.6%), and 82.6% of COPD patients in the actively smoking group (CV: 77.9%). We extensively characterized 134 breath VOCs and provide evidence for 14 COPD related VOCs of which 10 have not been reported before. Our results show that, for the utilization of breath VOCs for diagnosis and disease management of COPD, not only the known effects of smoking but also site specific differences need to be considered. We detected novel COPD related breath VOCs that now need to be tested in longitudinal studies for reproducibility, response to treatment and changes in disease severity.

  8. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account.

  9. Discovery and drilling of on- and off-axis hydrothermal sites in backarc spreading center of southern Mariana Trough, Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Maruyama, A.; Marumo, K.; Seama, N.; Utsumi, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Mariana Trough is an actively spreading backarc basin that is located along the eastern margin of Philippine Sea Plate. GPS monitoring indicates that the rate of spreading is about 45 mm/yr in the southern section (Kato et al., 2003). No transform fault offsets exist despite significant changes in the trend of the spreading center. Fryer et al. (1998) pointed out the close proximity of submarine arc volcanoes to the spreading center and tectonic fabric that is at a high angle to the trend of the spreading center on the eastern flank. Three hydrothermal sites were discovered along such tectonic lineament in southern Mariana Trough (12o55-57'N, 143o37-39'E). On-axis site (so-called Fryer site, depth: 2,850 m) consists of a hydrothermal mound about 20 m in diameter that develops on pillow lava of a segment center of the spreading axis. The segment is characterized by highly variable rock composition (up to 68% SiO2). Repeated temperature measurements revealed rapid cooling of the hydrothermal system from 240oC in April 2003, through 112oC in October 2003 to 69oC in March 2004. On the other hand, two off-axis sites seem to have longevity of life: The Archaean site which locates about 2 km off-axis on the eastern (arc side) skirt is characterized by its huge sulfide spire; 50 m in height and 20 m in diameter. It is composed of pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, and is emanating hydrothermal fluids up to 220oC. In the third site (Pika site), active black smokers (max. temp. = 330oC), numerous dead chimneys and sulfide mounds were found on a basaltic seamount about 5 km off-axis. These lines of evidence support the idea of Fryer et al. (1998) that the backarc magma is replenished by arc/off-axis magma along the tectonic lineation. The first and third sites been drilled and cased using a tethered, submarine rock-drill system BMS (Benthic Multi-coring System) on-board the R/V Hakurei-Maru # 2 as a part of Archaean Park Project*. Rocks from two holes (7.5 m and 4.1 m

  10. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: disposition in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Haley, N J; Sepkovic, D W; Hoffmann, D

    1989-01-01

    We have evaluated differences in the elimination of cotinine, a major nicotine metabolite, in smokers who quit smoking and never-smokers who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) under controlled conditions. The mean biological half-life of cotinine in urine, collected from the nine smokers was 16.5 +/- 1.2 h, in never-smokers exposed to ETS, 27.3 +/- 1.9 h. Differences in the mode of uptake and absorption of nicotine and possible differences in nicotine metabolism may play roles in the clearance rate differences between smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:2751025

  11. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.L.

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  12. Growth of single crystals under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popolitov, Vladislav Ivanovich; Litvin, Boris Nikolaevich

    The book summarizes the available theoretical, methodological, and experimental data on the hydrothermal growth of inorganic compounds, such as simple and complex oxides, sulfides, silicates, germanates, phosphates, niobates, and tantalates. Attention is given to the physicochemical, hydrodynamic, and kinetic characteristics of the growth of these compounds, as well as hydrothermal growth techniques and equipment. The discussion also covers the morphogenetic characteristics of hydrothermally grown single crystals, their principal physical properties, and X-ray diffraction and structural data.

  13. Iron isotope fractionation in sulfides: constraints on mechanisms of sulfide formations in hydrothermal and magmatic systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, Veniamin; Soultanov, Dilshod

    2010-05-01

    Data on non-traditional stable isotope fractionations (e.g., Fe, Cu) provide further insight into mechanisms of sulfide mineralization. Correct interpretation of these data is impossible without knowledge on equilibrium isotopic fractionation factors of sulfides. We present data on iron isotope fractionation factors (β-factors) of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and mackinawite (FeS). Iron β-factors for chalcopyrite were derived from synchrotron experimental data on inelastic nuclear resonant x-ray scattering (INRXS) [1] using the method described elsewhere [2,3]. The β-factors for mackinawite were found from the Moessbauer second-order Doppler shift data [4] by the method presented in [5]. The temperature dependence of the iron β-factors are fitted by following third-order polynomials: 103lnβcpy = 0.82560x - 0.01298x2 + 0.0005246x3 103lnβmcw = 0.2542x - 0.0001847x2 + 2.072×103x3 where x=106/T2 Using these data along with β-factors for pyrite and troilite [3,6], we compared iron isotope fractionation between pyrite and chalcopyrite in hydrothermal and magmatic conditions. Rouxel et al. [7] studied iron isotope of seafloor of hydrothermal vents in detail. They found that pyrite is enriched in light iron isotope relative to chalcopyrite in the case of black smoker Bio 9. This result evidences absence of iron isotope equilibrium between pyrite and chalcopyrite, because in equilibrium pyrite is enriched in heavy iron isotope (βpy > βcpy). Quantitatively, iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and pyrite is very close to equilibrium iron isotope fractionation between chalcolpyrite and FeS phase (mackinawite or troilite). This agrees the mechanism of pyrite formation through intermidient FeS phase if to assume isotopic equilibrium between the FeS phase and dissolved iron and no isotopic effect in the final stage of conversion FeS to FeS2 (pyrite). Another iron isotope fractionation was observed between pyrite and chalcopyrite in the case of the Cu-Au porphyry

  14. Volcano-Hydrothermal Systems of the Central and Northern Kuril Island Arc - a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, E.; Taran, Y.; Voloshina, E.; Ptashinsky, L.

    2015-12-01

    More than 20 active volcanoes with historical eruptions are known on 17 islands composing the Central and Northern part of the Kurilian Arc. Six islands - Paramushir, Shiashkotan, Rasshua, Ushishir, Ketoy and Simushir - are characterized by hydrothermal activity, complementary to the fumarolic activity in their craters. There are several types of volcano-hydrothermal systems on the islands. At Paramushir, Shiashkotan and Ketoy the thermal manifestations are acidic to ultra-acidic water discharges associated with hydrothermal aquifers inside volcano edifices and formed as the result of the absorption of magmatic gases by ground waters. A closest known analogue of such activity is Satsuma-Iwojima volcano-island at the Ryukyu Arc. Another type of hydrothermal activity are wide spread coastal hot springs (Shiashkotan, Rasshua), situated as a rule within tide zones and formed by mixing of the heated seawater with cold groundwater or, in opposite, by mixing of the steam- or conductively heated groundwater with seawater. This type of thermal manifestation is similar to that reported for other volcanic islands of the world (Satsuma Iwojima, Monserrat, Ischia, Socorro). Ushishir volcano-hydrothermal system is formed by the absorption of magmatic gases by seawater. Only Ketoy Island hosts a permanent acidic crater lake. At Ebeko volcano (Paramushir) rapidly disappearing small acidic lakes (formed after phreatic eruptions) have been reported. The main hydrothermal manifestation of Simushir is the Zavaritsky caldera lake with numerous coastal thermal springs and weak steam vents. The last time measured temperatures of fumaroles at the islands are: >500ºC at Pallas Peak (Ketoy), 480ºC at Kuntamintar volcano (Shiashkotan), variable and fast changing temperatures from 120º C to 500ºC at Ebeko volcano (Paramushir), 150ºC in the Rasshua crater, and > 300ºC in the Chirpoy crater (Black Brothers islands). The magmatic and rock-forming solute output by the Kurilian volcano-hydrothermal

  15. The Role of Interleukin-23 in the Early Development of Emphysema in HIV1+ Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barjaktarevic, Igor Z.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression is upregulated in alveolar macrophages (AM) of HIV1+ smokers who develop emphysema. Knowing that lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of HIV1+ smokers contains increased levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to HIV1− smokers, we hypothesized that upregulation of lung cytokines in HIV1+ smokers may be functionally related to increased MMP-9 expression. Methods. Cytokine arrays evaluated cytokine protein levels in ELF obtained from 5 groups of individuals: HIV1− healthy nonsmokers, HIV1− healthy smokers, HIV1− smokers with low diffusing capacity (DLCO), HIV1+ nonsmokers, and HIV1+ smokers with low DLCO. Results. Increased levels of the Th17 related cytokine IL-23 were found in HIV1− smokers with low DLCO and HIV1+ smokers and nonsmokers. Relative IL-23 gene expression was increased in AM of HIV1+ individuals, with greater expression in AM of HIV1+ smokers with low DLCO. Infection with HIV1 in vitro induced IL-23 expression in normal AM. IL-23 stimulation of AM/lymphocyte cocultures in vitro induced upregulation of MMP-9. Lung T lymphocytes express receptor IL-23R and interact with AM in order to upregulate MMP-9. Conclusion. This mechanism may contribute to the increased tissue destruction in the lungs of HIV1+ smokers and suggests that Th17 related inflammation may play a role. PMID:27446965

  16. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-10-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p-value<0.001). Among lower income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation.

  17. Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

    2006-12-01

    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (<200 m). They also are characterized by wide ranges in chemical composition, hundreds of redox disequilibria that translate to potential metabolisms, and broad phylogenetic diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation

  18. Imaging-based assessment of dyspnea in cigarette smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Chang, Paul J.; Schwartz, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Helmers, Richard; Mori, Masaki

    1994-05-01

    Patients with pulmonary fibrosis frequently smoke cigarettes. The cause of dyspnea in these patients is often complex because of the coexistence of multiple disease processes. We investigated 10 cigarette smokers with pulmonary fibrosis who were referred for evaluation of new onset or worsening dyspnea. Chest radiographs and pulmonary function tests were obtained in addition to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). In those patients with HRCT evidence of both diseases, spirometry and lung volumes were most often normal. Although plain films provided a reasonable assessment of fibrosis, they underestimated the severity of emphysema. Quantitation of both emphysema and fibrosis by HRCT was reproducible and correlated with key pulmonary function tests. Our findings indicate that the HRCT scan is a useful diagnostic test in patients with pulmonary fibrosis who are also cigarette smokers.

  19. Beliefs, Experience, and Interest in Pharmacotherapy among Smokers with HIV

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, Amy; Shacham, Enbal; Sumner, Walton; Overton, E. Turner

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine beliefs, prior use, and interest in using pharmacotherapy among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods Cross-sectional survey of smokers in a midwestern HIV clinic. Results The sample (N = 146) included 69% men, 82% African American, 45% were in precontemplation for quitting, and 46% were interested in using pharmacotherapy. Primary reasons for non-use included cost and a belief that they would be able to quit on their own. Physician’s assistance was the strongest correlate of prior use. Perceived benefits and self-efficacy were the strongest correlates of willingness to use pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Future interventions should address misconceptions, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy for using cessation aids. Physicians should offer pharmacotherapy to all smokers. PMID:24629557

  20. Aesthetic Depigmentation of Gingival Smoker's Melanosis Using Carbon Dioxide Lasers.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Luis Silva; Costa, José Adriano; da Câmara, Marco Infante; Albuquerque, Rui; Martins, Marco; Pacheco, José Júlio; Salazar, Filomena; Figueira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Melanic pigmentation results from melanin produced by the melanocytes present in the basal layer of the oral epithelium. One of the most common causes of oral pigmentation is smoker melanosis, a condition associated with the melanocyte stimulation caused by cigarette smoke. This paper aims to illustrate the use of a carbon dioxide laser in the removal of the gingival melanic pigmentation for aesthetic reasons in a 27-year-old female patient with history of a smoking habit. The carbon dioxide laser vaporisation was performed on the gingival mucosa with effective and quick results and without any complications or significant symptoms after the treatment. We conclude that a carbon dioxide laser could be a useful, effective, and safe instrument to treat the aesthetic complications caused by oral smoker melanosis.

  1. Constant-load exercise decreases the serum concentration of myeloperoxidase in healthy smokers and smokers with COPD.

    PubMed

    Holz, Olaf; Roepcke, Stefan; Watz, Henrik; Tegtbur, Uwe; Lahu, Gezim; Hohlfeld, Jens M

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing demand for easily accessible biomarkers related to pathophysiological processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Short-term intense exercise is known to increase the peripheral blood levels of cytokines. Therefore, we tested the potential and the repeatability of an exercise challenge to amplify seven serum biomarkers (interleukin 6 [IL6], C-reactive protein [CRP], myeloperoxidase [MPO], leukotriene B4, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and von Willebrand factor [VWF]) in smokers with and without COPD. Twenty-three smokers with moderate COPD (GOLD 2) and 23 sex- and age-matched healthy smokers underwent up to 30-minute submaximal, constant-load exercise (75% of maximum work load) on two occasions separated by 4 weeks (second challenge n=19/20). Serum samples were obtained before, 5 minutes after the start, at the end of exercise (maximum 30 minutes or until exhaustion), and after additional 20 minutes of rest. The median (interquartile range) exercise time until exhaustion in the two challenges was 10.0 (4.0) minutes and 10.0 (8.0) minutes in smokers with COPD and 22.0 (16.0) minutes and 26.5 (14.5) minutes in healthy smokers. The exercise challenge significantly increased the serum concentrations of IL6 and VWF, but decreased the concentrations of MPO. Healthy smokers showed a significantly greater increase (at the end of exercise compared to before exercise) in IL6 (P=0.01) and a larger decline (P=0.03) in MPO. The overall profile of the serum markers during the exercise challenge was shown to be repeatable in the second challenge. In summary, intense load exercise is capable of changing the concentration of inflammatory and endothelial function markers. Especially, the decline in the level of MPO, a marker closely related to cardiovascular risk, appears to be of clinical interest, as the exercise-induced decline might be related to the beneficial effects of physical activity

  2. Smoking cessation, obesity and weight concerns in black women: a call to action for culturally competent interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain. PMID:16396055

  3. Anxiety Sensitivity Cognitive Concerns Predict Suicidality among Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Capron, Daniel W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Medley, Amanda N.; Lewis, Sarah; Feldner, Matthew T.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anxiety along with anxiety-related risk factors is receiving increased attention in regard to its role in elevated suicidality. One such risk factor, anxiety sensitivity (AS), refers to a fear of anxiety-related symptoms. Emerging research indicates that components of AS, particularly the AS subfactor focused on cognitive arousal concerns, are significantly associated with elevated suicidality in samples of diverse clinical outpatients, clinical outpatients with PTSD symptoms, and Air Force cadets undergoing a stressful life experience. Cigarette smokers represent another relevant population for this line of research due to recent reports indicating that cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence may be related to elevated suicidality. Methods Study 1 examined the role of AS and the AS subfactors in a large sample (n = 343) of community adult smokers. Study 2 examined the role of AS and AS subfactors in a sample of “pack-a-day” adult smokers (n = 78) who were seeking outpatient treatment for substance abuse issues. Results Study 1 results were consistent with our a priori hypothesis that AS cognitive concerns would be significantly associated with suicidality. Additionally, after covarying for relevant substance use variables, Study 2 results were also consistent with our hypothesis that AS cognitive concerns were significantly associated with suicidality. Limitations Limitations included the use of suicide related outcomes, not death by suicide, and cross-sectional design. Conclusions These findings suggest that suicide potential in cigarette smokers may be related to AS cognitive concerns and add to the emerging literature suggesting AS cognitive concerns are a risk factor for suicidality. PMID:22370063

  4. Pulmonary ventilation defects in older never-smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Khadija; Paulin, Gregory A; Svenningsen, Sarah; Kirby, Miranda; Paterson, Nigel A M; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2014-08-01

    Hyperpolarized (3)He MRI previously revealed spatially persistent ventilation defects in healthy, older compared with healthy, younger never-smokers. To understand better the physiological consequences and potential relevance of (3)He MRI ventilation defects, we evaluated (3)He-MRI ventilation-defect percent (VDP) and the effect of deep inspiration (DI) and salbutamol on VDP in older never-smokers. To identify the potential determinants of ventilation defects in these subjects, we evaluated dyspnea, pulmonary function, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) measurements, as well as occupational and second-hand smoke exposure. Fifty-two never-smokers (71 ± 6 yr) with no history of chronic respiratory disease were evaluated. During a single visit, pulmonary function tests, CPET, and (3)He MRI were performed and the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease questionnaire administered. For eight of 52 subjects, there was spirometry evidence of airflow limitation (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease-Unclassified, I, and II), and occupational exposure was reported in 13 of 52 subjects. In 13 of 52 (25%) subjects, there were no ventilation defects and in 39 of 52 (75%) subjects, ventilation defects were observed. For those subjects with ventilation defects, six of 39 showed a VDP response to DI/salbutamol. Ventilation heterogeneity and VDP were significantly greater, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for subjects with ventilation defects with a response to DI/salbutamol than subjects with ventilation defects without a response to DI/salbutamol and subjects without ventilation defects. In a step-wise, forward multivariate model, FEV1, inspiratory capacity, and airway resistance significantly predicted VDP (R(2) = 0.45, P < 0.001). In conclusion, most never-smokers had normal spirometry and peripheral ventilation defects not reversed by DI/salbutamol; such ventilation defects were likely

  5. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rech, Rafaela Soares; Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Maahs, Marcia Angelica Peters; Vidor, Deisi Cristina Gollo Marques

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each) of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes. PMID:25992124

  6. 'Every space is claimed': smokers' experiences of tobacco denormalisation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kirsten; McCullough, Lucy; Salmon, Amy; Bell, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    Over the past decade, the strategy of 'denormalising' tobacco use has become one of the cornerstones of the global tobacco control movement. Although tobacco denormalisation policies primarily affect people on the lowest rungs of the social ladder, few qualitative studies have explicitly set out to explore how smokers have experienced and responded to these legislative and social changes in attitudes towards tobacco use. Drawing on a qualitative study of interviews with 25 current and ex-smokers living in Vancouver, Canada, this paper examines the ways they interpret and respond to the new socio-political environment in which they must manage the increasingly problematised practice of tobacco smoking. Overall, while not opposed to smoking restrictions per se, study participants felt that recent legislation, particularly efforts to prohibit smoking in a variety of outdoor settings, was overly restrictive and that all public space had increasingly been 'claimed' by non-smokers. Also apparent from participants' accounts was the high degree of stigma attached to smoking. However, although the 'denormalisation' environment had encouraged several participants to quit smoking, the majority continued to smoke, raising ethical and practical questions about the value of denormalisation strategies as a way of reducing smoking-related mortality and morbidity.

  7. Dimensions of impulsive behavior and treatment outcomes for adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Millie; Penfold, Robert B; Hawkins, Ariane; Maccombs, Jared; Wallace, Bryan; Reynolds, Brady

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent cigarette smoking rates remain a significant public health concern, and as a result there is a continued need to understand factors that contribute to an adolescent's ability to reduce or quit smoking. Previous research suggests that impulsive behavior may be associated with treatment outcomes for smoking. The current research (N = 81) explored 3 dimensions of impulsive behavior as predictors of treatment response from a social-cognitive type program for adolescent smokers (i.e., Not On Tobacco; N-O-T). Measures included laboratory assessments of delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition. A self-report measure of impulsivity was also included. Adolescent smokers who had better sustained attention were more likely to reduce or quit smoking by the end of treatment. No other measures of impulsivity were significantly associated with treatment response. From these findings, an adolescent smoker's ability to sustain attention appears to be an important behavioral attribute to consider when implementing smoking cessation programs such as N-O-T.

  8. Cytoplasmic inclusions in pulmonary macrophages of cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Brody, A R; Craighead, J E

    1975-02-01

    Alveolar and bronchiolar spaces in the lungs of cigarette smokers usually contain numerous macrophages with pigmented cytoplasmic granules. By electron microscopy the pigmentation appears to be due, at least in part, to increased numbers of lysosomes and phagolysosomes. Within these cytoplasmic organelles, structures are found which we designate "smokers' inclusions", since they are observed exclusively in the interstitial and alveolar macrophages of cigarette users. The inclusions have been referred to by other investigators as "needle-shaped" and "fiber-like". Since cross-sections of the structures are never seen in electron micrographs, a fiber or needle shape seems unlikely. On the other hand, thin sectioning techniques impart varying lengths to the inclusions, suggesting that they have a disc, or platelet, configuration. Surgically resected lung tissue from smokers and nonsmokers was digested in hot potassium hydroxide. Digestates contained varying numbers of hexagonal platelike particles which had features consistent with those of the aluminum silicate kaolinite, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry confirmed the presence of these two elements. The origin of aluminum silicate inclusions in pulmonary macrophages has yet to be determined, although preliminary evidence strongly suggests that they are derived from inhaled tobacco smoke. The cytotoxicity of kaolinite in vitro and the possible role of aluminum silicate crystals in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis are discussed.

  9. [Stress and smoking in treatment-seeking smokers].

    PubMed

    Dupont, P; Reynaud, M; Aubin, H J

    2012-04-01

    Fear of not controlling stress is the most frequently reported obstacle to smoking cessation. We report a retrospective study involving 70 smokers whose files were randomly selected from a smoking cessation clinic's recruitment. Stress management as a motive to smoke (SMMS) was systematically explored at the first visit, before quit date. SMMS mean score was 7.36 (+/- 2.4) on a 10 point scale. The score was higher in females than in males (p = 0,048). A multivariate logistic regression showed that SMMS was explained by two variables: physical dependence as measured with the FTND score (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.18-2.46), and anxiety as measured with the HAD scale (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.03-1.56). In conclusion, the high frequency and impact of perceived stress on smoking behavior call for a systematic clinical evaluation of perceived stress when engaging a treatment for smoking dependence. Our work has confirmed the importance for the smokers of perceived stress on their smoking behavior, particularly in females. Perceived stress showed a strong relationship with nicotine dependence and anxiety. Further investigation is warranted for a better understanding of the relationship between perceived stress and anxiety in smokers.

  10. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  11. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  12. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    PubMed

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P < 0.001). Graphic, health harm messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies.

  13. How Do Light and Intermittent Smokers Differ from Heavy Smokers in Young Adulthood: The Role of Smoking Restraint Strategies.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Ferguson, Stuart G; Bühler, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Light and intermittent smoking has become a prevalent pattern of use among young adults. Little is known about which factors differentiate light and intermittent smokers (LITS) from heavy smokers (HS) in young adulthood. In this study, we compare young adult LITS with HS with regard to demographic- and smoking-related variables, self-control abilities, and concrete strategies of smoking restraint. The data were collected as part of an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study with 137 German young adult smokers (M Age = 21.1 years, 46.0% female; 76 HS [≥10 cigarettes/day] and 61 LITS [≤5 cigarettes/day]). Participants were recruited over the Internet and completed a baseline questionnaire online. Several variables differentiated LITS and HS in a multiple logistic regression analysis: LITS reported fewer smoking friends (p < .001) and a higher self-efficacy to resist smoking (p < .01). Further, LITS smoking status was associated with reporting a past quit attempt (p < .05) and the use of smoking restraint strategies (counting, limiting, and purposefully not smoking cigarettes; p < .05). Notably, nicotine dependence and trait self-control abilities did not differentiate between LITS and HS. Our results point to the role of smoking restraint strategies and self-monitoring of smoking to limit the daily number of cigarettes smoked.

  14. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jinbo; Wu, Lili; Zou, Ke

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  15. Noninvasive quantification of alveolar morphometry in elderly never- and ex-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Gregory A; Ouriadov, Alexei; Lessard, Eric; Sheikh, Khadija; McCormack, David G; Parraga, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a way to generate in vivo lung images with contrast sensitive to the molecular displacement of inhaled gas at subcellular length scales. Here, we aimed to evaluate hyperpolarized 3He MRI estimates of the alveolar dimensions in 38 healthy elderly never-smokers (73 ± 6 years, 15 males) and 21 elderly ex-smokers (70 ± 10 years, 14 males) with (n = 8, 77 ± 6 years) and without emphysema (n = 13, 65 ± 10 years). The ex-smoker and never-smoker subgroups were significantly different for FEV1/FVC (P = 0.0001) and DLCO (P = 0.009); while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly diminished FEV1/FVC (P = 0.02) and a trend toward lower DLCO (P = 0.05) than ex-smokers without emphysema. MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and CT measurements of emphysema (relative area–CT density histogram, RA950) were significantly different (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007) for never-smoker and ex-smoker subgroups. In never-smokers, the MRI estimate of mean linear intercept (260 ± 27 μm) was significantly elevated as compared to the results previously reported in younger never-smokers (210 ± 30 μm), and trended smaller than in the age-matched ex-smokers (320 ± 72 μm, P = 0.06) evaluated here. Never-smokers also reported significantly smaller internal (220 ± 24 μm, P = 0.01) acinar radius but greater alveolar sheath thickness (120 ± 4 μm, P < 0.0001) than ex-smokers. Never-smokers were also significantly different than ex-smokers without emphysema for alveolar sheath thickness but not ADC, while ex-smokers with emphysema reported significantly different ADC but not alveolar sheath thickness compared to ex-smokers without CT evidence of emphysema. Differences in alveolar measurements in never- and ex-smokers demonstrate the sensitivity of MRI measurements to the different effects of smoking and aging on acinar morphometry. PMID:26462748

  16. Increased bone resorption in moderate smokers with low body weight: the Minos study.

    PubMed

    Szulc, P; Garnero, P; Claustrat, B; Marchand, F; Duboeuf, F; Delmas, P D

    2002-02-01

    Tobacco was found to be a risk factor for osteoporosis, mainly in postmenopausal women. We studied the effect of smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover in a cohort of 719 men, aged 51-85 yr, composed of 83 current smokers, 405 former smokers, and 231 men who never smoked. Most current and former smokers were moderate smokers (median, 10 cigarettes/d). Current smokers were younger, thinner, and drank more coffee and more alcoholic beverages. After adjustment for age, body weight, alcohol intake, and caffeine intake, current and former smokers had similar BMD, except at the forearm. Former smokers had lower BMD compared with never-smokers at most skeletal sites. Men who had smoked more than 7120 packs (third quartile) had lower BMD of total hip (P < 0.01) and distal forearm (P = 0.03) compared with men in the 2 lower tertiles. In the 3 groups, levels of bone formation markers did not differ. After adjustment for confounding variables, levels of urinary markers of bone resorption (beta-isomerized C-terminal telopeptide, free and total deoxypyridinoline) were higher in the current smokers than in former smokers and never-smokers. Concentrations of T, total 17beta-E2, and androstenedione were higher, whereas that of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was lower, in current smokers. When men were divided according to tertiles of body weight, increased bone resorption, decreased BMD and biochemical indexes of secondary hyperparathyroidism were observed in current smokers in the lowest tertile of body weight (<75 kg) compared with the never-smokers, but not in men in the two highest tertiles of body weight. Current smokers had a higher prevalence of vertebral deformities after adjustment for age and body weight (13% vs. 5%; P < 0.005). In summary, in moderate smokers with low body weight (<75 kg), increased bone resorption, not matched by increased bone formation, results in decreased BMD and an increased prevalence of vertebral deformities. In this group, low serum 25

  17. Characterizing and identifying "hard-core" smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Emery, S; Gilpin, E A; Ake, C; Farkas, A J; Pierce, J P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Some smokers may never quit. Depending on how many of these "hard-core" smokers exist, tobacco control efforts could reach the limits of a minimum achievable smoking prevalence. We defined the hard core as heavy smokers with weak quitting histories who expect never to quit smoking. We compared them with other smokers and analyzed whether they represent a meaningful barrier to further reducing smoking prevalence. METHODS: We used data from the 1996 California Tobacco Surveys (18616 adults; response rate = 72.9%). RESULTS: In 1996, 5.2% of California smokers 26 years and older (1.3% of the California population) were hard-core smokers. Compared with other smokers, hard-core smokers were more likely to be retired non-Hispanic White males, with 12 years or less of education and incomes below $30,000 a year, who live alone. They began smoking at younger ages and attributed fewer negative health consequences to smoking than other smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Current tobacco control efforts have a long way to go before they "hit the wall." Nonetheless, the group of hard-core smokers represents a challenge because they appear to be largely unaffected by the messages of tobacco control. PMID:10705856

  18. [Evaluation of visual attentional biases in a sample of university smokers].

    PubMed

    Morales Domínguez, Zaira; Pascual Orts, Luis Miguel; Garrido Muñoz de Arenillas, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco consumption continues being a worrying problem due to the negative consequences in the health. At presents, strategies of prevention based on the persuasion across clue pictures are used, which need to attract the attention of the smoker in order that they are effective. Nevertheless, the number of experimental studies in Spain on attentional biases in smokers is very limited. For it, in this study the aim was to verify the presence of visual attentional biases using the dot probe task in university smokers, stage where the smoking habit is consolidated. The sample was constituted by 337 students of the University of Huelva, with ages between 17 and 30 years. The participation was voluntary and the participants signed an informed assent. 135 subjects presented consumption history, which were distributed, according to classification of the WHO, in daily smokers, occasional smokers and former smokers. A experimental Ex post facto prospective design was used. The results showed that the smokers group was significantly later time to respond to the clue located in the same place that the tobacco picture than the group of not smokers. This shows that the smokers presented more difficulty to disconnect the attention towards smoking cues than not smokers.

  19. Use of Tobacco Cessation Treatments Among Young Adult Smokers: 2005 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Sporer, Amy K.; Pugach, Oksana; Campbell, Richard T.; Emery, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We compared use of smoking cessation treatments and factors associated with treatment use among young adult smokers and other adult smokers. Methods. We used data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey core and cancer control supplement. The sample consisted of 6511 current smokers, of whom 759 were aged 18–24 years. Our analyses were weighted to account for differential sampling probabilities and nonresponse rates. We compared continuous measures using the t test; logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and confidence intervals. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of treatment use. Results. Behavioral treatment use was infrequent among all smokers (4%–5%). Young adult smokers were less likely than other smokers to use pharmacotherapy (18% vs 32%). Correlates of pharmacotherapy use for young adult smokers were receiving advice from a health care provider, heavier smoking, and higher educational attainment. Compared with other smokers, young adult smokers were less likely to have received advice to quit from a health care provider (49% vs 60%). Conclusions. Evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments are underused by young adult smokers. PMID:17600243

  20. Differences in regional air trapping in current smokers with normal spirometry.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Tornling, Göran; Forsslund, Helena; Mikko, Mikael; Wheelock, Åsa M; Nyrén, Sven; Sköld, C Magnus

    2017-01-01

    We investigated regional air trapping on computed tomography in current smokers with normal spirometry. It was hypothesised that presence of regional air trapping may indicate a specific manifestation of smoking-related changes.40 current smokers, 40 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 40 healthy never- smokers underwent computed tomography scans. Regional air trapping was assessed on end-expiratory scans and emphysema, micronodules and bronchial wall thickening on inspiratory scans. The ratio of expiratory and inspiratory mean lung attenuation (E/I) was calculated as a measure of static (fixed) air trapping.Regional air trapping was present in 63% of current smokers, in 45% of never smokers and in 8% of COPD patients (p<0.001). Current smokers with and without regional air trapping had E/I ratio of 0.81 and 0.91, respectively (p<0.001). Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was significantly higher and emphysema less frequent in current smokers with regional air trapping.Current smokers with regional air trapping had higher FEV1 and less emphysema on computed tomography. In contrast, current smokers without regional air trapping resembled COPD. Our results highlight heterogeneity among smokers with normal spirometry and may contribute to early detection of smoking related structural changes in the lungs.

  1. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  2. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D; Lagua, Ian Joseph N; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Alexander, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18-35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  3. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Alyssa Marie M.; Fagan, Pebbles; Hamamura, Faith D.; Lagua, Ian Joseph N.; Liu, Jenny; Park, Devin J.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Pagano, Ian; Cassel, Kevin; Sy, Angela; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Boushey, Carol J.; Franke, Adrian; Clanton, Mark S.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Alexander, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates 1) the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2) the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175). A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000). The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000). After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04). The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02) in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers. PMID:26844173

  4. Decline of lung function and development of chronic airflow limitation: a longitudinal study of non-smokers and smokers in Busselton, Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Peat, J K; Woolcock, A J; Cullen, K

    1990-01-01

    Data collected during seven population health surveys over 18 years in Busselton, Western Australia, were examined to determine the effect of smoking on lung function and to investigate the development of chronic airflow limitation. Lung function was measured and details of respiratory illness and smoking histories were collected from subjects attending surveys at three year intervals from 1966 to 1984. Data from ex-smokers and asthmatic patients (diagnosis based on answer to questionnaire) were excluded. Regression of height adjusted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) on age was calculated individually for 759 non-smokers and 225 regular smokers with four or more observations. Decline in height adjusted FEV1 was similar for men and women. In smokers the rate of decline in FEV1 was greater than in non-smokers and was related to the amount smoked, to the extent that a smoker could expect a 20-30% greater rate of decline than a non-smoker of the same age. Chronic airflow limitation (defined as FEV1/FEV less than 65% or FEV1 less than 65% predicted on at least two occasions) was common, occurring in 24% of men and 18% of women who were regular smokers and in 5% of male and 8% of female non-smokers. These figures are higher than those reported in other populations, especially for women and for non-smokers. Not all chronic airflow limitation was associated with respiratory symptoms, confirming that the condition may be unrecognised until it is advanced. PMID:2321175

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2007-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) rods were synthesized from dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (CaHPO 4, DCPA) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) by the hydrothermal method from 120 to 180 °C. Both cuttlebone (aragonite polymorph of CaCO 3) and CaCO 3 chemical (calcite polymorph of CaCO 3) were used as CaCO 3 sources. The nucleation and growth of HAP rods mainly occurred on DCPA particles, while some HAP rods also grew from aragonite particles. The nucleation and growth of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) particles on the surface of calcite particles were observed at the beginning of the reaction of DCPA and calcite, and some HAP rods were also found to grow out of β-TCP particles. After the hydrothermal reaction at 140 °C for 24 h, most products are HAP with a small amount of β-TCP synthesized as a byproduct. The HAP rods synthesized were ˜200 nm in width and several microns in length. The reaction mechanism and growth process of HAP rods are discussed.

  6. Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Postberg, Frank; Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Kempf, Sascha; Horányi, Mihály; Juhász, Antal; Altobelli, Nicolas; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Srama, Ralf

    2015-03-12

    Detection of sodium-salt-rich ice grains emitted from the plume of the Saturnian moon Enceladus suggests that the grains formed as frozen droplets from a liquid water reservoir that is, or has been, in contact with rock. Gravitational field measurements suggest a regional south polar subsurface ocean of about 10 kilometres thickness located beneath an ice crust 30 to 40 kilometres thick. These findings imply rock-water interactions in regions surrounding the core of Enceladus. The resulting chemical 'footprints' are expected to be preserved in the liquid and subsequently transported upwards to the near-surface plume sources, where they eventually would be ejected and could be measured by a spacecraft. Here we report an analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles (so-called stream particles) that stand out from the water-ice-dominated objects characteristic of Saturn. We interpret these grains as nanometre-sized SiO2 (silica) particles, initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus' subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn's E ring. The composition and the limited size range (2 to 8 nanometres in radius) of stream particles indicate ongoing high-temperature (>90 °C) hydrothermal reactions associated with global-scale geothermal activity that quickly transports hydrothermal products from the ocean floor at a depth of at least 40 kilometres up to the plume of Enceladus.

  7. Translucency of monolithic and core zirconia after hydrothermal aging

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Salma M.; El-Fallal, Abeer A.; El-Negoly, Salwa A.; El Bedawy, Abu Baker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the hydrothermal aging effect on the translucency of partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia with yttria (Y-TZP) used as monolithic or fully milled zirconia and of core type. Methods: Twenty disc-shaped specimens (1 and 10 mm) for each type of monolithic and core Y-TZP materials were milled and sintered according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The final specimens were divided into two groups according to the type of Y-TZP used. Translucency parameter (TP) was measured over white and black backgrounds with the diffuse reflectance method; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to analyze the microstructure of both Y-TZP types before and after aging. Data for TP values was statistically analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results: Monolithic Y-TZP showed the highest TP mean value (16.4 ± 0.316) before aging while core Y-TZP showed the lowest TP mean value (7.05 ± 0.261) after aging. There was a significant difference between the two Y-TZP types before and after hydrothermal aging. XRD analysis showed increases in monoclinic content in both Y-TZP surfaces after aging. Conclusion: Monolithic Y-TZP has a higher chance to low-temperature degradation than core type, which may significantly affect the esthetic appearance and translucency hence durability of translucent Y-TZP. PMID:27335897

  8. Characteristics of adult smokers presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Luberto, Christina M; Chad-Friedman, Emma; Dossett, Michelle L; Perez, Giselle K; Park, Elyse R

    2016-09-29

    Mind-body interventions can improve vulnerabilities that underlie smoking behavior. The characteristics of smokers who use mind-body medicine have not been explored, preventing the development of targeted interventions. Patients (N = 593) presenting to a mind-body medicine clinic completed self-report measures. Patients were 67 percent never smokers, 27 percent former smokers, and 6 percent current smokers. Current smokers were younger; more likely to be single, unemployed, or on disability; and report greater depression symptoms, greater pain, and lower social support (ps < .05).Current smokers who use mind-body medicine have unique psychosocial needs that should be targeted in mind-body smoking cessation interventions.

  9. Estimation of major immunoglobulins in smokers and gutkha chewers

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Ketankumar Jayantilal; Chawda, Jyoti G

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the level of IgG and IgA major immunoglobulins in patients having the habit of smoking, gutkha chewing and in patients without any tobacco habit as control. Materials and Methods: Estimation of major immunoglobulins IgG and IgA was carried out by automated Nephelometry method in ten patients (control group), forty patients who had habit of smoking either bidi or cigarette and forty patients who had the habit of gutkha chewing. Among forty patients who smoked, twenty patients were without any lesion while twenty patients had homogenous leukoplakia. Among the forty patients who had habit of gutkha chewing, twenty patients were without any lesion while twenty patients had oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). The obtained data were analyzed using independent sample t-test. Results: IgG and IgA levels were higher in smokers and gutkha chewers as compared to control group and were higher in gutkha chewers as compared to smokers. IgG and IgA levels of non- lesional smokers and gutkha chewers showed no change as compared to the controls while it was increased in patients with homogenous leukoplakia and patients with OSMF as compared to control group. IgG and IgA levels were also significantly higher in patients with OSMF as compared to that of homogenous leukoplakia. IgG and IgA levels were higher in all the grades of OSMF as compared to the controls and both IgG and IgA levels were directly correlated with the grades of OSMF. Conclusion: Higher major immunoglobulins levels in present study among the study groups indicate the use of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis and would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of the lesions. PMID:27601812

  10. Protein networks in induced sputum from smokers and COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N; Casado, Begona; Pannell, Lewis K; McGarvey, Peter B; Boschetto, Piera; Luisetti, Maurizio; Iadarola, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Objective To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. Subjects and methods Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7) and smokers with normal lung function (n=13), mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11), obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15), and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10) were assessed with mass spectrometry. Data reduction, logarithmic transformation of spectral counts, and Cytoscape network-interaction analysis were performed. The original 203 proteins were reduced to the most informative 50. Sources were secretory dimeric IgA, submucosal gland serous and mucous cells, goblet and other epithelial cells, and vascular permeability. Results Epithelial proteins discriminated nonsmokers from smokers. Mucin 5AC was elevated in healthy smokers and chronic bronchitis, suggesting a continuum with the severity of hypersecretion determined by mechanisms of goblet-cell hyperplasia. Obstructed airflow was correlated with glandular proteins and lower levels of Ig joining chain compared to other groups. Emphysema subjects’ sputum was unique, with high plasma proteins and components of neutrophil extracellular traps, such as histones and defensins. In contrast, defensins were correlated with epithelial proteins in all other groups. Protein-network interactions were unique to each group. Conclusion The proteomes were interpreted as complex “biosignatures” that suggest distinct pathophysiological mechanisms for mucin 5AC hypersecretion, airflow obstruction, and inflammatory emphysema phenotypes. Proteomic phenotyping may improve genotyping studies by selecting more homogeneous study groups. Each phenotype may require its own mechanistically based diagnostic, risk-assessment, drug- and other

  11. Predictive Microbiology in Hydrothermal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E. L.; Holland, M. E.; Meyer-Dombard, D.; Amend, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    Metabolisms of high-temperature microorganisms are not revealed by molecular phylogenies, but, if known, could connect microbial and geochemical processes in hydrothermal ecosystems. Disequilibria among oxidation-reduction reactions, established by kinetic barriers to electron-transfer reactions, provide energy, and life provides the catalyst. In more-or-less closed systems, such as slowly-accumulating detrital sediments, life taps as much energy as conversion efficiency will allow, and many redox couples are driven to near-equilibrium states. In contrast, open systems like hot springs maintain persistent states of redox disequilibria that support highly diverse communities of microorganisms. In Yellowstone National Park hot springs, the magnitude of these redox disequilibria can be predicted based solely on pH, guided by past measurements of hot spring geochemistry. Geochemical diversity at Yellowstone National Park produces hydrothermal ecosystems over a pH range from less than 2 to greater than 8, with associated major and trace element concentration changes. We have assessed the supply of chemical energy in the form of redox reactions that are far from equilibrium in the Fe-S-C-O-H-N system. Field measurements of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total sulfide, nitrate, nitrite, total ammonia, ferrous iron, and bicarbonate alkalinity are combined with lab analyses of sulfate, iron mineralogy, and gas composition (hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide) in a thermodynamic analysis of the state of redox disequilibria in more than 50 hot spring habitats. Initial results (using only inorganic forms of C) yield nearly 200 reactions that are out of redox equilibrium, and which could supply energy if catalyzed. Some of these reactions, such as hydrogen oxidation, are pH independent, and the energy supply is nearly constant at about 24 kcal per mole of electrons over the entire pH range. Other reactions, which are pH dependent, show greater or lesser

  12. Changing smokers' risk perceptions--for better or worse?

    PubMed

    Myers, Lynn B

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of a smoking health message on smokers' comparative optimism. Two groups watched an anti-smoking scenario, with one group imagining being part of the scenario. Participants, including controls, completed comparative optimism ratings for four smoking-related illnesses. The intervention had negative consequences with both intervention groups reporting significantly higher comparative optimism versus the control group for all four smoking-related illnesses. It is concluded that media health messages can be powerful tools in changing comparative optimism but are influenced by peoples' prior perceptions. Health messages need to be systematically assessed to understand prior beliefs of the target audience.

  13. Smokers vs. nonsmokers in the work place: clearing the air.

    PubMed

    Massengill, D; Petersen, D J

    As the antismoking movement grows, employees are becoming more vociferous about their right to a work environment free from tobacco smoke and its toxic effects. In response to these concerns, ordinances regulating smoke in public places and in some cases banning it altogether have been passed in several states and some cities. Likewise, courts have addressed the issue of nonsmokers' rights in the work place. In the following article, the authors examine the scope of regulation thus far and the prospect of future regulation on smoking in the work place. They also examine court, National Labor Relations Board, and arbitration decisions that have dealt with the rights of smokers and nonsmokers.

  14. SEPAR-ALAT Consensus Document on Antipneumoccal Vaccination in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Buljubasich, Daniel; Sansores, Raúl; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Guerreros Benavides, Alfredo; Luhning, Susana; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zabert, Gustavo; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio; Solano Reina, Segismundo; Casas Herrera, Alejandro; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for several clinical syndromes, such as community-acquired pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, and others. The most severe clinical entity caused by this bacteria is undoubtedly invasive pneumococcal disease. Certain factors are known to increase the risk of presenting invasive pneumococcal disease, the most important being smoking habit and underlying concomitant diseases. This article comprises a consensus document on antipneumococcal vaccination in smokers, drawn up by a Smoking Expert Group from the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery and the Latin American Chest Association.

  15. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist

  16. Analysis of Fifty Hotspot Mutations of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the major risk factor for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although a small number of lung SCCs occurs in never-smokers. The purpose of this study was to compare 50 hotspot mutations of lung SCCs between never-smokers and smokers. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients newly diagnosed with lung SCC between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 in the Seoul National University Hospital. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples were used for analysis of hotspot mutations. Fifty cancer-related genes in never-smokers were compared to those in ever-smokers. Of 379 lung SCC patients, 19 (5.0%) were never-smokers. The median age of these 19 patients was 67 years (interquartile range 57–73 years), and 10 of these patients were women (52.5%). The incidence rates of stage I, II, III, and IV disease in this group were 26.4%, 5.3%, 31.6%, and 36.8%, respectively, and sequencing was performed successfully in 14 cases. In the 26 lung SCC tumor samples (12 from never-smokers and 14 from ever-smokers) sequenced using personal genome machine, the most common mutations were in TP53 (75.0%), RAS (66.7%), and STK11 (33.3%), but mutations were also found in EGFR, KIT, and PTEN. The distribution of hotspot mutations in never-smokers was similar to that in ever-smokers. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the 2 groups. The 50 hotspot mutations of lung SCC in never-smokers were similar to those of ever-smokers. PMID:28145643

  17. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of the Bronchial Epithelium in Smokers With Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0234 TITLE: Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of the Bronchial Epithelium in Smokers With Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of the Bronchial Epithelium in Smokers With Lung Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...single cell RNA sequencing on airway epithelial cells obtained from smokers with and without lung cancer to identify cell-type dependent gene expression

  18. Transitions in Smoking Status Over Time in a Population-Based Panel Study of Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Victor, J. Charles; Diemert, Lori M.; Mecredy, Graham C.; Chaiton, Michael; Brown, K. Stephen; Cohen, Joanna E.; McDonald, Paul W.; Ferrence, Roberta; Garcia, John M.; Selby, Peter; Schwartz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have examined the transitions of smokers in the general population through multiple periods of daily, occasional smoking, or abstinence over time. Transitions from daily to occasional smoking are particularly of interest as these may be steps toward cessation. Methods: The Ontario Tobacco Survey panel study followed 4,355 baseline smokers, semiannually for up to 3 years. Probabilities of all possible changes in smoking status more than 6 months were estimated using 13,000 repeated measures observations generated from sets of 3 consecutive interviews (n = 9,932 daily smokers, 1,245 occasion smokers, and 1,823 abstinent for at least 30 days, at Time 1). Results: For initial daily smokers, an estimated 83% remained daily smokers more than 2 follow-ups. The majority of those who had been abstinent for 30 days at 1 interview, were also former smokers at the following interview. In contrast, occasional smoking status was unstable and future smoking status was dependent upon smoking history and subjective dependence. Among daily smokers who became occasional smokers 6 months later, an estimated 20% became a former smoker, at the next interview, but 50% returned to daily smoking. Daily, turned occasional smokers who rebounded back to daily smoking were more likely to describe themselves as addicted at Time 1. Continuing occasional smokers were somewhat less likely to intend to quit, or have tried, despite considering themselves less addicted. Conclusions: Reducing to occasional smoking can be a stepping stone toward cessation but entails a greater risk of return to daily smoking, compared with complete abstinence. PMID:23231826

  19. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  20. Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This paper, presented as part of a military lecture series given by the Division of Continuing Education and Community Service Speakers' Bureau of the University of Hawaii to military personnel at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter, investigates the origins and present status of Black English. A discussion of early studies in the Gullah dialect…

  1. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…

  2. Formation of hydrothermal deposits at Kings Triple Junction, northern Lau back-arc basin, SW Pacific: The geochemical perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paropkari, Anil L.; Ray, Durbar; Balaram, V.; Surya Prakash, L.; Mirza, Imran H.; Satyanarayana, M.; Gnaneshwar Rao, T.; Kaisary, Sujata

    2010-04-01

    An inactive hydrothermal field was discovered near Kings Triple Junction (KTJ) in northern Lau back-arc basin during 19th cruise of R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 1990. The field consisted of a large elongated basal platform 'the pedestal' with several 'small' chimneys on its periphery and one 'main mound' superposed over it. The surrounding region is carpeted with lava pillows having ferromanganese 'precipitate' as infillings. The adjoining second field consisted of small chimney like growths termed as 'Christmas Tree' Field. The basal pedestal, the peripheral chimneys and small 'Christmas Tree' like growths (samples collected by MIR submersibles), though parts of the same hydrothermal field, differ significantly in their mineralogy and elemental composition indicating different history of formation. The pedestal slab consisting of chalcopyrite and pyrite as major minerals and rich in Cu is likely to have formed at higher temperatures than sphalerite dominated peripheral chimney. Extremely low concentration of high field strength elements (e.g. Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta) and enrichment of light REE in these sulfides indicate prominent influence of aqueous arc-magma, rich in subduction components. The oxide growths in the 'Christmas Tree' Field have two distinct layers, Fe rich orange-red basal part which seems to have formed at very low temperature as precipitates from diffused hydrothermal flows from the seafloor whereas Mn rich black surface coating is formed from hydrothermal fluids emanated from the seafloor during another episode of hydrothermal activity. Perhaps this is for the first time such unique hydrothermal oxide growths are being reported in association with hydrothermal system. Here, we discuss the possible processes responsible for the formation of these different hydrothermal deposits based on their mineralogy and geochemistry.

  3. Arctic Ocean: hydrothermal activity on Gakkel Ridge.

    PubMed

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise

    2004-03-04

    In the hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, sea water penetrates the fractured crust, becomes heated by its proximity to the hot magma, and returns to the sea floor as hot fluids enriched in various chemical elements. In contradiction to earlier results that predict diminishing hydrothermal activity with decreasing spreading rate, a survey of the ultra-slowly spreading Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) by Edmonds et al. and Michael et al. suggests that, instead of being rare, the hydrothermal activity is abundant--exceeding by at least a factor of two to three what would be expected by extrapolation from observation on faster spreading ridges. Here we use helium-3 (3He), a hydrothermal tracer, to show that this abundance of venting sites does not translate, as would be expected, into an anomalous hydrothermal 3He output from the ridge. Because of the wide implications of the submarine hydrothermal processes for mantle heat and mass fluxes to the ocean, these conflicting results call for clarification of the link between hydrothermal activity and crustal production at mid-ocean ridges.

  4. Dynamics of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field is characterized by extensive seismicity, episodes of uplift and subsidence, and a hydrothermal system that comprises more than 10,000 thermal features, including geysers, fumaroles, mud pots, thermal springs, and hydrothermal explosion craters. The diverse chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and gases derive from mantle, crustal, and meteoric sources and extensive water-gas-rock interaction at variable pressures and temperatures. The thermal features are host to all domains of life that utilize diverse inorganic sources of energy for metabolism. The unique and exceptional features of the hydrothermal system have attracted numerous researchers to Yellowstone beginning with the Washburn and Hayden expeditions in the 1870s. Since a seminal review published a quarter of a century ago, research in many fields has greatly advanced our understanding of the many coupled processes operating in and on the hydrothermal system. Specific advances include more refined geophysical images of the magmatic system, better constraints on the time scale of magmatic processes, characterization of fluid sources and water-rock interactions, quantitative estimates of heat and magmatic volatile fluxes, discovering and quantifying the role of thermophile microorganisms in the geochemical cycle, defining the chronology of hydrothermal explosions and their relation to glacial cycles, defining possible links between hydrothermal activity, deformation, and seismicity; quantifying geyser dynamics; and the discovery of extensive hydrothermal activity in Yellowstone Lake. Discussion of these many advances forms the basis of this review.

  5. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  6. Personalized Risk Assessment in Never, Light, and Heavy Smokers in a prospective cohort in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang; Ye, Yuanqing; Tsai, MinKwang; Wen, Christopher; Roth, Jack A.; Pu, Xia; Chow, Wong-Ho; Huff, Chad; Cunningham, Sonia; Huang, Maosheng; Wu, Shuanbei; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Gu, Jian; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop markedly improved risk prediction models for lung cancer using a prospective cohort of 395,875 participants in Taiwan. Discriminatory accuracy was measured by generation of receiver operator curves and estimation of area under the curve (AUC). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, age, gender, smoking pack-years, family history of lung cancer, personal cancer history, BMI, lung function test, and serum biomarkers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), bilirubin, alpha fetoprotein (AFP), and c-reactive protein (CRP) were identified and included in an integrative risk prediction model. The AUC in overall population was 0.851 (95% CI = 0.840–0.862), with never smokers 0.806 (95% CI = 0.790–0.819), light smokers 0.847 (95% CI = 0.824–0.871), and heavy smokers 0.732 (95% CI = 0.708–0.752). By integrating risk factors such as family history of lung cancer, CEA and AFP for light smokers, and lung function test (Maximum Mid-Expiratory Flow, MMEF25–75%), AFP and CEA for never smokers, light and never smokers with cancer risks as high as those within heavy smokers could be identified. The risk model for heavy smokers can allow us to stratify heavy smokers into subgroups with distinct risks, which, if applied to low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening, may greatly reduce false positives. PMID:27805040

  7. Abnormal brain white matter network in young smokers: a graph theory analysis study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajuan; Li, Min; Wang, Ruonan; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yi, Zhang; Liu, Jixin; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2017-03-13

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups. The results demonstrated that both young smokers and nonsmokers had small-world topology in WM network. Further analysis revealed that the young smokers exhibited the abnormal topological organization, i.e., increased network strength, global efficiency, and decreased shortest path length. In addition, the increased nodal efficiency predominately was located in frontal cortex, striatum and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in smokers. Moreover, based on network-based statistic (NBS) approach, the significant increased FA-weighted WM connections were mainly found in the PFC, ACG and supplementary motor area (SMA) regions. Meanwhile, the network parameters were correlated with the nicotine dependence severity (FTND) scores, and the nodal efficiency of orbitofrontal cortex was positive correlation with the cigarette per day (CPD) in young smokers. We revealed the abnormal topological organization of WM network in young smokers, which may improve our understanding of the neural mechanism of young smokers form WM topological organization level.

  8. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking. PMID:27757078

  9. Hydrothermal carbonization of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling-Ping; Shi, Zheng-Jun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2012-08-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermochemical conversion process to convert lignocellulosic biomass into value-added products. HTC processes were studied using two different biomass feedstocks: corn stalk and Tamarix ramosissima. The treatment brought an increase of the higher heating values up to 29.2 and 28.4 MJ/kg for corn stalk and T. ramosissima, respectively, corresponding to an increase of 66.8% and 58.3% as compared to those for the raw materials. The resulting lignite-like solid products contained mainly lignin with a high degree of aromatization and a large amount of oxygen-containing groups. Liquid products extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified degradation products were phenolic compounds and furan derivatives, which may be desirable feedstocks for biodiesel and chemical production. Based on these results, HTC is considered to be a potential treatment in a lignocellulosic biomass refinery.

  10. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  11. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  12. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  13. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Drilling for Supercritical Hydrothermal Fluids is Underway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

    2008-12-01

    production should follow in 2010. During 2009-19 two new wells, ~4 km deep, will be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in southern Iceland, and subsequently deepened into the supercritical zone. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater on the Reykjanes peninsula, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes on land. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be more similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems. Because of the considerable international scientific opportunities afforded by the IDDP, the US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program will jointly fund the coring and sampling for scientific studies. Research is underway on samples from existing wells in the targeted geothermal fields, and on active mid-ocean ridge systems that have conditions believed to be similar to those that will be encountered in deep drilling by the IDDP. Some of these initial scientific studies by US investigators are reported in the accompanying papers.

  14. Hydrothermal vents and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Martin, William; Baross, John; Kelley, Deborah; Russell, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are geochemically reactive habitats that harbour rich microbial communities. There are striking parallels between the chemistry of the H(2)-CO(2) redox couple that is present in hydrothermal systems and the core energy metabolic reactions of some modern prokaryotic autotrophs. The biochemistry of these autotrophs might, in turn, harbour clues about the kinds of reactions that initiated the chemistry of life. Hydrothermal vents thus unite microbiology and geology to breathe new life into research into one of biology's most important questions - what is the origin of life?

  15. What Defines a Separate Hydrothermal System

    SciTech Connect

    Lawless, J.V.; Bogie, I.; Bignall, G.

    1995-01-01

    Separate hydrothermal systems can be defined in a variety of ways. Criteria which have been applied include separation of heat source, upflow, economic resource and geophysical anomaly. Alternatively, connections have been defined by the effects of withdrawal of economically useful fluid and subsidence, effects of reinjection, changes in thermal features, or by a hydrological connection of groundwaters. It is proposed here that: ''A separate hydrothermal system is one that is fed by a separate convective upflow of fluid, at a depth above the brittle-ductile transition for the host rocks, while acknowledging that separate hydrothermal systems can be hydrologically interconnected at shallower levels''.

  16. Young smokers' narratives: public health, disadvantage and structural violence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sue; Russell, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    This research article on youth smoking in disadvantaged communities is the product of a qualitative study to understand the issues faced by young smokers--and those trying not to be smokers--in such communities. Environmental factors and peer influence are widely recognised influences on adolescents' take-up and continuation of smoking but less is known about whether, what, how and why circumstances in disadvantaged communities affect young people's pathways towards and away from smoking. Focusing on a youth club in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in the North East of England, narratives about young people's relationships with tobacco provide an ethnographically rich, thick description of the experiences of a group that is too often easily ignored. We argue that young people are caught between competing domains that together exert a form of structural violence. These are, first, the economic and political structures that have overseen de-industrialisation; second, the media structures that create desire for what they cannot afford; third the structures of international organised crime that conspire to provide them with the means to consume from which 'legitimate' structures effectively exclude them. Rather than expecting young people to comply with the health imperative, interventions need to bridge issues of agency and critical consciousness, which structural violence otherwise insidiously erodes.

  17. Adherence to tobacco dependence treatment among HIV-infected smokers

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kristine K.; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K.; Diaz, Philip; Koletar, Susan L.; Reynolds, Nancy R.

    2017-01-01

    High prevalence of tobacco use and low success in quitting remain significant problems for reducing disease burden among HIV-infected persons. This study’s purpose was to examine participant responsiveness and tobacco dependence treatment adherence and their influences on tobacco abstinence among HIV-infected patients. This non-randomized study included HIV-infected smokers 18 years of age or older, who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day, and had an interest in quitting smoking in the next 30 days. HIV-infected smokers (n = 247) received a 12-week tobacco dependence treatment intervention that included pharmacotherapy and telephone counseling. Younger age and non-White race were associated with lower adherence to pharmacotherapy. Younger age, non-White race, and increased monthly binge drinking were associated with lower adherence to telephone counseling. High participant responsiveness was associated with adherence to pharmacotherapy, counseling, and abstinence. Development and testing of interventions to improve adherence to evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment is warranted. PMID:25855045

  18. Leptin influence in craving and relapse of alcoholics and smokers.

    PubMed

    Aguiar-Nemer, Aline S; Toffolo, Mayla C F; da Silva, Claudio Jeronimo; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Silva-Fonseca, Vilma A

    2013-06-01

    Leptin inhibits signaling of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, suggesting its role in regulating stress and its possible involvement in the neurobiology of reward system. The aim of this study was to review of the literature on the influence of leptin in the craving for alcohol and tobacco and whether there is already evidence that leptin may be a biomarker to indicate risk for craving and relapse. The review used as data bases Medline, LILACS and SciElo in the period between 2000 and 2012. Keywords were leptin, substance use disorders, craving and withdrawal, in Portuguese and English. Only 12 articles were met the inclusion criteria, relating leptin with craving in alcoholics (n = 10) and smokers (n = 2). No studies were found in the LILACS database. Leptin levels increase during abstinence and this may be related to a reduction of dopaminergic action in mesolimbic system, resulting in a greater intensity of craving and maintenance of addictive behavior. Although there are few studies, the most recent results indicate the usefulness of leptin as a marker of risk for relapse among smokers and alcoholics in abstinence.

  19. Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS−. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

  20. Activated protooncogenes in human lung tumors from smokers.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S H; Anna, C K; Brown, K C; Wiest, J S; Beattie, E J; Pero, R W; Iglehart, J D; Anderson, M W

    1991-02-15

    Fourteen primary human lung tumor DNAs from smokers were analyzed for transforming activity by two DNA transfection assays. Activated protooncogenes were detected in 3 of 11 tumor DNAs by the NIH 3T3 focus assay, whereas activated protooncogenes were detected in 11 of 13 tumor DNAs by the NIH 3T3 cotransfection-nude mouse tumorigenicity assay. K- or NRAS genes activated by point mutation at codons 12 or 61 were detected in a large cell carcinoma, a squamous cell carcinoma, and 5 adenocarcinomas. An HRAS oncogene activated by a different mechanism was detected in an epidermoid carcinoma. One adenocarcinoma was found to contain an activated RAF gene. Two unidentified transforming genes were detected in a squamous cell carcinoma DNA and two adenocarcinoma DNAs. Eight of 10 lung adenocarcinomas that had formed metastases at the time of surgery were found to contain RAS oncogenes. No significant increase in metastasis was observed in the lung adenocarcinomas that contained one or more 6-kilobase EcoRI alleles of the LMYC gene. Overall, 12 of 14 (86%) of the lung tumor DNAs from smokers were found to contain activated protooncogenes. RAS oncogenes appear to play a role in the development of metastases in lung adenocarcinomas.

  1. Black Talk and Black Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for cultural relativity in avoiding stereotyped reactions to the language of the lower-class black child. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue, "Linguistic-Cultural Differences and American Education. The central portion of this essay is part of the opening argument of the author's forthcoming book…

  2. Perceptions of E-Cigarettes among Black Youth in California

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Catherine A.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Annechino, Rachelle; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that Black youth are less likely to use e-cigarettes than their white counterparts, yet little is known as to why. We examined perceptions of e-cigarettes among Black young adults (ages 18–25) to explore the meanings these youth ascribe to e-cigarettes and the role that identity plays in how these devices are viewed. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 36 Black smokers and non-smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area suggests that Black youth perceive e-cigarettes as serving distinct, yet overlapping roles: a utilitarian function, in that they are recognized as legitimate smoking cessation tools, and a social function, insofar as they serve to mark social identity, specifically a social identity from which our participants disassociated. Participants described e-cigarette users in highly racialized and classed terms and generally expressed disinterest in using e-cigarettes, due in part perhaps to the fact that use of these devices would signal alignment with a middle class, hipster identity. This analysis is discussed within a highly charged political and public health debate about the benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use. PMID:28085031

  3. Formation of Hydrothermal nontronite associated with microbial activity at the South Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Kaiwen; Peng, Xiaotong; Chen, Shun; Xu, Hengchao; Li, Jiwei; Jiang, Lei; Du, Mengran

    2015-04-01

    Nontronite is an ubiquitous clay minerals in marine sediments, microbial mediation of hydrothermal nontronite have been increasing. The deposits collected from Southern Atlantic Ridge were very friable with an obvious laminated to stromatolitic to highly porous structure, varying from red, black to light yellow indicate redox condition may undergo range from micro-oxidizing to reducing. Although microbial activity are revealed to play an important role in the formation of clay minerals in sediment, little is currently known about microbial communities that reside in nontronite associated with hydrothermal activity. Here, we used Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nano secondary ion mass spectrometer (nanoSIMS) and molecular techniques to focus on potential mediation role of microbial in the nontronite formation of low-temperature hydrothermal deposits in South Atlantic Mid-ocean ridge. Our data suggest that the presences of abundant lamellar nontronite structures, as well as microbe-like mineralized morphologies similar to consistent with a biogenic origin. Nontronite in the lower zone of Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides are inferred to have been suboxic environment and their formation appear to be significantly controlled by the locus of redox conditions. Keywords: Nontronite, Microbial activity, Hydrothermal deposits, Biogenic origin.

  4. Relationship between enhanced dewaterability and structural properties of hydrothermal sludge after hydrothermal treatment of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Aimin; Chang, Yuzhi

    2017-04-01

    Hydrothermal treatment is an effective method to enhance the deep dewaterability of excess sludge with low energy consumption. In this study, an insight into the relationship between enhanced dewaterability and structural properties of the produced hydrothermal sludge was presented, aiming at better understanding the effect of hydrothermal process on excess sludge dewatering performance. The results indicated that hydrothermal effect induced the transformation of surface water to interstitial and free water by lowering the binding strength between adjacent water and solid particles and that free water became the main form for moisture existence in hydrothermal sludge as temperature was higher than 180 °C. Increase in temperature of hydrothermal treatment generated a significant size reduction of sludge flocs but treated sludge with a higher rigidity, which not only strengthened the network of hydrothermal sludge but also destroyed the binding of EPS with water. Hydrothermal process caused crevice and pore structures of excess sludge to disappear gradually, which was a main driving force of water removal as temperature was below 150 °C. With the temperature of hydrothermal treatment exceeding 180 °C, the morphology of hydrothermal sludge became rough which linked closely to the solid precipitation of condensation polymerization, and further became smooth at higher temperature (210 °C) due to the coal-like structures with higher aromaticities, indicating that hydrothermal reaction pathways began to play a main role in enhanced dewaterability. Hydrothermal treatment led to more alkyl and aromatic carbon, but lower O-alkyl, carboxyl and carbonyl carbon.

  5. Variations on Black Themes: English, Black Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Gloria D.

    Variations on Black Themes, an introductory course in the study of black literature, permits students to make cursory examination of representative works of many black writers for the purpose of identifying major writers and recurring themes. The course content includes: introduction to some works of major Black American authors; identification of…

  6. Major Disease Prevalence and Menstrual Characteristics in Infertile Female Korean Smokers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of smoking and factors associated with smoking in infertile Korean women. Smoking status, education, occupation, personal habits, past medical history, current illness, stress level, and menstrual characteristics were collected from self-report questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the degree of depression. Data on the causes of infertility and levels of six reproductive hormones were collected from medical records. Among 785 women less than 42 years of age, the prevalence of current, secondhand, past, and never smokers were 12.7%, 45.7%, 0.9%, and 40.6%, respectively. Primary infertility was more frequent in secondhand smokers. Causes of infertility were similar among current, secondhand, and never smokers. Current smokers were less educated (P < 0.001) and more likely to consume alcohol than secondhand or never smokers (P < 0.001). Secondhand smokers slept less than current smokers (P = 0.041). Among several major diseases, only the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (4.0%) was significantly higher in current smokers than in secondhand smokers (0.0%, P = 0.002) or never smokers (0.6%, P = 0.031). The self-reported prevalence of depression, and the degree of depression were similar among women with different smoking statuses. There were no differences in menstrual characteristics or serum levels of six reproductive hormones between current, secondhand, and never smokers, even after excluding women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In conclusion, education/employment status, alcohol drinking, and the prevalence of primary infertility and diabetes mellitus were significantly different according to smoking status among infertile women. PMID:28049245

  7. Smokers' attitudes and behaviors related to consumer demand for cessation counseling in the medical care setting.

    PubMed

    Weber, Deanne; Wolff, Lisa S; Orleans, Tracy; Mockenhaupt, Robin E; Massett, Holly A; Vose, Kathryn Kahler

    2007-05-01

    This study describes a new segmentation strategy exploring smokers' interest levels in counseling in the medical care setting in order to understand how public health communications can be designed to increase consumer demand for cessation services within this population. A subsample of 431 smokers from a large, nationally representative mail survey was analyzed and categorized into three cessation-demand groups: Low demand (LD), medium demand (MD), and high demand (HD). HD smokers were most likely to be heavy smokers, to make quitting a high priority, and to have self-efficacy in quitting. MD and LD smokers were less likely than HD smokers to have been told to quit smoking by a health care provider in the past or to believe that counseling is effective. The first step in the regression analysis revealed that age, cigarettes smoked per month, whether smokers were currently trying to quit, and whether they were ever told to quit smoking by their health care provider accounted for 21% of the variance in smokers' interest in smoking cessation counseling, F(4, 234) = 16.49, p<.001. When additional variables on attitudes toward smoking and quitting and perceived effectiveness of receiving counseling in the medical care setting were added to the model, an additional 11% of the variance in smokers' interest in cessation counseling was explained, F(12, 234) = 10.07, p<.001. Results suggest that by categorizing smokers by interest level in cessation counseling, we emerge with three distinct portraits of smokers who might be activated in different ways to increase consumer demand for cessation counseling.

  8. Body image emotions, perceptions, and cognitions distinguish physically active and inactive smokers

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Gisèle A.; Sabiston, Catherine M.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Bélanger, Mathieu; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if body image emotions (body-related shame and guilt, weight-related stress), perceptions (self-perceived overweight), or cognitions (trying to change weight) differ between adolescents characterized by smoking and physical activity (PA) behavior. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were collected in 2010–11 and were available for 1017 participants (mean (SD) age = 16.8 (0.5) years). Participants were categorized according to smoking and PA status into four groups: inactive smokers, inactive non-smokers, active smokers and active non-smokers. Associations between body image emotions, perceptions and cognitions, and group membership were estimated in multinomial logistic regression. Results Participants who reported body-related shame were less likely (OR (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.29–0.94)) to be in the active smoker group than the inactive smoker group; those who reported body-related guilt and those trying to gain weight were more likely (2.14 (1.32–3.48) and 2.49 (1.22–5.08), respectively) to be in the active smoker group than the inactive smoker group; those who were stressed about weight and those perceiving themselves as overweight were less likely to be in the active non-smoker group than the inactive smoker group (0.79 (0.64–0.97) and 0.41 (0.19–0.89), respectively). Conclusion Body image emotions and cognitions differentiated the active smoker group from the other three groups. PMID:26844062

  9. False promises: The tobacco industry, “low-tar” cigarettes, and older smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  10. Incarceration and Current Tobacco Smoking Among Black and Caribbean Black Americans in the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Okechukwu, Cassandra; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between having a history of incarceration and being a current smoker using a national sample of noninstitutionalized Black adults living in the United States. Methods. With data from the National Survey of American Life collected between February 2001 and March 2003, we calculated individual propensity scores for having a history of incarceration. To examine the relationship between prior incarceration and current smoking status, we ran gender-specific propensity-matched fitted logistic regression models. Results. A history of incarceration was consistently and independently associated with a higher risk of current tobacco smoking in men and women. Formerly incarcerated Black men had 1.77 times the risk of being a current tobacco smoker than did their counterparts without a history of incarceration (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 2.61) in the propensity score-matched sample. The results were similar among Black women (prevalence ratio = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.57). Conclusions. Mass incarceration likely contributes to the prevalence of smoking among US Blacks. Future research should explore whether the exclusion of institutionalized populations in national statistics obscures Black–White disparities in tobacco smoking. PMID:26378842

  11. Volatiles in Hydrothermal Systems: Then and Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, M. D.

    2004-12-01

    Jack Diamond was one of the principal investigators on the original proposal to dive on the Galapagos hydrothermal system. Jack participated on the cruise and, along with his graduate student (Richard Cobbler), made the first measurements of radon in hydrothermal systems. Louis I. Gordon and the author were also participants on this cruise and we made measurements of methane and hydrogen. In the ensuing 27 years much has been learned about volatiles in hydrothermal systems. For example, we have learned that phase separation and water/rock reactions play major roles in the volatile composition of hydrothermal fluids and that temporal variability is the rule rather than the exception. A summary of progress in this field will be given.

  12. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Catalytic Application of Ultrathin Rhodium Nanosheet Nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Bai, Juan; Xu, Guang-Rui; Xing, Shi-Hui; Zeng, Jing-Hui; Jiang, Jia-Xing; Chen, Yu

    2016-12-14

    Ultrathin noble metal nanosheets with atomic thickness exhibit abnormal electronic, surfacial, and photonic properties due to the unique two-dimensional (2D) confinement effect, which have attracted intensive research attention in catalysis/electrocatalysis. In this work, the well-defined ultrathin Rh nanosheet nanoassemblies with dendritic morphology are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method with assistance of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), where PAH effectively acts as the complexant and shape-directing agent. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images reveal the thickness of 2D Rh nanosheet with (111) planes is only ca. 0.8-1.1 nm. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement displays the specific surface area of the as-prepared ultrathin Rh nanosheet nanoassemblies is 139.4 m(2) g(-1), which is much bigger than that of homemade Rh black (19.8 m(2) g(-1)). Detailed catalytic investigations display the as-prepared ultrathin Rh nanosheet nanoassemblies have nearly 20.4-fold enhancement in mass-activity for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane as compared with homemade Rh black.

  13. Are female smokers at higher risk for lung cancer than male smokers? A case-control analysis by histologic type.

    PubMed

    Risch, H A; Howe, G R; Jain, M; Burch, J D; Holowaty, E J; Miller, A B

    1993-09-01

    A case-control study of male-female differences in cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted during 1981-1985 in Toronto, St. Catharine's, and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. In total, 442 female and 403 male histologically verified cancer cases were individually matched by age and area of residence to each other and to 410 female and 362 male randomly selected population controls. Subjects were interviewed concerning their exposures to various life-style factors, and in particular, they received detailed questioning regarding their lifelong histories of usage of tobacco products. It was found that, for both sexes, a greatly elevated risk of developing lung cancer was associated with cigarette consumption, increasing with pack-years of cigarettes smoked and declining with duration of time since quitting smoking. Furthermore, the association was significantly (p = 0.010) and appreciably stronger for females than for males. At a history of 40 pack-years relative to lifelong nonsmoking, the odds ratio for women was 27.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-52.0) and that for men was 9.60 (95% CI 5.64-16.3). Higher odds ratios for females were also seen within each of the major histologic groupings. Thus, the higher elevated risk of lung cancer currently observed in other studies for female ever smokers compared with male ever smokers, while possibly attributable in part to greater smoking cessation among males, may be due to higher susceptibility among females.

  14. Pulmonary responses in current smokers and ex-smokers following a two hour exposure at rest to clean air and fine ambient air particles.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Increased susceptibility of smokers to ambient PM may potentially promote development of COPD and accelerate already present disease. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the acute and subacute lung function response and inflammatory effects of controlled chamber exposure t...

  15. Hydrothermal Manganese Mineralization Near the Samoan Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. R.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S. R.; Dunham, R.

    2006-12-01

    The thickest beds of hydrothermal manganese oxides recovered to date from the global ocean were collected from a volcanic cone in the south Pacific. In April 2005, samples were dredged aboard the R.V. Kilo Moana from a volcanic cone on the lower flank of Tulaga seamount (about 2,700 m water depth; 14° 39.222' S; 170° 1.730' W), located 115 km SW of Vailulu'u, the volcanically and hydrothermally active center of the Samoan hotspot. Additional hydrothermal manganese samples were collected off Ofu Island (dredge Alia 107), 72 km to the WSW of Vailulu'u. Manganese-oxide beds up to 9 cm thick are composed of birnessite and 10 Å manganates. Some layers consist of Mn-oxide columnar structures 4 cm long and 1 cm wide, which have not been described previously. The mean Mn and Fe contents of 18 samples are 51 weight percent and 0.76 weight percent, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Li (mean 0.11 wt. percent) are indicators of a hydrothermal origin, and distinguishes these samples, along with the high Mn and low Fe contents, from hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. Other enriched elements include Ba (mean 0.14 percent), Cu (249 ppm), Mo (451 ppm), Ni (400 ppm), Zn (394 ppm), V (214 ppm), and W (132 ppm). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show large negative Ce anomalies and LREE enrichments, both characteristic of hydrothermal Mn deposits. Small negative Eu anomalies are not typical of hydrothermal deposits and can be explained either by the absence of leaching of plagioclase by the hydrothermal fluids or by the precipitation of Eu-rich minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, at depth. The high base-metal contents indicate that sulfides are not forming deeper in the hydrothermal system or that such deposits are being leached by the ascending fluids. Textures of the thickest Mn deposits indicate that the Mn oxides formed below the seabed from ascending fluids during multiple phases of waxing and waning hydrothermal pulses. The deposits were later exposed at the seafloor by

  16. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  17. Nativity and cigarette smoking among lower income blacks: results from the Healthy Directions Study.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gary G; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Arthur, Carlotta M; Askew, Sandy; Sorensen, Glorian; Emmons, Karen M

    2008-08-01

    Blacks in the United States bear the greatest disease burden associated with cigarette smoking. Previous studies have shown that the rapidly increasing population of foreign-born Blacks has lower smoking rates compared to their native-born counterparts. However, less is known about whether cigarette smoking among Blacks varies by region of birth (US, Africa, or the Caribbean), generational status, or acculturation. We examined the association between nativity and cigarette smoking among 667 Black adult men and women enrolled in the Harvard Cancer Prevention Program project. In multi-variable analyses, US-born Blacks were more likely to be smokers compared to those born in the Caribbean (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08, and 0.34) or in Africa (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.08, and 0.74). Language acculturation was positively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.17, and 5.85). We found that US-born Blacks were more likely to be current cigarette smokers than those born in either Caribbean or African countries. Our findings highlight the importance of intervening early new Black immigrants to stem the uptake of cigarette smoking behaviors as individuals become acculturated.

  18. Mood Management Intervention for College Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Campbell, Duncan G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined smoking reduction and cessation among college smokers with elevated depressive symptomatology participating in a group-based behavioral counseling, mood management, and motivational enhancement combined intervention (CBT). Participants and Methods: Fifty-eight smokers (smoked 6 days in the past 30) were…

  19. Does Precontemplation Represent a Homogeneous Stage Category? A Latent Class Analysis on German Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Gudrun; Ulbricht, Sabina; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Ruge, Jeannette; Schumann, Anja; Rumpf, Hans-Jurgen; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the subtype structure of smokers classified in the precontemplation stage of change within the transtheoretical model. From a general practice-based sample of 1,499 daily smoking patients from Germany (participation rate 80%), they used a subgroup of 929 smokers who were classified in the precontemplation stage and applied…

  20. Risk of COPD with obstruction in active smokers with normal spirometry and reduced diffusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben-Gary; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Kaner, Robert J; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow.

  1. Attentional Retraining Administered to Cigarette Smokers in the Field: Effects on Attentional Bias, Craving, and Smoking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-30

    Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Medical and Clinical Psychology Graduate Program Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences...MEDICAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT Title of Dissertation: "Attentional Retraining Administered in the Field: Effects on Attentional Bias... Psychology Attentional retraining (AR) for cigarette smokers involves training smokers to attend away from smoking cues. According to theory, AR should

  2. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  3. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

  4. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  5. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  6. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment.

  7. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  8. Policy Compliance of Smokers on a Tobacco-Free University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russette, Helen C.; Harris, Kari Jo; Schuldberg, David; Green, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors influencing compliance with campus tobacco policies and strategies to increase compliance. Participants: Sixty tobacco smokers (April 2012). Methods: A 22-item intercept-interview with closed-and open-ended questions was conducted with smokers in adjacent compliant and noncompliant areas at 1 university with a 100%…

  9. Targeting African American Nonsmokers to Motivate Smokers to Quit: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Scherber, Robyn M.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans bear a disproportionate health burden from smoking but are less likely than other populations to engage in cessation treatment. Intervening on adult nonsmokers residing with a smoker might represent an innovative approach to motivate smokers to engage in smoking behavior change. Twelve focus groups were conducted with African…

  10. Pattern of inhalation of tobacco smoke in pipe, cigarette, and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Rodenstein, D O; Stănescu, D C

    1985-09-01

    There is controversy on whether both primary and secondary pipe smokers do inhale tobacco smoke. We studied inhalation of tobacco smoke in 6 primary and 6 secondary pipe smokers and compared it with that in 20 cigarette smokers and 11 never smokers. Respiratory movements were assessed with inductive plethysmography, nasal flow through measurements of nasal pressure, oral flow with an oral thermistor, puffing through pressure measurements in the cigarette holder or the pipe, and upper airways by fluoroscopy. In all pipe smokers except 1, breathing and smoking appeared as independent activities. The former was exclusively nasal, whereas the latter was exclusively oral. Smoke was sucked and puffed by a to-and-fro movement of the tongue sliding along the soft palate. The oropharyngeal isthmus was closed (or only intermittently opened) by the apposition of the soft palate and the tongue, thus preventing overt inhalation of smoke. In most cigarette smokers, smoking interfered with the breathing route. Once smoke was sucked into the mouth, the oropharyngeal isthmus opened and inspiration proceeded through both mouth (with inhalation of smoke) and nose. Cigarette smoking interfered also with the evenness of ventilation. Never smokers avoided inhalation by oropharyngeal closure followed by oral expiration. We conclude that the oropharyngeal isthmus is the essential gate controlling smoke inhalation. Most secondary pipe smokers are able to change their smoking pattern and avoid overt inhalation when switching from cigarette to pipe smoking. The inhalation pattern appears to be acquired in the course of the smoking history.

  11. Correcting Media Mis-Education: The Portrayal of Smokers and Smoking in Top Grossing Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alyssa; Brackin, Taryn; Chubb, Jamie; Covata, Sandy; Ferguson, Liz; Hinckley, Adele; Hodges, Jilda; Liberati, Cheryl; Tornetta, Jonette; Chambliss, Catherine

    Given that young people are extremely concerned with how they appear socially, beguiling and glamorous portrayals of smokers in recent films may be contributing to the continual rise in college student smoking. The pervasive positive depiction of smokers as attractive and appealing easily preys on young people who lack confidence and self esteem.…

  12. Use of Other Tobacco Products among U.S. Adult Cigarette Smokers: Prevalence, Trends and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, Cathy L.; Fagan, Pebbles; O’Connell, Mary E.; Grana, Rachel; Lawrence, Deirdre; Bishop, Jennifer Anne; Gibson, James Todd

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in concurrent use of cigarettes and other tobacco and sociodemographic variables associated with concurrent use among adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Data from the 1995/96, 1998, 2000, and 2001/02 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were used to estimate concurrent use of tobacco among cigarette smokers among adults ages 18 years and older (n for all 4 survey groups = 552,804). Concurrent use of tobacco fluctuated over the survey periods for current smokers and ranged from 3.7% in 1995/96 to 7.9% in 1998. Results from the multivariate logistic regression indicate that male current, daily, and intermittent smokers had substantially higher odds of concurrent use (OR = 12.9, 11.7, 17.2, respectively) than their female counterparts. Age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, income, and survey years were significantly associated with concurrent use among current and daily smokers; for intermittent smokers, these variables and occupation were significantly associated with concurrent use. The strongest correlates for multiple tobacco use among cigarettes smokers were being male and Non-Hispanic White. These factors should be considered when planning tobacco prevention and control efforts. In addition, surveillance efforts should continue to monitor changes in concurrent use and further investigate the increased risk of cancer among smokers who also use other forms of tobacco. PMID:18053653

  13. The analysis of protein-bound thiocyanate in plasma of smokers and non-smokers as a marker of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Youso, Stephanie L; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-05-01

    When cyanide is introduced into the body, it quickly transforms through a variety of chemical reactions, normally involving sulfur donors, to form more stable chemical species. Depending on the nature of the sulfur donor, cyanide may be transformed into free thiocyanate, the major metabolite of cyanide transformation, 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid or protein-bound thiocyanate (PB-SCN) adducts. Because protein adducts are generally stable in biological systems, it has been suggested that PB-SCN may have distinct advantages as a marker of cyanide exposure. In this study, plasma was analyzed from 25 smokers (chronic low-level cyanide exposure group) and 25 non-smokers for PB-SCN. The amount of PB-SCN found in the plasma of smokers, 1.35 µM, was significantly elevated (p < 0.0001) when compared to non-smokers, 0.66 µM. Differences in sub-groups of smokers and non-smokers were also evaluated. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of analyzing PB-SCN in determining instances of chronic cyanide exposure with possible extension to confirmation of acute cyanide exposure.

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for hydrothermal activity at the west wall of 12°50′N core complex (Mid-Atlantic ridge): a new ultramafic-hosted seafloor hydrothermal deposit?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekov, Vesselin; Boycheva, Tanya; Halenius, Ulf; Billstrom, Kjell; Kamenov, George D.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Stummeyer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Dredging along the west wall of the core complex at 12°50′N Mid-Atlantic Ridge sampled a number of black oxyhydroxide crusts and breccias cemented by black and dark brown oxyhydroxide matrix. Black crusts found on top of basalt clasts (rubble) are mainly composed of Mn-oxides (birnessite, 10-Å manganates) with thin films of nontronite and X-ray amorphous FeOOH on their surfaces. Their chemical composition (low trace- and rare earth-element contents, high Li and Ag concentrations, rare earth element distribution patterns with negative both Ce and Eu anomalies), Sr–Nd–Pb-isotope systematic and O-isotope data suggest low-temperature (~ 20 °C) hydrothermal deposition from a diffuse vent area on the seafloor. Mineralogical, petrographic and geochemical investigations of the breccias showed the rock clasts were hydrothermally altered fragments of MORBs. Despite the substantial mineralogical changes caused by the alteration the Sr–Nd–Pb-isotope ratios have not been significantly affected by this process. The basalt clasts are cemented by dark brown and black matrix. Dark brown cement exhibits geochemical features (very low trace- and rare earth- element contents, high U concentration, rare earth element distribution pattern with high positive Eu anomaly) and Nd–Pb-isotope systematics (similar to that of MORB) suggesting that the precursor was a primary, high-temperature Fe-sulfide, which was eventually altered to goethite at ambient seawater conditions. The data presented in this work points towards the possible existence of high- and low-temperature hydrothermal activity at the west wall of the core complex at 12°50′N Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Tectonic setting at the site implies that the proposed hydrothermal field is possibly ultramafic-hosted.

  15. A comparison of smokers' and nonsmokers' fruit and vegetable intake and relevant psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    McClure, Jennifer B; Divine, George; Alexander, Gwen; Tolsma, Dennis; Rolnick, Sharon J; Stopponi, Melanie; Richards, Julie; Johnson, Christine C

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between smoking status and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among a population-based sample and examined differences in psychosocial factors that may influence diet and inform intervention efforts. The authors recruited adults (N = 2,540) from 5 US health plans to participate in a Web-based dietary intervention trial. At baseline, smokers ate fewer FV servings per day (p < .001) and were less likely to meet the 5 A Day goal (p < .001). Smokers reported lower self-efficacy, overall motivation, and intrinsic motivation for meeting daily FV recommendations. Fewer smokers expected that eating 5 FV servings a day would reduce their risk for diabetes (p = .02) or obesity (p = .008). Smokers are an important target group for dietary intervention. Intervention efforts should attempt to increase smokers' motivation and confidence in their abilities to change their eating patterns and educate them about the health benefits of eating FV.

  16. A multi-dimensional analysis of cue-elicited craving in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers

    PubMed Central

    SAYETTE, MICHAEL A.; MARTIN, CHRISTOPHER S.; WERTZ, JOAN M.; SHIFFMAN, SAUL; PERROTT, MICHAEL A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This research examined the performance of a broad range of measures posited to relate to smoking craving. Design Heavy smokers and tobacco chippers, who were either deprived of smoking or not for 7 hours, were exposed to both smoking (a lit cigarette) and control cues. Participants Smokers not currently interested in trying to quit smoking (n = 127) were recruited. Heavy smokers (n = 67) averaged smoking at least 21 cigarettes/day and tobacco chippers (n = 60) averaged 1–5 cigarettes on at least 2 days/week. Measurements Measures included urge rating scales and magnitude estimations, a rating of affective valence, a behavioral choice task that assessed perceived reinforcement value of smoking, several smoking-related judgement tasks and a measure of cognitive resource allocation. Findings Results indicated that both deprivation state and smoker type tended to affect responses across these measurement domains. Conclusions Findings support the use of several novel measures of craving-related processes in smokers. PMID:11571061

  17. Different resting-state functional connectivity alterations in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  18. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

  19. Ensuring smokers are adequately informed: reflections on consumer rights, manufacturer responsibilities, and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, S; Liberman, J

    2005-01-01

    The right to information is a fundamental consumer value. Following the advent of health warnings, the tobacco industry has repeatedly asserted that smokers are fully informed of the risks they take, while evidence demonstrates widespread superficial levels of awareness and understanding. There remains much that tobacco companies could do to fulfil their responsibilities to inform smokers. We explore issues involved in the meaning of "adequately informed" smoking and discuss some of the key policy and regulatory implications. We use the idea of a smoker licensing scheme—under which it would be illegal to sell to smokers who had not demonstrated an adequate level of awareness—as a device to explore some of these issues. We also explore some of the difficulties that addiction poses for the notion that smokers might ever voluntarily assume the risks of smoking. PMID:16046703

  20. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  1. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  2. Hydrothermal carbonization of agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo; Blöhse, Dennis; Ramke, Hans-Günter

    2013-08-01

    The work presented in this article addresses the application of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) to produce a solid fuel named HTC-Biochar, whose characteristics are comparable to brown coal. Several batch HTC experiments were performed using agricultural residues (AR) as substrates, commonly treated in farm-based biogas plants in Germany. Different AR were used in different combinations with other biomass residues. The biogas potential from the resulting process water was also determined. The combination of different AR lead to the production of different qualities of HTC-Biochars as well as different mass and energy yields. Using more lignocellulosic residues lead to higher mass and energy yields for the HTC-Biochar produced. Whilst residues rich in carbohydrates of lower molecular weight such as corn silage and dough residues lead to the production of a HTC-Biochar of better quality and more similar to brown coal. Process water achieved a maximum of 16.3 L CH4/kg FM (fresh matter).

  3. Psychological and environmental determinants of relapse in crack cocaine smokers.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B C

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews approaches to relapse in the treatment of cocaine abusers. Approaches reveal a common mechanism underlying relapse that involves drug craving, recall of euphoria, environmental cues, denial, myths of being able to sell or use drugs, and painful affect states necessitating use of a multifaceted clinical technique. Empirical validation of a common mechanism underlying relapse establishes a typology of psychological and environmental determinants of relapse for crack cocaine smokers (N = 35) who relapse after hospital detoxification and return a second time. Major findings are that relapse follows a painful emotional state (40%), failure to enter arranged aftercare treatment (37%), or encounters with conditioned environmental stimuli (34%), and involves narcissistic psychopathology and denial (28.5%) and interpersonal stress (24%); 85.7% involve multideterminants. Case examples illustrate the role of multideterminants in relapse. The paper educates clinicians to the integrated theory and multifaceted clinical technique necessary for efficacious treatment of cocaine patients, while the typology predicts probable relapse situations.

  4. Electronic Cigarette Use among Current Smokers: A Pilot Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Ban A.; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Dube, Shanta R.; Sterling, Kymberle L.; Burns, Joy D.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This pilot study explored psychosocial influences of e-cigarette use among dual users. Methods Two focus groups among adult current smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were conducted in Georgia. Discussions were audio-recorded. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were employed. Results Reasons for initial use included curiosity and social influence. Themes related to regular use included enjoyment of sensory experiences and perception of reduced harm. Nicotine craving, social image, and convenience were reasons for initial and regular dual use. Two patterns of use emerged – (1) using e-cigarettes to supplement combustible cigarettes; and (2) to replace combustible cigarettes. Conclusions Reasons for dual use were related to nicotine dependence, social influence, product appeal, and perception of reduced harm. Understanding contextual nuances of dual use can inform policy and communication.

  5. Depressive Symptoms, Drinking Problems, and Smoking Cessation in Older Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study modeled the predictive association between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation in a sample of 442 late-middle-aged smokers; assessments occurred at four time-points across a 10-year period. In addition, the study examined the role of baseline drinking problems in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation. Findings supported hypotheses. More depressive symptoms prospectively predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. In addition, the presence of baseline drinking problems strengthened the relationship between depressive symptoms and a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying depression and cigarette smoking among older adults is applicable to secondary prevention and treatment and suggests additional public health benefits from treating depression in older persons. PMID:19372009

  6. Macrofauna of shallow hydrothermal vents on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at 71N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna and since their discovery in 1977, more than 400 species of animals have been described. Specialized vent fauna includes various animal phyla, but the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. We have investigated the fauna collected around newly discovered hydrothermal vents on the Mohns Ridge north of Jan Mayen. The venting fields are located at 71°N and the venting takes place within two main areas separated by 5 km. The shallowest vent area is at 500-550 m water depth and is located at the base of a normal fault. This vent field stretches approximately 1 km along the strike of the fault, and it is composed of 10-20 major vent sites each with multiple chimney constructions discharging up to 260°C hot fluids. A large area of diffuse, low- temperature venting occurs in the area surrounding the high-temperature field. Here, partly microbial mediated iron-oxide-hydroxide deposits are abundant. The hydrothermal vent sites do not show any high abundance of specialized hydrothermal vent fauna. Single groups (i.e. Porifera and Mollusca) have a few representatives but groups otherwise common in hydrothermal vent areas (e.g. vestimentifera, Alvinellid worms, mussels, clams, galathaeid and brachyuran crabs) are absent. Up until now slightly more than 200 species have been identified from the vent area. The macrofauna found in the vent area is, with few exceptions, an assortment of bathyal species known in the area. One endemic, yet undescribed, species of mollusc has been found so far, an gastropod related to Alvania incognita Warén, 1996 and A. angularis Warén, 1996 (Rissoidae), two species originally described from pieces of sunken wood north and south of Iceland. It is by far the most numerous mollusc species at the vents and was found on smokers, in the bacterial mats, and on the ferric deposits. A single specimen of an undescribed tanaidacean has also

  7. [Methods and results of smoking cessation in cancer smoker's].

    PubMed

    Dautzenberg, Bertrand

    2012-11-01

    Tobacco prevention is the most effective prevention of cancer. Daily smoking promotes tumor progression, increases the risk of second cancer and decreases survival. The diagnosis of smoking and support for cessation and preventing recurrence is an integral part of cancer treatment. Smoking increases side effects of chemotherapy and surgery and reduces the effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Smokers with cancer do not smoke by life-style choice but because they are highly addicted and are suffering from a chronic relapsing disease: tobacco dependence, which justifies intensive medical management. The oncologist himself may perform this support or coordinate with other physicians in charge of the patient or with a tobacco cessation clinic, but patients are often unable to stop alone, as evidenced by the continued to use tobacco despite a cancer diagnosis. Treatment will always include a therapeutic education, compartmental behavioral therapy and medication. The patches and oral nicotine replacement or varenicline are the two most effective treatments that can be prescribed to smokers suffering of cancer, without including those with any motivation to quit. Smoking reducing occurred in a few days or weeks on treatment will allow them to reconsider the judgment. The full stop is always the goal for the doctor, even if it is not the patient initial goal. After stopping, the patient is not cured but still a patient with tobacco dependence who does not smoke. The risk of relapse in the year being 50%. The cancer patient management will use every visit to the point tobacco dependence and prevent relapse, alone or with assistance of a specialist. There is a lack of data on smoking cessation in cancer patients, but no item calls for a three-month quit rate of 50% as observed in the general population after an optimal management of tobacco cessation.

  8. Evaluating oral noncombustible potential-reduced exposure products for smokers

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Potential-reduced exposure products (PREPs) are marketed as a way for smokers to continue using tobacco while possibly lessening their tobacco toxicant intake. Some tobacco-based PREPs are combustible and intended to be smoked, while others are noncombustible and intended to be administered orally (e.g., Camel Snus [CS] tobacco sachets and Ariva tobacco tablets). The ability of these noncombustible PREPs to reduce smokers’ exposure to cigarette-delivered toxicants and suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms effectively is unclear. Clinical laboratory methods have been used to measure combustible PREP-associated toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression and could be applied to evaluating the effects of orally administered noncombustible PREPs. Methods: In this study, 21 smokers (6 women) participated in four 5-day conditions that differed by product used: CS, Ariva, own brand cigarettes, or no tobacco. Measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO), the urinary metabolite of nicotine (cotinine), the urinary metabolite of the carcinogen NNK (NNAL-T), and subjective effect ratings. Results: Relative to own brand, all other conditions were associated with CO and cotinine levels that were lower and abstinence symptom ratings that were greater. Only no-tobacco use was associated with significantly lower NNAL levels. Acceptability ratings were also lower in all conditions relative to own brand. Discussion: Although these oral products reduce exposure to CO, their ineffective abstinence symptom suppression and low acceptability may limit their viability as PREPs. As with combustible PREPs, clinical laboratory study of orally administered noncombustible PREPs will be a valuable part of any comprehensive PREP evaluation strategy. PMID:20159791

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.G.; Yin, J.Z.; Yang, S.G.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanowires were synthesized through the hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferromagnetism was observed in the {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanowires at 5 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption experiment shows that surface area of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanowires is 160.4 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. -- Abstract: In the present study, one-dimensional (1D) {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanowires with width of 50-60 nm, length about several micrometers have been successfully prepared under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, superconducting quantum interference device and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption experiment. The magnetic measurement reveals that the {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanowires exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior at 5 K and a paramagnetic behavior at 300 K. The N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption experiment shows that surface area is 160.4 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, which is even larger than those of mesoporous nanostructures. At the same time, the possible formation mechanism for the formation of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanowires has been proposed according to the experimental results.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of initiation of smoking behavior among preteen black and white children.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nasar U; Ahmed, Noushin S; Semenya, Kofi A; Elzey, Jared D; Larson, Celia; Bennett, C Ray; Hinds, Joseph E

    2004-02-01

    This study estimated smoking prevalence and identified factors associated with initiation among preteens in Nashville, TN. An anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire was given to 238 fifth- and sixth-graders in a middle-class neighborhood school. The mean age at initiation was 8.5 years (range 6-11 years). Overall, 10.5% of students had ever smoked; 16.1% of blacks and 9.3% of whites. Eighty-six percent continued to smoke. Black sixth-graders smoked (26.9%) four times the rate of black fifth-graders and 2.5 times that of white sixth-graders. Relatives initiated 78% of blacks while friends initiated 68% of whites. One-quarter of smokers got their cigarettes at home. Regular attendees of religious services had a lower smoking rate (6.9% versus 16.4%; p=0.01). Smoking rates decreased with increased knowledge of risks (p=0.00001). Among smokers, none believed that smoking is a risk factor for heart disease, 96% did not believe that smoking has any short-term health effects or is a risk factor for stroke. Few ever-smokers had a complete understanding of the health risks. Targeted messages and curriculum should be developed to teach preteens about the short- and long-term dangers of smoking. Clinicians can play a major role in educating their clients about the risks of smoking.

  11. Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

  12. Serum total anti-oxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I; Ighodayenowho, O K; Nwoke, E

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoke has been reported to contain free radicals. The interaction of these free radicals with the body defense system and associated health risk among Nigerian smokers have remained scarcely investigated despite the high numbers of smokers in our society. This study thus, investigates the serum total antioxidant capacity of some Nigerian cigarette smokers in apparent good health and who have been smoking between 1.4 sticks of cigarette/day for about 1-3 years. Twenty(20) consenting smokers between 19 and 45 years consisting of fifteen (15) males and 5 females were recruited after examination to certify their apparent good health. Twenty (20) non-smokers, who were matched in age and sex were included as control subjects. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was observed to be higher in male non-smokers (1.92 +/- 0.2 2mM) when compared with their female counterparts (1.88 +/- 0.16 mM). Among smokers, the males subjects showed a decreased TAC (Male: 1.45 +/- 0.23 mM and female; 1.65 +/- 0.16 mM) with a strong statistical difference between the TAC of smokers and non-smokers (t = 2.095, n = 20 and P < 0.05). Data suggest lower oxidant defense and hence, increased susceptibility to free radical associated diseases especially among the male smokers. Conserted efforts need to be made by governmental agents to enforce legislation that could reduce the rate of smoking. Campaigns should also be initiated to educate the lay public on the dangers of cigarette smoking.

  13. Hardening and the hard-core smoker: concepts, evidence, and implications.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kenneth E; Burns, David M

    2003-02-01

    A nascent debate pits researchers who believe that hard-core smokers are coming to dominate the remaining population of smokers against others who perceive the hardening of the target as a far more distant concern. At stake is the future emphasis of tobacco control: should we alter the current allocation of resources between treatment of individual smokers and modification of the psychosocial environment through public education and policy measures? We review the evidence and conclude that: (1) hardening is probably occurring in the sense that, compared with earlier generations, many of today's smokers possibly do have greater difficulty quitting, or are inherently less willing to do so. (2) Hardening may be most usefully construed in the context of specific groups of smokers, such as the mentally ill, who may constitute a growing fraction of the remaining smoking population. (3) Using conventional measures, however, we find little evidence that the population of smokers as a whole is hardening. Cessation rates have not decreased. (4) Truly hard-core smokers necessarily constitute a very small fraction of the population. Quitting-susceptible smokers continue to dominate the smoking population. (5) Hardening and the potential existence of true hard-core smokers recommend creative thinking about, and devotion of resources to, finding new ways to help the most dependent smokers to quit. (6) Sound research recommends the expansion of comprehensive tobacco-control programs in both the public and private sectors, and does not support reallocation of resources from such programs toward more intensive individualized treatment. We can afford both.

  14. Study of hydrothermal channels based on near-bottom magnetic prospecting: Application to Longqi hydrothermal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; Tao, C.; Li, H.; Zhaocai, W.; Jinhui, Z.; Qinzhu, C.; Shili, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridges, largely present far from the continental plates, are characterized by complex geological structures and numerous hydrothermal systems with complex controlling factors. Exploring seafloor sulfide resources for industrial and scientific applications is a challenge. With the advent of geophysical surveys for seabed investigation, near-bottom magnetic prospecting, which yields shallow geological structure, is an efficient method for investigating active and inactive hydrothermal fields and for researching the structure of hydrothermal systems (Tivey et al., 1993, 1996;German et al., 2008). We collected near-bottom magnetic data in the Longqi hydrothermal area, located in the southwest Indian ridge (49.6° E; Zhu et al., 2010; Tao et al., 2014), using the autonomous benthic explorer, an autonomous underwater vehicle, during the second leg of the Chinese cruise DY115-19 on board R/V DaYangYiHao. Based on the results of the intensity of the spatial differential vector method (Seaman et al., 1993), we outline the hydrothermal alternation zone. By building models, we subsequently infer a fault along the discovered hydrothermal vents; this fault line may be connected to a detachment fault (Zhao et al., 2013). In addition, we discuss the channels of the hydrothermal circulation system (Figure 1), and presume that heat was conducted to the sea subsurface by the detachment fault; the aqueous fluid that infiltrated the fault is heated and conveyed to the seafloor, promoting the circulation of the hydrothermal system.

  15. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  16. Black widow spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider has a shiny black body with a red ...

  17. Fluid Geochemistry of the Capelinhos Vent Site. A Key to Understand the Lucky Strike Hydrothermal Vent Field (37°N, MAR).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leleu, T.; Chavagnac, V.; Cannat, M.; Ceuleneer, G.; Castillo, A.; Menjot, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Lucky Strike hydrothermal field is situated at the mid-Atlantic ridge, south of the Azores, on top of a central volcano within the axial valley. The volcano is composed of a fossil lava lake surrounded by three volcanic cones. An Axial Magma Chamber (AMC) is reported 3.4km below the seafloor. The active venting sites are situated around the fossil lava lake and are directly linked to the heat supplied by the AMC. High temperature fluids from the Lucky Strike field were sampled in 2013, 2014 and 2015 in order to document the depth of the reaction zone, subsurface mixing, geographical control and magmatic degassing. A new active site named Capelinhos was discovered approximately 1.5km eastward from the lava lake, during exploration by ROV Victor6000 - MoMARsat cruise, 2013. It is composed of 10m-high chimneys discharging black smoker-type fluid. Fluid temperatures were 328°C in 2013 and decreased to 318°C in 2014 and 2015. Capelinhos fluids are Cl-depleted by 55% compared to seawater indicating phase separation at depth. In comparison, the other sites range from 6% enrichment (2608/Y3 site) to 22% depletion (Eiffel tower site). Si geothermobarometry of Y3 site estimates quartz equilibration at P=300 bars and T=360-380°C, coherent with Fe/Mn geothermometer (T=370±10°C). For Capelinhos, Fe/Mn suggests 398°C (±10°C) which is close to the critical point of seawater (P=300 bars and T=407°C). Other geothermobarometer uses Si/Cl vapor-like fluid to constrain depth of the top of reaction zone and predicts significant bias due to mixing along the up-flow zone. Application gives P=~370 bars, T=~435°C at Capelinhos and P=~390 bars, T=~440°C at Eiffel tower. This is further sustained by end-member 87Sr/86Sr=0.7038, which indicates little interaction of Capelinhos vent fluids with seawater-derived fluid, compared to other vapor-like sites with 87Sr/86Sr=0.7043. Because of its external location, Capelinhos site isn't influenced by the complex tectonic context of the

  18. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  19. Marked global reduction in mGluR5 receptor binding in smokers and ex-smokers determined by [11C]ABP688 positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Akkus, Funda; Ametamey, Simon M.; Treyer, Valerie; Burger, Cyrill; Johayem, Anass; Umbricht, Daniel; Gomez Mancilla, Baltazar; Sovago, Judit; Buck, Alfred; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is a major public health problem, resulting in primary glutamatergic dysfunction. We measured the glutamate receptor binding in the human brain and provided direct evidence for the abnormal glutamate system in smokers. Because antagonism of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) reduced nicotine self-administration in rats and mice, mGluR5 is suggested to be involved in nicotine addiction. mGluR5 receptor binding specifically to an allosteric site was observed by using positron emission tomography with [11C]ABP688. We found a marked global reduction (20.6%; P < 0.0001) in the mGluR5 distribution volume ratio (DVR) in the gray matter of 14 smokers. The most prominent reductions were found in the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex. Compared with 14 nonsmokers, 14 ex-smokers had global reductions in the average gray matter mGluR5 DVR (11.5%; P < 0.005), and there was a significant difference in average gray matter mGluR5 DVR between smokers and ex-smokers (9.2%; P < 0.01). Clinical variables reflecting current nicotine consumption, dependence and abstinence were not correlated with mGluR5 DVR. This decrease in mGluR5 receptor binding may be an adaptation to chronic increases in glutamate induced by chronic nicotine administration, and the decreased down-regulation seen in the ex-smokers could be due to incomplete recovery of the receptors, especially because the ex-smokers were abstinent for only 25 wk on average. These results encourage the development and testing of drugs against addiction that directly target the glutamatergic system. PMID:23248277

  20. Marine diagenesis of hydrothermal sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Moammar, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to discuss the artificial and natural oxidation and hydrolysis of hydrothermal sulfide upon interaction with normal seawater. Synthetic and natural ferrosphalerite particles used in kinetic oxidation and hydrolysis studies in seawater develop dense, crystalline coatings consisting of ordered and ferrimagnetic delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH. Due to the formation of this reactive diffusion barrier, the release of Zn into solution decreases rapidly, and sulfide oxidation is reduced to a low rate determined by the diffusion of oxygen through the oxyhydroxide film. This also acts as an efficient solvent for ions such as Zn/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and possibly Cd/sup 2 +/, which contribute to the stabilization of the delta-FeOOH structure. The oxidation of sulfide occurs in many seafloor spreading areas, such as 21/sup 0/N on the East Pacific Ridge. In these areas the old surface of the sulfide chimneys are found to be covered by an orange stain, and sediment near the base of nonactive vents is also found to consist of what has been referred to as amorphous iron oxide and hydroxide. This thesis also discusses the exceedingly low solubility of zinc in seawater, from delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH and the analogous phase (zinc-ferrihydroxide) and the zinc exchange minerals, 10-A manganate and montmorillonite. The concentrations of all four are of the same magnitude (16, 36.4, and 12 nM, respectively) as the zinc concentration in deep ocean water (approx. 10 nM), which suggests that manganates and montmorillonite with iron oxyhydroxides control zinc concentration in the deep ocean.