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Sample records for black-winged stilts disperse

  1. Effects of Agricultural Management Policies on the Exposure of Black-Winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) Chicks to Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides in Rice Fields.

    PubMed

    Toral, Gregorio M; Baouab, Riad E; Martinez-Haro, Mónica; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Broggi, Juli; Martínez-de la Puente, Josue; Viana, Duarte; Mateo, Rafael; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Levels of exposure to pesticides in rice fields can be significant depending on the environmental policies practiced. The aim of European Union integrated management policy is to reduce pesticide use and impact on environment. Rice fields provide an alternative breeding habitat for many waterbirds that are exposed to the pesticides used and therefore can be valuable indicators of their risk for wildlife. To evaluate integrated management success we examined exposure of Black-winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus) to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in rice fields under different types of management by measuring plasma cholinesterase activity. Cholinesterase activity was lower in birds sampled in (a) 2008 after a period of intense pesticide application, than in (b) 2005-2007 and 2011 in rice fields subject to integrated management in Doñana (SW Spain) and (c) in control natural wetlands in Spain and Morocco. During 2009 and 2010, cholinesterase activity was lower in rice fields in Doñana than in rice fields in Larache and Sidi Allal Tazi (NW Morocco). Our results suggest that integrated management successfully reduced the exposure of Black-winged Stilts to pesticides in most of the years. Care should be taken to implement mosquito and pest crop controls on time and with environmentally friendly products in order to reduce its impact on wildlife.

  2. Drywall stilt dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E J; Prawer, S E; Crutchfield, C E

    1996-12-01

    We describe a previously unreported occupational dermatosis occurring in a worker employed in drywall installation and finishing. This 50-year-old man presented with bilaterally symmetrical, parallel, linear crusted erosions on his anteromedial legs after wearing drywall stilts. The pathophysiology of this condition is considered.

  3. Chapter 21: Programmatic Interfaces - STILTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, M. J.

    STILTS is the Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library Tool Set developed by Mark Taylor of the former Starlink Project. STILTS is a command-line tool (see the NVOSS_HOME/bin/stilts command) providing access to the same functionality driving the TOPCAT application and can be run using either the STILTS-specific jar file, or the more general TOPCAT jar file (both are available in the NVOSS_HOME/java/lib directory and are included in the default software environment classpath). The heart of both STILTS and TOPCAT is the STIL Java library. STIL is designed to efficiently handle the input, output and processing of very large tabular datasets and the STILTS task interface makes it an ideal tool for the scripting environment. Multiple formats are supported (including FITS Binary Tables, VOTable, CSV, SQL databases and ASCII, amongst others) and while some tools will generically handle all supported formats, others are specific to the VOTable format. Converting a VOTable to a more script-friendly format is the first thing most users will encounter, but there are many other useful tools as well.

  4. Diversity of cloacal microbial community in migratory shorebirds that use the Tagus estuary as stopover habitat and their potential to harbor and disperse pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana S; Pardal, Sara; Proença, Diogo N; Lopes, Ricardo J; Ramos, Jaime A; Mendes, Luísa; Morais, Paula V

    2012-10-01

    The diversity of the cloacal microbial community in migratory shorebirds, caught at the Tagus estuary, Portugal, was assessed by cultivation (R2A and Nutrient Agar media) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling (DGGE) to provide a better understanding of the birds' potential to harbor and disperse pathogens. Three different bird species belonging to four different populations were studied: common redshank (Tringa totanus), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus) and nominate and Icelandic populations of black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa). DGGE profiling and partial 16S RNA gene sequences of 240 isolates, and 26 DGGE bands resulting in 58 clones, were analyzed. Most isolates were members of the phylum Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and only a small portion belonged to the Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus phyla. Potentially pathogenic strains carried by the birds were found such as Helicobacter and Staphylococcus in all bird species, and Clostridium, Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Legionella and Corynebacterium in black-winged stilts. Unexpectedly, bacteria from the phylum Deinococcus-Thermus were isolated in shorebirds and were present in all the bird species studied.

  5. Kinematics and kinetics of gait on stilts: identification of risk factors associated with construction stilt use.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Sharon S; Pan, Christopher S; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated kinematics and kinetic strategies and identified risk factors associated with gait on stilts. A six-camera motion-analysis system and two force platforms were used to test 20 construction workers for straight walking or turning, with or without carrying tools while wearing safety shoes or stilts at different heights. The results indicated that gait on stilts is characterised by increases in stride length, step width and the percentage of double support period, decreases in cadence, minimum foot clearance and a weaker heel-strike and push-off. Stilts place greater joint loadings on lower extremities to compensate for the added weight and limitation in joint mobility. Smaller foot clearances found for gait on stilts constitute an increased risk for tripping over obstacles. Workers may need to avoid prolonged use of stilts to alleviate stresses on the joints. This study was conducted to determine to what extent stilts alter the gait strategies and to explain the compensatory movements. Prior to this study, there has been little substantive research to evaluate the stresses and potential injuries associated with stilts.

  6. STILTS: Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library Tool Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The STIL Tool Set is a set of command-line tools based on STIL, the Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library. It deals with the processing of tabular data; the package has been designed for, but is not restricted to, astronomical tables such as object catalogues. Some of the tools are generic and can work with multiple formats (including FITS, VOTable, CSV, SQL and ASCII), and others are specific to the VOTable format. In some ways, STILTS forms the command-line counterpart of the GUI table analysis tool TOPCAT. The package is robust, fully documented, and designed for efficiency, especially with very large datasets. Facilities offered include: format conversioncrossmatchingplottingcolumn calculation and rearrangementrow selectionsdata and metadata manipulation and displaysortingstatistical calculationshistogram calculationdata validationVO service accessA powerful and extensible expression language is used for specifying data calculations. These facilities can be put together in very flexible and efficient ways. For tasks in which the data can be streamed, the size of table STILTS can process is effectively unlimited. For other tasks, million-row tables usually do not present a problem. STILTS is written in pure Java (J2SE1.5 or later), and can be run from the command line or from Jython, or embedded into java applications. It is released under the GPL.

  7. Stilt walking: how do we learn those first steps?

    PubMed

    Akram, Sakineh B; Frank, James S

    2009-09-01

    This study examined how young healthy adults learn stilt walking. Ten healthy male university students attended two sessions of testing held on two consecutive days. In each session participants performed three blocks of 10 stilt-walking trials. Angular movements of head and trunk and the spatial and temporal gait parameters were recorded. When walking on stilts young adults improved their gait velocity through modifications of step parameters while maintaining trunk movements close to that observed during normal over-ground walking. Participants improved their performance by increasing their step frequency and step length and reducing the double support percentage of the gait cycle. Stilts are often used for drywall installation, painting over-the-head areas and raising workers above the ground without the burden of erecting scaffolding. This research examines the locomotor adaptation as young healthy adults learn the complex motor task of stilt walking; a task that is frequently used in the construction industry.

  8. Expressed sequence tags from the black-winged sharpshooter: Application to biology and vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified 14 putative full-length transcripts of proteins important for the survival of the black-winged sharpshooter, BWSS, Oncometopia nigricans. The BWSS is considered a highly competent vector of several strains of the xylem-inhabiting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of a numb...

  9. Growth patterns of Hawaiian Stilt chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.M.; Gray, E.M.; Lewis, D.; Oring, L.W.; Coleman, R.; Burr, T.; Luscomb, P.

    1999-01-01

    We studied chick growth and plumage patterns in the endangered Hawaiian Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Body mass of captive chicks closely fit a Gompertz growth curve, revealing a growth coefficient (K) of 0.065 day-1 and point of inflection (T) of 17 days. When chicks fledged about 28 days after hatching, they weighed only 60% of adult body mass; at 42 d, birds still were only 75% of adult mass; culmen, tarsus, and wing chord at fledging also were less than adult size. This trend of continued growth to adult size after fledging is typical for most shorebirds. After hatching, captive chicks grew more rapidly than wild chicks, probably because of an unlimited food supply. We found no evidence for adverse effects of weather on the growth of wild chicks. As with other shorebirds, the tarsus started relatively long, with culmen and then wing chord growing more rapidly in later development. Tarsal and wing chord growth were sigmoidal, whereas culmen growth was linear. We describe plumage characteristics of weekly age classes of chicks to help researchers age birds in the wild.

  10. The ant odometer: stepping on stilts and stumps.

    PubMed

    Wittlinger, Matthias; Wehner, Rüdiger; Wolf, Harald

    2006-06-30

    Desert ants, Cataglyphis, navigate in their vast desert habitat by path integration. They continuously integrate directions steered (as determined by their celestial compass) and distances traveled, gauged by as-yet-unknown mechanisms. Here we test the hypothesis that navigating ants measure distances traveled by using some kind of step integrator, or "step counter." We manipulated the lengths of the legs and, hence, the stride lengths, in freely walking ants. Animals with elongated ("stilts") or shortened legs ("stumps") take larger or shorter strides, respectively, and concomitantly misgauge travel distance. Travel distance is overestimated by experimental animals walking on stilts and underestimated by animals walking on stumps.

  11. Pododermatitis in captive-reared black stilts (Himantopus novaezelandiae).

    PubMed

    Reissig, Elizabeth Chang; Tompkins, Daniel M; Maloney, Richard F; Sancha, Emily; Wharton, David A

    2011-09-01

    A potential cause of pododermatitis ("bumblefoot") was investigated in captive-reared juvenile black stilts at the Department of Conservation "Kaki Recovery Program" at Twizel, New Zealand. To address the importance of substrate, the development of clinical signs in individuals was compared among aviaries that contained rubber matting and/or salt footbaths, and controls. No effect of either experimental manipulation of the environment was apparent on pododermatitis development. With the substrate appearing not to be an initiating factor, and a previous study that indicated that the birds' diet fulfills the nutritional requirements for rearing black stilts in captivity, results of this study suggest that insufficient space for exercise may instead be the cause.

  12. A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment Using ASCENDS Observations and WRF-STILT Footprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Collatz, G. J.; Mountain, Marikate; Henderson, John; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Aschbrenner, Ryan; Zaccheo, T. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 is hampered by sparse measurements. The recent advent of satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations is increasing the density of measurements, and the future mission ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons) will provide even greater coverage and precision. Lagrangian atmospheric transport models run backward in time can quantify surface influences ("footprints") of diverse measurement platforms and are particularly well suited for inverse estimation of regional surface CO2 fluxes at high resolution based on satellite observations. We utilize the STILT Lagrangian particle dispersion model, driven by WRF meteorological fields at 40-km resolution, in a Bayesian synthesis inversion approach to quantify the ability of ASCENDS column CO2 observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution. This study focuses on land-based biospheric fluxes, whose uncertainties are especially large, in a domain encompassing North America. We present results based on realistic input fields for 2007. Pseudo-observation random errors are estimated from backscatter and optical depth measured by the CALIPSO satellite. We estimate a priori flux uncertainties based on output from the CASA-GFED (v.3) biosphere model and make simple assumptions about spatial and temporal error correlations. WRF-STILT footprints are convolved with candidate vertical weighting functions for ASCENDS. We find that at a horizontal flux resolution of 1 degree x 1 degree, ASCENDS observations are potentially able to reduce average weekly flux uncertainties by 0-8% in July, and 0-0.5% in January (assuming an error of 0.5 ppm at the Railroad Valley reference site). Aggregated to coarser resolutions, e.g. 5 degrees x 5 degrees, the uncertainty reductions are larger and more similar to those estimated in previous satellite data observing system simulation experiments.

  13. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (<5 %). Consistent, low-level blood Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  14. Baseline Blood Pb Concentrations in Black-Necked Stilts on the Upper Texas Coast.

    PubMed

    Riecke, Thomas V; Conway, Warren C; Haukos, David A; Moon, Jena A; Comer, Christopher E

    2015-10-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (<5 %). Consistent, low-level blood Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  15. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: Nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ≤ 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  16. Extreme nomadism in desert waterbirds: flights of the banded stilt.

    PubMed

    Pedler, R D; Ribot, R F H; Bennett, A T D

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to well-studied Northern Hemisphere birds with spatially and temporally predictable seasonal migrations, waterbirds in desert biomes face major challenges in exploiting stochastic, rich, yet short-lived resource pulses in vast arid landscapes, leading to the evolution of nomadic behaviour. An extreme example is the banded stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus), an opportunistic colonial breeder at remote inland salt lakes after infrequent rain events. Using satellite telemetry on 21 birds (tracked for a mean of 196.2 days), we reveal extensive, rapid and synchronized movement among individuals to and from salt lakes. Two birds left coastal refugia for the inland following rain, flying 1000-2000 km, while 12 others rapidly moved a mean of 684 km (range 357-1298 km) away from drying inland sites to the coast. Two individuals moved longitudinally across the continent, departing and arriving at the same points, yet travelling very different routes; one bird moving more than 2200 km in less than 2.5 days, the other more than 1500 km in 6 days. Our findings reveal movements nearly twice as long and rapid as recorded in other desert waterbirds. We reveal capability to rapidly detect and exploit ephemeral wetland resource pulses across the stochastic Australian desert.

  17. Extreme nomadism in desert waterbirds: flights of the banded stilt

    PubMed Central

    Pedler, R. D.; Ribot, R. F. H.; Bennett, A. T. D.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to well-studied Northern Hemisphere birds with spatially and temporally predictable seasonal migrations, waterbirds in desert biomes face major challenges in exploiting stochastic, rich, yet short-lived resource pulses in vast arid landscapes, leading to the evolution of nomadic behaviour. An extreme example is the banded stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus), an opportunistic colonial breeder at remote inland salt lakes after infrequent rain events. Using satellite telemetry on 21 birds (tracked for a mean of 196.2 days), we reveal extensive, rapid and synchronized movement among individuals to and from salt lakes. Two birds left coastal refugia for the inland following rain, flying 1000–2000 km, while 12 others rapidly moved a mean of 684 km (range 357–1298 km) away from drying inland sites to the coast. Two individuals moved longitudinally across the continent, departing and arriving at the same points, yet travelling very different routes; one bird moving more than 2200 km in less than 2.5 days, the other more than 1500 km in 6 days. Our findings reveal movements nearly twice as long and rapid as recorded in other desert waterbirds. We reveal capability to rapidly detect and exploit ephemeral wetland resource pulses across the stochastic Australian desert. PMID:25319819

  18. A Black-necked Stilt hunts for food in the water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Black-necked Stilt hunts for food in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The stilt is identified by its distinct head pattern of black and white, its very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. The stilt's habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  19. Sublethal effects in Avocet and Stilt hatchlings from selenium-contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Marn, C.M.; Marois, Katherine C.; Sproul, E.; Dunne, M.; Skorupa, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Excess selenium (Se) in the aquatic food chain is embryotoxic and teratogenic to avocets, stilts, and other waterbirds. American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) eggs were collected from three sites in the Tulare Lake Basin of California, USA, and hatched in the laboratory. These sites included the Tulare Lake Drainage District?north (TLDD-N, water 2.5 ppb Se), TLDD?south (TLDD-S, water 8.6 ppb Se), and Westfarmers (WF, water 190 ppb Se). Highest egg Se concentrations occurred at WF (geometric mean 31.4 ppm dry wt for avocets and 20.5 ppm dry wt for stilts). Mean egg Se concentrations were 6.7 ppm for avocets and 8.4 ppm for stilts at TLDD-S, and 3.3 ppm for avocets and 2.3 ppm for stilts at TLDD-N. Hatching success and incidence of malformations did not differ among sites, but yolk sac?free hatching weights and bone lengths were less for avocets at the WF site, whereas liver weights and liver to body weight ratios were greater at that site. With increasing Se concentration, oxidative stress was most apparent in avocet hatchlings from WF: hepatic glutathione (GSH) peroxidase activity increased, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration as well as the ratio of GSSG to reduced GSH concentration increased. In stilts, hepatic GSH concentration was lower in WF hatchlings. In conclusion, our findings of Se-impaired embryo growth and hepatotoxicity in avocet hatchlings suggest that oxidative stress observed in hatchlings may be related to these biological effects and may serve as a potential bioindicator of subsequent impaired functions.

  20. The function of stilt roots in the growth strategy of Socratea exorrhiza (Arecaceae) at two neotropical sites.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Zahawi, Rakan A

    2007-01-01

    Arboreal palms have developed a variety of structural root modifications and systems to adapt to the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical rain forests. Stilt roots have been proposed to serve a number of functions including the facilitation of rapid vertical growth to the canopy and enhanced mechanical stability. To examine whether stilt roots provide these functions, we compared stilt root characteristics of the neotropical palm tree Socratea exorrhiza on sloped (>20 degrees) and flat locations at two lowland neotropical sites. S. exorrhiza (n=80 trees) did not demonstrate differences in number of roots, vertical stilt root height, root cone circumference, root cone volume, or location of roots as related to slope. However, we found positive relationships between allocation to vertical growth and stilt root architecture including root cone circumference, number of roots, and root cone volume. Accordingly, stilt roots may allow S. exorrhiza to increase height and maintain mechanical stability without having to concurrently invest in increased stem diameter and underground root structure. This strategy likely increases the species ability to rapidly exploit light gaps as compared to non-stilt root palms and may also enhance survival as mature trees approach the theoretical limits of their mechanical stability.

  1. Black-necked stilts share nesting in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A black-necked stilt waits near its nesting mate nest in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  2. Black-necked stilts share nesting in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A pair of black-necked stilts protect their grass-lined nest in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  3. Mercury concentrations and space use of pre-breeding American avocets and black-necked stilts in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Demers, Scott A.; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Bluso, J.D.; Miles, A. Keith; Warnock, Nils; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2007-01-01

    We examined factors influencing mercury concentrations in pre-breeding American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), the two most abundant breeding shorebirds in San Francisco Bay, California. We tested the effects of species, site, sex, year, and date on total mercury concentrations in blood of pre-breeding adult birds and used radio telemetry to determine space use and sites of dietary mercury exposure. We collected blood from 373 avocets and 157 stilts from February to April in 2005 and 2006, radio-marked and tracked 115 avocets and 94 stilts, and obtained 2393 avocet and 1928 stilt telemetry locations. Capture site was the most important factor influencing mercury concentrations in birds, followed by species and sex. Mercury concentrations were higher in stilts (geometric mean: 1.09 μg g− 1 wet weight [ww]) than in avocets (0.25 μg g− 1 ww) and males (stilts: 1.32 μg g− 1 ww; avocets: 0.32 μg g− 1 ww) had higher levels than females (stilts: 1.15 μg g− 1 ww; avocets: 0.21 μg g− 1 ww). Mercury concentrations were highest for both species at the southern end of San Francisco Bay, especially in salt pond A8 (stilts: 3.31 μg g− 1 ww; avocets: 0.58 μg g− 1 ww). Radio telemetry data showed that birds had strong fidelity to their capture site. Avocets primarily used salt ponds, tidal marshes, tidal flats, and managed marshes, whereas stilts mainly used salt ponds, managed marshes, and tidal marshes. Our results suggest that variation in blood mercury concentrations among sites was attributed to differences in foraging areas, and species differences in habitat use and foraging strategies may increase mercury exposure in stilts more than avocets.

  4. Dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clobert, J.; Danchin, E.; Dhondt, A.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of species to migrate and disperse is a trait that has interested ecologists for many years. Now that so many species and ecosystems face major environmental threats from habitat fragmentation and global climate change, the ability of species to adapt to these changes by dispersing, migrating, or moving between patches of habitat can be crucial to ensuring their survival. This book provides a timely and wide-ranging overview of the study of dispersal and incorporates much of the latest research. The causes, mechanisms, and consequences of dispersal at the individual, population, species and community levels are considered. The potential of new techniques and models for studying dispersal, drawn from molecular biology and demography, is also explored. Perspectives and insights are offered from the fields of evolution, conservation biology and genetics. Throughout the book, theoretical approaches are combined with empirical data, and care has been taken to include examples from as wide a range of species as possible.

  5. Black-necked stilts share nesting in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Black-necked Stilt sits on its nest in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Stilts are identified by a distinct head pattern of black and white, very long red legs, and straight, very thin bill. They usually produce three or four brown-spotted buff eggs in a shallow depression lined with grass or shell fragments. In the nesting season they are particularly agressive. Their habitat is salt marshes and shallow coastal bays from Delaware and northern South America in the East, and freshwater marshes from Oregon and Saskatchewan to the Gulf Coast. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  6. ICT for smart evaluation of vernacular architecture in a stilt-house village

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Filipa; Virtudes, Ana Lídia

    2016-12-01

    Vernacular architecture typologies, such as wooden stilt-houses, have been threatened by the vulnerability to conservation status degradation. This problem is not an exception in Portugal, where the few remaining examples have been neglected, with the disappearance or abandonment of almost all buildings, damaging architectural and urban spatial features. This legacy is rapidly disappearing, weakening the European cultural map. This research presents the results from a smart evaluation method using an ICT (information and communication technology) platform designed for the smart evaluation of wooden stilt-houses, considering their conservation status. This platform was used in the five remaining stilthouse villages still existing in Portugal including about 90 buildings and 300 inhabitants, located along Tagus river banks. This article refers to one of these case studies, the village of Escaroupim, which was chosen because it is the most urban space in between all of them. On one hand, the results are an exhaustive survey of vernacular buildings, useful as guideline for spatial strategies and instruments to protect this legacy. On the other hand, it can be used in other similar wooden buildings, to check their conservation status and therefore to define best rehabilitation actions.

  7. Assessing the competitive ability of Japanese stilt grass, Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht, S.A.; Silander, J.A.; Greenwood, K.

    2005-01-01

    Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stilt grass) is an invasive grass in the eastern half of the United States which can form dense monocultures in forest understories, displacing native species. Although the loss of native species has been observed in the field, the actual competitive ability of this grass has not been examined. Microstegium vimineum was grown under controlled environment, greenhouse conditions in competition with Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum (annual rye grass) and Muhlenbergia mexicana (Mexican muhly) in varying density ratios in full and low light treatments. Microstegium vimineum had a greater aboveground biomass, relative growth rate, and reproductive output than both competitors in both light treatments. The high competitive ability of Microstegium vimineum, especially in low light conditions, reflects its highly aggressive nature in forested or other landscapes of eastern North America.

  8. Biologic and molecular characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), black-winged lory (Eos cyanogenia), and cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Parnell, P G; Sreekumar, C; Vianna, M C B; De Young, R W; Dahl, E; Lehmann, T

    2004-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii isolates can be grouped into 3 genetic lineages. Type I isolates are considered virulent to outbred mice, whereas Type II and III isolates are not. In the present report, viable T. gondii was isolated for the first time from striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), and black-winged lory (Eos cyanogenia). For the isolation of T. gondii, tissues were bioassayed in mice, and genotyping was based on the SAG2 locus. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 3 of 6 skunks, 1 of 4 Canada geese, and 2 of 2 feral cats (Felis catus) from Mississippi. All donor animals were asymptomatic. Viable T. gondii was also isolated from 5 of 5 lories that had died of acute toxoplasmosis in an aviary in South Carolina. Genotypes of T. gondii isolates were Type III (all skunks, lories, and the goose) and Type II (both cats). All 5 Type III isolates from birds and 2 of the 3 isolates from skunks were mouse virulent.

  9. Estimating carbon fluxes for North America from a joint inversion for CO2 and COS using STILT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Petron, G.; Trudeau, M. E.; Karion, A.; Koch, F. T.; Kretschmer, R.; Gerbig, C.; Campbell, J. E.; Berry, J. A.; Baker, I. T.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Miller, B. R.; Montzka, S. A.; Jacobson, A. R.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding biospheric CO2 fluxes is paramount if climate studies are to be able to analyze the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change and monitor fossil fuel emissions reductions. Carbonyl sulfide (COS) may be a useful tracer to provide a constraint on photosynthesis [gross primary production (GPP)]. Here we simulate both COS and CO2 using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model coupled with various biospheric fluxes, such as fluxes estimated from the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM), CarbonTracker, and from the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model. The STILT model is driven by Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological fields. The WRF-STILT system is compared with the STILT driven by the ECMWF (European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting) meteorology for the North American domain. This study uses measurements of COS and CO2 in 2008 from the NOAA/ESRL tall tower and aircraft air sampling networks, with ~ 6,000 observations in total. Biospheric COS fluxes will be estimated from a GPP-based model coupled with the GPP estimates from above mentioned biosphere models. Soil uptakes of COS are derived from a biosphere model (SiB) that assimilates the soil moisture and temperature. Estimation of other COS fluxes, such as anthropogenic, biomass burning are based on existing analyses of temporal and spatial variations. Empirical boundary curtains are built based on observations at the NOAA/ESRL marine boundary layer stations and from aircraft vertical profiles, and are utilized as the lateral boundary conditions for COS and CO2 for North America. Comparison of the simulations for both COS and CO2 using different biospheric fluxes provides an opportunity to assess the performance of both the biospheric models and the representation of atmospheric transport. In addition, we will estimate the carbon fluxes for North America from a joint inversion for COS and CO2 in a Bayesian synthesis

  10. Identifying nest predators of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Eadie, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated predation on nests and methods to detect predators using a combination of infrared cameras and plasticine eggs at nests of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, California. Each technique indicated that predation was prevalent; 59% of monitored nests were depredated. Most identifiable predation (n = 49) was caused by mammals (71%) and rates of predation were similar on avocets and stilts. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) each accounted for 16% of predations, whereas gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and avian predators each accounted for 14%. Mammalian predation was mainly nocturnal (mean time, 0051 h ?? 5 h 36 min), whereas most avian predation was in late afternoon (mean time, 1800 h ?? 1 h 26 min). Nests with cameras and plasticine eggs were 1.6 times more likely to be predated than nests where only cameras were used in monitoring. Cameras were associated with lower abandonment of nests and provided definitive identification of predators.

  11. Identifying nest predators of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Eadie, John M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated predation on nests and methods to detect predators using a combination of infrared cameras and plasticine eggs at nests of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, California. Each technique indicated that predation was prevalent; 59% of monitored nests were depredated. Most identifiable predation (n = 49) was caused by mammals (71%) and rates of predation were similar on avocets and stilts. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) each accounted for 16% of predations, whereas gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and avian predators each accounted for 14%. Mammalian predation was mainly nocturnal (mean time, 0051 h +/- 5 h 36 min), whereas most avian predation was in late afternoon (mean time, 1800 h +/- 1 h 26 min). Nests with cameras and plasticine eggs were 1.6 times more likely to be predated than nests where only cameras were used in monitoring. Cameras were associated with lower abandonment of nests and provided definitive identification of predators.

  12. Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Iverson, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated whether mercury influenced survival of free-ranging American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Using radio telemetry, we radio-marked 158 avocet and 79 stilt chicks at hatching and tracked them daily until their fate was determined. We did not find strong support for an influence of in ovo mercury exposure on chick survival, despite observing a wide range of mercury concentrations in chick down feathers at hatching (0.40-44.31 ??g g -1 fw). We estimated that chick survival rates were reduced by ???3% over the range of observed mercury concentrations during the 28-day period from hatching to fledging. We also salvaged newly-hatched chicks that were found dead during routine nest monitoring. In contrast to the telemetry results, we found that mercury concentrations in down feathers of dead chicks were higher than those in randomly-sampled live chicks of similar age. However, capture site was the most important variable influencing mercury concentrations, followed by year, species, and hatching date. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated negative effects of environmentally relevant mercury concentrations on chick survival, our results concur with the small number of previous field studies that have not been able to detect reduced survival in the wild. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. A new genus and species of cyclocoelid from the black-necked stilt, Himantopus mexicanus (Recurvirostridae), from Galveston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Dronen, Norman O; Blend, Charles K

    2005-02-01

    Two black-necked stilts, Himantopus mexicanus (Recurvirostridae), from the Texas Gulf coast, died while in the care of bird rehabilitators and were found to be infected with Neoallopyge americanensis n. gen., n. sp. Neoallopyge n. gen. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae) differs from Allopyge in having the testes situated some distance from the posterior extremity, 2 uterine loops on each side extensively invading the space posterior to the testes, no intertesticular uterine loops, and it is a parasite of Recurvirostridae in the western hemisphere rather than Gruidae from the Old World. The new species is unlike Allopyge antigones, Allopyge ominosus, and Allopyge undulatus in having the genital pore located anterior to the cecal bifurcation rather than posterior to it, and it is unlike A. ominosus and A. undulatus, where the uterus is entirely intercecal in having the uterine loops extending laterally, reaching the body wall on both sides. The new species further differs from A. antigones, A. ominosus, and Allopyge skrjabini in having larger eggs (148 [140-155] microm by 55 [45-63] microm compared with 95 by 55 microm, 65-80 by 40-46 microm, 119-124 by 55-66 microm, respectively), and it differs from Allopyge adolphi and A. undulatus in having narrower eggs (154 by 75 microm, 144 by 86 microm, respectively).

  14. Assessment of planetary boundary layer and residual layer heights in the Northeastern U.S. using Lidar, a network of surface observations, and the WRF-STILT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Y.; Nehrkorn, T.; Hegarty, J. D.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gottlieb, E.; Sargent, M. R.; Decola, P.; Jones, T.

    2015-12-01

    Simulation of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and residual layer (RL) are key requirements for forecasting air quality in cities and detecting transboundary air pollution events. This study combines information from a network of Mini Micropulse Lidar (MPL) instruments, the CALIOP satellite, meteorological and air pollution measuring sensors, and a particle-transport model to critically test mesoscale transport models at the regional level. Aerosol backscattering measurements were continuously taken with MPL units in various locations within the Northeastern U.S., between September 2012 to August 2015. Data is analyzed using wavelet covariance transforms and image processing techniques. Initial results for the city of Boston show a PBL growth rate between approx. 150 and 300 meters per hour, in the morning to early afternoon (~12-19 UTC). The RL was present throughout the night and day at approx. 1.3 to 2.0 km. Transboundary air pollution events were detected and quantified, and variations in concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols were also evaluated. Results were compared to information retrieved from Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model and the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model.

  15. Ocular dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Noojin, Gary D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Stolarski, David J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1999-06-01

    Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry (SRWLI) was used to measure the wavelength dependence of refractive index (i.e., dispersion) for various ocular components. The accuracy of the technique was assessed by measurement of fused silica and water, the refractive indices of which have been measured at several different wavelengths. The dispersion of bovine and rabbit aqueous and vitreous humor was measured from 400 to 1100 nm. Also, the dispersion was measured from 400 to 700 nm for aqueous and vitreous humor extracted from goat and rhesus monkey eyes. For the humors, the dispersion did not deviate significantly from water. In an additional experiment, the dispersion of aqueous and vitreous humor that had aged up to a month was compared to freshly harvested material. No difference was found between the fresh and aged media. An unsuccessful attempt was also made to use the technique for dispersion measurement of bovine cornea and lens. Future refinement may allow measurement of the dispersion of cornea and lens across the entire visible and near-infrared wavelength band. The principles of white- light interferometry including image analysis, measurement accuracy, and limitations of the technique, are discussed. In addition, alternate techniques and previous measurements of ocular dispersion are reviewed.

  16. Dispersion Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)

  17. Fog dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Christensen, L. S.; Collins, F. G.; Camp, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A study of economically viable techniques for dispersing warm fog at commercial airports is presented. Five fog dispersion techniques are examined: evaporation suppression, downwash, mixing, seeding with hygroscopic material, thermal techniques, and charged particle techniques. Thermal techniques, although effective, were found to be too expensive for routine airport operations, and detrimental to the environment. Seeding or helicopter downwash are practical for small-scale or temporary fog clearing, but are probably not useful for airport operations on a routine basis. Considerable disagreement exists on the capability of charged particle techniques, which stems from the fact that different assumptions and parameter values are used in the analytical models. Recommendations resulting from the review of this technique are listed, and include: experimental measurements of the parameters in question; a study to ascertain possible safety hazards, such as increased electrical activity or fuel ignition during refueling operations which could render charged particle techniques impractical; and a study of a single charged particle generator.

  18. Highly dispersive slot waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yue, Yang; Xiao-Li, Yinying; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Willner, Alan E

    2009-04-27

    We propose a slot-waveguide with high dispersion, in which a slot waveguide is coupled to a strip waveguide. A negative dispersion of up to -181520 ps/nm/km is obtained due to a strong interaction of the slot and strip modes. A flat and large dispersion is achievable by cascading the dispersive slot-waveguides with varied waveguide thickness or width for dispersion compensation and signal processing applications. We show - 31300 ps/nm/km dispersion over 147-nm bandwidth with <1% variance.

  19. Student Rights in Canada: Nonsense upon Stilts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magsino, Romulo F.

    1977-01-01

    The author examines the constitutional bases of claims for student rights in Canada, presents various aspects of rights, including "option" and "welfare" rights, and suggests the embodiment of students' welfare rights and of a Bill of Rights affecting all of society, within the Canadian constitution. (MJB)

  20. Mercury pollution in three species of waders from Shadegan wetlands at the head of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Bahramifar, Nader

    2010-03-01

    Persian Gulf supports diverse ecosystems and biota in need of remediation and protection, and metal data from this region is needed. Mercury (Hg) in tissues of three waders (Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantous, Red-wattled Plover Hoplopterus indicus, and White-tailed Plover Vanellus leucurus) from Shadegan Wetlands is reported. Black-winged Stilt had higher Hg in feather (6.6 +/- 0.6 microg/g dry weight), liver (3.5 +/- 1 microg/g dry weight), kidney (4.5 +/- 0.8 microg/g dry weight) and muscle (1.2 +/- 0.2 microg/g dry weight) (not statistically significant). Differences in Hg among waders could have resulted from diverse feeding habitats and dissimilar foraging sites.

  1. Lectures on Dispersion Theory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Salam, A.

    1956-04-01

    Lectures with mathematical analysis are given on Dispersion Theory and Causality and Dispersion Relations for Pion-nucleon Scattering. The appendix includes the S-matrix in terms of Heisenberg Operators. (F. S.)

  2. Dispersion y dinamica poblacional

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal behavior of fruit flies is appetitive. Measures of dispersion involve two different parameter: the maximum distance and the standard distance. Standard distance is a parameter that describes the probalility of dispersion and is mathematically equivalent to the standard deviation around ...

  3. Dispersion in the Surfzone: Tracer Dispersion Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    objective is to improve understanding and modeling of dispersion of tracers (pol­ lution, fecal indicator bacteria, fine sediments) within the...discussed further here. Stochastic Particle Simulation for Surfzone Dispersion Drifter-derived diffusivities are time-dependent. In an unbounded...diffusion. Here HB06 particle trajectories are stochastically simulated with the Langevin equations with a shoreline boundary to explain the observed

  4. Theory of dispersive microlenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, B.; Gal, George

    1993-01-01

    A dispersive microlens is a miniature optical element which simultaneously focuses and disperses light. Arrays of dispersive mircolenses have potential applications in multicolor focal planes. They have a 100 percent optical fill factor and can focus light down to detectors of diffraction spot size, freeing up areas on the focal plane for on-chip analog signal processing. Use of dispersive microlenses allows inband color separation within a pixel and perfect scene registration. A dual-color separation has the potential for temperature discrimination. We discuss the design of dispersive microlenses and present sample results for efficient designs.

  5. Reviews Equipment: Chameleon Nano Flakes Book: Requiem for a Species Equipment: Laser Sound System Equipment: EasySense VISION Equipment: UV Flash Kit Book: The Demon-Haunted World Book: Nonsense on Stilts Book: How to Think about Weird Things Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Requiem for a Species This book delivers a sober message about climate change Laser Sound System Sound kit is useful for laser demonstrations EasySense VISION Data Harvest produces another easy-to-use data logger UV Flash Kit Useful equipment captures shadows on film The Demon-Haunted World World-famous astronomer attacks pseudoscience in this book Nonsense on Stilts A thought-provoking analysis of hard and soft sciences How to Think about Weird Things This book explores the credibility of astrologers and their ilk WORTH A LOOK Chameleon Nano Flakes Product lacks good instructions and guidelines WEB WATCH Amateur scientists help out researchers with a variety of online projects

  6. Dispersion management with metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2017-03-07

    An apparatus, system, and method to counteract group velocity dispersion in fibers, or any other propagation of electromagnetic signals at any wavelength (microwave, terahertz, optical, etc.) in any other medium. A dispersion compensation step or device based on dispersion-engineered metamaterials is included and avoids the need of a long section of specialty fiber or the need for Bragg gratings (which have insertion loss).

  7. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  8. Visualizing Dispersion Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Elinor; Venkataraman, Bhawani

    2014-01-01

    An animation and accompanying activity has been developed to help students visualize how dispersion interactions arise. The animation uses the gecko's ability to walk on vertical surfaces to illustrate how dispersion interactions play a role in macroscale outcomes. Assessment of student learning reveals that students were able to develop…

  9. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  10. Seed dispersal in fens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  11. Spores Disperse, Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Donna N.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests the use of spores and spore-producing structures to show adaptations facilitating spore dispersal and dispersal to favorable environments. Describes several activities using horsetails, ferns, and mosses. Lists five safety factors related to use of mold spores in the classroom. (DS)

  12. Rates of Gravel Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.

  13. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  14. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  15. Nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H. (Inventor); Allen, Donald R. (Inventor); Foley, James C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions and methods for obtaining nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys are described. A composition includes an amorphous matrix forming element (e.g., Al or Fe); at least one transition metal element; and at least one crystallizing agent that is insoluble in the resulting amorphous matrix. During devitrification, the crystallizing agent causes the formation of a high density nanocrystal dispersion. The compositions and methods provide advantages in that materials with superior properties are provided.

  16. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    DOE PAGES

    Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan

    2015-06-22

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion wemore » illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.« less

  17. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan

    2015-06-22

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  18. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  19. KISMET tungsten dispersal experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.; Kunkle, T.; Hawkins, W.

    1996-12-01

    Results of the KISMET tungsten dispersal experiment indicate a relatively small degree of wall-rock contamination caused by this underground explosive experiment. Designed as an add-on to the KISMET test, which was performed in the U-1a.02 drift of the LYNER facility at Nevada Test Site on 1 March 1995, this experiment involved recovery and analysis of wall-rock samples affected by the high- explosive test. The chemical, high-explosive blast drove tungsten powder, placed around the test package as a plutonium analog, into the surrounding wall- rock alluvium. Sample analyses by an analytical digital electron microscope (ADEM) show tungsten dispersed in the rock as tiny (<10 {mu}m) particles, agglomerates, and coatings on alluvial clasts. Tungsten concentrations, measured by energy dispersive spectral analysis on the ADEM, indicate penetration depths less than 0.1 m and maximum concentrations of 1.5 wt % in the alluvium.

  20. Uranium Dispersion & Dosimetry Model.

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,; MOMENI, H.

    2002-03-22

    The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground-deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant.

  1. Warm fog dispersal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The charged particle generator was further tested after some design modification. The generator performance was measured with additional instrumentation and found to confirm previous measurements. Plans for a field testing were than developed. The overall status of the program and the field test plans were presented to a group of atmospheric scientists and electrostatic experts at the NASA/MSFC sponsored USRA Workshop on Electrostatic Fog Dispersal at NCAR, Boulder, Colorado discussed in previous sections. The recommendations from this workshop are being evaluated as to whether NASA should proceed with the field test or whether further theoretical research on the phenomenon of electrostatic fog dispersal and additional development of the charged particle generator should be carried out. Information obtained from the USRA Workshop clearly identified three physical mechanisms that could possibly influence the fog dispersal process, which heretofore have not been considered, and which may provide additional insight to the direction of further fog dispersal work. These mechanisms are: the effect of corona discharge on the electric field strength at the surface, the influx of fog into the cleared volume by turbulent diffusion, and the increase in supersaturation as liquid water is removed, activating haze particles, and thus generating more fog. Plans are being formulated to investigate these mechanisms.

  2. Acoustic dispersive prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz–1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium.

  3. Acoustic dispersive prism.

    PubMed

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R

    2016-01-07

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium.

  4. Dispersions in semiclassical dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinska-Pfabé, M.; Grégoire, C.

    1988-06-01

    Dispersions around mean values of one-body observables are obtained by restoring classical many-body correlations in Vlasov and Landau-Vlasov dynamics. This method is applied to the calculation of fluctuations in mass, charge, and linear momentum in heavy-ion collisions. Results are compared with those obtained by the Balian-Veneroni variational principle in semiclassical approximation.

  5. Acoustic dispersive prism

    PubMed Central

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz–1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504

  6. Oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.; Kim, Y. G.; Curwick, L. R.; Merrick, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    MA6000E alloy is strengthened at high temperatures by dispersion of yttrium oxide. Strength properties are about twice those of conventional nickel base alloys. Good thermal fatigue, intermediate temperature strength, and good oxidation resistance give alloy unique combination of benefits. Application in aircraft gas turbine is improved.

  7. Octave spanning wedge dispersive mirrors with low dispersion oscillations.

    PubMed

    Habel, Florian; Shirvanyan, Vage; Trubetskov, Michael; Burger, Christian; Sommer, Annkatrin; Kling, Matthias F; Schultze, Martin; Pervak, Vladimir

    2016-05-02

    A novel concept for octave spanning dispersive mirrors with low spectral dispersion oscillations is presented. The key element of the so-called wedge dispersive mirror is a slightly wedged layer which is coated on a specially optimized dispersive multilayer stack by a common sputter coating process. The group delay dispersion (GDD) of a pulse reflected on a wedge dispersive mirror is nearly free of oscillations. Fabricated mirrors with negative GDD demonstrate the compression of a pulse down to 3.8 fs as good as double angled mirrors optimized for the same bandwidth.

  8. Dispersion suppressors with bending

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    Dispersion suppressors of two main types are usually used. In one the cell quadrupole focussing structure is the same as in normal cells but some of the dipoles are replaced by drifts. In the other, the quadrupole strengths and/or spacings are different from those of the normal cells, but the bending is about the same as it is in the cells. In SSC designs to date, dispersion suppressors of the former type have been used, consisting of two cells with bending equivalent to one. In this note a suppressor design with normal bending and altered focussing is presented. The advantage of this scheme is that circumference is reduced. The disadvantages are that additional special quadrupoles must be provided (however, they need not be adjustable), and the maximum beta values within them are about 30% higher than the cell maxima.

  9. Disabling Radiological Dispersal Terror

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M

    2002-11-08

    Terror resulting from the use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) relies upon an individual's lack of knowledge and understanding regarding its significance. Disabling this terror will depend upon realistic reviews of the current conservative radiation protection regulatory standards. It will also depend upon individuals being able to make their own informed decisions merging perceived risks with reality. Preparation in these areas will reduce the effectiveness of the RDD and may even reduce the possibility of its use.

  10. Ascent trajectory dispersion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of a Space Transportation System ascent trajectory dispersion analysis are documented. Critical trajectory parameter values useful for the definition of lightweight external tank insulation requirements are provided. This analysis was conducted using two of the critical missions specified for the Space Transportation System: a 28.5 deg inclination trajectory launched from the Eastern Test Range (ETR) and a Western Test Range (WTR) trajectory launched into a 104 deg orbital inclination.

  11. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1998-06-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  12. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Basaran, Osman A.; Harris, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  13. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1998-04-14

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  14. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Basaran, Osman A.; Harris, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  15. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1996-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  16. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Basaran, O.A.; Harris, M.T.

    1995-11-07

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two concentric electrodes, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 4 figs.

  17. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, Warren G.; Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1998-01-01

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode.

  18. Nozzle for electric dispersion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, W.G.; Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Basaran, O.A.

    1996-04-02

    A nozzle for an electric dispersion reactor includes two coaxial cylindrical bodies, the inner one of the two delivering disperse phase fluid into a continuous phase fluid. A potential difference generated by a voltage source creates a dispersing electric field at the end of the inner electrode. 5 figs.

  19. QT dispersion and P wave dispersion in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Yolbaş, Servet; Yıldırım, Ahmet; Düzenci, Deccane; Karakaya, Bülent; Dağlı, Mustafa Necati; Koca, Süleyman Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain. Somatic complaints associated with the cardiovascular system, such as chest pain and palpitations, are frequently seen in FM patients. P and QT dispersions are simple and inexpensive measurements reflecting the regional heterogeneity of atrial and ventricular repolarization, respectively. QT dispersion can cause serious ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to evaluate QT dispersion and P wave dispersion in patients with FM. Material and Methods The study involved 48 FM patients who fulfilled the established criteria and 32 healthy controls (HC). A standard 12-lead electrocardiogram was performed on all participants. QT dispersion was defined as the difference between the longest and the shortest QT intervals. Similarly, the differences between the shortest and longest P waves were defined as P wave dispersion. Results The QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion were shorter in the FM group compared with the HC group (p<0.001 for both). In terms of the P wave dispersion value, there was no significant difference between the FM and HC groups (p=0.088). Conclusion Longer QT and P wave dispersions are not problems in patients with FM. Therefore, it may be concluded that fibromyalgia does not include an increased risk of atrial and/or ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:28149660

  20. Quantum optical rotatory dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Tischler, Nora; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Vidal, Xavier; Zeilinger, Anton; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of molecular optical activity manifests itself as the rotation of the plane of linear polarization when light passes through chiral media. Measurements of optical activity and its wavelength dependence, that is, optical rotatory dispersion, can reveal information about intricate properties of molecules, such as the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms comprising a molecule. Given a limited probe power, quantum metrology offers the possibility of outperforming classical measurements. This has particular appeal when samples may be damaged by high power, which is a potential concern for chiroptical studies. We present the first experiment in which multiwavelength polarization-entangled photon pairs are used to measure the optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion exhibited by a solution of chiral molecules. Our work paves the way for quantum-enhanced measurements of chirality, with potential applications in chemistry, biology, materials science, and the pharmaceutical industry. The scheme that we use for probing wavelength dependence not only allows one to surpass the information extracted per photon in a classical measurement but also can be used for more general differential measurements. PMID:27713928

  1. Quantum optical rotatory dispersion.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Nora; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Vidal, Xavier; Zeilinger, Anton; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    The phenomenon of molecular optical activity manifests itself as the rotation of the plane of linear polarization when light passes through chiral media. Measurements of optical activity and its wavelength dependence, that is, optical rotatory dispersion, can reveal information about intricate properties of molecules, such as the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms comprising a molecule. Given a limited probe power, quantum metrology offers the possibility of outperforming classical measurements. This has particular appeal when samples may be damaged by high power, which is a potential concern for chiroptical studies. We present the first experiment in which multiwavelength polarization-entangled photon pairs are used to measure the optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion exhibited by a solution of chiral molecules. Our work paves the way for quantum-enhanced measurements of chirality, with potential applications in chemistry, biology, materials science, and the pharmaceutical industry. The scheme that we use for probing wavelength dependence not only allows one to surpass the information extracted per photon in a classical measurement but also can be used for more general differential measurements.

  2. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  3. Natural dispersion revisited.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Øistein; Reed, Mark; Bodsberg, Nils Rune

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a new semi-empirical model for oil droplet size distributions generated by single breaking wave events. Empirical data was obtained from laboratory experiments with different crude oils at different stages of weathering. The paper starts with a review of the most commonly used model for natural dispersion, which is followed by a presentation of the laboratory study on oil droplet size distributions formed by breaking waves conducted by SINTEF on behalf of the NOAA/UNH Coastal Response Research Center. The next section presents the theoretical and empirical foundation for the new model. The model is based on dimensional analysis and contains two non-dimensional groups; the Weber and Reynolds number. The model was validated with data from a full scale experimental oil spill conducted in the Haltenbanken area offshore Norway in July 1982, as described in the last section of the paper.

  4. ACOUSTIC RECTIFICATION IN DISPERSIVE MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, John H.

    2009-03-03

    It is shown that the shapes of acoustic radiation-induced static strain and displacement pulses (rectified acoustic pulses) are defined locally by the energy density of the generating waveform. Dispersive properties are introduced analytically by assuming that the rectified pulses are functionally dependent on a phase factor that includes both dispersive and nonlinear terms. The dispersion causes an evolutionary change in the shape of the energy density profile that leads to the generation of solitons experimentally observed in fused silica.

  5. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-22

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  6. Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Goda, K.; Mahjoubfar, A.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points. PMID:22685627

  7. Disperser seal and method

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. T.

    1981-06-02

    A seal is described for a shaft of a disperser crusher, that pulverizes hot coal particles, maintains a higher than atmospheric pressure within a casing for the crusher, and is able to withstand elevated temperatures that are produced within the casing. The pressure and temperature result from hot gases that convey coal particles to the crusher. The seal includes self lubricating graphite packings that are urged in abutting relation with a smooth, ceramic sleeve on the shaft and are able to withstand the temperature on the shaft surface. A first, interior packing is on the inside of a wall of the casing while a second, exterior packing is outside of the wall. Superheated steam, a gas inert with the coal particles, is supplied to the interior packing with sufficient pressure to substantially prevent the migration of coal particles through the interior packing. The tendency of the coal particles to migrate from the container through the interior packing is further inhibited by providing a tortuous path from the casing to the interior packing.

  8. Hybrid dispersion laser scanner.

    PubMed

    Goda, K; Mahjoubfar, A; Wang, C; Fard, A; Adam, J; Gossett, D R; Ayazi, A; Sollier, E; Malik, O; Chen, E; Liu, Y; Brown, R; Sarkhosh, N; Di Carlo, D; Jalali, B

    2012-01-01

    Laser scanning technology is one of the most integral parts of today's scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and biomedicine. In many applications, high-speed scanning capability is essential for scanning a large area in a short time and multi-dimensional sensing of moving objects and dynamical processes with fine temporal resolution. Unfortunately, conventional laser scanners are often too slow, resulting in limited precision and utility. Here we present a new type of laser scanner that offers ∼1,000 times higher scan rates than conventional state-of-the-art scanners. This method employs spatial dispersion of temporally stretched broadband optical pulses onto the target, enabling inertia-free laser scans at unprecedented scan rates of nearly 100 MHz at 800 nm. To show our scanner's broad utility, we use it to demonstrate unique and previously difficult-to-achieve capabilities in imaging, surface vibrometry, and flow cytometry at a record 2D raster scan rate of more than 100 kHz with 27,000 resolvable points.

  9. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  10. Auroral electron time dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Kletzing, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    A sounding rocket flight was launched from Greenland in 1985 to study high latitude, early morning auroral physics. The payload was instrumented with electron and ion detectors, AC and DC electric field experiments, a plasma density experiment, and a magnetometer to measure the ambient field. The rocket was launched during disturbed conditions, when the polar cap was in a contracted state with visible aurora overhead. The electron data contained numerous signatures indicative of time-of-flight energy dispersion characterized by a coherent structure in which lower energy electrons arrived at the rocket after higher energy electrons. A model was constructed to explain this phenomena by the sudden application of a region of parallel electric field along a length of magnetic field line above the rocket. The model incorporates detector response and uses an altitudinal density profile based on auroral zone measurements. Three types of potential structures were tried: linear, quadratic and cubic. Of the three it was found that the cubic (electric field growing in a quadratic manner moving up the field line) produced the best fit to the data. The potential region was found to be approximately 1-2 R{sub e} in extent with the lower edge 3000-4000 km away from the rocket. The background electron temperature in the model which produced the best fit to the data was of the order of 15 eV.

  11. Preparation of alkali metal dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Landel, R. F. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for producing alkali metal dispersions of high purity. The dispersions are prepared by varying the equilibrium solubility of the alkali metal in a suitable organic solvent in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The equilibrium variation is produced by temperature change. The size of the particles is controlled by controlling the rate of temperature change.

  12. Large deviations in Taylor dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlen, Marcel; Engel, Andreas; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We establish a link between the phenomenon of Taylor dispersion and the theory of empirical distributions. Using this connection, we derive, upon applying the theory of large deviations, an alternative and much more precise description of the long-time regime for Taylor dispersion.

  13. Procedure for dispersing fiber bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, D.

    1974-01-01

    Fiber bundles are dispersed and fibers are cleaned within enclosed container; therefore, safety clothing, masks, and eye protection are not required. Procedure also could be used wherever materials, such as fiberglass or insulation, require dispersion, fluffing, or cleaning. Process could be automated into continuous operation for handling large quantities of fiber.

  14. Dispersive suspended microextraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Yu; Lu, Yue-Le; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2011-11-14

    A novel sample pre-treatment technique termed dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) has been developed for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, malathion, chlorpyrifos, isocarbophos, methidathion, fenamiphos, profenofos, triazophos) in aqueous samples. In this method, both extraction and two phases' separation process were performed by the assistance of magnetic stirring. After separating the two phases, 1 μL of the suspended phase was injected into GC for further instrument analysis. Varieties of experiment factors which could affect the experiment results were optimized and the following were selected: 12.0 μL p-xylene was selected as extraction solvent, extraction speed was 1200 rpm, extraction time was 30 s, the restoration speed was 800 rpm, the restoration time was 8 min, and no salt was added. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detections (LODs) varied between 0.01 and 0.05 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSDs, n=6) ranged from 4.6% to 12.1%. The linearity was obtained by five points in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0 μg L(-1). Correlation coefficients (r) varied from 0.9964 to 0.9995. The enrichment factors (EFs) were between 206 and 243. In the final experiment, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wine and tap water samples and the obtained recoveries were between 83.8% and 101.3%. Compared with other pre-treatment methods, DSME has its own features and could achieve satisfied results for the analysis of trace components in complicated matrices.

  15. Serological response to vaccination against avian influenza in zoo-birds using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Klausen, Joan; Holm, Elisabeth; Grøndahl, Carsten; Jørgensen, Poul H

    2007-05-30

    Five hundred and forty birds in three zoos were vaccinated twice against avian influenza with a 6-week interval using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine. Serological response was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition test 4-6 weeks following the second vaccine administration. 84% of the birds seroconverted, and 76% developed a titre > or =32. The geometric mean titre after vaccination was 137. A significant species variation in response was noted; penguins, pelicans, ducks, geese, herons, Guinea fowl, cranes, cockatiels, lovebirds, and barbets showed very poor response to vaccination, while very high titres and seroconversion rates were seen in flamingos, ibis, rheas, Congo peafowl, black-winged stilts, amazon parrots, and kookaburras.

  16. Migration of dispersive GPR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, M.H.; Oden, C.P.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Electrical conductivity and dielectric and magnetic relaxation phenomena cause electromagnetic propagation to be dispersive in earth materials. Both velocity and attenuation may vary with frequency, depending on the frequency content of the propagating energy and the nature of the relaxation phenomena. A minor amount of velocity dispersion is associated with high attenuation. For this reason, measuring effects of velocity dispersion in ground penetrating radar (GPR) data is difficult. With a dispersive forward model, GPR responses to propagation through materials with known frequency-dependent properties have been created. These responses are used as test data for migration algorithms that have been modified to handle specific aspects of dispersive media. When either Stolt or Gazdag migration methods are modified to correct for just velocity dispersion, the results are little changed from standard migration. For nondispersive propagating wavefield data, like deep seismic, ensuring correct phase summation in a migration algorithm is more important than correctly handling amplitude. However, the results of migrating model responses to dispersive media with modified algorithms indicate that, in this case, correcting for frequency-dependent amplitude loss has a much greater effect on the result than correcting for proper phase summation. A modified migration is only effective when it includes attenuation recovery, performing deconvolution and migration simultaneously.

  17. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard

    2017-03-01

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  18. Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Saglia, Roberto; Drory, Niv; Fisher, David

    2010-06-08

    We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (sigma*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.

  19. Dispersion in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witzens, Jeremy

    2005-11-01

    Investigations on the dispersive properties of photonic crystals, modified scattering in ring-resonators, monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and advanced data processing techniques for the finite-difference time-domain method are presented. Photonic crystals are periodic mesoscopic arrays of scatterers that modify the propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in a similar way as "natural" crystals modify the properties of electrons in solid-state physics. In this thesis photonic crystals are implemented as planar photonic crystals, i.e., optically thin semiconductor films with periodic arrays of holes etched into them, with a hole-to-hole spacing of the order of the wavelength of light in the dielectric media. Photonic crystals can feature forbidden frequency ranges (the band-gaps) in which light cannot propagate. Even though most work on photonic crystals has focused on these band-gaps for application such as confinement and guiding of light, this thesis focuses on the allowed frequency regions (the photonic bands) and investigates how the propagation of light is modified by the crystal lattice. In particular the guiding of light in bulk photonic crystals in the absence of lattice defects (the self-collimation effect) and the angular steering of light in photonic crystals (the superprism effect) are investigated. The latter is used to design a planar lightwave circuit for frequency domain demultiplexion. Difficulties such as efficient insertion of light into the crystal are resolved and previously predicted limitations on the resolution are circumvented. The demultiplexer is also fabricated and characterized. Monolithic integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by means of resonantly enhanced grating couplers is investigated. The grating coupler is designed to bend light through a ninety-degree angle and is characterized with the finite-difference time-domain method. The vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers are

  20. Asphaltene dispersants as demulsification aids

    SciTech Connect

    Manek, M.B.

    1995-11-01

    Destabilization of petroleum asphaltenes may cause a multitude of problems in crude oil recovery and production. One major problem is their agglomeration at the water-oil interface of crude oil emulsions. Once agglomeration occurs, destabilized asphaltenes can form a thick pad in the dehydration equipment, which significantly reduces the demulsification rate. Certain polymeric dispersants increase asphaltene solubilization in hydrocarbon media, and when used in conjunction with emulsion breakers, facilitate the demulsification process. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate how asphaltene dispersants can efficiently inhibit pad formation and help reduce demulsifier dosage. Criteria for dispersant application and selection are discussed, which include the application of a novel laboratory technique to assess asphaltene stabilization in the crude oil. The technique monitors asphaltene agglomeration while undergoing titration with an incompatible solvent (precipitant). The method was used to evaluate stabilization of asphaltenes in the crude oil and to screen asphaltene dispersants.

  1. Dispersion coefficients for coastal regions

    SciTech Connect

    MacRae, B.L.; Kaleel, R.J.; Shearer, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has undertaken an extensive atmospheric dispersion research and measurement program from which it is intended will emerge improved predictive techniques for employment in licensing decisions and for emergency planning and response. Through this program the NRC has conducted field measurement programs over a wide range of geographic and topographic locations, and are using the acquired tracer and meteorological measurements to evaluate existing dispersion models and prediction techniques, and to develop new techniques when necessary.

  2. Does Random Dispersion Help Survival?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B.

    2015-04-01

    Many species live in colonies that prosper for a while and then collapse. After the collapse the colony survivors disperse randomly and found new colonies that may or may not make it depending on the new environment they find. We use birth and death chains in random environments to model such a population and to argue that random dispersion is a superior strategy for survival.

  3. Dispersion in alluvial convergent estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-04-01

    The Van der Burgh's equation for longitudinal effective dispersion is a purely empirical method with practical implications. Its application to the effective tidal average dispersion under equilibrium conditions appears to have excellent performance in a wide range of alluvial estuaries. In this research, we try to find out the physical meaning of Van der Burgh's coefficient. Researchers like MacCready, Fischer, Kuijper, Hansen and Rattray have tried to split up dispersion into its constituents which did not do much to explain overall behaviour. In addition, traditional literature on dispersion is mostly related to flumes with constant cross-section. This research is about understanding the Van der Burgh's coefficient facing the fact that natural estuaries have exponentially varying cross-section. The objective is to derive a simple 1-D model considering both longitudinal and lateral mixing processes based on field observations (theoretical derivation). To that effect, we connect dispersion with salinity using the salt balance equation. Then we calculate the salinity along the longitudinal direction and compare it to the observed salinity. Calibrated dispersion coefficients in a range of estuaries are then compared with new expressions for the Van der Burgh's coefficient K and it is analysed if K varies from estuary to estuary. The set of reliable data used will be from estuaries: Kurau, Perak, Bernam, Selangor, Muar, Endau, Maputo, Thames, Corantijn, Sinnamary, Mae Klong, Lalang, Limpopo, Tha Chin, Chao Phraya, Edisto and Elbe.

  4. Predation risk increases dispersal distance in prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that affect dispersal distances allows us to predict the consequences of dispersal. Although predator avoidance is an important cause of prey dispersal, its effects on dispersal distance have not been investigated. We used simple experimental setups to test dispersal distances of the ambulatory dispersing spider mite ( Tetranychus kanzawai) in the presence or absence of a predator ( Neoseiulus womersleyi). In the absence of predators, most spider mites settled in adjacent patches, whereas the majority of those dispersing in the presence of predators passed through adjacent patches and settled in distant ones. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that predators induce greater dispersal distance in prey.

  5. Dispersive properties of multisymplectic integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, C. M.; Wlodarczyk, T. H.

    2008-05-01

    Multisymplectic (MS) integrators, i.e. numerical schemes which exactly preserve a discrete space-time symplectic structure, are a new class of structure preserving algorithms for solving Hamiltonian PDEs. In this paper we examine the dispersive properties of MS integrators for the linear wave and sine-Gordon equations. In particular a leapfrog in space and time scheme (a member of the Lobatto Runge-Kutta family of methods) and the Preissman box scheme are considered. We find the numerical dispersion relations are monotonic and that the sign of the group velocity is preserved. The group velocity dispersion (GVD) is found to provide significant information and succinctly explain the qualitative differences in the numerical solutions obtained with the different schemes. Further, the numerical dispersion relations for the linearized sine-Gordon equation provides information on the ability of the MS integrators to capture the sine-Gordon dynamics. We are able to link the numerical dispersion relations to the total energy of the various methods, thus providing information on the coarse grid behavior of MS integrators in the nonlinear regime.

  6. Dispersive wave emission from wave breaking.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Matteo; Trillo, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    We show that pulses undergoing wave breaking in nonlinear weakly dispersive fibers radiate, owing to phase-matching (assisted by higher-order dispersion) of linear dispersive waves with the shock-wave front. Our theoretical results perfectly explain the radiation observed recently from pulses propagating in the normal dispersion (i.e., nonsolitonic) regime.

  7. Dispersion-compensated Fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-11-03

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4[times]10[sup [minus]5] inch and a profile width of at least 10[sup [minus]3] inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight. 10 figs.

  8. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.

    1992-01-01

    The present calculations of the performance of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters (FADOF) on IR transitions indicate that such filters may furnish high transmission, narrow-pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth under optimum operating conditions. A FADOF consists of an atomic vapor cell between crossed polarizers that are subject to a dc magnetic field along the optical path; when linearly polarized light travels along the direction of the magnetic field through the dispersive atomic vapor, a polarization rotation occurs. If FADOF conditions are suitably adjusted, a maximum transmission with very narrow bandwidth is obtained.

  9. Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.

  10. DISPERSION HARDENING OF URANIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Arbiter, W.

    1963-01-15

    A method of hardening U metal involves the forming of a fine dispersion of UO/sub 2/. This method consists of first hydriding the U to form a finely divided powder and then exposing the powder to a very dilute O gas in an inert atmosphere under such pressure and temperature conditions as to cause a thin oxide film to coat each particle of the U hydride, The oxide skin prevents agglomeration of the particles as the remaining H is removed, thus preserving the small particle size. The oxide skin coatings remain as an oxide dispersion. The resulting product may be workhardened to improve its physical characteristics. (AEC)

  11. Evaluation of dispersants for gelcasting

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; Bleier, A.

    1992-05-01

    Dispersants were evaluated for producing fluid and pourable 50 vol % alumina slurries for use in aqueous gelcasting. The best dispersants are anionic polyelectrolytes with carboxylic acid sites. The major mechanism by which the anionic polyelectrolytes stabilize aqueous alumina suspensions is electrostatic. However, the presence of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, a precursor for MgO used as sintering aid for the alumina, and acrylamide monomer, used to form the gel, enhances the steric contribution of the adsorbed polymer to the interaction between alumina particles.

  12. Fog dispersion. [charged particle technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of using the charged particle technique to disperse warm fog at airports is investigated and compared with other techniques. The charged particle technique shows potential for warm fog dispersal, but experimental verification of several significant parameters, such as particle mobility and charge density, is needed. Seeding and helicopter downwash techniques are also effective for warm fog disperals, but presently are not believed to be viable techniques for routine airport operations. Thermal systems are currently used at a few overseas airports; however, they are expensive and pose potential environmental problems.

  13. Material dispersion in optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Wemple, S H

    1979-01-01

    A three-parameter description of optical fiber material dispersion is proposed which fits the available data and reveals the key roles played by bond length, lattice structure, chemical valence, average energy gap, and atomic mass. Using broadly applicable trends in electronic and phonon oscillator strengths, simple expressions are deduced for material dispersion including the zero crossover wavelength lambda(c). These results impose severe constraints on fiber design which essentially limit the possibilities for significantly improving on pure silica to sulfates (particularly Li(2)SO(4)) and to BeF(2). The predicted value of lambda(c) for the latter material is 1.05 microm.

  14. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  15. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  16. Assessment of North America photosynthetic uptake of CO2 through simulations of COS in a Lagrangian particle dispersion model framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Montzka, S. A.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Jacobson, A. R.; Petron, G.; Trudeau, M.; Miller, B. R.; Karion, A.; Martin, J.; Gerbig, C.; Campbell, J.; Abu-Naser, M.; Berry, J. A.; Baker, I. T.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-12-01

    Improving our understanding of terrestrial gross carbon fluxes, i.e. gross primary production (GPP) and respiration, plays a key role in evaluating feedbacks and thereby improving our ability to predict future climate. Since GPP can only be directly measured on very small scales, estimates of GPP at regional to global scales are derived only from biospheric model simulations. Recent studies suggest that carbonyl sulfide be a useful tracer to provide constraints on GPP, based on the fact that both COS and CO2 are simultaneously taken up by plants. Here we present an assessment of GPP estimates for North America from the Simple Biosphere (SiB) model, the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model, and the MPI-BGC model through atmospheric transport simulations of COS in a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) framework. We evaluate the impacts of boundary condition and soil uptake on the GPP estimates we derive. This study uses measurements of COS and CO2 from the NOAA/ESRL tall tower and aircraft air sampling networks, and LPDM simulations backward in time are used to quantify the contribution from different sources to observed mole fractions. A measurement over the continent contains information about terrestrial fluxes provided the upwind, or background concentration is known. Hence, the background state is an important part of the observed signal to be simulated. Empirical boundary curtains are built based on observations at the NOAA/ESRL marine boundary layer stations and from aircraft vertical profiles. These curtains are utilized as the lateral boundary conditions for COS and CO2 for the North American model domain. To assess the uncertainty of the background values for observations, we compare calculated background values based on the empirical curtains and two different models that identify where on the curtain the air entered the model domain: WRF-STILT and HYSPLIT-NAM12. Furthermore, the non-GPP related COS fluxes due to anthropogenic emissions and

  17. Anomalous dispersions of `hedgehog' particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Joong Hwan; Yeom, Bongjun; Wang, Yichun; Tung, Siu On; Hoff, J. Damon; Kotov, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobic particles in water and hydrophilic particles in oil aggregate, but can form colloidal dispersions if their surfaces are chemically camouflaged with surfactants, organic tethers, adsorbed polymers or other particles that impart affinity for the solvent and increase interparticle repulsion. A different strategy for modulating the interaction between a solid and a liquid uses surface corrugation, which gives rise to unique wetting behaviour. Here we show that this topographical effect can also be used to disperse particles in a wide range of solvents without recourse to chemicals to camouflage the particles' surfaces: we produce micrometre-sized particles that are coated with stiff, nanoscale spikes and exhibit long-term colloidal stability in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic media. We find that these `hedgehog' particles do not interpenetrate each other with their spikes, which markedly decreases the contact area between the particles and, therefore, the attractive forces between them. The trapping of air in aqueous dispersions, solvent autoionization at highly developed interfaces, and long-range electrostatic repulsion in organic media also contribute to the colloidal stability of our particles. The unusual dispersion behaviour of our hedgehog particles, overturning the notion that like dissolves like, might help to mitigate adverse environmental effects of the use of surfactants and volatile organic solvents, and deepens our understanding of interparticle interactions and nanoscale colloidal chemistry.

  18. Dispersion-Enhanced Laser Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Arissian, L.; Diels, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the effect of a highly dispersive element placed inside a modulated optical cavity on the frequency and amplitude of the output modulation to determine the conditions for enhanced gyroscopic sensitivities. The element is treated as both a phase and amplitude filter, and the time-dependence of the cavity field is considered. Both atomic gases (two-level and multi-level) and optical resonators (single and coupled) are considered and compared as dispersive elements. We find that it is possible to simultaneously enhance the gyro scale factor sensitivity and suppress the dead band by using an element with anomalous dispersion that has greater loss at the carrier frequency than at the side-band frequencies, i.e., an element that simultaneously pushes and intensifies the perturbed cavity modes, e.g. a two-level absorber or an under-coupled optical resonator. The sensitivity enhancement is inversely proportional to the effective group index, becoming infinite at a group index of zero. However, the number of round trips required to reach a steady-state also becomes infinite when the group index is zero (or two). For even larger dispersions a steady-state cannot be achieved, and nonlinear dynamic effects such as bistability and periodic oscillations are predicted in the gyro response.

  19. Molecular mobility in glassy dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Mehak; McKenna, Gregory B.; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural relaxation in pharmaceutical dispersions containing nifedipine (NIF) and either poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The shape of the dielectric response (permittivity versus log time) curve was observed to be independent of temperature. Thus, for the pure NIF as well as the dispersions, the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle was established. Furthermore, though the shape of the full dielectric response varied with polymer concentration, the regime related to the α- or structural relaxation was found to superimpose for the dispersions, though not with the response of the NIF itself. Hence, there is a limited time-temperature-concentration superposition for these systems as well. Therefore, in this polymer concentration range, calculation of long relaxation times in these glass-forming systems becomes possible. We found that strong drug-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions improved the physical stability (i.e., delayed crystallization) by reducing the molecular mobility. The strength of hydrogen bonding, structural relaxation time, and crystallization followed the order: NIF-PV P>NIF-HPMCAS>NIF. With an increase in polymer concentration, the relaxation times were longer indicating a decrease in molecular mobility. The temperature dependence of relaxation time, in other words fragility, was independent of polymer concentration. This is the first application of the superposition principle to characterize structural relaxation in glassy pharmaceutical dispersions.

  20. Multiple overseas dispersal in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Vences, Miguel; Vieites, David R; Glaw, Frank; Brinkmann, Henner; Kosuch, Joachim; Veith, Michael; Meyer, Axel

    2003-12-07

    Amphibians are thought to be unable to disperse over ocean barriers because they do not tolerate the osmotic stress of salt water. Their distribution patterns have therefore generally been explained by vicariance biogeography. Here, we present compelling evidence for overseas dispersal of frogs in the Indian Ocean region based on the discovery of two endemic species on Mayotte. This island belongs to the Comoro archipelago, which is entirely volcanic and surrounded by sea depths of more than 3500 m. This constitutes the first observation of endemic amphibians on oceanic islands that did not have any past physical contact to other land masses. The two species of frogs had previously been thought to be nonendemic and introduced from Madagascar, but clearly represent new species based on their morphological and genetic differentiation. They belong to the genera Mantidactylus and Boophis in the family Mantellidae that is otherwise restricted to Madagascar, and are distinguished by morphology and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from mantellid species occurring in Madagascar. This discovery permits us to update and test molecular clocks for frogs distributed in this region. The new calibrations are in agreement with previous rate estimates and indicate two further Cenozoic transmarine dispersal events that had previously been interpreted as vicariance: hyperoliid frogs from Africa to Madagascar (Heterixalus) and from Madagascar to the Seychelles islands (Tachycnemis). Our results provide the strongest evidence so far that overseas dispersal of amphibians exists and is no rare exception, although vicariance certainly retains much of its importance in explaining amphibian biogeography.

  1. An Introduction to Dispersive Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taddei, M. M.; Mendes, T. N. C.; Farina, C.

    2010-01-01

    Dispersive forces are a kind of van der Waals intermolecular force which could only be fully understood with the establishment of quantum mechanics and, in particular, of quantum electrodynamics. In this pedagogical paper, we introduce the subject in a more elementary approach, aiming at students with basic knowledge of quantum mechanics. We…

  2. Multiple overseas dispersal in amphibians.

    PubMed Central

    Vences, Miguel; Vieites, David R; Glaw, Frank; Brinkmann, Henner; Kosuch, Joachim; Veith, Michael; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians are thought to be unable to disperse over ocean barriers because they do not tolerate the osmotic stress of salt water. Their distribution patterns have therefore generally been explained by vicariance biogeography. Here, we present compelling evidence for overseas dispersal of frogs in the Indian Ocean region based on the discovery of two endemic species on Mayotte. This island belongs to the Comoro archipelago, which is entirely volcanic and surrounded by sea depths of more than 3500 m. This constitutes the first observation of endemic amphibians on oceanic islands that did not have any past physical contact to other land masses. The two species of frogs had previously been thought to be nonendemic and introduced from Madagascar, but clearly represent new species based on their morphological and genetic differentiation. They belong to the genera Mantidactylus and Boophis in the family Mantellidae that is otherwise restricted to Madagascar, and are distinguished by morphology and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from mantellid species occurring in Madagascar. This discovery permits us to update and test molecular clocks for frogs distributed in this region. The new calibrations are in agreement with previous rate estimates and indicate two further Cenozoic transmarine dispersal events that had previously been interpreted as vicariance: hyperoliid frogs from Africa to Madagascar (Heterixalus) and from Madagascar to the Seychelles islands (Tachycnemis). Our results provide the strongest evidence so far that overseas dispersal of amphibians exists and is no rare exception, although vicariance certainly retains much of its importance in explaining amphibian biogeography. PMID:14667332

  3. Molecular mobility in glassy dispersions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Mehak; McKenna, Gregory B; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-28

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural relaxation in pharmaceutical dispersions containing nifedipine (NIF) and either poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The shape of the dielectric response (permittivity versus log time) curve was observed to be independent of temperature. Thus, for the pure NIF as well as the dispersions, the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle was established. Furthermore, though the shape of the full dielectric response varied with polymer concentration, the regime related to the α- or structural relaxation was found to superimpose for the dispersions, though not with the response of the NIF itself. Hence, there is a limited time-temperature-concentration superposition for these systems as well. Therefore, in this polymer concentration range, calculation of long relaxation times in these glass-forming systems becomes possible. We found that strong drug-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions improved the physical stability (i.e., delayed crystallization) by reducing the molecular mobility. The strength of hydrogen bonding, structural relaxation time, and crystallization followed the order: NIF-PV P>NIF-HPMCAS>NIF. With an increase in polymer concentration, the relaxation times were longer indicating a decrease in molecular mobility. The temperature dependence of relaxation time, in other words fragility, was independent of polymer concentration. This is the first application of the superposition principle to characterize structural relaxation in glassy pharmaceutical dispersions.

  4. Molecular mobility in glassy dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Mehak; McKenna, Gregory B.; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2016-05-27

    Dielectric spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural relaxation in pharmaceutical dispersions containing nifedipine (NIF) and either poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). The shape of the dielectric response (permittivity versus log time) curve was observed to be independent of temperature. Thus, for the pure NIF as well as the dispersions, the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle was established. Furthermore, though the shape of the full dielectric response varied with polymer concentration, the regime related to the α- or structural relaxation was found to superimpose for the dispersions, though not with the response of the NIF itself. Hence, there is a limited time-temperature-concentration superposition for these systems as well. Therefore, in this polymer concentration range, calculation of long relaxation times in these glass-forming systems becomes possible. We found that strong drug-polymer hydrogen bonding interactions improved the physical stability (i.e., delayed crystallization) by reducing the molecular mobility. The strength of hydrogen bonding, structural relaxation time, and crystallization followed the order: NIF$-$PV P>NIF$-$HPMCAS>NIF. With an increase in polymer concentration, the relaxation times were longer indicating a decrease in molecular mobility. The temperature dependence of relaxation time, in other words fragility, was independent of polymer concentration. This is the first application of the superposition principle to characterize structural relaxation in glassy pharmaceutical dispersions.

  5. Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davit, Y.; Byrne, H.; Osborne, J.; Pitt-Francis, J.; Gavaghan, D.; Quintard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher's equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels' network; (2) the solute's diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport.

  6. FORMATION OF INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND DISPERSIONS

    DOEpatents

    Bryner, J.S.

    1959-12-01

    BS>A method is presented for preparing dispersions containing thorium bismuthide in equiaxed form and having an average particle size of about 30 microns. Thorium particles having one dimension not greater than 0.015 in. are immersed in liquid bismuth at a temperature between 500 and 600 deg C, the quantity of thorium being in excess of its solubility in the bismuth.

  7. Cellular basis for QT dispersion.

    PubMed

    Antzelevitch, C; Shimizu, W; Yan, G X; Sicouri, S

    1998-01-01

    The cellular basis for the dispersion of the QT interval recorded at the body surface is incompletely understood. Contributing to QT dispersion are heterogeneities of repolarization time in the three-dimensional structure of the ventricular myocardium, which are secondary to regional differences in action potential duration (APD) and activation time. While differences in APD occur along the apicobasal and anteroposterior axes in both epicardium and endocardium of many species, transitions are usually gradual. Recent studies have also demonstrated important APD gradients along the transmural axis. Because transmural heterogeneities in repolarization time are more abrupt than those recorded along the surfaces of the heart, they may represent a more onerous substrate for the development of arrhythmias, and their quantitation may provide a valuable tool for evaluation of arrhythmia risk. Our data, derived from the arterially perfused canine left ventricular wedge preparation, suggest that transmural gradients of voltage during repolarization contribute importantly to the inscription of the T wave. The start of the T wave is caused by a more rapid decline of the plateau, or phase 2 of the epicardial action potential, creating a voltage gradient across the wall. The gradient increases as the epicardial action potential continues to repolarize, reaching a maximum with full repolarization of epicardium; this juncture marks the peak of the T wave. The next region to repolarize is endocardium, giving rise to the initial descending limb of the upright T wave. The last region to repolarize is the M region, contributing to the final segment of the T wave. Full repolarization of the M region marks the end of the T wave. The time interval between the peak and the end of the T wave therefore represents the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Conditions known to augment QTc dispersion, including acquired long QT syndrome (class IA or III antiarrhythmics) lead to augmentation

  8. Adsorption and removal of graphene dispersants.

    PubMed

    Irin, Fahmida; Hansen, Matthew J; Bari, Rozana; Parviz, Dorsa; Metzler, Shane D; Bhattacharia, Sanjoy K; Green, Micah J

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate three different techniques (dialysis, vacuum filtration, and spray drying) for removal of dispersants from liquid-exfoliated graphene. We evaluate these techniques for elimination of dispersants from both the bulk liquid phase and from the graphene surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms dispersant removal by these treatments. Vacuum filtration (driving by convective mass transfer) is the most effective method of dispersant removal, regardless of the type of dispersant, removing up to ∼95 wt.% of the polymeric dispersant with only ∼7.4 wt.% decrease in graphene content. Dialysis also removes a significant fraction (∼70 wt.% for polymeric dispersants) of un-adsorbed dispersants without disturbing the dispersion quality. Spray drying produces re-dispersible, crumpled powder samples and eliminates much of the unabsorbed dispersants. We also show that there is no rapid desorption of dispersants from the graphene surface. In addition, electrical conductivity measurements demonstrate conductivities one order of magnitude lower for graphene drop-cast films (where excess dispersants are present) than for vacuum filtered films, confirming poor inter-sheet connectivity when excess dispersants are present.

  9. Nanocomposites from Stable Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymeric Matrices Using Dispersion Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Stable dispersions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in polymeric matrices include CNTs dispersed in a host polymer or copolymer whose monomers have delocalized electron orbitals, so that a dispersion interaction results between the host polymer or copolymer and the CNTs dispersed therein. Nanocomposite products, which are presented in bulk, or when fabricated as a film, fiber, foam, coating, adhesive, paste, or molding, are prepared by standard means from the present stable dispersions of CNTs in polymeric matrices, employing dispersion interactions, as presented hereinabove.

  10. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical tuners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninger, P.; Valdez, E. C.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    Common methods for frequency stabilizing diode lasers systems employ gratings, etalons, optical electric double feedback, atomic resonance, and a Faraday cell with low magnetic field. Our method, the Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Transmitter (FADOT) laser locking, is much simpler than other schemes. The FADOT uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. This method is vibration insensitive, thermal expansion effects are minimal, and the system has a frequency pull in range of 443.2 GHz (9A). Our technique is based on the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter. This method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters. We present the first theoretical model for the FADOT and compare the calculations to our experimental results.

  11. Dispersion engineering of surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Isroel M; Bendoym, Igor; Jung, Young U; Golovin, Andrii B; Crouse, David T

    2013-12-30

    In this work, it is shown how the shapes of surface plasmon dispersion curves can be engineered by manipulating the distribution of the electromagnetic fields in multilayer structures, which themselves are controlled by the free electron density in metal-like materials, such as doped semiconductors in the THz spectral range. By having a nonuniform free electron density profile, reduced relative to that in typical bulk metals, the electromagnetic fields of surface plasmons are distributed in different metallic materials that have different complex dielectric permittivities. As the in-plane component of surface plasmon's wave-vector increases, they become more confined to a particular layer of the multilayer structure and have energies that are predictable by considering the permittivity of the layer in which the fields are most concentrated. Unusual and arbitrary shapes of surface plasmon dispersion curves can be designed, including stair steps and dovetails shapes.

  12. Study of Dispersion Coefficient Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, K. R.; Bressan, C. K.; Pires, M. S. G.; Canno, L. M.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

    2016-08-01

    The issue of water pollution has worsened in recent times due to releases, intentional or not, of pollutants in natural water bodies. This causes several studies about the distribution of pollutants are carried out. The water quality models have been developed and widely used today as a preventative tool, ie to try to predict what will be the concentration distribution of constituent along a body of water in spatial and temporal scale. To understand and use such models, it is necessary to know some concepts of hydraulic high on their application, including the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This study aims to conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the channel dispersion coefficient, yielding more information about their direct determination in the literature.

  13. Physiological, Morphological and Behavioural Responses of Self-Feeding Precocial Chicks Copying with Contrasting Levels of Water Salinity during Development

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Afonso R.; Silva, Rita; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M.; Ramos, Jaime A.; Masero, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Combined physiological and behavioural responses to salt loads during development have rarely been studied in air-breathing vertebrates able to inhabit hypersaline habitats, but they may be of particular importance in understanding, for example, the differences among species in patterns of habitat use or ontogenetic diet switches. Here, we compared the physiological and behavioural responses of self-feeding precocial chicks developed in contrasting levels of water salinity. The model species was the Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) a precocial shorebird that breeds in a range of habitats from freshwater to hypersaline wetlands. Specifically, we compared resting metabolic rate (RMR), heat shock proteins (Hsp70), plasma ions, hematocrit, body mass, body size, growth rate and head-shaking behaviour of captive-reared Black-winged Stilt fledglings developed under fresh (0 ‰), saline (20 ‰), and hypersaline (60 ‰) water. Contrary to expectations, none of the physiological and morphological variables measured differed significantly among treatments. Likewise, the RMR of wild and captive-reared fledglings was similar. Surprisingly, the saltgland mass of wild fledglings from freshwater and those from hypersaline habitats was also similar. However, head-shaking, a behavioural response associated to minimize salt intake and to expel the secretions of salt glands, differed according to salinity source: head-shaking rate increased with increasing salinity. The results of this study support the key role of behavioural osmoregulation in avoiding salt stress during development. PMID:27788200

  14. Integrated Urban Dispersion Modeling Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Kosovic, B; Chan, S T

    2003-11-03

    Numerical simulations represent a unique predictive tool for developing a detailed understanding of three-dimensional flow fields and associated concentration distributions from releases in complex urban settings (Britter and Hanna 2003). The accurate and timely prediction of the atmospheric dispersion of hazardous materials in densely populated urban areas is a critical homeland and national security need for emergency preparedness, risk assessment, and vulnerability studies. The main challenges in high-fidelity numerical modeling of urban dispersion are the accurate prediction of peak concentrations, spatial extent and temporal evolution of harmful levels of hazardous materials, and the incorporation of detailed structural geometries. Current computational tools do not include all the necessary elements to accurately represent hazardous release events in complex urban settings embedded in high-resolution terrain. Nor do they possess the computational efficiency required for many emergency response and event reconstruction applications. We are developing a new integrated urban dispersion modeling capability, able to efficiently predict dispersion in diverse urban environments for a wide range of atmospheric conditions, temporal and spatial scales, and release event scenarios. This new computational fluid dynamics capability includes adaptive mesh refinement and it can simultaneously resolve individual buildings and high-resolution terrain (including important vegetative and land-use features), treat complex building and structural geometries (e.g., stadiums, arenas, subways, airplane interiors), and cope with the full range of atmospheric conditions (e.g. stability). We are developing approaches for seamless coupling with mesoscale numerical weather prediction models to provide realistic forcing of the urban-scale model, which is critical to its performance in real-world conditions.

  15. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  16. Dispersion as a Survival Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Machado, Fábio Prates; Roldán-Correa, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    We consider stochastic growth models to represent population subject to catastrophes. We analyze the subject from different set ups considering or not spatial restrictions, whether dispersion is a good strategy to increase the population viability. We find out it strongly depends on the effect of a catastrophic event, the spatial constraints of the environment and the probability that each exposed individual survives when a disaster strikes.

  17. Dispersed Fringe Sensing Analysis - DFSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigrist, Norbert; Shi, Fang; Redding, David C.; Basinger, Scott A.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Spechler, Joshua A.

    2012-01-01

    Dispersed Fringe Sensing (DFS) is a technique for measuring and phasing segmented telescope mirrors using a dispersed broadband light image. DFS is capable of breaking the monochromatic light ambiguity, measuring absolute piston errors between segments of large segmented primary mirrors to tens of nanometers accuracy over a range of 100 micrometers or more. The DFSA software tool analyzes DFS images to extract DFS encoded segment piston errors, which can be used to measure piston distances between primary mirror segments of ground and space telescopes. This information is necessary to control mirror segments to establish a smooth, continuous primary figure needed to achieve high optical quality. The DFSA tool is versatile, allowing precise piston measurements from a variety of different optical configurations. DFSA technology may be used for measuring wavefront pistons from sub-apertures defined by adjacent segments (such as Keck Telescope), or from separated sub-apertures used for testing large optical systems (such as sub-aperture wavefront testing for large primary mirrors using auto-collimating flats). An experimental demonstration of the coarse-phasing technology with verification of DFSA was performed at the Keck Telescope. DFSA includes image processing, wavelength and source spectral calibration, fringe extraction line determination, dispersed fringe analysis, and wavefront piston sign determination. The code is robust against internal optical system aberrations and against spectral variations of the source. In addition to the DFSA tool, the software package contains a simple but sophisticated MATLAB model to generate dispersed fringe images of optical system configurations in order to quickly estimate the coarse phasing performance given the optical and operational design requirements. Combining MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks), MACOS (JPL s software package for Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical

  18. Temperature stability of nanocellulose dispersions.

    PubMed

    Heggset, Ellinor B; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Syverud, Kristin

    2017-02-10

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have potential as rheology modifiers of water based fluids, e.g. drilling fluids for use in oil wells or as additives in injection water for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The temperature in oil wells can be high (>100°C), and the retention time long; days for drilling fluids and months for EOR fluids. Hence, it is important to assess the temperature stability over time of nanocellulose dispersions to clarify their suitability as rheology modifiers of water based fluids at such harsh conditions. Dispersions of CNF produced mechanically, by using TEMPO mediated oxidation and by using carboxymethylation as pretreatment, in addition to cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), have been subjected to heat aging. Temperature stability was best for CNC and for mechanically produced CNF that were stable after heating to 140°C for three days. The effect of additives was evaluated; cesium formate and sodium formate increased the temperature stability of the dispersions, while there was no effect of using phosphate buffer.

  19. Dispersibility of crude oil in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, B A; Virkus, A; Mukherjee, B; Venosa, A D

    2009-06-01

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever considered for use in fresh water environments. Previous studies on the chemical dispersion of crude oil in fresh water neither identified the dispersants that were investigated nor described the chemistry of the surfactants used. This information is necessary for developing a more fundamental understanding of chemical dispersion of crude oil at low salinity. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between surfactant chemistry and dispersion effectiveness. We found that dispersants can be designed to drive an oil slick into the freshwater column with the same efficiency as in salt water as long as the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance is optimum.

  20. Stochastic differential equations and turbulent dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    Aspects of the theory of continuous stochastic processes that seem to contribute to an understanding of turbulent dispersion are introduced and the theory and philosophy of modelling turbulent transport is emphasized. Examples of eddy diffusion examined include shear dispersion, the surface layer, and channel flow. Modeling dispersion with finite-time scale is considered including the Langevin model for homogeneous turbulence, dispersion in nonhomogeneous turbulence, and the asymptotic behavior of the Langevin model for nonhomogeneous turbulence.

  1. Dispersion of Droplet Clouds in Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Dam, Nico; Bertens, Guus; van der Voort, Dennis; van de Water, Willem

    2016-10-14

    We measure the absolute dispersion of clouds of monodisperse, phosphorescent droplets in turbulent air by means of high-speed image-intensified video recordings. Laser excitation allows the initial preparation of well-defined, pencil-shaped luminous droplet clouds in a completely nonintrusive way. We find that the dispersion of the clouds is faster than the dispersion of fluid elements. We speculate that preferential concentration of inertial droplet clouds is responsible for the enhanced dispersion.

  2. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    DOE PAGES

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Péclet number squared, as in classical Taylor–Aris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  3. Deriving dispersal distances from genetic data.

    PubMed Central

    Spong, G.; Creel, S.

    2001-01-01

    Dispersal is one of the most important factors determining the genetic structure of a population, but good data on dispersal distances are rare because it is difficult to observe a large sample of dispersal events. However, genetic data contain unbiased information about the average dispersal distances in species with a strong sex bias in their dispersal rates. By plotting the genetic similarity between members of the philopatric sex against some measure of the distance between them, the resulting regression line can be used for estimating how far dispersing individuals of the opposite sex have moved before settling. Dispersers showing low genetic similarity to members of the opposite sex will on average have originated from further away. Applying this method to a microsatellite dataset from lions (Panthera leo) shows that their average dispersal distance is 1.3 home ranges with a 95% confidence interval of 0.4-3.0 home ranges. These results are consistent with direct observations of dispersal from our study population and others. In this case, direct observations of dispersal distance were not detectably biased by a failure to detect long-range dispersal, which is thought to be a common problem in the estimation of dispersal distance. PMID:11749712

  4. 40 CFR 110.4 - Dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dispersants. 110.4 Section 110.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.4 Dispersants. Addition of dispersants or emulsifiers to oil to be discharged that would circumvent...

  5. DISPERSION TOLERANCE CALCULATION FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    LIN,F.; GUO, W.

    2007-06-25

    In this paper we discuss the effect on the emittance of the residual dispersion in the insertion devices. The dispersion in the straights could be generated by the lattice error, trim dipole, and insertion device. The effect on the emittance is examined, and the dispersion tolerances are given for the NSLS-11.

  6. 40 CFR 110.4 - Dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dispersants. 110.4 Section 110.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.4 Dispersants. Addition of dispersants or emulsifiers to oil to be discharged that would circumvent...

  7. 40 CFR 110.4 - Dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dispersants. 110.4 Section 110.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.4 Dispersants. Addition of dispersants or emulsifiers to oil to be discharged that would circumvent...

  8. 40 CFR 110.4 - Dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dispersants. 110.4 Section 110.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.4 Dispersants. Addition of dispersants or emulsifiers to oil to be discharged that would circumvent...

  9. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  10. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Tzou, Ming-Shin; Jiang, Hui-Jong

    1987-01-01

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  11. DISPERSIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL IN FRESH WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever consider...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  15. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact materials....

  16. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  17. Deriving dispersal distances from genetic data.

    PubMed

    Spong, G; Creel, S

    2001-12-22

    Dispersal is one of the most important factors determining the genetic structure of a population, but good data on dispersal distances are rare because it is difficult to observe a large sample of dispersal events. However, genetic data contain unbiased information about the average dispersal distances in species with a strong sex bias in their dispersal rates. By plotting the genetic similarity between members of the philopatric sex against some measure of the distance between them, the resulting regression line can be used for estimating how far dispersing individuals of the opposite sex have moved before settling. Dispersers showing low genetic similarity to members of the opposite sex will on average have originated from further away. Applying this method to a microsatellite dataset from lions (Panthera leo) shows that their average dispersal distance is 1.3 home ranges with a 95% confidence interval of 0.4-3.0 home ranges. These results are consistent with direct observations of dispersal from our study population and others. In this case, direct observations of dispersal distance were not detectably biased by a failure to detect long-range dispersal, which is thought to be a common problem in the estimation of dispersal distance.

  18. Bilayer dispersion-flattened waveguides with four zero-dispersion wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuhao; Jafari, Zeinab; Agarwal, Anu M; Kimerling, Lionel C; Li, Guifang; Michel, Jurgen; Zhang, Lin

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new type of bilayer dispersion-flattened waveguides that have four zero-dispersion wavelengths. Low and flat dispersion can be achieved by using two different material combinations, with a much smaller index contrast as compared to the previously proposed slot-assisted dispersion-flattened waveguides. Without using a nano-slot, dispersion becomes less sensitive to waveguide dimensions, which is highly desirable for high-yield device fabrication. Ultra-low dispersion, high nonlinearity, and fabrication-friendly design would make it promising for practical implementation of nonlinear photonic functions. The proposed waveguide configuration deepens our understanding of the dispersion flattening principle.

  19. Dispersive nanoSQUID magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Antler, N.; Siddiqi, I.

    2016-11-01

    We describe the theory and implementation of a dispersive magnetometer based on an aluminum nanoSQUID. The nanoSQUID consists of a superconducting loop interrupted by two variable-thickness weak-link nanobridge Josephson junctions. When the nanoSQUID is placed in parallel with a lumped-element capacitor, it acts as the inductive element in a resonant tank circuit. By performing microwave reflectometry on the circuit, the SQUID inductance can be measured, providing a sensitive meter of the flux threading the SQUID loop. In this review we provide the theoretical basis for the device, describe design and operation considerations, and present characterization results on several devices.

  20. Optical fiber dispersion characterization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geeslin, A.; Arriad, A.; Riad, S. M.; Padgett, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    The theory, design, and results of optical fiber pulse dispersion measurements are considered. Both the hardware and software required to perform this type of measurement are described. Hardware includes a thermoelectrically cooled injection laser diode source, an 800 GHz gain bandwidth produce avalanche photodiode and an input mode scrambler. Software for a HP 9825 computer includes fast Fourier transform, inverse Fourier transform, and optimal compensation deconvolution. Test set construction details are also included. Test results include data collected on a 1 Km fiber, a 4 Km fiber, a fused spliced, eight 600 meter length fibers concatenated to form 4.8 Km, and up to nine optical connectors.

  1. Exciton dispersion in molecular solids.

    PubMed

    Cudazzo, Pierluigi; Sottile, Francesco; Rubio, Angel; Gatti, Matteo

    2015-03-25

    The investigation of the exciton dispersion (i.e. the exciton energy dependence as a function of the momentum carried by the electron-hole pair) is a powerful approach to identify the exciton character, ranging from the strongly localised Frenkel to the delocalised Wannier-Mott limiting cases. We illustrate this possibility at the example of four prototypical molecular solids (picene, pentacene, tetracene and coronene) on the basis of the parameter-free solution of the many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation. We discuss the mixing between Frenkel and charge-transfer excitons and the origin of their Davydov splitting in the framework of many-body perturbation theory and establish a link with model approaches based on molecular states. Finally, we show how the interplay between the electronic band dispersion and the exchange electron-hole interaction plays a fundamental role in setting the nature of the exciton. This analysis has a general validity holding also for other systems in which the electron wavefunctions are strongly localized, as in strongly correlated insulators.

  2. Exciton dispersion in molecular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudazzo, Pierluigi; Sottile, Francesco; Rubio, Angel; Gatti, Matteo

    2015-03-01

    The investigation of the exciton dispersion (i.e. the exciton energy dependence as a function of the momentum carried by the electron-hole pair) is a powerful approach to identify the exciton character, ranging from the strongly localised Frenkel to the delocalised Wannier-Mott limiting cases. We illustrate this possibility at the example of four prototypical molecular solids (picene, pentacene, tetracene and coronene) on the basis of the parameter-free solution of the many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation. We discuss the mixing between Frenkel and charge-transfer excitons and the origin of their Davydov splitting in the framework of many-body perturbation theory and establish a link with model approaches based on molecular states. Finally, we show how the interplay between the electronic band dispersion and the exchange electron-hole interaction plays a fundamental role in setting the nature of the exciton. This analysis has a general validity holding also for other systems in which the electron wavefunctions are strongly localized, as in strongly correlated insulators.

  3. Dispersivity in heterogeneous permeable media

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    When one fluid displaces another through a one-dimensional porous medium, the composition changes from pure displacing fluid at the inlet to pure displaced fluid some distance downstream. The distance over which an arbitrary percentage of this change occurs is defined as the mixing zone length, which increases with increasing average distance traveled by the displacement front. For continuous injection, the mixing zone size can be determined from a breakthrough curve as the time required for the effluent displacing fluid concentration to change from, say, 10% to 90%. In classical dispersion theory, the mixing zone grows in proportion to the square root of the mean distance traveled, or, equivalently, to the square root of the mean breakthrough time. In a multi-dimensional heterogeneous medium, especially at field scales, the size of the mixing zone grows almost linearly with mean distance or travel time. If an observed breakthrough curve is forced to fit the, clinical theory, the resulting effective dispersivity, instead of being constant, also increases almost linearly with the spatial or temporal scale of the problem. This occurs because the heterogeneity in flow properties creates a corresponding velocity distribution along the different flow pathways from the inlet to the outlet of the system. Mixing occurs mostly at the outlet, or wherever the fluid is sampled, rather than within the medium. In this paper, we consider the effects. of this behavior on radionuclide or other contaminant migration.

  4. Density-dependent dispersal and relative dispersal affect the stability of predator-prey metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Hauzy, Céline; Gauduchon, Mathias; Hulot, Florence D; Loreau, Michel

    2010-10-07

    Although density-dependent dispersal and relative dispersal (the difference in dispersal rates between species) have been documented in natural systems, their effects on the stability of metacommunities are poorly understood. Here we investigate the effects of intra- and interspecific density-dependent dispersal on the regional stability in a predator-prey metacommunity model. We show that, when the dynamics of the populations reach equilibrium, the stability of the metacommunity is not affected by density-dependent dispersal. However, the regional stability, measured as the regional variability or the persistence, can be modified by density-dependent dispersal when local populations fluctuate over time. Moreover these effects depend on the relative dispersal of the predator and the prey. Regional stability is modified through changes in spatial synchrony. Interspecific density-dependent dispersal always desynchronizses local dynamics, whereas intraspecific density-dependent dispersal may either synchronize or desynchronize it depending on dispersal rates. Moreover, intra- and interspecific density-dependent dispersal strengthen the top-down control of the prey by the predator at intermediate dispersal rates. As a consequence the regional stability of the metacommunity is increased at intermediate dispersal rates. Our results show that density-dependent dispersal and relative dispersal of species are keys to understanding the response of ecosystems to fragmentation.

  5. Optical Properties of Concentrated Dispersions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, Peter J.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Apparatus and methods have been developed to measure the diffuse transmittance T and reflectance R of multiple scattering, concentrated, colloidal dispersions. The variation of R and T with pathlength, wavelength, and concentration has been investigated for non-spherical particles in concentrated dispersions, over a range of pH and surfactant concentrations. Measurements of diffuse transmittance and reflectance required large corrections to be made for the presence of any specular interfaces i.e. windows. These corrections were minimised by developing a bifurcated fibre optic bundle reflectance method, which allowed R and T to be measured at volume fractions up to at least 0.3. Using magnetic, acoustic and shear fields to align the non-spherical kaolinite particles changes in R and T were measured at volume fractions upto 0.3. The amplitude of the changes and the relaxation of the changes induced by the applied fields were measured. The amplitude of the change was found to vary strongly with pH and surfactant concentration. For any particular face diameter platelet, the amplitude of the change followed closely the flocculation process, and was sensitive to the mode of particle-particle aggregation, e.g. face-face, or face-edge. The amount of surfactant per unit mass of kaolinite required to stabilise dispersions is found to vary with particle size and concentration. This showed that information about particle orientation can be obtained through multiple scattering systems when subjected to an aligning field. Kubelka-Munk two flux theory was used to relate R and T to the diffuse flux scattering parameter S. A simple theory was developed relating S to the size shape and orientation of the non-spherical particles, hence allowing the particle orientation to be determined for any aligning field. The insight into particle behaviour given by the optical method is superior to that given by rheology alone, which

  6. The NET effect of dispersants - a critical review of testing and modelling of surface oil dispersion.

    PubMed

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2015-11-15

    Application of chemical dispersants or mechanical dispersion on surface oil is a trade-off between surface effects (impact of floating oil) and sub-surface effects (impact of suspended oil). Making an informed decision regarding such response, requires insight in the induced change in fate and transport of the oil. We aim to identify how natural, chemical and mechanical dispersion could be quantified in oil spill models. For each step in the dispersion process, we review available experimental data in order to identify overall trends and propose an algorithm or calculation method. Additionally, the conditions for successful mechanical and chemical dispersion are defined. Two commonly identified key parameters in surface oil dispersion are: oil properties (viscosity and presence of dispersants) and mixing energy (often wind speed). Strikingly, these parameters play a different role in several of the dispersion sub-processes. This may explain difficulties in simply relating overall dispersion effectiveness to the individual parameters.

  7. Soliton trapping of dispersive waves in photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersive wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weibin; Yang, Hua; Tang, Pinghua; Zhao, Chujun; Gao, Jing

    2013-05-06

    Based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we present a numerical study of trapping of dispersive waves by solitons during supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers pumped with femtosecond pulses in the anomalous dispersion region. Numerical simulation results show that the generated supercontinuum is bounded by two branches of dispersive waves, namely blue-shifted dispersive waves (B-DWs) and red-shifted dispersive waves (R-DWs). We find a novel phenomenon that not only B-DWs but also R-DWs can be trapped by solitons across the zero-dispersion wavelength when the group-velocity matching between the soliton and the dispersive wave is satisfied, which may led to the generation of new spectral components via mixing of solitons and dispersive waves. Mixing of solitons with dispersive waves has been shown to play an important role in shaping not only the edge of the supercontinuum, but also its central part around the higher zero-dispersion wavelength. Further, we show that the phenomenon of soliton trapping of dispersive waves in photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths has a very close relationship with pumping power and the interval between two zero-dispersion wavelengths. In order to clearly display the evolution of soliton trapping of dispersive waves, the spectrogram of output pulses is observed using cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating technique (XFROG).

  8. Post-crash fuel dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.

    1997-03-01

    This paper is a brief overview of work over the last several decades in understanding what occurs to jet fuel stored in aircraft fuel tanks on impact with the ground. Fuel dispersal is discussed in terms of the overall crash dynamics process and impact regimes are identified. In a generic sense, the types of flow regimes which can occur are identified and general descriptions of the processes are given. Examples of engineering level tools, both computational and experimental, which have applicability to analyzing the complex environments are presented. Finally, risk based decision is discussed as a quick means of identifying requirements for development of preventative or mitigation strategies, such as further work on the development of an anti-misting agent.

  9. Pollen Forecast and Dispersion Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Monica; Di Giuseppe, Fabio; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Travaglini, Alessandro; Tocci, Raffaella; Brighetti, M. Antonia; Petitta, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is monitoring, mapping and forecast of pollen distribution for the city of Rome using in-situ measurements of 10 species of common allergenic pollens and measurements of PM10. The production of daily concentration maps, associated to a mobile phone app, are innovative compared to existing dedicated services to people who suffer from respiratory allergies. The dispersal pollen is one of the most well-known causes of allergic disease that is manifested by disorders of the respiratory functions. Allergies are the third leading cause of chronic disease and it is estimated that tens millions of people in Italy suffer from it. Recent works reveal that during the last few years there was a progressive increase of affected subjects, especially in urban areas. This situation may depend: on the ability to transport of pollutants, on the ability to react between pollutants and pollen and from a combination of other irritants, existing in densely populated and polluted urban areas. The methodology used to produce maps is based on in-situ measurements time series relative to 2012, obtained from networks of air quality and pollen stations in the metropolitan area of Rome. The monitoring station aerobiological of University of Rome "Tor Vergata" is located at the Department of Biology. The instrument used to pollen monitoring is a volumetric sampler type Hirst (Hirst 1952), Model 2000 VPPS Lanzoni; the data acquisition is carried out as reported in Standard UNI 11008:2004 - "Qualità dell'aria - Metodo di campionamento e conteggio dei granuli pollinici e delle spore fungine aerodisperse" - the protocol that describes the procedure for measuring of the concentration of pollen grains and fungal spores dispersed into the atmosphere, and reported in the "Manuale di gestione e qualità della R.I.M.A" (Travaglini et. al. 2009). All 10 allergenic pollen are monitored since 1996. At Tor Vergata university is also operating a meteorological station (SP2000, CAE

  10. Dispersion relations for unphysical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringo, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    Generalized dispersion relations are discussed for unphysical particles, e.g. confined degrees of freedom that are not present in the physical spectra but can give rise to observable bound states. While in general the propagator of the unphysical particles can have complex poles and cannot be reconstructed from the knowledge of the imaginary part, under reasonable assumptions the missing piece of information is shown to be in the rational function that contains the poles and must be added to the integral representation. For pure Yang-Mills theory, the rational part and the spectral term are identified in the explicit analytical expressions provided by the massive expansion of the gluon propagator. The multi particle spectral term turns out to be very small and the simple rational part provides, from first principles, an approximate propagator that is equivalent to the tree-level result of simple phenomenological models like the refined Gribov-Zwanziger model.

  11. Dual-Materials Dispersion Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. This drawing depicts a cross-section of a set of Dual-Materials Dispersion Apparatus (DMDA) specimen wells, one of which can include a reverse osmosis membrane to dewater a protein solution and thus cause crystallization. Depending on individual needs, two or three wells may be used, the membrane may be absent, or other proprietary enhancements may be present. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  12. Quasi 3D dispersion experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakucz, P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of tracer dispersion in a coloured fluid flowing through a two-phase 3D rough channel-system in a 40 cm*40 cm plexi-container filled by homogen glass fractions and colourless fluid. The unstable interface between the driving coloured fluid and the colourless fluid develops viscous fingers with a fractal structure at high capillary number. Five two-dimensional fractal fronts have been observed at the same time using four cameras along the vertical side-walls and using one camera located above the plexi-container. In possession of five fronts the spatial concentration contours are determined using statistical models. The concentration contours are self-affine fractal curves with a fractal dimension D=2.19. This result is valid for disperison at high Péclet numbers.

  13. Dispersive interactions in graphitic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, L. M.; Popescu, A.; Drosdoff, D.; Bondarev, I. V.

    2013-02-01

    The Casimir interaction between graphitic nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets, is investigated at the quantum mechanical limit (T = 0 K) using a quantum electrodynamical approach for absorbing and dispersive media. It is found that the nanotube/nanotube interaction in a double wall carbon nanotube configuration is profoundly affected by the collective low frequency excitations of individual nanotubes. It is shown that pronounced, low frequency peaks in the nanotube electron energy loss spectra are a main factor contributing to the strength of the intertube attraction. The graphene/graphene force is also investigated. It is obtained that the graphene optical transparency is the main reason for the reduced attraction as compared to the one for perfect metals. This study presents a unified approach for electromagnetic interactions in graphitic nanostructures, which is able to account for their unique electronic and response properties and geometry configurations.

  14. Polyfunctional dispersants for controlling viscosity of phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2006-07-25

    This invention provides phyllosilicates and polyfunctional dispersants which can be manipulated to selectively control the viscosity of phyllosilicate slurries. The polyfunctional dispersants used in the present invention, which include at least three functional groups, increase the dispersion and exfoliation of phyllosilicates in polymers and, when used in conjunction with phyllosilicate slurries, significantly reduce the viscosity of slurries having high concentrations of phyllosilicates. The functional groups of the polyfunctional dispersants are capable of associating with multivalent metal cations and low molecular weight organic polymers, which can be manipulated to substantially increase or decrease the viscosity of the slurry in a concentration dependent manner. The polyfunctional dispersants of the present invention can also impart desirable properties on the phyllosilicate dispersions including corrosion inhibition and enhanced exfoliation of the phyllosilicate platelets.

  15. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  16. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom.

  17. Magnetic particle dispersion in polymer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kwang Seoung

    Magnetic particle dispersions were prepared in order to observe the effect of particle surface properties, concentration and functional group of binder, milling time, and solvent on dispersion properties. Rheology and transverse susceptibility measurements were used to characterize the dispersion quality of the magnetic paints macroscopically and microscopically, respectively. In this study, by applying the acid-base concept, methods to optimize magnetic dispersions were established. Initially, interaction between acid-base sites on particles and binder was investigated by poisoning the sites with chemicals, then quantifying each type of adsorption (hydrogen and chemical adsorption) using thermogravimetric analysis. With this fundamental information, effects of typical dispersion parameters were investigated. The acid base interaction between binder solution and particles was related to the magnetic and rheological properties of magnetic inks. The results have significant implications for high density particulate media where dispersion will become increasingly important.

  18. Dispersion of tsunamis: does it really matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glimsdal, S.; Pedersen, G. K.; Harbitz, C. B.; Løvholt, F.

    2013-06-01

    This article focuses on the effect of dispersion in the field of tsunami modeling. Frequency dispersion in the linear long-wave limit is first briefly discussed from a theoretical point of view. A single parameter, denoted as "dispersion time", for the integrated effect of frequency dispersion is identified. This parameter depends on the wavelength, the water depth during propagation, and the propagation distance or time. Also the role of long-time asymptotes is discussed in this context. The wave generation by the two main tsunami sources, namely earthquakes and landslides, are briefly discussed with formulas for the surface response to the bottom sources. Dispersive effects are then exemplified through a semi-idealized study of a moderate-strength inverse thrust fault. Emphasis is put on the directivity, the role of the "dispersion time", the significance of the Boussinesq model employed (dispersive effect), and the effects of the transfer from bottom sources to initial surface elevation. Finally, the experience from a series of case studies, including earthquake- and landslide-generated tsunamis, is presented. The examples are taken from both historical (e.g. the 2011 Japan tsunami and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami) and potential tsunamis (e.g. the tsunami after the potential La Palma volcanic flank collapse). Attention is mainly given to the role of dispersion during propagation in the deep ocean and the way the accumulation of this effect relates to the "dispersion time". It turns out that this parameter is useful as a first indication as to when frequency dispersion is important, even though ambiguity with respect to the definition of the wavelength may be a problem for complex cases. Tsunamis from most landslides and moderate earthquakes tend to display dispersive behavior, at least in some directions. On the other hand, for the mega events of the last decade dispersion during deep water propagation is mostly noticeable for transoceanic propagation.

  19. Measurement and interpretation of QT dispersion.

    PubMed

    Batchvarov, V; Malik, M

    2000-01-01

    QT dispersion was proposed as an index of the spatial inhomogeneity of ventricular recovery times. The results of studies that found significant correlation between dispersion of ventricular recovery times measured with monophasic action potentials and QT dispersion were interpreted as proof of the direct link between QT dispersion and the dispersion of ventricular recovery times. Later it was shown that QT dispersion is not a direct reflection of the spatial variation of the recovery times and cannot be used for quantification of this variation. The interlead variability of the QT intervals is a result of different projections of the spatial T-wave loop into the various electrocardiographic leads. The reliability of both manual and automatic measurement of QT dispersion is low and is often of the order of the differences of Qt dispersion between different patient groups. The measurement reliability is influenced by intrinsic factors (e.g., amplitude of the T wave) and extrinsic factors (e.g., noise, paper speed of recording, instruments for manual measurements, and type of algorithm and interalgorithmic settings for automatic measurement). There is very little to choose between the different indices of expression of QT dispersion, as well as between the different lead configurations used for its measurement. QT dispersion is not simply a result of measurement error, but a crude measure of abnormalities during the whole course of repolarization. Only grossly prolonged QT dispersion (e.g., > or =100 ms), must be interpreted simply as a sign of the abnormal course of the repolarization, and inferences about the actual dispersion of the ventricular recovery times should not be made. Newer concepts of assessment of the morphology of the T wave are already emerging and will probably be of higher clinical value.

  20. General relationships between ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, M.; Jaynes, E. T.; Miller, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    General relationships between the ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion are presented. The validity of these nonlocal relationships hinges only on the properties of causality and linearity, and does not depend upon details of the mechanism responsible for the attenuation and dispersion. Approximate, nearly local relationships are presented and are demonstrated to predict accurately the ultrasonic dispersion in solutions of hemoglobin from the results of attenuation measurements.

  1. The conservation physiology of seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Graeme D; Schaefer, H Martin

    2012-06-19

    At a time when plant species are experiencing increasing challenges from climate change, land-use change, harvesting and invasive species, dispersal has become a very important aspect of plant conservation. Seed dispersal by animals is particularly important because some animals disperse seeds to suitable sites in a directed fashion. Our review has two aims: (i) to highlight the various ways plant dispersal by animals can be affected by current anthropogenic change and (ii) to show the important role of plant and (particularly) animal physiology in shaping seed-dispersal interactions. We argue that large-bodied seed dispersers may be particularly important for plant conservation because seed dispersal of large-seeded plants is often more specialized and because large-bodied animals are targeted by human exploitation and have smaller population sizes. We further argue that more specialized seed-dispersal systems on island ecosystems might be particularly at risk from climate change both owing to small population sizes involved but also owing to the likely thermal specialization, particularly on tropical islands. More generally, the inherent vulnerability of seed-dispersal mutualisms to disruption driven by environmental change (as well as their ubiquity) demands that we continue to improve our understanding of their conservation physiology.

  2. Dispersivity as an oil reservoir rock characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.; Dutta, S.

    1989-12-01

    The main objective of this research project is to establish dispersivity, {alpha}{sub d}, as an oil reservoir rock characteristic and to use this reservoir rock property to enhance crude oil recovery. A second objective is to compare the dispersion coefficient and the dispersivity of various reservoir rocks with other rock characteristics such as: porosity, permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. The dispersivity of a rock was identified by measuring the physical mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. 119 refs., 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. The conservation physiology of seed dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Ruxton, Graeme D.; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2012-01-01

    At a time when plant species are experiencing increasing challenges from climate change, land-use change, harvesting and invasive species, dispersal has become a very important aspect of plant conservation. Seed dispersal by animals is particularly important because some animals disperse seeds to suitable sites in a directed fashion. Our review has two aims: (i) to highlight the various ways plant dispersal by animals can be affected by current anthropogenic change and (ii) to show the important role of plant and (particularly) animal physiology in shaping seed–dispersal interactions. We argue that large-bodied seed dispersers may be particularly important for plant conservation because seed dispersal of large-seeded plants is often more specialized and because large-bodied animals are targeted by human exploitation and have smaller population sizes. We further argue that more specialized seed-dispersal systems on island ecosystems might be particularly at risk from climate change both owing to small population sizes involved but also owing to the likely thermal specialization, particularly on tropical islands. More generally, the inherent vulnerability of seed-dispersal mutualisms to disruption driven by environmental change (as well as their ubiquity) demands that we continue to improve our understanding of their conservation physiology. PMID:22566677

  4. The General Fishbone Like Dispersion Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-12-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Motivation and outline * Fundamental equations * The collisionless gyrokinetic equation * Vorticity equation * Quasi-neutrality condition * Perpendicular Ampère's law * Studying collective modes in burning plasmas * Ideal plasma equilibrium in the low-β limit * Approximations for the energetic population * Characteristic frequencies of particle motions * Alfvén wave frequency and wavelength orderings * Applications of the general theoretical framework * The general fishbone like dispersion relation * Properties of the fishbone like dispersion relation * Derivation of the fishbone like dispersion relation * Special cases of the fishbone like dispersion relation * Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE) * Alfvén Cascades * Summary and discussions * Acknowledgments * References

  5. A review of dispersion modelling and its application to the dispersion of particles: An overview of different dispersion models available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, N. S.; Morawska, L.

    This paper provides the first review of the application of atmospheric models for particle dispersion. The different types of dispersion models available, from simple box type models to complex fluid dynamics models are outlined and the suitability of the different approaches to dispersion modelling within different environments, in regards to scale, complexity of the environment and concentration parameters is assessed. Finally, several major commercial and non-commercial particle dispersion packages are reviewed, detailing which processes are included and advantages and limitations of their use to modelling particle dispersion. The models reviewed included: Box models (AURORA, CPB and PBM), Gaussian models (CALINE4, HIWAY2, CAR-FMI, OSPM, CALPUFF, AEROPOL, AERMOD, UK-ADMS and SCREEN3), Lagrangian/Eulerian Models (GRAL, TAPM, ARIA Regional), CFD models (ARIA Local, MISKAM, MICRO-CALGRID) and models which include aerosol dynamics (GATOR, MONO32, UHMA, CIT, AERO, RPM, AEROFOR2, URM-1ATM, MADRID, CALGRID and UNI-AERO).

  6. Adaptive Urban Dispersion Integrated Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wissink, A; Chand, K; Kosovic, B; Chan, S; Berger, M; Chow, F K

    2005-11-03

    Numerical simulations represent a unique predictive tool for understanding the three-dimensional flow fields and associated concentration distributions from contaminant releases in complex urban settings (Britter and Hanna 2003). Utilization of the most accurate urban models, based on fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that solve the Navier-Stokes equations with incorporated turbulence models, presents many challenges. We address two in this work; first, a fast but accurate way to incorporate the complex urban terrain, buildings, and other structures to enforce proper boundary conditions in the flow solution; second, ways to achieve a level of computational efficiency that allows the models to be run in an automated fashion such that they may be used for emergency response and event reconstruction applications. We have developed a new integrated urban dispersion modeling capability based on FEM3MP (Gresho and Chan 1998, Chan and Stevens 2000), a CFD model from Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The integrated capability incorporates fast embedded boundary mesh generation for geometrically complex problems and full three-dimensional Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Parallel AMR and embedded boundary gridding support are provided through the SAMRAI library (Wissink et al. 2001, Hornung and Kohn 2002). Embedded boundary mesh generation has been demonstrated to be an automatic, fast, and efficient approach for problem setup. It has been used for a variety of geometrically complex applications, including urban applications (Pullen et al. 2005). The key technology we introduce in this work is the application of AMR, which allows the application of high-resolution modeling to certain important features, such as individual buildings and high-resolution terrain (including important vegetative and land-use features). It also allows the urban scale model to be readily interfaced with coarser resolution meso or regional scale models. This talk

  7. Personality-dependent dispersal cancelled under predation risk.

    PubMed

    Cote, Julien; Fogarty, Sean; Tymen, Blaise; Sih, Andrew; Brodin, Tomas

    2013-12-22

    Dispersal is a fundamental life-history trait for many ecological processes. Recent studies suggest that dispersers, in comparison to residents, display various phenotypic specializations increasing their dispersal inclination or success. Among them, dispersers are believed to be consistently more bold, exploratory, asocial or aggressive than residents. These links between behavioural types and dispersal should vary with the cause of dispersal. However, with the exception of one study, personality-dependent dispersal has not been studied in contrasting environments. Here, we used mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to test whether personality-dependent dispersal varies with predation risk, a factor that should induce boldness or sociability-dependent dispersal. Corroborating previous studies, we found that dispersing mosquitofish are less social than non-dispersing fish when there was no predation risk. However, personality-dependent dispersal is negated under predation risk, dispersers having similar personality types to residents. Our results suggest that adaptive dispersal decisions could commonly depend on interactions between phenotypes and ecological contexts.

  8. Taylor dispersion analysis of mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cottet, Hervé; Biron, Jean-Philippe; Martin, Michel

    2007-12-01

    Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA) is a fast and simple method for determining hydrodynamic radii. In the case of sample mixtures, TDA, as the other nonseparative methods, leads to an average diffusion coefficient on the different molecules constituting the mixture. We set in this work the equations giving, on a consistent basis, the average values obtained by TDA with detectors with linear response functions. These equations confronted TDA experiments of sample mixtures containing different proportions of a small molecule and a polymer standard. Very good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained. In a second part of this work, on the basis of monomodal or bimodal molar mass distributions of polymers, the different average diffusion coefficients corresponding to TDA were compared to the z-average diffusion coefficient (D(z)) obtained from dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments and to the weight average diffusion coefficient (D(w)). This latter value is sometimes considered as the most representative of the sample mixture. From these results, it appears that, for monomodal distribution and relatively low polydispersity (I = 1.15), the average diffusion coefficient generally derived from TDA is very close to Dw. However, for highly polydisperse samples (e.g., bimodal polydisperse distributions), important differences could be obtained (up to 35% between TDA and D(w)). In all the cases, the average diffusion coefficient obtained by TDA for a mass concentration detector was closer to the Dw value than the z-average obtained by DLS.

  9. Dispersive internal long wave models

    SciTech Connect

    Camassa, R.; Choi, W.; Holm, D.D.; Levermore, C.D.; Lvov, Y.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This work is a joint analytical and numerical study of internal dispersive water wave propagation in a stratified two-layer fluid, a problem that has important geophysical fluid dynamics applications. Two-layer models can capture the main density-dependent effects because they can support, unlike homogeneous fluid models, the observed large amplitude internal wave motion at the interface between layers. The authors have derived new model equations using multiscale asymptotics in combination with the method they have developed for vertically averaging velocity and vorticity fields across fluid layers within the original Euler equations. The authors have found new exact conservation laws for layer-mean vorticity that have exact counterparts in the models. With this approach, they have derived a class of equations that retain the full nonlinearity of the original Euler equations while preserving the simplicity of known weakly nonlinear models, thus providing the theoretical foundation for experimental results so far unexplained.

  10. QT Dispersion after Thrombolytic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oni Heris, Saeed; Rahimi, Behzad; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Hajahmadi, Mojgan; Sayyadi, Hojjat; Naghipour, Bahman

    2014-01-01

    Background: QT dispersion (QTd) is equal to longer QTc minus shorter QTc measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). QTd reflects inhomogeneity in repolarization of ventricular myocardium and because of easy and fast measurement of QTd, it can be used to predict high-risk patients for dysrhythmia after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of thrombolytic therapy on QTd before and 1 hour and 4 days after beginning of thrombolytic therapy. Patients and Methods: The patients with chest pain and ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) that underwent thrombolytic therapy were enrolled into this study. Streptokinase was the thrombolytic agent in all the patients. Standard 12-lead (ECG) was evaluated before beginning of thrombolytic therapy (QTd 1) and 1 hour (QTd2) and 4 days (QTd3) after thrombolytic therapy. First, ECG was magnified × 10 for exact calculation of QT and QTd. After all, the variables were compared using one–way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Besides, P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: This study was conducted on 160 patients. The results revealed no significant differences among QTd 1, QTd 2, and QTd 3 (P > 0.05). At inferior AMI, however, a significant difference was observed among QTd1, QTd2, and QTd3 (P = 0.031). Conclusions: Thrombolytic therapy had no significant effects on QTd. Thus, thrombolytic therapy does not increase the risk of arrhythmia. PMID:25614860

  11. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  12. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological behaviors of aqueous peanut flour dispersions were characterized across a range of conditions, including controlled heating and cooling rates under both large and small-strain deformations. Fat content of the dry flours influenced rheological changes, as dispersions of higher fat fl...

  13. Dispersing carbon nanotubes by chiral network surfactants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pengcheng; Cong, Yuehua; Zhang, Baoyan

    2015-04-01

    Chiral network surfactants (CNSs) possessing miscibility with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chiral materials are applied to disperse CNTs. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy is used to quantitatively determine the CNT concentration in homogeneous CNT-CNS dispersions, results indicate that CNSs with more mole fraction of polycyclic conjugated structure have better ability to load and disperse CNTs and the maximal concentration reaches 0.79 mg mL(-1). Fourier transform infrared imaging system is utilized to analyze the dispersibility of CNTs in CNT-CNS composites, and CNS with 6 mol % nonmesogens (S6) induces the best dispersibility. The CNT doped CNSs exhibit lower glass transition temperature, strengthened thermal stability, decreased the thermochromic temperature and enriched reflected colors of CNSs. Furthermore, S6 are used as a promoter to disperse CNTs in chiral host, here, a left-handed chiral liquid crystal (CLC) is selected, the miscibility between CNTs and CLCs is studied by polarized optical microscope, and CNTs can be effectively dispersed in CLCs by S6. The CNT dispersed CLCs can exhibit a faster electro-optical response process than neat CLCs.

  14. Intermolecular forces: a solution to dispersion interactions.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Ken D

    2013-12-01

    London dispersion forces have been cited as an important factor in protein folding, drug–receptor interactions, and catalyst selectivities. However, careful analysis of a model system finds that the dispersion interactions are only minor contributors to the formation of complexes in solution.

  15. Blends of ascarosides regulate dispersal in nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blends of ascarosides regulate dispersal in nematodes Presenter: Dr. Fatma Kaplan Dispersal is an important behavior for many organisms. It can easily be observed when infectious juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis) leave a consumed insect host. Dauer larvae of ...

  16. "Dispersion modeling approaches for near road

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roadway design and roadside barriers can have significant effects on the dispersion of traffic-generated pollutants, especially in the near-road environment. Dispersion models that can accurately simulate these effects are needed to fully assess these impacts for a variety of app...

  17. Interspecific nematode signals regulate dispersal behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2) of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective ...

  18. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous vertebrates. Even though plant reproduction largely depends on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurr...

  19. Are western juniper seeds dispersed through diplochory?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dispersal of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) appears to be convergent on a strategy utilized by fruit-bearing trees in that this conifer produces fleshy female cones (a.k.a., juniper “berries”) that are consumed by frugivorous birds, which then disperse the seeds through endozoochory b...

  20. Dispersion compensation in slot photonic crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastun, Alexander; Konyukhov, Andrey

    2015-03-01

    Dispersion tailoring using photonic crystal cladding for slot waveguide is proposed. Numerical modeling based on the Maxwell equation for Te and TM modes of the photonic crystal is performed. Slot waveguide provide high intencity at the central area. Photonic crystal cladding of the slot waveguide allow us to compensate high values of the host glass dispersion.

  1. Stable aqueous film coating dispersion of zein.

    PubMed

    Guo, H X; Heinämäki, J; Yliruusi, J

    2008-06-15

    The effects of plasticizers, pH, and electrolytes on film formation and physical stability of aqueous film coating dispersions (pseudolatexes) of zein were evaluated. The influence of plasticizer on film formation mechanism and minimum film-formation temperature (MFT) were monitored by means of hot stage microscopy (HSM). Furthermore, the effects of pH and electrolytes on the short-term physical stability of pseudolatexes were investigated by measuring relative absorbance, zeta potential, and particle size of the dispersions. With aqueous coating dispersions of zein, stages of film formation were identified. The dispersions plasticized with 20% (w/w) PEG 400 or glycerol formed mechanically strong and flexible films with the lowest glass transition temperature (T(g)). Physical stability of the aqueous zein dispersions was dependent on both pH and electrolyte content. At a pH ranging from 3 to 4, the aqueous dispersions of zein were stable for at least 2 months exhibiting the highest values for zeta potential, the smallest particle size, and a low volume of aggregates. The stable dispersion could be obtained containing a lower concentration of electrolytes (e.g., 10(-5) M). The physical stability of aqueous zein dispersions can be determined by the combined measurements of relative absorbance, zeta potential, and particle size.

  2. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  3. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  4. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  5. Flattened dispersion in silicon slot waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Yue, Yang; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Willner, Alan E

    2010-09-13

    We propose a silicon strip/slot hybrid waveguide that produces flattened dispersion of 0 ± 16 ps/(nm∙km), over a 553-nm wavelength range, which is 20 times flatter than previous results. Different from previously reported slot waveguides, the strip/slot hybrid waveguide employs the mode transition from a strip mode to a slot mode to introduce unique waveguide dispersion. The flat dispersion profile is featured by three zero-dispersion wavelengths, which is obtained for the first time in on-chip silicon waveguides, to the best of our knowledge. The waveguide exhibits flattened dispersion from 1562-nm to 2115-nm wavelength, which is potentially useful for both telecom and mid-infrared applications.

  6. Rheological behaviour of heated potato starch dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, L.; Witczak, M.; Ziêba, T.; Fortuna, T.

    2012-10-01

    The study was designed to investigate the rheological properties of heated potato starch dispersions. Water suspensions of starch were heated at 65, 80 or 95°C for 5, 15, 30 or 60 min. The dispersions obtained were examined for granule size distribution and rheology. It was found that the starch dispersions significantly differed in both respects. The mean diameters of starch granules were largest for the dispersion heated at 65°C and smallest for that heated at 95°C. As the heating temperature was raised, the yield stresses and consistency coefficients decreased, while the flow behaviour indexes and Casson plastic viscosities increased. There were also differences in the viscoelastic properties of the dispersions: for those heated at 65°C the storage and loss moduli increased with heating time whereas for those heated at 80°C both moduli decreased.

  7. Pay Dispersion and Performance in Teams

    PubMed Central

    Bucciol, Alessandro; Foss, Nicolai J.; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Extant research offers conflicting predictions about the effect of pay dispersion on team performance. We collected a unique dataset from the Italian soccer league to study the effect of intra-firm pay dispersion on team performance, under different definitions of what constitutes a “team”. This peculiarity of our dataset can explain the conflicting evidence. Indeed, we also find positive, null, and negative effects of pay dispersion on team performance, using the same data but different definitions of team. Our results show that when the team is considered to consist of only the members who directly contribute to the outcome, high pay dispersion has a detrimental impact on team performance. Enlarging the definition of the team causes this effect to disappear or even change direction. Finally, we find that the detrimental effect of pay dispersion is due to worse individual performance, rather than a reduction of team cooperation. PMID:25397615

  8. Surface dispersion in the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala Sansón, L.

    2015-09-01

    Surface dispersion is measured in the Gulf of California by means of Argos drifters released along this semi-enclosed, elongated basin. First, basic one-particle statistics (Lagrangian scales, absolute dispersion and diffusion coefficients) are estimated along and across the Gulf. Absolute dispersion shows a nearly ballistic regime during the Lagrangian time scale (<2 days) in both directions (it grows as ∼t2, where t is time). During the subsequent 30 days, absolute dispersion enters a random-walk regime (∼t) along the Gulf, while being saturated across the basin due to the lateral boundaries. Secondly, the analysis is extended to two-particle statistics (relative dispersion between pairs of drifters and Finite Scale Lyapunov Exponents, FSLE). Relative dispersion is nearly exponential in both directions during the first few days, though evidence is not conclusive. During the subsequent 30 days, it grows as ∼t1.5 along the Gulf, while being saturated across the basin again. It is shown that relative dispersion along the Gulf is proportional to t̂3 , where t ̂ represents a shifted time that depends on the initial separation of the particles. This form of the Richardson regime is consistently measured for particles that are sufficiently separated (30 km or more). The Richardson regime is verified with the FSLE for particle separations ranging from 30 to 140 km, approximately. The obtained dispersion properties are discussed in terms of the main circulation features within the basin, such as mesoscale vortices that occupy the width of the Gulf. These structures might retain buoys during days or weeks, thus preventing or delaying further displacements and therefore affecting the particle dispersion. The vortices are also an important mechanism to translate particles across the Gulf, between the Peninsula and the continent, thus promoting the saturation of dispersion along this direction.

  9. Fluctuating Concentrations in Atmospheric Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaull, George Ellis, III

    This thesis presents theoretical models and experimental results of average and instantaneous concentration measurements from a series of atmospheric dispersion experiments conducted under both unstable and stable meteorological conditions. The experiments were undertaken at two different sites, over both flat and gently rolling terrain. Two types of surface -level point aerosol sources were used. One is a fog-oil smoke and the other is a hexachloroethane chemical smoke. Measurements of concentration at points along crosswind transects were taken over time periods of an hour at distances to several kilometers from the source. These measurements included both aerosol photometer records of the instantaneous concentration taken at a 1 Hz sampling rate and aspirated filters for mean concentration measurements. The flat terrain site was located at Camp Atterbury, Indiana, while the gently rolling terrain site was near Red Bluff, California. Meteorological measurements at these sites included both tower measurements and upper -air balloon soundings. These measurements were used in determining the atmospheric boundary layer scaling parameters in the unstable tests and in characterizing the complex wind field for the stable tests. The data compare favorably with developed models for both the mean and variance in concentration. Concentration fluctuation intensity ranges from 2 near the plume centerline to greater than 20 at the plume edge. Intermittency is important at all locations, with positive concentrations recorded on the mean plume centerline only 20% to 50% of the time. Point concentration histograms are shown to agree with the exponential distribution for concentrations greater than zero. Spectra of the concentration data show an inertial -convective subrange with a -5/3 power law versus frequency behavior. Integral time scales of the concentration records at all individual sampling points are approximately constant within a test and are equal to the mean duration

  10. Seed dispersal by pulp consumers, not "legitimate" seed dispersers, increases Guettarda viburnoides population growth.

    PubMed

    Loayza, Andrea P; Knight, Tiffany

    2010-09-01

    We examined the effect of seed dispersal by Purplish Jays (Cyanocorax cyanomelas; pulp consumers) and the Chestnut-eared Araçari (Pteroglossus castanotis; "legitimate" seed dispersers) on population growth of the small tree Guettarda viburnoides (Rubiaceae) in northeastern Bolivian savannas. Because each bird species differs with respect to feeding and post-feeding behavior, we hypothesized that seed dispersal by each species will contribute differently to the rate of increase of G. viburnoides, but that seed dispersal by either species will increase population growth when compared to a scenario with no seed dispersal. To examine the effects of individual dispersers on the future population size of G. viburnoides, we projected population growth rate using demographic models for G. viburnoides that explicitly incorporate data on quantitative and qualitative aspects of seed dispersal by each frugivore species. Our model suggests that seed dispersal by C. cyanomelas leads to positive population growth of G. viburnoides, whereas seed dispersal by P. castanotis has a detrimental effect on the population growth of this species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report negative effects of a "legitimate" seed disperser on the population dynamics of the plant it consumes. Our results stress the importance of incorporating frugivore effects into population projection matrices, to allow a comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of different dispersers for plant population dynamics.

  11. Evolution of dispersal under a fecundity-dispersal trade-off.

    PubMed

    Weigang, Helene C; Kisdi, Éva

    2015-04-21

    Resources invested in dispersal structures as well as time and energy spent during transfer may often decrease fecundity. Here we analyse an extended version of the Hamilton-May model of dispersal evolution, where we include a fecundity-dispersal trade-off and also mortality between competition and reproduction. With adaptive dynamics and critical function analysis we investigate the evolution of dispersal strategies and ask whether adaptive diversification is possible. We exclude evolutionary branching for concave trade-offs and show that for convex trade-offs diversification is promoted in a narrow parameter range. We provide theoretical evidence that dispersal strategies can monotonically decrease with increasing survival during dispersal. Moreover, we illustrate the existence of two alternative attracting dispersal strategies. The model exhibits fold bifurcation points where slight changes in survival can lead to evolutionary catastrophes.

  12. Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Webb, K E; Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We show that the emission of dispersive waves in nonlinear fiber optics is not limited to soliton-like pulses propagating in the anomalous dispersion regime. We demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime can excite resonant dispersive radiation across the zero-dispersion wavelength into the anomalous regime.

  13. Individual dispersal, landscape connectivity and ecological networks.

    PubMed

    Baguette, Michel; Blanchet, Simon; Legrand, Delphine; Stevens, Virginie M; Turlure, Camille

    2013-05-01

    Connectivity is classically considered an emergent property of landscapes encapsulating individuals' flows across space. However, its operational use requires a precise understanding of why and how organisms disperse. Such movements, and hence landscape connectivity, will obviously vary according to both organism properties and landscape features. We review whether landscape connectivity estimates could gain in both precision and generality by incorporating three fundamental outcomes of dispersal theory. Firstly, dispersal is a multi-causal process; its restriction to an 'escape reaction' to environmental unsuitability is an oversimplification, as dispersing individuals can leave excellent quality habitat patches or stay in poor-quality habitats according to the relative costs and benefits of dispersal and philopatry. Secondly, species, populations and individuals do not always react similarly to those cues that trigger dispersal, which sometimes results in contrasting dispersal strategies. Finally, dispersal is a major component of fitness and is thus under strong selective pressures, which could generate rapid adaptations of dispersal strategies. Such evolutionary responses will entail spatiotemporal variation in landscape connectivity. We thus strongly recommend the use of genetic tools to: (i) assess gene flow intensity and direction among populations in a given landscape; and (ii) accurately estimate landscape features impacting gene flow, and hence landscape connectivity. Such approaches will provide the basic data for planning corridors or stepping stones aiming at (re)connecting local populations of a given species in a given landscape. This strategy is clearly species- and landscape-specific. But we suggest that the ecological network in a given landscape could be designed by stacking up such linkages designed for several species living in different ecosystems. This procedure relies on the use of umbrella species that are representative of other species

  14. Physical models of polarization mode dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Menyuk, C.R.; Wai, P.K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of randomly varying birefringence on light propagation in optical fibers is studied theoretically in the parameter regime that will be used for long-distance communications. In this regime, the birefringence is large and varies very rapidly in comparison to the nonlinear and dispersive scale lengths. We determine the polarization mode dispersion, and we show that physically realistic models yield the same result for polarization mode dispersion as earlier heuristic models that were introduced by Poole. We also prove an ergodic theorem.

  15. Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D.; Cahill, P.A.

    1993-11-01

    The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.

  16. Plasma Dispersion Function for the Kappa Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podesta, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma dispersion function is computed for a homogeneous isotropic plasma in which the particle velocities are distributed according to a Kappa distribution. An ordinary differential equation is derived for the plasma dispersion function and it is shown that the solution can be written in terms of Gauss' hypergeometric function. Using the extensive theory of the hypergeometric function, various mathematical properties of the plasma dispersion function are derived including symmetry relations, series expansions, integral representations, and closed form expressions for integer and half-integer values of K.

  17. Dispersion Method Using Focused Ultrasonic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungsoon Kim,; Moojoon Kim,; Kanglyel Ha,; Minchul Chu,

    2010-07-01

    The dispersion of powders into liquids has become one of the most important techniques in high-tech industries and it is a common process in the formulation of various products, such as paint, ink, shampoo, beverages, and polishing media. In this study, an ultrasonic system with a cylindrical transducer is newly introduced for pure nanoparticle dispersion. The acoustics pressure field and the characteristics of the shock pulse caused by cavitation are investigated. The frequency spectrum of the pulse from the collapse of air bubbles in the cavitation is analyzed theoretically. It was confirmed that a TiO2 water suspension can be dispersed effectively using the suggested system.

  18. Characterizing SWCNT Dispersion in Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillehei, Peter T.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Gibbons, Luke; Park, Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The new wave of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) infused composites will yield structurally sound multifunctional nanomaterials. The SWCNT network requires thorough dispersion within the polymer matrix in order to maximize the benefits of the nanomaterial. However, before any nanomaterials can be used in aerospace applications a means of quality assurance and quality control must be certified. Quality control certification requires a means of quantification, however, the measurement protocol mandates a method of seeing the dispersion first. We describe here the new tools that we have developed and implemented to first be able to see carbon nanotubes in polymers and second to measure or quantify the dispersion of the nanotubes.

  19. Optimisation of dispersion parameters of Gaussian plume model for CO₂ dispersion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Godbole, Ajit; Lu, Cheng; Michal, Guillaume; Venton, Philip

    2015-11-01

    The carbon capture and storage (CCS) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects entail the possibility of accidental release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. To quantify the spread of CO2 following such release, the 'Gaussian' dispersion model is often used to estimate the resulting CO2 concentration levels in the surroundings. The Gaussian model enables quick estimates of the concentration levels. However, the traditionally recommended values of the 'dispersion parameters' in the Gaussian model may not be directly applicable to CO2 dispersion. This paper presents an optimisation technique to obtain the dispersion parameters in order to achieve a quick estimation of CO2 concentration levels in the atmosphere following CO2 blowouts. The optimised dispersion parameters enable the Gaussian model to produce quick estimates of CO2 concentration levels, precluding the necessity to set up and run much more complicated models. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were employed to produce reference CO2 dispersion profiles in various atmospheric stability classes (ASC), different 'source strengths' and degrees of ground roughness. The performance of the CFD models was validated against the 'Kit Fox' field measurements, involving dispersion over a flat horizontal terrain, both with low and high roughness regions. An optimisation model employing a genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the best dispersion parameters in the Gaussian plume model was set up. Optimum values of the dispersion parameters for different ASCs that can be used in the Gaussian plume model for predicting CO2 dispersion were obtained.

  20. PROBABILISTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dispersion models are used to assess the possible extent and severity of accidental or terrorist releases of toxic materials. Most operational models only provide a characterization of average concentrations and conditions following a release. Knowledge of the variability about...

  1. The Flying Sunflower: A Seed Dispersal Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buege, Douglas J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an open-ended activity in which students build a "plant" that launches its seeds as far as possible to study the dispersal strategies of various plants. Recommends extension activities for elementary- and secondary-level students. (WRM)

  2. Tackifier Dispersions to Make Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Development of new processes for tackifier dispersion could improve the production of pressure sensitive adhesives. Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) have the ability to adhere to different surfaces with manual or finger pressure.

  3. Dispersing brush mice prefer habitat like home

    PubMed Central

    Mabry, Karen E; Stamps, Judy A

    2007-01-01

    During natal dispersal, young animals leave their natal area and search for a new area to live. In species in which individuals inhabit different types of habitat, experience with a natal habitat may increase the probability that a disperser will select the same type of habitat post-dispersal (natal habitat preference induction or NHPI). Despite considerable interest in the ecological and the evolutionary implications of NHPI, we lack empirical evidence that it occurs in nature. Here we show that dispersing brush mice (Peromyscus boylii) are more likely to search and settle within their natal habitat type than expected based on habitat availability. These results document the occurrence of NHPI in nature and highlight the relevance of experience-generated habitat preferences for ecological and evolutionary processes. PMID:18077253

  4. Colloid particle size-dependent dispersivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysikopoulos, C. V.; Katzourakis, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that dispersion coefficients evaluated by fitting advection-dispersion transport models to nonreactive tracer breakthrough curves do not adequately describe colloid transport under the same flow field conditions. Here an extensive laboratory study was undertaken to assess whether the dispersivity, which traditionally has been considered to be a property of the porous medium, is dependent on colloid particle size and interstitial velocity. A total of 49 colloid transport experiments were performed in columns packed with glass beads under chemically unfavorable colloid attachment conditions. Nine different colloid diameters, and various flow velocities were examined. The breakthrough curves were successfully simulated with a mathematical model describing colloid transport in homogeneous, water saturated porous media. The results demonstrated that the dispersivity is positively correlated with colloid particle size, and increases with increasing velocity.

  5. London Dispersion Forces and "The Wave"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, C. Jayne

    1998-10-01

    An analogy is presented likening London dispersion forces to "The Wave", a popular ritual performed by fans attending sports events in large stadia. Similarities between people in the stands and electrons in atoms are emphasized.

  6. Controlling dispersion characteristics of terahertz metasurface.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shi-Wei; Wu, Wei-Wei; Chen, Bao-Jie; Yi, Huan; Bai, Xue; Ng, Kung Bo; Chan, Chi Hou

    2015-03-23

    Terahertz (THz) metasurfaces have been explored recently due to their properties such as low material loss and ease of fabrication compared to three-dimensional (3D) metamaterials. Although the dispersion properties of the reflection/transmission-type THz metasurface were observed in some published literature, the method to control them at will has been scarcely reported to the best of our knowledge. In this context, flexible dispersion control of the THz metasurface will lead to great opportunities toward unprecedented THz devices. As an example, a THz metasurface with controllable dispersion characteristics has been successfully demonstrated in this article, and the incident waves at different frequencies from a source in front of the metasurface can be projected into different desired anomalous angular positions. Furthermore, this work provides a potential approach to other kinds of novel THz devices that need controllable metasurface dispersion properties.

  7. Relative dispersion in 2D stochastic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piterbarg, L. I.

    We investigate the relative dispersion for two types of stochastic flows—Brownian flow (Kraichnan model) and a flow with memory (inertial particles). In the first case well-known asymptotics are rigorously derived for a self-similar spectrum of the velocity field by using a half-century-old Feller's theorem. Exact limits of the asymptotics and exact values for dimensionless constants are obtained. The second part of the paper addresses a relatively new object: the first-order Markov stochastic flow modelling inertial particle motion. Both local and non-local dynamics are investigated. In the first case an exact exponential asymptotic is obtained for the relative dispersion. In turn, two regimes are considered in the case of non-smooth forcing: weak and strong turbulence. For weak turbulence the obtained asymptotic of relative dispersion is similar to that of the Brownian flow. As for strong turbulence, an upper bound is obtained for the scaling of relative dispersion.

  8. Optical carrier wave shocking: detection and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Kinsler, P; Radnor, S B P; Tyrrell, J C A; New, G H C

    2007-06-01

    Carrier wave shocking is studied using the pseudospectral spatial-domain (PSSD) technique. We describe the shock detection diagnostics necessary for this numerical study and verify them against theoretical shocking predictions for the dispersionless case. These predictions show a carrier envelope phase and pulse bandwidth sensitivity in the single-cycle regime. The flexible dispersion management offered by the PSSD enables us to independently control the linear and nonlinear dispersion. Customized dispersion profiles allow us to analyze the development of both carrier self-steepening and shocks. The results exhibit a marked asymmetry between normal and anomalous dispersion, both in the limits of the shocking regime and in the (near) shocked pulse wave forms. Combining these insights, we offer some suggestions on how carrier shocking (or at least extreme self-steepening) might be realized experimentally.

  9. Alfven Wave Generated Electron Time Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletzing, C. A.; Hu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The results from a model of kinetic Alfven waves which includes varying magnetic field and density show that time-dispersed bursts of auroral electrons can be accelerated by Alfven, wave pulses propagating from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. The modeled electron signatures have similar energy range and temporal structure to those observed on sounding rockets and satellites suggesting that electron time dispersion is generated by Alfven waves.

  10. URANIUM BISMUTHIDE DISPERSION IN MOLTEN METAL

    DOEpatents

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-10-27

    The formation of intermetallic bismuth compounds of thorium or uranium dispersed in a liquid media containing bismuth and lead is described. A bismuthide of uranium dispersed in a liquid metal medium is formed by dissolving uranium in composition of lead and bismuth containing less than 80% lead and lowering the temperature of the composition to a temperature below the point at which the solubility of uranium is exceeded and above the melting point of the composition.

  11. Interspecific Nematode Signals Regulate Dispersal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Fatma; Alborn, Hans T.; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Ajredini, Ramadan; Ali, Jared G.; Akyazi, Faruk; Stelinski, Lukasz L.; Edison, Arthur S.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Teal, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dispersal is an important nematode behavior. Upon crowding or food depletion, the free living bacteriovorus nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces stress resistant dispersal larvae, called dauer, which are analogous to second stage juveniles (J2) of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. and infective juveniles (IJ)s of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), e.g., Steinernema feltiae. Regulation of dispersal behavior has not been thoroughly investigated for C. elegans or any other nematode species. Based on the fact that ascarosides regulate entry in dauer stage as well as multiple behaviors in C. elegans adults including mating, avoidance and aggregation, we hypothesized that ascarosides might also be involved in regulation of dispersal behavior in C. elegans and for other nematodes such as IJ of phylogenetically related EPNs. Methodology/Principal Findings Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. elegans dauer conditioned media, which shows strong dispersing activity, revealed four known ascarosides (ascr#2, ascr#3, ascr#8, icas#9). A synthetic blend of these ascarosides at physiologically relevant concentrations dispersed C. elegans dauer in the presence of food and also caused dispersion of IJs of S. feltiae and J2s of plant parasitic Meloidogyne spp. Assay guided fractionation revealed structural analogs as major active components of the S. feltiae (ascr#9) and C. elegans (ascr#2) dispersal blends. Further analysis revealed ascr#9 in all Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. infected insect host cadavers. Conclusions/Significance Ascaroside blends represent evolutionarily conserved, fundamentally important communication systems for nematodes from diverse habitats, and thus may provide sustainable means for control of parasitic nematodes. PMID:22701701

  12. Dispersal and survival of a polygynandrous passerine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Wild, Teri C.; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-01-01

    Although sex biases in survival and dispersal are thought to be linked to avian mating systems, little is known about these demographic patterns in less common mating strategies such as polygynandry. We investigated breeding-site fidelity, natal philopatry, and apparent survival of the polygynandrous Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus) over a 7-yr period at 2 areas in Alaska's Brooks Range. We used capture–recapture histories of 243 color-banded adults and 431 juveniles to estimate annual survival and determined dispersal patterns from 34 adults that were found breeding within the study areas over multiple years. Most adults (88%) returned to nest in the same breeding neighborhood as in previous years; mean dispersal distance was 300.9 ± 74.2 m and did not differ between sexes. Juveniles exhibited low natal philopatry; only 4% of banded hatch-year birds were resighted as adults during subsequent years. Those that did return dispersed, on average, 1,674.4 ± 465.8 m from their natal nests (n = 6). Model-averaged survival estimates indicated that annual survival of adult females (50–58%) was only slightly lower than that of males (60–63%); juvenile survival was 41% but was paired with a low (13%) encounter probability. We attribute the lack of sex bias in adult dispersal to this species' polygynandrous mating strategy. Within this system, there are multiple mates within a breeding neighborhood. We argue that natural selection may favor females that remain on the same, familiar breeding site, because they do not have to disperse to a new area to find a suitable mate. Dispersal among breeding populations most likely occurs by juveniles returning as adults. Our findings support hypotheses that suggest a relationship between dispersal and mating strategy and provide some of the first insight into the demographic patterns of a polygynandrous passerine.

  13. Dispersion Characteristics of a Dielectric Loaded Waveguide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-30

    NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANOAODS-1963-A ., ’I A NSWC TR 84-338 00 In ’DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A SDIELECTRIC LOADED WAVEGUIDE By H. CROSBY J. CHOE Y...4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED DISPERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIELECTRIC LOADED WAVEGUIDE S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES S. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide it necessary and Identify by block number) Dielectric Loaded Waveguide ) " Resonant Cavity) a

  14. Calculations of precursor propagation in dispersive dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Larry Donald

    2003-08-01

    The present study is a numerical investigation of the propagation of electromagnetic transients in dispersive media. It considers propagation in water using Debye and composite Rocard-Powles-Lorentz models for the complex permittivity. The study addresses this question: For practical transmitted spectra, does precursor propagation provide any features that can be used to advantage over conventional signal propagation in models of dispersive media of interest? A companion experimental study is currently in progress that will attempt to measure the effects studied here.

  15. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments N. Ross...our understanding of the interaction of sound with the ocean bottom is the frequency dependence of sound speed and attenuation in marine sediments...The long term goals of this research project are related to the investigation of dispersion of sound speed and attenuation at low frequencies (< 2

  16. Slow oscillations of dispersion-managed solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, H.; Boehm, M.; Hause, A.; Mitschke, F.

    2010-03-15

    In dispersion-managed fibers, soliton-like solutions with periodically recurring shapes exist. These so called dispersion-managed solitons are relevant for fiber-optic telecommunication. In this article we address their behavior when there is deviation from the stationary solution, which is accompanied by the excitation of a long-lived periodic oscillation. We give a possible interpretation by applying soliton radiation beat analysis, a method capable of analyzing the soliton content.

  17. Dispersive radiation induced by shock waves in passive resonators.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Stefania; Conforti, Matteo; Trillo, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    We show that passive Kerr resonators pumped close to zero dispersion wavelengths on the normal dispersion side can develop the resonant generation of linear waves driven by cavity (mixed dispersive-dissipative) shock waves. The resonance mechanism can be successfully described in the framework of the generalized Lugiato-Lefever equation with higher-order dispersive terms. Substantial differences with radiation from cavity solitons and purely dispersive shock waves dispersion are highlighted.

  18. Rheological Behavior of Bentonite-Polyester Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Omari, Salah Addin

    2013-07-01

    The rheological behavior of a bentonite clay dispersed in unsaturated polyester was investigated. The effects of the solid content and particle size on the steady and transient rheological properties of the dispersions were studied. In addition, two types of bentonite with different Na+/Ca+2 ratio were used in this study. The Herschel-Bulkley and the Weltman models were used to describe the apparent viscosity of the bentonite-polyester composite in relation to the shear rate and shearing time. The bentonite-polyester dispersions were found to exhibit both Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior. The transition from a Newtonian to a Bingham plastic and then to a shear-thinning material with a yield stress was found to depend on the solid concentration, the particle size, and the type of bentonite. At a low solid content, the apparent viscosity of the bentonite dispersion increased linearly with solid concentration. But a dramatic increase in the apparent viscosity beyond a solid content of 20 wt.% was observed. On the other hand, a thixotropic behavior was detected in bentonite-polyester dispersions with a high solid content and a low particle size. However, this behavior was more pronounced in dispersions with a high Na+/Ca+2 ratio.

  19. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Methods: Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Results: Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. Conclusion: IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32. PMID:26997830

  20. Dispersive shock waves and modulation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    There is growing physical and mathematical interest in the hydrodynamics of dissipationless/dispersive media. Since G.B. Whitham's seminal publication fifty years ago that ushered in the mathematical study of dispersive hydrodynamics, there has been a significant body of work in this area. However, there has been no comprehensive survey of the field of dispersive hydrodynamics. Utilizing Whitham's averaging theory as the primary mathematical tool, we review the rich mathematical developments over the past fifty years with an emphasis on physical applications. The fundamental, large scale, coherent excitation in dispersive hydrodynamic systems is an expanding, oscillatory dispersive shock wave or DSW. Both the macroscopic and microscopic properties of DSWs are analyzed in detail within the context of the universal, integrable, and foundational models for uni-directional (Korteweg-de Vries equation) and bi-directional (Nonlinear Schrödinger equation) dispersive hydrodynamics. A DSW fitting procedure that does not rely upon integrable structure yet reveals important macroscopic DSW properties is described. DSW theory is then applied to a number of physical applications: superfluids, nonlinear optics, geophysics, and fluid dynamics. Finally, we survey some of the more recent developments including non-classical DSWs, DSW interactions, DSWs in perturbed and inhomogeneous environments, and two-dimensional, oblique DSWs.

  1. Beyond dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Leong, Mei-I; Fuh, Ming-Ren; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-03-28

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and other dispersion liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) methods have been developed since the first DLLME method was reported in 2006. DLLME is simple, rapid, and affords high enrichment factor, this is due to the large contact surface area of the extraction solvent. DLLME is a method suitable for the extraction in many different water samples, but it requires using chlorinated solvents. In recent years, interest in DLLME or dispersion LPME has been focused on the use of low-toxicity solvents and more conveniently practical procedures. This review examines some of the most interesting developments in the past few years. In the first section, DLLME methods are separated in two categories: DLLME with low-density extraction solvent and DLLME with high-density extraction solvent. Besides these methods, many novel special devices for collecting low-density extraction solvent are also mentioned. In addition, various dispersion techniques with LPME, including manual shaking, air-assisted LPME (aspirating and injecting the extraction mixture by syringe), ultrasound-assisted emulsification, vortex-assisted emulsification, surfactant-assisted emulsification, and microwave-assisted emulsification are described. Besides the above methods, combinations of DLLME with other extraction techniques (solid-phase extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion and supercritical fluid extraction) are introduced. The combination of nanotechnique with DLLME is also introduced. Furthermore, this review illustrates the application of DLLME or dispersion LPME methods to separate and preconcentrate various organic analytes, inorganic analytes, and samples.

  2. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  3. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  4. Dispersing hemipteran vectors have reduced arbovirus prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Amy T.; Brown, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in managing vector-borne zoonotic diseases in human and wildlife populations is predicting where epidemics or epizootics are likely to occur, and this requires knowing in part the likelihood of infected insect vectors dispersing pathogens from existing infection foci to novel areas. We measured prevalence of an arbovirus, Buggy Creek virus, in dispersing and resident individuals of its exclusive vector, the ectoparasitic swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius), that occupies cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) colonies in western Nebraska. Bugs colonizing new colony sites and immigrating into established colonies by clinging to the swallows’ legs and feet had significantly lower virus prevalence than bugs in established colonies and those that were clustering in established colonies before dispersing. The reduced likelihood of infected bugs dispersing to new colony sites indicates that even heavily infected sites may not always export virus to nearby foci at a high rate. Infected arthropods should not be assumed to exhibit the same dispersal or movement behaviour as uninfected individuals, and these differences in dispersal should perhaps be considered in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as arboviruses. PMID:24694692

  5. Juvenile dispersal in Calomys venustus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priotto, José; Steinmann, Andrea; Provensal, Cecilia; Polop, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Both spacing behaviour and dispersal movement are viewed as hierarchical processes in which the effects may be expressed at spatial scale. This research was carried out to examine the hypothesis that the presence of parents promotes the dispersal of juveniles from their natal nest and their father or mother home-range, in Calomys venustus.The study was carried out in four 0.25 ha fences (two controls and two experimentals), in a natural pasture. This study had two periods: Father Removal (FR) (August and December 1997; year one) and Mother Removal (MR) (August 1998 and January 1999; year two). For the FR treatment fathers were removed after juveniles were born, but in the MR treatment mothers were removed after the juveniles were weaned. The effect of parents on the dispersal distance of juveniles was analysed with respect to their natal nest and their mother and father home-range. Dispersal distance from the nest of C. venustus was independent of either male or female parent. Juveniles were more dispersing in relation to the centre of activity of their mothers than to that of their fathers, and females were more dispersing than males. Female juveniles overlap their home-range with their parents less than male juveniles do. The differences observed between female and male juveniles would be related to their different sexual maturation times, as well as to the female territoriality.

  6. Quantification of statistical phenomena in turbulent dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Matthew; Hann, David; Hewakandamby, Buddhika

    2015-11-01

    Understanding of turbulent dispersions is of great importance for environmental and industrial applications. This includes developing a greater understanding of particle movement in atmospheric flows, and providing data that can be used to validate CFD models aimed at producing more accurate simulations of dispersed turbulent flows, aiding design of many industrial components. Statistical phenomena in turbulent dispersions were investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry. Experiments were carried out in a two dimensional channel over a Reynolds number range of 10000-30000, using water and 500 micron hydrogel particles. Particles were injected at the channel entrance, and dispersion properties were characterised at different distances downstream from the injection point. Probability density functions were compiled for the velocity components of the hydrogels for differing flow conditions. Higher order PDFs were constructed to investigate the behaviour of particle pairs. Dispersed phase data was also used to investigate the mechanics of collisions between hydrogel particles, allowing for calculation of the co-efficient of restitution. PIV algorithms were used to create velocity maps for the continuous phase for varying dispersed phase fractions. Thanks to support of Chevron grant as part of TMF consortium.

  7. Uncertainty in spatially explicit animal dispersal models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooij, Wolf M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    Uncertainty in estimates of survival of dispersing animals is a vexing difficulty in conservation biology. The current notion is that this uncertainty decreases the usefulness of spatially explicit population models in particular. We examined this problem by comparing dispersal models of three levels of complexity: (1) an event-based binomial model that considers only the occurrence of mortality or arrival, (2) a temporally explicit exponential model that employs mortality and arrival rates, and (3) a spatially explicit grid-walk model that simulates the movement of animals through an artificial landscape. Each model was fitted to the same set of field data. A first objective of the paper is to illustrate how the maximum-likelihood method can be used in all three cases to estimate the means and confidence limits for the relevant model parameters, given a particular set of data on dispersal survival. Using this framework we show that the structure of the uncertainty for all three models is strikingly similar. In fact, the results of our unified approach imply that spatially explicit dispersal models, which take advantage of information on landscape details, suffer less from uncertainly than do simpler models. Moreover, we show that the proposed strategy of model development safeguards one from error propagation in these more complex models. Finally, our approach shows that all models related to animal dispersal, ranging from simple to complex, can be related in a hierarchical fashion, so that the various approaches to modeling such dispersal can be viewed from a unified perspective.

  8. Dispersal behavior of yellowjacket (Vespula germanica) queens.

    PubMed

    Masciocchi, Maité; Martinez, Andrés S; Pereira, Ana J; Villacide, José M; Corley, Juan C

    2016-06-30

    Understanding the factors that affect animal dispersal behavior is important from both fundamental and applied perspectives. Dispersal can have clear evolutionary and ecological consequences, but for nonnative insect pests, dispersal capacity can also help to explain invasion success. Vespula germanica is a social wasp that, in the last century, has successfully invaded several regions of the world, showing one of the highest spread rates reported for a nonnative insect. In contrast with nonsocial wasps, in social species, queens are responsible for population redistribution and spread, as workers are sterile. For V. germanica, it has been observed that queen flight is limited to 2 distinct periods: early autumn, when new queens leave the nest to mate and find sheltered places in which to hibernate, and spring when new colonies are founded. Our aim was to study the flight behavior of V. germanica queens by focusing on the different periods in which dispersal occurs, characterizing as well the potential contribution of queen flight (i.e., distance) to the observed geographical spread. Our results suggest that the distances flown by nonoverwintered queens is greater than that flown by overwintered individuals, suggesting that the main queen dispersal events would occur before queens enter hibernation. This could relate to a behavioral trait of the queens to avoid the inbreeding with related drones. Additionally, given the short distances flown and remarkable geographical spread observed, we provide evidence showing that queen dispersal by flight is likely to contribute proportionately less to population spread than human-aided factors.

  9. "Dispersion modeling approaches for near road | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Roadway design and roadside barriers can have significant effects on the dispersion of traffic-generated pollutants, especially in the near-road environment. Dispersion models that can accurately simulate these effects are needed to fully assess these impacts for a variety of applications. For example, such models can be useful for evaluating the mitigation potential of roadside barriers in reducing near-road exposures and their associated adverse health effects. Two databases, a tracer field study and a wind tunnel study, provide measurements used in the development and/or validation of algorithms to simulate dispersion in the presence of noise barriers. The tracer field study was performed in Idaho Falls, ID, USA with a 6-m noise barrier and a finite line source in a variety of atmospheric conditions. The second study was performed in the meteorological wind tunnel at the US EPA and simulated line sources at different distances from a model noise barrier to capture the effect on emissions from individual lanes of traffic. In both cases, velocity and concentration measurements characterized the effect of the barrier on dispersion.This paper presents comparisons with the two datasets of the barrier algorithms implemented in two different dispersion models: US EPA’s R-LINE (a research dispersion modelling tool under development by the US EPA’s Office of Research and Development) and CERC’s ADMS model (ADMS-Urban). In R-LINE the physical features reveal

  10. Determining The Dispersibility Of South Louisiana Crude Oil By Eight Oil Dispersant Products Listed On The NCP Product Schedule

    EPA Science Inventory

    We recently conducted a laboratory study to measure the dispersion effectiveness of eight dispersants currently listed on the National Contingency Plan Product Schedule. Results are useful in determining how many commercial dispersant products would have been effective for use o...

  11. Design and development of a dust dispersion chamber to quantify the dispersibility of rock dust.

    PubMed

    Perera, Inoka E; Sapko, Michael J; Harris, Marcia L; Zlochower, Isaac A; Weiss, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Dispersible rock dust must be applied to the surfaces of entries in underground coal mines in order to inert the coal dust entrained or made airborne during an explosion and prevent propagating explosions. 30 CFR. 75.2 states that "… [rock dust particles] when wetted and dried will not cohere to form a cake which will not be dispersed into separate particles by a light blast of air …" However, a proper definition or quantification of "light blast of air" is not provided. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has, consequently, designed a dust dispersion chamber to conduct quantitative laboratory-scale dispersibility experiments as a screening tool for candidate rock dusts. A reproducible pulse of air is injected into the chamber and across a shallow tray of rock dust. The dust dispersed and carried downwind is monitored. The mass loss of the dust tray and the airborne dust measurements determine the relative dispersibility of the dust with respect to a Reference rock dust. This report describes the design and the methodology to evaluate the relative dispersibility of rock dusts with and without anti-caking agents. Further, the results of this study indicate that the dispersibility of rock dusts varies with particle size, type of anti-caking agent used, and with the untapped bulk density. Untreated rock dusts, when wetted and dried forming a cake that was much less dispersible than the reference rock dust used in supporting the 80% total incombustible content rule.

  12. Are Introduced Species Better Dispersers Than Native Species? A Global Comparative Study of Seed Dispersal Distance

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Moreno, Habacuc; Thomson, Fiona J.; Warton, David I.; Moles, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first global test of the idea that introduced species have greater seed dispersal distances than do native species, using data for 51 introduced and 360 native species from the global literature. Counter to our expectations, there was no significant difference in mean or maximum dispersal distance between introduced and native species. Next, we asked whether differences in dispersal distance might have been obscured by differences in seed mass, plant height and dispersal syndrome, all traits that affect dispersal distance and which can differ between native and introduced species. When we included all three variables in the model, there was no clear difference in dispersal distance between introduced and native species. These results remained consistent when we performed analyses including a random effect for site. Analyses also showed that the lack of a significant difference in dispersal distance was not due to differences in biome, taxonomic composition, growth form, nitrogen fixation, our inclusion of non-invasive introduced species, or our exclusion of species with human-assisted dispersal. Thus, if introduced species do have higher spread rates, it seems likely that these are driven by differences in post-dispersal processes such as germination, seedling survival, and survival to reproduction. PMID:23818991

  13. Are introduced species better dispersers than native species? A global comparative study of seed dispersal distance.

    PubMed

    Flores-Moreno, Habacuc; Thomson, Fiona J; Warton, David I; Moles, Angela T

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first global test of the idea that introduced species have greater seed dispersal distances than do native species, using data for 51 introduced and 360 native species from the global literature. Counter to our expectations, there was no significant difference in mean or maximum dispersal distance between introduced and native species. Next, we asked whether differences in dispersal distance might have been obscured by differences in seed mass, plant height and dispersal syndrome, all traits that affect dispersal distance and which can differ between native and introduced species. When we included all three variables in the model, there was no clear difference in dispersal distance between introduced and native species. These results remained consistent when we performed analyses including a random effect for site. Analyses also showed that the lack of a significant difference in dispersal distance was not due to differences in biome, taxonomic composition, growth form, nitrogen fixation, our inclusion of non-invasive introduced species, or our exclusion of species with human-assisted dispersal. Thus, if introduced species do have higher spread rates, it seems likely that these are driven by differences in post-dispersal processes such as germination, seedling survival, and survival to reproduction.

  14. Applications of KinetiSol dispersing for the production of plasticizer free amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    DiNunzio, James C; Brough, Chris; Miller, Dave A; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2010-06-14

    Thermal manufacturing methods for the production of solid dispersions frequently require the addition of a plasticizer in order to achieve requisite molten material flow properties when processed by unit operations such as hot melt extrusion. KinetiSol Dispersing, a rapid high energy thermal manufacturing process, was investigated for the ability to produce amorphous solid dispersions without the aid of a plasticizer. For this study itraconazole was used as a model active ingredient, while Eudragit L100-55 and Carbomer 974P were used as model solid dispersion carriers. Triethyl citrate (TEC) was used as necessary as a model plasticizer. Compositions prepared by KinetiSol Dispersing and hot melt extrusion were evaluated for solid state properties, supersaturated in vitro dissolution behavior under pH change conditions and accelerated stability performance. Results showed that both manufacturing processes were capable of producing amorphous solid dispersions, however compositions produced by hot melt extrusion required the presence of TEC and yielded a glass transition temperature (T(g)) of approximately 54 degrees C. Plasticized and unplasticized compositions were successfully produced by KinetiSol Dispersing, with plasticizer free solid dispersions exhibiting a T(g) of approximately 101 degrees C. Supersaturated in vitro dissolution testing revealed a significantly higher dissolution rate of plasticized material which was attributed to the pore forming behavior of TEC during the acidic phase of testing. A further contribution to release may also have been provided by the greater diffusivity in the plasticized polymer. X-ray diffraction testing revealed that under accelerated stability conditions, plasticized compositions exhibited partial recrystallization, while plasticizer free materials remained amorphous throughout the 6-month testing period. These results demonstrated that KinetiSol Dispersing could be used for the production of amorphous solid dispersions

  15. Using Dispersed Modes During Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C.; Hathcock, Megan L.

    2017-01-01

    The model correlation process for the modal characteristics of a launch vehicle is well established. After a test, parameters within the nominal model are adjusted to reflect structural dynamics revealed during testing. However, a full model correlation process for a complex structure can take months of man-hours and many computational resources. If the analyst only has weeks, or even days, of time in which to correlate the nominal model to the experimental results, then the traditional correlation process is not suitable. This paper describes using model dispersions to assist the model correlation process and decrease the overall cost of the process. The process creates thousands of model dispersions from the nominal model prior to the test and then compares each of them to the test data. Using mode shape and frequency error metrics, one dispersion is selected as the best match to the test data. This dispersion is further improved by using a commercial model correlation software. In the three examples shown in this paper, this dispersion based model correlation process performs well when compared to models correlated using traditional techniques and saves time in the post-test analysis.

  16. Does Environmental Knowledge Inhibit Hominin Dispersal?

    PubMed

    Wren, Colin D; Costopoulos, Andre

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between the dispersal potential of a hominin population, its local-scale foraging strategies, and the characteristics of the resource environment using an agent-based modeling approach. In previous work we demonstrated that natural selection can favor a relatively low capacity for assessing and predicting the quality of the resource environment, especially when the distribution of resources is highly clustered. That work also suggested that the more knowledge foraging populations had about their environment, the less likely they were to abandon the landscape they know and disperse into novel territory. The present study gives agents new individual and social strategies for learning about their environment. For both individual and social learning, natural selection favors decreased levels of environmental knowledge, particularly in low-heterogeneity environments. Social acquisition of detailed environmental knowledge results in crowding of agents, which reduces available reproductive space and relative fitness. Agents with less environmental knowledge move away from resource clusters and into areas with more space available for reproduction. These results suggest that, rather than being a requirement for successful dispersal, environmental knowledge strengthens the ties to particular locations and significantly reduces the dispersal potential as a result. The evolved level of environmental knowledge in a population depends on the characteristics of the resource environment and affects the dispersal capacity of the population.

  17. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Mohammad Reza; Firouzjah, Ahmad; Rahnama, Reyhaneh

    2013-11-15

    In this research, a novel extraction technique termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (SADSPE) was developed for the first time. The new method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample to maximize the contact surface. In this method, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by injecting a solution of the sorbent into the aqueous sample. Thereby, a cloudy solution formed. The cloudy state resulted from the dispersion of the fine particles of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifugation and the enriched analyte in the sedimented phase could be determined by instrumental methods. The performance of SADSPE was illustrated with the determination of the trace amounts of cobalt(II) as a test analyte in food and environmental water samples by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry detection. Some key parameters for SADSPE, such as sorbent selection and amount, type and volume of dispersive solvent, pH, chelating agent concentration, and salt concentration, were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, good limit of detection (as low as 0.2 µg L(-1)) and repeatability of extraction (RSD below 2.2%, n=10) was obtained. The accuracy of the method was tested with standard reference material (SRM-1643e and SRM-1640a) and spiked addition. The advantages of SADSPE method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, high recovery, and enrichment factor.

  18. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kimball, Rebecca T.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Alborn, Hans T.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant–animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity. PMID:20679219

  19. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Lomáscolo, Silvia B; Levey, Douglas J; Kimball, Rebecca T; Bolker, Benjamin M; Alborn, Hans T

    2010-08-17

    Seed dispersal by vertebrates is one of the most common and important plant-animal mutualisms, involving an enormous diversity of fruiting plants and frugivorous animals. Even though plant reproduction depends largely on seed dispersal, evolutionary ecologists have been unable to link co-occurring traits in fruits with differences in behavior, physiology, and morphology of fruit-eating vertebrates. Hence, the origin and maintenance of fruit diversity remains largely unexplained. Using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative test with unbiased estimates of odor and color in figs, we demonstrate that fruit traits evolve in concert and as predicted by differences in the behavior, physiology (perceptive ability) and morphology of their frugivorous seed dispersers. The correlated evolution of traits results in the convergence of general appearance of fruits in species that share disperser types. Observations at fruiting trees independently confirmed that differences in fig traits predict differences in dispersers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that differences among frugivores have shaped the evolution of fruit traits. More broadly, our results underscore the importance of mutualisms in both generating and maintaining biodiversity.

  20. Drug-induced spatial dispersion of repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Antzelevitch, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Spatial dispersion of repolarization in the form of transmural, trans-septal and apico-basal dispersion of repolarization creates voltage gradients that inscribe the J wave and T wave of the ECG. Amplification of this spatial dispersion of repolarization (SDR) underlies the development of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias associated with inherited or acquired ion channelopathies giving rise to the long QT, short QT and Brugada syndromes (BrS). This review focuses on the role of spatial dispersion of repolarization in drug-induced arrhythmogenesis associated with the long QT and BrS. In the long QT syndrome, drug-induced amplification of SDR is often secondary to preferential prolongation of the action potential duration (APD) of M cells, whereas in the BrS, it is thought to be due to selective abbreviation of the APD of right ventricular epicardium. Among the challenges ahead is the identification of a means to quantitate SDR non-invasively. This review also discusses the value of the interval between the peak and end of the T wave (Tpeak–Tend, Tp–Te) as an index of SDR and transmural dispersion of repolarization, in particular. PMID:18651395

  1. NEXT Ion Thruster Performance Dispersion Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The NEXT ion thruster is a low specific mass, high performance thruster with a nominal throttling range of 0.5 to 7 kW. Numerous engineering model and one prototype model thrusters have been manufactured and tested. Of significant importance to propulsion system performance is thruster-to-thruster performance dispersions. This type of information can provide a bandwidth of expected performance variations both on a thruster and a component level. Knowledge of these dispersions can be used to more conservatively predict thruster service life capability and thruster performance for mission planning, facilitate future thruster performance comparisons, and verify power processor capabilities are compatible with the thruster design. This study compiles the test results of five engineering model thrusters and one flight-like thruster to determine unit-to-unit dispersions in thruster performance. Component level performance dispersion analyses will include discharge chamber voltages, currents, and losses; accelerator currents, electron backstreaming limits, and perveance limits; and neutralizer keeper and coupling voltages and the spot-to-plume mode transition flow rates. Thruster level performance dispersion analyses will include thrust efficiency.

  2. EMAT enhanced dispersion of particles in liquid

    DOEpatents

    Kisner, Roger A.; Rios, Orlando; Melin, Alexander M.; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz; Wilgen, John B.

    2016-11-29

    Particulate matter is dispersed in a fluid material. A sample including a first material in a fluid state and second material comprising particulate matter are placed into a chamber. The second material is spatially dispersed in the first material utilizing EMAT force. The dispersion process continues until spatial distribution of the second material enables the sample to meet a specified criterion. The chamber and/or the sample is electrically conductive. The EMAT force is generated by placing the chamber coaxially within an induction coil driven by an applied alternating current and placing the chamber and induction coil coaxially within a high field magnetic. The EMAT force is coupled to the sample without physical contact to the sample or to the chamber, by another physical object. Batch and continuous processing are utilized. The chamber may be folded within the bore of the magnet. Acoustic force frequency and/or temperature may be controlled.

  3. Contrast dispersion imaging for cancer localization.

    PubMed

    Mischi, Massimo; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer growth is associated with angiogenic processes in many types of cancer. Several imaging strategies have therefore been developed that target angiogenesis as a marker for cancer localization. To this end, intravascular and extravascular tissue perfusion is typically assessed by dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) ultrasound (US) and MRI. All the proposed strategies, however, overlook important changes in the microvascular architecture that result from angiogenic processes. To overcome these limitations, we have recently introduced a new imaging strategy that analyzes the intravascular dispersion kinetics of contrast agents spreading through the microvasculature. Contrast dispersion is mainly determined by microvascular multi-path trajectories, reflecting the underlying microvascular architecture. This paper reviews the results obtained for prostate cancer localization by US and MRI dispersion imaging, also presenting the latest new developments and future perspectives.

  4. Electromagnetic energy momentum in dispersive media

    SciTech Connect

    Philbin, T. G.

    2011-01-15

    The standard derivations of electromagnetic energy and momentum in media take Maxwell's equations as the starting point. It is well known that for dispersive media this approach does not directly yield exact expressions for the energy and momentum densities. Although Maxwell's equations fully describe electromagnetic fields, the general approach to conserved quantities in field theory is not based on the field equations, but rather on the action. Here an action principle for macroscopic electromagnetism in dispersive, lossless media is used to derive the exact conserved energy-momentum tensor. The time-averaged energy density reduces to Brillouin's simple formula when the fields are monochromatic. The time-averaged momentum density for monochromatic fields corresponds to the familiar Minkowski expression DxB, but for general fields in dispersive media the momentum density does not have the Minkowski value. The results are unaffected by the debate over momentum balance in light-matter interactions.

  5. Cryptococcus gattii dispersal mechanisms, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sarah E; Bach, Paxton J; Hingston, Adrian O; Mak, Sunny; Chow, Yat; MacDougall, Laura; Kronstad, James W; Bartlett, Karen H

    2007-01-01

    Recent Cryptococcus gattii infections in humans and animals without travel history to Vancouver Island, as well as environmental isolations of the organism in other areas of the Pacific Northwest, led to an investigation of potential dispersal mechanisms. Longitudinal analysis of C. gattii presence in trees and soil showed patterns of permanent, intermittent, and transient colonization, reflecting C. gattii population dynamics once the pathogen is introduced to a new site. Systematic sampling showed C. gattii was associated with high-traffic locations. In addition, C. gattii was isolated from the wheel wells of vehicles on Vancouver Island and the mainland and on footwear, consistent with anthropogenic dispersal of the organism. Increased levels of airborne C. gattii were detected during forestry and municipal activities such as wood chipping, the byproducts of which are frequently used in park landscaping. C. gattii dispersal by these mechanisms may be a useful model for other emerging pathogens.

  6. Source estimation methods for atmospheric dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar Rao, K.

    Both forward and backward transport modeling methods are being developed for characterization of sources in atmospheric releases of toxic agents. Forward modeling methods, which describe the atmospheric transport from sources to receptors, use forward-running transport and dispersion models or computational fluid dynamics models which are run many times, and the resulting dispersion field is compared to observations from multiple sensors. Forward modeling methods include Bayesian updating and inference schemes using stochastic Monte Carlo or Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques. Backward or inverse modeling methods use only one model run in the reverse direction from the receptors to estimate the upwind sources. Inverse modeling methods include adjoint and tangent linear models, Kalman filters, and variational data assimilation, among others. This survey paper discusses these source estimation methods and lists the key references. The need for assessing uncertainties in the characterization of sources using atmospheric transport and dispersion models is emphasized.

  7. Dispersion analysis of arbitrarily cut orthorhombic crystals.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Sonja; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Uecker, Reinhard; Kwasniewski, Albert; Popp, Jürgen; Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2017-06-05

    We developed a measurement and evaluation scheme to perform dispersion analysis on arbitrarily cut orthorhombic crystals based on the schemes developed for triclinic and uniaxial crystals. As byproduct of dispersion analysis the orientations of the crystal axes are found. In contrast to the spectra of arbitrarily cut uniaxial crystals, where the fit routine has to separate two independent principal spectra, the spectra of arbitrarily cut orthorhombic crystals are a combination of three independent spectra and the evaluation scheme gets more complex. Dispersion analysis is exemplary performed on two different crystals, which show different spectral features and different levels of difficulties to evaluate. Neodymium gallate (NdGaO3) has broad overlapping reflections bands while topaz (Al2SiO4 [F, OH]2) has a quite high total number of infrared active bands.

  8. Hamiltonian description of composite fermions: Magnetoexciton dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    1999-11-01

    A microscopic Hamiltonian theory of the FQHE, developed by Shankar and myself based on the fermionic Chern-Simons approach, has recently been quite successful in calculating gaps in fractional quantum hall states, and in predicting approximate scaling relations between the gaps of different fractions. I now apply this formalism towards computing magnetoexciton dispersions (including spin-flip dispersions) in the ν=13, 25, and 37 gapped fractions, and find approximate agreement with numerical results. I also analyze the evolution of these dispersions with increasing sample thickness, modelled by a potential soft at high momenta. New results are obtained for instabilities as a function of thickness for 25 and 37, and it is shown that the spin-polarized 25 state, in contrast to the spin-polarized 13 state, cannot be described as a simple quantum ferromagnet.

  9. Migratory Birds as Global Dispersal Vectors.

    PubMed

    Viana, Duarte S; Santamaría, Luis; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-10-01

    Propagule dispersal beyond local scales has been considered rare and unpredictable. However, for many plants, invertebrates, and microbes dispersed by birds, long-distance dispersal (LDD) might be regularly achieved when mediated by migratory movements. Because LDD operates over spatial extents spanning hundreds to thousands of kilometers, it can promote rapid range shifts and determine species distributions. We review evidence supporting this widespread LDD service and propose a conceptual framework for estimating LDD by migratory birds. Although further research and validation efforts are still needed, we show that current knowledge can be used to make more realistic estimations of LDD mediated by regular bird migrations, thus refining current predictions of its ecological and evolutionary consequences.

  10. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  11. Effective spectral dispersion of refractive index modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Květoň, Milan; Richter, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    For diffraction effects inside photopolymer materials, which act as volume diffraction systems (e.g. gratings), refractive index modulation is one of the key parameters. Due to its importance it is necessary to study this parameter from many perspectives, one of which is its value for different spectral components, i.e. its spectral dispersion. In this paper, we discuss this property and present an approach to experimental and numerical extraction and analysis (via rigorous coupled wave analysis and Cauchy’s empirical relation) of the effective dispersion of refractive index modulation based on an analysis of transmittance maps measured in an angular-spectral plane. It is indicated that the inclusion of dispersion leads to a significantly better description of the real grating behavior (which is often necessary in various design implementations of diffraction gratings) and that this estimation can be carried out for all the diffraction orders present.

  12. Subduction, collision and initiation of hominin dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schattner, Uri; Lazar, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Subduction is the main driving force of plate tectonics controlling the physiography of the Earth. The northward subduction of the Sinai plate was interrupted during the Early Pleistocene when the Eratosthenes Seamount began to collide with the Cyprian arc. A series of synchronous structural deformations was triggered across the entire eastern Mediterranean, and local topography was drastically accentuation along the Levantine corridor - one of the main pathways of hominin dispersal out of Africa. However, the choice of this preferred pathway and timing of dispersal has not been resolved. Though causes for dispersal out of Africa are in debate, we show that the transition from subduction to collision in the eastern Mediterranean set the route.

  13. Ceramics containing dispersants for improved fracture toughness

    DOEpatents

    Nevitt, Michael V.; Aldred, Anthony T.; Chan, Sai-Kit

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a ceramic composition containing a new class of dispersant for hindering crack propagation by means of one or more energy-dissipative mechanisms. The composition is composed of a ceramic matrix with dispersed particles of a transformation-prone rare-earth niobate, tantalate or mixtures of these with each other and/or with a rare-earth vanadate. The dispersants, having a generic composition tRMO.sub.4, where R is a rare-earth element, B is Nb or Ta and O is oxygen, are mixed in powder form with a powder of the matrix ceramic and sintered to produce a ceramic form or body. The crack-hindering mechanisms operates to provide improved performance over a wide range of temperature and operating conditions.

  14. Ceramics containing dispersants for improved fracture toughness

    DOEpatents

    Nevitt, Michael V.; Aldred, Anthony T.; Chan, Sai-Kit

    1987-07-07

    The invention is a ceramic composition containing a new class of dispersant for hindering crack propagation by means of one or more energy-dissipative mechanisms. The composition is composed of a ceramic matrix with dispersed particles of a transformation-prone rare-earth niobate, tantalate or mixtures of these with each other and/or with a rare-earth vanadate. The dispersants, having a generic composition tRMO.sub.4, where R is a rare-earth element, B is Nb or Ta and O is oxygen, are mixed in powder form with a powder of the matrix ceramic and sintered to produce a ceramic form or body. The crack-hindering mechanisms operates to provide improved performance over a wide range of temperature and operating conditions.

  15. Origin of strong dispersion in Hubbard insulators

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Y.; Wohlfeld, K.; Moritz, B.; ...

    2015-08-10

    Using cluster perturbation theory, we explain the origin of the strongly dispersive feature found at high binding energy in the spectral function of the Hubbard model. By comparing the Hubbard and $t₋J₋3s$ model spectra, we show that this dispersion does not originate from either coupling to spin fluctuations ($∝ J$ ) or the free hopping ($∝ t$ ). Instead, it should be attributed to a long-range, correlated hopping $∝ t²/U$ which allows an effectively free motion of the hole within the same antiferromagnetic sublattice. This origin explains both the formation of the high-energy anomaly in the single-particle spectrum and themore » sensitivity of the high-binding-energy dispersion to the next-nearest-neighbor hopping $t'$ .« less

  16. Origin of strong dispersion in Hubbard insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Wohlfeld, K.; Moritz, B.; Jia, C. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Wu, K.; Chen, C. -C.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-08-10

    Using cluster perturbation theory, we explain the origin of the strongly dispersive feature found at high binding energy in the spectral function of the Hubbard model. By comparing the Hubbard and $t₋J₋3s$ model spectra, we show that this dispersion does not originate from either coupling to spin fluctuations ($∝ J$ ) or the free hopping ($∝ t$ ). Instead, it should be attributed to a long-range, correlated hopping $∝ t²/U$ which allows an effectively free motion of the hole within the same antiferromagnetic sublattice. This origin explains both the formation of the high-energy anomaly in the single-particle spectrum and the sensitivity of the high-binding-energy dispersion to the next-nearest-neighbor hopping $t'$ .

  17. Electrokinetic Flow and Dispersion in Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, Sandip

    2006-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care, and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis (which has evolved from its predecessor, slab-gel electrophoresis), the sample migrates through a single microcapillary instead of through the network of pores in a gel. A fundamental design problem is to minimize dispersion in the separation direction. Molecular diffusion is inevitable and sets a theoretical limit on the best separation that can be achieved. But in practice, there are a number of effects arising out of the interplay between fluid flow, chemistry, thermal effects, and electric fields that result in enhanced dispersion. This paper reviews the subject of fluid flow in such capillary microchannels and examines the various causes of enhanced dispersion that limit the efficiency of separation.

  18. Cryptococcus gattii Dispersal Mechanisms, British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Sarah E.; Bach, Paxton J.; Hingston, Adrian O.; Mak, Sunny; Chow, Yat; MacDougall, Laura; Kronstad, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent Cryptococcus gattii infections in humans and animals without travel history to Vancouver Island, as well as environmental isolations of the organism in other areas of the Pacific Northwest, led to an investigation of potential dispersal mechanisms. Longitudinal analysis of C. gattii presence in trees and soil showed patterns of permanent, intermittent, and transient colonization, reflecting C. gattii population dynamics once the pathogen is introduced to a new site. Systematic sampling showed C. gattii was associated with high-traffic locations. In addition, C. gattii was isolated from the wheel wells of vehicles on Vancouver Island and the mainland and on footwear, consistent with anthropogenic dispersal of the organism. Increased levels of airborne C. gattii were detected during forestry and municipal activities such as wood chipping, the byproducts of which are frequently used in park landscaping. C. gattii dispersal by these mechanisms may be a useful model for other emerging pathogens. PMID:17370515

  19. Analysis and correction of vertical dispersion in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Minty, M.

    2011-09-14

    In the context of preserving the polarization of proton beams, the source of vertical dispersion in RHIC is analyzed. Contributions to dispersion from non-coupling sources and coupling sources are compared. Based on the analysis of sources for dispersion, the right actuator for correcting dispersion is determined and a corresponding algorithm is developed.

  20. Seed dispersal potential of Asian elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna C.; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Roberts, John E.; Savini, Chution; Bauer, Jan M.; Savini, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial mega-herbivores, play an important ecological role in maintaining forest ecosystem diversity. While several plant species strongly rely on African elephants (Loxodonta africana; L. cyclotis) as seed dispersers, little is known about the dispersal potential of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut passage times (GPT). In total, 1200 ingested and non-ingested control seeds were planted in soil and in elephant dung to quantify differences in germination rates in terms of GPT and dung treatment. We used survival analysis as a novel approach to account for the right-censored nature of the data obtained from germination experiments. The average seed survival rate was 79% and the mean GPT was 35 h. The minimum and maximum GPT were 20 h and 72 h, respectively. Ingested seeds were significantly more likely to germinate and to do so earlier than non-ingested control seeds (P = 0.0002). Seeds with the longest GPT displayed the highest germination success over time. Unexpectedly, seeds planted with dung had longer germination times than those planted without. We conclude that D. indica does not solely depend on but benefits from dispersal by elephants. The declining numbers of these mega-faunal seed dispersers might, therefore, have long-term negative consequences for the recruitment and dispersal dynamics of populations of certain tree species.

  1. Swept frequency technique for dispersion measurement of microstrip lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.

    1987-01-01

    Microstrip lines used in microwave integrated circuits are dispersive. Because a microstrip line is an open structure, the dispersion can not be derived with pure TEM, TE, or TM mode analysis. Dispersion analysis has commonly been done using a spectral domain approach, and dispersion measurement has been made with high Q microstrip ring resonators. Since the dispersion of a microstrip line is fully characterized by the frequency dependent phase velocity of the line, dispersion measurement of microstrip lines requires the measurement of the line wavelength as a function of frequency. In this paper, a swept frequency technique for dispersion measurement is described.

  2. THE EFFECT OF NUCLEAR RADIATION ON DISPERSION FUEL MATERIALS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    performance of the following dispersions is discussed in the report: BeO- UO2 , BeO- UO2 -ThO2, Al2O3- UO2 , MgO- UO2 , UO2 , UC, UC2, and *U, Th)C2 U3O8 glass...and UAl3 dispersed in aluminum; UO2 , UC, and UN dispersed in stainless steel; UO2 and UO2 -Y2O3 dispersed in nickel-chromium alloys; UO2 dispersed in...niobium, UO2 dispersed in molybdenum, UO2 , UN, and UC dispersed in tungsten. The data which is summarized includes percentage of fuel by weight and

  3. Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo

    2017-04-01

    This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.

  4. A potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of a potassium Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter operating on the blue and near infrared transitions are calculated. The results show that the filter can be designed to provide high transmission, very narrow pass bandwidth, and low equivalent noise bandwidth. The Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) provides a narrow pass bandwidth (about GHz) optical filter for laser communications, remote sensing, and lidar. The general theoretical model for the FADOF has been established in our previous paper. In this paper, we have identified the optimum operational conditions for a potassium FADOF operating on the blue and infrared transitions. The signal transmission, bandwidth, and equivalent noise bandwidth (ENBW) are also calculated.

  5. Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo

    2017-02-01

    This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.

  6. Method of dispersing particulate aerosol tracer

    DOEpatents

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate aerosol tracer which comprises a particulate carrier of sheet silicate composition having a particle size up to one micron, and a cationic dopant chemically absorbed in solid solution in the carrier. The carrier is preferably selected from the group consisting of natural mineral clays such as bentonite, and the dopant is selected from the group consisting of rare earth elements and transition elements. The tracers are dispersed by forming an aqueous salt solution with the dopant present as cations, dispersing the carriers in the solution, and then atomizing the solution under heat sufficient to superheat the solution droplets at a level sufficient to prevent reagglomeration of the carrier particles.

  7. Dispersion analysis with inverse dielectric function modelling.

    PubMed

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G; Ivanovski, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-11-05

    We investigate how dispersion analysis can profit from the use of a Lorentz-type description of the inverse dielectric function. In particular at higher angles of incidence, reflectance spectra using p-polarized light are dominated by bands from modes that have their transition moments perpendicular to the surface. Accordingly, the spectra increasingly resemble inverse dielectric functions. A corresponding description can therefore eliminate the complex dependencies of the dispersion parameters, allow their determination and facilitate a more accurate description of the optical properties of single crystals.

  8. Using Dispersed Modes During Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric; Hathcock, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Using model dispersions as a starting point allows us to quickly adjust a model to reflect new test data: a) The analyst does a lot of work before the test to save time post-test. b) Creating 1000s of model dispersions to provide "coarse tuning," then use Attune to provide the "fine tuning." ?Successful model tuning on three structures: a) TAURUS. b) Ares I-X C) Cart (in backup charts). ?Mode weighting factors, matrix norm method, and XOR vs. MAC all play key roles in determining the BME. The BME process will be used on future tests: a) ISPE modal test (ongoing work). b) SLS modal test (mid 2018).

  9. Weakly relativistic dispersion of Bernstein waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Weakly relativistic effects on the dispersion of Bernstein waves are investigated for waves propagating nearly perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. Attention is focused on those large-wave-vector branches that are either weakly damped or join continuously onto weakly damped branches since these are the modes of most interest in applications. The transition between dispersion at perpendicular and oblique propagation is examined and major weakly relativistic effects can dominate even in low-temperature plasmas. A number of simple analytic criteria are obtained which delimit the ranges of harmonic number and propagation angle within which various types of weakly damped Bernstein modes can exist.

  10. The enhanced stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets by Xanthan Gum as an additive of chemical dispersant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiqin; Li, Yiming; Yang, Xiaolong; Bao, Mutai; Cheng, Hua

    2017-03-07

    It is necessary for chemical dispersant to disperse oil effectively and maintain the stability of oil droplets. In this work, Xanthan Gum (XG) was used as an environmentally friendly additive in oil dispersant formulation to enhance the stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets. When XG was used together with chemical dispersant 9500A, the dispersion effectiveness of crude oil in artificial sea water (ASW) and the oil droplet stability were both greatly enhanced. In the presence of XG, lower concentration of 9500A was needed to achieve the effective dispersion and stabilization. In addition to the enhancement of dispersion and stabilization, it was found that the biodegradation rate of crude oil by bacteria was dramatically enhanced when a mixture of 9500A and XG was used as a dispersant. Because of the low environmental impact of XG, this would be a potential way to formulate the dispersant with lower toxicity.

  11. Characterizing short dispersion-length fiber via dispersive virtual reference interferometry.

    PubMed

    Galle, Michael A; Zhu, Eric Y; Saini, Simarjeet S; Mohammed, Waleed S; Qian, Li

    2014-06-16

    The ability to characterize fibers with near-zero dispersion-length products is of considerable practical interest. We introduce dispersive virtual reference interferometry (DVRI) as a technique for the characterization of short length (<1m) fibers with near-zero disperison-length. DVRI has an accuracy equivalent to standard balanced spectral interferometry (on the order of 10(−3) ps and 10(−5) ps/nm for the group delay and dispersion-length measurements respectively) but does not require wide spectral bandwidths or multiple spectral scans. Following experimental validation, the DVRI technique is used to characterize a 23.3-cm erbium-doped gain fiber (dispersion-length product <0.002 ps/nm), using a tunable laser with a bandwidth of 145 nm. Furthermore, the dispersion in a 28.6-cm commercial dispersion shifted fiber is characterized across the zero-dispersion wavelength and the zero-disperison-wavelength and slope were determined to be 1566.7 nm and 8.57 × 10(−5) ps/(nm2∙m) with a precision of ± 0.2 nm and ± 0.06 × 10(−5) ps/(nm2∙m), respectively.

  12. Fusion processing of itraconazole solid dispersions by kinetisol dispersing: a comparative study to hot melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    DiNunzio, James C; Brough, Chris; Miller, Dave A; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2010-03-01

    KinetiSol Dispersing (KSD) is a novel high energy manufacturing process investigated here for the production of pharmaceutical solid dispersions. Solid dispersions of itraconazole (ITZ) and hypromellose were produced by KSD and compared to identical formulations produced by hot melt extrusion (HME). Materials were characterized for solid state properties by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Dissolution behavior was studied under supersaturated conditions. Oral bioavailability was determined using a Sprague-Dawley rat model. Results showed that KSD was able to produce amorphous solid dispersions in under 15 s while production by HME required over 300 s. Dispersions produced by KSD exhibited single phase solid state behavior indicated by a single glass transition temperature (T(g)) whereas compositions produced by HME exhibited two T(g)s. Increased dissolution rates for compositions manufactured by KSD were also observed compared to HME processed material. Near complete supersaturation was observed for solid dispersions produced by either manufacturing processes. Oral bioavailability from both processes showed enhanced AUC compared to crystalline ITZ. Based on the results presented from this study, KSD was shown to be a viable manufacturing process for the production of pharmaceutical solid dispersions, providing benefits over conventional techniques including: enhanced mixing for improved homogeneity and reduced processing times.

  13. Dispersal-mediated coexistence of competing predators.

    PubMed

    Namba, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Chiemi

    2004-08-01

    Models of metapopulations have often ignored local community dynamics and spatial heterogeneity among patches. However, persistence of a community as a whole depends both on the local interactions and the rates of dispersal between patches. We study a mathematical model of a metacommunity with two consumers exploiting a resource in a habitat of two different patches. They are the exploitative competitors or the competing predators indirectly competing through depletion of the shared resource. We show that they can potentially coexist, even if one species is sufficiently inferior to be driven extinct in both patches in isolation, when these patches are connected through diffusive dispersal. Thus, dispersal can mediate coexistence of competitors, even if both patches are local sinks for one species because of the interactions with the other species. The spatial asynchrony and the competition-colonization trade-off are usual mechanisms to facilitate regional coexistence. However, in our case, two consumers can coexist either in synchronous oscillation between patches or in equilibrium. The higher dispersal rate of the superior prompts rather than suppresses the inferior. Since differences in the carrying capacity between two patches generate flows from the more productive patch to the less productive, loss of the superior by emigration relaxes competition in the former, and depletion of the resource by subsidized consumers decouples the local community in the latter.

  14. Phase space distributions tailored for dispersive media.

    PubMed

    Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Alonso, Miguel A

    2010-05-01

    New phase space distributions are proposed for describing pulse propagation in dispersive media for one spatial dimension. These distributions depend on time, position, and velocity, so that the pulse's spatial propagation or temporal evolution is described by a free-particle-like transformation followed by integration over velocity. Examples are considered for approximate Lorentz-model dielectrics and metallic waveguides.

  15. On the mathematics underlying dispersion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuda, Cecille; Labuda, Iwo

    2014-12-01

    The history of mathematical methods underlying the study of dispersion relations in physics is discussed. In particular, some misconceptions connected with a theorem known in the physics literature as Titchmarsh's Theorem are addressed. It is pointed out that the aforementioned theorem is a compilation of two well-known theorems in mathematics, the Paley-Wiener theorem and the Marcel Riesz theorem.

  16. Direct Numerical Simulations of Transient Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, M.; Valdes-Parada, F.; Wood, B.

    2008-12-01

    Transient dispersion is important in many engineering applications, including transport in porous media. A common theoretical approach involves upscaling the micro-scale mass balance equations for convection- diffusion to macro-scale equations that contain effective medium quantities. However, there are a number of assumptions implicit in the various upscaling methods. For example, results obtained from volume averaging are often dependent on a given set of length and time scale constraints. Additionally, a number of the classical models for dispersion do not fully capture the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute for a general set of initial conditions. In this work, we present direct numerical simulations of micro-scale transient mass balance equations for convection-diffusion in both capillary tubes and porous media. Special attention is paid to analysis of the influence of a new time- decaying coefficient that filters the effects of the initial conditions. The direct numerical simulations were compared to results obtained from solving the closure problem associated with volume averaging. These comparisons provide a quantitative measure of the significance of (1) the assumptions implicit in the volume averaging method and (2) the importance of the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute due to various initial conditions.

  17. An Experiment on the Dispersion of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A simplified theoretical explanation of dispersion in dielectric materials has been given and experiments have been carried out on two liquids, namely, distilled water and sunflower oil. The appendix contains a detailed description of the construction of a homemade spectrometer and hollow prism and an assessment of its suitability for the above…

  18. Swallowwort dispersal: seed tracking under field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallowwort) and V. nigrum (black swallowwort) are invasive, perennial vines found in natural areas of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Seeds of both species are primarily wind-dispersed in the form of achenes with an attached coma. For this study,...

  19. Characterization of pollutant dispersion near elongated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper presents a wind tunnel study of the effects of elongated rectangular buildings on the dispersion of pollutants from nearby stacks. The study examines the influence of source location, building aspect ratio, and wind direction on pollutant dispersion with the goal of developing improved algorithms within dispersion models. The paper also examines the current AERMOD/PRIME modeling capabilities compared to wind tunnel observations. Differences in the amount of plume material entrained in the wake region downwind of a building for various source locations and source heights are illustrated with vertical and lateral concentration profiles. These profiles were parameterized using the Gaussian equation and show the influence of building/source configurations on those parameters. When the building is oriented at 45° to the approach flow, for example, the effective plume height descends more rapidly than it does for a perpendicular building, enhancing the resulting surface concentrations in the wake region. Buildings at angles to the wind cause a cross-wind shift in the location of the plume resulting from a lateral mean flow established in the building wake. These and other effects that are not well represented in many dispersion models are important considerations when developing improved algorithms to estimate the location and magnitude of concentrations downwind of elongated buildings. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposur

  20. Dispersant for aqueous slurry of coal powder

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, N.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamura, M.

    1982-05-18

    A dispersant for forming an aqueous slurry of coal powder having a good flowability, which comprises as the active ingredient at least one member selected from sulfonation products of polycyclic aromatic compounds which may have a hydrocarbon group as a substituent, salts thereof and formaldehyde condensates thereof.

  1. Wideband dispersion reversal of lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Hu, Bo; Laugier, Pascal; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely acknowledged as the most promising tools for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). However, because of the multimodal dispersion, the received guided modes usually overlap in both time and frequency, which highly complicates the mode separation and signal interpretation. The time-reversal technique can be used to realize the time recompression of the Lamb waves, but because of the multimode excitation and reception, it still may not be able to remove the mode ambiguity and achieve the pure pulse compression. With the goal of overcoming this limitation, a wideband dispersion reversal (WDR) technique is proposed. The technique makes use of a priori knowledge of the guided dispersion characteristics to synthesize the corresponding dispersion reversal excitations, which are able to selectively excite the self-compensation pure mode pulse. The theoretical basis of the technique is thoroughly described. A two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) method is employed to simulate the propagation of two fundamental Lamb modes, the symmetrical S0 and antisymmetrical A0 modes in a steel plate. The proposed method was verified through experimental investigation. Finally, the advantages and potential applications of the method are briefly discussed.

  2. New Information Dispersal Techniques for Trustworthy Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parakh, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Information dispersal algorithms (IDA) are used for distributed data storage because they simultaneously provide security, reliability and space efficiency, constituting a trustworthy computing framework for many critical applications, such as cloud computing, in the information society. In the most general sense, this is achieved by dividing data…

  3. Dynamical dispersal of primordial asteroid families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasil, P. I. O.; Roig, F.; Nesvorný, D.; Carruba, V.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M. E.

    2016-03-01

    Many asteroid families are identified and well characterized all over the main asteroid belt. Interestingly, however, none of them are older than 4 Gyr. Many mechanisms have been proposed to disperse such old primordial asteroid families that presumably have existed, but only very few have really worked. Here we present a plausible mechanism for dispersing primordial asteroid families that is based on the 5-planet instability model known as jumping Jupiter. Using two different evolutions for the jumping-Jupiter model, we have numerically integrated orbits of eight putative primordial families. Our results show that the most important effect on the asteroid families' eccentricity and inclination dispersal is that of the secular resonances, in some cases associated with the mean motion resonances. As for the semimajor axes spreading we find that the principal effect is that of close encounters with the fifth giant planet whose orbit briefly overlaps with (part of) the main belt. Therefore, the existence of a fifth giant planet with the mass comparable with that of Uranus' or Neptune's could contribute in important ways to dispersal of the primordial asteroid families. To have that effect, the interloper planet should go into and considerably interact with the asteroids during the instability phase.

  4. Angular radiation transfer in inhomogeneous dispersive media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, E. A.; El Ghazaly, A. A.; Krim, M. S. Abdel

    1988-10-01

    The equation of radiative transfer for an inhomogeneous dispersive finite medium subject to general boundary conditions is solved. The Padé approximation technique is used to calculate the angular distribution of radiation. Numerical results for the [0/1] Padé approximant lead to numerical results that compare with the exact results.

  5. Mars Exploration Rovers Landing Dispersion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knocke, Philip C.; Wawrzyniak, Geoffrey G.; Kennedy, Brian M.; Desai, Prasun N.; Parker, TImothy J.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Kass, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Landing dispersion estimates for the Mars Exploration Rover missions were key elements in the site targeting process and in the evaluation of landing risk. This paper addresses the process and results of the landing dispersion analyses performed for both Spirit and Opportunity. The several contributors to landing dispersions (navigation and atmospheric uncertainties, spacecraft modeling, winds, and margins) are discussed, as are the analysis tools used. JPL's MarsLS program, a MATLAB-based landing dispersion visualization and statistical analysis tool, was used to calculate the probability of landing within hazardous areas. By convolving this with the probability of landing within flight system limits (in-spec landing) for each hazard area, a single overall measure of landing risk was calculated for each landing ellipse. In-spec probability contours were also generated, allowing a more synoptic view of site risks, illustrating the sensitivity to changes in landing location, and quantifying the possible consequences of anomalies such as incomplete maneuvers. Data and products required to support these analyses are described, including the landing footprints calculated by NASA Langley's POST program and JPL's AEPL program, cartographically registered base maps and hazard maps, and flight system estimates of in-spec landing probabilities for each hazard terrain type. Various factors encountered during operations, including evolving navigation estimates and changing atmospheric models, are discussed and final landing points are compared with approach estimates.

  6. Biologically Inspired Purification and Dispersion of SWCNTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S.; Nikolaev, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    A biologically inspired method has been developed for (1) separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from other materials (principally, amorphous carbon and metal catalysts) in raw production batches and (2) dispersing the SWCNTs as individual particles (in contradistinction to ropes and bundles) in suspension, as required for a number of applications. Prior methods of purification and dispersal of SWCNTs involve, variously, harsh physical processes (e.g., sonication) or harsh chemical processes (e.g., acid reflux). These processes do not completely remove the undesired materials and do not disperse bundles and ropes into individual suspended SWCNTs. Moreover, these processes cut long SWCNTs into shorter pieces, yielding typical nanotube lengths between 150 and 250 nm. In contrast, the present method does not involve harsh physical or chemical processes. The method involves the use of biologically derived dispersal agents (BDDAs) in an aqueous solution that is mechanically homogenized (but not sonicated) and centrifuged. The dense solid material remaining after centrifugation is resuspended by vortexing in distilled water, yielding an aqueous suspension of individual, separated SWCNTs having lengths from about 10 to about 15 microns.

  7. Dispersive solitons in magneto-optic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Guzman, Jose; Ullah, Malik Zaka; Asma, Mir; Zhou, Qin; Biswas, Anjan

    2017-03-01

    This paper obtains bright, dark and singular dispersive optical soliton solutions with magneto-optic waveguides. The governing equation is the coupled Schrödinger-Hirota equation. The existence criteria of these solitons are also presented. Both Kerr law and power law of nonlinearity are considered.

  8. Combined dispersant fluid loss control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, J. L.; Zeiner, R. N.

    1985-12-31

    Water soluble polymer compositions containing polyacrylic acid and copolymer of itaconic acid and acrylamide are useful as combined dispersant and fluid loss control additives for aqueous drilling fluids, particularly fresh water, gypsum and seawater muds. An example is a polymer composition containing about 80% by weight polyacrylic acid and about 20% by weight copolymer of itaconic acid and acrylamide in its ammonium salt form.

  9. Nonlinear dispersive similariton: spectral interferometric study

    SciTech Connect

    Zeytunyan, A S; Khachikyan, T J; Palandjan, K A; Esayan, G L; Muradyan, L Kh

    2010-06-23

    A similariton formed in a passive optical fibre is experimentally found and investigated by spectral interferometry completely characterising the complex radiation field. A nonlinear dispersive character of similariton formation leads to chirp linearisation and spectrotemporal similarity of this similariton. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  10. DISPERSIONS: PROGRESSES AND PROSPECTS. (R823301)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papers presented in this session on dispersion, rheology and mixing cover a broad
    spectrum of topics ranging from instrumentation for better characterization, to process development
    for improved stabilization, selective flocculation and dense packing, to modeling of col...

  11. MEDUSAHEAD DISPERSAL AND ESTABLISHMENT IN SAGEBRUSH STEPPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is a nonnative, winter-annual grass that reduces biodiversity and production of rangelands. To prevent medusahead invasion land managers need to know more about its invasion process. Specifically, 1) when and how far medusahead seeds disperse and...

  12. Metapopulation dynamics and the evolution of dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvinen, Kalle

    A metapopulation consists of local populations living in habitat patches. In this chapter metapopulation dynamics and the evolution of dispersal is studied in two metapopulation models defined in discrete time. In the first model there are finitely many patches, and in the other one there are infinitely many patches, which allows to incorporate catastrophes into the model. In the first model, cyclic local population dynamics can be either synchronized or not, and increasing dispersal both synchronizes and stabilizes metapopulation dynamics. On the other hand, the type of dynamics has a strong effect on the evolution of dispersal. In case of non-synchronized metapopulation dynamics, dispersal is much more beneficial than in the case of synchronized metapopulation dynamics. Local dynamics has a substantial effect also on the possibility of evolutionary branching in both models. Furthermore, with an Allee effect in the local dynamics of the second model, even evolutionary suicide can occur. It is an evolutionary process in which a viable population adapts in such a way that it can no longer persist.

  13. MODELING DISPERSANT INTERACTIONS WITH OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing a model called the EPA Research Object-Oriented Oil Spill Model (ERO3S) and associated databases to simulate the impacts of dispersants on oil slicks. Because there are features of oil slicks that align naturally with major concepts of object-oriented programmi...

  14. EPA's New Oil and Dispersant Testing Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has initiated a new component of its oil spills research program to develop baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products and toxicity and efficacy of dispersant agents. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sands are currently being t...

  15. Use of microbubble dispersion for soil scouring

    SciTech Connect

    Longe, T.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Michelsen, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Techniques for generating a microbubble dispersion (colloidal gas aphrons) have been developed. The microbubbles typically consist of 60 to 70% dispersion of 55-{micro} microbubbles in water, although dispersion up to 90 to 95% can be generated continuously. A number of laboratory soil column flow studies have been completed to define the potential of using these microbubbles to scour and release dispersed organics for subsequent pumping and removal or to enhance in situ degradation. The higher viscosity foams flow forward and fill up larger channels. The pressure drop builds up in the channel, resulting in foam flow into less accessible spill zones. In scouring hexadecane from columns containing 50- to 70-mesh sand, following a water preflush, up to 80% of the remaining organic could be flushed using a 70% CGA quality (70% air, 30% liquid). The technique was less effective at lower CGA quality. In genera, a surfactant concentration of 1,000 to 5,000 ppm was needed to generate the microbubbles.

  16. Design and development of a dust dispersion chamber to quantify the dispersibility of rock dust

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Inoka E.; Sapko, Michael J.; Harris, Marcia L.; Zlochower, Isaac A.; Weiss, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersible rock dust must be applied to the surfaces of entries in underground coal mines in order to inert the coal dust entrained or made airborne during an explosion and prevent propagating explosions. 30 CFR. 75.2 states that “… [rock dust particles] when wetted and dried will not cohere to form a cake which will not be dispersed into separate particles by a light blast of air …” However, a proper definition or quantification of “light blast of air” is not provided. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has, consequently, designed a dust dispersion chamber to conduct quantitative laboratory-scale dispersibility experiments as a screening tool for candidate rock dusts. A reproducible pulse of air is injected into the chamber and across a shallow tray of rock dust. The dust dispersed and carried downwind is monitored. The mass loss of the dust tray and the airborne dust measurements determine the relative dispersibility of the dust with respect to a Reference rock dust. This report describes the design and the methodology to evaluate the relative dispersibility of rock dusts with and without anti-caking agents. Further, the results of this study indicate that the dispersibility of rock dusts varies with particle size, type of anti-caking agent used, and with the untapped bulk density. Untreated rock dusts, when wetted and dried forming a cake that was much less dispersible than the reference rock dust used in supporting the 80% total incombustible content rule. PMID:26834390

  17. Cooperation-mediated plasticity in dispersal and colonization.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Staffan; Wehi, Priscilla; Clobert, Jean; Legrand, Delphine; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Huet, Michele; Chaine, Alexis

    2016-10-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that costly cooperative behaviors evolve most readily when directed toward kin. Dispersal plays a controversial role in the evolution of cooperation: dispersal decreases local population relatedness and thus opposes the evolution of cooperation, but limited dispersal increases kin competition and can negate the benefits of cooperation. Theoretical work has suggested that plasticity of dispersal, where individuals can adjust their dispersal decisions according to the social context, might help resolve this paradox and promote the evolution of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that conditional dispersal decisions are mediated by a cooperative strategy: we quantified the density-dependent dispersal decisions and subsequent colonization efficiency from single cells or groups of cells among six genetic strains of the unicellular Tetrahymena thermophila that differ in their aggregation level (high, medium, and low), a behavior associated with cooperation strategy. We found that the plastic reaction norms of dispersal rate relative to density differed according to aggregation level: highly aggregative genotypes showed negative density-dependent dispersal, whereas low-aggregation genotypes showed maximum dispersal rates at intermediate density, and medium-aggregation genotypes showed density-independent dispersal with intermediate dispersal rate. Dispersers from highly aggregative genotypes had specialized long-distance dispersal phenotypes, contrary to low-aggregation genotypes; medium-aggregation genotypes showing intermediate dispersal phenotype. Moreover, highly aggregation genotypes showed evidence for beneficial kin-cooperation during dispersal. Our experimental results should help to resolve the evolutionary conflict between cooperation and dispersal: cooperative individuals are expected to avoid kin-competition by dispersing long distances, but maintain the benefits of cooperation by dispersing in small groups.

  18. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    PubMed

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.

  19. A dispersion flattened tellurite composite holey fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Meisong; Duan, ZhongChao; Gao, Weiqing; Yan, Xin; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2012-02-01

    Highly nonlinear tellurite holey fiber can be transparent from visible to 5 μm. Its nonlinearity can be higher than highly nonlinear silica fiber by more than one order of magnitude. However, the dispersion of tellurite holey fiber is difficult to tailor because of the difficulties in fabrication. Tellurite glass shows a low viscosity at the fiber drawing temperature. Moreover the viscosity decreases sharply with increasing temperature. Tellurite holey fiber with a complex microstructure could be subject to heavy deformation during fabrication process. So far most tellurite highly nonlinear holey fibers just have a simple structure which results in an unflattened dispersion. It cancels the advantage of high nonlinearity greatly in practical applications. In this work we try to develop a dispersion flattened tellurite composite holey fiber (TCHF). The holey structure of the TCHF is composed of only one ring of holes, so the heavy deformation, which probably occurs for tellurite complex microstructured fiber during the fabrication process, can be avoided. Since the holey structure is simple, to improve the flexibility in tailoring dispersion, we use two kinds of tellurite glasses which have different refractive-indices to design and fabricate the TCHF. The holes are formed by two tellurite glasses. The fiber can be fabricated by a simple rod-in-tube method. By using this structure the dispersion is engineered to be the most flattened for the highly nonlinear soft glass fiber within 1.5-1.6 μm. More than one octave supercontinuum generation, mainly broadened by self phase modulation, is demonstrated by using the fabricated TCHF.

  20. Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, Genevieve B.

    The subject of this thesis is the fundamentals, implementation, and applications of Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy (CLaDS), an alternative dispersion spectroscopy technique that aims to overcome some limitations of absorption-based sensing. CLaDS preserves many of the benefits of dispersion sensing, namely baseline-free operation, immunity to received intensity, and linearity with sample concentration, and is fairly easy to implement without the need for stabilized interferometers, mode-locked lasers, and complex optical configurations required by many other dispersion-based sensors. First an introduction to CLaDS and a derivation of the spectroscopic signals are provided, highlighting fundamental similarities and differences to absorption-based sensing. Next the fundamental limit of CLaDS is investigated through analysis of the shot-noise limited performance under ideal operating conditions. This in turn allows for a theoretical and direct comparison to the shot-noise-limited performance of direct laser absorption spectroscopy (DLAS). This investigation shows that when full spectral scan fitting of realistic unknown parameters for each technique is used, both techniques demonstrate the same efficiency of parameter extraction. Following this theoretical investigation of ideal CLaDS performance, the technical details, methods of implementation, and component-introduced limitations of real-world CLaDS systems are discussed. Also included is a discussion of the first demonstration of an optical heterodyne enhanced CLaDS technique (HE-CLaDS). To overcome some of the technical limitations imposed by system instability, a modulation based technique (CM-CLaDS) was developed; the theory, optimization and noise characteristics of which are detailed. Finally, several applications of CLaDS are provided. These include atmospheric sensing, distributed sensor networks, and fiber dispersion characterization, all of which aim at demonstrating the technical advantages of the

  1. Functional crossover in the dispersion relations of magnons and phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoser, A.; Köbler, U.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental data are presented showing that the dispersion relations of magnons and acoustic phonons can consist of two sections with different functions of wave vector. In the low wave vector range a power function of wave vector often holds over a finite q-range while dispersions for larger wave vector values better approach the atomistic model predictions. In the magnon spectra ∼⃒qx power functions with exponents x=1.25, 1.5 and 2 are identified. The dispersion of the acoustic phonons can be a linear function of wave vector over a surprisingly large range of energy. Since the slope of the linear section agrees with the known sound velocities it can be concluded that the dispersion of the acoustic phonons has got attracted by the linear dispersion of the mass less Debye bosons (sound waves). Due to the different (translational) symmetries of bosons and atomistic excitations (magnons, phonons) the associated dispersions can attract each other. In the same way the different ∼⃒qx power functions in the magnon dispersions indicate that magnon dispersions are attracted by the dispersion of the bosons of the magnetic continuum (Goldstone bosons). This allows evaluation of the otherwise difficult to obtain dispersions of the Goldstone bosons from the known magnon dispersions. Interestingly, the dispersions of Goldstone bosons (Debye bosons) attract magnon dispersions (phonon dispersions) and not vice versa.

  2. The Trajectory of Dispersal Research in Conservation Biology. Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Don A.; Banks, Sam C.; Barton, Philip S.; Ikin, Karen; Lentini, Pia; Lindenmayer, David B.; Smith, Annabel L.; Berry, Laurence E.; Burns, Emma L.; Edworthy, Amanda; Evans, Maldwyn J.; Gibson, Rebecca; Heinsohn, Rob; Howland, Brett; Kay, Geoff; Munro, Nicola; Scheele, Ben C.; Stirnemann, Ingrid; Stojanovic, Dejan; Sweaney, Nici; Villaseñor, Nélida R.; Westgate, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal knowledge is essential for conservation management, and demand is growing. But are we accumulating dispersal knowledge at a pace that can meet the demand? To answer this question we tested for changes in dispersal data collection and use over time. Our systematic review of 655 conservation-related publications compared five topics: climate change, habitat restoration, population viability analysis, land planning (systematic conservation planning) and invasive species. We analysed temporal changes in the: (i) questions asked by dispersal-related research; (ii) methods used to study dispersal; (iii) the quality of dispersal data; (iv) extent that dispersal knowledge is lacking, and; (v) likely consequences of limited dispersal knowledge. Research questions have changed little over time; the same problems examined in the 1990s are still being addressed. The most common methods used to study dispersal were occupancy data, expert opinion and modelling, which often provided indirect, low quality information about dispersal. Although use of genetics for estimating dispersal has increased, new ecological and genetic methods for measuring dispersal are not yet widely adopted. Almost half of the papers identified knowledge gaps related to dispersal. Limited dispersal knowledge often made it impossible to discover ecological processes or compromised conservation outcomes. The quality of dispersal data used in climate change research has increased since the 1990s. In comparison, restoration ecology inadequately addresses large-scale process, whilst the gap between knowledge accumulation and growth in applications may be increasing in land planning. To overcome apparent stagnation in collection and use of dispersal knowledge, researchers need to: (i) improve the quality of available data using new approaches; (ii) understand the complementarities of different methods and; (iii) define the value of different kinds of dispersal information for supporting management

  3. Reversed dispersion slope photonic bandgap fibers for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Várallyay, Z; Saitoh, K; Fekete, J; Kakihara, K; Koshiba, M; Szipocs, R

    2008-09-29

    Higher-order-mode solid and hollow core photonic bandgap fibers exhibiting reversed or zero dispersion slope over tens or hundreds of nanometer bandwidths within the bandgap are presented. This attractive feature makes them well suited for broadband dispersion control in femtosecond pulse fiber lasers, amplifiers and optical parametric oscillators. The canonical form of the dispersion profile in photonic bandgap fibers is modified by a partial reflector layer/interface placed around the core forming a 2D cylindrical Gires-Tournois type interferometer. This small perturbation in the index profile induces a frequency dependent electric field distribution of the preferred propagating higher-order-mode resulting in a zero or reversed dispersion slope.

  4. Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.

    PubMed

    Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic

  5. Stable dispersions of polymer-coated graphitic nanoplatelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Nguyen, Sonbinh T. (Inventor); Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of making a dispersion of reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets involves providing a dispersion of graphite oxide nanoplatelets and reducing the graphite oxide nanoplatelets in the dispersion in the presence of a reducing agent and a polymer. The reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets are reduced to an extent to provide a higher C/O ratio than graphite oxide. A stable dispersion having polymer-treated reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets dispersed in a dispersing medium, such as water or organic liquid is provided. The polymer-treated, reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets can be distributed in a polymer matrix to provide a composite material.

  6. Tracer Dispersion Within an Urban Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Shallcross, D.; Price, C.; Nickless, G.; Simmonds, P.

    2003-12-01

    The transport and dispersion of pollutants has extremely important implications for the environment on urban, regional and global scales. At the urban level localised emissions of both biogenic and anthropogenic pollutants can directly impact the health of the inhabitants. The DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollutants and their Penetration into the Local Environment) project is a consortium of six universities, which involves a multidisciplinary approach to characterise relatively small-scale urban atmospheric dispersion including wind tunnel modelling, computer simulations, fieldwork and analysis. This work describes the tracer technology used to characterise atmospheric dispersion as well as preliminary results from the first tracer release experiment in Central London. A steady state finite duration release of both perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6 ) was performed as part of the first DAPPLE campaign. These compounds were released over a fifteen-minute integrated time period with the SF6 release staggered one and a half minutes behind the PMCH. The low background concentrations of PMCH (~ 5 x 10-3 pptv) and SF6 (~5pptv) along with non-depositing and non-reactive characteristics allow for the implementation of near ideal fluid dynamic experiments. Sampling consists of a multiport ladder fitting with solenoid valves onto which a succession of sampling bags is attached. These are electrically actuated in sequential order with an integrated sampling time of three minutes. The samplers are placed at various receptor positions in the DAPPLE zone in predefined positions designed to best validate these model simulated meteorological dispersion processes. Analysis of PMCH is carried out using sample enrichment on carbon based adsorbents, separation by capillary Gas Chromatography and Negative Ion Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry detection (GC-MS-NICI). SF6 concentrations are determined using fixed volume loop injections with Gas

  7. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces

  8. What is the required minimum landscape size for dispersal studies?

    PubMed

    Franzén, Markus; Nilsson, Sven G

    2007-11-01

    Among small animals dispersal parameters are mainly obtained by traditional methods using population studies of marked individuals. Dispersal studies may underestimate the rate and distance of dispersal, and be biased because of aggregated habitat patches and a small study area. The probability of observing long distance dispersal events decreases with distance travelled by the organisms. In this study a new approach is presented to solve this methodological problem. An extensive mark-release-recapture programme was performed in an area of 81 km(2) in southern Sweden. To estimate the required size of the study area for adequate dispersal measures we examined the effect of study area size on dispersal distance using empirical data and a repeated subsampling procedure. In 2003 and 2004, two species of diurnal burnet moths (Zygaenidae) were studied to explore dispersal patterns. The longest confirmed dispersal distance was 5600 m and in total 100 dispersal events were found between habitat patches for the two species. The estimated dispersal distance was strongly affected by the size of the study area and the number of marked individuals. For areas less than 10 km(2) most of the dispersal events were undetected. Realistic estimates of dispersal distance require a study area of at least 50 km(2). To obtain adequate measures of dispersal, the marked population should be large, preferably over 500 recaptured individuals. This result was evident for the mean moved distance, mean dispersal distance and maximum dispersal distance. In general, traditional dispersal studies are performed in small study areas and based on few individuals and should therefore be interpreted with care. Adequate dispersal measures for insects obtained by radio-tracking and genetic estimates (gene flow) is still a challenge for the future.

  9. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10 km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not.

  10. Braze joints of dispersion strengthened copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaofeng; Bao, Tingshan; Chin, Bryan A.

    1996-10-01

    Prior attempts to join alumina dispersion strengthened alloys (GlidCop) to itself, stainless steel (SS) and other materials have been less than successful. Typically these joints show low strength and poor ductility due to the segregation of alumina particles at the braze interface. This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to develop low activation brazing alloys, fluxes and processes for vacuum, argon and air environments to join alumina dispersion strengthened copper alloys to 304 SS. Vacuum and argon experiments were conducted using a Gleeble resistance heated system. Air brazing experiments were conducted in a resistance heated furnace with active fluxes. A reactive braze alloy composition has been developed which eliminates the segregation of Al 2O 3 particles at the braze interface and produces joints with excellent strength and ductility. Wetting and mechanical properties of the braze alloys were measured. Tensile properties, microstructure, microhardness and measurements of the compositional segregation across the braze joint are discussed.

  11. Nanotube Dispersions Made With Charged Surfactant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuper, Cynthia; Kuzma, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Dispersions (including monodispersions) of nanotubes in water at relatively high concentrations have been formulated as prototypes of reagents for use in making fibers, films, and membranes based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Other than water, the ingredients of a dispersion of this type include one or more charged surfactant(s) and carbon nanotubes derived from the HiPco(TradeMark) (or equivalent) process. Among reagents known to be made from HiPco(TradeMark)(or equivalent) SWNTs, these are the most concentrated and are expected to be usable in processing of bulk structures and materials. Test data indicate that small bundles of SWNTs and single SWNTs at concentrations up to 1.1 weight percent have been present in water plus surfactant. This development is expected to contribute to the growth of an industry based on applied carbon nanotechnology. There are expected to be commercial applications in aerospace, avionics, sporting goods, automotive products, biotechnology, and medicine.

  12. Phonon dispersion relation of metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Daniel; Bruna, Pere; Valles, Araceli; Pineda, Eloi

    2016-10-01

    Experimental data on the phase sound speed of metallic glasses show anomalies in the terahertz range, reflecting an underlying complex behavior of their phonon dispersion spectrum not yet explained. We determine the phonon dispersion curve of metallic glasses by means of massive molecular dynamics simulations, allowing us to obtain the low-q region behavior with unprecedented detail. Results confirm that the sound speed is constant below the THz range, down to the macroscopic limit. On the contrary, a hardening of the sound speed, more notable in the transverse case, is found in the THz range. This behavior is modeled in terms of a relaxation model. The model gives quantitative agreement and allows us to determine a new threshold frequency ωh, at the end of the boson-peak region. Above ωh the shear modulus increases dramatically, reflecting the end of the amorphous-like acoustic propagation region characterized by the excess density of vibrational states.

  13. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Planetary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J; Harbeck, D; Lloyd, J

    2005-07-06

    We describe a plan to study the radial velocity of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using a combination of interferometry and multichannel dispersive spectroscopy, Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI). The EDI technology allows implementation of precision velocimetry and spectroscopy on existing moderate-resolution echelle or linear grating spectrograph over their full and simultaneous bandwidth. We intend to add EDI to the new Cornell TripleSpec infrared simultaneous JHK-band spectrograph at the Palomar Observatory 200'' telescope for a science-demonstration program that will allow a unique Doppler-search for planets orbiting low mass faint M, L and T type stars. The throughput advantage of EDI with a moderate resolution spectrograph is critical to achieving the requisite sensitivity for the low luminosity late L and T dwarfs.

  14. Aerated concrete with mineral dispersed reinforcing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdov, G. I.; Ilina, L. V.; Mukhina, I. N.; Rakov, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    To guarantee the production of aerated concrete with the lowest average density while ensuring the required strength it is necessary to use a silica component with a surface area of 250-300 m2 / kg. The article presents experimental data on grinding the silica component together with clinker to the optimum dispersion. This allows increasing the strength of non-autoclaved aerated concrete up to 33%. Furthermore, the addition to aerated concrete the mixture of dispersed reinforcing agents (wollastonite, diopside) and electrolytes with multiply charged cations and anions (1% Fe2 (SO4)3; Al2 (SO4)3) provides the growth of aerated concrete strength at 30 - 75%. As a cohesive the clinker, crushed together with silica and mineral supplements should be used. This increases the strength of aerated concrete at 65% in comparing with Portland cement.

  15. Morphomechanical Innovation Drives Explosive Seed Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Hofhuis, Hugo; Moulton, Derek; Lessinnes, Thomas; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Bomphrey, Richard J; Mosca, Gabriella; Reinhardt, Hagen; Sarchet, Penny; Gan, Xiangchao; Tsiantis, Miltos; Ventikos, Yiannis; Walker, Simon; Goriely, Alain; Smith, Richard; Hay, Angela

    2016-06-30

    How mechanical and biological processes are coordinated across cells, tissues, and organs to produce complex traits is a key question in biology. Cardamine hirsuta, a relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, uses an explosive mechanism to disperse its seeds. We show that this trait evolved through morphomechanical innovations at different spatial scales. At the organ scale, tension within the fruit wall generates the elastic energy required for explosion. This tension is produced by differential contraction of fruit wall tissues through an active mechanism involving turgor pressure, cell geometry, and wall properties of the epidermis. Explosive release of this tension is controlled at the cellular scale by asymmetric lignin deposition within endocarp b cells-a striking pattern that is strictly associated with explosive pod shatter across the Brassicaceae plant family. By bridging these different scales, we present an integrated mechanism for explosive seed dispersal that links evolutionary novelty with complex trait innovation. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  16. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Papke, R. Thane; Corral, Paulina; Ram-Mohan, Nikhil; de la Haba, Rafael R.; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Makkay, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation) are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria. PMID:25997110

  17. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Precision Radial Velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Muterspaugh, M W; Edelstein, J; Lloyd, J; Herter, T; Feuerstein, W M; Muirhead, P; Wishnow, E

    2007-03-27

    Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is the series combination of a fixed-delay field-widened Michelson interferometer with a dispersive spectrograph. This combination boosts the spectrograph performance for both Doppler velocimetry and high resolution spectroscopy. The interferometer creates a periodic spectral comb that multiplies against the input spectrum to create moire fringes, which are recorded in combination with the regular spectrum. The moire pattern shifts in phase in response to a Doppler shift. Moire patterns are broader than the underlying spectral features and more easily survive spectrograph blurring and common distortions. Thus, the EDI technique allows lower resolution spectrographs having relaxed optical tolerances (and therefore higher throughput) to return high precision velocity measurements, which otherwise would be imprecise for the spectrograph alone.

  18. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  19. Dispersion-free radial transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.

    2011-04-12

    A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

  20. Highly dispersible disk-like graphene nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakilas, Vasilios; Vrettos, Katerina; Katomeri, Katerina; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Dimos, Konstantinos; Gournis, Dimitris; Zboril, Radek

    2015-09-01

    We present the preparation of disk-like graphene nanoflakes, highly dispersible in dimethylformamide (DMF), with uniform size and thickness. The preparation procedure includes an overnight mild sonication of natural graphite in DMF, followed by a purification step using ultra-centrifugation. The mean diameter of the as produced well defined round shaped graphene nanoflakes is about 100 nm and they consisted of less than twenty graphenic layers.We present the preparation of disk-like graphene nanoflakes, highly dispersible in dimethylformamide (DMF), with uniform size and thickness. The preparation procedure includes an overnight mild sonication of natural graphite in DMF, followed by a purification step using ultra-centrifugation. The mean diameter of the as produced well defined round shaped graphene nanoflakes is about 100 nm and they consisted of less than twenty graphenic layers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04422g

  1. Calculating the Phonon Dispersion From First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Frank; O'Hara, Andy; Slepko, Alexander; Demkov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this project was to construct a user-friendly tool that can compute the phonon dispersion for any solid with a periodic crystal structure. The phonon dispersion describes the crystal's vibrational properties and thermodynamic properties of the solid. Using the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) we compute the forces between the atoms. Assuming harmonic approximation we numerically evaluate force constant matrix. The lattice Fourier transform of the force constants yields the dynamical matrix, whose eigenvalues and eigenvectors represent the allowed phonon frequencies and displacement patterns for specific k-vectors. Our code then plots the frequencies along high symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone. We will present our results for silicon, GaAs and ZrO2.

  2. Dispersed phase effects on boundary layer turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, David; Helgans, Brian

    2016-11-01

    In natural and environmental settings, turbulence is often seeded with some sort of dispersed phase: dust, rain, snow, sediment, etc. Depending on the circumstances, elements of the dispersed phase can participate in both dynamic and thermodynamic coupling, thereby altering the turbulent transfer of heat, moisture, and momentum through several complex avenues. In this study, evaporating droplets are two-way coupled to turbulent wall-bounded flow via direct numerical simulation (DNS) and Lagrangian point particle tracking, and we are specifically interested in the wall-normal transport of momentum, heat, and moisture. Our studies show that particles can carry significant portions of all three, and that this is a strong function of the particle Stokes number. These findings are interpreted in the context of environmental flows and the practical implications will be discussed. The authors acknowledge the National Science Foundation for funding under Grant #AGS-1429921.

  3. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  4. Bouncing universe with modified dispersion relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, employing the modified dispersion relation, we have derived the general modified Friedmann equations and the corresponding modified entropy relations for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) Universe. In this setup, we find that when the big bounce happens, its energy scale and its corresponding modified entropy behavior are sensitive to the value of k. In contrast to the previous work with k=0, our work mainly demonstrates that the bouncing behavior for the closed Universe with k=1 appears at the normal energy limit of the modified dispersion relation introduced, and when bouncing phenomenon is in presence, its modified entropy is just equal to zero. Surprisingly, when k=-1, the bouncing behavior is in absence.

  5. Dispersive Fourier transformation femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobner, Sven; Fallnich, Carsten

    2016-11-01

    We present the first proof-of-principle spectroscopic measurements with purely passive dispersive Fourier transformation femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering. In femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering, the full Raman scattering spectrum is efficiently obtained, as all Raman transitions are coherently excited with the combination of a narrow-bandwidth and a broad-bandwidth (femtosecond) pulse at once. Currently, the detection speed of the spectra is limited by the read-out time of classical, comparably slow CCD-based spectrometers. We show a reduction in the acquisition time of Raman signatures by applying the dispersive Fourier transformation, a method employing wavelength-to-time transformation, in order to record the spectral composition of a single pulse with a single fast photodiode. This arrangement leads to an acquisition time of Raman signatures, scaling inversely with the repetition frequency of the applied laser system, which in our case corresponds to the order of microseconds.

  6. Composite materials with improved phyllosilicate dispersion

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-09-14

    The present invention provides phyllosilicates edge modified with anionic surfactants, composite materials made from the edge modified phyllosilicates, and methods for making the same. In various embodiments the phyllosilicates are also surface-modified with hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) modifying agents, polymeric hydrotropes, and antioxidants. The invention also provides blends of edge modified phyllosilicates and semicrystalline waxes. The composite materials are made by dispersing the edge modified phyllosilicates with polymers, particularly polyolefins and elastomers.

  7. Method and apparatus for time dispersive spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Tarver, III, Edward E.; Siems, William F.

    2003-06-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for time dispersive spectroscopy. In particular, a modulated flow of ionized molecules of a sample are introduced into a drift region of an ion spectrometer. The ions are subsequently detected by an ion detector to produce an ion detection signal. The ion detection signal can be modulated to obtain a signal useful in assaying the chemical constituents of the sample.

  8. Atmospheric Dispersion of High Velocity Jets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    jet "penetrates" the atmosphere before coming essentially to rest relative to the ambient wind. Stationary sources such as engine run up test staids...used to non-dimensionalize or standardize the abscissa of the temperature profile. The standard deviations are ta- bulated in Tables I, II and III for...incidence was in- creased, the length normal to the wind direction where the dispersion tribution was essentially uniform (ie. sigma approaches infinity

  9. Relativistic radiation transport in dispersive media

    SciTech Connect

    Kichenassamy, S.; Krikorian, R.A.

    1985-10-15

    A general-relativistic radiative transfer equation in an isotropic, weakly absorbing, nonmagnetized dispersive medium is derived using the kinetic-theoretical approach and the relativistic Hamiltonian theory of geometrical optics in those media. It yields the generally accepted classical equation in the special-relativistic approximation and in stationary conditions. The influence of the gravitational field and of space-time variations of the refractive index n on the radiation distribution is made explicit in the case of spherical symmetry.

  10. Riparian seed dispersal: transport and depositional processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnings, A.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.

    2012-04-01

    Riparian tree population dynamics are linked to the physical processes controlled by the hydrogeomorphic setting. In particular, fluvial seed dispersal is influenced by a combination of factors including the hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and seed dispersal traits. This study examines the influence of stream flow patterns on the transportation and deposition of buoyant seeds by applying a one dimensional transport model. Conceptually, the model separates the stream into two components: the main channel and transient storage /deposition zones. The hydrologic processes are governed by an advection-dispersion equation and numerically solved using the Crank-Nicolson method. Additional terms in the equation allow for model variation in the flow regime (lateral inflow and outflow) and the incorporation of a transient storage/deposition component where seeds may be detained. The model parameters are based on a bedrock-gravel bed river with pool-riffle morphology where we conducted field experimentation in Coastal Northern California. The riparian zone of the study reach is inhabited by White Alder (Alnus rhombifolia) which disperses buoyant seeds in late winter/early spring coinciding with the latter part of the wet, Mediterranean climate. Artificial seeds with similar characteristic traits of buoyancy, density and Bond Number to White Alder seeds were used to quantify transport times and identify storage areas. The model output captures a greater number of seeds during a receding hydrograph due to the increase in transient storage. Typically, this is found in shallow stream margins where the flow is divergent such as areas with back-eddies. In the field, this is associated with the ends of gravel bars or riffles where flow expansion causes secondary flows. The results demonstrate the importance of transient storage for seed transport and depositional processes and emphasize the need for improved measurement techniques, in lieu of empirical coefficients, to advance the

  11. DISPERSION STRENGTHENED NICKEL-BASE ALLOYS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The swaged cone of extruded Nichrome-thoria alloys prepared by the thermal decomposition of thorium nitrate onto alloy powder indicated descreased... swaging of these dispersion-strengthened Nichrome alloys was dependent on the presence of a mild steel jacket on the alloy rod as a result of the canned...extrusion practice. Efforts to cold swage the alloy materials without this jacket were unsuccessful. (Author)

  12. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    PubMed

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  13. Colorimetric estimation of phospholipids in aqueous dispersions.

    PubMed

    Hallen, R M

    1980-05-01

    A method for the estimation of phospholipids in aqueous dispersions is described. The method is based on the formation of a lipid-molybdenum blue complex, which is extracted into chloroform from the aqueous phase. Phosphate ions, detergents, proteins, neutral lipids and various other ions do not interfere in the lipid estimation. The method is sensitive down to a lipid concentration of 0.1 mumol/ml, with an accuracy better than +/- 3%.

  14. Network traffic analysis using dispersion patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, F. N.

    2010-03-15

    The Verilog code us used to map a measurement solution on FPGA to analyze network traffic. It realizes a set of Bloom filters and counters, besides associated control logic that can quickly measure statistics like InDegree, OutDegree, Depth, in the context of Traffic Dispersion Graphs. Such patterns are helpful in classification of network activity, like Peer to Peer and Port-Scanning, in the traffic.

  15. Time Dispersive Spectrometer Using Digital Switching Means

    DOEpatents

    Tarver, III, Edward E.; Siems, William F.

    2004-09-07

    Methods and apparatus are described for time dispersive spectroscopy. In particular, a modulated flow of ionized molecules of a sample are introduced into a drift region of an ion spectrometer. The ions are subsequently detected by an ion detector to produce an ion detection signal. The ion detection signal can be modulated to obtain a signal useful in assaying the chemical constituents of the sample.

  16. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    at which the modes are well separated in time. The objective here is to investigate the use of time warping as a means to resolve modes at much...shorter ranges. Time warping involves transforming the initial time-frequency domain to a new domain in which the modal dispersion relationships are...single tones. Warping is not strongly sensitive to precise knowledge of the experimental geometry (i.e. the source range), and enables resolution of

  17. Aqueous solution dispersement of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are dispersed in an aqueous buffer solution consisting of at least 50 weight percent water and a remainder weight percent that includes a buffer material. The buffer material has a molecular structure defined by a first end, a second end, and a middle disposed between the first and second ends. The first end is a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatomes, the middle is a hydrophobic alkyl chain, and the second end is a charged group.

  18. Dispersion of plutonium from contaminated pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Cleveland, J.M.; Carl, Gottschall W.

    1978-01-01

    Sediment-water distributions of plutonium as a function of pH and contact time are investigated in a holding pond at the Rocky Flats plant of the Department of Energy. Although plutonium has been shown to sorb from natural waters onto sediments, the results of this study indicate that under the proper conditions it can be redispersed at pH 9 and above. Concentrations greater than 900 pCi Pu/L result after 34 h contact at pH 11 or 12 and the distribution coefficient, defined as the ratio of concentration in the sediment to that in the liquid, decreases from 1.1 ?? 105 at pH 7 to 1.2 ?? 103 at pH 11. The plutonium is probably dispersed as discrete colloids or as hydrolytic species adsorbed onto colloidal sediment particles whose average size decreases with increasing pH above pH 9. About 5% of the total plutonium is dispersed at pH 12, and the dispersion seems to readsorb on the sediment with time. Consequently, migration of plutonium from the pond should be slow, and it would be difficult to remove this element completely from pond sediment by leaching with high pH solutions. ?? 1978 American Chemical Society.

  19. Casein Micelle Dispersions under Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bouchoux, Antoine; Cayemitte, Pierre-Emerson; Jardin, Julien; Gésan-Guiziou, Geneviève; Cabane, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Casein micelles dispersions have been concentrated and equilibrated at different osmotic pressures using equilibrium dialysis. This technique measured an equation of state of the dispersions over a wide range of pressures and concentrations and at different ionic strengths. Three regimes were found. i), A dilute regime in which the osmotic pressure is proportional to the casein concentration. In this regime, the casein micelles are well separated and rarely interact, whereas the osmotic pressure is dominated by the contribution from small residual peptides that are dissolved in the aqueous phase. ii), A transition range that starts when the casein micelles begin to interact through their κ-casein brushes and ends when the micelles are forced to get into contact with each other. At the end of this regime, the dispersions behave as coherent solids that do not fully redisperse when osmotic stress is released. iii), A concentrated regime in which compression removes water from within the micelles, and increases the fraction of micelles that are irreversibly linked to each other. In this regime the osmotic pressure profile is a power law of the residual free volume. It is well described by a simple model that considers the micelle to be made of dense regions separated by a continuous phase. The amount of water in the dense regions matches the usual hydration of proteins. PMID:19167314

  20. A novel molluscicide, corrosion inhibitor, and dispersant

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuser, R.T.; Vanlaer, A.; Damour, A.

    1997-12-01

    The efficacy of filming amines as corrosion inhibitors and dispersants in steam systems is well-documented. A novel formulation retains these functions of traditional filming amines and adds molluscicide capability for controlling macrofouling in fresh water and sea water. Criteria for this development included low toxicity to mammals and to non-target aquatic species, rapid biodegradation, and multifunctionality. Low mammalian toxicity and lack of other hazards exempt it from reporting requirements under SARA Title 3. Toxicity (LC{sub 50}) levels for rainbow trout and fathead minnow are higher than typical dosage rates. Biodegradation is rapid; half life is 22 hours in river water. By effectively dispersing slimes (along with biofilm, scale, and tubercles), it controls slimes without toxicity to biofilm organisms. As corrosion inhibitor, it reduces the open cell potential of metal surfaces by 50--200 millivolts and retards pitting and crevice corrosion. Its molluscicide activity gradually kills and disperses mussels, clams, and barnacles. The protective film, renewed by dosage for a brief period of time each day, proactively prevents scale and slime deposits and repels settling and adhesion by macrofouling species. Refinement of established technology has produced a multi-functional formulation that is safe to handle and has minimal impact on the environment.

  1. Dispersion effects of Raman lines in carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaoxiang; Huang, Xuejie; Xue, Rongjian; Chen, Liquan

    1998-07-01

    Raman spectra of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), natural polycrystalline graphite (PCG), high pressure graphite (HPG), and low-temperature pyrolyzed polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) have been measured. Comparing the Raman spectra of each sample illuminated with laser beams of 488.0 nm and 1064.0 nm wavelengths, respectively, unambiguous dispersion effects have been observed for the D'-line in HOPG and in other forms of PCG as well as for their D lines. Comparisons of the intensity ratios of the D' line to the D line (ID'/ID) of HOPG and polycrystalline indicate that the dispersion effects of the D' line and the D line may have the same physical origin. In addition, it has also been observed that the G-line position of low-temperature pyrolyzed PFA is sensitive to the excitation wavelength while that of HOPG, PCG, and HPG is not. This phenomenon is attributed to the nanometer size of the microcrystalline graphites by analyzing the factors that may induce such a dispersion effect.

  2. Multiphase Instabilities in Explosive Dispersal of Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S. ``Bala''

    2015-11-01

    Explosive dispersal of particles is a complex multiphase phenomenon that can be observed in volcanic eruptions or in engineering applications such as multiphase explosives. As the layer of particles moves outward at high speed, it undergoes complex interactions with the blast-wave structure following the reaction of the energetic material. Particularly in this work, we are interested in the multiphase flow instabilities related to Richmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RM) instabilities (in the gas phase and particulate phase), which take place as the particle layer disperses. These types of instabilities are known to depend on initial conditions for a relatively long time of their evolution. Using a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, we study the growth of these instabilities and their dependence on initial conditions related to the particulate phase - namely, (i) particle size, (ii) initial distribution, and (iii) mass ratio (particles to explosive). Additional complexities associated with compaction of the layer of particles are avoided here by limiting the simulations to modest initial volume fraction of particles. A detailed analysis of the initial conditions and its effects on multiphase RM/RT-like instabilities in the context of an explosive dispersal of particles is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Polypropylene / MWCNT Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Saswati; Burghardt, Wesley; Ramanathan, Thillaiyan; Brinson, L. Catherine; Kasimatis, Kosmas; Torkelson, John

    2008-03-01

    Dispersions of multiwall carbon nanotubes in polypropylene are prepared via melt batch mixing and solid-state shear pulverization, and characterized via linear viscoelastic measurements, SEM, polypropylene crystallization kinetics, electrical conductivity and dynamic mechanical analysis. Increasing the intensity or duration of the melt mixing leads to higher dispersion, evidenced by increases in a low-frequency elastic plateau and accelerated PP crystallization kinetics attributed to more effective heterogeneous nucleation. The sample prepared by pulverization exhibits faster crystallization kinetics than any of the melt blended samples, but in contrast shows no measurable low frequency elastic plateau. Electrical conductivity measurements similarly show higher conductivity in melt blended samples. This may be attributable to scission of the nanotubes during pulverization, such that even well dispersed tubes cannot form an entangled network at a given concentration. At the same time, pulverized composites show marked increase in stiffness at low loadings, indicating that tube scission due to pulverization is not catastrophic. Conversely, long mixing times required in melt blending cause substantial thermal degradation of the polymer matrix with a corresponding loss of mechanical properties.

  4. Dispersion-reduction technique using subcarrier multiplexing

    SciTech Connect

    Sargis, P.D.; Haigh, R.E.; McCammon, K.G.

    1995-10-18

    We have developed a novel dispersion-reduction technique using subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) which permits the transmission of multiple 2.5 Gbit/s data channels over hundreds of kilometers of conventional fiber-optic cable with negligible dispersion. Using a lithium niobate external modulator having a modulation bandwidth of 20 GHz, we are able to multiplex several high-speed data channels at a single wavelength. At the receiving end, we demultiplex the data and detect each channel using a 2-GHz bandwidth optical detector. All of the hardware in our system consists of off-the-shelf components and can be integrated to reduce the overall cost. We demonstrated our dispersion-reduction technique in a recent field trial by transmitting two 2.5 Gbit/s data channels over 90 km of commercially-installed single-mode fiber, followed by 210 km of spooled fiber. For comparison, we substituted the 300 km of fiber with equivalent optical attenuation. We also ran computer simulations to evaluate link behavior. Technical details and field trial results will be presented.

  5. Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersal 3.2

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-26

    ERAD (Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersal) is a 3D numerical transport and diffusion model, used to model the consequences associated with the buoyant (or nonbuoyant) dispersal of radioactive material It incorporates an integral plume rise model to simulate the buoyant rise of heated gases following an explosive detonation. treating buoyancy effects from time zero onward, eliminating the need for the stabilized doud assumption, and enabling the penetration of inversions. Modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer uses contemporary parameterization based on scaling theories derived from observational, laboratory and numerical studies. A Monte Carlo stochastic process simulates particle dispersion. Results were validated for both dose and deposition against measurements taken during Operation Roller Coaster (a joint US-UK test performed at NTS). Meteorology is defined using a single vertical sounding containing wind speed and direction and temperature as a function of height. Post processing applies 50-year CEDE DCFs (either ICRP 26 or 60) to determine the contribution of the relevant dose pathways (inhalation, submersion, and ground shine) as well as the total dose received. Dose and deposition contours are overlaid on a fully integrated worldwide GIS and tabulates hearth effects (fatalities and casualties) to resident population. The software runs on a laptop and takes less than 2 minutes to process. The Municipal version of ERAD does not include the ability to model the mitigation effects of aqueous foam.

  6. Influence of surface roughness on dispersion forces.

    PubMed

    Svetovoy, V B; Palasantzas, G

    2015-02-01

    Surface roughness occurs in a wide variety of processes where it is both difficult to avoid and control. When two bodies are separated by a small distance the roughness starts to play an important role in the interaction between the bodies, their adhesion, and friction. Control of this short-distance interaction is crucial for micro and nanoelectromechanical devices, microfluidics, and for micro and nanotechnology. An important short-distance interaction is the dispersion forces, which are omnipresent due to their quantum origin. These forces between flat bodies can be described by the Lifshitz theory that takes into account the actual optical properties of interacting materials. However, this theory cannot describe rough bodies. The problem is complicated by the nonadditivity of the dispersion forces. Evaluation of the roughness effect becomes extremely difficult when roughness is comparable with the distance between bodies. In this paper we review the current state of the problem. Introduction for non-experts to physical origin of the dispersion forces is given in the paper. Critical experiments demonstrating the nonadditivity of the forces and strong influence of roughness on the interaction between bodies are reviewed. We also describe existing theoretical approaches to the problem. Recent advances in understanding the role of high asperities on the forces at distances close to contact are emphasized. Finally, some opinions about currently unsolved problems are also presented.

  7. A dispersive treatment of Kl4 decays

    DOE PAGES

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Passemar, Emilie; Stoffer, Peter

    2015-04-28

    Kl4 decays offer several reasons of interest: they allow an accurate measurement of ππ-scattering lengths; they provide the best source for the determination of some low-energy constants of xPT; one form factor is directly related to the chiral anomaly, which can be measured here. We present a dispersive treatment of Kl4 decays that provides a resummation of ππ- and Kπ-rescattering effects. In addition, the free parameters of the dispersion relation are fitted to the data of the high-statistics experiments E865 and NA48/2. The matching toxPT at NLO and NNLO enables us to determine the LECs Lr1, Lr2 and Lr3. Withmore » recently published data from NA48/2, the LEC Lr9 can be determined as well. In contrast to a pure chiral treatment, the dispersion relation describes the observed curvature of one of the form factors, which we understand as a rescattering effect beyond NNLO.« less

  8. Dispersive coherence spectrotomography of a layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    1999-05-01

    In low-coherence reflectometry, the light backscattered from a scattering medium is expected to carry information about the spectral properties as well as range information about the reflective boundaries and backscattering sites. We show two alternative techniques to extract both the range and spectral properties of the sample by optically dispersed interferograms. The methods make the most of the brightness of white-light continuum, which is generated by focusing ultrashort laser pulses into condensed matters. The output beam from an interferometer is dispersed by a spectroscopic optical element and the dispersed signal is detected by a line detector. The salient feature of the methods is that the spectral decomposition of the white-light interferograms enhances the dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio. One method is a scanning type. By translating a sample, spectrally-resolved interferograms are detected. Appropriate grouping of the interferograms yields both range and spectral properties of the sample. The other method is based on the principle of spectral radar due to Hausler. The spectrally- resolved fringes are acquired without scanning. The signal- processing allows us to display both the scattering amplitude and spectral properties within the bandwidth of the filters. Experimental results will be presented.

  9. Frequency dispersion of electrokinetically activated Janus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boymelgreen, Alicia; Balli, Tov; Yossifon, Gilad; Miloh, Touvia

    2015-11-01

    We examine the influence of the applied frequency of the electric field on the induced-charge electroosmotic flow around a metallo-dielectric Janus particle. Previously, we have used three dimensional-two component micro-particle-image-velocimetry (3D-2C μ PIV) around a stagnant particle, to illustrate the presence of a number of competing effects including dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamic flow which distort both the strength and shape of the frequency dispersion predicted for pure induced-charge effects. Here, we extend this work by examining the frequency dispersion of mobile Janus particles of different sizes (3 - 15 μm in diameter) at different electrolyte concentrations. In all cases, towards the DC limit, and in the frequency domain where previously EHD flow was shown to dominate, the velocity of a mobile particle decays to zero. At the same time significant variations in the frequency dispersion, including its shape and the value for maximum velocity are recorded as a function of both electrolyte concentration and particle size. This work is of both fundamental and practical importance and may be used to further refine non-linear electrokinetic theory and optimize the application of Janus particles as carriers in lab-on-a-chip analysis systems.

  10. Investigation of dust vertical dispersion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Hyde, Truell

    2007-11-01

    The dust acoustic wave (DAW) was first theoretically predicted in 1990 by Rao et al. [Ref] and later observed experimentally by Barkan, et al. [Ref. 2], Pieper and Goree [Ref. 3] and others. The charge on the dust, Debye length and various other fundamental complex plasma parameters can be obtained experimentally through measurement of the DAW. Since under normal laboratory conditions, ordered structures formed within a complex plasma are generally two dimensional in nature, the majority of experiments to date examining such a system's dispersion relationships have been conducted on the horizontal plane. We will present an experimental method providing for a vertical dispersion relationship measurement, and present corresponding data. References [1]. N. N. Rao, P. K. Shukla, and M. Y. Yu, ``Dust-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas,'' Planet. Space Sci. 38, 543-546 (1990). [2]. A. Barkan, R. L. Merlino, and N. D'Angelo, ``Laboratory observation of the dust-acoustic wave mode,'' Phys. Plasmas, 2, 3563-3565, 1995. [3]. J. B. Pieper, J. Goree, ``Dispersion of Plasma Dust Acoustic Waves in the Strong-Coupling Regime,'' Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 3137-3140, 1996.

  11. Dynamics of hard sphere colloidal dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, J. X.; Chaikin, Paul M.; Phan, S.-E.; Russel, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    Our objective is to perform on homogeneous, fully equilibrated dispersions the full set of experiments characterizing the transition from fluid to solid and the properties of the crystalline and glassy solid. These include measurements quantifying the nucleation and growth of crystallites, the structure of the initial fluid and the fully crystalline solid, and Brownian motion of particles within the crystal, and the elasticity of the crystal and the glass. Experiments are being built and tested for ideal microgravity environment. Here we describe the ground based effort, which exploits a fluidized bed to create a homogeneous, steady dispersion for the studies. The differences between the microgravity environment and the fluidized bed is gauged by the Peclet number Pe, which measures the rate of convection/sedimentation relative to Brownian motion. We have designed our experiment to accomplish three types of measurements on hard sphere suspensions in a fluidized bed: the static scattering intensity as a function of angle to determine the structure factor, the temporal autocorrelation function at all scattering angles to probe the dynamics, and the amplitude of the response to an oscillatory forcing to deduce the low frequency viscoelasticity. Thus the scattering instrument and the colloidal dispersion were chosen such as that the important features of each physical property lie within the detectable range for each measurement.

  12. Chandra Observations of Low Velocity Dispersion Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsdon, Stephen F.; Ponman, Trevor J.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    Deviations of galaxy groups from cluster scaling relations can be understood in terms of an excess of entropy in groups. The main effect of this excess is to reduce the density and thus the luminosity of the intragroup gas. Given this, groups should also show a steep relationship between X-ray luminosity and velocity dispersion. However, previous work suggests that this is not the case, with many measuring slopes flatter than the cluster relation. Examining the group LX-σ relation shows that much of the flattening is caused by a small subset of groups that show very high X-ray luminosities for their velocity dispersions (or vice versa). Detailed Chandra study of two such groups shows that earlier ROSAT results were subject to significant (~30%-40%) point-source contamination but confirm that a significant hot intergalactic medium is present in these groups, although these are two of the coolest systems in which intergalactic X-ray emission has been detected. Their X-ray properties are shown to be broadly consistent with those of other galaxy groups, although the gas entropy in NGC 1587 is unusually low, and its X-ray luminosity is correspondingly high for its temperature when compared with most groups. This leads us to suggest that the velocity dispersion in these systems has been reduced in some way, and we consider how this might have come about.

  13. Bacteria dispersion in microchanel containing random obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creppy, Adama; Auradou, Harold; Douarche, Carine; D'Angelo, Veronica; Nguyen, Jacky; Fluide Automatique Et Systemes Thermiques Collaboration; Laboratoire de Physique Du Solide Collaboration; Groupo de Medios Porosos, Fiuba Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Dispersion of particles in porous media is a classical problem well studied where physical laws are well established and show good agreement with experimental observations. Recently, contrary to what is thought, observations revealed that self-propelled particles under flow, orient their swimming, what is designated by the term of rheotaxis. But less is known about what happen for self-propelled particles under flow in presence of obstacles. For this purpose, we developed a specific experimental setup in order to show the coupling of bacteria E. Coli RP437 strain swimming with the presence of obstacles in the dispersion process. We chose to develop a micro-fluidic device of rectangular section of 0 . 05 μm2 containing obstacles of different sizes(10 - 150 μm) when a bacteria size is about 1 μm . Thanks to the transparency of the flow we can track hundreds of trajectories of bacteria, the analysis of which revealed that their swimming influences the dispersion when the flow velocity is of the order of their swimming velocity (10 μm / s). Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  14. Urban dispersion : challenges for fast response modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    There is renewed interest in urban dispersion modeling due to the need for tools that can be used for responding to, planning for, and assessing the consequences of an airborne release of toxic materials. Although not an everyday phenomenon, releases of hazardous gases and aerosols have occurred in populated urban environments and are potentially threatening to human life. These releases may stem from on-site accidents as in the case of industrial chemical releases, may result during transport of hazardous chemicals as in tanker truck or railroad spills, or may be premeditated as in a chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) agent terrorist attack. Transport and dispersion in urban environments is extremely complicated. Buildings alter the flow fields and deflect the wind, causing updrafts and downdrafts, channeling between buildings, areas of calm winds adjacent to strong winds, and horizontally and vertically rotating-eddies between buildings, at street corners, and other places within the urban canopy (see review by Hosker, 1984). Trees, moving vehicles, and exhaust vents among other things further complicate matters. The distance over which chemical, biological, or radiological releases can be harmful varies from tens of meters to many kilometers depending on the amount released, the toxicity of the agent, and the atmospheric conditions. As we will show later, accounting for the impacts of buildings on the transport and dispersion is crucial in estimating the travel direction, the areal extent, and the toxicity levels of the contaminant plume, and ultimately for calculating exposures to the population.

  15. USE OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS FOR MARINE OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersants are one of the tools available to oil spill response personnel to control the spread of an oil slick. The manual presents information from the literature relative to dispersant effectiveness, toxicity and other environmental factors, regulatory and administra...

  16. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  17. Gene Flow and the Measurement of Dispersal in Plant Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Marc S.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews methods of estimating pollen and seed dispersals and discusses the extent and frequency of gene exchange within and between populations. Offers suggestions for designing exercises suitable for estimating dispersal distances in natural plant populations. (ML)

  18. Chalcogenide waveguide structure for dispersion in mid-infrared wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Nandam; Lak Lee, Yeung; Shin, WooJin

    2017-03-01

    We present a waveguide design with low dispersion in mid-infrared wavelengths. The design consists of slot-strip-slot structures horizontally, the strip structure is considered with high index and slot is considered with low index material. We show a dispersion of 0–350 ps/(km·nm) over a band width of 1375 nm, and the structure shows zero dispersions at 2512 and 3887 nm wavelength. The magnitude of dispersion can be fine-tuned by varying the waveguide parameters. Such a waveguide structure with low dispersion at mid-infrared wavelengths has a great potential for supercontinuum generation application. Apart this, we have also proposed dispersion compensation structure, the structure shows a high negative dispersion at 1510 nm wavelength. The structure should find application in the design of an integrated optic dispersion compensator for optical telecommunication and ultrafast waveguide lasers.

  19. The role of spatial foresight in models of hominin dispersal.

    PubMed

    Wren, Colin D; Xue, Julian Z; Costopoulos, Andre; Burke, Ariane

    2014-04-01

    Increasingly sophisticated hominin cognition is assumed to play an important role in major dispersal events but it is unclear what that role is. We present an agent-based model showing that there is a close relationship between level of foresight, environmental heterogeneity, and population dispersibility. We explore the dynamics between these three factors and discuss how they may affect the capacity of a hominin population to disperse. Generally, we find that high levels of environmental heterogeneity select for increased foresight and that high levels of foresight tend to reduce dispersibility. This suggests that cognitively complex hominins in heterogeneous environments have low dispersibility relative to cognitively less complex organisms in more homogeneous environments. The model predicts that the environments leading up to major episodes of dispersal, such as the initial hominin dispersal into Eurasia, were likely relatively low in spatial heterogeneity and that the dispersing hominins had relatively low foresight.

  20. Dispersion, birefringence, and amplification characteristics of newly designed dispersion compensating hole-assisted fibers.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Varshney, Shailendra K; Koshiba, Masanori

    2007-12-24

    We propose a new design of hole-assisted fiber (HAF) that can compensate for the accumulated dispersion in single-mode fiber link along with dispersion slope, thus providing broadband dispersion compensation over C-band as well as can amplify the signal channels by utilizing the stimulated Raman scattering phenomena. The proposed dispersion-compensating HAF (DCHAF) exhibits the lowest dispersion coefficient of -550 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm with an effective mode area of 15.6 microm(2). A 2.52 km long module of DCHAF amplifies incoming signals by rendering a gain of 4.2 dB with +/-0.8 dB gain flatness over whole C-band. To obtain accurate modal properties of DCHAF, a full-vector finite element method (FEM) solver is employed. The macro-bend loss characteristics of the proposed DCHAF are evaluated using FEM solver in cylindrical coordinate systems of a curved DCHAF, and low bending losses (<10(-2) dB/m for 1 cm bending radius) are obtained for improved DCHAF design while keeping intact its dispersion compensation and Raman amplification properties. We have further investigated the birefringence characteristics that can give significant information on the polarization mode dispersion of DCHAF by assuming a certain deformation (eccentricity e = 7%) either in air-holes or in the doped core or in both at a same time. It is noticed that the distortion in air-holes induces a birefringence of 10(-5), which is larger by a factor of 10 than the birefringence caused due to the core ellipticity. A PMD of 11.3 ps/ radicalkm is obtained at 1550 nm for distorted air-holes DCHAF structure.

  1. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    PubMed

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  2. Detectability, philopatry, and the distribution of dispersal distances in vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koenig, Walter D.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Hooge, Philip N.

    1996-01-01

    Dispersal is of central importance to population biology, behavioral ecology and conservation. However, because field studies are based on finite study areas, nearly all dispersal distributions for vertebrates currently available are biased, often highly so. The inadequacy of dispersal data obtained directly by traditional methods using population studies of marked individuals is highlighted by comparing the resulting distributions with dispersal estimates obtained by radio-tracking and by using genetic estimates of gene flow.

  3. Design of the D0 overpass dispersion correction

    SciTech Connect

    Trbojevic, D.

    1987-10-07

    The existing D0 overpass induces a vertical dispersion wave around the Main ring with dispersion amplitudes of around 1.6 to 1.8 m. There are two major reasons to eliminate or reduce vertical dispersion induced by the D0 overpass: to lower the beam momentum dependence on vertical positions which had not existed before the overpass; and to raise the Tevatron luminosity by eliminating the dispersion mismatch between the main Ring and Tevatron. 20 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Poly(3-methylpyrrole): vibrational dynamics, phonon dispersion and heat capacity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Parvej; Srivastava, Seema; Ansari, Saif-ul-Islam; Gupta, V D

    2013-07-01

    Normal modes of vibration and their dispersions in poly(3-methylpyrrole) (P3MPy) based on the Urey-Bradley force field are reported. It provides a detailed interpretation of previously reported I.R. spectra. Characteristic features of dispersion curves, such as regions of high density-of-states, repulsion, and character mixing of dispersive modes are discussed. Predictive values of heat capacity as a function of temperature are calculated from dispersion curves via density-of-states.

  5. Oil spill chemical dispersants: Research, experience and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents papers on the use of surfactants for the control of oil spills. Topics considered include laboratory toxicity effectiveness testing, the characteristics of spilled oil, salinity, water temperature, field effectiveness, dilution processes, remote sensing, oil spill fire hazards, the toxicity of oil spill dispersants to marine organisms, the effects of dispersed oil in marine sediments, dispersants for spill countermeasures on arctic beaches, contingency planning and guidelines, ecological considerations, and a multifaceted approach to applying dispersants.

  6. Poly(3-methylpyrrole): Vibrational dynamics, phonon dispersion and heat capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Parvej; Srivastava, Seema; Ansari, Saif-ul-Islam; Gupta, V. D.

    2013-07-01

    Normal modes of vibration and their dispersions in poly(3-methylpyrrole) (P3MPy) based on the Urey-Bradley force field are reported. It provides a detailed interpretation of previously reported I.R. spectra. Characteristic features of dispersion curves, such as regions of high density-of-states, repulsion, and character mixing of dispersive modes are discussed. Predictive values of heat capacity as a function of temperature are calculated from dispersion curves via density-of-states.

  7. Life-history syndromes: integrating dispersal through space and time.

    PubMed

    Buoro, Mathieu; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2014-06-01

    Recent research has highlighted interdependencies between dispersal and other life-history traits, i.e. dispersal syndromes, thereby revealing constraints on the evolution of dispersal and opportunities for improved ability to predict dispersal by considering suites of dispersal-related traits. This review adds to the growing list of life-history traits linked to spatial dispersal by emphasising the interdependence between dispersal through space and time, i.e. life-history diversity that distributes individuals into separate reproductive events. We reviewed the literature that has simultaneously investigated spatial and temporal dispersal to examine the prediction that traits of these two dispersal strategies are negatively correlated. Our results suggest that negative covariation is widely anticipated from theory. Empirical studies often reported evidence of weak negative covariation, although more complicated patterns were also evident, including across levels of biological organisation. Existing literature has largely focused on plants with dormancy capability, one or two phases of the dispersal process (emigration and/or transfer) and a single level of biological organisation (theory: individual; empirical: species). We highlight patterns of covariation across levels of organisation and conclude with a discussion of the consequences of dispersal through space and time and future research areas that should improve our understanding of dispersal-related life-history syndromes.

  8. Patterns, causes, and consequences of marine larval dispersal.

    PubMed

    D'Aloia, Cassidy C; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Francis, Robin K; Majoris, John E; Harrison, Richard G; Buston, Peter M

    2015-11-10

    Quantifying the probability of larval exchange among marine populations is key to predicting local population dynamics and optimizing networks of marine protected areas. The pattern of connectivity among populations can be described by the measurement of a dispersal kernel. However, a statistically robust, empirical dispersal kernel has been lacking for any marine species. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to quantify a dispersal kernel for the reef fish Elacatinus lori, demonstrating that dispersal declines exponentially with distance. The spatial scale of dispersal is an order of magnitude less than previous estimates-the median dispersal distance is just 1.7 km and no dispersal events exceed 16.4 km despite intensive sampling out to 30 km from source. Overlaid on this strong pattern is subtle spatial variation, but neither pelagic larval duration nor direction is associated with the probability of successful dispersal. Given the strong relationship between distance and dispersal, we show that distance-driven logistic models have strong power to predict dispersal probabilities. Moreover, connectivity matrices generated from these models are congruent with empirical estimates of spatial genetic structure, suggesting that the pattern of dispersal we uncovered reflects long-term patterns of gene flow. These results challenge assumptions regarding the spatial scale and presumed predictors of marine population connectivity. We conclude that if marine reserve networks aim to connect whole communities of fishes and conserve biodiversity broadly, then reserves that are close in space (<10 km) will accommodate those members of the community that are short-distance dispersers.

  9. Dispersive wave-breaking in coherently driven passive cavities.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Stefania; Bellanca, Gaetano; Trillo, Stefano

    2014-04-15

    We show that the intracavity field evolving in an externally driven passive Kerr resonator subject to weak normal dispersion undergoes wave-breaking, thus forming dispersive shock waves. At variance with the cavity-less propagation, such dispersive wave-breaking turns out to be strongly favored by cavity bistability and coexisting modulational instability.

  10. Predicting dispersal distance in mammals: a trait-based approach.

    PubMed

    Whitmee, Sarah; Orme, C David L

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal is one of the principal mechanisms influencing ecological and evolutionary processes but quantitative empirical data are unfortunately scarce. As dispersal is likely to influence population responses to climate change, whether by adaptation or by migration, there is an urgent need to obtain estimates of dispersal distance. Cross-species correlative approaches identifying predictors of dispersal distance can provide much-needed insights into this data-scarce area. Here, we describe the compilation of a new data set of natal dispersal distances and use it to test life-history predictors of dispersal distance in mammals and examine the strength of the phylogenetic signal in dispersal distance. We find that both maximum and median dispersal distances have strong phylogenetic signals. No single model performs best in describing either maximum or median dispersal distances when phylogeny is taken into account but many models show high explanatory power, suggesting that dispersal distance per generation can be estimated for mammals with comparatively little data availability. Home range area, geographic range size and body mass are identified as the most important terms across models. Cross-validation of models supports the ability of these variables to predict dispersal distances, suggesting that models may be extended to species where dispersal distance is unknown.

  11. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON THREE OILS UNDER VARIOUS SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The complexity of chemical and physical interactions between spilled oils, dispersants and the sea, necessitates an empirical approach for describing the interaction between the dispersant and oil slick which may provide a guide to dispersant effects on oil slicks. Recently, US ...

  12. Patterns, causes, and consequences of marine larval dispersal

    PubMed Central

    D’Aloia, Cassidy C.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.; Francis, Robin K.; Majoris, John E.; Harrison, Richard G.; Buston, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the probability of larval exchange among marine populations is key to predicting local population dynamics and optimizing networks of marine protected areas. The pattern of connectivity among populations can be described by the measurement of a dispersal kernel. However, a statistically robust, empirical dispersal kernel has been lacking for any marine species. Here, we use genetic parentage analysis to quantify a dispersal kernel for the reef fish Elacatinus lori, demonstrating that dispersal declines exponentially with distance. The spatial scale of dispersal is an order of magnitude less than previous estimates—the median dispersal distance is just 1.7 km and no dispersal events exceed 16.4 km despite intensive sampling out to 30 km from source. Overlaid on this strong pattern is subtle spatial variation, but neither pelagic larval duration nor direction is associated with the probability of successful dispersal. Given the strong relationship between distance and dispersal, we show that distance-driven logistic models have strong power to predict dispersal probabilities. Moreover, connectivity matrices generated from these models are congruent with empirical estimates of spatial genetic structure, suggesting that the pattern of dispersal we uncovered reflects long-term patterns of gene flow. These results challenge assumptions regarding the spatial scale and presumed predictors of marine population connectivity. We conclude that if marine reserve networks aim to connect whole communities of fishes and conserve biodiversity broadly, then reserves that are close in space (<10 km) will accommodate those members of the community that are short-distance dispersers. PMID:26508628

  13. Aerial dispersal and multiple-scale spread of epidemics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease spread has traditionally been described as a traveling wave of constant velocity. However, aerially dispersed pathogens capable of long distance dispersal (LDD) often have dispersal gradients with extended tails that could result in acceleration of the epidemic front over time and space. W...

  14. Understanding dispersive charge-transport in crystalline organic-semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Ilhan; Lopez, Steven A

    2016-12-21

    The effect of short-range order and dispersivity on charge-transport for organic crystalline semiconductors are important and unresolved questions. This exploration is the first to discern the role of short-range order on charge-transport for crystalline organic semiconductors. A multimode computational approach (including Molecular Dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations) is employed to understand the hole mobility dispersivity of crystalline organic semiconductors. Crystalline organic solids feature a mesoscale region where dispersive charge-transport dominates; our calculations show a clear transition of charge-mobility from non-dispersive to dispersive. An empirical relationship between the dispersive and non-dispersive transport transition region and ideal simulation box thickness is put forth. The dispersive to non-dispersive transition region occurs when energetic disorder approaches 72 meV. Non-dispersive transport is observed for simulation box sizes greater than 3.7 nm, which corresponds to approximately 12 π-stacked layers in typical π-stacked organic solids. A qualitative relationship is deduced between the variability of measured dispersive hole and variability of computed dispersive hole mobilities and system size. This relationship will guide future charge-transport investigations of condensed-phase organic systems.

  15. DETERMINING DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS DATA FOR A SUITE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersants are used in oil spill response operations to enhance the dispersion of oil slicks at sea as small oil droplets in the water column. To assess the impacts of dispersant usage on oil spills, US EPA is developing a simulation model called the EPA Research Objec...

  16. Effects of dispersal plasticity on population divergence and speciation

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, J D

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is thought to have a role in driving population establishment, local adaptation and speciation. However, dispersal plasticity has been underappreciated in this literature. Plasticity in the decision to disperse is taxonomically widespread and I provide examples for insects, molluscs, polychaetes, vertebrates and flowering plants. Theoretical work is limited but indicates an interaction between dispersal distance and plasticity in the decision to disperse. When dispersal is confined to adjacent patches, dispersal plasticity may enhance local adaptation over unconditional (non-plastic) dispersal. However, when dispersal distances are greater, plasticity in dispersal decisions strongly reduces the potential for local adaptation and population divergence. Upon dispersal, settlement may be random, biased but genetically determined, or biased but plastically determined. Theory shows that biased settlement of either type increases population divergence over random settlement. One model suggests that plasticity further enhances chances of speciation. However, there are many strategies for deciding on where to settle such as a best-of-N strategy, sequential sampling with a threshold for acceptance or matching with natal habitat. To date, these strategies do not seem to have been compared within a single model. Although we are just beginning to explore evolutionary effects of dispersal plasticity, it clearly has the potential to enhance as well as inhibit population divergence. Additional work should pay particular attention to dispersal distance and the strategy used to decide on where to settle. PMID:25806544

  17. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  18. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersants, Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Aquatic Test Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach utilized consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispers...

  19. Evaluating Chemical Dispersant Efficacy In An Experimental Wave Tank: 1, Dispersant Effectiveness As A Function Of Energy Dissipation Rate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous laboratory test systems have been developed for the comparison of efficacy between various chemical oil dispersant formulations. However, for the assessment of chemical dispersant effectiveness under realistic sea state, test protocols are required to produce hydrodynam...

  20. Dispersion Distance and the Matter Distribution of the Universe in Dispersion Space.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley; Sigurdson, Kris

    2015-09-18

    We propose that "standard pings," brief broadband radio impulses, can be used to study the three-dimensional clustering of matter in the Universe even in the absence of redshift information. The dispersion of radio waves as they travel through the intervening plasma can, like redshift, be used as a cosmological distance measure. Because of inhomogeneities in the electron density along the line of sight, dispersion is an imperfect proxy for radial distance and we show that this leads to calculable dispersion-space distortions in the apparent clustering of sources. Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are a new class of radio transients that are the prototypical standard ping and, due to their high observed dispersion, have been interpreted as originating at cosmological distances. The rate of fast radio bursts has been estimated to be several thousand over the whole sky per day and, if cosmological, the sources of these events should trace the large-scale structure of the Universe. We calculate the dispersion-space power spectra for a simple model where electrons and FRBs are biased tracers of the large-scale structure of the Universe, and we show that the clustering signal could be measured using as few as 10 000 events. Such a survey is in line with what may be achieved with upcoming wide-field radio telescopes.

  1. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  2. Partitioning of fresh crude oil between floating, dispersed and sediment phases: Effect of exposure order to dispersant and granular materials.

    PubMed

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin

    2016-06-15

    When three or more high and low energy substrates are mixed, wetting order can significantly affect the behavior of the mixture. We analyzed the phase distribution of fresh floating Louisiana crude oil into dispersed, settled and floating phases depending on the exposure sequence to Corexit 9500A (dispersant) and granular materials. In the experiments artificial sea water at salinity 34‰ was used. Limestone (2.00-0.300 mm) and quartz sand (0.300-0.075 mm) were used as the natural granular materials. Dispersant Corexit 9500A increased the amount of dispersed oil up to 33.76 ± 7.04%. Addition of granular materials after the dispersant increased dispersion of oil to 47.96 ± 1.96%. When solid particles were applied on the floating oil before the dispersant, oil was captured as oil-particle aggregates and removed from the floating layer. However, dispersant addition led to partial release of the captured oil, removing it from the aggregated form to the dispersed and floating phases. There was no visible oil aggregation with the granular materials when quartz or limestone was at the bottom of the flask before the addition of oil and dispersant. The results show that granular materials can be effective when applied from the surface for aggregating or dispersing oil. However, the granular materials in the sediments are not effective neither for aggregating nor dispersing floating oil.

  3. Dimethylformamide: an effective dispersant for making ceramic carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inam, Fawad; Yan, Haixue; Reece, Michael J.; Peijs, Ton

    2008-05-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) and alumina dispersions were prepared separately in dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol by ultrasonication. The colloidal stability of the dispersions was monitored and a particle size analysis was performed to evaluate the size range of the agglomerates after different times. DMF was found to be a much more effective dispersant than ethanol for making stable, homogeneous CNT and composite dispersions. Alumina-CNT (4.65 vol%) nanocomposites were sintered in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) furnace. DMF dispersions produced homogeneously distributed and agglomerate-free CNT-alumina nanocomposites with higher electrical conductivity as compared to nanocomposites prepared using ethanol.

  4. Joint evolution of specialization and dispersal in structured metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tuomas; Parvinen, Kalle

    2011-04-21

    We study the joint evolution of dispersal and specialization concerning resource usage in a mechanistically underpinned structured discrete-time metapopulation model. We show that dispersal significantly affects the evolution of specialization and that specialization is a key factor that determines the possibility of evolutionary branching in dispersal propensity. Allowing both dispersal propensity and specialization to evolve as a consequence of natural selection is necessary in order to understand the evolutionary dynamics. The joint evolution of dispersal and specialization forms a natural evolutionary path leading to the coexistence of generalists and specialists. We show that in this process, the number of different patch types and the resource distribution are essential.

  5. Modelling Pollutant Dispersion in a Street Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, N. Ben; Garbero, V.; Salizzoni, P.; Lamaison, G.; Soulhac, L.

    2015-04-01

    This study constitutes a further step in the analysis of the performances of a street network model to simulate atmospheric pollutant dispersion in urban areas. The model, named SIRANE, is based on the decomposition of the urban atmosphere into two sub-domains: the urban boundary layer, whose dynamics is assumed to be well established, and the urban canopy, represented as a series of interconnected boxes. Parametric laws govern the mass exchanges between the boxes under the assumption that the pollutant dispersion within the canopy can be fully simulated by modelling three main bulk transfer phenomena: channelling along street axes, transfers at street intersections, and vertical exchange between street canyons and the overlying atmosphere. Here, we aim to evaluate the reliability of the parametrizations adopted to simulate these phenomena, by focusing on their possible dependence on the external wind direction. To this end, we test the model against concentration measurements within an idealized urban district whose geometrical layout closely matches the street network represented in SIRANE. The analysis is performed for an urban array with a fixed geometry and a varying wind incidence angle. The results show that the model provides generally good results with the reference parametrizations adopted in SIRANE and that its performances are quite robust for a wide range of the model parameters. This proves the reliability of the street network approach in simulating pollutant dispersion in densely built city districts. The results also show that the model performances may be improved by considering a dependence of the wind fluctuations at street intersections and of the vertical exchange velocity on the direction of the incident wind. This opens the way for further investigations to clarify the dependence of these parameters on wind direction and street aspect ratios.

  6. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.

  7. Traveltime and longitudinal dispersion in Illinois streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graf, Julia B.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-seven measurements of traveltime and longitudinal dispersion in 10 Illinois streams made from 1975 to 1982 provide data needed for estimating traveltime of peak concentration of a conservative solute, traveltime of the leading edge of a solute cloud, peak concentration resulting from injection of a given quantity of solute, and passage time of solute past a given point on a stream. These four variables can be estimated graphically for each stream from distance of travel and either discharge at the downstream end of the reach or flow-duration frequency. From equations developed from field measurements, the traveltime and dispersion characteristics also can be estimated for other unregulated streams in Illinois that have drainage areas less than about 1,500 square miles. For unmeasured streams, traveltime of peak concentration and of the leading edge of the cloud are related to discharge at the downstream end of the reach and to distance of travel. For both measured and unmeasured streams, peak concentration and passage time are best estimated from the relation of each to traveltime. In measured streams, dispersion efficiency is greater than that predicted by Fickian diffusion theory. The rate of decrease in peak concentration with traveltime is about equal to the rate of increase in passage time. Average velocity in a stream reach, given by the velocity of the center of solute mass in that reach, can be estimated from an equation developed from measured values. The equation relates average reach velocity to discharge at the downstream end of the reach. Average reach velocities computed for 9 of the 10 streams from available equations that are based on hydraulic-geometry relations are high relative to measured values. The estimating equation developed from measured velocities provides estimates of average reach velocity that are closer to measured velocities than are those computed using equations developed from hydraulic-geometry relations.

  8. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed themore » statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.« less

  9. Optical waveguide materials, structures, and dispersion modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jiaming; Lin, Jian; Li, Wenxiu; Xue, Xia; Huang, Anping; Xiao, Zhisong

    2016-11-01

    Optical waveguide is used in most integrated optic devices to confine and guide light in higher refractive index channels. The structures and materials of slot waveguides are reviewed in this paper. Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) can be used for a rotation sensor with compact size, low power consumption and low cost. The loss determines the ultimate sensitivity of CROW gyros. Resonator-based optical gyroscope's sensitivity for measuring rotation is enhanced via using the anomalous dispersion characteristic of superluminal light propagation, which can be also generated by using passive optical resonators.

  10. Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Morgan, Chester S.

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

  11. Signal dispersion within a hippocampal neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Mates, J. W. B.

    1975-01-01

    A model network is described, representing two neural populations coupled so that one population is inhibited by activity it excites in the other. Parameters and operations within the model represent EPSPs, IPSPs, neural thresholds, conduction delays, background activity and spatial and temporal dispersion of signals passing from one population to the other. Simulations of single-shock and pulse-train driving of the network are presented for various parameter values. Neuronal events from 100 to 300 msec following stimulation are given special consideration in model calculations.

  12. Modeling pollutant dispersion within a tornadic thunderstorm

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model was developed to calculate ground-level air concentration and deposition of particles entrained in a tornadic thunderstorm. The rotational characteristics of the tornadic storm are within the larger mesoscale flow of the storm system and transported with the vortex. Turbulence exchange coefficients are based on empirical values. The quasi-Lagrangian method of moments is used to model the transport of concentration within a grid cell volume. Results indicate that updrafts and downdrafts, coupled with scavenging of particles by precipitation, account for most of the material being deposited closer to the site than anticipated. Approximately 5% of the pollutant is dispersed into the stratosphere.

  13. Dispersed storage and generation case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahrami, K.; Stallkamp, J. A.; Walton, A.

    1980-01-01

    Three installations utilizing separate dispersed storage and generation (DSG) technologies were investigated. Each of the systems is described in costs and control. Selected institutional and environmental issues are discussed, including life cycle costs. No unresolved technical, environmental, or institutional problems were encountered in the installations. The wind and solar photovoltaic DSG were installed for test purposes, and appear to be presently uneconomical. However, a number of factors are decreasing the cost of DSG relative to conventional alternatives, and an increased DSG penetration level may be expected in the future.

  14. Powder fed sheared dispersal particle generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrisette, E. L.; Bushnell, D. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A particle generating system is described which is capable of breaking up agglomerations of particles and producing a cloud of uniform, submicron-sized particles at high pressure and high flow rates. This is achieved by utilizing a tubular structure which has injection microslits on is periphery to accept and disperse the desired particle feed. By suppling a carrying fluid at a pressure, of approximately twice the ambient pressure of the velocimeter's settling chamber, the microslits operate at choked flow conditions. The shearing action of this choked flow is sufficient to overcome interparticle bonding forces, thereby breaking up the agglomerates of the particles feed into individual particles.

  15. Acceptance criteria for urban dispersion model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph

    2012-05-01

    The authors suggested acceptance criteria for rural dispersion models' performance measures in this journal in 2004. The current paper suggests modified values of acceptance criteria for urban applications and tests them with tracer data from four urban field experiments. For the arc-maximum concentrations, the fractional bias should have a magnitude <0.67 (i.e., the relative mean bias is less than a factor of 2); the normalized mean-square error should be <6 (i.e., the random scatter is less than about 2.4 times the mean); and the fraction of predictions that are within a factor of two of the observations (FAC2) should be >0.3. For all data paired in space, for which a threshold concentration must always be defined, the normalized absolute difference should be <0.50, when the threshold is three times the instrument's limit of quantification (LOQ). An overall criterion is then applied that the total set of acceptance criteria should be satisfied in at least half of the field experiments. These acceptance criteria are applied to evaluations of the US Department of Defense's Joint Effects Model (JEM) with tracer data from US urban field experiments in Salt Lake City (U2000), Oklahoma City (JU2003), and Manhattan (MSG05 and MID05). JEM includes the SCIPUFF dispersion model with the urban canopy option and the urban dispersion model (UDM) option. In each set of evaluations, three or four likely options are tested for meteorological inputs (e.g., a local building top wind speed, the closest National Weather Service airport observations, or outputs from numerical weather prediction models). It is found that, due to large natural variability in the urban data, there is not a large difference between the performance measures for the two model options and the three or four meteorological input options. The more detailed UDM and the state-of-the-art numerical weather models do provide a slight improvement over the other options. The proposed urban dispersion model acceptance

  16. Particle dispersion in confined turbulent swirling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. P.

    1986-06-01

    This paper reports a numerical investigation of confined swirling flows of gas-particle mixtures. A recently developed two-fluid, multiple-scale mixing model is applied to study the influence of particles on the intensity of the reverse flows of the gas phase and the effects of swirl on the particle dispersion in an annular expanding chamber under isothermal condition. The calculations were made for different swirl strength of injection of the annular jet into the mixing chamber. Results agree well qualitatively with experimental information available. It is also found that the calculated flow fields depend heavily on the prescription of the inlet flow conditions.

  17. Particle dispersion in confined turbulent swirling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports a numerical investigation of confined swirling flows of gas-particle mixtures. A recently developed two-fluid, multiple-scale mixing model is applied to study the influence of particles on the intensity of the reverse flows of the gas phase and the effects of swirl on the particle dispersion in an annular expanding chamber under isothermal condition. The calculations were made for different swirl strength of injection of the annular jet into the mixing chamber. Results agree well qualitatively with experimental information available. It is also found that the calculated flow fields depend heavily on the prescription of the inlet flow conditions.

  18. Economics of selected WECS dispersed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1980-02-01

    An economic analysis for distributed Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) was conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Solar Commercial Readiness Assessment task at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The major objective of the study is to analyze: the cost of electricity generated by selected wind energy systems in residential and agricultural applications; the breakeven cost of wind systems able to compete economically with conventional power sources in dispersed applications; and the impact of major economic factors on the cost performance index.

  19. Population density influences dispersal in female white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, Clayton L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal behavior in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predominantly occurs in 1-year-old males; however, females of the same age also disperse. The timing of female dispersal during fawning season and low dispersal rates suggest that competition for mates and reduced inbreeding are not ultimate causes of female dispersal, as suggested for males. We proposed that female dispersal is the result of competition for space when pregnant females seek to isolate themselves before and after parturition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of female dispersal rates from 12 populations of white-tailed deer and predicted dispersal rate and distance were positively related to deer density. We found a positive relationship between dispersal rate and deer per forested km2 and between dispersal distance and deer per forested km2. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that female dispersal is density-dependent and caused by the exclusion of subordinate 1-year-olds as adult females seek isolation before and after parturition.

  20. Can non-breeding be a cost of breeding dispersal?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danchin, E.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Breeding habitat selection and dispersal are crucial processes that affect many components of fitness. Breeding dispersal entails costs, one of which has been neglected: dispersing animals may miss breeding opportunities because breeding dispersal requires finding a new nesting site and mate, two time- and energy-consuming activities. Dispersers are expected to be prone to non-breeding. We used the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) to test whether breeding dispersal influences breeding probability. Breeding probability was associated with dispersal, in that both were negatively influenced by private information (previous individual reproductive success) and public information (average reproductive success of conspecifics) about patch quality. Furthermore, the probability of skipping breeding was 1.7 times higher in birds that settled in a new patch relative to those that remained on the same patch. Finally, non-breeders that resumed breeding were 4.4 times more likely to disperse than birds that bred in successive years. Although private information may influence breeding probability directly, the link between breeding probability and public information may be indirect, through the influence of public information on breeding dispersal, non-breeding thus being a cost of dispersal. These results support the hypothesis that dispersal may result in not being able to breed. More generally, non-breeding (which can be interpreted as an extreme form of breeding failure) may reveal costs of various previous activities. Because monitoring the non-breeding portion of a population is difficult, non-breeders have been neglected in many studies of reproduction trade-offs.

  1. A review of the toxicity of chemical dispersants.

    PubMed

    Wise, James; Wise, John Pierce

    2011-01-01

    Chemical dispersants are a mixture of various surfactants and solvents. Most dispersants are proprietary, and the complete composition is not often public knowledge. Chemical dispersants used for the cleanup and containment of crude oil toxicity became a major concern after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil crisis in the Gulf of Mexico. During the crisis, millions of liters of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9527 and 9500) were used--the largest known application of dispersants in the field. As of February 2011, 38 peer-reviewed articles were available on the toxicity of 35 different chemical dispersants. Nalco, BP, Shell, and Total Special Fluids manufacture a variety of chemical dispersants. Most notably, Nalco manufactures Corexit 9527 and 9500, and 19 miscellaneous dispersants are manufactured by others. Most studies examined the lethality of the dispersants. Several nonlethal end points were considered, including the effect on predator/prey recognition, enzyme activity changes, effects on hatchability, and the threshold for bradycardia. The animals studied included Daphnia (small planktonic crustaceans), anemones, corals, crustaceans, starfish, mollusks, fish, birds, and rats. Studies in birds and mammals are distinctly lacking. The variety of chemical dispersants, the variability in test methods, and the lack of distinct species overlap between studies make it difficult to compare and deduce which dispersant is most toxic and which is least. Here, we offer some attempt at comparing Corexit 9527 and 9500 (because these have had the largest field application), but significantly more research is needed before clear conclusions can be drawn.

  2. Seed-dispersal distributions by trumpeter hornbills in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Johanna; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Caprano, Tanja; Friedrichs, Wolfgang; Gaese, Bernhard H; Wikelski, Martin; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-08-07

    Frugivorous birds provide important ecosystem services by transporting seeds of fleshy fruited plants. It has been assumed that seed-dispersal kernels generated by these animals are generally leptokurtic, resulting in little dispersal among habitat fragments. However, little is known about the seed-dispersal distribution generated by large frugivorous birds in fragmented landscapes. We investigated movement and seed-dispersal patterns of trumpeter hornbills (Bycanistes bucinator) in a fragmented landscape in South Africa. Novel GPS loggers provide high-quality location data without bias against recording long-distance movements. We found a very weakly bimodal seed-dispersal distribution with potential dispersal distances up to 14.5 km. Within forest, the seed-dispersal distribution was unimodal with an expected dispersal distance of 86 m. In the fragmented agricultural landscape, the distribution was strongly bimodal with peaks at 18 and 512 m. Our results demonstrate that seed-dispersal distributions differed when birds moved in different habitat types. Seed-dispersal distances in fragmented landscapes show that transport among habitat patches is more frequent than previously assumed, allowing plants to disperse among habitat patches and to track the changing climatic conditions.

  3. Effects of Earthworms on the Dispersal of Steinernema spp.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, D. I.; Tylka, G. L.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dispersal of S. carpocapsae may be enhanced in soil with earthworms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the effects of earthworms on dispersal of other Steinernema spp. Vertical dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. glaseri was tested in soil columns in the presence and absence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Dispersal was evaluated by a bioassay and by direct extraction of nematodes from soil. Upward dispersal of S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae increased in the presence of earthworms, whereas upward dispersal of S. glaseri was not affected by earthworms. No significant differences were detected in downward dispersal of S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae in soil with earthworms compared to soil without earthworms. Downward dispersal of S. glaseri, however, was greater in soil without earthworms relative to soil with earthworms. In soil void of earthworms, dispersal of S. glaseri was greatest followed by dispersal of S. carpocapsae. The presence of earthworm burrows in soil did not influence nematode dispersal. Nematodes were recovered from the surface, interior, and casts of earthworms. Therefore, nematodes may have a phoretic association with earthworms. PMID:19277257

  4. Dispersion Compensation of Fiber Optic Systems for KSC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozaitis, Samuel P.; Hand, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Installed fibers such as those at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are optimized for use at 1310 nm because they have zero dispersion at that wavelength. An installed fiber system designed to operate at 1310 nm will operate at a much lower data rate when operated at 1550 nm because the dispersion is not zero at 1550 nm. Using dispersion measurements of both installed and dispersion compensating fibers, we compensated a 21.04 km length of installed fiber with 4.25 km of dispersion compensating fiber. Using the compensated fiber-optic link, we reduced the dispersion to 0.494 ps/nm-km, from an uncompensated dispersion of 16.8 ps/nm-km. The main disadvantage of the compensated link using DC fiber was an increase in attenuation. Although the increase was not necessarily severe, it could be significant when insertion losses, connector losses, and fiber attenuation are taken into account.

  5. Mutation surfing and the evolution of dispersal during range expansions.

    PubMed

    Travis, J M J; Münkemüller, T; Burton, O J

    2010-12-01

    A growing body of empirical evidence demonstrates that at an expanding front, there can be strong selection for greater dispersal propensity, whereas recent theory indicates that mutations occurring towards the front of a spatially expanding population can sometimes 'surf' to high frequency and spatial extent. Here, we consider the potential interplay between these two processes: what role may mutation surfing play in determining the course of dispersal evolution and how might dispersal evolution itself influence mutation surfing? Using an individual-based coupled-map lattice model, we first run simulations to determine the fate of dispersal mutants that occur at an expanding front. Our results highlight that mutants that have a slightly higher dispersal propensity than the wild type always have a higher survival probability than those mutants with a dispersal propensity lower than, or very similar to, the wild type. However, it is not always the case that mutants with very high dispersal propensity have the greatest survival probability. When dispersal mortality is high, mutants of intermediate dispersal survive most often. Interestingly, the rate of dispersal that ultimately evolves at an expanding front is often substantially higher than that which confers a novel mutant with the greatest probability of survival. Second, we run a model in which we allow dispersal to evolve over the course of a range expansion and ask how the fate of a neutral or nonneutral mutant depends upon when and where during the expansion it arises. These simulations highlight that the success of a neutral mutant depends upon the dispersal genotypes that it is associated with. An important consequence of this is that novel mutants that arise at the front of an expansion, and survive, typically end up being associated with more dispersive genotypes than the wild type. These results offer some new insights into causes and the consequences of dispersal evolution during range expansions, and

  6. Humans as Long-Distance Dispersers of Rural Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Auffret, Alistair G.; Cousins, Sara A. O.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are known for their capacity to disperse organisms long distances. Long-distance dispersal can be important for species threatened by habitat destruction, but research into human-mediated dispersal is often focused upon few and/or invasive species. Here we use citizen science to identify the capacity for humans to disperse seeds on their clothes and footwear from a known species pool in a valuable habitat, allowing for an assessment of the fraction and types of species dispersed by humans in an alternative context. We collected material from volunteers cutting 48 species-rich meadows throughout Sweden. We counted 24 354 seeds of 197 species, representing 34% of the available species pool, including several rare and protected species. However, 71 species (36%) are considered invasive elsewhere in the world. Trait analysis showed that seeds with hooks or other appendages were more likely to be dispersed by humans, as well as those with a persistent seed bank. More activity in a meadow resulted in more dispersal, both in terms of species and representation of the source communities. Average potential dispersal distances were measured at 13 km. We consider humans capable seed dispersers, transporting a significant proportion of the plant communities in which they are active, just like more traditional vectors such as livestock. When rural populations were larger, people might have been regular and effective seed dispersers, and the net rural-urban migration resulting in a reduction in humans in the landscape may have exacerbated the dispersal failure evident in declining plant populations today. With the fragmentation of habitat and changes in land use resulting from agricultural change, and the increased mobility of humans worldwide, the dispersal role of humans may have shifted from providers of regular local and landscape dispersal to providers of much rarer long-distance and regional dispersal, and international invasion. PMID:23658770

  7. Comparing seed dispersal effectiveness by frugivores at the community level.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, Aarón; Calviño-Cancela, Marĺa; Nogales, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) is the contribution of dispersers to plant recruitment and is estimated as the product of the number of seeds dispersed (quantity) and the probability of recruitment of each dispersed seed (quality). Although SDE is a key concept in seed dispersal ecology, few studies estimate SDE and none has a community approach. Oceanic islands, with simple communities, are ideal for this purpose. In this study, we compared the SDE of the main types of dispersers (lizards and passerine birds) at the community level in a given habitat. We estimated SDE using a stochastic simulation model parameterized with empirical data on quantity and quality components measured throughout the recruitment process. Although lizards are highly frugivorous and their density was approximately 20 times higher than that of birds, lizards and birds dispersed a similar quantity of seeds. This may be due to lower intake of seeds by lizards due to their slower metabolism (approximately 20 times lower than birds). This low metabolic rate limits the importance of lizards as seed dispersers, but it is compensated by extraordinarily high lizard densities in the study area (approximately 9600 individuals/km2). High densities of lizards are typical of islands, and this helps to explain why dispersal by lizards seems mainly an island phenomenon. Birds and lizards showed functional complementarity, especially regarding seed dispersal distribution patterns. In fact, lizards dispersed more seeds in shrublands and open sites, and birds in woodlands and beneath canopies, with their joint contribution helping to maximize recruitment. Lizards provided higher SDE than birds for 7 out of 11 plant species. The disperser with a higher quantity for a given plant generally had the higher quality, and plants could be classified as bird- or lizard-dependent for dispersal. This dependence increased when considering SDE instead of dispersal quantity only. Moreover, quality was a better

  8. Brazing of dispersion-strengthened aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerneklett, B.; Grong, O.; Anisdahl, L.; Hellum, E.; Sande, V.

    1996-03-01

    In recent years, the use of rapid solidification powder metallurgy has made it possible to develop a new family of aluminum alloys exhibiting unique properties. One of these materials, dispersion-strengthened (DS) aluminum, is currently being produced for commercial purposes at Raufoss Technology AS, Norway. Dispersion-strengthened aluminum derives its high strength from nanoscale AlN particles embedded in an aluminum matrix. DS Al is expected to be well suited as construction material for high-temperature applications where weight reductions are of particular concern. The present investigation has focused on the wetting behavior of DS aluminum under conditions applicable to brazing. The results from the Sessile drop experiments show that a eutectic Al-Si brazing alloy will completely wet the base metal both under high-vacuum conditions and in controlled argon atmospheres, provided that the partial pressure of oxygen is sufficiently low. The main problem appears to be the stability of the matrix grain structure. In general, the process of grain erosion and coarsening can be controlled by restricting the supply of the brazing alloy so that only a small metal volume is exposed to erosion. In addition, there is a great potential for reducing the thermodynamic driving force of the erosion reaction by proper adjustments of the brazing alloy composition and/or the brazing temperature. Sill, grain boundary liquidation may be a problem which, in turn, may require additions of surface active elements to the filler metal to control the wetting behavior.

  9. Two-point derivative dispersion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Erasmo; Sesma, Javier

    2013-03-01

    A new derivation is given for the representation, under certain conditions, of the integral dispersion relations of scattering theory through local forms. The resulting expressions have been obtained through an independent procedure to construct the real part and consist of new mathematical structures of double infinite summations of derivatives. In this new form the derivatives are calculated at the generic value of the energy E and separately at the reference point E = m that is the lower limit of the integration. This new form may be more interesting in certain circumstances and directly shows the origin of the difficulties in convergence that were present in the old truncated forms called standard-derivative dispersion relations (DDR). For all cases in which the reductions of the double to single sums were obtained in our previous work, leading to explicit demonstration of convergence, these new expressions are seen to be identical to the previous ones. We present, as a glossary, the most simplified explicit results for the DDR's in the cases of imaginary amplitudes of forms (E/m)λ[ln (E/m)]n that cover the cases of practical interest in particle physics phenomenology at high energies. We explicitly study the expressions for the cases with λ negative odd integers, that require identification of cancelation of singularities, and provide the corresponding final results.

  10. Dispersion and shape engineered plasmonic nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Ho; Mark, Andrew G.; Alarcón-Correa, Mariana; Kim, Insook; Oswald, Peter; Lee, Tung-Chun; Fischer, Peer

    2016-04-01

    Biosensors based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of individual metallic nanoparticles promise to deliver modular, low-cost sensing with high-detection thresholds. However, they continue to suffer from relatively low sensitivity and figures of merit (FOMs). Herein we introduce the idea of sensitivity enhancement of LSPR sensors through engineering of the material dispersion function. Employing dispersion and shape engineering of chiral nanoparticles leads to remarkable refractive index sensitivities (1,091 nm RIU-1 at λ=921 nm) and FOMs (>2,800 RIU-1). A key feature is that the polarization-dependent extinction of the nanoparticles is now characterized by rich spectral features, including bipolar peaks and nulls, suitable for tracking refractive index changes. This sensing modality offers strong optical contrast even in the presence of highly absorbing media, an important consideration for use in complex biological media with limited transmission. The technique is sensitive to surface-specific binding events which we demonstrate through biotin-avidin surface coupling.

  11. Flow separation characteristics of unstable dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voulgaropoulos, Victor; Zhai, Lusheng; Angeli, Panagiota

    2016-11-01

    Drops of a low viscosity oil are introduced through a multi-capillary inlet during the flow of water in a horizontal pipe. The flow rates of the continuous water phase are kept in the turbulent region while the droplets are injected at similar flow rates (with oil fractions ranging from 0.15 to 0.60). The acrylic pipe (ID of 37mm) is approximately 7m long. Measurements are conducted at three different axial locations to illustrate how the flow structures are formed and develop along the pipe. Initial observations are made on the flow patterns through high-speed imaging. Stratification is observed for the flow rates studied, indicating that the turbulent dispersive forces are lower than the gravity ones. These results are complemented with a tomography system acquiring measurements at the same locations and giving the cross-sectional hold-up. The coalescence dynamics are strong in the dense-packed drop layer and thus measurements with a dual-conductance probe are conducted to capture any drop size changes. It is found that the drop size variations depend on the spatial configuration of the drops, the initial drop size along with the continuous and dispersed phase velocities. Project funded under Chevron Energy Technology.

  12. Hydrodynamic dispersion of microswimmers in suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Matthieu; Rafaï, Salima; Peyla, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In our laboratory, we study hydrodynamics of suspensions of micro-swimmers. These micro-organisms are unicellular algae Chlamydomonas Rheinhardii which are able to swim by using their flagella. The swimming dynamics of these micro-swimmers can be seen as a random walk, in absence of any kind of interaction. In addition, these algae have the property of being phototactic, i.e. they swim towards the light. Combining this property with a hydrodynamic flow, we were able to reversibly separate algae from the rest of the fluid. But for sufficiently high volume fraction, these active particles interact with each other. We are now interested in how the coupling of hydrodynamic interactions between swimmers and phototaxis can modify the swimming dynamics at the scale of the suspension. To this aim, we conduct experiments in microfluidic devices to study the dispersion of the micro-organisms in a the liquid phase as a function of the volume fraction. We show that the dispersion of an assembly of puller type microswimmers is quantitatively affected by hydrodynamics interactions. Phd student.

  13. Computing dispersion interactions in density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, V. R.; Kong, L.; Langreth, D. C.

    2010-02-01

    In this article techniques for including dispersion interactions within density functional theory are examined. In particular comparisons are made between four popular methods: dispersion corrected DFT, pseudopotential correction schemes, symmetry adapted perturbation theory, and a non-local density functional - the so called Rutgers-Chalmers van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF). The S22 benchmark data set is used to evaluate the relative accuracy of these methods and factors such as scalability and transferability are also discussed. We demonstrate that vdW-DF presents an excellent compromise between computational speed and accuracy and lends most easily to full scale application in solid materials. This claim is supported through a brief discussion of a recent large scale application to H2 in a prototype metal organic framework material (MOF), Zn2BDC2TED. The vdW-DF shows overwhelming promise for first-principles studies of physisorbed molecules in porous extended systems; thereby having broad applicability for studies as diverse as molecular adsorption and storage, battery technology, catalysis and gas separations.

  14. Adaptive dispersion compensation for guided wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, James S.; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves offer the promise of fast and reliable methods for interrogating large, plate-like structures. Distributed arrays of permanently attached, inexpensive piezoelectric transducers have thus been proposed as a cost-effective means to excite and measure ultrasonic guided waves for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Guided wave data recorded from a distributed array of transducers are often analyzed and interpreted through the use of guided wave imaging algorithms, such as conventional delay-and-sum imaging or the more recently applied minimum variance imaging. Both imaging algorithms perform reasonably well using signal envelopes, but can exhibit significant performance improvements when phase information is used. However, the use of phase information inherently requires knowledge of the dispersion relations, which are often not known to a sufficient degree of accuracy for high quality imaging since they are very sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, pressure, and loading. This work seeks to perform improved imaging with phase information by leveraging adaptive dispersion estimates obtained from in situ measurements. Experimentally obtained data from a distributed array is used to validate the proposed approach.

  15. Saturated Dispersive Extinction Theory of Red Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling Jun

    2012-03-01

    The Dispersive Extinction Theory (DET) proposed by WangfootnotetextWang, Ling Jun, Physics Essays, 18, No. 2, (2005). offers an alternative to the Big Bang. According to DET, the cosmic red shift is caused by the dispersive extinction of the star light during the propagation from the stars to the earth, instead of being caused by the Doppler shift due to the expansion of the universe.footnotetextHubble, E., Astrophys. J. 64, 321 (1926).^,footnotetextHubble, E., The Realm of the Nebulae, (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1936). DET allows an infinite, stable, non expanding universe, and is immune of the fundamental problems inherent to the Big Bang such as the horizon problem, the extreme violation of the conservation of mass, energy and charge, and the geocentric nature which violates the principle of relativity.footnotetextWang, Ling Jun, Physics Essays, 20, No. 2, (2007). The scenario dealt with in Reference (1) is a one in which the extinction by the space medium is not saturated. This work deals with a different scenario when the extinction is saturated. The saturated extinction causes limited energy loss, and the star light can travel a much greater distance than in the unsaturated scenario.

  16. Dispersion and shape engineered plasmonic nanosensors

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeon-Ho; Mark, Andrew G.; Alarcón-Correa, Mariana; Kim, Insook; Oswald, Peter; Lee, Tung-Chun; Fischer, Peer

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors based on the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of individual metallic nanoparticles promise to deliver modular, low-cost sensing with high-detection thresholds. However, they continue to suffer from relatively low sensitivity and figures of merit (FOMs). Herein we introduce the idea of sensitivity enhancement of LSPR sensors through engineering of the material dispersion function. Employing dispersion and shape engineering of chiral nanoparticles leads to remarkable refractive index sensitivities (1,091 nm RIU−1 at λ=921 nm) and FOMs (>2,800 RIU−1). A key feature is that the polarization-dependent extinction of the nanoparticles is now characterized by rich spectral features, including bipolar peaks and nulls, suitable for tracking refractive index changes. This sensing modality offers strong optical contrast even in the presence of highly absorbing media, an important consideration for use in complex biological media with limited transmission. The technique is sensitive to surface-specific binding events which we demonstrate through biotin–avidin surface coupling. PMID:27090866

  17. Osmotic Pressure in Ionic Microgel Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Alan R.; Tang, Qiyun

    2015-03-01

    Microgels are microscopic gel particles, typically 10-1000 nm in size, that are swollen by a solvent. Hollow microgels (microcapsules) can encapsulate cargo, such as dye molecules or drugs, in their solvent-filled cavities. Their sensitive response to environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pH) and influence on flow properties suit microgels to widespread applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and consumer care industries. When dispersed in water, polyelectrolyte gels become charged through dissociation of counterions. The electrostatic contribution to the osmotic pressure inside and outside of ionic microgels influences particle swelling and bulk materials properties, including thermodynamic, structural, optical, and rheological properties. Within the primitive and cell models of polyelectrolyte solutions, we derive an exact statistical mechanical formula for the contribution of mobile microions to the osmotic pressure within ionic microgels. Using Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we validate this result by explicitly calculating ion distributions across the surface of an ionic microgel and the electrostatic contribution to the osmotic pressure. Within a coarse-grained one-component model, we further chart the limits of the cell model for salty dispersions. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331.

  18. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. PMID:26740610

  19. Non-Fickian dispersion of groundwater age

    PubMed Central

    Engdahl, Nicholas B.; Ginn, Timothy R.; Fogg, Graham E.

    2014-01-01

    We expand the governing equation of groundwater age to account for non-Fickian dispersive fluxes using continuous random walks. Groundwater age is included as an additional (fifth) dimension on which the volumetric mass density of water is distributed and we follow the classical random walk derivation now in five dimensions. The general solution of the random walk recovers the previous conventional model of age when the low order moments of the transition density functions remain finite at their limits and describes non-Fickian age distributions when the transition densities diverge. Previously published transition densities are then used to show how the added dimension in age affects the governing differential equations. Depending on which transition densities diverge, the resulting models may be nonlocal in time, space, or age and can describe asymptotic or pre-asymptotic dispersion. A joint distribution function of time and age transitions is developed as a conditional probability and a natural result of this is that time and age must always have identical transition rate functions. This implies that a transition density defined for age can substitute for a density in time and this has implications for transport model parameter estimation. We present examples of simulated age distributions from a geologically based, heterogeneous domain that exhibit non-Fickian behavior and show that the non-Fickian model provides better descriptions of the distributions than the Fickian model. PMID:24976651

  20. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Jackson A.; Godfrey, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In the Found or Fly (FoF) hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804) and S. invicta (Buren, 1972). Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types—claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32–38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55–63% higher wing loading, and 32–33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants. PMID:27082115

  1. Random dispersion in excitatory synapse response.

    PubMed

    Ventriglia, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    The excitatory synaptic function is subject to a huge amount of researches and fairly all the structural elements of the synapse are investigated to determine their specific contribution to the response. A model of an excitatory (hippocampal) synapse, based on time discretized Langevin equations (time-step = 40 fs), was introduced to describe the Brownian motion of Glutamate molecules (GLUTs) within the synaptic cleft and their binding to postsynaptic receptors. The binding has been computed by the introduction of a binding probability related to the hits of GLUTs on receptor binding sites. This model has been utilized in computer simulations aimed to describe the random dispersion of the synaptic response, evaluated from the dispersion of the peak amplitude of the excitatory post-synaptic current. The results of the simulation, presented here, have been used to find a reliable numerical quantity for the unknown value of the binding probability. Moreover, the same results have shown that the coefficient of variation decreases when the number of postsynaptic receptors increases, all the other parameters of the process being unchanged. Due to its possible relationships with the learning and memory, this last finding seems to furnish an important clue for understanding the basic mechanisms of the brain activity.

  2. Dynamic landscapes in human evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devès, Maud; King, Geoffrey; Bailey, Geoffrey; Inglis, Robyn; Williams, Matthew; Winder, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Archaeological studies of human settlement in its wider landscape setting usually focus on climate change as the principal environmental driver of change in the physical features of the landscape, even on the long time scales of early human evolution. We emphasize that landscapes evolve dynamically due to an interplay of processes occurring over different timescales. Tectonic deformation, volcanism, sea level changes, by acting on the topography, the lithology and on the patterns of erosion-deposition in a given area, can moderate or amplify the influence of climate at the regional and local scale. These processes impose or alleviate physical barriers to movement, and modify the distribution and accessibility of plant and animal resources in ways critical to human ecological and evolutionary success (King and Bailey, JHE 2006; Bailey and King, Antiquity 2011, Winder et al. Antiquity in press). The DISPERSE project, an ERC-funded collaboration between the University of York and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, aims to develop systematic methods for reconstructing landscapes associated with active tectonics, volcanism and sea level change at a variety of scales in order to study their potential impact on patterns of human evolution and dispersal. Examples are shown to illustrate the ways in which changes of significance to human settlement can occur at a range of geographical scales and on time scales that range from lifetimes to tens of millennia, creating and sustaining attractive conditions for human settlement and exercising powerful selective pressures on human development.

  3. Sample dispersion in isotachophoresis with Poiseuille counterflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Gopmandal, Partha P.; Baier, Tobias; Hardt, Steffen

    2013-02-01

    A particular mode of isotachophoresis (ITP) employs a pressure-driven flow opposite to the sample electromigration direction in order to anchor a sample zone at a specific position along a channel or capillary. We investigate this situation using a two-dimensional finite-volume model based on the Nernst-Planck equation. The imposed Poiseuille flow profile leads to a significant dispersion of the sample zone. This effect is detrimental for the resolution in analytical applications of ITP. We investigate the impact of convective dispersion, characterized by the area-averaged width of a sample zone, for various values of the sample Péclet-number, as well as the relative mobilities of the sample and the adjacent electrolytes. A one-dimensional model for the area-averaged concentrations based on a Taylor-Aris-type effective axial diffusivity is shown to yield good agreement with the finite-volume calculations. This justifies the use of such simple models and opens the door for the rapid simulation of ITP protocols with Poiseuille counterflow.

  4. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution.

  5. Fluff-thieving birds sabotage seed dispersal

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing many species interactions as mutualisms can be misleading because some members of the interaction derive greater fitness benefits at the expense of other members. We provide detailed natural history data on a suspected bird–plant mutualism in South Africa where many species of birds use fluffy Eriocephalus seed material to construct their nests, potentially dispersing seeds for the plant. We focus on a common bird, Prinia maculosa, which invests heavily in gathering Eriocephalus material. Prinias spent 5 of their median 6-day nest construction period adding seed material to their nests and frequently travelled outside their territory boundary to gather Eriocephalus material. Yet, prinias gathered primarily Eriocephalus fluff and actively avoided gathering seeds. The average prinia nest contained only 6.6 seeds, but contained fluff from 579 seeds. These data suggest that prinias provide limited dispersal benefits to Eriocephalus plants. By contrast, the large amounts of Eriocephalus fluff in prinia nests, and the effort that prinias invest in gathering it, suggest that prinias benefit from constructing their nests with Eriocephalus material. We end by outlining hypotheses for possible fitness benefits that Eriocephalus material could provide prinias and other birds. PMID:28280552

  6. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    In the Found or Fly (FoF) hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804) and S. invicta (Buren, 1972). Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types-claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32-38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55-63% higher wing loading, and 32-33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants.

  7. Economics of selected WECS dispersed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1980-04-01

    An economic analysis for distributed Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) has been conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Solar Commercial Readiness Assessment task at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The objective of this paper is to analyze: the cost of electricity generated by selected wind energy systems in residential and agricultural applications; the breakeven cost of wind systems able to compete economically with conventional power sources in dispersed applications; and the impact of major economic factors on the cost performance index. Two major measures of economics used are breakeven period and levelized cost of electricity (life-cycle cost). The cost performance index was calculated for a dispersed application of a commercially available 10 kW wind turbine generator. All-electric homes consuming 15,000 kWh annually or more have been selected for analysis. The agricultural application is represented by a commercial poultry and egg farm demanding over 92,000 kWh annually.

  8. Hospital Closure and Insights into Patient Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Garg, N.; Husk, G.; Nguyen, T.; Onyile, A.; Echezona, S.; Kuperman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hospital closures are becoming increasingly common in the United States. Patients who received care at the closing hospitals must travel to different, often farther hospitals for care, and nearby remaining hospitals may have difficulty coping with a sudden influx of patients. Objectives Our objectives are to analyze the dispersion patterns of patients from a closing hospital and to correlate that with distance from the closing hospital for three specific visit types: emergency, inpatient, and ambulatory. Methods In this study, we used data from a health information exchange to track patients from Saint Vincent’s Medical Center, a hospital in New York City that closed in 2010, to determine where they received emergency, inpatient, and ambulatory care following the closure. Results We found that patients went to the next nearest hospital for their emergency and inpatient care, but ambulatory encounters did not correlate with distance. Discussion It is likely that patients followed their ambulatory providers as they transitioned to another hospital system. Additional work should be done to determine predictors of impact on nearby hospitals when another hospital in the community closes in order to better prepare for patient dispersion. PMID:25848422

  9. Polymer Grafted Nanoparticle-based Oil Dispersants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daehak; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2015-03-01

    Particle-based oil dispersants mainly composed of inorganic nanoparticles such as silica nanoparticles are considered as environmentally friendly oil dispersants due to their biocompatibility and relatively low toxicity. The oil-water interfacial tension is reduced when nanoparticles segregate to the oil-water interface and this segregation is improved by grafting interfacially active polymer brushes. In this study, surfactant-like amphiphilic block copolymers were grafted from silica nanoparticles using an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method in order to increase their interfacial activity. We have studied the interfacial activity of such hybrid nanoparticles using pendant drop interfacial tension measurements, and their structure using small angle X-ray scattering. Amphiphilic copolymer grafted nanoparticles significantly reduced oil-water interfacial tension compared to the interfacial tension reduction induced by homopolymer grafted nanoparticles or the corresponding free ungrafted copolymer. Moreover, hard and stable oil-water emulsions were formed by applying the block copolymer grafted nanoparticles due to the formation of interparticle network structures, which were observed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS)

  10. Proto-planetary disc evolution and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosotti, Giovanni Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Planets form from gas and dust discs in orbit around young stars. The timescale for planet formation is constrained by the lifetime of these discs. The properties of the formed planetary systems depend thus on the evolution and final dispersal of the discs, which is the main topic of this thesis. Observations reveal the existence of a class of discs called "transitional", which lack dust in their inner regions. They are thought to be the last stage before the complete disc dispersal, and hence they may provide the key to understanding the mechanisms behind disc evolution. X-ray photoevaporation and planet formation have been studied as possible physical mechanisms responsible for the final dispersal of discs. However up to now, these two phenomena have been studied separately, neglecting any possible feedback or interaction. In this thesis we have investigated what is the interplay between these two processes. We show that the presence of a giant planet in a photo-evaporating disc can significantly shorten its lifetime, by cutting the inner regions from the mass reservoir in the exterior of the disc. This mechanism produces transition discs that for a given mass accretion rate have larger holes than in models considering only X-ray photo-evaporation, constituting a possible route to the formation of accreting transition discs with large holes. These discs are found in observations and still constitute a puzzle for the theory. Inclusion of the phenomenon called "thermal sweeping", a violent instability that can destroy a whole disc in as little as 10 4 years, shows that the outer disc left can be very short-lived (depending on the X-ray luminosity of the star), possibly explaining why very few non accreting transition discs are observed. However the mechanism does not seem to be efficient enough to reconcile with observations. In this thesis we also show that X-ray photo-evaporation naturally explains the observed correlation between stellar masses and accretion

  11. Observation of diffusive and dispersive profiles of the nonequilibrium polariton-condensate dispersion relation in a CuBr microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Ueda, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the dispersion relation of polariton condensates in a CuBr microcavity with the use of angle-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at 77 K. The polariton condensation was clearly confirmed by the thresholdlike changes in the PL intensity, energy, and bandwidth of the lower polariton at a zero in-plane wave-vector k∥= 0 as a function of excitation power density. A blueshifted flat dispersion of the PL energy suddenly appeared at the condensation threshold in a small k∥ region accompanied by the dispersion of the noncondensate PL as a background. With increasing excitation power density from the threshold, the intensity of the noncondensate PL became negligible. As a result, we found a dispersive profile of the dispersion relation of the condensate in a large k∥ region in addition to the flat dispersion corresponding to the diffusive profile. The total dispersion relation of the condensate was explained quantitatively by a theoretical model for nonequilibrium condensation.

  12. Aqueous dispersions of magnetite nanoparticles complexed with copolyether dispersants: experiments and theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Thompson, M Shane; Carmichael-Baranauskas, Anita Y; Caba, Beth L; Zalich, Michael A; Lin, Yin-Nian; Mefford, O Thompson; Davis, Richey M; Riffle, Judy S

    2007-06-19

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized and complexed with carboxylate-functional block copolymers, and then aqueous dispersions of the complexes were investigated as functions of their chemical and morphological structures. The block copolymer dispersants had either poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide), or poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) outer blocks, and all of them had a polyurethane center block that contained pendent carboxylate groups. The complexes were formed through interactions of the carboxylates with the surfaces of the magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite cores of the magnetite-copolymer complexes were near 10 nm in diameter, and the particles were superparamagnetic. Complexes with mass ratios of polymer to magnetite varying from 50:50 to 85:15 were studied. One of our objectives is to design complexes that form stable dispersions of discrete particles in water, yet that can be actuated (moved together) upon exposure to a uniform magnetic field. DLVO calculations that accounted for magnetic attractive interparticle forces, as well as van der Waals, steric, and electrostatic forces are presented. Compositions were identified wherein a shallow, attractive interparticle potential minimum appears once the magnetic term is applied. This suggests that it may be possible to tune the structures of superparamagnetic nanoparticle shells to allow discrete dispersions without a field, yet weak flocculation could be induced upon exposure to a field.

  13. Simultaneous dispersion compensation and polarization mode dispersion compensation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiquan; Chen, Ying; Xu, Mingyan; Zhu, Qiguang

    2005-01-01

    A composite structure based on linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating which can compensate for dispersion and polarization mode dispersion simultaneously has been proposed and characterized. On one hand, a chirped fiber Bragg grating can be regarded as a filter that is composed of several uniform sub-gratings. Therefore, optical signals with different wavelengths can be reflected at different points of the grating, which will result in different time delays, by which the dispersion compensation can be implemented easily. On the other hand, a chirped fiber Bragg grating has the pressure-induced birefringence effect. In the experiment, a piezoelectric transducer is used to apply the pressure on the linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating. Then the change of reflection spectra can be obtained when the pressure is applied at different points of the grating. From the reflection spectra response, the transverse pressure is found to lead to the split of the spectra of the grating. Through the observation of the group delay characteristics, we find that the differential group delay moves towards a bigger value with the increased voltage, and the maximal range of differential group delay (DGD) is 50 ps. By consequence, first-order polarization mode dispersion (PMD) can be compensated for with linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating. Thus, when the data rate of the fiber communication system is above 10 Gb/s and below 40 Gb/s, the simultaneous compensation of DGD and PMD is necessary and can be achieved by the composite structure.

  14. Multi-instrumental characterization of carbon nanotubes dispersed in aqueous solutions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies showed that the dispersion extent and physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes are highly dependent upon the preparation methods (e.g., dispersion methods and dispersants). In the present work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are dispersed in aqueous s...

  15. Management of winter weeds affects Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dispersal.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kennedy, G G

    2012-04-01

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) naturally disperses from winter weeds to crops in spring, causing direct and indirect damage. Field preparation before planting includes use of herbicides or cultivation to kill unwanted vegetation, which adversely affects F. fusca host plants and potentially influences F. fusca dispersal. Common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.), infested with F. fusca, was used as a model to study effects of timing and type of vegetation management on adult dispersal. Infested weeds were caged and F. fusca weekly dispersal was monitored using sticky traps. Weed management treatments performed at an early (14 April-11 May) or late (2 wk after early treatment) date consisted of glyphosate, paraquat, disking, hoeing, or untreated control. Late glyphosate and hoeing treatments resulted in cumulative dispersal statistically similar to or greater than from control plots. Compared with the control, significantly more F. fusca dispersed from the glyphosate and hoeing plots during the 3 wk after treatment. More thrips dispersed from the late paraquat treatment 1 wk post-application than from the control. Dispersal from the disked treatment and early paraquat treatment was similar to that of the control 1- to 3-wk post-treatment. Early treatments resulted in significantly smaller cumulative dispersal than the control in all but one instance. Late disking and paraquat treatments resulted in cumulative F. fusca captures that were statistically similar or less than that in the control. Winter weed management type and timing affect F. fusca dispersal magnitude and duration.

  16. Forecasting spatially structured populations: the role of dispersal and scale.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cailin; Boyce, Mark S; Gadgil, Madhav; Nanjundiah, Vidyanand

    2005-03-21

    We forecasted spatially structured population models with complex dynamics, focusing on the effect of dispersal and spatial scale on the predictive capability of nonlinear forecasting (NLF). Dispersal influences NLF ability by its influence on population dynamics. For simple 2-cell models, when dispersal is small, our ability to predict abundance in subpopulations decreased and then increased with increasing dispersal. Spatial heterogeneity, dispersal manner, and environmental noise did not qualitatively change this result. But results are not clear for complex spatial configurations because of complicated dispersal interactions across subpopulations. Populations undergoing periodic fluctuations could be forecasted perfectly for all deterministic cases that we studied, but less reliably when environmental noise was incorporated. More importantly, for all models that we have examined, NLF was much worse at larger spatial scales as a consequence of the asynchronous dynamics of subpopulations when the dispersal rate was below some critical value. The only difference among models was the critical value of dispersal rate, which varied with growth rate, carrying capacity, mode of dispersal, and spatial configuration. These results were robust even when environmental noise was incorporated. Intermittency, common in the dynamics of spatially structured populations, lowered the predictive capability of NLF. Forecasting population behaviour is of obvious value in resource exploitation and conservation. We suggest that forecasting at local scales holds promise, whereas forecasting abundance at regional scales may yield poor results. Improved understanding of dispersal can enhance the management and conservation of natural resources, and may help us to understand resource-exploitation strategies employed by local indigenous humans.

  17. Forest cover influences dispersal distance of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, E.S.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, B.D.; Grund, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal dispersal patterns influence gene flow, disease spread, population dynamics, spread of invasive species, and establishment of rare or endangered species. Although differences in dispersal distances among taxa have been reported, few studies have described plasticity of dispersal distance among populations of a single species. In 2002-2003, we radiomarked 308 juvenile (7- to 10-month-old), male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 2 study areas in Pennsylvania. By using a meta-analysis approach, we compared dispersal rates and distances from these populations together with published reports of 10 other nonmigratory populations of white-tailed deer. Population density did not influence dispersal rate or dispersal distance, nor did forest cover influence dispersal rate. However, average (r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001, d.f. = 9) and maximum (r2 = 0.86, P = 0.001, d.f. = 7) dispersal distances of juvenile male deer were greater in habitats with less forest cover. Hence, dispersal behavior of this habitat generalist varies, and use of landscape data to predict population-specific dispersal distances may aid efforts to model population spread, gene flow, or disease transmission. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Thieving rodents as substitute dispersers of megafaunal seeds

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Patrick A.; Hirsch, Ben T.; Emsens, Willem-Jan; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica; Wikelski, Martin; Kays, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropics have many plant species that seem to be adapted for seed dispersal by megafauna that went extinct in the late Pleistocene. Given the crucial importance of seed dispersal for plant persistence, it remains a mystery how these plants have survived more than 10,000 y without their mutualist dispersers. Here we present support for the hypothesis that secondary seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents has facilitated the persistence of these large-seeded species. We used miniature radio transmitters to track the dispersal of reputedly megafaunal seeds by Central American agoutis, which scatter-hoard seeds in shallow caches in the soil throughout the forest. We found that seeds were initially cached at mostly short distances and then quickly dug up again. However, rather than eating the recovered seeds, agoutis continued to move and recache the seeds, up to 36 times. Agoutis dispersed an estimated 35% of seeds for >100 m. An estimated 14% of the cached seeds survived to the next year, when a new fruit crop became available to the rodents. Serial video-monitoring of cached seeds revealed that the stepwise dispersal was caused by agoutis repeatedly stealing and recaching each other’s buried seeds. Although previous studies suggest that rodents are poor dispersers, we demonstrate that communities of rodents can in fact provide highly effective long-distance seed dispersal. Our findings suggest that thieving scatter-hoarding rodents could substitute for extinct megafaunal seed dispersers of tropical large-seeded trees. PMID:22802644

  19. Evolution of density- and patch-size-dependent dispersal rates.

    PubMed Central

    Poethke, Hans Joachim; Hovestadt, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Based on a marginal value approach, we derive a nonlinear expression for evolutionarily stable (ES) dispersal rates in a metapopulation with global dispersal. For the general case of density-dependent population growth, our analysis shows that individual dispersal rates should decrease with patch capacity and-beyond a certain threshold-increase with population density. We performed a number of spatially explicit, individual-based simulation experiments to test these predictions and to explore further the relevance of variation in the rate of population increase, density dependence, environmental fluctuations and dispersal mortality on the evolution of dispersal rates. They confirm the predictions of our analytical approach. In addition, they show that dispersal rates in metapopulations mostly depend on dispersal mortality and inter-patch variation in population density. The latter is dominantly driven by environmental fluctuations and the rate of population increase. These conclusions are not altered by the introduction of neighbourhood dispersal. With patch capacities in the order of 100 individuals, kin competition seems to be of negligible importance for ES dispersal rates except when overall dispersal rates are low. PMID:11916481

  20. Dispersal patterns of red foxes relative to population density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Stephen H.; Sargeant, Alan B.

    1993-01-01

    Factors affecting red fox (Vulpes vulpes) dispersal patterns are poorly understood but warranted investigation because of the role of dispersal in rebuilding depleted populations and transmission of diseases. We examined dispersal patterns of red foxes in North Dakota based on recoveries of 363 of 854 foxes tagged as pups and relative to fox density. Foxes were recovered up to 8.6 years after tagging; 79% were trapped or shot. Straight-line distances between tagging and recovery locations ranged from 0 to 302 km. Mean recovery distances increased with age and were greater for males than females, but longest individual recovery distances were by females. Dispersal distances were not related to population density for males (P = 0.36) or females (P = 0.96). The proportion of males recovered that dispersed was inversely related to population density (r = -0.94; n = 5; P = 0.02), but not the proportion of females (r = -0.49; n = 5; P = 0.40). Dispersal directions were not uniform for either males (P = 0.003) or females (P = 0.006); littermates tended to disperse in similar directions (P = 0.09). A 4-lane interstate highway altered dispersal directions (P = 0.001). Dispersal is a strong innate behavior of red foxes (especially males) that results in many individuals of both sexes traveling far from natal areas. Because dispersal distance was unaffected by fox density, populations can be rebuilt and diseases transmitted long distances regardless of fox abundance.

  1. Chimpanzee seed dispersal in a montane forest fragment in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Rebecca L; Rundus, Aaron S; Nyandwi, Sylvain

    2017-03-01

    Primate seed dispersal plays an important role in forest regeneration. It may be particularly important to anthropogenically disturbed habitats such as forest fragments. However, few studies have examined primate seed dispersal in these types of environments. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are frugivorous and large-bodied, and are therefore able to disperse both large and small seeds, making them an important seed dispersal species. We examined chimpanzee seed dispersal in Gishwati forest, a 14 km(2) montane rainforest fragment in Rwanda. We systematically collected ≤24-hr-old fecal samples and counted the number of seeds of each fruit species. We also recorded observations of seeds found in wadges. We found that chimpanzees dispersed at least 18 fruit species in 14 families in their feces. Ninety-five percent of feces had seeds, the most common of which were Ficus spp., Myrianthus holstii, and Maesa lanceolata. We estimated that the Gishwati chimpanzee community with a density of 1.7 individuals per km(2) dispersed an average of 592 (>2 mm) seeds km(-2)  day(-1) . We also found that chimpanzees dispersed the seeds of at least two fruit species, Ficus spp. and Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, in their wadges. In addition, 17% of the tree species recorded in our vegetation plots were chimpanzee-dispersed. This study emphasizes the importance of chimpanzees as large seed dispersers in regenerating forest fragments.

  2. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic

  3. Impact of Land Surface Heterogeneity on Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Yuling; Nair, Udaysankar S.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.; McNider, Richard T.; Christopher, Sundar A.; Anantharaj, Valentine G.

    2009-01-01

    Prior numerical modelling studies show that atmospheric dispersion is sensitive to surface heterogeneities, but past studies do not consider the impact of a realistic distribution of surface heterogeneities on mesoscale atmospheric dispersion. While these focussed on dispersion in the convective boundary layer, the present work also considers dispersion in the nocturnal boundary layer and above. Using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM) coupled to the Eulerian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), the impact of topographic, vegetation, and soil moisture heterogeneities on daytime and nighttime atmospheric dispersion is examined. In addition, the sensitivity to the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived spatial distributions of vegetation characteristics on atmospheric dispersion is also studied. The impact of vegetation and terrain heterogeneities on atmospheric dispersion is strongly modulated by soil moisture, with the nature of dispersion switching from non-Gaussian to near- Gaussian behaviour for wetter soils (fraction of saturation soil moisture content exceeding 40%). For drier soil moisture conditions, vegetation heterogeneity produces differential heating and the formation of mesoscale circulation patterns that are primarily responsible for non-Gaussian dispersion patterns. Nighttime dispersion is very sensitive to topographic, vegetation, soil moisture, and soil type heterogeneity and is distinctly non-Gaussian for heterogeneous land-surface conditions. Sensitivity studies show that soil type and vegetation heterogeneities have the most dramatic impact on atmospheric dispersion. To provide more skillful dispersion calculations, we recommend the utilisation of satellite-derived vegetation characteristics coupled with data assimilation techniques that constrain soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models to generate realistic spatial distributions of surface energy fluxes.

  4. Evolution of natal dispersal in spatially heterogenous environments.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Cosner, Chris; Lou, Yuan; Schreiber, Sebastian J

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of dispersal is an important issue in evolutionary ecology. For continuous time models in which individuals disperse throughout their lifetime, it has been shown that a balanced dispersal strategy, which results in an ideal free distribution, is evolutionary stable in spatially varying but temporally constant environments. Many species, however, primarily disperse prior to reproduction (natal dispersal) and less commonly between reproductive events (breeding dispersal). These species include territorial species such as birds and reef fish, and sessile species such as plants, and mollusks. As demographic and dispersal terms combine in a multiplicative way for models of natal dispersal, rather than the additive way for the previously studied models, we develop new mathematical methods to study the evolution of natal dispersal for continuous-time and discrete-time models. A fundamental ecological dichotomy is identified for the non-trivial equilibrium of these models: (i) the per-capita growth rates for individuals in all patches are equal to zero, or (ii) individuals in some patches experience negative per-capita growth rates, while individuals in other patches experience positive per-capita growth rates. The first possibility corresponds to an ideal-free distribution, while the second possibility corresponds to a "source-sink" spatial structure. We prove that populations with a dispersal strategy leading to an ideal-free distribution displace populations with dispersal strategy leading to a source-sink spatial structure. When there are patches which cannot sustain a population, ideal-free strategies can be achieved by sedentary populations, and we show that these populations can displace populations with any irreducible dispersal strategy. Collectively, these results support that evolution selects for natal or breeding dispersal strategies which lead to ideal-free distributions in spatially heterogenous, but temporally homogenous

  5. Materials dispersion and biodynamics project research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1992-01-01

    The Materials Dispersion and Biodynamics Project (MDBP) focuses on dispersion and mixing of various biological materials and the dynamics of cell-to-cell communication and intracellular molecular trafficking in microgravity. Research activities encompass biomedical applications, basic cell biology, biotechnology (products from cells), protein crystal development, ecological life support systems (involving algae and bacteria), drug delivery (microencapsulation), biofilm deposition by living organisms, and hardware development to support living cells on Space Station Freedom (SSF). Project goals are to expand the existing microgravity science database through experiments on sounding rockets, the Shuttle, and COMET program orbiters and to evolve,through current database acquisition and feasibility testing, to more mature and larger-scale commercial operations on SSF. Maximized utilization of SSF for these science applications will mean that service companies will have a role in providing equipment for use by a number of different customers. An example of a potential forerunner of such a service for SSF is the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA) 'mini lab' of Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. (ITA) in use on the Shuttle for the Commercial MDAITA Experiments (CMIX) Project. The MDA wells provide the capability for a number of investigators to perform mixing and bioprocessing experiments in space. In the area of human adaptation to microgravity, a significant database has been obtained over the past three decades. Some low-g effects are similar to Earth-based disorders (anemia, osteoporosis, neuromuscular diseases, and immune system disorders). As new information targets potential profit-making processes, services and products from microgravity, commercial space ventures are expected to expand accordingly. Cooperative CCDS research in the above mentioned areas is essential for maturing SSF biotechnology and to ensure U.S. leadership in space technology

  6. Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servranckx, R.; Stunder, B.

    2006-12-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion models (VATDM) have been used operationally since the mid 1990's by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) designated Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) to provide ash forecast guidance. Over the years, significant improvements in the detection and prediction of airborne volcanic ash have been realized thanks to improved models, increases in computing power, 24-hr real time monitoring by VAACs / Meteorological Watch Offices and close coordination with Volcano Observatories around the world. Yet, predicting accurately the spatial and temporal structures of airborne volcanic ash and the deposition at the earth's surface remains a difficult and challenging problem. The forecasting problem is influenced by 3 main components. The first one (ERUPTION SOURCE PARAMETERS) comprises all non-meteorological parameters that characterize a specific eruption or volcanic ash cloud. For example, the volume / mass of ash released in the atmosphere, the duration of the eruption, the altitude and distribution of the ash cloud, the particle size distribution, etc. The second component (METEOROLOGY) includes all meteorological parameters (wind, moisture, stability, etc.) that are calculated by Numerical Weather Prediction models and that serve as input to the VATDM. The third component (TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION) combines input from the other 2 components through the use of VATDM to transport and disperse airborne volcanic ash in the atmosphere as well as depositing it at the surface though various removal mechanisms. Any weakness in one of the components may adversely affect the accuracy of the forecast. In a real-time, operational response context such as exists at the VAACs, the rapid delivery of the modeling results puts some constraints on model resolution and computing time. Efforts are ongoing to evaluate the reliability of VATDM forecasts though the use of various methods, including ensemble techniques. Remote sensing data

  7. Condition-dependent natal dispersal in a large herbivore: heavier animals show a greater propensity to disperse and travel further.

    PubMed

    Debeffe, Lucie; Morellet, Nicolas; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Lourtet, Bruno; Bon, Richard; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Mark Hewison, A J

    2012-11-01

    Natal dispersal is defined as the movement between the natal range and the site of first breeding and is one of the most important processes in population dynamics. The choice an individual makes between dispersal and philopatry may be condition dependent, influenced by either phenotypic attributes and/or environmental factors. Interindividual variability in dispersal tactics has profound consequences for population dynamics, particularly with respect to metapopulation maintenance. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying this variability is thus of primary interest. We investigated the ranging behaviour of 60 juvenile European roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, monitored with GPS collars for 1 year prior to their first reproduction, from 2003 to 2010 in South-West France. Dispersal occurs across a spatial continuum so that dividing individuals into two categories (dispersers vs. philopatric) may lead to information loss. Therefore, to investigate condition-dependent dispersal more accurately, we developed an individual-based measure of dispersal distance, which took into account interindividual variation in ranging behaviour. We assessed the influence of body mass, the degree of habitat heterogeneity and sex on dispersal initiation date, dispersal propensity and distance. The overall population dispersal rate was 0·34, with a mean ± SD linear distance between natal and post-dispersal home ranges of 12·3 ± 10·5 km. Dispersal distances followed a classical leptokurtic distribution. We found no sex bias in either dispersal rate or distance. Forest animals dispersed less than those living in more heterogeneous habitats. Heavier individuals dispersed with a higher probability, earlier and further than lighter individuals. Our individual-based standardised dispersal distance increased linearly with body mass, with some suggestion of a body mass threshold of 14 kg under which no individual dispersed. Natal dispersal in roe deer was thus dependent on both

  8. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Hirth, John P.

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  9. Status of warm fog dispersal research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A new concept for dispersing warm fog is presented. This brute force technique uses large volume recycled water sprays. Energy requirements for this technique are an order of magnitude less than those to operate a thermo-kinetic system. An important side benefit is the considerable emergency fire extinguishing capability it provides along the runway. Tests conducted to provide drop spectra measurements and temperature response measurements of suitable water sprays are described. Three mobile firefighting modules capable of spraying up to 630 l/s (10,000 gpm) to a height in excess of 50 m were utilized. Periodic operation of two parallel rows of nozzles in a heavy fog resulted in downwind-correlated increases in the visual range measured with a forward scatter visibility meter.

  10. Carbon nanotubes dispersed in liquid crystal elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Ji, Yan

    Liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs), as the name indicates, unite the anisotropic order of liquid crystals and rubber elasticity of elastomers into polymer networks. One of the most notable features of LCEs is that properly aligned LCEs exhibit dramatic and reversible shape deformation (e.g. elongation-contraction) in response to various stimuli. In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were introduced into LCEs. Besides enabling remote and spatial control of the actuation via light and electronic field, CNTs are also utilized to align mesogens as well as to improve the mechanical and electronic property of the composites. Some potential applications of CNT-LCE nanocomposites have been demonstrated. This chapter describes the preparation of CNT dispersed LCEs, new physical properties resulted from CNTs, their actuation and their proposed applications.

  11. Optical dispersion relations for diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Sieg, Robert M.; Shoemaker, Neil S.; Pouch, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements on plasma deposited diamondlike amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were taken in the visible, (E=1.75 to 3.5 eV). The films were deposited on Si and their properties were varied using high temperature (up to 750 C) anneals. The real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the complex index of refraction N were obtained simultaneously. Following the theory of Forouhi and Bloomer, a least squares fit was used to find the dispersion relations n(E) and k(E). Reasonably good fits were obtained, showing that the theory can be used for a-C:H films. Moreover, the value of the energy gap (Eg) obtained in this way was compared to the Eg value using conventional Tauc plots and reasonably good agreement was obtained.

  12. Optical dispersion relations for diamondlike carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Sieg, Robert M.; Shoemaker, Neil S.; Pouch, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements on plasma deposited diamondlike amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were taken in the visible, (E = 1.75 to 3.5 eV). The films were deposited on Si and their properties were varied using high temperature (up to 750 C) anneals. The real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the complex index of refraction, N, were obtained simultaneously. Following the theory of Forouhi and Bloomer, a least squares fit was used to find the dispersion relations n(E) and k(E). Reasonably good fits were obtained, showing that the theory can be used for a-C:H films. Moreover, the value of the energy gap, Eg, obtained in this way was compared the the Eg value using conventional Tauc plots and reasonably good agreement was obtained.

  13. Optical dispersion relations for 'diamondlike' carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Sieg, Robert M.; Shoemaker, Neil S.; Pouch, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements on plasma deposited diamondlike amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films were taken in the visible, (E = 1.75 to 3.5 eV). The films were deposited on Si and their properties were varied using high temperature (up to 750 C) anneals. The real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the complex index of refraction N were obtained simultaneously. Following the theory of Forouhi and Bloomer, a least squares fit was used to find the dispersion relations n(E) and k(E). Reasonably good fits were obtained, showing that the theory can be used for a-C:H films. Moreover, the value of the energy gap (Eg) obtained in this way was compared to the Eg value using conventional Tauc plots and reasonably good agreement was obtained.

  14. Refinery anti-foulant-asphaltene dispersant

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, W.K.; Mercer, B.D.; Comer, D.G.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a method of dispersing asphalt and asphaltene in petroleum, crude oil, or any hydrocarbon fraction thereof exposed to heat transfer processes in an oil refinery. It comprises: adding an effective anti-foulant amount of asphalt-asphaltene polymeric anti-foulant to the petroleum, crude oil, or fraction thereof, the polymeric anti-foulant comprising an admixture of Polymer A and Polymer B ranging from 95 to 5 weight percent A and from 5 to 95 weight percent B, wherein Polymer A is an alkyl substituted phenol-formaldehyde liquid resin having a weight average molecular weight ranging from about 1,000 to about 20,000, and an alkyl substituent may be a linear or branched alkyl group; an Polymer B is a hydrophilic-lipophilic vinylic polymer.

  15. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rešetič, Andraž; Milavec, Jerneja; Zupančič, Blaž; Domenici, Valentina; Zalar, Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    The need for mechanical manipulation during the curing of conventional liquid crystal elastomers diminishes their applicability in the field of shape-programmable soft materials and future applications in additive manufacturing. Here we report on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal elastomers, novel composite materials that eliminate this difficulty. Their thermal shape memory anisotropy is imprinted by curing in external magnetic field, providing for conventional moulding of macroscopically sized soft, thermomechanically active elastic objects of general shapes. The binary soft-soft composition of isotropic elastomer matrix, filled with freeze-fracture-fabricated, oriented liquid crystal elastomer microparticles as colloidal inclusions, allows for fine-tuning of thermal morphing behaviour. This is accomplished by adjusting the concentration, spatial distribution and orientation of microparticles or using blends of microparticles with different thermomechanical characteristics. We demonstrate that any Gaussian thermomechanical deformation mode (bend, cup, saddle, left and right twist) of a planar sample, as well as beat-like actuation, is attainable with bilayer microparticle configurations.

  16. Coastal pollution limits pelagic larval dispersal.

    PubMed

    Puritz, Jonathan B; Toonen, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The ecological impact of large coastal human populations on marine ecosystems remains relatively unknown. Here, we examine the population structure of Patiria miniata, the bat star, and correlate genetic distances with a model based on flow rates and proximity to P. miniata populations for the four major stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent sources of the Southern California Bight. We show that overall genetic connectivity is high (F(ST)~0.005); however, multivariate analyses show that genetic structure is highly correlated with anthropogenic inputs. The best models included both stormwater and wastewater variables and explained between 26.55 and 93.69% of the observed structure. Additionally, regressions between allelic richness and distance to sources show that populations near anthropogenic pollution have reduced genetic diversity. Our results indicate that anthropogenic runoff and effluent are acting as barriers to larval dispersal, effectively isolating a high gene flow species that is virtually free of direct human impact.

  17. Contaminant dispersal in bounded turbulent shear flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.M.; Bernard, P.S.; Chiang, K.F.; Ong, L.

    1995-12-31

    The dispersion of smoke downstream of a line source at the wall and at y{sup +} = 30 in a turbulent boundary layer has been predicted with a non-local model of the scalar fluxes {bar u}c and {bar v}c. The predicted plume from the wall source has been compared to high Schmidt number experimental measurements using a combination of hot-wire anemometry to obtain velocity component data synchronously with concentration data obtained optically. The predicted plumes from the source at y{sup +} = 30 and at the wall also have been compared to a low Schmidt number direct numerical simulation. Near the source, the non-local flux models give considerably better predictions than models which account solely for mean gradient transport. At a sufficient distance downstream the gradient models gives reasonably good predictions.

  18. Polaron action for multimode dispersive phonon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilovitch, P. E.

    2006-03-01

    The path-integral approach to the tight-binding polaron is extended to multiple optical phonon modes of arbitrary dispersion and polarization. The nonlinear lattice effects are neglected. Only one electron band is considered. The electron-phonon interaction is of the density-displacement type, but can be of arbitrary spatial range and shape. Feynman’s analytical integration of ion trajectories is performed by transforming the electron-ion forces to the basis in which the phonon dynamical matrix is diagonal. The resulting polaron action is derived for the periodic and shifted boundary conditions in imaginary time. The former can be used for calculating polaron thermodynamics while the latter for the polaron mass and spectrum. The developed formalism is the analytical basis for numerical analysis of such models by path-integral Monte Carlo methods.

  19. Dispersed ozone flotation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ya-Ling; Juang, Yu-Chuan; Liao, Guan-Yu; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu; Liu, Jhy-Chern; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-12-01

    Flotation separation of Chlorella vulgaris, a species with excellent potential for CO(2) capture and lipid production, was studied using dispersed ozone gas. Pure oxygen aeration did not yield flotation. Conversely, applying ozone effectively separation algae from broth through flotation. The ozone dose applied for sufficient algal flotation is <0.05 mg/g biomass, much lower than those used in practical drinking waterworks (0.1-0.3 mg/g suspended solids). Main products, lipid C16:0, was effectively collected in the flotage phase. The algae removal rate, surface charge, and hydrophobicity of algal cells, and proteins and polysaccharides contents of algogenic organic matter (AOM) were determined. Certain quantities of proteins were present in the cultivated algal suspension, hence, minimal quantity of ozone was required to release intracellular proteins as surfactants to lead to effective flotation.

  20. NMR relaxation dispersion of vulcanized natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Kariyo, Sobiroh; Stapf, Siegfried

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of the 1H spin-lattice relaxation time on the magnetic field strength has been determined for linear and cross-linked polyisoprene for Larmor frequencies between 5 kHz and 20 MHz. Universal power-law relations are found for all temperatures and cross-link densities under investigation and are compared to published results of rotating-frame experiments on similar natural rubber samples. The shape of the individual dispersion functions can be superposed into a master curve using appropriate shift factors. While addition of filler particles even at large weight fractions has only a minor effect on the relaxation times, uniaxial deformation and swelling are demonstrated to alter the molecular dynamics significantly.

  1. Atmospheric Dispersion Analysis using MACCS2

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R; Yang, J M

    2004-02-02

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.145 requires an evaluation of the offsite atmospheric dispersion coefficient, {Chi}/Q, as a part of the acceptance criteria in the accident analysis. In it, it requires in sequence computations of (1) the overall site 95th percentile {Chi}/Q, (2) the maximum of the sixteen sector 99.5th percentile {Chi}/Q, and (3) comparison and selection of the worst of the two values for reporting in the safety analysis report (SAR). In all cases, the site-specific meteorology and sector-specific site boundary distances are employed in the evaluation. There are sixteen 22.5-sectors, the nearest site boundary of which is determined within the 45-arc centered on each of the sixteen compass directions.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Dense Gas Dispersion Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touma, Jawad S.; Cox, William M.; Thistle, Harold; Zapert, James G.

    1995-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study to evaluate the performance of seven dense gas dispersion models using data from three field experiments. Two models (DEGADIS and SLAB) are in the public domain and the other five (AIRTOX, CHARM, FOCUS, SAFEMODE, and TRACE) are proprietary. The field data used are the Desert Tortoise pressurized ammonia releases, Burro liquefied natural gas spill tests, and the Goldfish anhydrous hydrofluoric acid spill experiments. Desert Tortoise and Goldfish releases were simulated as horizontal jet releases, and Burro as a liquid pool. Performance statistics were used to compare maximum observed concentrations and plume half-width to those predicted by each model. Model performance varied and no model exhibited consistently good performance across all three databases. However, when combined across the three databases, all models performed within a factor of 2. Problems encountered are discussed in order to help future investigators.

  3. Longitudinal dispersion modeling in small streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekarova, Pavla; Pekar, Jan; Miklanek, Pavol

    2014-05-01

    The environmental problems caused by the increasing of pollutant loads discharged into natural water bodies are very complex. For that reason the cognition of transport mechanism and mixing characteristics in natural streams is very important. The mathematical and numerical models have become very useful tools for solving the water management problems. The mathematical simulations based on numerical models of pollution mixing in streams can be used (for example) for prediction of spreading of accidental contaminant waves in rivers. The paper deals with the estimation of the longitudinal dispersion coefficients and with the numerical simulation of transport and transformation of accidental pollution in the small natural streams. There are different ways of solving problems of pollution spreading in open channels, in natural rivers. One of them is the hydrodynamic approach, which endeavours to understand and quantify the spreading phenomenon in a stream. The hydrodynamic models are based on advection-diffusion equation and the majority of them are one-dimensional models. Their disadvantage is inability to simulate the spread of pollution until complete dispersion of pollutant across the stream section is finished. Two-dimensional mixing models do not suffer from these limitations. On the other hand, the one-dimensional models are simpler than two-dimensional ones, they need not so much input data and they are often swifter. Three-dimensional models under conditions of natural streams are applicable with difficulties (or inapplicable) for their complexity and demands on accuracy and amount of input data. As there was mentioned above the two-dimensional models can be used also until complete dispersion of pollutant across the stream section is not finished, so we decided to apply the two-dimensional model SIRENIE. Experimental microbasin Rybarik is the part of the experimental Mostenik brook basin of IH SAS Bratislava. It was established as a Field Hydrological

  4. Normal dispersion femtosecond fiber optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N; Kieu, K; Maslov, A V; Miyawaki, M; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-09-15

    We propose and demonstrate a synchronously pumped fiber optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) operating in the normal dispersion regime. The FOPO generates chirped pulses at the output, allowing significant pulse energy scaling potential without pulse breaking. The output average power of the FOPO at 1600 nm was ∼60  mW (corresponding to 1.45 nJ pulse energy and ∼55% slope power conversion efficiency). The output pulses directly from the FOPO were highly chirped (∼3  ps duration), and they could be compressed outside of the cavity to 180 fs by using a standard optical fiber compressor. Detailed numerical simulation was also performed to understand the pulse evolution dynamics around the laser cavity. We believe that the proposed design concept is useful for scaling up the pulse energy in the FOPO using different pumping wavelengths.

  5. Effects of APD Dispersion on Atrial Reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigmond, Edward; Kuo, Samuel; Trayanova, Natalia

    2002-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia with dispersion of refractoriness being postulated as a mechanism promoting its formation. The distribution of action potential duration (APD) over the atria, however, remains unmapped under both normal and pathological conditions. The purpose of this computer study was to investigate how APD heterogenity interacts with morphological barriers to produce reentry. Reentries were first initiated in a 2D sheet of atrial tissue. The effects of incorporating APD heterogeneity and periodic boundary conditions, to better mimic physiological conditions, on reentry were ascertained. Analysis was extended to a morphologically realistic 3D model wherein several APD distributions were simulated. Comparisons between the 2D and 3D models demonstrated that the sheet behaviour was insufficient to capture the complex behaviour. Regional differences in APD, aided by anatomical barriers, were found to affect the formation and stabilization of reentrant circuits, as well as lead to the fractionation of wavefronts.

  6. Adsorption modeling for macroscopic contaminant dispersal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Axley, J.W.

    1990-05-01

    Two families of macroscopic adsorption models are formulated, based on fundamental principles of adsorption science and technology, that may be used for macroscopic (such as whole-building) contaminant dispersal analysis. The first family of adsorption models - the Equilibrium Adsorption (EA) Models - are based upon the simple requirement of equilibrium between adsorbent and room air. The second family - the Boundary Layer Diffusion Controlled Adsorption (BLDC) Models - add to the equilibrium requirement a boundary layer model for diffusion of the adsorbate from the room air to the adsorbent surface. Two members of each of these families are explicitly discussed, one based on the linear adsorption isotherm model and the other on the Langmuir model. The linear variants of each family are applied to model the adsorption dynamics of formaldehyde in gypsum wall board and compared to measured data.

  7. Dispersion compensation in chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A.

    2014-07-15

    A chirped pulse amplification system includes a laser source providing an input laser pulse along an optical path. The input laser pulse is characterized by a first temporal duration. The system also includes a multi-pass pulse stretcher disposed along the optical path. The multi-pass pulse stretcher includes a first set of mirrors operable to receive input light in a first plane and output light in a second plane parallel to the first plane and a first diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher also includes a second set of mirrors operable to receive light diffracted from the first diffraction grating and a second diffraction grating. The pulse stretcher further includes a reflective element operable to reflect light diffracted from the second diffraction grating. The system further includes an amplifier, a pulse compressor, and a passive dispersion compensator disposed along the optical path.

  8. Mathematical analysis of electromigration dispersion fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Ivan C.

    2016-11-01

    It is of interest to understand traveling electromigration wave phenomena, such as isotachophoretic boundaries, because of their applications in electrophoretic separation methods. To this end, we construct exact solutions to an unusual nonlinear advection-diffusion equation arising in the study of Taylor-Aris (also known as shear) dispersion due to electroosmotic flow during electromigration in a capillary. An exact reduction to a Darboux equation is found under a traveling-wave anzats. The equilibria of this ordinary differential equation are analyzed, showing that their stability is determined solely by the (dimensionless) wave speed without regard to any (dimensionless) physical parameters. Integral curves, connecting the appropriate equilibria of the Darboux equation that governs traveling waves, are constructed, which in turn are shown to be asymmetric kink solutions (i.e., non-Taylor shocks). Furthermore, it is shown that the governing Darboux equation exhibits bistability, which leads to two coexisting non-negative kink solutions for (dimensionless) wave speeds greater than unity.

  9. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Utz, Bruce R.; Cugini, Anthony V.

    1992-01-01

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  10. Stabilized dispersive focal plane systems for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Beebe, Chip R.; Brooks, Mark J.; Davis, Michael W.; Klar, Robert A.; Roberts, John M.; Rose, Randall J.; Winters, Gregory S.

    2012-09-01

    As the costs of space missions continue to rise, the demand for compact, low mass, low-cost technologies that maintain high reliability and facilitate high performance is increasing. One such technology is the stabilized dispersive focal plane system (SDFPS). This technology provides image stabilization while simultaneously delivering spectroscopic or direct imaging functionality using only a single optical path and detector. Typical systems require multiple expensive optical trains and/or detectors, sometimes at the expense of photon throughput. The SDFPS is ideal for performing wide-field low-resolution space-based spectroscopic and direct-imaging surveys. In preparation for a suborbital flight, we have built and ground tested a prototype SDFPS that will concurrently eliminate unwanted image blurring due to the lack of adequate platform stability, while producing images in both spectroscopic and direct-imaging modes. We present the overall design, testing results, and potential scientific applications.

  11. Charged particle concepts for fog dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, W.; Collins, F. G.; Koepf, D.

    1981-01-01

    Charged particle techniques hold promise for dispersing warm fog in the terminal area of commercial airports. This report focuses on features of the charged particle technique which require further study. The basic physical principles of the technique and the major verification experiments carried out in the past are described. The fundamentals of the nozzle operation are given. The nozzle characteristics and the theory of particle charging in the nozzle are discussed, including information from extensive literature on electrostatic precipitation relative to environmental pollution control and a description of some preliminary reported analyses on the jet characteristics and interaction with neighboring jets. The equation governing the transfer of water substances and of electrical charge is given together with a brief description of several semi-empirical, mathematical expressions necessary for the governing equations. The necessary ingredients of a field experiment to verify the system once a prototype is built are described.

  12. Parallelization of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.L.; O`Steen, B.L.

    1997-08-01

    An advanced stochastic Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) is used by the Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) to simulate contaminant transport. The model uses time-dependent three-dimensional fields of wind and turbulence to determine the location of individual particles released into the atmosphere. This report describes modifications to LPDM using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) which allows for execution in a parallel configuration on the Cray Supercomputer facility at the SRS. Use of a parallel version allows for many more particles to be released in a given simulation, with little or no increase in computational time. This significantly lowers (greater than an order of magnitude) the minimum resolvable concentration levels without ad hoc averaging schemes and/or without reducing spatial resolution. The general changes made to LPDM are discussed and a series of tests are performed comparing the serial (single processor) and parallel versions of the code.

  13. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed.

  14. Envelope Solitons in Acoustically Dispersive Vitreous Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic radiation-induced static strains, displacements, and stresses are manifested as rectified or dc waveforms linked to the energy density of an acoustic wave or vibrational mode via the mode nonlinearity parameter of the material. An analytical model is developed for acoustically dispersive media that predicts the evolution of the energy density of an initial waveform into a series of energy solitons that generates a corresponding series of radiation-induced static strains (envelope solitons). The evolutionary characteristics of the envelope solitons are confirmed experimentally in Suprasil W1 vitreous silica. The value (-11.9 plus or minus 1.43) for the nonlinearity parameter, determined from displacement measurements of the envelope solitons via a capacitive transducer, is in good agreement with the value (-11.6 plus or minus 1.16) obtained independently from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The agreement provides strong, quantitative evidence for the validity of the model.

  15. NGC2264: a new dispersed population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaccomio, Ettore

    2012-10-01

    An optical variability study of the benchmark star forming region NGC2264, observed with CoRoT, suggests that the cluster is more extended than currently believed. To confirm this result we obtained, in AO10, a 50ks EPIC pointing toward the cluster periphery. The observation fully confirms the existence of a spatially extended population. We propose to observe four more fields each for 50ks. Our goals are: 1) establishing whether the clustered and dispersed populations originated from the same or distinct formation events; 2) determining whether mass segregation affects NGC2264, thus compromising current determinations of the IMF; 3) deriving disk frequencies throughout the cluster and in sub-regions with different stellar densities and UV-radiation fields.

  16. NGC 2264: a new dispersed population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaccomio, Ettore

    2011-10-01

    An optical variability study of the benchmark star forming region NGC2264, observed with CoRoT, suggests that the cluster is more extended than currently believed. To confirm this result we obtained, in AO10, a 50ks EPIC pointing toward the cluster periphery. The observation fully confirms the existence of a spatially extended population. We propose to observe four more fields, each for 50ks. Our goals are: 1) establishing whether the clustered and dispersed populations originated from the same or distinct star formation events; 2) determining whether mass segregation affects NGC2264, thus compromising current determinations of the IMF; 3) deriving disk frequencies throughout the cluster and in sub-regions with different stellar densities and UV-radiation fields.

  17. NGC 2264: a new dispersed population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaccomio, Ettore

    2010-10-01

    An optical variability study of the "benchmark" star forming region NGC2264, observed with CoRoT, indicates that the cluster is more extended than currently believed. We propose to observe with EPIC two fields in the outskirts of NGC2264, each for 50ks. We want to: 1) confirm by means of X-ray detection the existence of a spatially extended population; 2) establish the star formation history of the region, e.g. whether the clustered and dispersed populations originated from the same or distinct formation events; 3) determine whether mass segregation affects NGC2264, thus compromising current determinations of the Initial Mass Function; 4) derive disk frequencies throughout the cluster and in sub-regions with different stellar densities and UV-radiation fields.

  18. Air pollution dispersion within urban street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taseiko, Olga V.; Mikhailuta, Sergey V.; Pitt, Anne; Lezhenin, Anatoly A.; Zakharov, Yuri V.

    A semi-empirical mathematical model, Urban Street Model (USM), is proposed to efficiently estimate the dispersion of vehicular air pollution in cities. This model describes urban building arrangements by combining building density, building heights and the permeability of building arrangements relative to wind flow. To estimate the level of air pollution in the city of Krasnoyarsk (in Eastern Siberia), the spatial distribution of pollutant concentrations off roadways is calculated using Markov's processes in USM. The USM-predicted numerical results were compared with field measurements and with results obtained from other frequently used models, CALINE-4 and OSPM. USM consistently yielded the best results. OSPM usually overestimated pollutant concentration values. CALINE-4 consistently underestimated these values. For OSPM, the maximum differences were 160% and for CALINE-4 about 400%. Permeability and building density are necessary parameters for accurately modeling urban air pollution and influencing regulatory requirements for building planning.

  19. Tunable nano dispersed LC based patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Afaque; Yadav, Harsh; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents Patch antenna based on pure and Nano dispersed liquid crystals (LCs) for earth and space applications. Patch antenna are one of the most attractive antennas designed for RF frequency. To fulfill the demand of modern antenna i.e. tunability, a design of LC based patch antenna with optimum frequency of 15 GHz is investigated. In this design, NLC and ZnO doped NLC were used as a dielectric substrate. Its dielectric permittivity was controlled by biasing voltage. The dielectric properties of the 4-Cyano-4' -pentylbiphenyl (5CB) nematic liquid crystal (NLC), and NLC doped with Zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles was studied at room temperature. The concentration of doping material was 0.5% by w.t. in ZnO. Results shows that dielectric parameters are strong function of frequency and applied bias voltage. Moreover, Using doped NLC as dielectric substrate one gets more tunability or shift in resonant frequency in the proposed geometry.

  20. Vlasov multi-dimensional model dispersion relation

    SciTech Connect

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.; Silantyev, Denis A.; Vladimirova, Natalia

    2014-07-15

    A hybrid model of the Vlasov equation in multiple spatial dimension D > 1 [H. A. Rose and W. Daughton, Phys. Plasmas 18, 122109 (2011)], the Vlasov multi dimensional model (VMD), consists of standard Vlasov dynamics along a preferred direction, the z direction, and N flows. At each z, these flows are in the plane perpendicular to the z axis. They satisfy Eulerian-type hydrodynamics with coupling by self-consistent electric and magnetic fields. Every solution of the VMD is an exact solution of the original Vlasov equation. We show approximate convergence of the VMD Langmuir wave dispersion relation in thermal plasma to that of Vlasov-Landau as N increases. Departure from strict rotational invariance about the z axis for small perpendicular wavenumber Langmuir fluctuations in 3D goes to zero like θ{sup N}, where θ is the polar angle and flows are arranged uniformly over the azimuthal angle.