Sample records for blackbody radiation

  1. High School Teachers' Understanding of Blackbody Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balta, Nuri

    2018-01-01

    This study is a detailed look at the level of understanding of fundamental ideas about blackbody radiation (BBR) among physics teachers. The aim is to explore associations and ideas that teachers have regarding blackbody radiation: a concept used routinely in physics and chemistry, which is necessary to understand fundamentals of quantum physics.…

  2. Atomic Clocks with Suppressed Blackbody Radiation Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, V. I.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Okhapkin, M. V.; Bagayev, S. N.; Tamm, Chr.; Peik, E.; Huntemann, N.; Mehlstäubler, T. E.; Riehle, F.

    2011-07-01

    We develop a concept of atomic clocks where the blackbody radiation shift and its fluctuations can be suppressed by 1-3 orders of magnitude independent of the environmental temperature. The suppression is based on the fact that in a system with two accessible clock transitions (with frequencies ν1 and ν2) which are exposed to the same thermal environment, there exists a “synthetic” frequency νsyn ∝ (ν1-ɛ12ν2) largely immune to the blackbody radiation shift. For example, in the case of Yb+171 it is possible to create a synthetic-frequency-based clock in which the fractional blackbody radiation shift can be suppressed to the level of 10-18 in a broad interval near room temperature (300±15K). We also propose a realization of our method with the use of an optical frequency comb generator stabilized to both frequencies ν1 and ν2, where the frequency νsyn is generated as one of the components of the comb spectrum.

  3. A blackbody radiation-pumped CO2 laser experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Insuik, R. J.; Deyoung, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal radiation from a high temperature oven was used as an optical pump to achieve lasing from CO2 mixtures. Laser output as a function of blackbody temperature and gas conditions is described. This achievement represents the first blackbody cavity pumped laser and has potential for solar pumping.

  4. Correct consideration of the index of refraction using blackbody radiation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jurgen

    2006-09-04

    The correct consideration of the index of refraction when using blackbody radiators as standard sources for optical radiation is derived and discussed. It is shown that simply using the index of refraction of air at laboratory conditions is not sufficient. A combination of the index of refraction of the media used inside the blackbody radiator and for the optical path between blackbody and detector has to be used instead. A worst case approximation for the introduced error when neglecting these effects is presented, showing that the error is below 0.1 % for wavelengths above 200 nm. Nevertheless, for the determination of the spectral radiance for the purpose of radiation temperature measurements the correct consideration of the refractive index is mandatory. The worst case estimation reveals that the introduced error in temperature at a blackbody temperature of 3000 degrees C can be as high as 400 mk at a wavelength of 650 nm and even higher at longer wavelengths.

  5. Conversion of blackbody radiation into laser energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcinville, R. M.; Hassan, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    By employing detailed kinetic models, three concepts which utilize a blackbody cavity for the conversion of solar energy into laser energy using a CO2 lasant are analyzed and compared. In the first, the blackbody radiation is used to excite flowing CO2 directly. The second and third employ a mixing laser concept with CO and N2 being the donor gases. The CO is optically pumped while thermal heating excites the N2. Blackbody temperatures ranging from 1500 deg K - 2500 deg K are considered. Based on calculated laser power output per unit flow rate of CO2, it appears that the N2-CO2 mixing laser is the most attractive system.

  6. Illuminating the Blackbody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehoucq, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The blackbody is one of the first topics the students face at the beginning of their studies on modern physics. The usual framework supposes that a blackbody emits radiation in a 3D space in the form of massless bosons (photons). This paper investigates the blackbody radiation in a more general context in order to discuss the physical hypotheses…

  7. A history of slide rules for blackbody radiation computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Stewart, Sean M.

    2012-10-01

    During the Second World War the importance of utilizing detection devices capable of operating in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum was firmly established. Up until that time, laboriously constructed tables for blackbody radiation needed to be used in calculations involving the amount of radiation radiated within a given spectral region or for other related radiometric quantities. To rapidly achieve reasonably accurate calculations of such radiometric quantities, a blackbody radiation calculator was devised in slide rule form first in Germany in 1944 and soon after in England and the United States. In the immediate decades after its introduction, the radiation slide rule was widely adopted and recognized as a useful and important tool for engineers and scientists working in the infrared field. It reached its pinnacle in the United States in 1970 in a rule introduced by Electro Optical Industries, Inc. With the onset in the latter half of the 1970s of affordable, hand-held electronic calculators, the impending demise of the radiation slide rule was evident. No longer the calculational device of choice, the radiation slide rule all but disappeared within a few short years. Although today blackbody radiation calculations can be readily accomplished using anything from a programmable pocket calculator upwards, with each device making use of a wide variety of numerical approximations to the integral of Planck's function, radiation slide rules were in the early decades of infrared technology the definitive "workhorse" for those involved in infrared systems design and engineering. This paper presents a historical development of radiation slide rules with many versions being discussed.

  8. Decay, excitation, and ionization of lithium Rydberg states by blackbody radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Glukhov, I. L.

    2010-09-01

    Details of interaction between the blackbody radiation and neutral lithium atoms were studied in the temperature ranges T = 100-2000 K. The rates of thermally induced decays, excitations and ionization were calculated for S-, P- and D-series of Rydberg states in the Fues' model potential approach. The quantitative regularities for the states of the maximal rates of blackbody-radiation-induced processes were determined. Approximation formulas were proposed for analytical representation of the depopulation rates.

  9. Anisotropy of the cosmic blackbody radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    The universe is filled with thermal radiation having a current temperature of 2.75 K. Originating in the very early universe, this radiation furnishes strong evidence that the Big Bang cosmology best describes our expanding universe from an incredibly hot, compacted early stage until now. The model can be used to extrapolate our physics backward in time to predict events whose effects might be observable in the 2.75 K radiation today. The spectrum and isotropy are being studied with sophisticated microwave radiometers on the ground, in balloons, and in satellites. The results are as predicted by the simple theory: the spectrum is that of a blackbody (to a few percent) and the radiation is isotropic (to 0.01 percent) except for a local effect due to our motion through the radiation. However, a problem is emerging. Primordial fluctuations in the mass density, which later became the great clusters of galaxies that we see today, should have left an imprint on the 2.75 K radiation - bumpiness on the sky at angular scales of about 10 arc minutes. They have not been seen.

  10. Microwave blackbodies for spaceborne receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of microwave blackbody targets are explained as they apply to the calibration of spaceborne receivers. Also described are several practicable, blackbody targets used to test and calibrate receivers in the laboratory and in the thermal vacuum chamber. Problems with the precision and the accuracy of blackbody targets, and blackbody target design concepts that overcome some of the accuracy limitations present in existing target designs, are presented. The principle of the Brewster angle blackbody target is described where the blackbody is applied as a fixed-temperature test target in the laboratory and as a variable-temperature target in the thermal vacuum chamber. The reflectivity of a Brewster angle target is measured in the laboratory. From this measurement, the emissivity of the target is calculated. Radiatively cooled thermal suspensions are discussed as the coolants of blackbody targets and waveguide terminations that function as calibration devices in spaceborne receivers. Examples are given for the design of radiatively cooled thermal suspensions. Corrugated-horn antennas used to observe the cosmic background and to provide a cold-calibration source for spaceborne receivers are described.

  11. Ionization of nS, nP, and nD lithium, potassium, and cesium Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beterov, I. I.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Ékers, A.

    2008-07-01

    The results of theoretical calculations of the blackbody ionization rates of lithium, potassium, and cesium atoms residing in Rydberg states are presented. The calculations are performed for nS, nP, and nD states in a wide range of principal quantum numbers, n = 8-65, for blackbody radiation temperatures T = 77, 300, and 600 K. The calculations are performed using the known quasi-classical formulas for the photoionization cross sections and for the radial matrix elements of transitions in the discrete spectrum. The effect of the blackbody-radiation-induced population redistribution between Rydberg states on the blackbody ionization rates measured under laboratory conditions is quantitatively analyzed. Simple analytical formulas that approximate the numerical results and that can be used to estimate the blackbody ionization rates of Rydberg atoms are presented. For the S series of lithium, the rate of population of high-lying Rydberg levels by blackbody radiation is found to anomalously behave as a function of n. This anomaly is similar to the occurrence of the Cooper minimum in the discrete spectrum.

  12. Anisotropy of the cosmic blackbody radiation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D T

    1986-06-20

    The universe is filled with thermal radiation having a current temperature of 2.75 K. Originating in the very early universe, this radiation furnishes strong evidence that the Big Bang cosmology best describes our expanding universe from an incredibly hot, compacted early stage until now. The model can be used to extrapolate our physics backward in time to predict events whose effects might be observable in the 2.75 K radiation today. The spectrum and isotropy are being studied with sophisticated microwave radiometers on the ground, in balloons, and in satellites. The results are as predicted by the simple theory: the spectrum is that of a blackbody (to a few percent) and the radiation is isotropic (to 0.01 percent) except for a local effect due to our motion through the radiation. However, a problem is emerging. Primordial fluctuations in the mass density, which later became the great clusters of galaxies that we see today, should have left an imprint on the 2.75 K radiation-bumpiness on the sky at angular scales of about 10 arc minutes. They have not yet been seen.

  13. Radiative transitions from Rydberg states of lithium atoms in a blackbody radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2012-05-01

    The radiative widths induced by blackbody radiation (BBR) were investigated for Rydberg states with principal quantum number up to n = 1000 in S-, P- and D-series of the neutral lithium atom at temperatures T = 100-3000 K. The rates of BBR-induced decays and excitations were compared with the rates of spontaneous decays. Simple analytical approximations are proposed for accurate estimations of the ratio of thermally induced decay (excitation) rates to spontaneous decay rates in wide ranges of states and temperatures.

  14. Lasant Materials for Blackbody-Pumped Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J. (Editor); Chen, K. Y. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Blackbody-pumped solar lasers are proposed to convert sunlight into laser power to provide future space power and propulsion needs. There are two classes of blackbody-pumped lasers. The direct cavity-pumped system in which the lasant molecule is vibrationally excited by the absorption of blackbody radiation and laser, all within the blackbody cavity. The other system is the transfer blackbody-pumped laser in which an absorbing molecule is first excited within the blackbody cavity, then transferred into a laser cavity when an appropriate lasant molecule is mixed. Collisional transfer of vibrational excitation from the absorbing to the lasing molecule results in laser emission. A workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate new lasant materials for both of these blackbody systems. Emphasis was placed on the physics of molecular systems which would be appropriate for blackbody-pumped lasers.

  15. APMP Scale Comparison with Three Radiation Thermometers and Six Fixed-Point Blackbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2015-08-01

    New Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) comparisons of radiation thermometry standards, APMP TS-11, and -12, have recently been initiated. These new APMP comparisons cover the temperature range from to . Three radiation thermometers with central wavelengths of 1.6 , 0.9 , and 0.65 are the transfer devices for the radiation thermometer scale comparison conducted in the so-called star configuration. In parallel, a compact fixed-point blackbody furnace that houses six types of fixed-point cells of In, Sn, Zn, Al, Ag, and Cu is circulated, again in a star-type comparison, to substantiate fixed-point calibration capabilities. Twelve APMP national metrology institutes are taking part in this endeavor, in which the National Metrology Institute of Japan acts as the pilot. In this article, the comparison scheme is described with emphasis on the features of the transfer devices, i.e., the radiation thermometers and the fixed-point blackbodies. Results of preliminary evaluations of the performance and characteristic of these instruments as well as the evaluation method of the comparison results are presented.

  16. High temperature blackbody BB2000/40 for calibration of radiation thermometers and thermocouple

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ogarev, S. A.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Samoylov, M. L.

    2013-09-11

    The cavity-type high temperature blackbody (HTBB) models of BB3200/3500 series are the most spread among metrological institutes worldwide as sources for radiometry and radiation thermometry, due to their ultra high working temperatures, high emissivity and stability. The materials of radiating cavities are graphite, pyrolytic graphite (PG) and their combination. The paper describes BB2000/40 blackbody with graphite-tube cavity that was developed for calibration of radiation thermometers at SCEI (Singapore). The peculiarity of BB2000/40 is a possibility to use it, besides calibration of pyrometers, as an instrument for thermocouples calibration. Operating within the temperature range from 900 °C to 2000 °C, themore » blackbody has a wide cavity opening of 40 mm. Emissivity of the cavity, with PG heater rings replaced partly by graphite elements, was estimated as 0.998 ± 0.0015 in the spectral range from 350 nm to 2000 nm. The uniformity along the cavity axis, accounting for 10 °C, was measured using a B-type thermocouple at 1500 °C. The BB2000/40, if necessary, can be easily modified, by replacing the graphite radiator with a set of PG rings, to be able to reach temperatures as high as 3200 °C. The HTBB utilizes an optical feedback system which allows temperature stabilization within 0.1 °C. This rear-view feedback allows the whole HTBB aperture to be used for measurements.« less

  17. GRAY: a program to calculate gray-body radiation heat-transfer view factors from black-body view factors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wong, R. L.

    1976-06-14

    Program GRAY is written to perform the matrix manipulations necessary to convert black-body radiation heat-transfer view factors to gray-body view factors as required by thermal analyzer codes. The black-body view factors contain only geometric relationships. Program GRAY allows the effects of multiple gray-body reflections to be included. The resulting effective gray-body factors can then be used with the corresponding fourth-power temperature differences to obtain the net radiative heat flux. The program is written to accept a matrix input or the card image output generated by the black-body view factor program CNVUFAC. The resulting card image output generated by GRAY ismore » in a form usable by the TRUMP thermal analyzer.« less

  18. Measurement and Analysis of the Temperature Gradient of Blackbody Cavities, for Use in Radiation Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucas, Javier; Segovia, José Juan

    2018-05-01

    Blackbody cavities are the standard radiation sources widely used in the fields of radiometry and radiation thermometry. Its effective emissivity and uncertainty depend to a large extent on the temperature gradient. An experimental procedure based on the radiometric method for measuring the gradient is followed. Results are applied to particular blackbody configurations where gradients can be thermometrically estimated by contact thermometers and where the relationship between both basic methods can be established. The proposed procedure may be applied to commercial blackbodies if they are modified allowing secondary contact temperature measurement. In addition, the established systematic may be incorporated as part of the actions for quality assurance in routine calibrations of radiation thermometers, by using the secondary contact temperature measurement for detecting departures from the real radiometrically obtained gradient and the effect on the uncertainty. On the other hand, a theoretical model is proposed to evaluate the effect of temperature variations on effective emissivity and associated uncertainty. This model is based on a gradient sample chosen following plausible criteria. The model is consistent with the Monte Carlo method for calculating the uncertainty of effective emissivity and complements others published in the literature where uncertainty is calculated taking into account only geometrical variables and intrinsic emissivity. The mathematical model and experimental procedure are applied and validated using a commercial type three-zone furnace, with a blackbody cavity modified to enable a secondary contact temperature measurement, in the range between 400 °C and 1000 °C.

  19. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-10-06

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. Here we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. When placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities.

  20. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P.; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. Here we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. When placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities. PMID:26392542

  1. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P.; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-09-21

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. Whenmore » placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Lastly, our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities.« less

  2. Accurate calculation of dynamic Stark shifts and depopulation rates of Rydberg energy levels induced by blackbody radiation. Hydrogen, helium, and alkali-metal atoms

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Farley, J.W.; Wing, W.H.

    1981-05-01

    A highly excited (Rydberg) atom bathed in blackbody radiation is perturbed in two ways. A dynamic Stark shift is induced by the off-resonant components of the blackbody radiation. Additionally, electric-dipole transitions to other atomic energy levels are induced by the resonant components of the blackbody radiation. This depopulation effect shortens the Rydberg-state lifetime, thereby broadening the energy level. Calculations of these two effects in many states of hydrogen, helium, and the alkali-metal atoms Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs are presented for T = 300 K. Contributions from the entire blackbody spectrum and from both discrete and continuous perturbing statesmore » are included. The accuracy is considerably greater than that of previous estimates.« less

  3. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in a laser-induced plasma evidenced by blackbody radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Jörg; Grojo, David; Axente, Emanuel; Craciun, Valentin

    2018-06-01

    We show that the plasma produced by laser ablation of solid materials in specific conditions has an emission spectrum that is characterized by the saturation of the most intense spectral lines at the blackbody radiance. The blackbody temperature equals the excitation temperature of atoms and ions, proving directly and unambiguously a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The present investigations take benefit from the very rich and intense emission spectrum generated by ablation of a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy. This alternative and direct proof of the plasma equilibrium state re-opens the perspectives of quantitative material analyses via calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Moreover, the unique properties of this laser-produced plasma promote its use as radiation standard for intensity calibration of spectroscopic instruments.

  4. Comics in Modern Physics: Learning Blackbody Radiation through Quasi-History of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to create a short comic story about historical emergence of Planck's explanation of blackbody radiation and to investigate what students learn from it and what they think about the usage of comics in modern physics course. The participants are a small group of undergraduate students studying at department of science…

  5. Comparison of Blackbody Sources for Low-Temperature IR Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungblad, S.; Holmsten, M.; Josefson, L. E.; Klason, P.

    2015-12-01

    Radiation thermometers are traditionally mostly used in high-temperature applications. They are, however, becoming more common in different applications at room temperature or below, in applications such as monitoring frozen food and evaluating heat leakage in buildings. To measure temperature accurately with a pyrometer, calibration is essential. A problem with traditional, commercially available, blackbody sources is that ice is often formed on the surface when measuring temperatures below 0°C. This is due to the humidity of the surrounding air and, as ice does not have the same emissivity as the blackbody source, it biases the measurements. An alternative to a traditional blackbody source has been tested by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden. The objective is to find a cost-efficient method of calibrating pyrometers by comparison at the level of accuracy required for the intended use. A disc-shaped blackbody with a surface pyramid pattern is placed in a climatic chamber with an opening for field of view of the pyrometer. The temperature of the climatic chamber is measured with two platinum resistance thermometers in the air in the vicinity of the disc. As a rule, frost will form only if the deposition surface is colder than the surrounding air, and, as this is not the case when the air of the climatic chamber is cooled, there should be no frost or ice formed on the blackbody surface. To test the disc-shaped blackbody source, a blackbody cavity immersed in a conventional stirred liquid bath was used as a reference blackbody source. Two different pyrometers were calibrated by comparison using the two different blackbody sources, and the results were compared. The results of the measurements show that the disc works as intended and is suitable as a blackbody radiation source.

  6. Active photonic lattices: is greater than blackbody intensity possible?

    DOE PAGES

    Chow, W. W.; Waldmueller, I.

    2006-11-10

    In this paper, the emission from a radiating source embedded in a photonic lattice is investigated. The photonic lattice spectrum was found to deviate from the blackbody distribution, with intracavity emission suppressed at certain frequencies and significantly enhanced at others. For rapid population relaxation, where the photonic lattice and blackbody populations are described by the same thermal distribution, it was found that the enhancement does not result in output intensities exceeding those of the blackbody. Finally, however, for slow population relaxation, the photonic lattice population has a greater tendency to deviate from thermal equilibrium, resulting in output intensities exceeding thosemore » of the blackbody.« less

  7. Regularized minimum I-divergence methods for the inverse blackbody radiation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kerkil; Lanterman, Aaron D.; Shin, Jaemin

    2006-08-01

    This paper proposes iterative methods for estimating the area temperature distribution of a blackbody from its total radiated power spectrum measurements. This is called the inverse blackbody radiation problem. This problem is inherently ill-posed due to the characteristics of the kernel in the underlying integral equation given by Planck's law. The functions involved in the problem are all non-negative. Csiszár's I-divergence is an information-theoretic discrepancy measure between two non-negative functions. We derive iterative methods for minimizing Csiszár's I-divergence between the measured power spectrum and the power spectrum arising from the estimate according to the integral equation. Due to the ill-posedness of the problem, unconstrained algorithms often produce poor estimates, especially when the measurements are corrupted by noise. To alleviate this difficulty, we apply regularization methods to our algorithms. Penalties based on Shannon's entropy, the L1-norm and Good's roughness are chosen to suppress the undesirable artefacts. When a penalty is applied, the pertinent optimization that needs to be performed at each iteration is no longer trivial. In particular, Good's roughness causes couplings between estimate components. To handle this issue, we adapt Green's one-step-late method. This choice is based on the important fact that our minimum I-divergence algorithms can be interpreted as asymptotic forms of certain expectation-maximization algorithms. The effectiveness of our methods is illustrated via various numerical experiments.

  8. Radiative heat transfer exceeding the blackbody limit between macroscale planar surfaces separated by a nanosize vacuum gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Michael P.; Milovich, Daniel; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    Using Rytov's fluctuational electrodynamics framework, Polder and Van Hove predicted that radiative heat transfer between planar surfaces separated by a vacuum gap smaller than the thermal wavelength exceeds the blackbody limit due to tunnelling of evanescent modes. This finding has led to the conceptualization of systems capitalizing on evanescent modes such as thermophotovoltaic converters and thermal rectifiers. Their development is, however, limited by the lack of devices enabling radiative transfer between macroscale planar surfaces separated by a nanosize vacuum gap. Here we measure radiative heat transfer for large temperature differences (~120 K) using a custom-fabricated device in which the gap separating two 5 × 5 mm2 intrinsic silicon planar surfaces is modulated from 3,500 to 150 nm. A substantial enhancement over the blackbody limit by a factor of 8.4 is reported for a 150-nm-thick gap. Our device paves the way for the establishment of novel evanescent wave-based systems.

  9. Blackbody Radiation from an Incandescent Lamp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we propose an activity aimed at introductory students to help them understand the Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien's displacement laws. It only requires simple materials that are available at any school: an incandescent lamp, a variable dc energy supply, and a computer to run an interactive simulation of the blackbody spectrum.…

  10. Dynamic Modulation of Radiative Heat Transfer beyond the Blackbody Limit.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Miura, Atsushi; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Hideo

    2017-07-12

    Dynamic control of electromagnetic heat transfer without changing mechanical configuration opens possibilities in intelligent thermal management in nanoscale systems. We confirmed by experiment that the radiative heat transfer is dynamically modulated beyond the blackbody limit. The near-field electromagnetic heat exchange mediated by phonon-polariton is controlled by the metal-insulator transition of tungsten-doped vanadium dioxide. The functionalized heat flux is transferred over an area of 1.6 cm 2 across a 370 nm gap, which is maintained by the microfabricated spacers and applied pressure. The uniformity of the gap is validated by optical interferometry, and the measured heat transfer is well modeled as the sum of the radiative and the parasitic conductive components. The presented methodology to form a nanometric gap with functional heat flux paves the way to the smart thermal management in various scenes ranging from highly integrated systems to macroscopic apparatus.

  11. Variable Temperature Blackbodies via Variable Conductance: Thermal Design, Modelling and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzack, N.; Jones, E.; Peters, D. M.; Hurley, J. G.; Watkins, R. E. J.; Fok, S.; Sawyer, C.; Marchetaux, G.; Acreman, A.; Winkler, R.; Lowe, D.; Theocharous, T.; Montag, V.; Gibbs, D.; Pearce, A. B.; Bishop, G.; Newman, E.; Keen, S.; Stokes, J.; Pearce, A.; Stamper, R.; Cantell-Hynes, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the overall design for large (˜ 400 mm aperture) reference blackbody cavities currently under development at the Science and Technology Facilities Council Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Space Department (STFC RAL Space), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). These blackbodies are designed to operate in vacuum over a temperature range from 160 K to 370 K, with an additional capability to operate at ˜ 100 K as a point of near-zero radiance. This is a challenging problem for a single blackbody. The novel thermal design presented in this paper enables one target that can physically achieve and operate successfully at both thermal extremes, whilst also meeting stringent temperature gradient requirements. The overall blackbody design is based upon a helium gas-gap heat switch and modified to allow for variable thermal conductance. The blackbody design consists of three main concentric cylinder components—an inner cavity (aluminium alloy), a radiation shield (aluminium) and an outer liquid nitrogen (LN2) jacket (stainless steel). The internal surface of the cavity is the effective radiating surface. There is a helium gas interspace surrounding the radiation shield and enclosed by the LN2 jacket and the inner cavity. The blackbodies are now at a mature stage of development. In this paper, the overall design, focusing upon the thermal design solution, is detailed. This paper will also concern the full-scale prototype breadboard model, for which results on thermal stability, spatial gradients and other sensitivities will be presented.

  12. Upconversion luminescence and blackbody radiation in tetragonal YSZ co-doped with Tm(3+) and Yb(3+).

    PubMed

    Soares, M R N; Ferro, M; Costa, F M; Monteiro, T

    2015-12-21

    Lanthanide doped inorganic nanoparticles with upconversion luminescence are of utmost importance for biomedical applications, solid state lighting and photovoltaics. In this work we studied the downshifted luminescence, upconversion luminescence (UCL) and blackbody radiation of tetragonal yttrium stabilized zirconia co-doped with Tm(3+) and Yb(3+) single crystals and nanoparticles produced by laser floating zone and laser ablation in liquids, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) were investigated at room temperature (RT). PL spectra exhibit the characteristic lines in UV, blue/green, red and NIR regions of the Tm(3+) (4f(12)) under resonant excitation into the high energy (2S+1)LJ multiplets. Under NIR excitation (980 nm), the samples placed in air display an intense NIR at ∼800 nm due to the (1)G4→(3)H5/(3)H4→(3)H6 transitions. Additionally, red, blue/green and ultraviolet UCL is observed arising from higher excited (1)G4 and (1)D2 multiplets. The power excitation dependence of the UCL intensity indicated that 2-3 low energy absorbed photons are involved in the UCL for low power levels, while for high powers, the identified saturation is dependent on the material size with a enhanced effect on the NPs. The temperature dependence of the UCL was investigated for single crystals and targets used in the ablation. An overall increase of the integrated intensity was found to occur between 12 K and the RT. The thermally activated process is described by activation energies of 10 meV and 30 meV for single crystals and targets, respectively. For the NPs, the UCL was found to be strongly sensitive to pressure conditions. Under vacuum conditions, instead of the narrow lines of the Tm(3+), a wide blackbody radiation was detected, responsible for the change in the emission colour from blue to orange. This phenomenon is totally reversible when the NPs are placed at ambient pressure. The UCL/blackbody radiation in the nanosized material exhibits

  13. Thermodynamic limits to the conversion of blackbody radiation by quantum systems. [with application to solar energy conversion devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.; Byvik, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Using general thermodynamic arguments, we analyze the conversion of the energy contained in the radiation from a blackbody to useful work by a quantum system. We show that the energy available for conversion is bounded above by the change in free energy in the incident and reradiated fields and that this free energy change depends upon the temperature of the receiving device. Universal efficiency curves giving the ultimate thermodynamic conversion efficiency of the quantum system are presented in terms of the blackbody temperature and the temperature and threshold energy of the quantum system. Application of these results is made to a variety of systems including biological photosynthetic, photovoltaic, and photoelectrochemical systems.

  14. Broadband infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy using thermal blackbody radiation

    DOE PAGES

    O’Callahan, Brian T.; Lewis, William E.; Möbius, Silke; ...

    2015-12-03

    Infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy based on scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) provides intrinsic chemical specificity with nanometer spatial resolution. Here we use incoherent infrared radiation from a 1400 K thermal blackbody emitter for broadband infrared (IR) nano-spectroscopy.With optimized interferometric heterodyne signal amplification we achieve few-monolayer sensitivity in phonon polariton spectroscopy and attomolar molecular vibrational spectroscopy. Near-field localization and nanoscale spatial resolution is demonstrated in imaging flakes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and determination of its phonon polariton dispersion relation. The signal-to-noise ratio calculations and analysis for different samples and illumination sources provide a reference for irradiance requirements and the attainablemore » near-field signal levels in s-SNOM in general. As a result, the use of a thermal emitter as an IR source thus opens s-SNOM for routine chemical FTIR nano-spectroscopy.« less

  15. Broadband infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy using thermal blackbody radiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    O’Callahan, Brian T.; Lewis, William E.; Möbius, Silke

    Infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy based on scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) provides intrinsic chemical specificity with nanometer spatial resolution. Here we use incoherent infrared radiation from a 1400 K thermal blackbody emitter for broadband infrared (IR) nano-spectroscopy.With optimized interferometric heterodyne signal amplification we achieve few-monolayer sensitivity in phonon polariton spectroscopy and attomolar molecular vibrational spectroscopy. Near-field localization and nanoscale spatial resolution is demonstrated in imaging flakes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and determination of its phonon polariton dispersion relation. The signal-to-noise ratio calculations and analysis for different samples and illumination sources provide a reference for irradiance requirements and the attainablemore » near-field signal levels in s-SNOM in general. As a result, the use of a thermal emitter as an IR source thus opens s-SNOM for routine chemical FTIR nano-spectroscopy.« less

  16. A High-Emissivity Blackbody with Large Aperture for Radiometric Calibration at Low-Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Hsin-Yi; Wen, Bor-Jiunn; Tsa, Shu-Fei; Li, Guo-Wei

    2009-02-01

    A newly designed high-emissivity cylindrical blackbody source with a large diameter aperture (54 mm), an internal triangular-grooved surface, and concentric grooves on the bottom surface was immersed in a temperature-controlled, stirred-liquid bath. The stirred-liquid bath can be stabilized to better than 0.05°C at temperatures between 30 °C and 70 °C, with traceability to the ITS-90 through a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) calibrated at the fixed points of indium, gallium, and the water triple point. The temperature uniformity of the blackbody from the bottom to the front of the cavity is better than 0.05 % of the operating temperature (in °C). The heat loss of the cavity is less than 0.03 % of the operating temperature as determined with a radiation thermometer by removing an insulating lid without the gas purge operating. Optical ray tracing with a Monte Carlo method (STEEP 3) indicated that the effective emissivity of this blackbody cavity is very close to unity. The size-of-source effect (SSE) of the radiation thermometer and the effective emissivity of the blackbody were considered in evaluating the uncertainty of the blackbody. The blackbody uncertainty budget and performance are described in this paper.

  17. Precision blackbody sources for radiometric standards.

    PubMed

    Sapritsky, V I; Khlevnoy, B B; Khromchenko, V B; Lisiansky, B E; Mekhontsev, S N; Melenevsky, U A; Morozova, S P; Prokhorov, A V; Samoilov, L N; Shapoval, V I; Sudarev, K A; Zelener, M F

    1997-08-01

    The precision blackbody sources developed at the All-Russian Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (Moscow, Russia) and their characteristics are analyzed. The precision high-temperature graphite blackbody BB22p, large-area high-temperature pyrolytic graphite blackbody BB3200pg, middle-temperature graphite blackbody BB2000, low-temperature blackbody BB300, and gallium fixed-point blackbody BB29gl and their characteristics are described.

  18. Fresnel Lens Solar Concentrator Design Based on Geometric Optics and Blackbody Radiation Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Jayroe, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Fresnel lenses have been used for years as solar concentrators in a variety of applications. Several variables effect the final design of these lenses including: lens diameter, image spot distance from the lens, and bandwidth focused in the image spot. Defining the image spot as the geometrical optics circle of least confusion and applying blackbody radiation equations the spot energy distribution can be determined. These equations are used to design a fresnel lens to produce maximum flux for a given spot size, lens diameter, and image distance. This approach results in significant increases in solar efficiency over traditional single wavelength designs.

  19. A Blackbody Is Not a Blackbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smerlak, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    We discuss carefully the "blackbody approximation", stressing what it is (a limit case of radiative transfer), and what it is not (the assumption that the body is perfectly absorbing, namely "black"). Furthermore, we derive the Planck spectrum without enclosing the field in a box, as is done in most textbooks. Although convenient, this trick…

  20. Thermodynamic Temperature of High-Temperature Fixed Points Traceable to Blackbody Radiation and Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wähmer, M.; Anhalt, K.; Hollandt, J.; Klein, R.; Taubert, R. D.; Thornagel, R.; Ulm, G.; Gavrilov, V.; Grigoryeva, I.; Khlevnoy, B.; Sapritsky, V.

    2017-10-01

    Absolute spectral radiometry is currently the only established primary thermometric method for the temperature range above 1300 K. Up to now, the ongoing improvements of high-temperature fixed points and their formal implementation into an improved temperature scale with the mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin, rely solely on single-wavelength absolute radiometry traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. Two alternative primary thermometric methods, yielding comparable or possibly even smaller uncertainties, have been proposed in the literature. They use ratios of irradiances to determine the thermodynamic temperature traceable to blackbody radiation and synchrotron radiation. At PTB, a project has been established in cooperation with VNIIOFI to use, for the first time, all three methods simultaneously for the determination of the phase transition temperatures of high-temperature fixed points. For this, a dedicated four-wavelengths ratio filter radiometer was developed. With all three thermometric methods performed independently and in parallel, we aim to compare the potential and practical limitations of all three methods, disclose possibly undetected systematic effects of each method and thereby confirm or improve the previous measurements traceable to the cryogenic radiometer. This will give further and independent confidence in the thermodynamic temperature determination of the high-temperature fixed point's phase transitions.

  1. Design and Evaluation of Large-Aperture Gallium Fixed-Point Blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khromchenko, V. B.; Mekhontsev, S. N.; Hanssen, L. M.

    2009-02-01

    To complement existing water bath blackbodies that now serve as NIST primary standard sources in the temperature range from 15 °C to 75 °C, a gallium fixed-point blackbody has been recently built. The main objectives of the project included creating an extended-area radiation source with a target emissivity of 0.9999 capable of operating either inside a cryo-vacuum chamber or in a standard laboratory environment. A minimum aperture diameter of 45 mm is necessary for the calibration of radiometers with a collimated input geometry or large spot size. This article describes the design and performance evaluation of the gallium fixed-point blackbody, including the calculation and measurements of directional effective emissivity, estimates of uncertainty due to the temperature drop across the interface between the pure metal and radiating surfaces, as well as the radiometrically obtained spatial uniformity of the radiance temperature and the melting plateau stability. Another important test is the measurement of the cavity reflectance, which was achieved by using total integrated scatter measurements at a laser wavelength of 10.6 μm. The result allows one to predict the performance under the low-background conditions of a cryo-chamber. Finally, results of the spectral radiance comparison with the NIST water-bath blackbody are provided. The experimental results are in good agreement with predicted values and demonstrate the potential of our approach. It is anticipated that, after completion of the characterization, a similar source operating at the water triple point will be constructed.

  2. New blackbody calibration source for low temperatures from -20 C to +350 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mester, Ulrich; Winter, Peter

    2001-03-01

    Calibration procedures for infrared thermometers and thermal imaging systems require radiation sources of precisely known radiation properties. In the physical absence of an ideal Planck's radiator, the German Committee VDI/VDE-GMA FA 2.51, 'Applied Radiation Thermometry', agreed upon desirable specifications and limiting parameters for a blackbody calibration source with a temperature range from -20 degree(s)C to +350 degree(s)C, a spectral range from 2 to 15 microns, an emissivity greater than 0.999 and a useful source aperture of 60 mm, among others. As a result of the subsequent design and development performed with the support of the laboratory '7.31 Thermometry' of the German national institute of natural and engineering sciences (PTB), the Mester ME20 Blackbody Calibration Source is presented. The ME20 meets or exceeds all of the specifications formulated by the VDI/VDE committee.

  3. Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2013-09-01

    Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

  4. High temperature spectral emissivity measurement using integral blackbody method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yijie; Dong, Wei; Lin, Hong; Yuan, Zundong; Bloembergen, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Spectral emissivity is a critical material's thermos-physical property for heat design and radiation thermometry. A prototype instrument based upon an integral blackbody method was developed to measure material's spectral emissivity above 1000 °. The system was implemented with an optimized commercial variable-high-temperature blackbody, a high speed linear actuator, a linear pyrometer, and an in-house designed synchronization circuit. A sample was placed in a crucible at the bottom of the blackbody furnace, by which the sample and the tube formed a simulated blackbody which had an effective total emissivity greater than 0.985. During the measurement, the sample was pushed to the end opening of the tube by a graphite rod which was actuated through a pneumatic cylinder. A linear pyrometer was used to monitor the brightness temperature of the sample surface through the measurement. The corresponding opto-converted voltage signal was fed and recorded by a digital multi-meter. A physical model was proposed to numerically evaluate the temperature drop along the process. Tube was discretized as several isothermal cylindrical rings, and the temperature profile of the tube was measurement. View factors between sample and rings were calculated and updated along the whole pushing process. The actual surface temperature of the sample at the end opening was obtained. Taking advantages of the above measured voltage profile and the calculated true temperature, spectral emissivity under this temperature point was calculated.

  5. Solar powered blackbody-pumped lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Walter H.; Sirota, J. M.

    1991-02-01

    A concept for a solar-powered laser is presented which utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity to provide a uniform optical pumping environment for the lasant, typically CO or CO2 or possibly a solid state laser medium. High power cw blackbody- pumped lasers with efficiencies on the order of 20 percent or more are feasible. The physical basis of this idea is reviewed. Small scale experiments using a high temperature oven as the optical pump have been carried out with gas laser mixtures. Detailed calculations showing a potential efficiency of 35 percent for blackbody pumped Nd:YAG system are discussed.

  6. Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation of protonated oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Fentabil, Messele A; Daneshfar, Rambod; Kitova, Elena N; Klassen, John S

    2011-12-01

    The dissociation pathways, kinetics, and energetics of protonated oligosaccharides in the gas phase were investigated using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD). Time-resolved BIRD measurements were performed on singly protonated ions of cellohexaose (Cel(6)), which is composed of β-(1→4)-linked glucopyranose rings, and five malto-oligosaccharides (Mal(x), where x=4-8), which are composed of α-(1→4)-linked glucopyranose units. At the temperatures investigated (85-160 °C), the oligosaccharides dissociate at the glycosidic linkages or by the loss of a water molecule to produce B- or Y-type ions. The Y ions dissociate to smaller Y or B ions, while the B ions yield exclusively smaller B ions. The sequential loss of water molecules from the smallest B ions (B(1) and B(2)) also occurs. Rate constants for dissociation of the protonated oligosaccharides and the corresponding Arrhenius activation parameters (E(a) and A) were determined. The E(a) and A-factors measured for protonated Mal(x) (x>4) are indistinguishable within error (~19 kcal mol(-1), 10(10) s(-1)), which is consistent with the ions being in the rapid energy exchange limit. In contrast, the Arrhenius parameters for protonated Cel(6) (24 kcal mol(-1), 10(12) s(-1)) are significantly larger. These results indicate that both the energy and entropy changes associated with the glycosidic bond cleavage are sensitive to the anomeric configuration. Based on the results of this study, it is proposed that formation of B and Y ions occurs through a common dissociation mechanism, with the position of the proton establishing whether a B or Y ion is formed upon glycosidic bond cleavage. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011

  7. Coherence properties of blackbody radiation and application to energy harvesting and imaging with nanoscale rectennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, Peter B.; Cutler, Paul H.; Miskovsky, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology allows the fabrication of antennas with a characteristic size comparable to the electromagnetic wavelength in the optical region. This has led to the development of new technologies using nanoscale rectifying antennas (rectennas) for solar energy conversion and sensing of terahertz, infrared, and visible radiation. For example, a rectenna array can collect incident radiation from an emitting source and the resulting conversion efficiency and operating characteristics of the device will depend on the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the absorbed radiation. For solar radiation, the intercepted radiation by a micro- or nanoscale array of devices has a relatively narrow spatial and angular distribution. Using the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, we show that the coherence length (or radius) of solar radiation on an antenna array is, or can be, tens of times larger than the characteristic wavelength of the solar spectrum, i.e., the thermal wavelength, λT=2πℏc/(kBT), which for T=5000 K is about 3 μm. Such an effect is advantageous, making possible the rectification of solar radiation with nanoscale rectenna arrays, whose size is commensurate with the coherence length. Furthermore, we examine the blackbody radiation emitted from an array of antennas at temperature T, which can be quasicoherent and lead to a modified self-image, analogous to the Talbot-Lau self-imaging process but with thermal rather than monochromatic radiation. The self-emitted thermal radiation may be important as a nondestructive means for quality control of the array.

  8. On Blackbody Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Pushpendra K.

    1991-01-01

    The interrelationship between the various forms of the Planck radiation equation is discussed. A differential equation that gives intensity or energy density of radiation per unit wavelength or per unit frequency is emphasized. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law and the change in the glow of a hot body with temperature are also discussed. (KR)

  9. Fresnel Lens Solar Concentrator Design Based on Geometric Optics and Blackbody Radiation Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Jayroe, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Fresnel lenses have been used for years as solar concentrators in a variety of applications. Several variables effect the final design of these lenses including: lens diameter, image spot distance from the lens, and bandwidth focused in the image spot. Defining the image spot as the geometrical optics circle of least confusion, a set of design equations has been derived to define the groove angles for each groove on the lens. These equations allow the distribution of light by wavelength within the image spot to be calculated. Combining these equations with the blackbody radiation equations, energy distribution, power, and flux within the image spot can be calculated. In addition, equations have been derived to design a lens to produce maximum flux in a given spot size. Using these equations, a lens may be designed to optimize the spot energy concentration for given energy source.

  10. A spatially resolved pyrometer for measuring the blackbody temperature of a warm dense plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2016-12-30

    A pyrometer has been developed to spatially resolve the blackbody temperature of a radiatively cooling warm dense plasma. The pyrometer is composed of a lens coupled fiber array, Czerny-Turner visible spectrometer, and an intensified gated CCD for the detector. The radiatively cooling warm dense plasma is generated by a ~100-ns-long intense relativistic electron bunch with an energy of 19.1 MeV and a current of 0.2 kA interacting with 100-μm-thick low-Z foils. The continuum spectrum is measured over 250 nm with a low groove density grating. These plasmas emit visible light or blackbody radiation on relatively long time scales (~0.1 tomore » 100 μs). Finally, we presented the diagnostic layout, calibration, and proof-of-principle measurement of a radiatively cooling aluminum plasma, which includes a spatially resolved temperature gradient and the ability to temporally resolve it also.« less

  11. Research on H500-Type High-Precision Vacuum Blackbody as a Calibration Standard for Infrared Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X. P.; Sun, J. P.; Gong, L. Y.; Song, J.; Gu, J. M.; Ding, L.

    2018-04-01

    Based on the calibration requirements of vacuum low background aerospace infrared remote sensing radiance temperature, a high-precision vacuum blackbody (H500 type) is developed for the temperature range from - 93 °C to + 220 °C at the National Institute of Metrology, China. In this paper, the structure and the temperature control system of H500 are introduced, and its performance, such as heating rate and stabilization of temperature control, is tested under the vacuum and low-background condition (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). At room temperature and atmospheric environment, the major technical parameters of this blackbody, such as emissivity and uniformity, are measured. The measurement principle of blackbody emissivity is based on the control of surrounding radiation. Temperature uniformity at the cavity bottom is measured using a standard infrared radiation thermometer. When the heating rate is 1 °C min-1, the time required for the temperature to stabilize is less than 50 min, and within 10 min, the variation in temperature is less than 0.01 °C. The emissivity value of the blackbody is higher than 0.996. Temperature uniformity at the bottom of the blackbody cavity is less than 0.03 °C. The uncertainty is less than 0.1 °C ( k = 2) over the temperature range from - 93 °C to + 67 °C.

  12. Equilibrium properties of blackbody radiation with an ultraviolet energy cut-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Dheeraj Kumar; Chandra, Nitin; Vaibhav, Vinay

    2017-10-01

    We study various equilibrium thermodynamic properties of blackbody radiation (i.e. a photon gas) with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We find that the energy density, specific heat etc. follow usual acoustic phonon dynamics as have been well studied by Debye. Other thermodynamic quantities like pressure, entropy etc. have also been calculated. The usual Stefan-Boltzmann law gets modified. We observe that the values of the thermodynamic quantities with the energy cut-off is lower than the corresponding values in the theory without any such scale. The phase-space measure is also expected to get modified for an exotic spacetime appearing at Planck scale, which in turn leads to the modification of Planck energy density distribution and the Wien's displacement law. We found that the non-perturbative nature of the thermodynamic quantities in the SR limit (for both unmodified and modified cases), due to nonanalyticity of the leading term, is a general feature of the theory accompanied with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We have also discussed the possible modification in the case of Big Bang and the Stellar objects and have suggested a table top experiment for verification in effective low energy case.

  13. Measurement of high-temperature spectral emissivity using integral blackbody approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yijie; Dong, Wei; Lin, Hong; Yuan, Zundong; Bloembergen, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Spectral emissivity is one of the most critical thermophysical properties of a material for heat design and analysis. Especially in the traditional radiation thermometry, normal spectral emissivity is very important. We developed a prototype instrument based upon an integral blackbody method to measure material's spectral emissivity at elevated temperatures. An optimized commercial variable-high-temperature blackbody, a high speed linear actuator, a linear pyrometer, and an in-house designed synchronization circuit was used to implemented the system. A sample was placed in a crucible at the bottom of the blackbody furnace, by which the sample and the tube formed a simulated reference blackbody which had an effective total emissivity greater than 0.985. During the measurement, a pneumatic cylinder pushed a graphite rode and then the sample crucible to the cold opening within hundreds of microseconds. The linear pyrometer was used to monitor the brightness temperature of the sample surface, and the corresponding opto-converted voltage was fed and recorded by a digital multimeter. To evaluate the temperature drop of the sample along the pushing process, a physical model was proposed. The tube was discretized into several isothermal cylindrical rings, and the temperature of each ring was measurement. View factors between sample and rings were utilized. Then, the actual surface temperature of the sample at the end opening was obtained. Taking advantages of the above measured voltage signal and the calculated actual temperature, normal spectral emissivity under the that temperature point was obtained. Graphite sample at 1300°C was measured to prove the validity of the method.

  14. Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation of oligonucleotide anions.

    PubMed

    Klassen, J S; Schnier, P D; Williams, E R

    1998-11-01

    The dissociation kinetics of a series of doubly deprotonated oligonucleotide 7-mers [d(A)7(2-), d(AATTAAT)2-, d(TTAATTA)2-, and d(CCGGCCG)2-] were measured using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. The oligonucleotides dissociate first by cleavage at the glycosidic bond leading to the loss of a neutral nucleobase, followed by cleavage at the adjacent (5') phosphodiester bond to produce structurally informative a-base and w type ions. From the temperature dependence of the unimolecular dissociation rate constants, Arrhenius activation parameters in the zero-pressure limit are obtained for the loss of base. The measured Arrhenius parameters are dependent on the identity of the nucleobase. The process involving the loss of an adenine base from the dianions, d(A)7(2-), d(AATTAAT)2-, and d(TTAATTA)2- has an average activation energy (Ea) of approximately 1.0 eV and a preexponential factor (A) of 10(10) s-1. Both guanine and cytosine base loss occurs for d(CCGGCCG)2-. The average Arrhenius parameters for the loss of cytosine and guanine are Ea = 1.32 +/- 0.03 eV and A = 10(13.3 +/- 0.3) s-1. No loss of thymine was observed for mixed adenine-thymine oligonucleotides. Neither base loss nor any other fragmentation reactions occur for d(T)7(2-) over a 600 s reaction delay at 207 degrees C, a temperature close to the upper limit accessible with our instrument. The Arrhenius parameters indicate that the preferred cleavage sites for mixed oligonucleotides of similar mass-to-charge ratio will be strongly dependent on the internal energy of the precursor ions. At low internal energies (effective temperatures below 475 K), loss of adenine and subsequent cleavage of the adjacent phosphoester bonds will dominate, whereas at higher energies, preferential cleavage at C and G residues will occur. The magnitude of the A factors < or = 10(13) s-1 measured for the loss of the three nucleobases (A, G, and C) is indicative of an entropically

  15. Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation of Oligonucleotide Anions

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, John S.; Schnier, Paul D.; Williams, Evan R.

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation kinetics of a series of doubly deprotonated oligonucleotide 7-mers [ d(A)72-, d(AATTAAT)2−, d(TTAATTA)2−, and d(CCGGCCG)2−] were measured using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. The oligonucleotides dissociate first by cleavage at the glycosidic bond leading to the loss of a neutral nucleobase, followed by cleavage at the adjacent (5′) phosphodiester bond to produce structurally informative a-base and w type ions. From the temperature dependence of the unimolecular dissociation rate constants, Arrhenius activation parameters in the zero-pressure limit are obtained for the loss of base. The measured Arrhenius parameters are dependent on the identity of the nucleobase. The process involving the loss of an adenine base from the dianions, d(A)72-, d(AATTAAT)2−, and d(TTAATTA)2− has an average activation energy (Ea) of ~1.0 eV and a preexponential factor (A) of 1010 s−1. Both guanine and cytosine base loss occurs for d(CCGGCCG)2−. The average Arrhenius parameters for the loss of cytosine and guanine are Ea = 1.32 ± 0.03 eV and A = 1013.3±0.3 s−1. No loss of thymine was observed for mixed adenine–thymine oligonucleotides. Neither base loss nor any other fragmentation reactions occur for d(T)72- over a 600 s reaction delay at 207 °C, a temperature close to the upper limit accessible with our instrument. The Arrhenius parameters indicate that the preferred cleavage sites for mixed oligonucleotides of similar mass-to-charge ratio will be strongly dependent on the internal energy of the precursor ions. At low internal energies (effective temperatures below 475 K), loss of adenine and subsequent cleavage of the adjacent phosphoester bonds will dominate, whereas at higher energies, preferential cleavage at C and G residues will occur. The magnitude of the A factors ≤1013 s−1 measured for the loss of the three nucleobases (A, G, and C) is indicative of an entropically neutral or

  16. Vacuum Processing Technique for Development of Primary Standard Blackbodies

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, M.; Bruce, S. S.; Johnson, B. Carol; Murthy, A. V.; Saunders, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    Blackbody sources with nearly unity emittance that are in equilibrium with a pure freezing metal such as gold, silver, or copper are used as primary standard sources in the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). Recently, a facility using radio-frequency induction heating for melting and filling the blackbody crucible with the freeze metal under vacuum conditions was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The blackbody development under a vacuum environment eliminated the possibility of contamination of the freeze metal during the process. The induction heating, compared to a resistively heated convection oven, provided faster heating of crucible and resulted in shorter turn-around time of about 7 h to manufacture a blackbody. This paper describes the new facility and its application to the development of fixed-point blackbodies.

  17. Aether drift and the isotropy of the universe: a measurement of anisotropies in the primordial black-body radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    This experiment detected and mapped large-angular-scale anisotropies in the 3 K primordial black-body radiation with a sensitivity of 2x.0001k and an angular resolution of about 10 degs. It measured the motion of the Earth with respect to the distant matter of the Universe (Aether Drift), and probed the homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe (the Cosmological Principle). The experiment used two Dicke radiometers, one at 33 GHz to detect the cosmic anisotropy, and one at 54 GHz to detect anisotropies in the residual oxygen above the detectors. The system was installed in the NASA-Ames Earth Survey Aircraft (U-2), and operated successfully in a series of flights.

  18. Blackbody Cavity for Calibrations at 200 to 273 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert; Ryan, Jim; Henderson, Doug; Clayton, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory blackbody cavity has been designed and built for calibrating infrared radiometers used to measure radiant temperatures in the range from about 200 to about 273 K. In this below-room-temperature range, scattering of background infrared radiation from room-temperature surfaces could, potentially, contribute significantly to the spectral radiance of the blackbody cavity, thereby contributing a significant error to the radiant temperature used as the calibration value. The present blackbody cavity is of an established type in which multiple reflections from a combination of conical and cylindrical black-coated walls are exploited to obtain an effective emissivity greater than the emissivity value of the coating material on a flat exposed surface. The coating material in this case is a flat black paint that has an emissivity of approximately of 0.91 in the thermal spectral range and was selected over other, higher-emissivity materials because of its ability to withstand thermal cycling. We found many black coatings cracked and flaked after thermal cycling due to differences in the coefficient of expansion differences. On the basis of theoretical calculations, the effective emissivity is expected to approach 0.999. The cylindrical/conical shell enclosing the cavity is machined from copper, which is chosen for its high thermal conductivity. In use, the shell is oriented vertically, open end facing up, and inserted in a Dewar flask filled with isopropyl alcohol/dry-ice slush. A flange at the open end of the shell is supported by a thermally insulating ring on the lip of the Dewar flask. The slush cools the shell (and thus the black-body cavity) to the desired temperature. Typically, the slush starts at a temperature of about 194 K. The slush is stirred and warmed by bubbling dry air or nitrogen through it, thereby gradually increasing the temperature through the aforementioned calibration range during an interval of several hours. The temperature of the slush

  19. Overview and future direction for blackbody solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A review of solar-pumped blackbody lasers is given which addresses their present status and suggests future research directions. The blackbody laser concept is one system proposed to scale to multimegawatt power levels for space-to-space power transmissions for such applications as onboard spacecraft electrical or propulsion needs. Among the critical technical issues are the scalability to high powers and the laser wavelength which impacts the transmission optics size as well as the laser-to-electric converter at the receiver. Because present blackbody solar-pumped lasers will have laser wavelengths longer than 4 microns, simple photovoltaic converters cannot be used, and transmission optics will be large. Thus, future blackbody laser systems should emphasize near visible laser wavelengths.

  20. Design and application of an array extended blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya-zhou; Fan, Xiao-li; Lei, Hao; Zhou, Zhi-yuan

    2018-02-01

    An array extended blackbody is designed to quantitatively measure and evaluate the performance of infrared imaging systems. The theory, structure, control software and application of blackbody are introduced. The parameters of infrared imaging systems such as the maximum detectable range, detection sensitivity, spatial resolution and temperature resolution can be measured.

  1. The Next Generation Heated Halo for Blackbody Emissivity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P.; Taylor, J. K.; Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.; Adler, D. P.; Ciganovich, N. N.; Dutcher, S. T.; Garcia, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    The accuracy of radiance measurements from space-based infrared spectrometers is contingent on the quality of the calibration subsystem, as well as knowledge of its uncertainty. Future climate benchmarking missions call for measurement uncertainties better than 0.1 K (k=3) in radiance temperature for the detection of spectral climate signatures. Blackbody cavities impart the most accurate calibration for spaceborne infrared sensors, provided that their temperature and emissivity is traceably determined on-orbit. The On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) has been developed at the University of Wisconsin to meet the stringent requirements of the next generation of infrared remote sensing instruments. It provides on-orbit determination of both traceable temperature and emissivity for calibration blackbodies. The Heated Halo is the component of the OARS that provides a robust and compact method to measure the spectral emissivity of a blackbody in situ. A carefully baffled thermal source is placed in front of a blackbody in an infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral emissivity to be calculated. We present the results from the Heated Halo methodology implemented with a new Absolute Radiance Interferometer (ARI), which is a prototype space-based infrared spectrometer designed for climate benchmarking that was developed under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). We compare our findings to models and other experimental methods of emissivity determination.

  2. Aether Drift and the isotropy of the universe: A measurement of anisotropes in the primordial black-body radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    Large-angular-scale anisotropies in the 3 K primordial black-body radiation were detected and mapped with a sensitivity of 2 x to the minus 4 power K and an angular resolution of about 10 deg. The motion of the Earth with respect to the distant matter of the Universe ("Aether Drift") was measured and the homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe (the "Cosmological Principle") was probed. The experiment uses two Dicke radiometers, one at 33 GHz to detect the cosmic anisotropy, and one at 54 GHz to detect anisotropies in the residual oxygen above the detectors. The system was installed in the NASA-Ames Earth survey aircraft (U-2), and operated successfully in a series of flights in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Data taking and analysis to measure the anisotropy were successful.

  3. The Heated Halo for Space-Based Blackbody Emissivity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P.; Taylor, J. K.; Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Garcia, R. K.; Adler, D. P.; Ciganovich, N. N.; Knuteson, R. O.; Tobin, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    The accuracy of radiance measurements with space-based infrared spectrometers is contingent on the quality of the calibration subsystem, as well as knowledge of its uncertainty. Upcoming climate benchmark missions call for measurement uncertainties better than 0.1 K (k=3) in radiance temperature for the detection of spectral climate signatures. Blackbody cavities impart the most accurate calibration for spaceborne infrared sensors, provided that their temperature and emissivity is traceably determined on-orbit. The On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) has been developed at the University of Wisconsin and has undergone further refinement under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) to meet the stringent requirements of the next generation of infrared remote sensing instruments. It provides on-orbit determination of both traceable temperature and emissivity for calibration blackbodies. The Heated Halo is the component of the OARS that provides a robust and compact method to measure the spectral emissivity of a blackbody in situ. A carefully baffled thermal source is placed in front of a blackbody in an infrared spectrometer system, and the combined radiance of the blackbody and Heated Halo reflection is observed. Knowledge of key temperatures and the viewing geometry allow the blackbody cavity spectral emissivity to be calculated. We present the results from the Heated Halo methodology implemented with a new Absolute Radiance Interferometer (ARI), which is a prototype space-based infrared spectrometer designed for climate benchmarking. We show the evolution of the technical readiness level of this technology and we compare our findings to models and other experimental methods of emissivity determination.

  4. A Third Generation Water Bath Based Blackbody Source

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Joel B.

    1995-01-01

    A third generation water bath based black-body source has been designed and constructed in the Radiometric Physics Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The goal of this work was to design a large aperture blackbody source with improved temporal stability and reproducibility compared with earlier designs, as well as improved ease of use. These blackbody sources operate in the 278 K to 353 K range with water temperature combined standard uncertainties of 3.5 mK to 7.8 mK. The calculated emissivity of these sources is 0.9997 with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.0003. With a 50 mm limiting aperture at the cavity; entrance, the emissivity increases to 0.99997. PMID:29151763

  5. Quasiclassical calculations of blackbody-radiation-induced depopulation rates and effective lifetimes of Rydberg nS, nP, and nD alkali-metal atoms with n{<=}80

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Beterov, I. I.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.

    2009-05-15

    Rates of depopulation by blackbody radiation (BBR) and effective lifetimes of alkali-metal nS, nP, and nD Rydberg states have been calculated in a wide range of principal quantum numbers n{<=}80 at the ambient temperatures of 77, 300, and 600 K. Quasiclassical formulas were used to calculate the radial matrix elements of the dipole transitions from Rydberg states. Good agreement of our numerical results with the available theoretical and experimental data has been found. We have also obtained simple analytical formulas for estimates of effective lifetimes and BBR-induced depopulation rates, which well agree with the numerical data.

  6. Tandem mass spectrometry of large biomolecule ions by blackbody infrared radiative dissociation.

    PubMed

    Price, W D; Schnier, P D; Williams, E R

    1996-03-01

    A new method for the dissociation of large ions formed by electrospray ionization is demonstrated. Ions trapped in a Fourier transform mass spectrometer at pressures below 10(-)(8) Torr are dissociated by elevating the vacuum chamber to temperatures up to 215 °C. Rate constants for dissociation are measured and found to be independent of pressure below 10(-)(7) Torr. This indicates that the ions are activated by absorption of blackbody radiation emitted from the chamber walls. Dissociation efficiencies as high as 100% are obtained. There is no apparent mass limit to this method; ions as large as ubiquitin (8.6 kDa) are readily dissociated. Thermally stable ions, such as melittin 3+ (2.8 kDa), did not dissociate at temperatures up to 200 °C. This method is highly selective for low-energy fragmentation, from which limited sequence information can be obtained. From the temperature dependence of the dissociation rate constants, Arrhenius activation energies in the low-pressure limit are obtained. The lowest energy dissociation processes for the singly and doubly protonated ions of bradykinin are loss of NH(3) and formation of the b(2)/y(7) complementary pair, with activation energies of 1.3 and 0.8 eV, respectively. No loss of NH(3) is observed for the doubly protonated ion; some loss of H(2)O occurs. These results show that charge-charge interactions not only lower the activation energy for dissociation but also can dramatically change the fragmentation, most likely through changes in the gas-phase conformation of the ion. Dissociation of ubiquitin ions produces fragmentation similar to that obtained by IRMPD and SORI-CAD. Higher charge state ions dissociate to produce y and b ions; the primary fragmentation process for low charge state ions is loss of H(2)O.

  7. An Oil-Bath-Based 293 K to 473 K Blackbody Source

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Joel B.

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature oil-bath-based-black-body source has been designed and constructed in the Radiometric Physics Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The goal of this work was to design a large aperture blackbody source with highly uniform radiance across the aperture, good temporal stability, and good reproducibility. This blackbody source operates in the 293 K to 473 K range with blackbody temperature combined standard uncertainties of 7.2 mK to 30.9 mK. The calculated emissivity of this source is 0.9997 with a standard uncertainty of 0.0003. With a 50 mm limiting aperture at the cavity entrance, the emissivity increases to 0.99996. PMID:27805082

  8. The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) on-board blackbody calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Fred A.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Tobin, David C.; Ellington, Scott D.; Werner, Mark W.; Adler, Douglas P.; Garcia, Raymond K.; Taylor, Joseph K.; Ciganovich, Nick N.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Bingham, Gail E.; Elwell, John D.; Scott, Deron K.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA New Millennium Program's Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) instrument provides enormous advances in water vapor, wind, temperature, and trace gas profiling from geostationary orbit. The top-level instrument calibration requirement is to measure brightness temperature to better than 1 K (3 sigma) over a broad range of atmospheric brightness temperatures, with a reproducibility of +/-0.2 K. For in-flight radiometric calibration, GIFTS uses views of two on-board blackbody sources (290 K and 255 K) along with cold space, sequenced at regular programmable intervals. The blackbody references are cavities that follow the UW Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) design, scaled to the GIFTS beam size. The cavity spectral emissivity is better than 0.998 with an absolute uncertainty of less than 0.001. Absolute blackbody temperature uncertainties are estimated at 0.07 K. This paper describes the detailed design of the GIFTS on-board calibration system that recently underwent its Critical Design Review. The blackbody cavities use ultra-stable thermistors to measure temperature, and are coated with high emissivity black paint. Monte Carlo modeling has been performed to calculate the cavity emissivity. Both absolute temperature and emissivity measurements are traceable to NIST, and detailed uncertainty budgets have been developed and used to show the overall system meets accuracy requirements. The blackbody controller is housed on a single electronics board and provides precise selectable set point temperature control, thermistor resistance measurement, and the digital interface to the GIFTS instrument. Plans for the NIST traceable ground calibration of the on-board blackbody system have also been developed and are presented in this paper.

  9. Thermal Equilibrium Between Radiation and Matter: A Lead to the Maxwell-Boltzmann and Planck Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Gabor E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the 1901 work in Planck's constant and blackbody radiation law and the 1916 Einstein rederivation of the blackbody radiation law. It also reviews Wien's law. It also presents equations that demonstrate the thermal balance between radiation and matter.

  10. Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators.

    PubMed

    Brar, Victor W; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Seyoon; Kim, Laura; Choi, Mansoo; Sweatlock, Luke A; Atwater, Harry A

    2015-05-07

    All matter at finite temperatures emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. Dynamic control of this radiation could enable the design of novel infrared sources; however, the spectral characteristics of the radiated power are dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Here we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate. It is shown that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, which manifests as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-infrared. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation.

  11. A Physically Based Algorithm for Non-Blackbody Correction of Cloud-Top Temperature and Application to Convection Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chunpeng; Lou, Zhengzhao Johnny; Chen, Xiuhong; Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Huang, Xianglei

    2014-01-01

    Cloud-top temperature (CTT) is an important parameter for convective clouds and is usually different from the 11-micrometers brightness temperature due to non-blackbody effects. This paper presents an algorithm for estimating convective CTT by using simultaneous passive [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)] and active [CloudSat 1 Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)] measurements of clouds to correct for the non-blackbody effect. To do this, a weighting function of the MODIS 11-micrometers band is explicitly calculated by feeding cloud hydrometer profiles from CloudSat and CALIPSO retrievals and temperature and humidity profiles based on ECMWF analyses into a radiation transfer model.Among 16 837 tropical deep convective clouds observed by CloudSat in 2008, the averaged effective emission level (EEL) of the 11-mm channel is located at optical depth; approximately 0.72, with a standard deviation of 0.3. The distance between the EEL and cloud-top height determined by CloudSat is shown to be related to a parameter called cloud-top fuzziness (CTF), defined as the vertical separation between 230 and 10 dBZ of CloudSat radar reflectivity. On the basis of these findings a relationship is then developed between the CTF and the difference between MODIS 11-micrometers brightness temperature and physical CTT, the latter being the non-blackbody correction of CTT. Correction of the non-blackbody effect of CTT is applied to analyze convective cloud-top buoyancy. With this correction, about 70% of the convective cores observed by CloudSat in the height range of 6-10 km have positive buoyancy near cloud top, meaning clouds are still growing vertically, although their final fate cannot be determined by snapshot observations.

  12. Isotropic blackbody cosmic microwave background radiation as evidence for a homogeneous universe.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Timothy; Clarkson, Chris; Bull, Philip

    2012-08-03

    The question of whether the Universe is spatially homogeneous and isotropic on the largest scales is of fundamental importance to cosmology but has not yet been answered decisively. Surprisingly, neither an isotropic primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) nor combined observations of luminosity distances and galaxy number counts are sufficient to establish such a result. The inclusion of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in CMB observations, however, dramatically improves this situation. We show that even a solitary observer who sees an isotropic blackbody CMB can conclude that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic in their causal past when the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is present. Critically, however, the CMB must either be viewed for an extended period of time, or CMB photons that have scattered more than once must be detected. This result provides a theoretical underpinning for testing the cosmological principle with observations of the CMB alone.

  13. Electromagnetic Design and Performance of a Conical Microwave Blackbody Target for Radiometer Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houtz, Derek A.; Emery, William; Gu, Dazhen; Jacob, Karl; Murk, Axel; Walker, David K.; Wylde, Richard J.

    2017-08-01

    A conical cavity has been designed and fabricated for use as a broadband passive microwave calibration source, or blackbody, at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The blackbody will be used as a national primary standard for brightness temperature and will allow for the prelaunch calibration of spaceborne radiometers and calibration of ground-based systems to provide traceability among radiometric data. The conical geometry provides performance independent of polarization, minimizing reflections, and standing waves, thus having a high microwave emissivity. The conical blackbody has advantages over typical pyramidal array geometries, including reduced temperature gradients and excellent broadband electromagnetic performance over more than a frequency decade. The blackbody is designed for use between 18 and 230 GHz, at temperatures between 80 and 350 K, and is vacuum compatible. To approximate theoretical blackbody behavior, the design maximizes emissivity and thus minimizes reflectivity. A newly developed microwave absorber is demonstrated that uses cryogenically compatible, thermally conductive two-part epoxy with magnetic carbonyl iron (CBI) powder loading. We measured the complex permittivity and permeability properties for different CBI-loading percentages; the conical absorber is then designed and optimized with geometric optics and finite-element modeling, and finally, the reflectivity of the resulting fabricated structure is measured. We demonstrated normal incidence reflectivity considerably below -40 dB at all relevant remote sensing frequencies.

  14. Stainless steel/tin/glass coating as spectrally selective material for passive radiative cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhib, T.; Mouhsen, A.; Oualim, E. M.; Harmouchi, M.; Vigneron, J. P.; Defrance, P.

    2009-02-01

    Glass substrates coated with a stainless steel-tin double layer were prepared in order to achieve the inverse greenhouse effect. The measurements of the optical properties of the samples indicate that the needed specific spectral selectivity is available. Practical tests of radiative cooling were performed during clear night using a blackbody radiator covered by the coated plate with glass facing the sky. The blackbody temperature was observed to be 6.0 °C below that of the ambient, and the cooling power was estimated to be 27.9 W/m 2. Diurnal measurements indicated that cooling of the blackbody radiator is achieved except for approximately 6 hours around noon.

  15. Enhancement radiative cooling performance of nanoparticle crystal via oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zi-Xun; Shuai, Yong; Li, Meng; Guo, Yanmin; Tan, He-ping

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticle-crystal is a promising candidate for large scale metamaterial fabrication. However, in radiative cooling application, the maximum blackbody radiation wavelength locates far from metal's plasmon wavelength. In this paper, it will be shown if the metallic nanoparticle crystal can be properly oxidized, the absorption performance within room temperature blackbody radiation spectrum can be improved. Magnetic polariton and surface plasmon polariton have been explained for the mechanism of absorption improvement. Three different oxidation patterns have been investigated in this paper, and the results show they share a similar enhancing mechanism.

  16. Dissociation of Heme–Globin Complexes by Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation: Molecular Specificity in the Gas Phase?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Deborah S.; Zhao, Yuexing; Williams, Evan R.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the unimolecular kinetics for dissociation of the heme group from holo-myoglobin (Mb) and holo-hemoglobin α-chain (Hb-α) was investigated with blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD). The rate constant for dissociation of the 9 + charge state of Mb formed by electrospray ionization from a “pseudo-native” solution is 60% lower than that of Hb-α at each of the temperatures investigated. In solutions of pH 5.5–8.0, the thermal dissociation rate for Mb is also lower than that of HB-α (Hargrove, M. S. et al. J. Biol. Chem. 1994, 269, 4207–4214). Thus, Mb is thermally more stable with respect to heme loss than Hb-α both in the gas phase and in solution. The Arrhenius activation parameters for both dissociation processes are indistinguishable within the current experimental error (activation energy 0.9 eV and pre-exponential factor of 108–10 s−1). The 9+ to 12+ charge states of Mb have similar Arrhenius parameters when these ions are formed from pseudo-native solutions. In contrast, the activation energies and pre-exponential factors decrease from 0.8 to 0.3 eV and 107 to 102 s−1, respectively, for the 9 + to 12 + charge states formed from acidified solutions in which at least 50% of the secondary structure is lost. These results demonstrate that gas-phase Mb ions retain clear memory of the composition of the solution from which they are formed and that these differences can be probed by BIRD. PMID:16479269

  17. Dissociation of heme-globin complexes by blackbody infrared radiative dissociation: molecular specificity in the gas phase?

    PubMed

    Gross, D S; Zhao, Y; Williams, E R

    1997-05-01

    The temperature dependence of the unimolecular kinetics for dissociation of the heme group from holo-myoglobin (Mb) and holo-hemoglobin alpha-chain (Hb-alpha) was investigated with blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD). The rate constant for dissociation of the 9 + charge state of Mb formed by electrospray ionization from a "pseudo-native" solution is 60% lower than that of Hb-alpha at each of the temperatures investigated. In solutions of pH 5.5-8.0, the thermal dissociation rate for Mb is also lower than that of HB-alpha (Hargrove, M. S. et al. J. Biol. Chem.1994, 269, 4207-4214). Thus, Mb is thermally more stable with respect to heme loss than Hb-alpha both in the gas phase and in solution. The Arrhenius activation parameters for both dissociation processes are indistinguishable within the current experimental error (activation energy 0.9 eV and pre-exponential factor of 10(8-10) s(-1)). The 9+ to 12+ charge states of Mb have similar Arrhenius parameters when these ions are formed from pseudo-native solutions. In contrast, the activation energies and pre-exponential factors decrease from 0.8 to 0.3 eV and 10(7) to 10(2) s(-1), respectively, for the 9 + to 12 + charge states formed from acidified solutions in which at least 50% of the secondary structure is lost. These results demonstrate that gas-phase Mb ions retain clear memory of the composition of the solution from which they are formed and that these differences can be probed by BIRD.

  18. Binding Energies of Proton-Bound Dimers of Imidazole and n-Acetylalanine Methyl Ester Obtained by Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Jockusch, Rebecca A.; Williams*, Evan R.

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation kinetics of protonated n-acetyl-L-alanine methyl ester dimer (AcAlaMEd), imidazole dimer, and their cross dimer were measured using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD). Master equation modeling of these data was used to extract threshold dissociation energies (Eo) for the dimers. Values of 1.18 ± 0.06, 1.11 ± 0.04, and 1.12 ± 0.08 eV were obtained for AcAlaMEd, imidazole dimer, and the cross dimer, respectively. Assuming that the reverse activation barrier for dissociation of the ion–molecule complex is negligible, the value of Eo can be compared to the dissociation enthalpy (ΔHd°) from HPMS data. The Eo values obtained for the imidazole dimer and the cross dimer are in agreement with HPMS values; the value for AcAlaMEd is somewhat lower. Radiative rate constants used in the master equation modeling were determined using transition dipole moments calculated at the semiempirical (AM1) level for all dimers and compared to ab initio (RHF/3-21G*) calculations where possible. To reproduce the experimentally measured dissociation rates using master equation modeling, it was necessary to multiply semiempirical transition dipole moments by a factor between 2 and 3. Values for transition dipole moments from the ab initio calculations could be used for two of the dimers but appear to be too low for AcAlaMEd. These results demonstrate that BIRD, in combination with master equation modeling, can be used to determine threshold dissociation energies for intermediate size ions that are in neither the truncated Boltzmann nor the rapid energy exchange limit. PMID:16604163

  19. Studies of CW lasing action in CO2-CO, N2O-CO, CO2-H2O, and N2O-H2O mixtures pumped by blackbody radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Robert W.; Christiansen, Walter H.; Li, Jian-Guo

    1988-01-01

    A proof of principle experiment to evaluate the efficacy of CO and H2O in increasing the power output for N2O and CO2 lasing mixtures has been conducted and theoretically analyzed for a blackbody radiation-pumped laser. The results for N2O-CO, CO2-CO, N2O-H2O and CO2-H2O mixtures are presented. Additions of CO to the N2O lasant increased power up to 28 percent for N2O laser mixtures, whereas additions of CO to the CO2 lasant, and the addition of H2O to both the CO2 and N2O lasants, resulted in decreased output power.

  20. Theoretical realization of robust broadband transparency in ultrathin seamless nanostructures by dual blackbodies for near infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Hao, Jiaming; Ye, Huapeng; Yeo, Swee Ping; Qiu, Min; Zouhdi, Said; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-03-01

    We propose a counter-intuitive mechanism of constructing an ultrathin broadband transparent device with two perfect blackbodies. By introducing hybridization of plasmon modes, resonant modes with different symmetries coexist in this system. A broadband transmission spectrum in the near infrared regime is achieved through controlling their coupling strengths, which is governed by the thickness of high refractive index layer. Meanwhile, the transparency bandwidth is found to be tunable in a large range by varying the geometric dimension. More significantly, from the point view of applications, the proposed method of achieving broadband transparency can perfectly tolerate the misalignment and asymmetry of periodic nanoparticles on the top and bottom, which is empowered by the unique dual of coupling-in and coupling-out processes within the pair of blackbodies. Moreover, roughness has little influence on its transmission performance. According to the coupled mode theory, the distinguished transmittance performance is physically interpreted by the radiative decay rate of the entire system. In addition to the feature of uniquely robust broadband transparency, such a ultrathin seamless nanostructure (in the presence of a uniform silver layer) also provides polarization-independent and angle-independent operations. Therefore, it may power up a wide spectrum of exciting applications in thin film protection, touch screen techniques, absorber-emitter transformation, etc.We propose a counter-intuitive mechanism of constructing an ultrathin broadband transparent device with two perfect blackbodies. By introducing hybridization of plasmon modes, resonant modes with different symmetries coexist in this system. A broadband transmission spectrum in the near infrared regime is achieved through controlling their coupling strengths, which is governed by the thickness of high refractive index layer. Meanwhile, the transparency bandwidth is found to be tunable in a large range by

  1. Near-Blackbody Enclosed Particle-Receiver Development

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ma, Zhiwen; Sakadjian, Bartev

    2015-12-01

    This 3-year project develops a technology using gas/solid, two-phase flow as a heat-transfer fluid and separated, stable, solid particles as a thermal energy storage (TES) medium for a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, to address the temperature, efficiency, and cost barriers associated with current molten-salt CSP systems. This project focused on developing a near-blackbody particle receiver and an integrated fluidized-bed heat exchanger with auxiliary components to achieve greater than 20% cost reduction over current CSP plants, and to provide the ability to drive high-efficiency power cycles.

  2. DISCOVERY OF SMOOTHLY EVOLVING BLACKBODIES IN THE EARLY AFTERGLOW OF GRB 090618: EVIDENCE FOR A SPINE–SHEATH JET?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Basak, Rupal; Rao, A. R., E-mail: rupalb@tifr.res.in, E-mail: arrao@tifr.res.in

    2015-10-20

    GRB 090618 is a bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) with multiple pulses. It shows evidence of thermal emission in the initial pulses as well as in the early afterglow phase. Because high-resolution spectral data from the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) are available for the early afterglow, we investigate the shape and evolution of the thermal component in this phase using data from the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the Swift/XRT, and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor detectors. An independent fit to the BAT and XRT data reveals two correlated blackbodies with monotonically decreasing temperatures. Hence, we investigated the combined data with a model consistingmore » of two blackbodies and a power law (2BBPL), a model suggested for several bright GRBs. We elicit the following interesting features of the 2BBPL model: (1) the same model is applicable from the peak of the last pulse in the prompt emission to the afterglow emission, (2) the ratio of temperatures and the fluxes of the two blackbodies remains constant throughout the observations, (3) the blackbody temperatures and fluxes show a monotonic decrease with time, with the BB fluxes dropping about a factor of two faster than that of the power-law (PL) emission, and (4) attributing the blackbody emission to photospheric emissions, we find that the photospheric radii increase very slowly with time, and the lower-temperature blackbody shows a larger emitting radius than that of the higher-temperature blackbody. We find some evidence that the underlying shape of the nonthermal emission is a cutoff power law rather than a PL. We sketch a spine–sheath jet model to explain our observations.« less

  3. Improved Blackbody Temperature Sensors for a Vacuum Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jeff; Coppens, Chris; O'Dell, J. Scott; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Schofield, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Some improvements have been made in the design and fabrication of blackbody sensors (BBSs) used to measure the temperature of a heater core in a vacuum furnace. Each BBS consists of a ring of thermally conductive, high-melting-temperature material with two tantalum-sheathed thermocouples attached at diametrically opposite points. The name "blackbody sensor" reflects the basic principle of operation. Heat is transferred between the ring and the furnace heater core primarily by blackbody radiation, heat is conducted through the ring to the thermocouples, and the temperature of the ring (and, hence, the temperature of the heater core) is measured by use of the thermocouples. Two main requirements have guided the development of these BBSs: (1) The rings should have as high an emissivity as possible in order to maximize the heat-transfer rate and thereby maximize temperature-monitoring performance and (2) the thermocouples must be joined to the rings in such a way as to ensure long-term, reliable intimate thermal contact. The problem of fabricating a BBS to satisfy these requirements is complicated by an application-specific prohibition against overheating and thereby damaging nearby instrumentation leads through the use of conventional furnace brazing or any other technique that involves heating the entire BBS and its surroundings. The problem is further complicated by another application-specific prohibition against damaging the thin tantalum thermocouple sheaths through the use of conventional welding to join the thermocouples to the ring. The first BBS rings were made of graphite. The tantalum-sheathed thermocouples were attached to the graphite rings by use of high-temperature graphite cements. The ring/thermocouple bonds thus formed were found to be weak and unreliable, and so graphite rings and graphite cements were abandoned. Now, each BBS ring is made from one of two materials: either tantalum or a molybdenum/titanium/zirconium alloy. The tantalum

  4. Compact blackbody calibration sources for in-flight calibration of spaceborne infrared instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiding, S.; Driescher, H.; Walter, I.; Hanbuch, K.; Paul, M.; Hartmann, M.; Scheiding, M.

    2017-11-01

    High-emissivity blackbodies are mandatory as calibration sources in infrared radiometers. Besides the requirements on the high spectral emissivity and low reflectance, constraints regarding energy consumption, installation space and mass must be considered during instrument design. Cavity radiators provide an outstanding spectral emissivity to the price of installation space and mass of the calibration source. Surface radiation sources are mainly limited by the spectral emissivity of the functional coating and the homogeneity of the temperature distribution. The effective emissivity of a "black" surface can be optimized, by structuring the substrate with the aim to enlarge the ratio of the surface to its projection. Based on the experiences of the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) calibration source MBB3, the results of the surface structuring on the effective emissivity are described analytically and compared to the experimental performance. Different geometries are analyzed and the production methods are discussed. The high-emissivity temperature calibration source features values of 0.99 for wavelength from 5 μm to 10 μm and emissivity larger than 0.95 for the spectral range from 10 μm to 40 μm.

  5. A Blackbody Microwave Source for CMB Polarimeter Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindman, Alec

    2014-03-01

    I present an evolved design for a thermally isolated blackbody source operating at 90 GHz and 120 GHz, frequencies of interest to Cosmic Microwave Background measurements. The NASA GSFC Experimental Cosmology lab is developing transition edge sensor bolometers for the CLASS and PIPER missions to measure CMB polarization; the source described here is for use in an existing 150 mK test package to quantify the detectors' properties. The design is optimized to minimize heat loading into the ADR and cryocoolers by employing a Kevlar kinematic suspension and additional thermal breaks. The blackbody light is coupled to a detector by means of an electroformed waveguide, which is mated to the source by an ultraprecise ring-centered flange design; this precision is critical to maintain the vacuum gap between the heated source and the cold waveguide, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the allowable misalignment of the standard military-spec microwave flange design. The source will provide at least 50% better thermal isolation than the existing 40 GHz source, as well as a smaller thermal time constant to enable faster measurement cycles. Special thanks to Dr. David Chuss at GSFC, and the Society of Physics Students.

  6. Measurement of Far-Infrared Paint Emissivity for Reference Blackbody Modeling and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, S. G.; Hanssen, L. M.; Mekhontsev, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    Blackbody sources are typically used for both ground-based and on-orbit calibration of infrared radiometers for atmospheric sounding. Accurate knowledge of the emissivity (or reflectivity) of the painted cavity surfaces is important for the design and modeling of the blackbody performance. Devices designed for the mid- to long-wave infrared (2 μm to 100 μm) generally use specular black paint and multiple (4 to 6) bounces to achieve high emissivity and uniform radiance over the required optical extent. To meet the CLARREO goal of long-term climate monitoring with an absolute uncertainty of < 0.1 K (3 σ), it will be necessary to calibrate radiance measurements to < 0.1 % uncertainty, which could require knowledge of paint emissivity with < 0.005 uncertainty at long wavelength. Critical material parameters include the dependence of emissivity on wavelength, angle of incidence, polarization, and temperature (200 K to 350 K), as well as contributions of scattered light. We present measurement methods and results in support of the CORSAIR SI-traceable far-infrared blackbody design, including temperature-dependent specular reflectance measurements out to 100 μm and angle-dependent data out to 25 μm. In addition, we describe the design for a proposed new facility at NIST (CBS3) that will enable hemispherical-directional emittance and reflectance measurements versus temperature and angle out to 100 μm.

  7. Activation of Peptide ions by blackbody radiation: factors that lead to dissociation kinetics in the rapid energy exchange limit.

    PubMed

    Price, W D; Williams, E R

    1997-11-20

    Unimolecular rate constants for blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) were calculated for the model protonated peptide (AlaGly)(n) (n = 2-32) using a variety of dissociation parameters. Combinations of dissociation threshold energies ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 eV and transition entropies corresponding to Arrhenius preexponential factors ranging from very "tight" (A(infinity) = 10(9.9) s(-1)) to "loose" (A(infinity) = 10(16.8) s(-1)) were selected to represent dissociation parameters within the experimental temperature range (300-520 K) and kinetic window (k(uni) = 0.001-0.20 s(-1)) typically used in the BIRD experiment. Arrhenius parameters were determined from the temperature dependence of these values and compared to those in the rapid energy exchange (REX) limit. In this limit, the internal energy of a population of ions is given by a Boltzmann distribution, and kinetics are the same as those in the traditional high-pressure limit. For a dissociation process to be in this limit, the rate of photon exchange between an ion and the vacuum chamber walls must be significantly greater than the dissociation rate. Kinetics rapidly approach the REX limit either as the molecular size or threshold dissociation energy increases or as the transition-state entropy or experimental temperature decreases. Under typical experimental conditions, peptide ions larger than 1.6 kDa should be in the REX limit. Smaller ions may also be in the REX limit depending on the value of the threshold dissociation energy and transition-state entropy. Either modeling or information about the dissociation mechanism must be known in order to confirm REX limit kinetics for these smaller ions. Three principal factors that lead to the size dependence of REX limit kinetics are identified. With increasing molecular size, rates of radiative absorption and emission increase, internal energy distributions become relatively narrower, and the microcanonical dissociation rate constants increase more

  8. Activation of Peptide Ions by Blackbody Radiation: Factors That Lead to Dissociation Kinetics in the Rapid Energy Exchange Limit

    PubMed Central

    Price, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Unimolecular rate constants for blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) were calculated for the model protonated peptide (AlaGly)n (n = 2–32) using a variety of dissociation parameters. Combinations of dissociation threshold energies ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 eV and transition entropies corresponding to Arrhenius preexponential factors ranging from very “tight” (A∞ = 109.9 s−1) to “loose” (A∞ = 1016.8 s−1) were selected to represent dissociation parameters within the experimental temperature range (300–520 K) and kinetic window (kuni = 0.001–0.20 s−1) typically used in the BIRD experiment. Arrhenius parameters were determined from the temperature dependence of these values and compared to those in the rapid energy exchange (REX) limit. In this limit, the internal energy of a population of ions is given by a Boltzmann distribution, and kinetics are the same as those in the traditional high-pressure limit. For a dissociation process to be in this limit, the rate of photon exchange between an ion and the vacuum chamber walls must be significantly greater than the dissociation rate. Kinetics rapidly approach the REX limit either as the molecular size or threshold dissociation energy increases or as the transition-state entropy or experimental temperature decreases. Under typical experimental conditions, peptide ions larger than 1.6 kDa should be in the REX limit. Smaller ions may also be in the REX limit depending on the value of the threshold dissociation energy and transition-state entropy. Either modeling or information about the dissociation mechanism must be known in order to confirm REX limit kinetics for these smaller ions. Three principal factors that lead to the size dependence of REX limit kinetics are identified. With increasing molecular size, rates of radiative absorption and emission increase, internal energy distributions become relatively narrower, and the microcanonical dissociation rate constants increase more slowly

  9. Non-blackbody Disks Can Help Explain Inferred AGN Accretion Disk Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Patrick B.; Sarrouh, Ghassan T.; Horne, Keith

    2018-02-01

    If the atmospheric density {ρ }atm} in the accretion disk of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) is sufficiently low, scattering in the atmosphere can produce a non-blackbody emergent spectrum. For a given bolometric luminosity, at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths such disks have lower fluxes and apparently larger sizes as compared to disks that emit as blackbodies. We show that models in which {ρ }atm} is a sufficiently low fixed fraction of the interior density ρ can match the AGN STORM observations of NGC 5548 but produce disk spectral energy distributions that peak at shorter wavelengths than observed in luminous AGN in general. Thus, scattering atmospheres can contribute to the explanation for large inferred AGN accretion disk sizes but are unlikely to be the only contributor. In the appendix section, we present unified equations for the interior ρ and T in gas pressure-dominated regions of a thin accretion disk.

  10. Design and analysis on fume exhaust system of blackbody cavity sensor for continuously measuring molten steel temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Guohui; Zhang, Jiu; Zhao, Shumao; Xie, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    Fume exhaust system is the main component of the novel blackbody cavity sensor with a single layer tube, which removes the fume by gas flow along the exhaust pipe to keep the light path clean. However, the gas flow may break the conditions of blackbody cavity and results in the poor measurement accuracy. In this paper, we analyzed the influence of the gas flow on the temperature distribution of the measuring cavity, and then calculated the integrated effective emissivity of the non-isothermal cavity based on Monte-Carlo method, accordingly evaluated the sensor measurement accuracy, finally obtained the maximum allowable flow rate for various length of the exhaust pipe to meet the measurement accuracy. These results will help optimize the novel blackbody cavity sensor design and use it better for measuring the temperature of molten steel.

  11. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    DOEpatents

    Markham, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  12. Measurement and evaluation of the radiative properties of a thin solid fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard; Street, Kenneth; Pitch, Nancy; Tien, James; Morrison, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Accurate modeling of combustion systems requires knowledge of the radiative properties of the system. Gas phase properties are well known, but detailed knowledge of surface properties is limited. Recent work has provided spectrally resolved data for some solid fuels, but only for the unburned material at room temperature, and for limited sets of previously burned and quenched samples. Due to lack of knowledge of the spectrally resolved properties at elevated temperatures, as well as processing limitations in the modeling effort, graybody values are typically used for the fuels surface radiative properties. However, the spectrally resolved properties for the fuels at room temperature can be used to give a first-order correction for temperature effects on the graybody values. Figure 1 shows a sample of the spectrally resolved emittance/absorptance for a thin solid fuel of the type commonly used in combustion studies, from approximately 2 to 20 microns. This plot clearly shows a strong spectral dependence across the entire range. By definition, the emittance is the ratio of the emitted energy to that of a blackbody at the same temperature. Therefore, to determine a graybody emittance for this material, the spectrally resolved data must be applied to a blackbody curve. The total area under the resulting curve is ratioed to the total area under the blackbody curve to yield the answer. Due to the asymmetry of the spectrally resolved emittance and the changing shape of the blackbody curve as the temperature increases, the relative importance of the emittance value at any given wavelength will change as a function of temperature. Therefore, the graybody emittance value for a given material will change as a function of temperature even if the spectral dependence of the radiative properties remains unchanged. This is demonstrated in Figures 2 and 3, which are plots of the spectrally resolved emittance for KimWipes (shown in Figure 1) multiplied by the blackbody curves for

  13. Using Stellar Spectra to Illustrate Thermal Radiation Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltcheva, N. T.; Pritzl, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Stars are point-source emitters that are the closest to the definition of a blackbody in comparison to all other similar sources of radiation found in nature. Existing libraries on stellar spectra are thus a valuable resource that can be used to introduce the laws of thermal radiation in a classroom setting. In this article we briefly describe…

  14. Blackbody absorption efficiencies for six lamp pumped Nd laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Patricia L.; Barnes, Norman P.; Skolaut, Milton W., Jr.; Storm, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    Utilizing high resolution spectra, the absorption efficiencies for six Nd laser materials were calculated as functions of the effective blackbody temperature of the lamp and laser crystal size. The six materials were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:Q-98 Glass, Nd:YVO4, Nd:BEL, and Nd:Cr:GSGG. Under the guidelines of this study, Nd:Cr:GSGG's absorption efficiency is twice the absorption efficiency of any of the other laser materials.

  15. A radiatively pumped CW CO2 laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Insuik, R. J.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A proof of principle experiment to demonstrate the physics of a radiatively pumped laser has been carried out. For the first time, a blackbody cavity has optically pumped a CW CO2 laser. Results are presented from a series of experiments using mixtures of CO2, He, and Ar in which maximum output power was obtained with a 20 percent CO2-15 percent He-65 percent Ar mixture. The dependence of the output power on the blackbody temperature and the cooling gas flow rate is also discussed. By appropriately varying these parameters, continuous output powers of 8-10 mW have been achieved.

  16. The role of the equivalent blackbody temperature in the study of Atlantic Ocean tropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steranka, J.; Rodgers, E. B.; Gentry, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite measured equivalent blackbody temperatures of Atlantic Ocean tropical cyclones are used to investigate their role in describing the convection and cloud patterns of the storms and in predicting wind intensity. The high temporal resolution of the equivalent blackbody temperature measurements afforded with the geosynchronous satellite provided sequential quantitative measurements of the tropical cyclone which reveal a diurnal pattern of convection at the inner core during the early developmental stage; a diurnal pattern of cloudiness in the storm's outer circulation throughout the life cycle; a semidiurnal pattern of cloudiness in the environmental atmosphere surrounding the storms during the weak storm stage; an outward modulating atmospheric wave originating at the inner core; and long term convective bursts at the inner core prior to wind intensification.

  17. Radiative characteristics of the Chelyabinsk superbolide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa

    2015-12-01

    On Feb. 15, 2013, a meteoroid with a size of about 19 m plunged into the terrestrial atmosphere at 19 km s-1 and burst at an altitude of about 30 km over the city of Chelyabinsk, Russia. Here we present light curves for the bolide in the red, green, and blue color bands, derived from an analysis of a video that was recorded by a dashboard camera and released on the Internet. Our results demonstrate that the bolide was blue-green in color, which is inconsistent with the Planck spectrum before the meteoroid began to fragment. Fragmentation triggered a flare-up of the bolide and 90% of its radiation energy at optical wavelengths was released within a period of about 2 s after that. During the same period, the brightness ratios among the three bands became consistent with 4000 K blackbody radiation. Based on the peak luminosity, a surface area of several square kilometers would be required for a 4000 K blackbody. It is considered that the radiation source of the bolide was an elongated cloud of vapor and debris produced through severe fragmentation of the meteoroid.

  18. Radiation calibration for LWIR Hyperspectral Imager Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhixiong; Yu, Chunchao; Zheng, Wei-jian; Lei, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Yuan, Xiaochun; Zhang, Peizhong

    2014-11-01

    The radiometric calibration of LWIR Hyperspectral imager Spectrometer is presented. The lab has been developed to LWIR Interferometric Hyperspectral imager Spectrometer Prototype(CHIPED-I) to study Lab Radiation Calibration, Two-point linear calibration is carried out for the spectrometer by using blackbody respectively. Firstly, calibration measured relative intensity is converted to the absolute radiation lightness of the object. Then, radiation lightness of the object is is converted the brightness temperature spectrum by the method of brightness temperature. The result indicated †that this method of Radiation Calibration calibration was very good.

  19. Enhancing radiative energy transfer through thermal extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yixuan; Liu, Baoan; Shen, Sheng; Yu, Zongfu

    2016-06-01

    Thermal radiation plays an increasingly important role in many emerging energy technologies, such as thermophotovoltaics, passive radiative cooling and wearable cooling clothes [1]. One of the fundamental constraints in thermal radiation is the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which limits the maximum power of far-field radiation to P0 = σT4S, where σ is the Boltzmann constant, S and T are the area and the temperature of the emitter, respectively (Fig. 1a). In order to overcome this limit, it has been shown that near-field radiations could have an energy density that is orders of magnitude greater than the Stefan-Boltzmann law [2-7]. Unfortunately, such near-field radiation transfer is spatially confined and cannot carry radiative heat to the far field. Recently, a new concept of thermal extraction was proposed [8] to enhance far-field thermal emission, which, conceptually, operates on a principle similar to oil immersion lenses and light extraction in light-emitting diodes using solid immersion lens to increase light output [62].Thermal extraction allows a blackbody to radiate more energy to the far field than the apparent limit of the Stefan-Boltzmann law without breaking the second law of thermodynamics. Thermal extraction works by using a specially designed thermal extractor to convert and guide the near-field energy to the far field, as shown in Fig. 1b. The same blackbody as shown in Fig. 1a is placed closely below the thermal extractor with a spacing smaller than the thermal wavelength. The near-field coupling transfers radiative energy with a density greater than σT4. The thermal extractor, made from transparent and high-index or structured materials, does not emit or absorb any radiation. It transforms the near-field energy and sends it toward the far field. As a result, the total amount of far-field radiative heat dissipated by the same blackbody is greatly enhanced above SσT4, where S is the area of the emitter. This paper will review the progress in thermal

  20. Effects of Charge State on Fragmentation Pathways, Dynamics, and Activation Energies of Ubiquitin Ions Measured by Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Jockusch, Rebecca A.; Schnier, Paul D.; Price, William D.; Strittmatter, Eric. F.; Demirev, Plamen A.; Williams*, Evan R.

    2005-01-01

    Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation spectra of the (M + 5H)5+ through (M + 11H)11+ ions of the protein ubiquitin (8.6 kDa) formed by electrospray ionization were measured in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. The 5+ ion dissociates exclusively by loss of water and/or ammonia, whereas the 11+ charge state dissociates only by formation of complementary y and b ions. These two processes are competitive for intermediate charge state ions, with the formation of y and b ions increasingly favored for the higher charge states. The y and b ions are formed by cleavage of the backbone amide bond on the C-terminal side of acidic residues exclusively, with cleavage adjacent to aspartic acid favored. Thermal unimolecular dissociation rate constants for the dissociation of each of these charge states were measured. From the temperature dependence of these rates, Arrhenius activation parameters in the rapid energy exchange limit are obtained. The activation energies (Ea) and preexponential factors (A) for the 5+, 8+, and 9+ ions are 1.2 eV and 1012 s−1, respectively. These values for the 6+ and 7+ ions are 0.9–1.0 eV and 109 s−1, and those for the 10+ and 11+ ions are 1.6 eV and 1016–1017 s−1. Thus, with the exception of the 5+ ion, the higher charge states of ubiquitin have larger dissociation activation energies than the lower charge states. The different A factors observed for production of y and b ions from different precursor charge states indicate that they are formed by different mechanisms, ranging from relatively complex rearrangements to direct bond cleavages. These results clearly demonstrate that the relative dissociation rates of large biomolecule ions by themselves are not necessarily a reliable indicator of their relative dissociation energies, even when similar fragment ions are formed. PMID:9075403

  1. Effects of charge state on fragmentation pathways, dynamics, and activation energies of ubiquitin ions measured by blackbody infrared radiative dissociation.

    PubMed

    Jockusch, R A; Schnier, P D; Price, W D; Strittmatter, E F; Demirev, P A; Williams, E R

    1997-03-15

    Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation spectra of the (M + 5H)5+ through (M + 11H)11+ ions of the protein ubiquitin (8.6 kDa) formed by electrospray ionization were measured in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. The 5+ ion dissociates exclusively by loss of water and/or ammonia, whereas the 11+ charge state dissociates only by formation of complementary y and b ions. These two processes are competitive for intermediate charge state ions, with the formation of y and b ions increasingly favored for the higher charge states. The y and b ions are formed by cleavage of the backbone amide bond on the C-terminal side of acidic residues exclusively, with cleavage adjacent to aspartic acid favored. Thermal unimolecular dissociation rate constants for the dissociation of each of these charge states were measured. From the temperature dependence of these rates, Arrhenius activation parameters in the rapid energy exchange limit are obtained. The activation energies (Ea) and preexponential factors (A) for the 5+, 8+, and 9+ ions are 1.2 eV and 10(12) s-1, respectively. These values for the 6+ and 7+ ions are 0.9-1.0 eV and 10(9) s-1, and those for the 10+ and 11+ ions are 1.6 eV and 10(16)-10(17) s-1. Thus, with the exception of the 5+ ion, the higher charge states of ubiquitin have larger dissociation activation energies than the lower charge states. The different A factors observed for production of y and b ions from different precursor charge states indicate that they are formed by different mechanisms, ranging from relatively complex rearrangements to direct bond cleavages. These results clearly demonstrate that the relative dissociation rates of large biomolecule ions by themselves are not necessarily a reliable indicator of their relative dissociation energies, even when similar fragment ions are formed.

  2. Using stellar spectra to illustrate thermal radiation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltcheva, N. T.; Pritzl, B. J.

    2018-05-01

    Stars are point-source emitters that are the closest to the definition of a blackbody in comparison to all other similar sources of radiation found in nature. Existing libraries on stellar spectra are thus a valuable resource that can be used to introduce the laws of thermal radiation in a classroom setting. In this article we briefly describe some of the opportunities that available databases on stellar spectra provide for students to gain a deeper understanding on thermal radiation and spectral line characteristics.

  3. Blackbody emission from laser breakdown in high-pressure gases.

    PubMed

    Bataller, A; Plateau, G R; Kappus, B; Putterman, S

    2014-08-15

    Laser induced breakdown of pressurized gases is used to generate plasmas under conditions where the atomic density and temperature are similar to those found in sonoluminescing bubbles. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals that a blackbody persists well after the exciting femtosecond laser pulse has turned off. Deviation from Saha's equation of state and an accompanying large reduction in ionization potential are observed at unexpectedly low atomic densities-in parallel with sonoluminescence. In laser breakdown, energy input proceeds via excitation of electrons whereas in sonoluminescence it is initiated via the atoms. The similar responses indicate that these systems are revealing the thermodynamics and transport of a strongly coupled plasma.

  4. Blackbody Emission from Laser Breakdown in High-Pressure Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataller, A.; Plateau, G. R.; Kappus, B.; Putterman, S.

    2014-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown of pressurized gases is used to generate plasmas under conditions where the atomic density and temperature are similar to those found in sonoluminescing bubbles. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals that a blackbody persists well after the exciting femtosecond laser pulse has turned off. Deviation from Saha's equation of state and an accompanying large reduction in ionization potential are observed at unexpectedly low atomic densities—in parallel with sonoluminescence. In laser breakdown, energy input proceeds via excitation of electrons whereas in sonoluminescence it is initiated via the atoms. The similar responses indicate that these systems are revealing the thermodynamics and transport of a strongly coupled plasma.

  5. Infrared Surface Temperature Measurements in the Presence of Reflected Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    33 11. Photograph of l-in. Blackbody Radiator .................................. 34 12. Radiosity (B...amount of radiation reaching the detector will be proportional to the radiosity (B) of the target, and will be a function of the optical path, target...emissivity, and geometry of the instrument. The radiosity is the rate at which energy streams away from the target surface and is the sum of the

  6. Analytic evaluation of the weighting functions for remote sensing of blackbody planetary atmospheres : the case of limb viewing geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent publication (Ustinov, 2002), we proposed an analytic approach to evaluation of radiative and geophysical weighting functions for remote sensing of a blackbody planetary atmosphere, based on general linearization approach applied to the case of nadir viewing geometry. In this presentation, the general linearization approach is applied to the limb viewing geometry. The expressions, similar to those obtained in (Ustinov, 2002), are obtained for weighting functions with respect to the distance along the line of sight. Further on, these expressions are converted to the expressions for weighting functions with respect to the vertical coordinate in the atmosphere. Finally, the numerical representation of weighting functions in the form of matrices of partial derivatives of grid limb radiances with respect to the grid values of atmospheric parameters is used for a convolution with the finite field of view of the instrument.

  7. Cosmological implication of a new measurement of the submillimeter background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Sato, Shinji

    1987-01-01

    A new submillimeter measurement of the cosmic background radiation (T. Matsumoto et al., 1988) reveals excess brightness between 1000 and 300 microns. The excess corresponds to about 10 percent of the undistorted blackbody radiation. The observed excess is consistent with thermal emission from dust with a relative density of 0.0001-0.00001, if the dust is heated at a redshift z of about 10-40.

  8. Calibration of Radiation Thermometers up to : Effective Emissivity of the Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, O.; Briaudeau, S.; Rongione, L.; Bourson, F.; Guimier, S.; Kosmalski, S.; Sadli, M.

    2015-08-01

    The growing demand of industry for traceable temperature measurements up to encourages improvement of calibration techniques for industrial-type radiation thermometers in this temperature range. High-temperature fixed points can be used at such high temperatures, but due to the small diameter of apertures of their cavities (3 mm), they are not adapted for the large field-of-views commonly featured by this kind of radiation thermometers. At LNE-Cnam, a Thermo Gauge furnace of 25.4 mm source aperture diameter is used as a comparison source to calibrate customers' instruments against a reference radiation thermometer calibrated according to the ITS-90 with the lowest uncertainties achievable in the Laboratory. But the furnace blackbody radiator exhibits a large temperature gradient that degrades its effective emissivity, and increases the calibration uncertainty due to the lack of information on the working spectral band of the industrial radiation thermometer. In order to estimate the corrections to apply, the temperature distribution (radial and on-axis) of the Thermo Gauge furnace blackbody radiator was characterized and the effective emissivity of the Thermo Gauge cavity was determined by three different methods. Because of this investigation, the corrections due to different fields of view and due to the different spectral bands of the reference pyrometer and the customer's pyrometer were obtained and the uncertainties on these corrections were evaluated.

  9. Nist Microwave Blackbody: The Design, Testing, and Verification of a Conical Brightness Temperature Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houtz, Derek Anderson

    Microwave radiometers allow remote sensing of earth and atmospheric temperatures from space, anytime, anywhere, through clouds, and in the dark. Data from microwave radiometers are high-impact operational inputs to weather forecasts, and are used to provide a vast array of climate data products including land and sea surface temperatures, soil moisture, ocean salinity, cloud precipitation and moisture height profiles, and even wind speed and direction, to name a few. Space-borne microwave radiometers have a major weakness when it comes to long-term climate trends due to their lack of traceability. Because there is no standard, or absolute reference, for microwave brightness temperature, nationally or internationally, individual instruments must each rely on their own internal calibration source to set an absolute reference to the fundamental unit of Kelvin. This causes each subsequent instrument to have a calibration offset and there is no 'true' reference. The work introduced in this thesis addresses this vacancy by proposing and introducing a NIST microwave brightness temperature source that may act as the primary reference. The NIST standard will allow pre-launch calibration of radiometers across a broad range of remote sensing pertinent frequencies between 18 GHz and 220 GHz. The blackbody will be capable of reaching temperatures ranging between liquid nitrogen boiling at approximately 77 K and warm-target temperature of 350 K. The brightness temperature of the source has associated standard uncertainty ranging as a function of frequency between 0.084 K and 0.111 K. The standard can be transferred to the calibration source in the instrument, providing traceability of all subsequent measurements back to the primary standard. The development of the NIST standard source involved predicting and measuring its brightness temperature, and minimizing the associated uncertainty of this quantity. Uniform and constant physical temperature along with well characterized and

  10. A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model for investigating atmospheric radiation entropy flux.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang

    2010-05-12

    A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model is built to analytically evaluate the vertical profile of the Earth's atmospheric radiation entropy flux under the assumption that atmospheric longwave radiation emission behaves as a greybody and shortwave radiation as a diluted blackbody. Results show that both the atmospheric shortwave and net longwave radiation entropy fluxes increase with altitude, and the latter is about one order in magnitude greater than the former. The vertical profile of the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux follows approximately that of the atmospheric net longwave radiation entropy flux. Sensitivity study further reveals that a 'darker' atmosphere with a larger overall atmospheric longwave optical depth exhibits a smaller net radiation entropy flux at all altitudes, suggesting an intrinsic connection between the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux and the overall atmospheric longwave optical depth. These results indicate that the overall strength of the atmospheric irreversible processes at all altitudes as determined by the corresponding atmospheric net entropy flux is closely related to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

  11. Entropy/information flux in Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2018-01-01

    Blackbody radiation contains (on average) an entropy of 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per photon. If the emission process is unitary, then this entropy is exactly compensated by "hidden information" in the correlations. We extend this argument to the Hawking radiation from GR black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget. The key technical aspect of our calculation is a variant of the "average subsystem" approach developed by Page, which we extend beyond bipartite pure systems, to a tripartite pure system that considers the influence of the environment.

  12. Sensitivity of blackbody effective emissivity to wavelength and temperature: By genetic algorithm

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ejigu, E. K.; Liedberg, H. G.

    A variable-temperature blackbody (VTBB) is used to calibrate an infrared radiation thermometer (pyrometer). The effective emissivity (ε{sub eff}) of a VTBB is dependent on temperature and wavelength other than the geometry of the VTBB. In the calibration process the effective emissivity is often assumed to be constant within the wavelength and temperature range. There are practical situations where the sensitivity of the effective emissivity needs to be known and correction has to be applied. We present a method using a genetic algorithm to investigate the sensitivity of the effective emissivity to wavelength and temperature variation. Two matlab® programs are generated:more » the first to model the radiance temperature calculation and the second to connect the model to the genetic algorithm optimization toolbox. The effective emissivity parameter is taken as a chromosome and optimized at each wavelength and temperature point. The difference between the contact temperature (reading from a platinum resistance thermometer or liquid in glass thermometer) and radiance temperature (calculated from the ε{sub eff} values) is used as an objective function where merit values are calculated and best fit ε{sub eff} values selected. The best fit ε{sub eff} values obtained as a solution show how sensitive they are to temperature and wavelength parameter variation. Uncertainty components that arise from wavelength and temperature variation are determined based on the sensitivity analysis. Numerical examples are considered for illustration.« less

  13. A short history of nomograms and tables used for thermal radiation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Seán. M.; Johnson, R. Barry

    2016-09-01

    The theoretical concept of a perfect thermal radiator, the blackbody, was first introduced by the German physicist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff in 1860. By the latter half of the nineteenth century it had become the object of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. While an attempt at trying to theoretically understand the behavior of radiation emitted from a blackbody was undertaken by many eminent physicists of the day, its solution was not found until 1900 when Max Planck put forward his now famous law for thermal radiation. Today, of course, understanding blackbody behavior is vitally important to many fields including infrared systems, illumination, pyrometry, spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal engineering, cryogenics, and meteorology. Mathematically, the form Planck's law takes is rather cumbersome meaning calculations made with it before the advent of modern computers were rather tedious, dramatically slowing the process of computation. Fortunately, during those early days of the twentieth century researchers quickly realized Planck's equation, and the various functions closely related to it, readily lend themselves to being given a graphical, mechanical, or numerically tabulated form for their evaluation. The first of these computational aids to appear were tables. These arose shortly after Planck introduced his equation, were produced in the greatest number, and remained unsurpassed in their level of accuracy compared to all other aids made. It was also not long before nomograms designed to aid thermal radiation calculations appeared. Essentially a printed chart and requiring nothing more than a straightedge to use, nomograms were cheap and extremely easy to use. Facilitating instant answers to a range of quantities relating to thermal radiation, a number were produced and the inventiveness displayed in some was quite remarkable. In this paper we consider the historical development of many of the nomograms and tables developed and used by generations

  14. A space-based combined thermophotovoltaic electric generator and gas laser solar energy conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yesil, Oktay

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a spaceborne energy conversion system consisting of a thermophotovoltaic electric generator and a gas laser. As a power source for the converson, the system utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity heated to a temperature of 2000-2400 K by concentrated solar radiation. A double-layer solar cell of GaAs and Si forms a cylindrical surface concentric to this blackbody cavity, receiving the blackbody radiation and converting it into electricity with cell conversion efficiency of 50 percent or more. If the blackbody cavity encloses a laser medium, the blackbody radiation can also be used to simultaneously pump a lasing gas. The feasibility of blackbody optical pumping at 4.3 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture was experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Blackbody emission from light interacting with an effective moving dispersive medium.

    PubMed

    Petev, M; Westerberg, N; Moss, D; Rubino, E; Rimoldi, C; Cacciatori, S L; Belgiorno, F; Faccio, D

    2013-07-26

    Intense laser pulses excite a nonlinear polarization response that may create an effective flowing medium and, under appropriate conditions, a blocking horizon for light. Here, we analyze in detail the interaction of light with such laser-induced flowing media, fully accounting for the medium dispersion properties. An analytical model based on a first Born approximation is found to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on Maxwell's equations and shows that when a blocking horizon is formed, the stimulated medium scatters light with a blackbody emission spectrum. Based on these results, diamond is proposed as a promising candidate medium for future studies of Hawking emission from artificial, dispersive horizons.

  16. Dissociation Energetics and Mechanisms of Leucine Enkephalin (M + H)+ and (2M + X)+ Ions (X = H, Li, Na, K, and Rb) Measured by Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Schnier, Paul D.; Price, William D.; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Williams, Evan R.

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation kinetics of protonated leucine enkephalin and its proton and alkali metal bound dimers were investigated by blackbody infrared radiative dissociation in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. From the temperature dependence of the unimolecular dissociation rate constants, Arrhenius activation parameters in the zero-pressure limit are obtained. Protonated leucine enkephalin dissociates to form b4 and (M−H2O)+ ions with an average activation energy (Ea) of 1.1 eV and an A factor of 1010.5 s−1. The value of the A factor indicates that these dissociation processes are rearrangements. The b4 ions subsequently dissociate to form a4 ions via a process with a relatively high activation energy (1.3 eV), but one that is entropically favored. For the cationized dimers, the thermal stability decreases with increasing cation size, consistent with a simple electrostatic interaction in these noncovalent ion–molecule complexes. The Ea and A factors are indistinguishable within experimental error with values of ~1.5 eV and 1017 s−1, respectively. Although not conclusive, results from master equation modeling indicate that all these BIRD processes, except for b4 → a4, are in the rapid energy exchange limit. In this limit, the internal energy of the precursor ion population is given by a Boltzmann distribution and information about the energetics and dynamics of the reaction are obtained directly from the measured Arrhenius parameters. PMID:16554908

  17. Dissociation energetics and mechanisms of leucine enkephalin (M + H)+ and (2M + X)+ ions (X = H, Li, Na, K, and Rb) measured by blackbody infrared radiative dissociation.

    PubMed

    Schnier, P D; Price, W D; Strittmatter, E F; Williams, E R

    1997-08-01

    The dissociation kinetics of protonated leucine enkephalin and its proton and alkali metal bound dimers were investigated by blackbody infrared radiative dissociation in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. From the temperature dependence of the unimolecular dissociation rate constants, Arrhenius activation parameters in the zero-pressure limit are obtained. Protonated leucine enkephalin dissociates to form b(4) and (M-H(2)O)(+) ions with an average activation energy (E(a)) of 1.1 eV and an A factor of 10(10.5) s(-1). The value of the A factor indicates that these dissociation processes are rearrangements. The b(4) ions subsequently dissociate to form a(4) ions via a process with a relatively high activation energy (1.3 eV), but one that is entropically favored. For the cationized dimers, the thermal stability decreases with increasing cation size, consistent with a simple electrostatic interaction in these noncovalent ion-molecule complexes. The E(a) and A factors are indistinguishable within experimental error with values of approximately 1.5 eV and 10(17) s(-1), respectively. Although not conclusive, results from master equation modeling indicate that all these BIRD processes, except for b(4) --> a(4), are in the rapid energy exchange limit. In this limit, the internal energy of the precursor ion population is given by a Boltzmann distribution and information about the energetics and dynamics of the reaction are obtained directly from the measured Arrhenius parameters.

  18. Lecture on Thermal Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    This lecture will cover solar thermal radiation, particularly as it relates to the high energy solar processes that are the subject of this summer school. After a general review of thermal radiation from the Sun and a discussion of basic definitions, the various emission and absorption mechanisms will be described including black-body emission, bremsstrahlung, free-bound, and atomic line emissions of all kinds. The bulk of the time will be spent discussing the observational characteristics of thermal flare plasma and what can be learned about the flare energy release process from observations of the thermal radiation at all wavelengths. Information that has been learned about the morphology, temperature distribution, and composition of the flare plasma will be presented. The energetics of the thermal flare plasma will be discussed in relation to the nonthermal energy of the particles accelerated during the flare. This includes the total energy, the radiated and conductive cooling processes, and the total irradiated energy.

  19. New blackbody standard for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic ear thermometers at the NPL, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Helen C.; Simpson, Robert; Machin, Graham

    2004-04-01

    The use of infrared tympanic thermometers for monitoring patient health is widespread. However, studies into the performance of these thermometers have questioned their accuracy and repeatability. To give users confidence in these devices, and to provide credibility in the measurements, it is necessary for them to be tested using an accredited, standard blackbody source, with a calibration traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). To address this need the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, has recently set up a primary ear thermometer calibration (PET-C) source for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic (ear) thermometers over the range from 15 °C to 45 °C. The overall uncertainty of the PET-C source is estimated to be +/- 0.04 °C at k = 2. The PET-C source meets the requirements of the European Standard EN 12470-5: 2003 Clinical thermometers. It consists of a high emissivity blackbody cavity immersed in a bath of stirred liquid. The temperature of the blackbody is determined using an ITS-90 calibrated platinum resistance thermometer inserted close to the rear of the cavity. The temperature stability and uniformity of the PET-C source was evaluated and its performance validated. This paper provides a description of the PET-C along with the results of the validation measurements. To further confirm the performance of the PET-C source it was compared to the standard ear thermometer calibration sources of the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The results of this comparison will also be briefly discussed. The PET-C source extends the capability for testing ear thermometers offered by the NPL body temperature fixed-point source, described previously. An update on the progress with the commercialisation of the fixed-point source will be given.

  20. On-Orbit Operation and Performance of MODIS Blackbody

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Chang, T.; Barnes, W.

    2009-01-01

    MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands, including 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TES). The TEB on-orbit calibration is performed on a scan-by-scan basis using a quadratic algorithm that relates the detector response with the calibration radiance from the sensor on-board blackbody (BB). The calibration radiance is accurately determined each scan from the BB temperature measured using a set of 12 thermistors. The BB thermistors were calibrated pre-launch with traceability to the NIST temperature standard. Unlike many heritage sensors, the MODIS BB can be operated at a constant temperature or with the temperature continuously varying between instrument ambient (about 270K) and 315K. In this paper, we provide an overview of both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-board BB operations, functions, and on-orbit performance. We also examine the impact of key calibration parameters, such as BB emissivity and temperature (stability and gradient) determined from its thermistors, on the TEB calibration and Level I (LIB) data product uncertainty.

  1. Radiative and convective properties of 316L Stainless Steel fabricated using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Jonathan

    Temperature evolution of metallic materials during the additive manufacturing process has direct influence in determining the materials microstructure and resultant characteristics. Through the power of Infrared (IR) thermography it is now possible to monitor thermal trends in a build structure, giving the power to adjust building parameters in real time. The IR camera views radiation in the IR wavelengths and determines temperature of an object by the amount of radiation emitted from the object in those wavelengths. Determining the amount of radiation emitted from the material, known as a materials emissivity, can be difficult in that emissivity is affected by both temperature and surface finish. It has been shown that the use of a micro-blackbody cavity can be used as an accurate reference temperature when the sample is held at thermal equilibrium. A micro-blackbody cavity was created in a sample of 316L Stainless Steel after being fabricated during using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process. Holding the sample at thermal equilibrium and using the micro-blackbody cavity as a reference and thermocouple as a second reference emissivity values were able to be obtained. IR thermography was also used to observe the manufacturing of these samples. When observing the IR thermography, patterns in the thermal history of the build were shown to be present as well as distinct cooling rates of the material. This information can be used to find true temperatures of 316L Stainless Steel during the LENS process for better control of desired material properties as well as future work in determining complete energy balance.

  2. Accurate determination of black-body radiation shift, magic and tune-out wavelengths for the 6S1/2 \\rightarrow 5D3/2 clock transition in Yb+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A.; De, S.; Arora, Bindiya; Sahoo, B. K.

    2017-10-01

    We present precise values of the dipole polarizabilities (α) of the ground [4{{{f}}}146{{s}}]{}2{{{S}}}1/2 and metastable [4{{{f}}}145{{d}}]{}2{{{D}}}3/2 states of Yb+, that are important in reducing systematics in the clock frequency of the [4{{{f}}}146{{s}}]{}2{{{S}}}1/2\\to [4{{{f}}}145{{d}}]{}2{{{D}}}3/2 transition. The static values of α for the ground and [4{{{f}}}145{{d}}]{}2{{{D}}}3/2 states are estimated to be 9.8(1)× {10}-40 {{{J}}{{m}}}2 {{{V}}}-2 and 17.6(5) × {10}-40 {{J}} {{{m}}}2 {{{V}}}-2, respectively, while the tensor contribution to the [4{{{f}}}145{{d}}]{}2{{{D}}}3/2 state as -12.3(3)× {10}-40 {{{J}}{{m}}}2 {{{V}}}-2 compared to the experimental value -13.6(22)× {10}-40 {{J}} {{{m}}}2 {{{V}}}-2. This corresponds to the differential scalar polarizability value of the above transition as -7.8(5) × {10}-40 {{{J}}{{m}}}2 {{{V}}}-2 in contrast to the available experimental value -6.9(1.4) × {10}-40 J m2 V-2 . This results in the black-body radiation shift of the clock transition as -0.44(3) Hz at the room temperature, which is large as compared to the previously estimated values. Using the dynamic α values, we report the tune-out and magic wavelengths that could be of interest to subdue systematics due to the Stark shifts and for constructing lattice optical clock using Yb+.

  3. Radiometric traceability diagnosis and bias correction for the Suomi NPP VIIRS long-wave infrared channels during blackbody unsteady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changyong; Wang, Wenhui; Blonski, Slawomir; Zhang, Bin

    2017-05-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Program (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Thermal Emissive Bands (TEBs) have been performing well since the data became available on 20 January 2012, and the Sensor Data Record data reached validated maturity on 18 March 2014. While overall the validation has shown that these channels have an estimated absolute uncertainty on the order of 0.1 K based on extensive comparisons, there is a remaining issue that persisted over the years. A calibration bias on the order of 0.1 K is introduced in channels such as M15 during the quarterly blackbody temperature warm-up/cooldown, and the bias is further amplified by the sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm up to 0.3 K in the global daily-averaged products which causes an apparent spike in the SST time series. Our investigation reveals that this bias is caused by a fundamental but flawed theoretical assumption in the VIIRS calibration equation, which states that the shape of the calibration curve is assumed unchanged from prelaunch to postlaunch without any constrains. While the assumption may work to account for long-term degradation, it has a shortcoming during the blackbody unsteady state. In this study, we present a diagnostic and correction method with a compensatory term (Ltrace) to reconcile the assumption such that it removes the calibration bias during the blackbody temperature changes. The methodology has been tested using historical data, and the results are very positive. The implementation has minimal impacts on the operational data processing system and is readily available for use in operations.

  4. A blackbody-pumped CO2-N2 transfer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Higdon, N. S.

    1984-08-01

    A compact blackbody-pumped CO2-N2 transfer laser was constructed and the significant operating parameters were investigated. Lasing was achieved at 10.6 microns by passing preheated N2 through a 1.5-mm-diameter nozzle to a laser cavity where the N2 was mixed with CO2 and He. An intrinsic efficiency of 0.7 percent was achieved for an oven temperature of 1473 K and N2 oven pressure of 440 torr. The optimum laser cavity consisted of a back mirror with maximum reflectivity and an output mirror with 97.5-percent reflectivity. The optimum gas mixture was 1CO2/.5He/6N2. The variation of laser output was measured as a function of oven temperature, nozzle diameter, N2 oven pressure, He and CO2 partial pressures, nozzle-to-oven separation, laser cell temperature, and output laser mirror reflectivity. With these parameters optimized, outputs approaching 1.4 watts were achieved.

  5. A blackbody-pumped CO2-N2 transfer laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Higdon, N. S.

    1984-01-01

    A compact blackbody-pumped CO2-N2 transfer laser was constructed and the significant operating parameters were investigated. Lasing was achieved at 10.6 microns by passing preheated N2 through a 1.5-mm-diameter nozzle to a laser cavity where the N2 was mixed with CO2 and He. An intrinsic efficiency of 0.7 percent was achieved for an oven temperature of 1473 K and N2 oven pressure of 440 torr. The optimum laser cavity consisted of a back mirror with maximum reflectivity and an output mirror with 97.5-percent reflectivity. The optimum gas mixture was 1CO2/.5He/6N2. The variation of laser output was measured as a function of oven temperature, nozzle diameter, N2 oven pressure, He and CO2 partial pressures, nozzle-to-oven separation, laser cell temperature, and output laser mirror reflectivity. With these parameters optimized, outputs approaching 1.4 watts were achieved.

  6. Radiation thermometry at NIST: An update of services and research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1989-01-01

    An overview of activities at the National Institute of Standards and Terminology (NIST) in radiation thermometry and related temperature scale research is presented. An expansion of calibration services for pyrometers will be described as well as efforts to develop calibration services for blackbody simulators. Research relevant to the realization of the new international temperature scale (ITS 90) will be discussed.

  7. Radiative contribution to thermal conductance in animal furs and other woolly insulators.

    PubMed

    Simonis, Priscilla; Rattal, Mourad; Oualim, El Mostafa; Mouhse, Azeddine; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2014-01-27

    This paper deals with radiation's contribution to thermal insulation. The mechanism by which a stack of absorbers limits radiative heat transfer is examined in detail both for black-body shields and grey-body shields. It shows that radiation energy transfer rates should be much faster than conduction rates. It demonstrates that, for opaque screens, increased reflectivity will dramatically reduce the rate of heat transfer, improving thermal insulation. This simple model is thought to contribute to the understanding of how animal furs, human clothes, rockwool insulators, thermo-protective containers, and many other passive energy-saving devices operate.

  8. H- photodetachment and radiative attachment for astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. M.; Stancil, P. C.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Forrey, R. C.

    2017-06-01

    We combine R-matrix calculations, asymptotic relations, and comparison to available experimental data to construct an H- photodetachment cross section reliable over a large range of photon energies and take into account the series of auto-detaching shape and Feshbach resonances between 10.92 and 14.35 eV. The accuracy of the cross section is controlled by ensuring that it satisfies all known oscillator strength sum rules, including contributions from the resonances and single-photon double-electron photodetachment. From the resulting recommended cross section, spontaneous and stimulated radiative attachment rate coefficients are obtained. Photodetachment rates are also computed for the standard interstellar radiation field, in diffuse and dense interstellar clouds, for blackbody radiation, and for high redshift distortion photons in the recombination epoch. Implications are investigated for these astrophysical radiation fields and epochs.

  9. NIST TXR Validation of S-HIS radiances and a UW-SSEC Blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. K.; O'Connell, J.; Rice, J. P.; Revercomb, H. E.; Best, F. A.; Tobin, D. C.; Knuteson, R. O.; Adler, D. P.; Ciganovich, N. C.; Dutcher, S. T.; Laporte, D. D.; Ellington, S. D.; Werner, M. W.; Garcia, R. K.

    2007-12-01

    radiance validation with resulting traceable uncertainties approaching the level required for remote sensing and climate applications (0.1 K 3- sigma). For the calibration validation process to be accurate, repeatable, and meaningful, the reference instrument must be extremely well characterized and understood, carefully maintained, and accurately calibrated, with the calibration accuracy of the reference instrument tied to absolute standards. Tests of the S-HIS absolute calibration have been conducted using the NIST transfer radiometer (TXR). The TXR provides a more direct connection to the Blackbody reference sources maintained by NIST than the normal traceability of blackbody temperature scales and paint emissivity measurements. Two basic tests were conducted: (1) comparison of radiances measured by the S-HIS to those from the TXR, and (2) measuring the reflectivity of a UW-SSEC blackbody by using the TXR as a stable detector. Preliminary results from both tests are very promising for confirming and refining the expected absolute accuracy of the S-HIS.

  10. Optically pumped carbon dioxide laser mixtures. [using solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    This work explores the concept of blackbody radiation pumping of CO2 gas as a step toward utilization of solar radiation as a pumping source for laser action. To demonstrate this concept, an experiment was performed in which laser gas mixtures were exposed to 1500 K thermal radiation for brief periods of time. A gain of 2.8 x 10 to the -3rd reciprocal centimeters has been measured at 10.6 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture of 1 Torr pressure. A simple analytical model is used to describe the rate of change of energy of the vibrational modes of CO2 and to predict the gain. Agreement between the prediction and experiment is good.

  11. Synchronous identification of friendly targets

    DOEpatents

    Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.

    1998-01-01

    A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.

  12. The diffuse galactic gamma radiation: The Compton contribution and component separation by energy interval and galactic coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Fichtel, C.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation to be expected from cosmic ray interactions with matter and photons was examined. Particular emphasis is placed on the Compton emission. Both the photon density in and near the visible region and that in the region are deduced from the estimates of the emission functions throughout the Galaxy. The blackbody radiation is also included in the estimate of the total Compton emission. The result suggests that the gamma ray Compton radiation from cosmic ray ineractions with galactic visible and infrared photons is substantially larger than previously believed.

  13. Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation of bradykinin and its analogues: energetics, dynamics, and evidence for salt-bridge structures in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Schnier, P D; Price, W D; Jockusch, R A; Williams, E R

    1996-07-31

    Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) spectra of singly and doubly protonated bradykinin and its analogues are measured in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. Rate constants for dissociation are measured as a function of temperature with reaction delays up to 600 s. From these data, Arrhenius activation parameters in the zero-pressure limit are obtained. The activation parameters and dissociation products for the singly protonated ions are highly sensitive to small changes in ion structure. The Arrhenius activation energy (E(a)) and pre-exponential (or frequency factor, A) of the singly protonated ions investigated here range from 0.6 to 1.4 eV and 10(5) to 10(12) s(-1), respectively. For bradykinin and its analogues differing by modification of the residues between the two arginine groups on either end of the molecule, the singly and doubly protonated ions have average activation energies of 1.2 and 0.8 eV, respectively, and average A values of 10(8) and 10(12) s(-1), respectively, i.e., the presence of a second charge reduces the activation energy by 0.4 eV and decreases the A value by a factor of 10(4). This demonstrates that the presence of a second charge can dramatically influence the dissociation dynamics of these ions. The doubly protonated methyl ester of bradykinin has an E(a) of 0.82 eV, comparable to the value of 0.84 eV for bradykinin itself. However, this value is 0.21 +/- 0.08 eV greater than that of singly protonated methyl ester of bradykinin, indicating that the Coulomb repulsion is not the most significant factor in the activation energy of this ion. Both singly and doubly protonated Lys-bradykinin ions have higher activation energies than the corresponding bradykinin ions indicating that the addition of a basic residue stabilizes these ions with respect to dissociation. Methylation of the carboxylic acid group of the C-terminus reduces the E(a) of bradykinin from 1.3 to 0.6 eV and the A factor from 1012 to 105 s(-1). This

  14. Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation of Bradykinin and Its Analogues: Energetics, Dynamics, and Evidence for Salt-Bridge Structures in the Gas Phase

    PubMed Central

    Schnier, Paul D.; Price, William D.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2005-01-01

    Blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD) spectra of singly and doubly protonated bradykinin and its analogues are measured in a Fourier-transform mass spectrometer. Rate constants for dissociation are measured as a function of temperature with reaction delays up to 600 s. From these data, Arrhenius activation parameters in the zero-pressure limit are obtained. The activation parameters and dissociation products for the singly protonated ions are highly sensitive to small changes in ion structure. The Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential (or frequency factor, A) of the singly protonated ions investigated here range from 0.6 to 1.4 eV and 105 to 1012 s−1, respectively. For bradykinin and its analogues differing by modification of the residues between the two arginine groups on either end of the molecule, the singly and doubly protonated ions have average activation energies of 1.2 and 0.8 eV, respectively, and average A values of 108 and 1012 s−1, respectively, i.e., the presence of a second charge reduces the activation energy by 0.4 eV and decreases the A value by a factor of 104. This demonstrates that the presence of a second charge can dramatically influence the dissociation dynamics of these ions. The doubly protonated methyl ester of bradykinin has an Ea of 0.82 eV, comparable to the value of 0.84 eV for bradykinin itself. However, this value is 0.21 ± 0.08 eV greater than that of singly protonated methyl ester of bradykinin, indicating that the Coulomb repulsion is not the most significant factor in the activation energy of this ion. Both singly and doubly protonated Lys-bradykinin ions have higher activation energies than the corresponding bradykinin ions indicating that the addition of a basic residue stabilizes these ions with respect to dissociation. Methylation of the carboxylic acid group of the C-terminus reduces the Ea of bradykinin from 1.3 to 0.6 eV and the A factor from 1012 to 105 s−1. This modification also

  15. Design of two blackbody sources for millimeter and sub-millimeter wave Fourier transform spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Angel

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes an experimental setup for the spectral calibration of bolometric detectors used in radioastronomy. The system is composed of a Martin-Puplett interferometer with two identical artificial blackbody sources operating in the vacuum mode at 77 K and 300 K simultaneously. One source is integrated into a liquid nitrogen cryostat, and the other one into a vacuum chamber at room temperature. The sources were designed with a combination of conical with cylindrical geometries thus forming an orthogonal configuration to match the internal optics of the interfermometer. With a simple mathematical model we estimated emissivities of ε 0.995 for each source.

  16. Cryogenic Blackbody-Radiation Calibration Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    1993-01-01

    Operating temperatures range from ambient down to minus 100 degrees C. V-grooved front face of source body blackened and recessed in black sleeve. Semiairtight chamber that houses source purged with dry nitrogen gas to prevent formation of dew or frost at low operating temperature.

  17. Predicting tropical cyclone intensity using satellite measured equivalent blackbody temperatures of cloud tops. [regression analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, R. C.; Rodgers, E.; Steranka, J.; Shenk, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A regression technique was developed to forecast 24 hour changes of the maximum winds for weak (maximum winds less than or equal to 65 Kt) and strong (maximum winds greater than 65 Kt) tropical cyclones by utilizing satellite measured equivalent blackbody temperatures around the storm alone and together with the changes in maximum winds during the preceding 24 hours and the current maximum winds. Independent testing of these regression equations shows that the mean errors made by the equations are lower than the errors in forecasts made by the peristence techniques.

  18. Soft-photon emission effects and radiative corrections for electromagnetic processes at very high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Higher-order electromagnetic processes involving particles at ultrahigh energies are discussed, with particular attention given to Compton scattering with the emission of an additional photon (double Compton scattering). Double Compton scattering may have significance in the interaction of a high-energy electron with the cosmic blackbody photon gas. At high energies the cross section for double Compton scattering is large, though this effect is largely canceled by the effects of radiative corrections to ordinary Compton scattering. A similar cancellation takes place for radiative pair production and the associated radiative corrections to the radiationless process. This cancellation is related to the well-known cancellation of the infrared divergence in electrodynamics.

  19. A simple blackbody simulator with several possibilities and applications on thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Laerte; Lemos, Alisson Maria; Abi-Ramia, Marco Antônio

    2016-05-01

    Originally designed to make the practical examination on thermography certification1 possible, the device presented in this paper has demonstrated to be a very useful and versatile didactic tool for training centers and educational institutions, it can also be used as a low cost blackbody simulator to verify calibration of radiometers. It is a simple device with several functionalities for studying and for applications on heat transfer and radiometry, among them the interesting ability to thermally simulate the surface of real objects. On that functionality, if the device is seen by a thermographic camera, it reproduces the surface apparent temperatures of the object that it is simulating, at the same time, if it is seen by a naked eye it shows a visible image of that same surface. This functionality makes the practical study in the classroom possible, from different areas such as electrical, mechanical, medical, building, veterinary, etc.

  20. Optimized thermal amplification in a radiative transistor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Prod'homme, Hugo; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose; Ezzahri, Younes, E-mail: younes.ezzahri@univ-poitiers.fr

    The thermal performance of a far-field radiative transistor made up of a VO{sub 2} base in between a blackbody collector and a blackbody emitter is theoretically studied and optimized. This is done by using the grey approximation on the emissivity of VO{sub 2} and deriving analytical expressions for the involved heat fluxes and transistor amplification factor. It is shown that this amplification factor can be maximized by tuning the base temperature close to its critical one, which is determined by the temperature derivative of the VO{sub 2} emissivity and the equilibrium temperatures of the collector and emitter. This maximization ismore » the result of the presence of two bi-stable temperatures appearing during the heating and cooling processes of the VO{sub 2} base and enables a thermal switching (temperature jump) characterized by a sizeable variation of the collector-to-base and base-to-emitter heat fluxes associated with a slight change of the applied power to the base. This switching effect leads to the optimization of the amplification factor and therefore it could be used for thermal modulation purposes.« less

  1. Bilateral Comparison of Blackbodies for Clinical Infrared Ear Thermometers between NIMT and NMIJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoi, A.; Norranim, U.; Kaneko, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2014-04-01

    This article describes the results of the bilateral comparison of blackbodies for infrared ear thermometers (IRETs) between the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), NIMT, and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The purpose of this comparison was to ensure consistency of the national radiance temperature scales for IRETs maintained by NIMT and NMIJ. Results of the measurements indicate differences in radiance temperature within 10 mK with a maximum measurement uncertainty of 64 mK. The equivalence of the radiance temperature scales realized by both NIMT and NMIJ in the range of 35 C to 42 C for IRET calibration is indicated. The results of this bilateral comparison can be used in terms of quality assurance and validation of calibration.

  2. Fluctuations of radiative heat exchange between two bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biehs, S.-A.; Ben-Abdallah, P.

    2018-05-01

    We present a theory to describe the fluctuations of nonequilibrium radiative heat transfer between two bodies both in the far- and near-field regimes. As predicted by the blackbody theory, in the far field, we show that the variance of radiative heat flux is of the same order of magnitude as its mean value. However, in the near-field regime, we demonstrate that the presence of surface polaritons makes this variance more than one order of magnitude larger than the mean flux. We further show that the correlation time of heat flux in this regime is comparable to the relaxation time of heat carriers in each medium. This theory could open the way to an experimental investigation of heat exchanges far from the thermal equilibrium condition.

  3. Search for Linear Polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lubin, P. M.; Smoot, G. F.

    1978-10-01

    We present preliminary measurements of the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background (3 deg K blackbody) radiation. These ground-based measurements are made at 9 mm wavelength. We find no evidence for linear polarization, and set an upper limit for a polarized component of 0.8 m deg K with a 95% confidence level. This implies that the present rate of expansion of the Universe is isotropic to one part in 10{sup 6}, assuming no re-ionization of the primordial plasma after recombination

  4. Binding Energies of the Proton-Bound Amino Acid Dimers Gly·Gly, Ala·Ala, Gly·Ala, and Lys·Lys Measured by Blackbody Infrared Radiative Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Price, William D.; Schnier, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Arrhenius activation energies in the zero-pressure limit for dissociation of gas-phase proton-bound homodimers of N,N-dimethylacetamide (N,N-DMA), glycine, alanine, and lysine and the heterodimer alanine·glycine were measured using blackbody infrared radiative dissociation (BIRD). In combination with master equation modeling of the kinetic data, binding energies of these dimers were determined. A value of 1.25 ± 0.05 eV is obtained for N,N-DMA and is in excellent agreement with that reported in the literature. The value obtained from the truncated Boltzmann model is significantly higher, indicating that the assumptions of this model do not apply to these ions. This is due to the competitive rates of photon emission and dissociation for these relatively large ions. The binding energies of the amino acid dimers are ~1.15 ± 0.05 eV and are indistinguishable despite the difference in their gas-phase basicity and structure. The threshold dissociation energies can be accurately modeled using a range of dissociation parameters and absorption/emission rates. However, the absolute values of the dissociation rates depend more strongly on the absorption/emission rates. For N,N-DMA and glycine, an accurate fit was obtained using frequencies and transition dipole moments calculated at the ab initio RHF/2-31G* and MP2/2-31G* level, respectively. In order to obtain a similar accuracy using values obtained from AM1 semiempirical calculations, it was necessary to multiply the transition dipole moments by a factor of 3. These results demonstrate that in combination with master equation modeling, BIRD can be used to obtain accurate threshold dissociation energies of relatively small ions of biological interest. PMID:17235378

  5. Thermodynamic Laws of Neutrino and Photon Emission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, P. J.; Gallo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    Compares neutrino and photon emissions, develops the thermodynamic blackbody laws of neutrino emission analogous to laws governing photon emission, points out that combined radiation from a "true blackbody" consists of both photon and neutrino emissions of comparable magnitude, and speculates upon the existence of blackbody neutrino…

  6. Enhanced-Contrast Viewing of White-Hot Objects in Furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K.; Holmes, Richard R.; Kurtz, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus denoted a laser image contrast enhancement system (LICES) increases the contrast with which one can view a target glowing with blackbody radiation (a white-hot object) against a background of blackbody radiation in a furnace at a temperature as high as approximately 1,500 C. The apparatus utilizes a combination of narrowband illumination, along with band-pass filtering and polarization filtering to pass illumination reflected by the target while suppressing blackbody light from both the object and its background.

  7. MODIS On-Board Blackbody Function and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiaoxiong, Xiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Wu, Aisheng; Barnes, William

    2009-01-01

    Two MODIS instruments are currently in orbit, making continuous global observations in visible to long-wave infrared wavelengths. Compared to heritage sensors, MODIS was built with an advanced set of on-board calibrators, providing sensor radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization during on-orbit operation. For the thermal emissive bands (TEB) with wavelengths from 3.7 m to 14.4 m, a v-grooved blackbody (BB) is used as the primary calibration source. The BB temperature is accurately measured each scan (1.47s) using a set of 12 temperature sensors traceable to NIST temperature standards. The onboard BB is nominally operated at a fixed temperature, 290K for Terra MODIS and 285K for Aqua MODIS, to compute the TEB linear calibration coefficients. Periodically, its temperature is varied from 270K (instrument ambient) to 315K in order to evaluate and update the nonlinear calibration coefficients. This paper describes MODIS on-board BB functions with emphasis on on-orbit operation and performance. It examines the BB temperature uncertainties under different operational conditions and their impact on TEB calibration and data product quality. The temperature uniformity of the BB is also evaluated using TEB detector responses at different operating temperatures. On-orbit results demonstrate excellent short-term and long-term stability for both the Terra and Aqua MODIS on-board BB. The on-orbit BB temperature uncertainty is estimated to be 10mK for Terra MODIS at 290K and 5mK for Aqua MODIS at 285K, thus meeting the TEB design specifications. In addition, there has been no measurable BB temperature drift over the entire mission of both Terra and Aqua MODIS.

  8. Super-Planckian far-field radiative heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Hurtado, V.; Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.; Feist, J.; García-Vidal, F. J.; Cuevas, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    We present here a theoretical analysis that demonstrates that the far-field radiative heat transfer between objects with dimensions smaller than the thermal wavelength can overcome the Planckian limit by orders of magnitude. To guide the search for super-Planckian far-field radiative heat transfer, we make use of the theory of fluctuational electrodynamics and derive a relation between the far-field radiative heat transfer and the directional absorption efficiency of the objects involved. Guided by this relation, and making use of state-of-the-art numerical simulations, we show that the far-field radiative heat transfer between highly anisotropic objects can largely overcome the black-body limit when some of their dimensions are smaller than the thermal wavelength. In particular, we illustrate this phenomenon in the case of suspended pads made of polar dielectrics like SiN or SiO2. These structures are widely used to measure the thermal transport through nanowires and low-dimensional systems and can be employed to test our predictions. Our work illustrates the dramatic failure of the classical theory to predict the far-field radiative heat transfer between micro- and nanodevices.

  9. Biparametric complexities and generalized Planck radiation law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puertas-Centeno, David; Toranzo, I. V.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Complexity theory embodies some of the hardest, most fundamental and most challenging open problems in modern science. The very term complexity is very elusive, so the main goal of this theory is to find meaningful quantifiers for it. In fact, we need various measures to take into account the multiple facets of this term. Here, some biparametric Crámer-Rao and Heisenberg-Rényi measures of complexity of continuous probability distributions are defined and discussed. Then, they are applied to blackbody radiation at temperature T in a d-dimensional universe. It is found that these dimensionless quantities do not depend on T nor on any physical constants. So, they have a universal character in the sense that they only depend on spatial dimensionality. To determine these complexity quantifiers, we have calculated their dispersion (typical deviations) and entropy (Rényi entropies and the generalized Fisher information) constituents. They are found to have a temperature-dependent behavior similar to the celebrated Wien’s displacement law of the dominant frequency ν_max at which the spectrum reaches its maximum. Moreover, they allow us to gain insights into new aspects of the d-dimensional blackbody spectrum and the quantification of quantum effects associated with space dimensionality.

  10. Rectennas at optical frequencies: How to analyze the response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret

    2015-08-01

    Optical rectennas, antenna-coupled diode rectifiers that receive optical-frequency electromagnetic radiation and convert it to DC output, have been proposed for use in harvesting electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody source. The operation of these devices is qualitatively different from that of lower-frequency rectennas, and their design requires a new approach. To that end, we present a method to determine the rectenna response to high frequency illumination. It combines classical circuit analysis with classical and quantum-based photon-assisted tunneling response of a high-speed diode. We demonstrate the method by calculating the rectenna response for low and high frequency monochromatic illumination, and for radiation from a blackbody source. Such a blackbody source can be a hot body generating waste heat, or radiation from the sun.

  11. Hawking radiation from dilatonic black holes via anomalies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jiang Qingquan; Cai Xu; Wu Shuangqing

    2007-03-15

    Recently, Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild-type black hole via a gravitational anomaly at the horizon has been derived by Robinson and Wilczek. Their result shows that, in order to demand general coordinate covariance at the quantum level to hold in the effective theory, the flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel the gravitational anomaly at the horizon of the black hole is exactly equal to that of (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at the Hawking temperature. In this paper, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation from the event horizons of static, spherically symmetric dilatonic black holes withmore » arbitrary coupling constant {alpha}, and that from the rotating Kaluza-Klein ({alpha}={radical}(3)) as well as the Kerr-Sen ({alpha}=1) black holes via an anomalous point of view. Our results support Robinson and Wilczek's opinion. In addition, the properties of the obtained physical quantities near the extreme limit are qualitatively discussed.« less

  12. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment scanner radiometric calibration results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Gibson, M. A.; Thomas, Susan; Meekins, Jeffrey L.; Mahan, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanning radiometers are producing measurements of the incoming solar, earth/atmosphere-reflected solar, and earth/atmosphere-emitted radiation fields with measurement precisions and absolute accuracies, approaching 1 percent. ERBE uses thermistor bolometers as the detection elements in the narrow-field-of-view scanning radiometers. The scanning radiometers can sense radiation in the shortwave, longwave, and total broadband spectral regions of 0.2 to 5.0, 5.0 to 50.0, and 0.2 to 50.0 micrometers, respectively. Detailed models of the radiometers' response functions were developed in order to design the most suitable calibration techniques. These models guided the design of in-flight calibration procedures as well as the development and characterization of a vacuum-calibration chamber and the blackbody source which provided the absolute basis upon which the total and longwave radiometers were characterized. The flight calibration instrumentation for the narror-field-of-view scanning radiometers is presented and evaluated.

  13. Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Uncertainty: Pyrgeometers Compared to an Absolute Sky-Scanning Radiometer, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, and Radiative Transfer Model Calculations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Philipona, J. R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Stoffel, T.

    2001-06-04

    Because atmospheric longwave radiation is one of the most fundamental elements of an expected climate change, there has been a strong interest in improving measurements and model calculations in recent years. Important questions are how reliable and consistent are atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations and what are the uncertainties? The First International Pyrgeometer and Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer Comparison, which was held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Souther Great Plains site in Oklahoma, answers these questions at least for midlatitude summer conditions and reflects the state of the art for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations. The 15 participatingmore » pyrgeometers were all calibration-traced standard instruments chosen from a broad international community. Two new chopped pyrgeometers also took part in the comparison. And absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR), which includes a pyroelectric detector and a reference blackbody source, was used for the first time as a reference standard instrument to field calibrate pyrgeometers during clear-sky nighttime measurements. Owner-provided and uniformly determined blackbody calibration factors were compared. Remarkable improvements and higher pyrgeometer precision were achieved with field calibration factors. Results of nighttime and daytime pyrgeometer precision and absolute uncertainty are presented for eight consecutive days of measurements, during which period downward longwave irradiance varied between 260 and 420 W m-2. Comparisons between pyrgeometers and the absolute ASR, the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer models LBLRTM and MODTRAN show a surprisingly good agreement of <2 W m-2 for nighttime atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements and calculations.« less

  14. Shape-Independent Limits to Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Owen D.; Johnson, Steven G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2015-11-01

    We derive shape-independent limits to the spectral radiative heat transfer rate between two closely spaced bodies, generalizing the concept of a blackbody to the case of near-field energy transfer. Through conservation of energy and reciprocity, we show that each body of susceptibility χ can emit and absorb radiation at enhanced rates bounded by |χ |2/Im χ , optimally mediated by near-field photon transfer proportional to 1 /d2 across a separation distance d . Dipole-dipole and dipole-plate structures approach restricted versions of the limit, but common large-area structures do not exhibit the material enhancement factor and thus fall short of the general limit. By contrast, we find that particle arrays interacting in an idealized Born approximation (i.e., neglecting multiple scattering) exhibit both enhancement factors, suggesting the possibility of orders-of-magnitude improvement beyond previous designs and the potential for radiative heat transfer to be comparable to conductive heat transfer through air at room temperature, and significantly greater at higher temperatures.

  15. Solar Pumped, Alkali Vapor Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-04

    convert the solar radiation to electricity or longer wavelength blackbody radiation which is then used to power the laser. A directly pumped solar laser...wavelength blackbody radiation which is then used to power the laser. A directly pumped solar laser would utilize a portion of the solar spectrum to directly...sodium dimer (near the upper laser state) and a second body. *, I will review the method we used for measuring these rates and present preliminary

  16. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng, E-mail: hupeng@ustc.edu.cn; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-15

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principlemore » was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m{sup 2} with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.« less

  17. Infrared radiation scene generation of stars and planets in celestial background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng; Hong, Yaohui; Xu, Xiaojian

    2014-10-01

    An infrared (IR) radiation generation model of stars and planets in celestial background is proposed in this paper. Cohen's spectral template1 is modified for high spectral resolution and accuracy. Based on the improved spectral template for stars and the blackbody assumption for planets, an IR radiation model is developed which is able to generate the celestial IR background for stars and planets appearing in sensor's field of view (FOV) for specified observing date and time, location, viewpoint and spectral band over 1.2μm ~ 35μm. In the current model, the initial locations of stars are calculated based on midcourse space experiment (MSX) IR astronomical catalogue (MSX-IRAC) 2 , while the initial locations of planets are calculated using secular variations of the planetary orbits (VSOP) theory. Simulation results show that the new IR radiation model has higher resolution and accuracy than common model.

  18. Radiation energy receiver for laser and solar propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rault, D. F. G.; Hertzberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of remotely heating a rocket propellant with a high intensity radiant energy flux is especially attractive due to its high specific impulse and large payload mass capabilities. In this paper, a radiation receiver-thruster which is especially suited to the particular thermodynamic and spectral characteristics of highly concentrated solar energy is proposed. In this receiver, radiant energy is volumetrically absorbed within a hydrogen gas seeded with alkali metal vapors. The alkali atoms and molecules absorb the radiant flux and, subsequently, transfer their internal excitation to hydrogen molecules through collisional quenching. It is shown that such a radiation receiver would outperform a blackbody cavity type receiver in both efficiency and maximum operating temperatures. A solar rocket equipped with such a receiver-thruster would deliver thrusts of several hundred newtons at a specific impulse of 1000 seconds.

  19. Electromagnetic crystal based terahertz thermal radiators and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ziran

    This dissertation presents the investigation of thermal radiation from three-dimensional electromagnetic crystals (EMXT), as well as the development of a THz rapid prototyping fabrication technique and its application in THz EMXT components and micro-system fabrication and integration. First, it is proposed that thermal radiation from a 3-D EMXT would be greatly enhanced at the band gap edge frequency due to the redistribution of photon density of states (DOS) within the crystal. A THz thermal radiator could thus be built upon a THz EMXT by utilizing the exceptional emission peak(s) around its band gap frequency. The thermal radiation enhancement effects of various THz EMXT including both silicon and tungsten woodpile structures (WPS) and cubic photonic cavity (CPC) array are explored. The DOS of all three structures are calculated, and their thermal radiation intensities are predicted using Planck's Equation. These calculations show that the DOS of the silicon and tungsten WPS can be enhanced by a factor of 11.8 around 364 GHz and 2.6 around 406 GHz respectively, in comparison to the normal blackbody radiation at same frequencies. An enhancement factor of more than 100 is obtained in calculation from the CPC array. A silicon WPS with a band gap around 200 GHz has been designed and fabricated. Thermal emissivity of the silicon WPS sample is measured with a control blackbody as reference. And enhancements of the emission from the WPS over the control blackbody are observed at several frequencies quite consistent with the theoretical predictions. Second, the practical challenge of THz EMXT component and system fabrication is met by a THz rapid prototyping technique developed by us. Using this technique, the fabrications of several EMXTs with 3D electromagnetic band gaps in the 100-400 GHz range are demonstrated. Characterization of the samples via THz Time-domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) shows very good agreement with simulation, confirming the build accuracy of this

  20. Inference of relativistic electron spectra from measurements of inverse Compton radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, I. J. D.; Brown, J. C.

    1980-07-01

    The inference of relativistic electron spectra from spectral measurement of inverse Compton radiation is discussed for the case where the background photon spectrum is a Planck function. The problem is formulated in terms of an integral transform that relates the measured spectrum to the unknown electron distribution. A general inversion formula is used to provide a quantitative assessment of the information content of the spectral data. It is shown that the observations must generally be augmented by additional information if anything other than a rudimentary two or three parameter model of the source function is to be derived. It is also pointed out that since a similar equation governs the continuum spectra emitted by a distribution of black-body radiators, the analysis is relevant to the problem of stellar population synthesis from galactic spectra.

  1. High-temperature sensor instrumentation with a thin-film-based sapphire fiber.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuqing; Xia, Wei; Hu, Zhangzhong; Wang, Ming

    2017-03-10

    A novel sapphire fiber-optic high-temperature sensor has been designed and fabricated based on blackbody radiation theory. Metallic molybdenum has been used as the film material to develop the blackbody cavity, owing to its relatively high melting point compared to that of sapphire. More importantly, the fabrication process for the blackbody cavity is simple, efficient, and economical. Thermal radiation emitted from such a blackbody cavity is transmitted via optical fiber to a remote place for detection. The operating principle, the sensor structure, and the fabrication process are described here in detail. The developed high-temperature sensor was calibrated through a calibration blackbody furnace at temperatures from 900°C to 1200°C and tested by a sapphire crystal growth furnace up to 1880°C. The experimental results of our system agree well with those from a commercial Rayteck MR1SCCF infrared pyrometer, and the maximum residual is approximately 5°C, paving the way for high-accuracy temperature measurement especially for extremely harsh environments.

  2. Comparison of MODIS and VIIRS On-board Blackbody Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Jack; Butler, Jim; Wu, Aisheng; Chiang, Vincent; McIntire, Jeff; Oudari, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    MODIS has 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), covering wavelengths from 3.7 to 14.4 microns. MODIS TEBs are calibrated on-orbit by a v-grooved blackbody (BB) on a scan-by-scan basis. The BB temperatures are measured by a set of 12 thennistors. As expected, the BB temperature uncertainty and stability have direct impact on the quality of TEB calibration and, therefore, the quality of the science products derived from TEB observations. Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 12 and 10 years, respectively. Their on-board BB performance has been satisfactory in meeting the TEB calibration requirements. The first VIIRS, launched on-board the Suomi NPP spacecraft on October 28, 2011, has successfully completed its initial Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) phase. VIIRS has 7 thermal emissive bands (TEBs), covering wavelengths from 3.7 to 12.4 microns. Designed with strong MODIS heritage, VIIRS uses a similar BB for its TEB calibration. Like MODIS, VIIRS BB is nominally controlled at a pre-determined temperature (set point). Periodically, a BB Warm-Up and Cool-Down (WUCD) operation is performed, during which the BB temperatures vary from instrument ambient (temperature) to 315K. This paper examines NPP VIIRS BB on-orbit performance. It focuses on its BB temperature scan-to-scan variations at nominally controlled temperature as well as during its WUCD operation and their impact on TEB calibration uncertainty. Comparisons of VIIRS (NPP) and MODIS (Terra and Aqua) BB on-orbit performance and lessons learned for future improvements are also presented in this paper.

  3. Comparative Study of Two InGaAs-Based Reference Radiation Thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasibov, H.; Diril, A.; Pehlivan, O.; Kalemci, M.

    2017-07-01

    More than one decade ago, an InGaAs detector-based transfer standard infrared radiation thermometer working in the temperature range from 150 {^{circ }}\\hbox {C} to 1100 {^{circ }}\\hbox {C} was built at TUBITAK UME in the scope of collaboration with IMGC (INRIM since 2006). During this timescale, the radiation thermometer was used for the dissemination of the radiation temperature scale below the silver fixed-point temperature. Recently, a new radiation thermometer with the same design but with different spectral responsivity was constructed and employed in the laboratory. In this work, we present the comparative study of these thermometers. Furthermore, the paper describes the measurement results of the thermometer's main characteristics such as the size-of-source effect, spectral responsivity, gain ratio, and linearity. Besides, both thermometers were calibrated at the freezing temperatures of indium, tin, zinc, aluminum, and copper reference fixed-point blackbodies. The main study is focused on the impact of the spectral responsivity of thermometers on the interpolation parameters of the Sakuma-Hattori equation. Furthermore, the calibration results and the uncertainty sources are discussed in this paper.

  4. Radiation Entropy and Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation entropy was key to the original derivation of Planck's law of blackbody radiation, in 1900. This discovery opened the door to quantum mechanical theory and Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Thermal radiation plays an important role in incandescent lamps, solar energy utilization, temperature measurements, materials processing, remote sensing for astronomy and space exploration, combustion and furnace design, food processing, cryogenic engineering, as well as numerous agricultural, health, and military applications. While Planck's law has been fruitfully applied to a large number of engineering problems for over 100 years, questions have been raised about its limitation in micro/nano systems, especially at subwavelength distances or in the near field. When two objects are located closer than the characteristic wavelength, wave interference and photon tunneling occurs that can result in significant enhancement of the radiative transfer. Recent studies have shown that the near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, sub-wavelength light source, polariton-assisted nanolithography, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, scanning tunneling thermal microscopy, etc. The concept of entropy has also been applied to explain laser cooling of solids as well as the second law efficiency of devices that utilize thermal radiation to produce electricity. However, little is known as regards the nature of entropy in near-field radiation. Some history and recent advances are reviewed in this presentation with a call for research of radiation entropy in the near field, due to the important applications in the optimization of thermophotovoltaic converters and in the design of practical systems that can harvest photon energies efficiently.

  5. Giant Enhancement in Radiative Heat Transfer in Sub-30 nm Gaps of Plane Parallel Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, Anthony; Thompson, Dakotah; Zhu, Linxiao; Song, Bai; Reddy, Pramod; Meyhofer, Edgar

    2018-06-13

    Radiative heat transfer rates that exceed the blackbody limit by several orders of magnitude are expected when the gap size between plane parallel surfaces is reduced to the nanoscale. To date, experiments have only realized enhancements of ∼100 fold as the smallest gap sizes in radiative heat transfer studies have been limited to ∼50 nm by device curvature and particle contamination. Here, we report a 1,200-fold enhancement with respect to the far-field value in the radiative heat flux between parallel planar silica surfaces separated by gaps as small as ∼25 nm. Achieving such small gap sizes and the resultant dramatic enhancement in near-field energy flux is critical to achieve a number of novel near-field based nanoscale energy conversion systems that have been theoretically predicted but remain experimentally unverified.

  6. A new concept for solar pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach is proposed in which an intermediate body heated by sunlight is used as the pumping source for IR systems, i.e., concentration solar radiation is absorbed and reradiated via an intermediate blackbody. This body is heated by focused sunlight to a high temperature and its heat losses are engineered to be small. The cooled laser tube (or tubes) is placed within the cavity and is pumped by it. The advantage is that the radiation spectrum is like a blackbody at the intermediate temperature and the laser medium selectively absorbs this light. Focusing requirements, heat losses, and absorption bandwidths of laser media are examined, along with energy balance and potential efficiency. The results indicate that for lasers pumped through an IR absorption spectrum, the use of an intermediate blackbody offers substantial and important advantages. The loss in radiative intensity for optical pumping by a lower-temperature body is partly compensated by the increased solid angle of exposure to the radiative environment.

  7. Optical Line Radiation from Uranium Plasmas. Ph.D. Thesis; [for a gaseous core reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maceda, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The radiative energy current due to line radiation is calculated in a U 235 plasma over a temperature range of 5000 K to 8000 K. Also a variation in the neutron flux of 2 x 10 to the 12th power neutrons/ (sq cm-sec) to 2 x 10 to the 16th power neutrons/(sq cm-sec) is considered. The plasma forms a cylinder with a diameter and height of one meter. To calculate the radiative-energy current, a rate equation formalism is developed to solve for the atomic state densities along with a model for the energy levels in neutral and singly ionized uranium. Because the electron states in uranium lie below 5eV, recombination is the principle excitation mechanism. At and above 6000 K, inversions were found, and at all temperatures the line radiation at line center was greater than the corresponding black-body radiation. There are negligible differences in the radiative-energy current at 6000 K for variations in the neutron flux. The average opacity, which varied from 100 to 100,000 gm/sq cm, over the frequency range of line radiation is calculated.

  8. Radiative transfer in dusty nebulae. III - The effects of dust albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.; Dana, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of an albedo of internal dust, such as ionization structure and temperature of dust grain, were studied by the quasi-diffusion method with an iterative technique for solving the radiative heat transfer equations. It was found that the generalized on-the-spot approximation solution is adequate for most astrophysical applications for a zero albedo; for a nonzero albedo, the Eddington approximation is more accurate. The albedo increases the average energy of the diffuse photons, increasing the ionization level of hydrogen and heavy elements if the Eddington approximation is applied; the dust thermal gradient is reduced so that the infrared spectrum approaches blackbody spectrum with an increasing albedo.

  9. Effective emissivities of isothermal blackbody cavities calculated by the Monte Carlo method using the three-component bidirectional reflectance distribution function model.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a three-component bidirectional reflectance distribution function (3C BRDF) model consisting of diffuse, quasi-specular, and glossy components for calculation of effective emissivities of blackbody cavities and then investigates the properties of the new reflection model. The particle swarm optimization method is applied for fitting a 3C BRDF model to measured BRDFs. The model is incorporated into the Monte Carlo ray-tracing algorithm for isothermal cavities. Finally, the paper compares the results obtained using the 3C model and the conventional specular-diffuse model of reflection.

  10. Thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of five-dimensional rotating charged Goedel black holes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin; College of Science, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan, Hubei 430074

    2011-02-15

    We study the thermodynamics of Goedel-type rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional minimal supergravity. These black holes exhibit some peculiar features such as the presence of closed timelike curves and the absence of a globally spatial-like Cauchy surface. We explicitly compute their energies, angular momenta, and electric charges that are consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. Besides, we extend the covariant anomaly cancellation method, as well as the approach of the effective action, to derive their Hawking fluxes. Both the methods of the anomaly cancellation and the effective action give the same Hawking fluxes as those from the Planckmore » distribution for blackbody radiation in the background of the charged rotating Goedel black holes. Our results further support that Hawking radiation is a quantum phenomenon arising at the event horizon.« less

  11. The Big Bang, COBE, and the Relic Radiation of Creation (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Smoot, George [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-05-23

    Berkeley Lab's George Smoot won the 2006 Physics Nobel Prize, together with John Mather of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for "the discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." The anisotropy showed as small variations in the map of the early universe. This research looks back into the infant universe and provides a better understanding of the origin of galaxies and stars. The cosmic background radiation is a tool to understand the structure and history of the universe and the structure of space-time. These observations have provided increased support for the big bang theory of the universe's origin. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) NASA satellite, launched in 1989, carries instruments that measured various aspects of cosmic microwave background radiation, and produced the data for these compelling scientific results, which opened up a field that continues very actively today.

  12. The Big Bang, COBE, and the Relic Radiation of Creation (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Smoot, George

    Berkeley Lab's George Smoot won the 2006 Physics Nobel Prize, together with John Mather of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for "the discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." The anisotropy showed as small variations in the map of the early universe. This research looks back into the infant universe and provides a better understanding of the origin of galaxies and stars. The cosmic background radiation is a tool to understand the structure and history of the universe and the structure of space-time. These observations have provided increased support for the big bang theorymore » of the universe's origin. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) NASA satellite, launched in 1989, carries instruments that measured various aspects of cosmic microwave background radiation, and produced the data for these compelling scientific results, which opened up a field that continues very actively today.« less

  13. Tests of Exoplanet Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Challener, Ryan; DeLarme, Emerson; Cubillos, Patricio; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Austin; Garland, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric radiative transfer codes are used both to predict planetary spectra and in retrieval algorithms to interpret data. Observational plans, theoretical models, and scientific results thus depend on the correctness of these calculations. Yet, the calculations are complex and the codes implementing them are often written without modern software-verification techniques. In the process of writing our own code, we became aware of several others with artifacts of unknown origin and even outright errors in their spectra. We present a series of tests to verify atmospheric radiative-transfer codes. These include: simple, single-line line lists that, when combined with delta-function abundance profiles, should produce a broadened line that can be verified easily; isothermal atmospheres that should produce analytically-verifiable blackbody spectra at the input temperatures; and model atmospheres with a range of complexities that can be compared to the output of other codes. We apply the tests to our own code, Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) and to several other codes. The test suite is open-source software. We propose this test suite as a standard for verifying current and future radiative transfer codes, analogous to the Held-Suarez test for general circulation models. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  14. Two-Step Calibration of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer for High Temperature Measurement Using a Quartz Lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    There is no theoretical upper temperature limit for pyrometer application in temperature measurements. NASA Glenn's multiwavelength pyrometer can make measurements over wide temperature ranges. However, the radiation spectral response of the pyrometer's detector must be calibrated before any temperature measurement is attempted, and it is recommended that calibration be done at temperatures close to those for which measurements will be made. Calibration is a determination of the constants of proportionality at all wavelengths between the detector's output (voltage) and its input signals (usually from a blackbody radiation source) in order to convert detector output into radiation intensity. To measure high temperatures, the detectors are chosen to be sensitive in the spectral range from 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers. A blackbody furnace equilibrated at around 1000 C is often used for this calibration. Though the detector may respond sensitively to short wavelengths radiation, a blackbody furnace at 1000 C emits only feebly at very short wavelengths. As a consequence, the calibration constants that result may not be the most accurate. For pyrometry calibration, a radiation source emitting strongly at the short wavelengths is preferred. We have chosen a quartz halogen lamp for this purpose.

  15. Depopulation of metastable helium by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium ions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Augustovičová, L.; Soldán, P.; Kraemer, W. P., E-mail: pavel.soldan@mff.cuni.cz

    2014-02-10

    Depopulation of metastable He(2{sup 3}S) by radiative association with hydrogen and lithium ions is investigated using a fully quantal approach. Rate coefficients for spontaneous and stimulated radiative association of the HeH{sup +}, HeD{sup +}, and LiHe{sup +} molecular ions on the spin-triplet manifold are presented as functions of temperature considering the association to rotational-vibrational states of the lowest triplet electronic states a {sup 3}Σ{sup +} and b {sup 3}Σ{sup +} from the continuum states of the b {sup 3}Σ{sup +} electronic state. Evaluation of the rate coefficients is based on highly accurate quantum calculations, taking into account all possible state-to-statemore » transitions at thermal energies (for spontaneous association) or at higher background energies (stimulated association). As expected, calculations show that the rate coefficients for radiative association to the a state are several orders of magnitude larger than the one for the b state formation. A noticeable effect by blackbody background radiation on the radiative association is only obtained for the b → b process. Aspects of the formation and abundance of the metastable HeH{sup +}(a {sup 3}Σ{sup +}) in astrophysical environments are briefly discussed.« less

  16. The rank correlated SLW model of gas radiation in non-uniform media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovjov, Vladimir P.; Andre, Frederic; Lemonnier, Denis; Webb, Brent W.

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive theoretical development of possible reference approaches in modelling of radiation transfer in non-uniform gaseous media is developed within the framework of the Generalized SLW Model. The notion of absorption spectrum ;correlation; adopted currently for global methods in gas radiation is critically revisited and replaced by a less restrictive concept of rank correlated spectrum. Within this framework it is shown that eight different reference approaches are possible, of which only three have been reported in the literature. Among the approaches presented is a novel Rank Correlated SLW Model, which is distinguished by the fact that i) it does not require the specification of a reference gas thermodynamic state, and ii) it preserves the emission term in the spectrally integrated Radiative Transfer Equation. Construction of this reference model requires only two absorption line blackbody distribution functions, and subdivision into gray gases can be performed using standard quadratures. Consequently, this new reference approach appears to have significant advantages over all other methods, and is, in general, a significant improvement in the global modelling of gas radiation. All reference approaches are summarized in the present work, and their use in radiative transfer prediction is demonstrated for simple example cases. Further, a detailed rigorous theoretical development of the improved methods is provided.

  17. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulation of plasma formed on a surface by a megagauss field.

    PubMed

    Esaulov, A A; Bauer, B S; Makhin, V; Siemon, R E; Lindemuth, I R; Awe, T J; Reinovsky, R E; Struve, K W; Desjarlais, M P; Mehlhorn, T A

    2008-03-01

    Radiation magnetohydrodynamic modeling is used to study the plasma formed on the surface of a cylindrical metallic load, driven by megagauss magnetic field at the 1MA Zebra generator (University of Nevada, Reno). An ionized aluminum plasma is used to represent the "core-corona" behavior in which a heterogeneous Z-pinch consists of a hot low-density corona surrounding a dense low-temperature core. The radiation dynamics model included simultaneously a self-consistent treatment of both the opaque and transparent plasma regions in a corona. For the parameters of this experiment, the boundary of the opaque plasma region emits the major radiation power with Planckian black-body spectrum in the extreme ultraviolet corresponding to an equilibrium temperature of 16 eV. The radiation heat transport significantly exceeds the electron and ion kinetic heat transport in the outer layers of the opaque plasma. Electromagnetic field energy is partly radiated (13%) and partly deposited into inner corona and core regions (87%). Surface temperature estimates are sensitive to the radiation effects, but the surface motion in response to pressure and magnetic forces is not. The general results of the present investigation are applicable to the liner compression experiments at multi-MA long-pulse current accelerators such as Atlas and Shiva Star. Also the radiation magnetohydrodynamic model discussed in the paper may be useful for understanding key effects of wire array implosion dynamics.

  18. High-speed and on-chip graphene blackbody emitters for optical communications by remote heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Yusuke; Fukazawa, Yusuke; Amasaka, Yuya; Reckmann, Robin; Yokoi, Tomoya; Ishida, Kazuki; Kawahara, Kenji; Ago, Hiroki; Maki, Hideyuki

    2018-03-29

    High-speed light emitters integrated on silicon chips can enable novel architectures for silicon-based optoelectronics, such as on-chip optical interconnects, and silicon photonics. However, conventional light sources based on compound semiconductors face major challenges for their integration with a silicon-based platform because of their difficulty of direct growth on a silicon substrate. Here we report ultra-high-speed (100-ps response time), highly integrated graphene-based on-silicon-chip blackbody emitters in the near-infrared region including telecommunication wavelength. Their emission responses are strongly affected by the graphene contact with the substrate depending on the number of graphene layers. The ultra-high-speed emission can be understood by remote quantum thermal transport via surface polar phonons of the substrates. We demonstrated real-time optical communications, integrated two-dimensional array emitters, capped emitters operable in air, and the direct coupling of optical fibers to the emitters. These emitters can open new routes to on-Si-chip, small footprint, and high-speed emitters for highly integrated optoelectronics and silicon photonics.

  19. A Simple Geometrical Model for Calculation of the Effective Emissivity in Blackbody Cylindrical Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucas, Javier

    2015-03-01

    A simple geometrical model for calculating the effective emissivity in blackbody cylindrical cavities has been developed. The back ray tracing technique and the Monte Carlo method have been employed, making use of a suitable set of coordinates and auxiliary planes. In these planes, the trajectories of individual photons in the successive reflections between the cavity points are followed in detail. The theoretical model is implemented by using simple numerical tools, programmed in Microsoft Visual Basic for Application and Excel. The algorithm is applied to isothermal and non-isothermal diffuse cylindrical cavities with a lid; however, the basic geometrical structure can be generalized to a cylindro-conical shape and specular reflection. Additionally, the numerical algorithm and the program source code can be used, with minor changes, for determining the distribution of the cavity points, where photon absorption takes place. This distribution could be applied to the study of the influence of thermal gradients on the effective emissivity profiles, for example. Validation is performed by analyzing the convergence of the Monte Carlo method as a function of the number of trials and by comparison with published results of different authors.

  20. Plasmonically Enhanced Reflectance of Heat Radiation from Low-Bandgap Semiconductor Microinclusions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Janika; Thakore, Vaibhav; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2017-07-18

    Increased reflectance from the inclusion of highly scattering particles at low volume fractions in an insulating dielectric offers a promising way to reduce radiative thermal losses at high temperatures. Here, we investigate plasmonic resonance driven enhanced scattering from microinclusions of low-bandgap semiconductors (InP, Si, Ge, PbS, InAs and Te) in an insulating composite to tailor its infrared reflectance for minimizing thermal losses from radiative transfer. To this end, we compute the spectral properties of the microcomposites using Monte Carlo modeling and compare them with results from Fresnel equations. The role of particle size-dependent Mie scattering and absorption efficiencies, and, scattering anisotropy are studied to identify the optimal microinclusion size and material parameters for maximizing the reflectance of the thermal radiation. For composites with Si and Ge microinclusions we obtain reflectance efficiencies of 57-65% for the incident blackbody radiation from sources at temperatures in the range 400-1600 °C. Furthermore, we observe a broadbanding of the reflectance spectra from the plasmonic resonances due to charge carriers generated from defect states within the semiconductor bandgap. Our results thus open up the possibility of developing efficient high-temperature thermal insulators through use of the low-bandgap semiconductor microinclusions in insulating dielectrics.

  1. Absolute high spectral resolution measurements of surface solar radiation for detection of water vapour continuum absorption.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, T D; Coleman, M; Browning, H; Tallis, L; Ptashnik, I V; Shine, K P

    2012-06-13

    Solar-pointing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy offers the capability to measure both the fine scale and broadband spectral structure of atmospheric transmission simultaneously across wide spectral regions. It is therefore suited to the study of both water vapour monomer and continuum absorption behaviours. However, in order to properly address this issue, it is necessary to radiatively calibrate the FTIR instrument response. A solar-pointing high-resolution FTIR spectrometer was deployed as part of the 'Continuum Absorption by Visible and Infrared radiation and its Atmospheric Relevance' (CAVIAR) consortium project. This paper describes the radiative calibration process using an ultra-high-temperature blackbody and the consideration of the related influence factors. The result is a radiatively calibrated measurement of the solar irradiation at the ground across the IR region from 2000 to 10 000 cm(-1) with an uncertainty of between 3.3 and 5.9 per cent. This measurement is shown to be in good general agreement with a radiative-transfer model. The results from the CAVIAR field measurements are being used in ongoing studies of atmospheric absorbers, in particular the water vapour continuum.

  2. Tunability of the circadian action of tetrachromatic solid-state light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R.

    2015-01-01

    An approach to the optimization of the spectral power distribution of solid-state light sources with the tunable non-image forming photobiological effect on the human circadian rhythm is proposed. For tetrachromatic clusters of model narrow-band (direct-emission) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the limiting tunability of the circadian action factor (CAF), which is the ratio of the circadian efficacy to luminous efficacy of radiation, was established as a function of constraining color fidelity and luminous efficacy of radiation. For constant correlated color temperatures (CCTs), the CAF of the LED clusters can be tuned above and below that of the corresponding blackbody radiators, whereas for variable CCT, the clusters can have circadian tunability covering that of a temperature-tunable blackbody radiator.

  3. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ojanen, M.; Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M.

    MIKES is developing a measurement set-up for calibrating thermocouples in the temperature range 960 °C - 1500 °C. The calibration method is based on direct comparison of thermocouples and radiation thermometers. We have designed a graphite blackbody comparator cell, which is operated in a horizontal single-zone tube furnace. The cell includes two blackbody cavities for radiation temperature measurements. The cavities have openings on opposite sides of the cell, allowing simultaneous measurement with two radiation thermometers. The design of the comparator allows three thermocouples to be calibrated simultaneously. The thermocouples to be calibrated are inserted in thermometer wells around one ofmore » the measurement cavities. We characterize the blackbody comparator in terms of repeatability, temperature distribution and emissivity. Finally, we validate the uncertainty analysis by comparing calibration results obtained for type B and S thermocouples to the calibration results reported by Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP), and MIKES. The agreement in the temperature range 1000 °C - 1500 °C is within 0.90 °C, the average deviation being 0.17 °C.« less

  4. Some considerations for a method that simultaneously measures the temperature and emissivity of a metal in a high temperature furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuchi, Tohru; Furukawa, Tohru

    2004-12-01

    This article describes some considerations for designing a practical radiation thermometry system for a glossy metal moving through a high temperature furnace, such as a continuous annealing furnace. In order to accomplish this task, two problems must be solved. The emissivity compensation of an object must be calculated and the furnace's background radiation noise must be eliminated. The authors have proposed a method that uses the radiance's polarized directional properties to simultaneously measure the emissivity and temperature to solve the first problem and a technique using a pseudo-blackbody installed in the furnace to solve the second problem. During heating, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the emissivity and the ratio of p- and s-polarized radiances for metals. This characteristic has successfully led to the development of a method for simultaneously measuring the emissivity and temperature of metals regardless of a potential large change in emissivity. Introducing a pseudo-blackbody radiator into a furnace removes the background radiation noise. Moreover, the blackbody radiator supplies a constant reference radiance. This reference plays an important role in maintaining the principle of emissivity-compensated radiation thermometry inside the furnace. Experimental results have simultaneously measured the emissivity and temperature of stainless steel at 1300 K with errors of 12% and 0.96%, respectively. These values were attained even though the s-polarized emissivities change from 0.25 to 0.75 at a wavelength of 0.9 μm. These errors can be achieved by designing the apparatus to have a solid angle, the aperture of the pseudo-blackbody subtended by a measuring point of the specimen, of more than 0.02π steradians. The accuracy of this method is heavily dependent upon the specimen's surface roughness. The maximum surface roughness that allows for the successful utilization of this method is Ra=0.12 μm.

  5. Infrared cameras are potential traceable "fixed points" for future thermometry studies.

    PubMed

    Yap Kannan, R; Keresztes, K; Hussain, S; Coats, T J; Bown, M J

    2015-01-01

    The National physical laboratory (NPL) requires "fixed points" whose temperatures have been established by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS 90) be used for device calibration. In practice, "near" blackbody radiators together with the standard platinum resistance thermometer is accepted as a standard. The aim of this study was to report the correlation and limits of agreement (LOA) of the thermal infrared camera and non-contact infrared temporal thermometer against each other and the "near" blackbody radiator. Temperature readings from an infrared thermography camera (FLIR T650sc) and a non-contact infrared temporal thermometer (Hubdic FS-700) were compared to a near blackbody (Hyperion R blackbody model 982) at 0.5 °C increments between 20-40 °C. At each increment, blackbody cavity temperature was confirmed with the platinum resistance thermometer. Measurements were taken initially with the thermal infrared camera followed by the infrared thermometer, with each device mounted in turn on a stand at a fixed distance of 20 cm and 5 cm from the blackbody aperture, respectively. The platinum thermometer under-estimated the blackbody temperature by 0.015 °C (95% LOA: -0.08 °C to 0.05 °C), in contrast to the thermal infrared camera and infrared thermometer which over-estimated the blackbody temperature by 0.16 °C (95% LOA: 0.03 °C to 0.28 °C) and 0.75 °C (95% LOA: -0.30 °C to 1.79 °C), respectively. Infrared thermometer over-estimates thermal infrared camera measurements by 0.6 °C (95% LOA: -0.46 °C to 1.65 °C). In conclusion, the thermal infrared camera is a potential temperature reference "fixed point" that could substitute mercury thermometers. However, further repeatability and reproducibility studies will be required with different models of thermal infrared cameras.

  6. Time resolved analysis of Fermi gamma-ray bursts with fast-and slow-cooled synchrotron photon models

    DOE PAGES

    Burgess, J. M.; Preece, R. D.; Connaughton, V.; ...

    2014-02-27

    Time-resolved spectroscopy is performed on eight bright, long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) dominated by single emission pulses that were observed with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Fitting the prompt radiation of GRBs by empirical spectral forms such as the Band function leads to ambiguous conclusions about the physical model for the prompt radiation. Moreover, the Band function is often inadequate to fit the data. Therefore, the GRB spectrum is modeled with two emission components consisting of optically thin non-thermal synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons and, when significant, thermal emission from a jet photosphere, which is represented by a blackbody spectrum. Inmore » order to produce an acceptable fit, the addition of a blackbody component is required in five out of the eight cases. We also find that the low-energy spectral index α is consistent with a synchrotron component with α = –0.81 ± 0.1. This value lies between the limiting values of α = –2/3 and α = –3/2 for electrons in the slow- and fast-cooling regimes, respectively, suggesting ongoing acceleration at the emission site. The blackbody component can be more significant when using a physical synchrotron model instead of the Band function, illustrating that the Band function does not serve as a good proxy for a non-thermal synchrotron emission component. The temperature and characteristic emission-region size of the blackbody component are found to, respectively, decrease and increase as power laws with time during the prompt phase. Additionally, we find that the blackbody and non-thermal components have separate temporal behaviors as far as their respective flux and spectral evolutions.« less

  7. New Developments for Radiation Enhancements from Metal Surfaces by Using Nanoscale Materials in the Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Koji; Matsuda, Masami

    2017-12-01

    The enhancements of thermal radiations from the surfaces of devices are very important for electric machines to prevent from heating up and/or efficiency degradations. In this investigation, new applications of micro-scale membrane of Si, SiO2 etc. on the metal surfaces have been studied to cool down the temperature without breaking insulations of the devices by selecting materials. The modified black-body radiations were sensitively detected by thermisters with sub-second responses. The optimum membrane thicknesses were successfully determined by subtractions a of radiation intensities between those at membranes with and without membrane, respectively. We obtained the best cooling condition in SiO2 membrane with 20μmt for an Al-plate of 10cmx10cmx1mmt. Further, we observed the detaching/attaching processes of massive molecule clusters from the metal surface as a sudden change in temperature changes just like the noises in the detectors. A characteristic pattern of temperature change was observed in diatomite membranes during the cooling process in a temperature range between 200-50°C. These radiation phenomena as a function of temperature might be available as a molecular analysis on the metal surface.

  8. Structure and method for controlling the thermal emissivity of a radiating object

    DOEpatents

    DeSteese, John G.; Antoniak, Zenen I.; White, Michael; Peters, Timothy J.

    2004-03-30

    A structure and method for changing or controlling the thermal emissivity of the surface of an object in situ, and thus, changing or controlling the radiative heat transfer between the object and its environment in situ, is disclosed. Changing or controlling the degree of blackbody behavior of the object is accomplished by changing or controlling certain physical characteristics of a cavity structure on the surface of the object. The cavity structure, defining a plurality of cavities, may be formed by selectively removing material(s) from the surface, selectively adding a material(s) to the surface, or adding an engineered article(s) to the surface to form a new radiative surface. The physical characteristics of the cavity structure that are changed or controlled include cavity area aspect ratio, cavity longitudinal axis orientation, and combinations thereof. Controlling the cavity area aspect ratio may be by controlling the size of the cavity surface area, the size of the cavity aperture area, or a combination thereof. The cavity structure may contain a gas, liquid, or solid that further enhances radiative heat transfer control and/or improves other properties of the object while in service.

  9. Tiros IV Radiation Data Catalog and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunde, V. G.

    1963-01-01

    The TIROS IV Meteorological Satellite contains a medium resolution scanning radiometer. Two of the channels of this instrument are sensitive to reflected solar radiation and the remaining two respond to emitted thermal radiation from the earth and its atmosphere. The two thermal channels are calibrated in terms of equivalent blackbody temperatures, and the reflected solar radiation channels in terms of effective radiant emittances. The calibration data, along with orbital and attitude data and the radiation data from the satellite, were incorporated in a computer program for an IBM 7090 which was used to produce, in binary form, the "Final Meteorological Radiation Tape" which is the basic repository of all radiation data. After launch, the radiometer displaye d the same degradation of response characteristics as did its predecessors in TIROS II and TIROS III. The onset of degradation results in a departure of the data from the prelaunch laboratory calibration. The cause of degradation has not been determined, and the matter is still being studied at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Before work with the TIROS IV radiation data is attempted, an understanding of the radiometer, its calibration, and the problems encountered in the experiment, especially from response degradation, is essential. The instrumentation design, development work, and the calibrations herein described were performed by the Goddard Space Flight Center Staff, whereas the computer and programming efforts were carried out jointly by the staffs of the National Weather Satellite Center, U. S. Weather Bureau, and the Goddard Space Flight Center. In this Catalog-Manual, the radiometer an d its calibration, data processing, the "Final Meteorological Radiation Tape", the observed degradation patterns, and possible corrections for degradation are discussed. The Catalog-Manual also includes, in two forms, documentation of each orbit of successfully reduced radiation data acquired by TIROS IV. One method of

  10. Assessment of radiative feedback in climate models using satellite observations of annual flux variation.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Yoko; Manabe, Syukuro

    2013-05-07

    In the climate system, two types of radiative feedback are in operation. The feedback of the first kind involves the radiative damping of the vertically uniform temperature perturbation of the troposphere and Earth's surface that approximately follows the Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation. The second kind involves the change in the vertical lapse rate of temperature, water vapor, and clouds in the troposphere and albedo of the Earth's surface. Using satellite observations of the annual variation of the outgoing flux of longwave radiation and that of reflected solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere, this study estimates the so-called "gain factor," which characterizes the strength of radiative feedback of the second kind that operates on the annually varying, global-scale perturbation of temperature at the Earth's surface. The gain factor is computed not only for all sky but also for clear sky. The gain factor of so-called "cloud radiative forcing" is then computed as the difference between the two. The gain factors thus obtained are compared with those obtained from 35 models that were used for the fourth and fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment. Here, we show that the gain factors obtained from satellite observations of cloud radiative forcing are effective for identifying systematic biases of the feedback processes that control the sensitivity of simulated climate, providing useful information for validating and improving a climate model.

  11. Interaction of surface plasmon polaritons in heavily doped GaN microstructures with terahertz radiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Melentev, G. A., E-mail: gamelen@spbstu.ru; Shalygin, V. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.

    2016-03-07

    We present the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the surface plasmon polariton excitations in heavily doped GaN epitaxial layers. Reflection and emission of radiation in the frequency range of 2–20 THz including the Reststrahlen band were investigated for samples with grating etched on the sample surface, as well as for samples with flat surface. The reflectivity spectrum for p-polarized radiation measured for the sample with the surface-relief grating demonstrates a set of resonances associated with excitations of different surface plasmon polariton modes. Spectral peculiarities due to the diffraction effect have been also revealed. The characteristic features of themore » reflectivity spectrum, namely, frequencies, amplitudes, and widths of the resonance dips, are well described theoretically by a modified technique of rigorous coupled-wave analysis of Maxwell equations. The emissivity spectra of the samples were measured under epilayer temperature modulation by pulsed electric field. The emissivity spectrum of the sample with surface-relief grating shows emission peaks in the frequency ranges corresponding to the decay of the surface plasmon polariton modes. Theoretical analysis based on the blackbody-like radiation theory well describes the main peculiarities of the observed THz emission.« less

  12. Exploring Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer for Thermo-photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjeh, Yashar; Song, Bai; Sadat, Seid; Thompson, Dakotah; Fiorino, Anthony; Reddy, Pramod; Meyhofer, Edgar

    2014-03-01

    Understanding near-field radiative heat transfer (NFRHT) is critical for developing efficient thermo-photovoltaic devices. Theoretical predictions suggest that when the spatial separation of two parallel planes at different temperatures is less than their Wien's thermal wavelength, thermal transport via radiation can be greatly enhanced. The radiative heat flow across nanoscale gaps is predicted to be orders-of-magnitude higher than that given by Stefan-Boltzmann law, due to contribution of evanescent waves. In order to test these predictions, a novel experimental platform was designed and built enabling parallelization of two planar surfaces (50 μm by 50 μm) with 500 microradian resolution in their relative orientation. This platform was used to probe NFRHT between two planes and also between a plane and a sphere. It was found that, when a 50 μm diameter silica sphere was approximately 20 nm away from a 50 by 50 μm2 silica plane, a significant increase in radiative heat transfer coefficient was observed. This increase is 3 orders of magnitude higher than the value predicted by the blackbody limit. Other setups, including Au spheres and planes, and the plane-plane geometries are currently being investigated. 1) Army Research office (W911NF-12-1-0612), 2) NSF Thermal Transport Prcesses (CBET 1235691), 3) Center for Solar and Thermal Energy conversion, funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under award no. DE-SC0000957.

  13. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. II. Verifying Dust Surface Density, Dust Temperature, and Gas Mass Measurements With Modified Blackbody Fitting

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de

    We use a large data set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I of this series) to assess how observational techniques affect the measurement physical properties of star-forming regions. In this part of the series (Paper II), we explore the reliability of the measured total gas mass, dust surface density and dust temperature maps derived from modified blackbody fitting of synthetic Herschel observations. We find from our pixel-by-pixel analysis of the measured dust surface density and dust temperature a worrisome error spread especially close to star formation sites and low-density regions, where for those “contaminated” pixels the surface densitiesmore » can be under/overestimated by up to three orders of magnitude. In light of this, we recommend to treat the pixel-based results from this technique with caution in regions with active star formation. In regions of high background typical in the inner Galactic plane, we are not able to recover reliable surface density maps of individual synthetic regions, since low-mass regions are lost in the far-infrared background. When measuring the total gas mass of regions in moderate background, we find that modified blackbody fitting works well (absolute error: + 9%; −13%) up to 10 kpc distance (errors increase with distance). Commonly, the initial images are convolved to the largest common beam-size, which smears contaminated pixels over large areas. The resulting information loss makes this commonly used technique less verifiable as now χ {sup 2} values cannot be used as a quality indicator of a fitted pixel. Our control measurements of the total gas mass (without the step of convolution to the largest common beam size) produce similar results (absolute error: +20%; −7%) while having much lower median errors especially for the high-mass stellar feedback phase. In upcoming papers (Paper III; Paper IV) of this series we test the reliability of measured star formation rate with direct and indirect

  14. Collision and radiative processes in emission of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, B. M.

    2018-05-01

    The peculiarities of the spectroscopic properties of CO2 molecules in air due to vibration-rotation radiative transitions are analyzed. The absorption coefficient due to atmospheric carbon dioxide and other atmospheric components is constructed within the framework of the standard atmosphere model, on the basis of classical molecular spectroscopy and the regular model for the spectroscopy absorption band. The radiative flux from the atmosphere toward the Earth is represented as that of a blackbody, and the radiative temperature for emission at a given frequency is determined with accounting for the local thermodynamic equilibrium, a small gradient of the tropospheric temperature and a high optical thickness of the troposphere for infrared radiation. The absorption band model with an absorption coefficient averaged over the frequency and line-by-line model are used for evaluating the radiative flux from the atmosphere to the Earth which values are nearby for these models and are equal W m‑2 for the contemporary concentration of atmospheric CO2 molecules and W m‑2 at its doubled value. The absorption band model is not suitable to calculate the radiative flux change at doubling of carbon dioxide concentration because averaging over oscillations decreases the range where the atmospheric optical thickness is of the order of one, and just this range determines this change. The line-by-line method gives the change of the global temperature K as a result of doubling the carbon dioxide concentration. The contribution to the global temperature change due to anthropogenic injection of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, i.e. resulted from combustion of fossil fuels, is approximately 0.02 K now.

  15. Application and possible mechanisms of combining LLLT (low level laser therapy), infrared hyperthermia and ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Edward H.; Woo, Van H.; Harlin-Jones, Cheryl; Heselich, Anja; Frohns, Florian

    2014-02-01

    Benefit of concomitant infrared hyperthermia and low level laser therapy and ionizing radiation is evaluated in this study. The purpose/objectives: presentation with locally advanced bulky superficial tumors is clinically challenging. To enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy and IMRT (intensity-modulated radiation therapy) and/or electron beam therapy we have developed an inexpensive and clinically effective infrared hyperthermia approach that combines black-body infrared radiation with halogen spectrum radiation and discrete wave length infrared clinical lasers LLLT. The goal is to produce a composite spectrum extending from the far infrared to near infrared and portions of the visible spectrum with discrete penetrating wavelengths generated by the clinical infrared lasers with frequencies of 810 nm and/or 830 nm. The composite spectrum from these sources is applied before and after radiation therapy. We monitor the surface and in some cases deeper temperatures with thermal probes, but use an array of surface probes as the limiting safe thermal constraint in patient treatment while at the same time maximizing infrared entry to deeper tissue layers. Fever-grade infrared hyperthermia is produced in the first centimeters while non-thermal infrared effects act at deeper tissue layers. The combination of these effects with ionizing radiation leads to improved tumor control in many cancers.

  16. Relativistic Transformations of Light Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Using a photon-counting technique, finds the angular distribution of emitted and detected power and the total radiated power of an arbitrary moving source, and uses the technique to verify the predicted effect of the earth's motion through the cosmic blackbody radiation. (Author/GA)

  17. A Summary of Lightpipe Radiation Thermometry Research at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    During the last 10 years, research in light-pipe radiation thermometry has significantly reduced the uncertainties for temperature measurements in semiconductor processing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has improved the calibration of lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs), the characterization procedures for LPRTs, the in situ calibration of LPRTs using thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) test wafers, and the application of model-based corrections to improve LPRT spectral radiance temperatures. Collaboration with industry on implementing techniques and ideas established at NIST has led to improvements in temperature measurements in semiconductor processing. LPRTs have been successfully calibrated at NIST for rapid thermal processing (RTP) applications using a sodium heat-pipe blackbody between 700 °C and 900 °C with an uncertainty of about 0.3 °C (k = 1) traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Employing appropriate effective emissivity models, LPRTs have been used to determine the wafer temperature in the NIST RTP Test Bed with an uncertainty of 3.5 °C. Using a TFTC wafer for calibration, the LPRT can measure the wafer temperature in the NIST RTP Test Bed with an uncertainty of 2.3 °C. Collaborations with industry in characterizing and calibrating LPRTs will be summarized, and future directions for LPRT research will be discussed. PMID:27274914

  18. A Summary of Lightpipe Radiation Thermometry Research at NIST.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Benjamin K

    2006-01-01

    During the last 10 years, research in light-pipe radiation thermometry has significantly reduced the uncertainties for temperature measurements in semiconductor processing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has improved the calibration of lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs), the characterization procedures for LPRTs, the in situ calibration of LPRTs using thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) test wafers, and the application of model-based corrections to improve LPRT spectral radiance temperatures. Collaboration with industry on implementing techniques and ideas established at NIST has led to improvements in temperature measurements in semiconductor processing. LPRTs have been successfully calibrated at NIST for rapid thermal processing (RTP) applications using a sodium heat-pipe blackbody between 700 °C and 900 °C with an uncertainty of about 0.3 °C (k = 1) traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Employing appropriate effective emissivity models, LPRTs have been used to determine the wafer temperature in the NIST RTP Test Bed with an uncertainty of 3.5 °C. Using a TFTC wafer for calibration, the LPRT can measure the wafer temperature in the NIST RTP Test Bed with an uncertainty of 2.3 °C. Collaborations with industry in characterizing and calibrating LPRTs will be summarized, and future directions for LPRT research will be discussed.

  19. Total spectral distributions from Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broda, Bogusław

    2017-11-01

    Taking into account the time dependence of the Hawking temperature and finite evaporation time of the black hole, the total spectral distributions of the radiant energy and of the number of particles have been explicitly calculated and compared to their temporary (initial) blackbody counterparts (spectral exitances).

  20. External inverse-Compton emission from jetted tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-05-01

    The recent discoveries of Sw J1644+57 and Sw J2058+05 show that tidal disruption events (TDEs) can launch relativistic jets. Super-Eddington accretion produces a strong radiation field of order Eddington luminosity. In a jetted TDE, electrons in the jet will inverse-Compton scatter the photons from the accretion disc and wind (external radiation field). Motivated by observations of thermal optical-UV spectra in Sw J2058+05 and several other TDEs, we assume the spectrum of the external radiation field intercepted by the relativistic jet to be blackbody. Hot electrons in the jet scatter this thermal radiation and produce luminosities 1045-1048 erg s- 1 in the X/γ-ray band. This model of thermal plus inverse-Compton radiation is applied to Sw J2058+05. First, we show that the blackbody component in the optical-UV spectrum most likely has its origin in the super-Eddington wind from the disc. Then, using the observed blackbody component as the external radiation field, we show that the X-ray luminosity and spectrum are consistent with the inverse-Compton emission, under the following conditions: (1) the jet Lorentz factor is Γ ≃ 5-10; (2) electrons in the jet have a power-law distribution dN_e/dγ _e ∝ γ _e^{-p} with γmin ˜ 1 and p = 2.4; (3) the wind is mildly relativistic (Lorentz factor ≳ 1.5) and has isotropic-equivalent mass-loss rate ˜ 5 M⊙ yr- 1. We describe the implications for jet composition and the radius where jet energy is converted to radiation.

  1. A preliminary measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary spectrum is presented of the background radiation between 1 and 20/cm from regions near the north Galactic pole, as observed by the FIRAS instrument on the COBE satellite. The spectral resolution is 1/cm. The spectrum is well fitted by a blackbody with a temperature of 2.735 + or - 0.06 K, and the deviation from a blackbody is less than 1 percent of the peak intensity over the range 1-20/cm. These new data show no evidence for the submillimeter excess previously reported by Matsumoto et al. (1988) in the cosmic microwave background. Further analysis and additional data are expected to improve the sensitivity to deviations from a blackbody spectrum by an order of magnitude.

  2. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-09-01

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k = 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k = 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  3. Spectral shifting strongly constrains molecular cloud disruption by radiation pressure on dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reissl, Stefan; Klessen, Ralf S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Pellegrini, Eric W.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. We aim to test the hypothesis that radiation pressure from young star clusters acting on dust is the dominant feedback agent disrupting the largest star-forming molecular clouds and thus regulating the star-formation process. Methods: We performed multi-frequency, 3D, radiative transfer calculations including both scattering and absorption and re-emission to longer wavelengths for model clouds with masses of 104-107 M⊙, containing embedded clusters with star formation efficiencies of 0.009-91%, and varying maximum grain sizes up to 200 μm. We calculated the ratio between radiative and gravitational forces to determine whether radiation pressure can disrupt clouds. Results: We find that radiation pressure acting on dust almost never disrupts star-forming clouds. Ultraviolet and optical photons from young stars to which the cloud is optically thick do not scatter much. Instead, they quickly get absorbed and re-emitted by the dust at thermal wavelengths. As the cloud is typically optically thin to far-infrared radiation, it promptly escapes, depositing little momentum in the cloud. The resulting spectrum is more narrowly peaked than the corresponding Planck function, and exhibits an extended tail at longer wavelengths. As the opacity drops significantly across the sub-mm and mm wavelength regime, the resulting radiative force is even smaller than for the corresponding single-temperature blackbody. We find that the force from radiation pressure falls below the strength of gravitational attraction by an order of magnitude or more for either Milky Way or moderate starbust conditions. Only for unrealistically large maximum grain sizes, and star formation efficiencies far exceeding 50% do we find that the strength of radiation pressure can exceed gravity. Conclusions: We conclude that radiation pressure acting on dust does not disrupt star-forming molecular clouds in any Local Group galaxies. Radiation pressure thus appears unlikely to regulate the star

  4. Tympanic thermometer performance validation by use of a body-temperature fixed point blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machin, Graham; Simpson, Robert

    2003-04-01

    The use of infrared tympanic thermometers within the medical community (and more generically in the public domain) has recently grown rapidly, displacing more traditional forms of thermometry such as mercury-in-glass. Besides the obvious health concerns over mercury the increase in the use of tympanic thermometers is related to a number of factors such as their speed and relatively non-invasive method of operation. The calibration and testing of such devices is covered by a number of international standards (ASTM1, prEN2, JIS3) which specify the design of calibration blackbodies. However these calibration sources are impractical for day-to-day in-situ validation purposes. In addition several studies (e.g. Modell et al4, Craig et al5) have thrown doubt on the accuracy of tympanic thermometers in clinical use. With this in mind the NPL is developing a practical, portable and robust primary reference fixed point source for tympanic thermometer validation. The aim of this simple device is to give the clinician a rapid way of validating the performance of their tympanic thermometer, enabling the detection of mal-functioning thermometers and giving confidence in the measurement to the clinician (and patient!) at point of use. The reference fixed point operates at a temperature of 36.3 °C (97.3 °F) with a repeatability of approximately +/- 20 mK. The fixed-point design has taken into consideration the optical characteristics of tympanic thermometers enabling wide-angled field of view devices to be successfully tested. The overall uncertainty of the device is estimated to be is less than 0.1°C. The paper gives a description of the fixed point, its design and construction as well as the results to date of validation tests.

  5. Relationship between Hawking radiation and gravitational anomalies.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sean P; Wilczek, Frank

    2005-07-01

    We show that in order to avoid a breakdown of general covariance at the quantum level the total flux in each outgoing partial wave of a quantum field in a black hole background must be equal to that of a (1+1)-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature.

  6. Fabrication of a Cryogenic Terahertz Emitter for Bolometer Focal Plane Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, James; Brown, Ari; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A fabrication process is reported for prototype emitters of THz radiation, which operate cryogenically, and should provide a fast, stable blackbody source suitable for characterization of THz devices. The fabrication has been demonstrated and, at the time of this reporting, testing was underway. The emitter is similar to a monolithic silicon bolometer in design, using both a low-noise thermometer and a heater element on a thermally isolated stage. An impedance-matched, high-emissivity coat ing is also integrated to tune the blackbody properties. This emitter is designed to emit a precise amount of power as a blackbody spectrum centered on terahertz frequencies. The emission is a function of the blackbody temperature. An integrated resistive heater and thermometer system can control the temperature of the blackbody with greater precision than previous incarnations of calibration sources that relied on blackbody emission. The emitter is fabricated using a silicon- on-insulator substrate wafer. The buried oxide is chosen to be less than 1 micron thick, and the silicon device thickness is 1-2 microns. Layers of phosphorus compensated with boron are implanted into and diffused throughout the full thickness of the silicon device layer to create the thermometer and heater components. Degenerately doped wiring is implanted to connect the devices to wire-bondable contact pads at the edge of the emitter chip. Then the device is micromachined to remove the thick-handle silicon behind the thermometer and heater components, and to thermally isolate it on a silicon membrane. An impedance- matched emissive coating (ion assisted evaporated Bi) is applied to the back of the membrane to enable high-efficiency emission of the blackbody spectrum.

  7. Characterization of the 300 K and 700 K Calibration Sources for Space Application with the Bepicolombo Mission to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutschwager, B.; Driescher, H.; Herrmann, J.; Hirsch, H.; Hollandt, J.; Jahn, H.; Kuchling, P.; Monte, C.; Scheiding, M.

    2011-08-01

    The Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) onboard the European-Japanese space mission BepiColombo to Mercury will be launched in 2014. The MERTIS scientific objective is to identify rock-forming minerals and measure surface temperatures by infrared spectroscopy (7 μm to 14 μm) and spectrally unresolved infrared radiometry (7 μm to 40 μm). To achieve this goal, MERTIS utilizes two onboard infrared calibration sources, the MERTIS blackbody at 700 K (MBB7) and the MERTIS blackbody at 300 K (MBB3), together with deep space observations corresponding to 3 K. All three sources can be observed one after the other using a rotating mirror system. The leaders of the project MERTIS are the Westfälische University of Münster, institute for planetary investigation, Mr. Prof. Dr. H. Hiesinger (PI) and the DLR, Institute of Planetary Research Berlin-Adlershof, Mr. Dr. J. Helbert (CoPI). Both blackbody radiators have to fulfill the severe mass, volume, and power restrictions of MERTIS. The radiating area of the MBB3 is based on a structured surface with a high-emissivity space qualified coating. The relatively high emissivity of the coating was further enhanced by a pyramidal surface structure to values over 0.99 in the wavelength range from 5 μm to 10 μm and over 0.95 in the wavelength range from 10 μm to 30 μm. The MBB7 is based on a small commercially available surface emitter in a standard housing. The windowless emitter is an electrically heated resistor, which consists of a platinum structure with a blackened surface on a ceramic body. The radiation of the emitter is expanded and collimated through use of a parabolic mirror. The design requirements and the radiometric and thermometric characterization of these two blackbodies are described in this paper.

  8. Temporal intensity interferometry for characterization of very narrow spectral lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P. K.; Kurtsiefer, C.

    2017-08-01

    Some stellar objects exhibit very narrow spectral lines in the visible range additional to their blackbody radiation. Natural lasing has been suggested as a mechanism to explain narrow lines in Wolf-Rayet stars. However, the spectral resolution of conventional astronomical spectrographs is still about two orders of magnitude too low to test this hypothesis. We want to resolve the linewidth of narrow spectral emissions in starlight. A combination of spectral filtering with single-photon-level temporal correlation measurements breaks the resolution limit of wavelength-dispersing spectrographs by moving the linewidth measurement into the time domain. We demonstrate in a laboratory experiment that temporal intensity interferometry can determine a 20-MHz-wide linewidth of Doppler-broadened laser light and identify a coherent laser light contribution in a blackbody radiation background.

  9. Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation. Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1.8 x 10 to the -3rd/cm has been measured at 10.6 microns for a 9:1 CO2-He mixture at an oven temperature of about 1500 K, a gas temperature of about 400 K and a pressure of about 1 torr. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value.

  10. Two carrier temperatures non-equilibrium generalized Planck law for semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibelli, François; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2016-10-01

    Planck's law of radiation describes the light emitted by a blackbody. This law has been generalized in the past for the case of a non-blackbody material having a quasi Fermi-level splitting: the lattice of the material and the carriers are then considered in an isothermal regime. Hot carrier spectroscopy deals with carriers out of the isothermal regime, as their respective temperatures (THe ≠ THh) are considered to be different than that of the lattice (TL). Here we show that Fermi-Dirac distribution temperature for each type of carrier still determine an effective radiation temperature: an explicit relationship is given involving the effective masses. Moreover, we show how to determine, in principle with an additional approximation, the carrier temperatures (THe, THh) and the corresponding absolute electrochemical potentials from photoluminescence measurements.

  11. Experiments on the CMB Spectrum, Big Jets Model and Their Implications for the Missing Half of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Leonardo; Hsu, Jong-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Based on the limiting continuation of Lorentz-Poincaré invariance, we propose an alternative formulation of the generalized Planck distribution for inertial and noninertial frames. The Lorentz invariant Planck distribution law leads to a new physical interpretation of the dipole anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background. The Big Jets model predicts a distant `antimatter blackbody,' whose radiations could make 50% of the sky very slightly warmer than the isotropic CMB temperature TCMB with a cosine function. The other 50% of the sky has the same isotropic temperature TCMB. Thus, we could have a pseudo-dipole anisotropy because the microwaves emitted from the antimatter blackbody are totally absorbed by our matter blackbody. We suggest that accurate data of satellite experiments might be used to search for the pseudo-dipole anisotropy and the missing half of the antimatter universe.

  12. Measuring Earth's radiation imbalance with RAVAN: A CubeSat mission to measure the driver of global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, W. H.; Dyrud, L. P.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Lorentz, S. R.; Papadakis, S.; Summers, R. A.; Smith, A. W.; Wu, D. L.; Deglau, D. M.; Arnold, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth radiation imbalance (ERI) is the single most important quantity for predicting the course of climate change over the next century. It is also the single most important metric for any geo-engineering scheme. We review the current scientific understanding of ERI and present a recently funded CubeSat mission, the Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN), that will demonstrate an affordable, accurate radiometer that directly measures Earth-leaving fluxes of total and solar-reflected radiation. Coupled with knowledge of the incoming radiation from the Sun, RAVAN directly gives ERI. The objective of RAVAN is to demonstrate that a compact spaceborne radiometer that is absolutely accurate to NIST-traceable standards can be built for low cost. The key technologies that enable a radiometer with all these attributes are: a gallium fixed-point blackbody as a built-in calibration source and a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) absorber. VACNTs are the blackest known substance, making them ideal radiometer absorbers with order-of-magnitude improvements in spectral flatness and stability over the existing art. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory heritage 3U Multi-Mission Nanosat will host RAVAN, providing the reliability, agility, and resources needed. RAVAN will pave the way for a constellation Earth radiation budget mission that can provide the measurements needed to enable vastly superior predictions of future climate change.

  13. Just How Bright Is a Laser?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Baak, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to quantify the subjective sensation of brightness of the spot projected by a helium-neon laser and compares this with conventional sources of light. Provides an exercise in using the blackbody radiation formulas. (JRH)

  14. Calibration of High Heat Flux Sensors at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, A. V.; Tsai, B. K.; Gibson, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    An ongoing program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is aimed at improving and standardizing heat-flux sensor calibration methods. The current calibration needs of U.S. science and industry exceed the current NIST capability of 40 kW/m2 irradiance. In achieving this goal, as well as meeting lower-level non-radiative heat flux calibration needs of science and industry, three different types of calibration facilities currently are under development at NIST: convection, conduction, and radiation. This paper describes the research activities associated with the NIST Radiation Calibration Facility. Two different techniques, transfer and absolute, are presented. The transfer calibration technique employs a transfer standard calibrated with reference to a radiometric standard for calibrating the sensors using a graphite tube blackbody. Plans for an absolute calibration facility include the use of a spherical blackbody and a cooled aperture and sensor-housing assembly to calibrate the sensors in a low convective environment. PMID:27805156

  15. S-NPP VIIRS thermal emissive band gain correction during the blackbody warm-up-cool-down cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Taeyoung J.; Cao, Changyong; Weng, Fuzhong

    2016-09-01

    The Suomi National Polar orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) has onboard calibrators called blackbody (BB) and Space View (SV) for Thermal Emissive Band (TEB) radiometric calibration. In normal operation, the BB temperature is set to 292.5 K providing one radiance level. From the NOAA's Integrated Calibration and Validation System (ICVS) monitoring system, the TEB calibration factors (F-factors) have been trended and show very stable responses, however the BB Warm-Up-Cool-Down (WUCD) cycles provide detectors' gain and temperature dependent sensitivity measurements. Since the launch of S-NPP, the NOAA Sea Surface Temperature (SST) group noticed unexpected global SST anomalies during the WUCD cycles. In this study, the TEB Ffactors are calculated during the WUCD cycle on June 17th 2015. The TEB F-factors are analyzed by identifying the VIIRS On-Board Calibrator Intermediate Product (OBCIP) files to be Warm-Up or Cool-Down granules. To correct the SST anomaly, an F-factor correction parameter is calculated by the modified C1 (or b1) values which are derived from the linear portion of C1 coefficient during the WUCD. The F-factor correction factors are applied back to the original VIIRS SST bands showing significantly reducing the F-factor changes. Obvious improvements are observed in M12, M14 and M16, but corrections effects are hardly seen in M16. Further investigation is needed to find out the source of the F-factor oscillations during the WUCD.

  16. HELIOS: An Open-source, GPU-accelerated Radiative Transfer Code for Self-consistent Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Matej; Grosheintz, Luc; Mendonça, João M.; Grimm, Simon L.; Lavie, Baptiste; Kitzmann, Daniel; Tsai, Shang-Min; Burrows, Adam; Kreidberg, Laura; Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob L.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Heng, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    We present the open-source radiative transfer code named HELIOS, which is constructed for studying exoplanetary atmospheres. In its initial version, the model atmospheres of HELIOS are one-dimensional and plane-parallel, and the equation of radiative transfer is solved in the two-stream approximation with nonisotropic scattering. A small set of the main infrared absorbers is employed, computed with the opacity calculator HELIOS-K and combined using a correlated-k approximation. The molecular abundances originate from validated analytical formulae for equilibrium chemistry. We compare HELIOS with the work of Miller-Ricci & Fortney using a model of GJ 1214b, and perform several tests, where we find: model atmospheres with single-temperature layers struggle to converge to radiative equilibrium; k-distribution tables constructed with ≳ 0.01 cm-1 resolution in the opacity function (≲ {10}3 points per wavenumber bin) may result in errors ≳ 1%-10% in the synthetic spectra; and a diffusivity factor of 2 approximates well the exact radiative transfer solution in the limit of pure absorption. We construct “null-hypothesis” models (chemical equilibrium, radiative equilibrium, and solar elemental abundances) for six hot Jupiters. We find that the dayside emission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-43b are consistent with the null hypothesis, while the latter consistently underpredicts the observed fluxes of WASP-8b, WASP-12b, WASP-14b, and WASP-33b. We demonstrate that our results are somewhat insensitive to the choice of stellar models (blackbody, Kurucz, or PHOENIX) and metallicity, but are strongly affected by higher carbon-to-oxygen ratios. The code is publicly available as part of the Exoclimes Simulation Platform (exoclime.net).

  17. User's manual for CNVUFAC, the general dynamics heat-transfer radiation view factor program

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wong, R. L.

    CNVUFAC, the General Dynamics heat-transfer radiation veiw factor program, has been adapted for use on the LLL CDC 7600 computer system. The input and output have been modified, and a node incrementing logic was included to make the code compatible with the TRUMP thermal analyzer and related codes. The program performs the multiple integration necessary to evaluate the geometric black-body radiaton node to node view factors. Card image output that contains node number and view factor information is generated for input into the related program GRAY. Program GRAY is then used to include the effects of gray-body emissivities and multiplemore » reflections, generating the effective gray-body view factors usable in TRUMP. CNVUFAC uses an elemental area summation scheme to evaluate the multiple integrals. The program permits shadowing and self-shadowing. The basic configuration shapes that can be considered are cylinders, cones, spheres, ellipsoids, flat plates, disks, toroids, and polynomials of revolution. Portions of these shapes can also be considered.« less

  18. A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    PubMed

    de Bernardis P; Ade; Bock; Bond; Borrill; Boscaleri; Coble; Crill; De Gasperis G; Farese; Ferreira; Ganga; Giacometti; Hivon; Hristov; Iacoangeli; Jaffe; Lange; Martinis; Masi; Mason; Mauskopf; Melchiorri; Miglio; Montroy; Netterfield

    2000-04-27

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the Universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole Ipeak = (197 +/- 6), with an amplitude delta T200 = (69 +/- 8) microK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models.

  19. Protection layers on a superconducting microwave resonator toward a hybrid quantum system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lee, Jongmin, E-mail: jongmin.lee@sandia.gov; Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123; Park, Dong Hun, E-mail: leomac@umd.edu

    2015-10-07

    We propose a protection scheme of a superconducting microwave resonator to realize a hybrid quantum system, where cold neutral atoms are coupled with a single microwave photon through magnetic dipole interaction at an interface inductor. The evanescent field atom trap, such as a waveguide/nanofiber atom trap, brings both surface-scattered photons and absorption-induced broadband blackbody radiation which result in quasiparticles and a low quality factor at the resonator. A proposed multiband protection layer consists of pairs of two dielectric layers and a thin nanogrid conductive dielectric layer above the interface inductor. We show numerical simulations of quality factors and reflection/absorption spectra,more » indicating that the proposed multilayer structure can protect a lumped-element microwave resonator from optical photons and blackbody radiation while maintaining a reasonably high quality factor.« less

  20. The hottest planet.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Joseph; Luszcz, Statia; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake; Richardson, L Jeremy

    2007-06-07

    Of the over 200 known extrasolar planets, just 14 pass in front of and behind their parent stars as seen from Earth. This fortuitous geometry allows direct determination of many planetary properties. Previous reports of planetary thermal emission give fluxes that are roughly consistent with predictions based on thermal equilibrium with the planets' received radiation, assuming a Bond albedo of approximately 0.3. Here we report direct detection of thermal emission from the smallest known transiting planet, HD 149026b, that indicates a brightness temperature (an expression of flux) of 2,300 +/- 200 K at 8 microm. The planet's predicted temperature for uniform, spherical, blackbody emission and zero albedo (unprecedented for planets) is 1,741 K. As models with non-zero albedo are cooler, this essentially eliminates uniform blackbody models, and may also require an albedo lower than any measured for a planet, very strong 8 microm emission, strong temporal variability, or a heat source other than stellar radiation. On the other hand, an instantaneous re-emission blackbody model, in which each patch of surface area instantly re-emits all received light, matches the data. This planet is known to be enriched in heavy elements, which may give rise to novel atmospheric properties yet to be investigated.

  1. An Analysis of Recent Measurements of the Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Smoot, G.; Levin, S. M.; Witebsky, C.; De Amici, G.; Rephaeli, Y.

    1987-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the results of recent temperature measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). The observations for wavelengths longer than 0.1 cum are well fit by a blackbody spectrum at 2.74{+ or -}0.0w K; however, including the new data of Matsumoto et al. (1987) the result is no longer consistent with a Planckian spectrum. The data are described by a Thomson-distortion parameter u=0.021{+ or -}0.002 and temperature 2.823{+ or -}0.010 K at the 68% confidence level. Fitting the low-frequency data to a Bose-Einstein spectral distortion yields a 95% confidence level upper limit of 1.4 x 10{sup -2} on the chemical potential mu{sub 0}. These limits on spectral distortions place restrictions on a number of potentially interesting sources of energy release to the CMBR, including the hot intergalactic medium proposed as the source of the X-ray background.

  2. Towards the development of high temperature comparison artifacts for radiation thermometry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Teixeira, R. N.; Machin, G.; Orlando, A.

    This paper describes the methodology and first results of the development of high temperature fixed point artifacts of unknown temperature suitable for scale comparison purposes. This study is being undertaken at the Thermal Metrology Division of Inmetro, Brazil, as part of PhD studies. In this initial phase of the study two identical cobalt carbon eutectic cells were constructed and one doped with a known amount of copper. This was an attempt to achieve a controlled change in the transition temperature of the alloy during melting. Copper was chosen due to the relatively simple phase diagram it forms with carbon andmore » cobalt. The cobalt, in powder form, was supplied by Alfa Aesar at 99.998 % purity, and was mixed with carbon powder (1,9 % by weight) of 99.9999 % purity. Complete filling of the crucible took 6 steps and was performed in a vertical furnace with graphite heating elements, in an inert gas atmosphere. The temperature measurements were performed using a KE LP3 radiation thermometer, which was previously evaluated for spectral responsivity, linearity and size-of-source effect (SSE). During these measurements, the thermometer stability was periodically checked using a silver fixed point blackbody maintained in a three zone furnace. The main purpose of the first part of this study is to dope a series of Co-C blackbody with differing amounts of copper, in order to alter their temperatures whilst still retaining good melting plateau performance. The long-term stability of the adjusted transition temperatures will also be investigated. Other dopants will be studied as the research progresses, and thermo chemical modeling will be performed in an attempt to understand the change in temperature with dopant concentration and so help select suitable dopants in the future. The overall objective is to construct comparison artifacts that have good performance, in terms of plateau shape and long-term temperature stability, but with unknown temperatures. These can

  3. Investigation of advanced propulsion technologies: The RAM accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two principal areas of advanced propulsion investigated are the ram accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater. The concept of the ram accelerator is presented as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerothermodynamics research. The ram accelerator is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled in a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Combustion on and behind the projectile generates thrust which accelerates it to very high velocities. The acceleration can be tailored for the 'soft launch' of instrumented models. The distinctive reacting flow phenomena that have been observed in the ram accelerator are relevant to the aerothermodynamic processes in airbreathing hypersonic propulsion systems and are useful for validating sophisticated CFD codes. The recently demonstrated scalability of the device and the ability to control the rate of acceleration offer unique opportunities for the use of the ram accelerator as a large-scale hypersonic ground test facility. The flowing gas radiation receiver is a novel concept for using solar energy to heat a working fluid for space power or propulsion. Focused solar radiation is absorbed directly in a working gas, rather than by heat transfer through a solid surface. Previous theoretical analysis had demonstrated that radiation trapping reduces energy loss compared to that of blackbody receivers, and enables higher efficiencies and higher peak temperatures. An experiment was carried out to measure the temperature profile of an infrared-active gas and demonstrate the effect of radiation trapping. The success of this effort validates analytical models of heat transfer in this receiver, and confirms the potential of this approach for achieving high efficiency space power and propulsion.

  4. Plasma channel optical pumping device and method

    DOEpatents

    Judd, O.P.

    1983-06-28

    A device and method are disclosed for optically pumping a gaseous laser using blackbody radiation produced by a plasma channel which is formed from an electrical discharge between two electrodes spaced at opposite longitudinal ends of the laser. A preionization device which can comprise a laser or electron beam accelerator produces a preionization beam which is sufficient to cause an electrical discharge between the electrodes to initiate the plasma channel along the preionization path. The optical pumping energy is supplied by a high voltage power supply rather than by the preionization beam. High output optical intensities are produced by the laser due to the high temperature blackbody radiation produced by the plasma channel, in the same manner as an exploding wire type laser. However, unlike the exploding wire type laser, the disclosed invention can be operated in a repetitive manner by utilizing a repetitive pulsed preionization device. 5 figs.

  5. Localizing high-lying Rydberg wave packets with two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larimian, Seyedreza; Lemell, Christoph; Stummer, Vinzenz; Geng, Ji-Wei; Roither, Stefan; Kartashov, Daniil; Zhang, Li; Wang, Mu-Xue; Gong, Qihuang; Peng, Liang-You; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Baltuška, Andrius; Kitzler, Markus; Xie, Xinhua

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate control over the localization of high-lying Rydberg wave packets in argon atoms with phase-locked orthogonally polarized two-color laser fields. With a reaction microscope, we measure ionization signals of high-lying Rydberg states induced by a weak dc field and blackbody radiation as a function of the relative phase between the two-color fields. We find that the dc-field-ionization yield of high-lying Rydberg argon atoms oscillates with the relative two-color phase with a period of 2 π while the photoionization signal by blackbody radiation shows a period of π . Accompanying simulations show that these observations are a clear signature of the asymmetric localization of electrons recaptured into very elongated (low angular momentum) high-lying Rydberg states after conclusion of the laser pulse. Our findings thus open an effective pathway to control the localization of high-lying Rydberg wave packets.

  6. Activities of NIST (National Inst. of Standards and Technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Radiometric Physics Division of the NIST is responsible for the national standards in radiation thermometry, spectroradiometry, photometry, and spectrophotometry; dissemination of these standards by providing measurement services to customers requiring calibrations of the highest accuracy; and conducting fundamental and applied research to develop the scientific basis for future measurement services. Its relevance to EOS/TIR calibration includes calibrating unknown blackbody for radiance using a well-characterized NIST blackbody source by matching the radiant fluxes with an IR radiometer. The TIR Round Robin is used to verify the calibration of the sources that are used for the absolute radiometric calibration of the individual EOS sensors.

  7. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Small, IV, Ward; Celliers, Peter

    2004-01-27

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  8. Single-fiber multi-color pyrometry

    DOEpatents

    Small, IV, Ward; Celliers, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This invention is a fiber-based multi-color pyrometry set-up for real-time non-contact temperature and emissivity measurement. The system includes a single optical fiber to collect radiation emitted by a target, a reflective rotating chopper to split the collected radiation into two or more paths while modulating the radiation for lock-in amplification (i.e., phase-sensitive detection), at least two detectors possibly of different spectral bandwidths with or without filters to limit the wavelength regions detected and optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the sensitive areas of the detectors. A computer algorithm is used to calculate the true temperature and emissivity of a target based on blackbody calibrations. The system components are enclosed in a light-tight housing, with provision for the fiber to extend outside to collect the radiation. Radiation emitted by the target is transmitted through the fiber to the reflective chopper, which either allows the radiation to pass straight through or reflects the radiation into one or more separate paths. Each path includes a detector with or without filters and corresponding optics to direct and focus the radiation onto the active area of the detector. The signals are recovered using lock-in amplification. Calibration formulas for the signals obtained using a blackbody of known temperature are used to compute the true temperature and emissivity of the target. The temperature range of the pyrometer system is determined by the spectral characteristics of the optical components.

  9. The RAVAN CubeSat Mission: A Pathfinder for a New Measurement of Earth's Radiation Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, W.; Lorentz, S. R.; Huang, P. M.; Smith, A. W.; Deglau, D.; Reynolds, E.; Carvo, J.; Papadakis, S.; Wu, D. L.; Wiscombe, W. J.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat is a pathfinder for a constellation to measure the Earth's radiation imbalance (ERI), which is the single most important quantity for predicting the course of climate change over the next century. RAVAN demonstrates a small, accurate radiometer that measures top-of-the-atmosphere Earth-leaving fluxes of total and solar-reflected radiation. Coupled with knowledge of the incoming radiation from the Sun, a constellation of such measurements would aim to determine ERI directly. Our objective with RAVAN is to establish that a compact radiometer that is absolutely calibrated to climate accuracy can be built and operated in space for low cost. The radiometer, hosted on a 3U CubeSat, relies on two key technologies. The first is the use of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) as the radiometer absorber. VACNT forests are some of the blackest materials known and have an extremely flat spectral response over a wide wavelength range. The second key technology is a gallium fixed-point blackbody calibration source, embedded in RAVAN's sensor head contamination cover, that serves as a stable and repeatable reference to track the long-term degradation of the sensor. Absolute calibration is also maintained by regular solar and deep space views. We present the scientific motivation for the NASA-funded mission, design and characterization of the spacecraft, and mission operations concept. Pending a successful launch in fall 2016, we will also present the first results on-orbit. RAVAN will help enable the development of an Earth radiation budget constellation mission that can provide the measurements needed for superior predictions of future climate change.

  10. Dual-Mode Operation of an Optical Lattice Clock Using Strontium and Ytterbium Atoms.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takumi; Hisai, Yusuke; Tanabe, Takehiko; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Yasuda, Masami; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2018-06-01

    We have developed an optical lattice clock that can operate in dual modes: a strontium (Sr) clock mode and an ytterbium (Yb) clock mode. Dual-mode operation of the Sr-Yb optical lattice clock is achieved by alternately cooling and trapping 87 Sr and 171 Yb atoms inside the vacuum chamber of the clock. Optical lattices for Sr and Yb atoms were arranged with horizontal and vertical configurations, respectively, resulting in a small distance of the order of between the trapped Sr and Yb atoms. The 1 S 0 - 3 P 0 clock transitions in the trapped atoms were interrogated in turn and the clock lasers were stabilized to the transitions. We demonstrated the frequency ratio measurement of the Sr and Yb clock transitions by using the dual-mode operation of the Sr-Yb optical lattice clock. The dual-mode operation can reduce the uncertainty of the blackbody radiation shift in the frequency ratio measurement, because both Sr and Yb atoms share the same blackbody radiation.

  11. Scientific results from COBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Murdock, T. L.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) carries three scientific instruments to make precise measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales greater than 7 deg and to conduct a search for a diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation with 0.7 deg angular resolution. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the CMB is that of a blackbody of temperature T = 2.73 +/- 0.06 K, with no deviation from a blackbody spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The first year of data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant CMB anisotropy. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Infrared sky brightness measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservative upper limits to the CIB. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the CIB limits.

  12. Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer

    DOE PAGES

    Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; ...

    2011-10-24

    Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. Themore » radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.« less

  13. The Scaled SLW model of gas radiation in non-uniform media based on Planck-weighted moments of gas absorption cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovjov, Vladimir P.; Andre, Frederic; Lemonnier, Denis; Webb, Brent W.

    2018-02-01

    The Scaled SLW model for prediction of radiation transfer in non-uniform gaseous media is presented. The paper considers a new approach for construction of a Scaled SLW model. In order to maintain the SLW method as a simple and computationally efficient engineering method special attention is paid to explicit non-iterative methods of calculation of the scaling coefficient. The moments of gas absorption cross-section weighted by the Planck blackbody emissive power (in particular, the first moment - Planck mean, and first inverse moment - Rosseland mean) are used as the total characteristics of the absorption spectrum to be preserved by scaling. Generalized SLW modelling using these moments including both discrete gray gases and the continuous formulation is presented. Application of line-by-line look-up table for corresponding ALBDF and inverse ALBDF distribution functions (such that no solution of implicit equations is needed) ensures that the method is flexible and efficient. Predictions for radiative transfer using the Scaled SLW model are compared to line-by-line benchmark solutions, and predictions using the Rank Correlated SLW model and SLW Reference Approach. Conclusions and recommendations regarding application of the Scaled SLW model are made.

  14. Camouflage in thermal IR: spectral design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Anna; Fagerström, Jan; Kariis, Hans; Lindell, Roland; Hallberg, Tomas; Högström, Herman

    2016-10-01

    In this work a spectral designed coating from SPECTROGON is evaluated. Spectral design in this case means that the coating has a reflectivity equal to one at 3-5 and 8-12 microns were sensors operate and a much lower reflectivity in the other wave length regions. Three boxes are evaluated: one metallic, one black-body and one with a spectral designed surface, all with a 15 W radiator inside the box. It is shown that the box with the spectral designed surface can combine the two good characteristics of the other boxes: low signature from the metallic box and reasonable inside temperature from the black-body box. The measurements were verified with calculations using RadThermIR.

  15. Time-Dependent Thermal Transport Theory.

    PubMed

    Biele, Robert; D'Agosta, Roberto; Rubio, Angel

    2015-07-31

    Understanding thermal transport in nanoscale systems presents important challenges to both theory and experiment. In particular, the concept of local temperature at the nanoscale appears difficult to justify. Here, we propose a theoretical approach where we replace the temperature gradient with controllable external blackbody radiations. The theory recovers known physical results, for example, the linear relation between the thermal current and the temperature difference of two blackbodies. Furthermore, our theory is not limited to the linear regime and goes beyond accounting for nonlinear effects and transient phenomena. Since the present theory is general and can be adapted to describe both electron and phonon dynamics, it provides a first step toward a unified formalism for investigating thermal and electronic transport.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variabilities of Solar and Longwave Radiation Fluxes below a Coniferous Forest in the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicart, J. E.; Ramseyer, V.; Lejeune, Y.; Essery, R.; Webster, C.; Rutter, N.

    2017-12-01

    At high altitudes and latitudes, snow has a large influence on hydrological processes. Large fractions of these regions are covered by forests, which have a strong influence on snow accumulation and melting processes. Trees absorb a large part of the incoming shortwave radiation and this heat load is mostly dissipated as longwave radiation. Trees shelter the snow surface from wind, so sub-canopy snowmelt depends mainly on the radiative fluxes: vegetation attenuates the transmission of shortwave radiation but enhances longwave irradiance to the surface. An array of 13 pyranometers and 11 pyrgeometers was deployed on the snow surface below a coniferous forest at the CEN-MeteoFrance Col de Porte station in the French Alps (1325 m asl) during the 2017 winter in order to investigate spatial and temporal variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances in different meteorological conditions. Sky view factors measured with hemispherical photographs at each radiometer location were in a narrow range from 0.2 to 0.3. The temperature of the vegetation was measured with IR thermocouples and an IR camera. In clear sky conditions, the attenuation of solar radiation by the canopy reached 96% and its spatial variability exceeded 100 W m-2. Longwave irradiance varied by 30 W m-2 from dense canopy to gap areas. In overcast conditions, the spatial variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances were reduced and remained closely related to the sky view factor. A simple radiative model taking into account the penetration through the canopy of the direct and diffuse solar radiation, and isotropic infrared emission of the vegetation as a blackbody emitter, accurately reproduced the dynamics of the radiation fluxes at the snow surface. Model results show that solar transmissivity of the canopy in overcast conditions is an excellent proxy of the sky view factor and the emitting temperature of the vegetation remained close to the air temperature in this typically dense Alpine forest.

  17. Crucial Experiments in Quantum Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigg, George L.

    The six experiments included in this monography are titled Blackbody Radiation, Collision of Electrons with Atoms, The Photoelectric Effect, Magnetic Properties of Atoms, The Scattering of X-Rays, and Diffraction of Electrons by a Crystal Lattice. The discussion provides historical background by giving description of the original experiments and…

  18. Characterization of a quantum cascade laser-based emissivity monitor for CORSAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lwin, Maung; Wojcik, Michael; Latvakoski, Harri; Scott, Deron; Watson, Mike; Marchant, Alan; Topham, Shane; Mlynczak, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Continuous improvements of quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology have extended the applications in environmental trace gas monitoring, mid-infrared spectroscopy in medicine and life science, law enforcement and homeland security and satellite sensor systems. We present the QCL based emissivity monitor for the CORSAIR blackbody. The emissivity of the blackbody was designed to be better than 0.9999 for the spectral range between 5 to 50μm. To actively monitor changes in blackbody emissivity we employ a QCL-based infrared illumination source. The illumination source consisted of a QCL and thermoelectric cooler (TEC) unit mounted on a copper fixture. The stability of the QCL was measured for 30, 60, and 90s operation time at 1.5A driving current. The temperature distribution along the laser mounting fixture and time dependent system heat dispersion were analyzed. The results were compared to radiative and conductive heat transfer models to define the potential laser operating time and required waiting time to return to initial temperature of the laser mount. The observed cooling behaviour is consistent with a primarily conductive heat transfer mechanism.

  19. Ground-based remote sensing of thin clouds in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.; Zhao, C.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a method for using interferometer measurements of downwelling thermal radiation to retrieve the properties of single-layer clouds. Cloud phase is determined from ratios of thermal emission in three "micro-windows" where absorption by water vapor is particularly small. Cloud microphysical and optical properties are retrieved from thermal emission in two micro-windows, constrained by the transmission through clouds of stratospheric ozone emission. Assuming a cloud does not approximate a blackbody, the estimated 95% confidence retrieval errors in effective radius, visible optical depth, number concentration, and water path are, respectively, 10%, 20%, 38% (55% for ice crystals), and 16%. Applied to data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) North Slope of Alaska - Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA-AAO) site near Barrow, Alaska, retrievals show general agreement with ground-based microwave radiometer measurements of liquid water path. Compared to other retrieval methods, advantages of this technique include its ability to characterize thin clouds year round, that water vapor is not a primary source of retrieval error, and that the retrievals of microphysical properties are only weakly sensitive to retrieved cloud phase. The primary limitation is the inapplicability to thicker clouds that radiate as blackbodies.

  20. Principal Component Noise Filtering for NAST-I Radiometric Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed- Interferometer (NAST-I) instrument is a high-resolution scanning interferometer that measures emitted thermal radiation between 3.3 and 18 microns. The NAST-I radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient and hot temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes a principal component (PC) noise filter to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, further improve the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy. To test the procedure and estimate the PC filter noise performance, we form dependent and independent test samples using odd and even sets of blackbody spectra. To determine the optimal number of eigenvectors, the PC filter algorithm is applied to both dependent and independent blackbody spectra with a varying number of eigenvectors. The optimal number of PCs is selected so that the total root-mean-square (RMS) error is minimized. To estimate the filter noise performance, we examine four different scenarios: apply PC filtering to both dependent and independent datasets, apply PC filtering to dependent calibration data only, apply PC filtering to independent data only, and no PC filters. The independent blackbody radiances are predicted for each case and comparisons are made. The results show significant reduction in noise in the final calibrated radiances with the implementation of the PC filtering algorithm.

  1. Thermal emission and absorption of radiation in finite inverted-opal photonic crystals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Florescu, Marian; Stimpson, Andrew J.; Lee, Hwang

    We study theoretically the optical properties of a finite inverted-opal photonic crystal. The light-matter interaction is strongly affected by the presence of the three-dimensional photonic crystal and the alterations of the light emission and absorption processes can be used to suppress or enhance the thermal emissivity and absorptivity of the dielectric structure. We investigate the influence of the absorption present in the system on the relevant band edge frequencies that control the optical response of the photonic crystal. Our study reveals that the absorption processes cause spectral broadening and shifting of the band edge optical resonances, and determine a strongmore » reduction of the photonic band gap spectral range. Using the angular and spectral dependence of the band edge frequencies for stop bands along different directions, we argue that by matching the blackbody emission spectrum peak with a prescribed maximum of the absorption coefficient, it is possible to achieve an angle-sensitive enhancement of the thermal emission/absorption of radiation. This result opens a way to realize a frequency-sensitive and angle-sensitive photonic crystal absorbers/emitters.« less

  2. Response of a piezoelectric pressure transducer to IR laser beam impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William C.; Leiweke, Robert J.; Beeson, Harold

    1992-01-01

    The non-pressure response of a PCB Model 113A transducer to a far infrared radiation impulse from a carbon dioxide laser was investigated. Incident radiation was applied both to the bare transducer diaphragm and to coated diaphragms. Coatings included two common ablative materials and a reflective gold coating. High-flux radiation impulses induced an immediate brief negative output followed by a longer-duration positive output. Both timing and amplitude of the responses will be discussed, and the effects of coatings will be compared. Bursts of blackbody radiation from a 1500 K source produced qualitatively similar responses.

  3. Smoot Cosmology Group

    Science.gov Websites

    History of COBE project Structure in the COBE differential microwave radiometer first-year maps. Smoot, et (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) CMB satellite 5 year data papers Introduction NASA's COBE (Cosmic compare the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation with that from a precise blackbody. Data

  4. Probing Planck's Law at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

  5. On Radiative Factors in Planetary Rings: New Insight Derived from Cassini CIRS Observations at Saturn Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spilker, L. J.; Pilorz, S.; Edgington, S. G.; Deau, E.; Morishima, R.

    2012-12-01

    Since arriving at Saturn in 2004, Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded tens of millions of spectra of Saturn's rings (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation (16.7-1000 microns) at focal plane 1 (FP1). Thermal emission from Saturn's rings peaks at FP1 wavelengths. CIRS spectra are well characterized as blackbody emission at an effective temperature Te, multiplied by a scalar factor related to ring emissivity (Spilker et al. [2005, 2006]). CIRS can therefore characterize the rings' temperature and study the thermal environment to which the ring particles are subject. We focus on CIRS data from the 2009 Saturnian equinox. As the Sun's disk crossed the ring plane, CIRS obtained several radial scans of the rings at a variety of phase angles, local hour angles and distances. With the Sun's rays striking the rings at an incidence angle of zero, solar heating is virtually absent, and thermal radiation from Saturn and sunlight reflected by Saturn dominate the thermal environment. These observations appear to present a paradox. Equinox data show that the flux of thermal energy radiated by the rings can even exceed the energy incident upon them as prescribed by thermal models, particularly in the C ring and Cassini Division (Ferrari and Leyrat [2006], Morishima et al. [2009, 2010]). Conservation principles suggest that such models underestimate heating of the rings in these cases, as it is clearly unphysical for the rings to radiate significantly more energy than is incident upon them. In this presentation, we will describe our efforts to resolve this paradox and determine what doing so can teach us about Saturn's rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  6. Collimated thermal radiation transfer via half Maxwell's fish-eye lens for thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Haejun; Zhou, Zhiguang; Bermel, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) convert heat into electricity by capturing thermal radiation with a photovoltaic (PV) cell, ideally at efficiencies of 50% or more. However, excess heating of the PV cell from close proximity to the emitter substantially reduces the system efficiency. In this work, we theoretically develop and numerically demonstrate an approach to fundamentally improving TPV systems that allow for a much greater separation of an emitter and a receiver. Thus, we solve the excess heating dilemma, required for achieving theoretically high efficiencies. It consists of a spherically graded index lens known as Maxwell's Fish-Eye (MFE) structure, capable of collimating hemispherical emission into a much narrower range of angles, close to the normal direction. To fully characterize the power radiation profile of the MFE, we perform finite-difference time-domain simulations for a quarter MFE and then map it onto a Gaussian beam approximation. The modeled beam properties are subsequently used to study a half MFE. In an optimized half MFE design, 90% of all thermal photons reach a receiver at a distance of 100 λ; by comparison, only 15.6% of a blackbody emitter reach a receiver in the same geometry. It is also shown that the emission achieved by a half MFE can lead to a photon recycling rate above 95% for below bandgap photons at an emitter-receiver separation of 100 λ. By applying a half MFE, the absolute TPV efficiency can be improved from 5.74% to 37.15%, which represents a significant step forward in realizing high-efficiency TPV systems.

  7. Cryogenic fountain development at NIST and INRIM: preliminary characterization.

    PubMed

    Levi, Filippo; Calosso, Claudio; Calonico, Davide; Lorini, Luca; Bertacco, Elio K; Godone, Aldo; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Mongino, Barbara; Jefferts, Steven R; Heavner, Thomas P; Donley, Elizabeth A

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the new twin laser-cooled Cs fountain primary frequency standards NIST-F2 and ITCsF2, and presents some of their design features. Most significant is a cryogenic microwave interrogation region which dramatically reduces the blackbody radiation shift. We also present a preliminary accuracy evaluation of IT-CsF2.

  8. Clearing the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staehling, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a lesson on the greenhouse effect in which students explore blackbody radiation and Wien's law. The lesson, which has been tested in a variety of high school physics classrooms, uses probeware and online simulations and combines two well-established instructional strategies: the 5E Learning Cycle (Bybee et al. 2006) and the…

  9. Blackbody material

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Trivelpiece, Alvin W.

    1994-01-01

    A light emitting article comprises a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light emitting composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  10. Laboratory simulation of photoionized plasma among astronomical compact objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Wang, Feilu; Salzmann, David; Li, Yutong; Rhee, Yong-Joo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Takabe, Hideaki; Mima, Kunioki

    2008-11-01

    X-ray line emission with several-keV of photon energy was observed from photoionized accreting clouds, for example CYGNUS X-3 and VELA X-1, those are exposed by hard x-ray continuum from the compact objects, such as neutron stars, black holes, or white dwarfs, although accreting clouds are thermally cold. The x-ray continuum-induced line emission gives a good insight to the accreting clouds. We will present a novel laboratory simulation of the photoionized plasma under well-characterized conditions by using high-power laser facility. Blackbody radiator with 500-eV of temperature, as a miniature of a hot compact object, was created.Silicon (Si) plasma with 30-eV of electron temperature was produced in the vicinity of the 0.5-keV blackbody radiator. Line emissions of lithium- and helium-like Si ions was clearly observed around 2-keV of photon-energy from the thermally cold Si plasma, this result is hardly interpreted without consideration of the photoionization. Atomic kinetics code reveals importance of inner-shell ionization directly caused by incoming hard x-rays.

  11. Comptonization in Ultra-Strong Magnetic Fields: Numerical Solution to the Radiative Transfer Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceccobello, C.; Farinelli, R.; Titarchuk, L.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the radiative transfer problem in a plane-parallel slab of thermal electrons in the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field (B approximately greater than B(sub c) approx. = 4.4 x 10(exp 13) G). Under these conditions, the magnetic field behaves like a birefringent medium for the propagating photons, and the electromagnetic radiation is split into two polarization modes, ordinary and extraordinary, that have different cross-sections. When the optical depth of the slab is large, the ordinary-mode photons are strongly Comptonized and the photon field is dominated by an isotropic component. Aims. The radiative transfer problem in strong magnetic fields presents many mathematical issues and analytical or numerical solutions can be obtained only under some given approximations. We investigate this problem both from the analytical and numerical point of view, provide a test of the previous analytical estimates, and extend these results with numerical techniques. Methods. We consider here the case of low temperature black-body photons propagating in a sub-relativistic temperature plasma, which allows us to deal with a semi-Fokker-Planck approximation of the radiative transfer equation. The problem can then be treated with the variable separation method, and we use a numerical technique to find solutions to the eigenvalue problem in the case of a singular kernel of the space operator. The singularity of the space kernel is the result of the strong angular dependence of the electron cross-section in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Results. We provide the numerical solution obtained for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the space operator, and the emerging Comptonization spectrum of the ordinary-mode photons for any eigenvalue of the space equation and for energies significantly lesser than the cyclotron energy, which is on the order of MeV for the intensity of the magnetic field here considered. Conclusions. We derived the specific intensity of the

  12. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, B. W.; Furukawa, G. T.; Kreider, K. G.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Strouse, G. F.; Tew, W. L.; Moldover, M. R.; Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Saunders, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for “on-site” thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by

  13. Variation of solar-selective properties of black chrome with plating time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of a commercially prepared black chrome over dull nickel, both plated on steel, for various plating times of the black chrome were measured. The plating current was 180 amperes per square foot. Values of absorptance integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance integrated over black-body radiation at 250 F were obtained. It is shown that plating between one and two minutes produces the optimum combination of highest heat absorbed and lowest heat lost by radiation.

  14. COBE looks back to the Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA-Goddard's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the first NASA satellite designed to observe the primeval explosion of the universe. The spacecraft carries three extremely sensitive IR and microwave instruments designed to measure the faint residual radiation from the Big Bang and to search for the formation of the first galaxies. COBE's far IR absolute spectrophotometer has shown that the Big Bang radiation has a blackbody spectrum, proving that there was no large energy release after the explosion.

  15. High-temperature-superconducting magnetic susceptibility bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasunas, J.; Lakew, B.; Lee, C.

    1992-01-01

    An infrared detector called the magnetic susceptibility bolometer is introduced which is based on the tmperature dependence of the diamagnetic screening of a high-Tc superconductor film near Tc. Results are reported for the response of a prototype model to modulated blackbody radiation. Possible improvements are discussed as is the potential sensitivity of an improved device.

  16. Fiber-optical method of pyrometric measurement of melts temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenko, V. A.; Veprikova, Ya R.

    2018-01-01

    There is a scientific problem of non-contact measurement of the temperature of metal melts now. The problem is related to the need to achieve the specified measurement errors in conditions of uncertainty of the blackness coefficients of the radiating surfaces. The aim of this work is to substantiate the new method of measurement in which the influence of the blackness coefficient is eliminated. The task consisted in calculating the design and material of special crucible placed in the molten metal, which is an emitter in the form of blackbody (BB). The methods are based on the classical concepts of thermal radiation and calculations based on the Planck function. To solve the problem, the geometry of the crucible was calculated on the basis of the Goofy method which forms the emitter of a blackbody at the immersed in the melt. The paper describes the pyrometric device based on fiber optic pyrometer for temperature measurement of melts, which implements the proposed method of measurement using a special crucible. The emitter is formed by the melt in this crucible, the temperature within which is measured by means of fiber optic pyrometer. Based on the results of experimental studies, the radiation coefficient ε‧ > 0.999, which confirms the theoretical and computational justification is given in the article

  17. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  18. Towards an Understanding of Radiative Factors on Planetary Rings: a Perspective from Cassini CIRS Observations at Saturn Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Shawn M.; Spilker, L.; Edgington, S. G.; Déau, E.; Pilorz, S. H.

    2012-10-01

    Since arriving at Saturn in 2004, Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer has recorded tens of millions of spectra of Saturn’s rings (personal communication, M. Segura). CIRS records far infrared radiation (16.7-1000 microns) at focal plane 1 (FP1). Thermal emission from Saturn’s rings peaks at FP1 wavelengths. CIRS spectra are well characterized as blackbody emission at an effective temperature Te, multiplied by a scalar factor related to ring emissivity (Spilker et al. [2005, 2006]). CIRS can therefore characterize the rings' temperature and study the thermal environment to which the ring particles are subject. We focus on CIRS data from the 2009 Saturnian equinox. As the Sun's disk crossed the ring plane, CIRS obtained several radial scans of the rings at a variety of phase angles, local hour angles and distances. With the Sun's rays striking the rings at an incidence angle of zero, solar heating is virtually absent, and thermal radiation from Saturn and sunlight reflected by Saturn dominate the thermal environment. These observations present an apparent paradox. Equinox data show that the flux of thermal energy radiated by the rings is roughly equivalent to or even exceeds the energy incident upon them as prescribed by thermal models (Froidevaux [1981], Ferrari and Leyrat [2006], Morishima et al. [2009, 2010]). This apparent energy excess is largest in the C ring and Cassini Division. Conservation principles suggest that models underestimate heating of the rings, as it is clearly unphysical for the rings to radiate significantly more energy than is incident upon them. In this presentation, we will attempt to resolve this paradox and determine what this can teach us about Saturn's rings. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2012 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  19. Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) for JPSS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, Elena; Priestley, Kory; Dunn, Barry; Cageao, Richard; Barki, Anum; Osmundsen, Jim; Turczynski, Craig; Abedin, Nurul

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) will be one of five instruments flying aboard the JPSS-2 spacecraft, a polar-orbiting sun-synchronous satellite in Low Earth Orbit. RBI is a passive remote sensing instrument that will follow the successful legacy of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments to make measurement of Earth's short and longwave radiation budget. The goal of RBI is to provide an independent measurement of the broadband reflected solar radiance and Earth's emitted thermal radiance by using three spectral bands (Shortwave, Longwave, and Total) that will have the same overlapped point spread function (PSF) footprint on Earth. To ensure precise NIST-traceable calibration in space the RBI sensor is designed to use a visible calibration target (VCT), a solar calibration target (SCT), and an infrared calibration target (ICT) containing phase change cells (PCC) to enable on-board temperature calibration. The VCT is a thermally controlled integrating sphere with space grade Spectralon covering the inner surface. Two sides of the sphere will have fiber-coupled laser diodes in the UV to IR wavelength region. An electrical substitution radiometer on the integrating sphere will monitor the long term stability of the sources and the possible degradation of the Spectralon in space. In addition the radiometric calibration operations will use the Spectralon diffusers of the SCT to provide accurate measurements of Solar degradation. All those stable on-orbit references will ensure that calibration stability is maintained over the RBI sensor lifetime. For the preflight calibration the RBI will view five calibration sources - two integrating spheres and three CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder ) -like blackbodies whose outputs will be validated with NIST calibration approach. Thermopile are the selected detectors for the RBI. The sensor has a requirement to perform lunar calibration in addition to solar calibration in space in a way similar to CERES

  20. Hawking radiation from charged black holes via gauge and gravitational anomalies.

    PubMed

    Iso, Satoshi; Umetsu, Hiroshi; Wilczek, Frank

    2006-04-21

    Extending the method of Robinson and Wolczek, we show that in order to avoid a breakdown of general covariance and gauge invariance at the quantum level the total flux of charge and energy in each outgoing partial wave of a charged quantum field in a Reissner-Nordström black hole background must be equal to that of a (1 + 1)-dimensional blackbody at the Hawking temperature with the appropriate chemical potential.

  1. Fire Radiative Power (FRP)-based Emission Factors of PM2.5, CO and NOX for Remote Sensing of Biomass Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karandana Gamalathge, T. D.; Chen, L. W. A.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale biomass burning such as forest fires represents an important and yet uncertain source of air pollutants and greenhouse gases on a global scale. Due to the highly accidental nature of forest fires, satellite remote sensing could be a promising method to develop regional and global fire emission inventories on a real-time basis. Reliable fire radiative power (FRP)-based fuel consumption and emission factors are critical in this approach. In an attempt to obtain the information, laboratory combustion experiments were conducted to simultaneously monitor FRP, fuel consumption, and emissions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and reactive nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). FRP were quantified using temperature-resolved values from a thermal imager instead of conventionally used average temperature, as the former provides more realistic estimates. For dry Ponderosa pine branches, a common fuel in the Sierra Nevada, a strong correlation (r2 ~ 0.8) between FRP and the mass reduction rate (MRR) was found. This led to a radiative energy yield (REY) of 8.5 ± 1.2 MJ/kg, assuming blackbody radiation and a flame emissivity of 0.5. Mass-based emission factors were determined with the carbon balance approach. Considering the ratio of mass-based emission factors and the REY, FRP-based emission factors: PM2.5: 11 g/MJ, CO: 8.0 g/MJ, NO: 0.33 g/MJ, and NO2: 0.07 g/MJ were quantified. The application of this approach to other fuel types and uncertainties in the measurements will be discussed.

  2. Effect of Index of Refraction on Radiation Characteristics in a Heated Absorbing, Emitting, and Scattering Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The index of refraction can considerably influence the temperature distribution and radiative heat flow in semitransparent materials such as some ceramics. For external radiant heating, the refractive index influences the amount of energy transmitted into the interior of the material. Emission within a material depends on the square of its refractive index, and hence this emission can be many times that for a biackbody radiating into a vacuum. Since radiation exiting through an interface into a vacuum cannot exceed that of a blackbody, there is extensive reflection at the internal surface of an interface, mostly by total internal reflection. This redistributes energy within the layer and tends to make its temperature distribution more uniform. The purpose of the present analysis is to show that, for radiative equilibrium in a gray layer with diffuse interfaces, the temperature distribution and radiative heat flux for any index of refraction can be obtained very simply from the results for an index of refraction of unity. For the situation studied here, the layer is subjected to external radiative heating incident on each of its surfaces. The material emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters radiation. For simplicity the index of refraction is unity in the medium surrounding the layer. The surfaces of the layer are assumed diffuse. This is probably a reasonable approximation for a ceramic layer that has not been polished. When transmitted radiation or radiation emitted from the interior reaches the inner surface of an interface, the radiation is diffused and some of it thereby placed into angular directions for which there is total internal reflection. This provides a trapping effect for retaining energy within the layer and tends to equalize its temperature distribution. An analysis of temperature distributions in absorbing-emitting layers, including index of refraction effects, was developed by Gardon (1958) to predict cooling and heat treating of glass plates

  3. Investigation of the normal spectral band emissivity characteristic within 7.5 to 13 μm for Molybdenum between 100 and 500 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yuzhong; Lu, Rongsheng; Shu, Shuangbao; Lang, Xianli; Yang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an important material to construct the first wall for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The real-time monitoring of temperature distribution of the first wall based on radiation thermometry is essential to guarantee the stable operation of EAST. So, it is especially important for the acquisition of emissivity property of Mo. In this work, a self-designed emissivity measurement apparatus is developed, and the relationship between the normal infrared spectral band (7.5-13 μm) emissivity of Mo against the temperature and surface roughness of material samples is experimentally investigated under the vacuum condition over the temperature ranging from 100 °C to 500 °C. Moreover, the dependence of spectral band emissivity of Mo exposed to air on the heating-duration time at a given elevated temperature is also studied. The emissivity measurement apparatus is mainly composed of a high temperature furnace and a radiation thermometer as well as a benchmark blackbody furnace. The radiation thermometer is firstly calibrated against the blackbody furnace by means of the multi-temperature methods. And then the temperature of the sample is simultaneously measured by the two highly accurate S-type thermocouples and the radiation thermometer. Finally the emissivity value of the sample is calculated based on the direct radiometric method. The developed emissivity measurement method and experimental results obtained in this work may be helpful to understand the work state the EAST and to use of Mo as an emissivity reference.

  4. The use of remotely-sensed wildland fire radiation to infer the fates of carbon during biomass combustion - the need to understand and quantify a fire's mass and energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, M. B.; Dietenberger, M.; Ellicott, E. A.; Hardy, C.; Hudak, A. T.; Kremens, R.; Mathews, W.; Schroeder, W.; Smith, A. M.; Strand, E. K.

    2016-12-01

    Few measurement techniques offer broad-scale insight on the extent and characteristics of biomass combustion during wildland fires. Remotely-sensed radiation is one of these techniques but its measurement suffers from several limitations and, when quantified, its use to derive variables of real interest depends on an understanding of the fire's mass and energy budget. In this talk, we will review certain assumptions of wildland fire radiation measurement and explore the use of those measurements to infer the fates of biomass and the dissipation of combustion energy. Recent measurements show that the perspective of the sensor (nadir vs oblique) matters relative to estimates of fire radiated power. Other considerations for producing accurate estimates of fire radiation from remote sensing include obscuration by an intervening forest canopy and to what extent measurements that are based on the assumption of graybody/blackbody behavior underestimate fire radiation. Fire radiation measurements are generally a means of quantifying other variables and are often not of interest in and of themselves. Use of fire radiation measurements as a means of inference currently relies on correlations with variables of interest such as biomass consumption and sensible and latent heat and emissions fluxes. Radiation is an imperfect basis for these correlations in that it accounts for a minority of combustion energy ( 15-30%) and is not a constant as is often assumed. Measurements suggest that fire convective energy accounts for the majority of combustion energy and (after radiation) is followed by latent energy, soil heating, and pyrolysis energy, more or less in that order. Combustion energy in and of itself is not its potential maximum, but is reduced to an effective heat of combustion by combustion inefficiency and by work done to pyrolyze fuel (important in char production) and in moisture vaporization. The effective heat of combustion is often on the order of 65% of its potential

  5. Transient thermal modeling of the nonscanning ERBE detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical model to predict the transient thermal response of the ERBE nonscanning wide field of view total radiometer channel was developed. The model, which uses Monte Carlo techniques to characterize the radiative component of heat transfer, is described and a listing of the computer program is provided. Application of the model to simulate the actual blackbody calibration procedure is discussed. The use of the model to establish a real time flight data interpretation strategy is recommended. Modification of the model to include a simulated Earth radiation source field and a filter dome is indicated.

  6. Frequency selective infrared optical filters for micro-bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creazzo, Timothy A.; Zablocki, Mathew J.; Zaman, Lenin; Sharkawy, Ahmed; Mirotznik, Mark S.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2017-05-01

    Current micro-bolometers are broadband detectors and tend to absorb a broad window of the IR spectrum for thermal imaging. Such systems are limited due to their lack of sensitivity to blackbody radiation, as well as the inability to spectrally discern multiple wavelengths in the field of view for hyperspectral imaging (HSI). As a result, many important applications such as low concentration chemical detection cannot be performed. One solution to this problem is to employ a system with thermoelectrically cooled or liquid nitrogen cooled sensors, which can lead to higher sensitivity in detection. However, one major drawback of these systems is the size, weight and power (SWaP) issue as they tend to be rather bulky and cumbersome, which largely challenges their use in unmanned aerial vehicles. Further, spectral filtering is commonly performed with large hardware and moving gratings, greatly increasing the SWaP of the system. To this point, Lumilant's effort is to develop wavelength selective uncooled IR filters that can be integrated onto a microbolometer, to exceed the sensitivity imposed by the blackbody radiation limit. We have demonstrated narrowband absorbers and electrically tunable filters addressing the need for low-SWaP platforms.

  7. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  8. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperaes in the range of about 1800.degree. to 2700.degree. C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  9. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Carneiro, J.-P.; /Fermilab; Mustapha, B.

    2008-12-01

    Numerical simulations of H{sup -} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H{sup -} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  10. Dependence of diffusive radiative transfer on grain-size, temperature, and Fe-content: Implications for mantle processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A. M.

    2005-08-01

    Locally diffusive, radiative heat transport inside the earth is represented by an effective thermal conductivity ( krad,dif), calculated from spectra. Previous geophysical models assumed that emissivity ( ξ) equals unity, which violates local radiative equilibrium in an internally heated, grainy medium. Our new formulation accounts for ξ depending on frequency, physical scattering depending on grain-size ( d), and for light lost through back-reflections at interfaces. Mantle values of krad,dif are estimated from recent visible spectra of olivine combined with new IR data. The following trends hold for krad,dif calculated from olivine spectra, and should be equally valid for pyroxene and spinel: (1) pressure is unimportant, (2) radiative thermal conductivity depends non-linearly on d, temperature ( T), and Fe 2+ content ( X), (3) maxima occur in krad,dif( d) when the grains are large enough to emit substantially, but not so large that light is strongly attenuated within a single-grain, (4) the dependence of krad,dif on Fe 2+ content parallels that with d because absorption is controlled by the product dX (Beer's law), and (5) a local minimum occurs in krad,dif near 2000 K for d > 2 mm because at that temperature the peak position of the blackbody curve coincides with that of the strongly absorbing Fe 2+ peak in the visible. Larger krad,dif exists at lower and higher temperatures because mean free paths are long in the transmitting near-IR and UV spectral regions. As integration smooths over spectral details, the above representation based on olivine becomes increasingly accurate for other phases as grain-size decreases. For conditions expected in the transition zone, ∂ krad,dif/∂ T is negative, which is destabilizing [Dubuffet, F., Yuen, D.A., Rainey, E.S.G., 2002. Controlling thermal chaos in the mantle by positive feedback from radiative thermal conductivity. Nonlinear Proc. Geophys. 9, 1-13]. In the lower mantle, photon transport dominates phonon, promoting

  11. Radiation attenuation and opacity in smoke and water sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Gilles; Boulet, Pascal; Morlon, Romain; Blanchard, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Radiation attenuation through sprays, smoke and mixings of both media was studied in the infrared and in the visible range, by conducting real scale experiments in a corridor. The effect of water injection by a water mist nozzle and a sprinkler device was investigated. Radiation attenuation in the infrared range and opacity in the visible range were measured, by using a FTIR spectrometer and a dedicated opacimetry device especially designed for the present application. Experiments were done using either a blackbody source for attenuation characterization, or a heptane pool fire aimed at producing smoke for opacity measurements. For tests with smoke, the difficulties raised by the harsh environment involving a hot mixing of gas plus soot and vapor carrying water droplets were circumvented with an original device involving an optical fiber network. Mean infrared transmission was found equal to 12% for the water mist (with a 25 L/min water flowrate) and 37% for the sprinkler (with a 91 L/min water flowrate). Fitting the infrared transmission spectra with results obtained using a Monte Carlo simulation provided an estimation of the water volumetric fraction in the spray. It was shown that the better attenuation capability of the water mist is due to two factors: (1) a higher extinction coefficient of the water mist for a given water volumetric fraction due to the small size of the injected droplets and (2) a higher water volumetric fraction. Opacity measurements in the visible range yielded a measured extinction coefficient in good agreement with an estimation obtained with the Mie theory and the identified water volumetric fraction. Moreover, the water sprays (sprinkler or water mist) was seen to lead to a quick de-stratification of the smoke layer. When the spraying operation was stopped, the visibility re-increased in two main steps: a first step of fast increase and a second step of slow increase needing a few tens of seconds to get again a fully stratified smoke

  12. The Zugspitze radiative closure experiment for quantifying water vapor absorption over the terrestrial and solar infrared - Part 2: Accurate calibration of high spectral-resolution infrared measurements of surface solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Andreas; Rettinger, Markus; Sussmann, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative knowledge of water vapor absorption is crucial for accurate climate simulations. An open science question in this context concerns the strength of the water vapor continuum in the near infrared (NIR) at atmospheric temperatures, which is still to be quantified by measurements. This issue can be addressed with radiative closure experiments using solar absorption spectra. However, the spectra used for water vapor continuum quantification have to be radiometrically calibrated. We present for the first time a method that yields sufficient calibration accuracy for NIR water vapor continuum quantification in an atmospheric closure experiment. Our method combines the Langley method with spectral radiance measurements of a high-temperature blackbody calibration source (< 2000 K). The calibration scheme is demonstrated in the spectral range 2500 to 7800 cm-1, but minor modifications to the method enable calibration also throughout the remainder of the NIR spectral range. The resulting uncertainty (2σ) excluding the contribution due to inaccuracies in the extra-atmospheric solar spectrum (ESS) is below 1 % in window regions and up to 1.7 % within absorption bands. The overall radiometric accuracy of the calibration depends on the ESS uncertainty, on which at present no firm consensus has been reached in the NIR. However, as is shown in the companion publication Reichert and Sussmann (2016), ESS uncertainty is only of minor importance for the specific aim of this study, i.e., the quantification of the water vapor continuum in a closure experiment. The calibration uncertainty estimate is substantiated by the investigation of calibration self-consistency, which yields compatible results within the estimated errors for 91.1 % of the 2500 to 7800 cm-1 range. Additionally, a comparison of a set of calibrated spectra to radiative transfer model calculations yields consistent results within the estimated errors for 97.7 % of the spectral range.

  13. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  14. Improved Blackbody Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    28 - ABS Resins ................... 012 0.02 Carbon & Free-Cutting Steels%,. . . . . 27 - Acrylics ......................... 0.12 0.10 Alloy...Borosilicate Glasses................. 0.7 - Zinc At Its Alloys ................. 65.3 60.5 Alkyds .... .... .............. 010 0.20 Tungsten Carbide Cermet...cast).............47.6 25 ABS Resins ............ .. IS 3 FlowbnFie ........... 7 - Cellulose Acetate ............ &. 1.9 Pajadafi CW

  15. Predicted continuum spectra of type II supernovae - LTE results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaviv, G.; Wehrse, R.; Wagoner, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The continuum spectral energy distribution of the flux emerging from type II supernovae is calculated from quasi-static radiative transfer through a power-law density gradient, assuming radiative equilibrium and LTE. It is found that the Balmer jump disappears at high effective temperatures and low densities, while the spectrum resembles that of a dilute blackbody but is flatter with a sharper cutoff at the short-wavelength end. A significant UV excess is found in all models calculated. The calculation should be considered exploratory because of significant effects which are anticipated to arise from departure from LTE.

  16. Soft X-ray spectral fits of Geminga with model neutron star atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. D.; Pavlov, G. G.; Meszaros, P.

    1994-01-01

    The spectrum of the soft X-ray pulsar Geminga consists of two components, a softer one which can be interpreted as thermal-like radiation from the surface of the neutron star, and a harder one interpreted as radiation from a polar cap heated by relativistic particles. We have fitted the soft spectrum using a detailed magnetized hydrogen atmosphere model. The fitting parameters are the hydrogen column density, the effective temperature T(sub eff), the gravitational redshift z, and the distance to radius ratio, for different values of the magnetic field B. The best fits for this model are obtained when B less than or approximately 1 x 10(exp 12) G and z lies on the upper boundary of the explored range (z = 0.45). The values of T(sub eff) approximately = (2-3) x 10(exp 5) K are a factor of 2-3 times lower than the value of T(sub eff) obtained for blackbody fits with the same z. The lower T(sub eff) increases the compatibility with some proposed schemes for fast neutrino cooling of neutron stars (NSs) by the direct Urca process or by exotic matter, but conventional cooling cannot be excluded. The hydrogen atmosphere fits also imply a smaller distance to Geminga than that inferred from a blackbody fit. An accurate evaluation of the distance would require a better knowledge of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) response to the low-energy region of the incident spectrum. Our modeling of the soft component with a cooler magnetized atmosphere also implies that the hard-component fit requires a characteristic temperature which is higher (by a factor of approximately 2-3) and a surface area which is smaller (by a factor of 10(exp 3), compared to previous blackbody fits.

  17. XMM-Newton Archival Study of the ULX Population in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    We have conducted an archival XMM-Newton study of the bright X-ray point sources in 32 nearby galaxies. From our list of approximately 100 point sources, we attempt to determine if there is a low-state counterpart to the Ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) population. Indeed, 16 sources in our sample match the criteria we set for a low-state ULX, namely, L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 38 ergs per second) and a spectrum best fit with an absorbed power law. Further, we find evidence for 26 high-state ULXs which are best fit by a combined blackbody and a power law. As in Galactic black hole systems, the spectral indices, GAMMA, of the low-state objects, as well a s the luminosities, tend to be lower than those of the high-state objects. The observed range of blackbody temperatures is 0.1-1 keV with the most luminous systems tending toward the lowest temperatures. We also find a class of object whose properties (luminosity, blackbody temperature, and power law slopes) are very similar to those of galactic stellar mass black holes. In addition, we find a subset of these objects that can be best fit by a Comptonized spectrum similar to that used for Galactic black holes in the very high state, when they are radiating near the Eddington limit.

  18. Airborne lidar/radiometric measurements of cirrus cloud parameters and their application to LOWTRAN radiance evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uthe, Edward E.

    1990-01-01

    SRI has assembled an airborne lidar/radiometric instrumentation suite for mapping cirrus cloud distribution and analyzing cirrus cloud optical properties. Operation of upward viewing infrared radiometers from an airborne platform provides the optimum method of measuring high altitude cold cloud radiative properties with minimum interference from the thermal emission by the earth's surface and lower atmospheric components. Airborne installed sensors can also operate over large regional areas including water, urban, and mountain surfaces and above lower atmospheric convective clouds and haze layers. Currently available sensors installed on the SRI Queen Air aircraft are illustrated. Lidar and radiometric data records are processed for real time viewing on a color video screen. A cirrus cloud data example is presented as a black and white reproduction of a color display of data at the aircraft altitude of 12,000 ft, the 8 to 14 micron atmospheric radiation background was equivalent to a blackbody temperature of about -60 C and, therefore, the radiometer did not respond strongly to low density cirrus cloud concentrations detected by the lidar. Cloud blackbody temperatures (observed by radiometer) are shown plotted against midcloud temperatures (derived from lidar observed cloud heights and supporting temperature profiles) for data collected on 30 June and 28 July.

  19. Near-Field Thermal Radiation for Solar Thermophotovoltaics and High Temperature Thermal Logic and Memory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud

    This dissertation investigates Near-Field Thermal Radiation (NFTR) applied to MEMS-based concentrated solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV) energy conversion and thermal memory and logics. NFTR is the exchange of thermal radiation energy at nano/microscale; when separation between the hot and cold objects is less than dominant radiation wavelength (˜1 mum). NFTR is particularly of interest to the above applications due to its high rate of energy transfer, exceeding the blackbody limit by orders of magnitude, and its strong dependence on separation gap size, surface nano/microstructure and material properties. Concentrated STPV system converts solar radiation to electricity using heat as an intermediary through a thermally coupled absorber/emitter, which causes STPV to have one of the highest solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency limits (85.4%). Modeling of a near-field concentrated STPV microsystem is carried out to investigate the use of STPV based solid-state energy conversion as high power density MEMS power generator. Numerical results for In 0.18Ga0.82Sb PV cell illuminated with tungsten emitter showed significant enhancement in energy transfer, resulting in output power densities as high as 60 W/cm2; 30 times higher than the equivalent far-field power density. On thermal computing, this dissertation demonstrates near-field heat transfer enabled high temperature NanoThermoMechanical memory and logics. Unlike electronics, NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices use heat instead of electricity to record and process data; hence they can operate in harsh environments where electronics typically fail. NanoThermoMechanical devices achieve memory and thermal rectification functions through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion in microstructures, resulting in nonlinear heat transfer between two temperature terminals. Numerical modeling of a conceptual NanoThermoMechanical is carried out; results include the dynamic response under

  20. XMM-Newton Archival Study of the ULX Population in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, christopher S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of an archival XMM-Newton study of the bright X-ray point sources (L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 38 erg per second)) in 32 nearby galaxies. From our list of approximately 100 point sources, we attempt to determine if there is a low-state counterpart to the Ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) population, searching for a soft-hard state dichotomy similar to that known for Galactic X-ray binaries and testing the specific predictions of the IMBH hypothesis. To this end, we searched for low-state objects, which we defined as objects within our sample which had a spectrum well fit by a simple absorbed power law, and high-state objects, which we defined as objects better fit by a combined blackbody and a power law. Assuming that low-state)) objects accrete at approximately 10% of the Eddington luminosity (Done & Gierlinski 2003) and that high-state objects accrete near the Eddington luminosity we further divided our sample of sources into low and high state ULX sources. We classify 16 sources as low-state ULXs and 26 objects as high-state ULXs. As in Galactic black hole systems, the spectral indices, GAMMA, of the lowstate objects, as well as the luminosities, tend to be lower than those of the high-state objects. The observed range of blackbody temperatures for the high state is 0.1-1 keV, with the most luminous systems tending toward the lowest temperatures. We therefore divide our high-state ULXs into candidate IMBHs (with blackbody temperatures of approximately 0.1 keV) and candidate stellar mass BHs (with blackbody temperatures of approximately 1.0 keV). A subset of the candidate stellar mass BHs have spectra that are well-fit by a Comptonization model, a property similar of Galactic BHs radiating in the very-high state near the Eddington limit.

  1. Q and A with Nobelist George Smoot - 2009 BCCP Cosmology Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    Smoot, George

    2018-01-24

    July 2009: What happens when dark matter and anti-dark mattter collide? If you were in a gravity free environment, what would happen to time? At the annual Cosmology Workshop at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Nobelist George Smoot answers these questions and more from high school students and teachers. Dr. Smoot was co-awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  2. Q&A with Nobelist George Smoot - 2009 BCCP Cosmology Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    George Smoot

    2017-12-09

    July 2009: What happens when dark matter and anti-dark mattter collide? If you were in a gravity free environment, what would happen to time? At the annual Cosmology Workshop at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Nobelist George Smoot answers these questions and more from high school students and teachers. Dr. Smoot was co-awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  3. Q&A with Nobelist George Smoot - 2009 BCCP Cosmology Workshop

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    George Smoot

    2010-06-02

    July 2009: What happens when dark matter and anti-dark mattter collide? If you were in a gravity free environment, what would happen to time? At the annual Cosmology Workshop at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Nobelist George Smoot answers these questions and more from high school students and teachers. Dr. Smoot was co-awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  4. Q and A with Nobelist George Smoot - 2009 BCCP Cosmology Workshop

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Smoot, George

    2010-01-01

    July 2009: What happens when dark matter and anti-dark mattter collide? If you were in a gravity free environment, what would happen to time? At the annual Cosmology Workshop at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Nobelist George Smoot answers these questions and more from high school students and teachers. Dr. Smoot was co-awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  5. Monte Carlo Study on Carbon-Gradient-Doped Silica Aerogel Insulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Tang, G H

    2015-04-01

    Silica aerogel is almost transparent for wavelengths below 8 µm where significant energy is transferred by thermal radiation. The radiative heat transfer can be restricted at high temperature if doped with carbon powder in silica aerogel. However, different particle sizes of carbon powder doping have different spectral extinction coefficients and the doped carbon powder will increase the solid conduction of silica aerogel. This paper presents a theoretical method for determining the optimal carbon doping in silica aerogel to minimize the energy transfer. Firstly we determine the optimal particle size by combining the spectral extinction coefficient with blackbody radiation and then evaluate the optimal doping amount between heat conduction and radiation. Secondly we develop the Monte Carlo numerical method to study radiative properties of carbon-gradient-doped silica aerogel to decrease the radiative heat transfer further. The results indicate that the carbon powder is able to block infrared radiation and thus improve the thermal insulating performance of silica aerogel effectively.

  6. Fire detection behind a wall by using microwave techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkurt, Fatih Özkan; Baǧmancı, Mehmet; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Bakır, Mehmet; Altıntaş, Olcay; Karadaǧ, Faruk; Akgöl, Oǧuzhan; Ünal, Emin

    2018-02-01

    In this work, detection of the fire location behind a wall by using microwave techniques is illustrated. According to Planck's Law, Blackbody emits electromagnetic radiation in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This emitted waves penetrates all materials except that metals. These radiated waves can be detected by using directional and high gain antennas. The proposed antenna consists of a simple microstrip patch antenna and a 2×2 microstrip patch antenna array. FIT based simulation results show that 2×2 array antenna can absorb emitted power from a fire source which is located behind a wall. This contribution can be inspirational for further works.

  7. Earth-based remote sensing of planetary surfaces and atmospheres at radio wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickel, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two reasons for remote sensing from the Earth are given: (1) space exploration, particularly below the surfaces or underneath cloud layers, is limited to only a very few planets; and (2) a program of regular monitoring, currently impractical with a limited number of space probes, is required. Reflected solar and nonthermal radiation are discussed. Relativistic electrons, trapped in large magnetospheres on Saturn and Jupiter, are discussed. These electrons produce synchrotron radiation and also interact with the ionosphere to produce bursts of low frequency emission. Because most objects are black-bodies, continuum radiometry is emphasized. Spectroscopic techniques and the measurement of nonthermal emission are also discussed.

  8. Tuning optical radiation for visual and nonvisual impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2011-12-01

    Brightness of Trichromatic Light Sources AIM: To examine the effect of tuning optical radiation on brightness perception for younger (18-25 years of age) and older (50 years of age or older) observers. METHODOLOGY: Participants made forced-choice evaluations of the brightness of a full factorial of stimulus pairs selected from two groups of four metameric stimuli. The large-field stimuli were created by systematically varying either the red or the blue primary of an RGB LED mixture. KEY FINDINGS: Light stimuli of equal illuminance and chromaticity do not appear equally bright to either younger or older subjects. The rank-order of brightness is not predicted by any current model of human vision or theory of brightness perception including Scotopic to Photopic or Cirtopic to Photopic ratio theory, prime color theory, correlated color temperature, photometry, color quality metrics, linear brightness models, or color appearance models. Age may affect brightness perception when short-wavelength primaries are used, especially those with a peak wavelength shorter than 450 nm. Optimizing RGB LED Mixtures AIM: To investigate potential tradeoffs between luminous efficacy, nonvisual efficacy, and color quality of RGB LED mixtures when the peak wavelength and full with half maximum of the primaries are varied. To identify mixtures suitable for architectural lighting which provide increased circadian stimulation. METHODOLOGY: Software to calculate the properties of RGB LED mixtures matching the chromaticity of blackbody radiation was developed using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic. Excel Solver was used to perform a series of optimization routines, identifying high-performing mixtures that were then compared to traditional lamps. KEY FINDINGS: Trichromatic mixtures suitable for architectural interiors can outperform traditional lamps when luminous efficacy, nonvisual efficacy, and color quality are considered simultaneously. However, misplacement of radiant energy can result in poor

  9. Detectability of Cold Rocket Plumes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-11

    blackbody temperature measurements (after Fetterman et al., Ref.9). 41 DIRECTION 118-8-1457i01 OF MAXIMUM Z RADIATION 1*I y CORERRELECOR. QU--MASRE...34 Aspen Int. Conf. on Fourier Spectroscopy, (1970), p. 19, DDC AD-724 100. 9. H. R. Fetterman , P. E. Tannenwald, B. J. Clifton, C. D. Parker, W. D...A. Blumberg, H. R. Fetterman , D. D. Peck, and P. F. Goldsmith, "Tunable Submillimeter Sources Applied to the Excited State Rotational Spectro- scopy

  10. The rank correlated FSK model for prediction of gas radiation in non-uniform media, and its relationship to the rank correlated SLW model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovjov, Vladimir P.; Webb, Brent W.; Andre, Frederic

    2018-07-01

    Following previous theoretical development based on the assumption of a rank correlated spectrum, the Rank Correlated Full Spectrum k-distribution (RC-FSK) method is proposed. The method proves advantageous in modeling radiation transfer in high temperature gases in non-uniform media in two important ways. First, and perhaps most importantly, the method requires no specification of a reference gas thermodynamic state. Second, the spectral construction of the RC-FSK model is simpler than original correlated FSK models, requiring only two cumulative k-distributions. Further, although not exhaustive, example problems presented here suggest that the method may also yield improved accuracy relative to prior methods, and may exhibit less sensitivity to the blackbody source temperature used in the model predictions. This paper outlines the theoretical development of the RC-FSK method, comparing the spectral construction with prior correlated spectrum FSK method formulations. Further the RC-FSK model's relationship to the Rank Correlated Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases (RC-SLW) model is defined. The work presents predictions using the Rank Correlated FSK method and previous FSK methods in three different example problems. Line-by-line benchmark predictions are used to assess the accuracy.

  11. Uncertainty Estimates for SIRS, SKYRAD, & GNDRAD Data and Reprocessing the Pyrgeometer Data (Presentation)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Stoffel, Tom; Habte, Aron

    2014-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility work together in providing data from strategically located in situ measurement observatories around the world. Both work together in improving and developing new technologies that assist in acquiring high quality radiometric data. In this presentation we summarize the uncertainty estimates of the ARM data collected at the ARM Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS), Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD), and Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation (GNDRAD), which ultimately improve the existing radiometric data. Three studies are also included to show themore » difference between calibrating pyrgeometers (e.g., Eppley PIR) using the manufacturer blackbody versus the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG), a pyrgeometer aging study, and the sampling rate effect of correcting historical data.« less

  12. Hardware-in-the-loop tow missile system simulator

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Waldman, G.S.; Wootton, J.R.; Hobson, G.L.

    1993-07-06

    A missile system simulator is described for use in training people for target acquisition, missile launch, and missile guidance under simulated battlefield conditions comprising: simulating means for producing a digital signal representing a simulated battlefield environment including at least one target movable therewithin, the simulating means generating an infrared map representing the field-of-view and the target; interface means for converting said digital signals to an infrared image; missile system hardware including the missile acquisition, tracking, and guidance portions thereof, said hardware sensing the infrared image to determine the location of the target in a field-of-view; and, image means for generatingmore » an infrared image of a missile launched at the target and guided thereto, the image means imposing the missile image onto the field-of-view for the missile hardware to acquire the image of the missile in addition to that of the target, and to generate guidance signals to guide the missile image to the target image, wherein the interfacing means is responsive to a guidance signal from the hardware to simulate, in real-time, the response of the missile to the guidance signal, the image means including a blackbody, laser means for irradiating the blackbody to heat it to a temperature at which it emits infrared radiation, and optic means for integrating the radiant image produced by heating the blackbody into the infrared map.« less

  13. Ground-based remote sensing of thin clouds in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.; Zhao, C.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a method for using interferometer measurements of downwelling thermal radiation to retrieve the properties of single-layer clouds. Cloud phase is determined from ratios of thermal emission in three "micro-windows" at 862.5 cm-1, 935.8 cm-1, and 988.4 cm-1 where absorption by water vapour is particularly small. Cloud microphysical and optical properties are retrieved from thermal emission in the first two of these micro-windows, constrained by the transmission through clouds of primarily stratospheric ozone emission at 1040 cm-1. Assuming a cloud does not approximate a blackbody, the estimated 95% confidence retrieval errors in effective radius re, visible optical depth τ, number concentration N, and water path WP are, respectively, 10%, 20%, 38% (55% for ice crystals), and 16%. Applied to data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM) North Slope of Alaska - Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA-AAO) site near Barrow, Alaska, retrievals show general agreement with both ground-based microwave radiometer measurements of liquid water path and a method that uses combined shortwave and microwave measurements to retrieve re, τ and N. Compared to other retrieval methods, advantages of this technique include its ability to characterise thin clouds year round, that water vapour is not a primary source of retrieval error, and that the retrievals of microphysical properties are only weakly sensitive to retrieved cloud phase. The primary limitation is the inapplicability to thicker clouds that radiate as blackbodies and that it relies on a fairly comprehensive suite of ground based measurements.

  14. On the spectrum and polarization of magnetar flare emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverna, R.; Turolla, R.

    2017-08-01

    Bursts and flares are among the distinctive observational manifestations of magnetars, isolated neutron stars endowed with an ultrastrong magnetic field (B ≈ 1014-1015 G). It is believed that these events arise in a hot electron-positron plasma that remains trapped within the closed magnetic field lines. We developed a simple radiative transfer model to simulate magnetar flare emission in the case of a steady trapped fireball. After dividing the fireball surface in a number of plane-parallel slabs, the local spectral and polarization properties are obtained integrating the radiative transfer equations for the two normal modes. We assume that magnetic Thomson scattering is the dominant source of opacity, and neglect contributions from second-order radiative processes, although double-Compton scattering is accounted for in establishing local thermal equilibrium in the fireball atmospheric layers. The observed spectral and polarization properties as measured by a distant observer are obtained by summing the contributions from the patches that are visible for a given viewing geometry by means of a ray-tracing code. The spectra we obtained in the 1-100 keV energy range are thermal and can be described in terms of the superposition of two blackbodies. The blackbody temperature and the emitting area ratio are in broad agreement with the available observations. The predicted linear polarization degree is, in general, greater than 80 per cent over the entire energy range and should be easily detectable by new-generation X-ray polarimeters, such as IXPE, XIPE and eXTP.

  15. Sources of background light on space based laser communications links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Thomas C.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss the sources and levels of background light that should be expected on space based laser communication (lasercom) crosslinks and uplinks, as well as on downlinks to ground stations. The analyses are valid for both Earth orbiting satellites and inter-planetary links. Fundamental equations are derived suitable for first order system engineering analyses of potential lasercom systems. These divide sources of background light into two general categories: extended sources which fill the field of view of a receiver's optics, and point sources which cannot be resolved by the optics. Specific sources of background light are discussed, and expected power levels are estimated. For uplinks, reflected sunlight and blackbody radiation from the Earth dominates. For crosslinks, depending on specific link geometry, sources of background light may include the Sun in the field of view (FOV), reflected sunlight and blackbody radiation from planets and other bodies in the solar system, individual bright stars in the FOV, the amalgam of dim stars in the FOV, zodiacal light, and reflected sunlight off of the transmitting spacecraft. For downlinks, all of these potentially come into play, and the effects of the atmosphere, including turbulence, scattering, and absorption contribute as well. Methods for accounting for each of these are presented. Specific examples are presented to illustrate the relative contributions of each source for various link geometries.

  16. Ground-based atmospheric water vapor monitoring system with spectroscopy of radiation in 20-30 GHz and 50-60 GHz bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Takeo; Tajima, Osamu; Araki, Kentaro; Ishimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel ground-based meteorological monitoring system. In the 20{30 GHz band, our system simultaneously measures a broad absorption peak of water vapor and cloud liquid water. Additional observation in the 50{60 GHz band obtains the radiation of oxygen. Spectral results contain vertical profiles of the physical temperature of atmospheric molecules. We designed a simple method for placing the system atop high buildings and mountains and on decks of ships. There is a simple optical system in front of horn antennas for each frequency band. A focused signal from a reflector is separated into two polarized optical paths by a wire grid. Each signal received by the horn antenna is amplified by low-noise amplifiers. Spectra of each signal are measured as a function of frequency using two analyzers. A blackbody calibration source is maintained at 50 K in a cryostat. The calibration signal is led to each receiver via the wire grid. The input path of the signal is selected by rotation of the wire grid by 90°, because the polarization axis of the reflected path and axis of the transparent path are orthogonal. We developed a prototype receiver and demonstrated its performance using monitoring at the zenith.

  17. Infrared radiation from hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, D.; Richardson, L. J.; Seager, S.; Harrington, J.

    2006-02-01

    Recent Spitzer infrared (IR) observations of two transiting hot Jupiters during their secondary eclipses have provided the first direct detection of planets orbiting other stars (Charbonneau et al. 2005, ApJ 626, 523; Deming et al. 2005, Nature 434, 740). We here elaborate on some aspects of our detection of HD 209458b at 24 μm, and we compare to the detection of TrES-1 by Charbonneau et al. Spitzer will eventually determine the IR spectral energy distribution of these and similar hot Jupiters, opening the new field of comparative exoplanetology. For now, we have only three Spitzer data points, augmented by upper limits from the ground. We here interpret the available measurements from a purely observational perspective, and we point out that a blackbody spectrum having T ˜ 1100K can account for all current IR measurements, within the errors. This will surely not remain true for long, since ongoing Spitzer observations will be very sensitive to the IR characteristics of hot Jupiters.

  18. Laboratory calibration of pyrgeometers with known spectral responsivities.

    PubMed

    Gröbner, Julian; Los, Alexander

    2007-10-20

    A methodology is presented to calibrate pyrgeometers measuring atmospheric long-wave radiation, if their spectral dome transmission is known. The new calibration procedure is based on a black-body cavity to retrieve the sensitivity of the pyrgeometer, combined with calculated atmospheric long-wave spectra to determine a correction function in dependence of the integrated atmospheric water vapor to convert Planck radiation spectra to atmospheric long-wave spectra. The methodology was validated with two custom CG4 pyrgeometers with known dome transmissions by a comparison to the World Infrared Standard Group of Pyrgeometers at the World Radiation Center-Infrared Radiometry Section. The responses retrieved using the new laboratory calibration agree to within 1% with the responses determined by a comparison to the WISG, which is well within the uncertainties of both methodologies.

  19. Spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Mcdowell, Jonathan C.; Freese, Katherine; Levin, Janna

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background deviates from a pure blackbody; here, spectral distortions produced by cosmic dust are considered. The main result is that cosmic dust in conjunction with an injected radiation field (perhaps produced by an early generation of very massive stars) can explain the observed spectral distortions without violating existing cosmological constraints. In addition, it is shown that Compton y-distortions can also explain the observed spectral shape, but the energetic requirements are more severe.

  20. Io - Ground-based observations of hot spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinton, W. M.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Becklin, E. E.; Gatley, I.; Lee, T. J.; Lonsdale, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Observations of Io in eclipse demonstrate conclusively that Io emits substantial amounts of radiation at 4.8 and 3.8 micrometers and a measurable amount at 2.2 micrometers. Color temperatures derived from the observations fit blackbody emission at 560 K. The required source area to yield the observed 4.8-micrometer flux is approximately 5 x 10 to the -5th of the disk of Io and is most likely comprised of small hot spots in the vicinity of the volcanoes.

  1. Numerical Solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation: X-Ray Spectral Formation from Cylindrical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairnelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.; Romano, P.; Titarchuk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the emerging X-ray spectra in several astrophysical objects is of great importance, in particular when the observational data are compared with theoretical models. This requires developing numerical routines for the solution of the radiative transfer equation according to the expected physical conditions of the systems under study. Aims. We have developed an algorithm solving the radiative transfer equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation when both thermal and bulk Comptonization take place. The algorithm is essentially a relaxation method, where stable solutions are obtained when the system has reached its steady-state equilibrium. Methods. We obtained the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the two-dimensional domain defined by the photon energy E and optical depth of the system pi using finite-differences for the partial derivatives, and imposing specific boundary conditions for the solutions. We treated the case of cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Results. We considered a blackbody seed spectrum of photons with exponential distribution across the accretion column and for an accretion where the velocity reaches its maximum at the stellar surface and at the top of the accretion column, respectively. In both cases higher values of the electron temperature and of the optical depth pi produce flatter and harder spectra. Other parameters contributing to the spectral formation are the steepness of the vertical velocity profile, the albedo at the star surface, and the radius of the accretion column. The latter parameter modifies the emerging spectra in a specular way for the two assumed accretion profiles. Conclusions. The algorithm has been implemented in the XPEC package for X-ray fitting and is specifically dedicated to the physical framework of accretion at the polar cap of a neutron star with a high magnetic field (approx > 10(exp 12) G). This latter case is expected to be of typical accreting systems such as X

  2. Effects of water-emission anisotropy on multispectral remote sensing at thermal wavelengths of ocean temperature and of cirrus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Susskind, J.; Dalu, G.; Kratz, D.; Goldberg, I. L.

    1992-01-01

    The impact of water-emission anisotropy on remotedly sensed long-wave data has been studied. Water emission is formulated from a calm body for a facile computation of radiative transfer in the atmosphere. The error stemming from the blackbody assumption are calculated for cases of a purely absorbing or a purely scattering atmosphere taking the optical properties of the atmosphere as known. For an absorbing atmosphere, the errors in the sea-surface temperature (SST) are found to be always reduced and be the same whether measurements are made from space or at any level of the atmosphere. The inferred optical thickness tau of an absorbing layer can be in error under the blackbody assumption by a delta tau of 0.01-0.08, while the inferred optical thickness of a scattering layer can be in error by a larger amount, delta tau of 0.03-0.13. It is concluded that the error delta tau depends only weakly on the actual optical thickness and the viewing angle, but is rather sensitive to the wavelength of the measurement.

  3. Fluctuations in the electron system of a superconductor exposed to a photon flux

    PubMed Central

    de Visser, P. J.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Bueno, J.; Llombart, N.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    In a superconductor, in which electrons are paired, the density of unpaired electrons should become zero when approaching zero temperature. Therefore, radiation detectors based on breaking of pairs promise supreme sensitivity, which we demonstrate using an aluminium superconducting microwave resonator. Here we show that the resonator also enables the study of the response of the electron system of the superconductor to pair-breaking photons, microwave photons and varying temperatures. A large range in radiation power (at 1.54 THz) can be chosen by carefully filtering the radiation from a blackbody source. We identify two regimes. At high radiation power, fluctuations in the electron system caused by the random arrival rate of the photons are resolved, giving a straightforward measure of the optical efficiency (48±8%) and showing an unprecedented detector sensitivity. At low radiation power, fluctuations are dominated by excess quasiparticles, the number of which is measured through their recombination lifetime. PMID:24496036

  4. Experimental and Metrological Basis for SI-Traceable Infrared Radiance Measurements From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P. J.; Dykema, J. A.; Anderson, J. G.; Leroy, S. S.

    2007-12-01

    In order to establish a climate benchmark record and to be useful in interdecadal climate forecast testing, satellite measurements of high spectral resolution infrared radiance must have uncertainty estimates that can be proven beyond a doubt. An uncertainty in radiance of about 1 part in 1000 is required for climate applications. This can be accomplished by appealing to the best measurement practices of the metrology community. The International System of Units (SI) are linked to fundamental physical properties of matter, and can be realized anywhere in the world without bias. By doing so, one can make an accurate observation to within a specified uncertainty. Achieving SI-traceable radiance measurements from space is a novel requirement, and requires specialized sensor design and a disciplined experimental approach. Infrared remote sensing satellite instruments typically employ blackbody calibration targets, which are tied to the SI through Planck's law and the definition of the Kelvin. The blackbody temperature and emissivity, however, must be determined accurately on- orbit, in order for the blackbody emission scale to be SI-traceable. We outline a methodology of instrument design, pre-flight calibration and on-orbit diagnostics for realizing SI- traceable infrared radiance measurements. This instrument is intended as a component of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Earth Observatory (CLARREO), a high priority recommendation of the National Research Council decadal survey. Calibration blackbodies for remote sensing differ from a perfect Planckian blackbody; thus the component uncertainties must be evaluated in order to confer traceability. We have performed traceability experiments in the laboratory to verify blackbody temperature, emissivity and the end-to-end radiance scale. We discuss the design of the Harvard standard blackbody and an intercomparison campaign that will be conducted with the GIFTS blackbody (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and

  5. Dynamics of circumstellar disks. III. The case of GG Tau A

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Marzari, Francesco

    2016-08-11

    Here, we present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system. We model configurations in which a circumbinary torus+disk surrounds a pair of stars in orbit around each other and a circumstellar disk surrounds each star, similar to that observed for the GG Tau A system. We assume that the disks cool as blackbodies, using rates determined independently at each location in the disk by the time dependent temperature of the photosphere there. We assume heating due to hydrodynamical processes and to radiation from the two stars, using rates approximated from amore » measure of the radiation intercepted by the disk at its photosphere.« less

  6. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nelson, Andrew F.; Marzari, Francesco

    Here, we present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic code, VINE, to model a self-gravitating binary system. We model configurations in which a circumbinary torus+disk surrounds a pair of stars in orbit around each other and a circumstellar disk surrounds each star, similar to that observed for the GG Tau A system. We assume that the disks cool as blackbodies, using rates determined independently at each location in the disk by the time dependent temperature of the photosphere there. We assume heating due to hydrodynamical processes and to radiation from the two stars, using rates approximated from amore » measure of the radiation intercepted by the disk at its photosphere.« less

  7. Emissivity correction for interpreting thermal radiation from a terrestrial surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, R. A.; Bartholic, J. F.; Gerber, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    A general method of accounting for emissivity in making temperature determinations of graybody surfaces from radiometric data is presented. The method differs from previous treatments in that a simple blackbody calibration and graphical approach is used rather than numerical integrations which require detailed knowledge of an instrument's spectral characteristics. Also, errors caused by approximating instrumental response with the Stephan-Boltzman law rather than with an appropriately weighted Planck integral are examined. In the 8-14 micron wavelength interval, it is shown that errors are at most on the order of 3 C for the extremes of the earth's temperature and emissivity. For more practical limits, however, errors are less than 0.5 C.

  8. Atmospheres of Quiescent Low-Mass Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, Platon; Medin, Zachary; Calder, Alan; Lattimer, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the neutron stars in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries are important for determining their masses and radii which can lead to powerful constraints on the dense matter nuclear equation of state. The interpretation of these sources is complex and their spectra differ appreciably from blackbodies. Further progress hinges on reducing the uncertainties stemming from models of neutron star atmospheres. We present a suite of low-temperature neutron star atmospheres of different chemical compositions (pure H and He). Our models are constructed over a range of temperatures [log(T/1 K)=5.3, 5.6, 5.9, 6.2, 6.5] and surface gravities [log(g/1 cm/s2)=14.0, 14.2, 14.4, 14.6]. We generated model atmospheres using zcode - a radiation transfer code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In order to facilitate analytic studies, we developed three-parameter fits to our models, and also compared them to diluted blackbodies in the energy range of 0.4-5 keV (CXO/MGE). From the latter, we extract color-correction factors (fc), which represent the shift of the spectra as compared to a blackbody with the same effective temperature. These diluted blackbodies are also useful for studies of photspheric expansion X-ray bursts. We provide a comparison of our models to previous calculations using the McGill Planar Hydrogen Atmosphere Code (McPHAC). These results enhance our ability to interpret thermal emission from neutron stars and to constrain the mass-radius relationship of these exotic objects.This research was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-87ER40317 and by resources at the Institute for Advanced Computational Science at Stony Brook University. This research was carried out in part under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy at Los Alamos National Laboratory and supported by Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  9. Photon Statistics of Propagating Thermal Microwaves.

    PubMed

    Goetz, J; Pogorzalek, S; Deppe, F; Fedorov, K G; Eder, P; Fischer, M; Wulschner, F; Xie, E; Marx, A; Gross, R

    2017-03-10

    In experiments with superconducting quantum circuits, characterizing the photon statistics of propagating microwave fields is a fundamental task. We quantify the n^{2}+n photon number variance of thermal microwave photons emitted from a blackbody radiator for mean photon numbers, 0.05≲n≲1.5. We probe the fields using either correlation measurements or a transmon qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Our experiments provide a precise quantitative characterization of weak microwave states and information on the noise emitted by a Josephson parametric amplifier.

  10. Photon Statistics of Propagating Thermal Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, J.; Pogorzalek, S.; Deppe, F.; Fedorov, K. G.; Eder, P.; Fischer, M.; Wulschner, F.; Xie, E.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.

    2017-03-01

    In experiments with superconducting quantum circuits, characterizing the photon statistics of propagating microwave fields is a fundamental task. We quantify the n2+n photon number variance of thermal microwave photons emitted from a blackbody radiator for mean photon numbers, 0.05 ≲n ≲1.5 . We probe the fields using either correlation measurements or a transmon qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Our experiments provide a precise quantitative characterization of weak microwave states and information on the noise emitted by a Josephson parametric amplifier.

  11. Primary Radiometry for the mise-en-pratique: The Laser-Based Radiance Method Applied to a Pyrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.; Bourson, F.; Rougi, B.; Rihan, A.; Zondy, J.-J.

    2011-12-01

    A new setup has been implemented at LCM-LNE-CNAM for the determination "of the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers for the determination" of the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature blackbodies at the temperature of a metal-carbon eutectic phase transition. In this new setup, an innovative acoustic-optic modulator feedback loop is used to stabilize the radiance of a wavelength tunable laser. The effect of residual optical interferences on the calibration of a test pyrometer is analyzed. The full uncertainty budget is presented.

  12. Soft X-ray emission from the Lupus Loop and Sn 1006 supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, P. F., Jr.; Hearn, D. R.; Richardson, J. A.; Behnken, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray maps of the Lupus region have been obtained in a raster scan observation from SAS 3. These show the Lupus Loop to be a faint extended source of soft X-rays with a temperature about 2.5 million K. The most prominent feature of the region is the A.D. 1006 supernova remnant, which is unexpectedly bright at 0.2-1.0 keV. One speculative interpretation of the low-energy flux from SN 1006 is as blackbody radiation from a hot neutron star.

  13. Stand-off molecular composition analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Meinhold, Peter; O'Neill, Hugh; Brashears, Travis; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Riley, Jordan; Motta, Caio

    2015-09-01

    Molecular composition of distant stars is explored by observing absorption spectra. The star produces blackbody radiation that passes through the molecular cloud of vaporized material surrounding the star. Characteristic absorption lines are discernible with a spectrometer, and molecular composition is investigated by comparing spectral observations with known material profiles. Most objects in the solar system—asteroids, comets, planets, moons—are too cold to be interrogated in this manner. Molecular clouds around cold objects consist primarily of volatiles, so bulk composition cannot be probed. Additionally, low volatile density does not produce discernible absorption lines in the faint signal generated by low blackbody temperatures. This paper describes a system for probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets from a distant vantage. The concept utilizes a directed energy beam to melt and vaporize a spot on a distant target, such as from a spacecraft orbiting the object. With sufficient flux (~10 MW/m2), the spot temperature rises rapidly (to ~2 500 K), and evaporation of all materials on the target surface occurs. The melted spot creates a high-temperature blackbody source, and ejected material creates a molecular plume in front of the spot. Bulk composition is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected material. Spatial composition maps could be created by scanning the surface. Applying the beam to a single spot continuously produces a borehole, and shallow sub-surface composition profiling is also possible. Initial simulations of absorption profiles with laser heating show great promise for molecular composition analysis.

  14. Should Tungsten Ribbon Lamps Be Replaced or Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveyev, M. S.; Pokhodun, A. I.; Sild, Yu. A.

    2003-09-01

    Tungsten ribbon lamps are the most frequently used means in the temperature range higher than 800 °C for reproduction and precise transfer of a temperature scale by non-contact methods. Lamps have many advantages: a very high reproducibility, stability and durability; use of a lamp over dozens of years with careful and correct operation; and relative simplicity of operation, storage and transportation. The direct correlation of temperature and current through a ribbon enables us to use the advantages of electrical measurements. At the same time lamps have also a number of negative features. Small deviations from the prescribed procedure can lead to unpredictable changes of the performance of a lamp and, even, to irreversible changes of its parameters. The important factor of the quality of transferring the temperature scale is the propinquity of the transferred temperature to the thermodynamic one. Only this factor guarantees the accuracy and unity of temperature measurements of temperature by instruments applying different principles of operation and various designs. However, this is the quality that the lamps do not possess. Their main drawback is selectivity of radiation stipulated by the spectral dependence of emissivity. That is why it is necessary to replace them with blackbodies, which let us rely completely on the definition of the ITS-90. Several years ago at our institute we started investigations on development of special measuring instruments, in which a sensor was located around a miniature blackbody. The aperture of this blackbody could be used as a standard emitter, which temperature was accurately determined by a resistance thermometer. Applying also a standard pyrometer, we refined the reference function of a platinum resistor in the range between the Ag and Cu fixed points. To extend the temperature range up to 1450 °C to 1500 °C we built an instrument in the form of a miniature blackbody made of Pd which was connected to three platinum wires

  15. Quantification of the water vapor greenhouse effect: setup and first results of the Zugspitze radiative closure experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Andreas; Sussmann, Ralf; Rettinger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    -altitude location and the available permanent instrumentation, the Zugspitze observatory meets the necessary requirements to determine highly accurate water vapor continuum absorption parameters in the far- and mid-infrared spectral range from a more extensive set of closure measurements compared to previous campaign-based studies. Furthermore, we will present a novel radiometric calibration strategy for the solar FTIR spectral radiance measurements based on a combination of the Langley method and measurements of a high-temperature blackbody source that allows for the determination of continuum absorption parameters in the near-infrared spectral region, where previously no precise measurements under atmospheric conditions were available. This improved quantification of water vapor continuum absorption parameters allows us to further validate the current standard continuum model MT_CKD (Mlawer et al., 2012). Acknowledgements: Funding by KIT/IMK-IFU, the State Government of Bavaria as well as by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) is gratefully acknowledged. References: Clough, S. A., Shephard, M. W., Mlawer, E. J., Delamere, J. S., Iacono, M. J., Cady-Pereira, K., Boukabara, S., and Brown, P. D: Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes, Short Communication, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 91, 233-244, 2005. Mlawer, E. J., Taubman, J., Brown, P.D., Iacono, M.J, and Clough, S.A.: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 16,663-16,682, 1997. Mlawer, E. J., Payne V. H., Moncet, J., Delamere, J. S., Alvarado, M. J. and Tobin, D.C.: Development and recent evaluation of the MT_CKD model of continuum absorption, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 370, 2520-2556, 2012.

  16. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Goff, D.R.; Notestein, J.E.

    1985-01-04

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interfering blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  17. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOEpatents

    Goff, David R.; Notestein, John E.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  18. Herschel Observations and Updated Spectral Energy Distributions of Five Sunlike Stars with Debris Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Bryden, Geoff; Harvey, Paul; Green, Joel D.

    2016-12-01

    Observations from the Herschel Space Observatory have more than doubled the number of wide debris disks orbiting Sunlike stars to include over 30 systems with R > 100 AU. Here, we present new Herschel PACS and reanalyzed Spitzer MIPS photometry of five Sunlike stars with wide debris disks, from Kuiper Belt size to R > 150 AU. The disk surrounding HD 105211 is well resolved, with an angular extent of >14″ along the major axis, and the disks of HD 33636, HD 50554, and HD 52265 are extended beyond the PACS point-spread function size (50% of energy enclosed within radius 4.″23). HD 105211 also has a 24 μm infrared excess, which was previously overlooked, because of a poorly constrained photospheric model. Archival Spitzer IRS observations indicate that the disks have small grains of minimum radius a min ˜ 3 μm, although a min is larger than the radiation-pressure blowout size in all systems. If modeled as single-temperature blackbodies, the disk temperatures would all be <60 K. Our radiative transfer models predict actual disk radii approximately twice the radius of a model blackbody disk. We find that the Herschel photometry traces dust near the source population of planetesimals. The disk luminosities are in the range 2 × 10-5 ⩽ L/L ⊙ ⩽ 2 × 10-4, consistent with collisions in icy planetesimal belts stirred by Pluto-size dwarf planets.

  19. Precision Measurement of Phonon-Polaritonic Near-Field Energy Transfer between Macroscale Planar Structures Under Large Thermal Gradients.

    PubMed

    Ghashami, Mohammad; Geng, Hongyao; Kim, Taehoon; Iacopino, Nicholas; Cho, Sung Kwon; Park, Keunhan

    2018-04-27

    Despite its strong potentials in emerging energy applications, near-field thermal radiation between large planar structures has not been fully explored in experiments. Particularly, it is extremely challenging to control a subwavelength gap distance with good parallelism under large thermal gradients. This article reports the precision measurement of near-field radiative energy transfer between two macroscale single-crystalline quartz plates that support surface phonon polaritons. Our measurement scheme allows the precise control of a gap distance down to 200 nm in a highly reproducible manner for a surface area of 5×5  mm^{2}. We have measured near-field thermal radiation as a function of the gap distance for a broad range of thermal gradients up to ∼156  K, observing more than 40 times enhancement of thermal radiation compared to the blackbody limit. By comparing with theoretical prediction based on fluctuational electrodynamics, we demonstrate that such remarkable enhancement is owing to phonon-polaritonic energy transfer across a nanoscale vacuum gap.

  20. Precision Measurement of Phonon-Polaritonic Near-Field Energy Transfer between Macroscale Planar Structures Under Large Thermal Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghashami, Mohammad; Geng, Hongyao; Kim, Taehoon; Iacopino, Nicholas; Cho, Sung Kwon; Park, Keunhan

    2018-04-01

    Despite its strong potentials in emerging energy applications, near-field thermal radiation between large planar structures has not been fully explored in experiments. Particularly, it is extremely challenging to control a subwavelength gap distance with good parallelism under large thermal gradients. This article reports the precision measurement of near-field radiative energy transfer between two macroscale single-crystalline quartz plates that support surface phonon polaritons. Our measurement scheme allows the precise control of a gap distance down to 200 nm in a highly reproducible manner for a surface area of 5 × 5 mm2 . We have measured near-field thermal radiation as a function of the gap distance for a broad range of thermal gradients up to ˜156 K , observing more than 40 times enhancement of thermal radiation compared to the blackbody limit. By comparing with theoretical prediction based on fluctuational electrodynamics, we demonstrate that such remarkable enhancement is owing to phonon-polaritonic energy transfer across a nanoscale vacuum gap.

  1. Development of RF plasma simulations of in-reactor tests of small models of the nuclear light bulb fuel region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, W. C.; Jaminet, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to develop test configurations and technology necessary to simulate the thermal environment and fuel region expected to exist in in-reactor tests of small models of nuclear light bulb configurations. Particular emphasis was directed at rf plasma tests of approximately full-scale models of an in-reactor cell suitable for tests in Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Nuclear Furnace. The in-reactor tests will involve vortex-stabilized fissioning uranium plasmas of approximately 200-kW power, 500-atm pressure and equivalent black-body radiating temperatures between 3220 and 3510 K.

  2. Solar Temporal Photon Bunching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Peng Kian

    2018-04-01

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behaviour at sufficiently short time-scales which should be independent from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. However, this photon bunching signal is difficult to observe directly with available detector bandwidths. By performing narrowband spectral filtering on Sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photon detectors (APDs), the Solar g(2)(tau) signature was directly measured, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle.

  3. Micro rectennas: Brownian ratchets for thermal-energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Powell, C. V.; Song, A. M.; Balocco, C.

    2014-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrated the operation of a rectenna for harvesting thermal (blackbody) radiation and converting it into dc electric power. The device integrates an ultrafast rectifier, the self-switching nanodiode, with a wideband log-periodic spiral microantenna. The radiation from the thermal source drives the rectenna out of thermal equilibrium, permitting the rectification of the excess thermal fluctuations from the antenna. The power conversion efficiency increases with the source temperatures up to 0.02% at 973 K. The low efficiency is attributed mainly to the impedance mismatch between antenna and rectifier, and partially to the large field of view of the antenna. Our device not only opens a potential solution for harvesting thermal energy but also provides a platform for experimenting with Brownian ratchets.

  4. Diode laser satellite systems for beamed power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.; Kwon, J. H.; Walker, G. H.; Humes, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A power system composed of an orbiting laser satellite and a surface-based receiver/converter is described. Power is transmitted from the satellite to the receiver/converter by laser beam. The satellite components are: (1) solar collector; (2) blackbody; (3) photovoltaic cells; (4) heat radiators; (5) laser system; and (6) transmission optics. The receiver/converter components are: receiver dish; lenticular lens; photocells; and heat radiator. Although the system can be adapted to missions at many locations in the solar system, only two are examined here: powering a lunar habitat; and powering a lunar rover. Power system components are described and their masses, dimensions, operating powers, and temperatures, are estimated using known or feasible component capabilities. The critical technologies involved are discussed and other potential missions are mentioned.

  5. A STATE-DEPENDENT INFLUENCE OF TYPE I BURSTS ON THE ACCRETION IN 4U 1608-52?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ji, Long; Zhang, Shu; Chen, YuPeng

    2014-08-20

    We investigated the possible feedback of type I bursts on the accretion process during the spectral evolution of the atoll source 4U 1608-52. By fitting the burst spectrum with a blackbody and an adjustable, persistent spectral component, we found that the latter is significantly state-dependent. In the banana state, the persistent flux increases along the burst evolution, while in the island state this trend holds only when the bursts are less luminous and start to reverse at higher burst luminosities. We speculate that, by taking into account both the Poynting-Robertson drag and radiation pressure, these phenomena may arise from the interactionsmore » between the radiation field of the type I burst and the inner region of the accretion disk.« less

  6. Rare-Earth Oxide (Yb2O3) Selective Emitter Fabrication and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennette, Bryan; Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth; Tucker, Dennis; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This investigation involved the fabrication and evaluation of rare-earth oxide selective emitters. The first goal of this study was to successfully fabricate the selective emitter samples using paper and ceramic materials processing techniques. The resulting microstructure was also analyzed using a Scanning Electron Microscope. All selective emitter samples fabricated for this study were made with ytterbium oxide (Yb2O3). The second goal of this study involved the measurement of the spectral emission and the radiated power of all the selective emitter samples. The final goal of this study involved the direct comparison of the radiated power emitted by the selective emitter samples to that of a standard blackbody at the same temperature and within the same wavelength range.

  7. Measurements of downwelling far-infrared radiance during the RHUBC-II campaign at Cerro Toco, Chile and comparisons with line-by-line radiative transfer calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Jeffrey C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Cageao, Richard P.; Kratz, David P.; Latvakoski, Harri; Johnson, David G.; Turner, David D.; Mlawer, Eli J.

    2017-09-01

    Downwelling radiances at the Earth's surface measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water (IPW) as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. FIRST (a Fourier transform spectrometer) was deployed from August through October 2009 at 5.38 km MSL on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2 (RHUBC-II), the goal of which is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy. Radiosonde water vapor and temperature vertical profiles are input into the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute modeled radiances. The LBLRTM minus FIRST residual spectrum is calculated to assess agreement. Uncertainties (1-σ) in both the measured and modeled radiances are also determined. Measured and modeled radiances nearly all agree to within combined (total) uncertainties. Features exceeding uncertainties can be corrected into the combined uncertainty by increasing water vapor and model continuum absorption, however this may not be necessary due to 1-σ uncertainties (68% confidence). Furthermore, the uncertainty in the measurement-model residual is very large and no additional information on the adequacy of current water vapor spectral line or continuum absorption parameters may be derived. Similar future experiments in similarly cold and dry environments will require absolute accuracy of 0.1% of a 273 K blackbody in radiance and water vapor accuracy of ∼3% in the profile layers contributing to downwelling radiance at the surface.

  8. FSD: Frequency Space Differential measurement of CMB spectral distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Silk, Joseph; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-07-01

    Although the cosmic microwave background (CMB) agrees with a perfect blackbody spectrum within the current experimental limits, it is expected to exhibit certain spectral distortions with known spectral properties. We propose a new method Frequency Space Differential (FSD) to measure the spectral distortions in the CMB spectrum by using the inter-frequency differences of the brightness temperature. The difference between the observed CMB temperature at different frequencies must agree with the frequency derivative of the blackbody spectrum in the absence of any distortion. However, in the presence of spectral distortions, the measured inter-frequency differences would also exhibit deviations from blackbody that can be modelled for known sources of spectral distortions like y and μ. Our technique uses FSD information for the CMB blackbody, y, μ, or any other sources of spectral distortions to model the observed signal. Successful application of this method in future CMB missions can provide an alternative method to extract spectral distortion signals and can potentially make it feasible to measure spectral distortions without an internal blackbody calibrator.

  9. The 2006-2007 Active Phase Of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts, and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavril, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in >11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 8-3x10(exp 3)s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx. 2 - 6 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus three emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4)x10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. We discuss these events in the context of the magnetar model.

  10. Landauer's formula breakdown for radiative heat transfer and nonequilibrium Casimir forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio López, Adrián E.; Poggi, Pablo M.; Lombardo, Fernando C.; Giannini, Vincenzo

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we analyze the incidence of the plates' thickness on the Casimir force and radiative heat transfer for a configuration of parallel plates in a nonequilibrium scenario, relating to Lifshitz's and Landauer's formulas. From a first-principles canonical quantization scheme for the study of the matter-field interaction, we give closed-form expressions for the nonequilibrium Casimir force and the heat transfer between plates of thicknesses dL,dR . We distinguish three different contributions to the Casimir force and the heat transfer in the general nonequilibrium situation: two associated with each of the plates and one to the initial state of the field. We analyze the dependence of the Casimir force and heat transfer with the plate thickness (setting dL=dR≡d ), showing the scale at which each magnitude converges to the value of infinite thickness (d →+∞ ) and how to correctly reproduce the nonequilibrium Lifshitz's formula. For the heat transfer, we show that Landauer's formula does not apply to every case (where the three contributions are present), but it is correct for some specific situations. We also analyze the interplay of the different contributions for realistic experimental and nanotechnological conditions, showing the impact of the thickness in the measurements. For small thicknesses (compared to the separation distance), the plates act to decrease the background blackbody flux, while for large thicknesses the heat is given by the baths' contribution only. The combination of these behaviors allows for the possibility, on one hand, of having a tunable minimum in the heat transfer that is experimentally attainable and observable for metals and, on the other hand, of having vanishing heat flux in the gap when those difference are of opposite signs (thermal shielding). These features turns out to be relevant for nanotechnological applications.

  11. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  12. Black Hole Universe Model for Explaining GRBs, X-Ray Flares, and Quasars as Emissions of Dynamic Star-like, Massive, and Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-01-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach’s principle, governed by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, and acceleration of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates the emissions of dynamic black holes according to the black hole universe model and provides a self-consistent explanation for the observations of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flares, and quasars as emissions of dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes. It is shown that a black hole, when it accretes its ambient matter or merges with other black holes, becomes dynamic. Since the event horizon of a dynamic black hole is broken, the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation leaks out. The leakage of the inside hot blackbody radiation leads to a GRB if it is a star-like black hole, an X-ray flare if it is a massive black hole like the one at the center of the Milky Way, or a quasar if it is a supermassive black hole like an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The energy spectra and amount of emissions produced by the dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes can be consistent with the measurements of GRBs, X-ray flares, and quasars.

  13. Why Don't We See in the Infrared?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    1998-12-01

    Solar radiation reaching the surface of the Earth includes a wide range of wavelengths and frequencies, with the peak of intensity including the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In fact, the largest number of solar photons reaching our eyes arrives in the near infrared. Why, then, don't we see the world in the infrared? Many astronomy textbooks, both elementary and advanced, argue that the human eye has evolved to act as a kind of `solar Wien peak detector'. They note that if one uses the effective solar blackbody temperature of 5770 K, then, according to Wien's displacement law, the peak of the solar flux occurs at a wavelength of about 503 nm. Rods in the human eye peak in sensitivity at about 507 nm. Therefore, according to this line of reasoning, the human eye has evolved to avail itself of the Wien peak of the solar spectrum. (However, it should be noted that the peak sensitivity of the three different kinds of cones range from about 420 nm to about 560 nm). This astronomical argument is, at best, misleading. The solar blackbody spectrum, evaluated as a function of frequency, has a peak at about 340 THz. This is in the near infrared at a wavelength of about 884 nm. Since the human eye acts as an efficient quantum detector of photons, this is the appropriate solar radiation referent. Thus the Wien peak of the solar spectrum is not the reason that the eye's (scotopic) sensitivity peaks in the green. Many other factors contribute. Probably the most important are biochemical ones, which are constrained by available molecules such as rhodopsin that are useful for radiation to matter energy transfer. Physics also plays a role, because of absorption, scattering, refraction and diffraction. Other effects, including the Earth's atmospheric transmission and terrestrial surface reflectivities, may also matter.

  14. Radiation transport calculations for cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Endo, A; Sato, T

    2012-01-01

    The radiation environment inside and near spacecraft consists of various components of primary radiation in space and secondary radiation produced by the interaction of the primary radiation with the walls and equipment of the spacecraft. Radiation fields inside astronauts are different from those outside them, because of the body's self-shielding as well as the nuclear fragmentation reactions occurring in the human body. Several computer codes have been developed to simulate the physical processes of the coupled transport of protons, high-charge and high-energy nuclei, and the secondary radiation produced in atomic and nuclear collision processes in matter. These computer codes have been used in various space radiation protection applications: shielding design for spacecraft and planetary habitats, simulation of instrument and detector responses, analysis of absorbed doses and quality factors in organs and tissues, and study of biological effects. This paper focuses on the methods and computer codes used for radiation transport calculations on cosmic radiation, and their application to the analysis of radiation fields inside spacecraft, evaluation of organ doses in the human body, and calculation of dose conversion coefficients using the reference phantoms defined in ICRP Publication 110. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Spectral infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements for LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Bobby E.; Cromwell, Brian K.; Pender, Charles W.; Shepherd, Seth D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements (2-15 microns) that were made on 58 chromic acid anodized tray clamps retrieved from the LDEF spacecraft. These clamps were used for maintaining the experiments in place and were located at various locations about the spacecraft. Changes in reflectance of the tray clamps at these locations were compared with atomic oxygen fluxes at the same locations. A decrease in absorption band depth was seen for the surfaces exposed to space indicating that there was some surface layer erosion. In all of the surfaces measured, little evidence of contamination was observed and none of the samples showed evidence of the brown nicotine stain that was so prominent in other experiments. Total emissivity values were calculated for both exposed and unexposed tray clamp surfaces. Only small differences, usually less than 1 percent, were observed. The spectral reflectances were measured using a hemi-ellipsoidal mirror reflectometer matched with an interferometer spectrometer. The rapid scanning capability of the interferometer allowed the reflectance measurements to be made in a timely fashion. The ellipsoidal mirror has its two foci separated by 2 inches and located on the major axis. A blackbody source was located at one focus while the tray clamp samples were located at the conjugate focus. The blackbody radiation was modulated and then focused by the ellipsoid onto the tray clamps. Radiation reflected from the tray clamp was sampled by the interferometer by viewing through a hole in the ellipsoid. A gold mirror (reflectance approximately 98 percent) was used as the reference surface.

  16. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS AND UPDATED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF FIVE SUNLIKE STARS WITH DEBRIS DISKS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Bryden, Geoff

    Observations from the Herschel Space Observatory have more than doubled the number of wide debris disks orbiting Sunlike stars to include over 30 systems with R  > 100 AU. Here, we present new Herschel PACS and reanalyzed Spitzer MIPS photometry of five Sunlike stars with wide debris disks, from Kuiper Belt size to R  > 150 AU. The disk surrounding HD 105211 is well resolved, with an angular extent of >14″ along the major axis, and the disks of HD 33636, HD 50554, and HD 52265 are extended beyond the PACS point-spread function size (50% of energy enclosed within radius 4.″23). HD 105211 also has a 24more » μ m infrared excess, which was previously overlooked, because of a poorly constrained photospheric model. Archival Spitzer IRS observations indicate that the disks have small grains of minimum radius a {sub min} ∼ 3 μ m, although a {sub min} is larger than the radiation-pressure blowout size in all systems. If modeled as single-temperature blackbodies, the disk temperatures would all be <60 K. Our radiative transfer models predict actual disk radii approximately twice the radius of a model blackbody disk. We find that the Herschel photometry traces dust near the source population of planetesimals. The disk luminosities are in the range 2 × 10{sup −5} ⩽  L / L {sub ⊙} ⩽ 2 × 10{sup −4}, consistent with collisions in icy planetesimal belts stirred by Pluto-size dwarf planets.« less

  17. Micro rectennas: Brownian ratchets for thermal-energy harvesting

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pan, Y.; Powell, C. V.; Balocco, C., E-mail: claudio.balocco@durham.ac.uk

    2014-12-22

    We experimentally demonstrated the operation of a rectenna for harvesting thermal (blackbody) radiation and converting it into dc electric power. The device integrates an ultrafast rectifier, the self-switching nanodiode, with a wideband log-periodic spiral microantenna. The radiation from the thermal source drives the rectenna out of thermal equilibrium, permitting the rectification of the excess thermal fluctuations from the antenna. The power conversion efficiency increases with the source temperatures up to 0.02% at 973 K. The low efficiency is attributed mainly to the impedance mismatch between antenna and rectifier, and partially to the large field of view of the antenna. Our devicemore » not only opens a potential solution for harvesting thermal energy but also provides a platform for experimenting with Brownian ratchets.« less

  18. The development of hurricane Inez, 1966, as shown by satellite nighttime radiometric and daytime television coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A complete documentation of Numbus 2 High Resolution infrared Radiometer data and ESSA-1 and 3 television photographs is presented for the life-time of Hurricane Inez, 1966. Ten computer produced radiation charts were analyzed in order to delineate the three dimensional cloud structure during the formative, mature and dissipating stages of this tropical cyclone. Time sections were drawn throughout the storm's life cycle to relate the warm core development and upper level outflow of the storm with their respective cloud canopies, as shown by the radiation data. Aerial reconnaissance weather reports, radar photographs and conventional weather analyses were used to complement the satellite data. A computer program was utilized to accept Nimbus 2 HRIR equivalent blackbody temperatures within historical maximum and minimum sea surface temperature limits over the tropical Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Energy and Emission Characteristics of a Short-Arc Xenon Flash Lamp Under "Saturated" Optical Brightness Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamrukov, A. S.; Kireev, S. G.; Kozlov, N. P.; Shashkovskii, S. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study of the electrical, energy, and spectral brightness characteristics of an experimental three-electrode high-pressure xenon flash lamp under conditions ensuring close to maximum possible spectral brightness for the xenon emission. We show that under saturated optical brightness conditions (brightness temperature in the visible region of the spectrum 30,000 K), emission of a pulsed discharge in xenon is quite different from the emission from an ideal blackbody: the maximum brightness temperatures are 24,000 K in the short-wavelength UV region and 19,000 K in the near IR range. The relative fraction of UV radiation in the emission spectrum of the lamp is >50%, which lets us consider such lamps as promising broadband sources of radiation with high spectral brightness for many important practical applications.

  20. Airborne interferometer for atmospheric emission and solar absorption.

    PubMed

    Keith, D W; Dykema, J A; Hu, H; Lapson, L; Anderson, J G

    2001-10-20

    The interferometer for emission and solar absorption (INTESA) is an infrared spectrometer designed to study radiative transfer in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from a NASA ER-2 aircraft. The Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) operates from 0.7 to 50 mum with a resolution of 0.7 cm(-1). The FTS observes atmospheric thermal emission from multiple angles above and below the aircraft. A heliostat permits measurement of solar absorption spectra. INTESA's calibration system includes three blackbodies to permit in-flight assessment of radiometric error. Results suggest that the in-flight radiometric accuracy is ~0.5 K in the mid-infrared.

  1. Diffusive, Supersonic X-ray Transport in Foam Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Christina A.

    1999-11-01

    Diffusive supersonic radiation transport, where the ratio of the diffusive radiation front velocity to the material sound speed >2 has been studied in a series of laboratory experiments on low density foams. This work is of interest for radiation transport in basic science and astrophysics. The Marshak radiation wave transport is studied for both low and high Z foam materials and for different length foams in a novel hohlraum geometry that allows direct comparisons with 2-dimensional analytic models and code simulations. The radiation wave is created by a ~ 80 eV near blackbody 12-ns long drive or a ~ 200 eV 1.2-2.4 ns long drive generated by laser-heated Au hohlraums. The targets are SiO2 and Ta2O5 aerogel foams of varying lengths which span 10 to 50 mg/cc densities. Clean signatures of radiation breakout were observed by radially resolved face-on transmission measurements of the radiation flux at a photon energy of 250 eV or 550 eV. The high quality data provides new detailed information on the importance of both the fill and wall material opacities and heat capacities in determining the radiation front speed and curvature. note number.

  2. Max Planck and the birth of the quantum hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Based on the functional dependence of entropy on energy, and on Wien's distribution for black-body radiation, Max Planck obtained a formula for this radiation by an interpolation relation that fitted the experimental measurements of thermal radiation at the Physikalisch Technishe Reichanstalt (PTR) in Berlin in the late 19th century. Surprisingly, his purely phenomenological result turned out to be not just an approximation, as would have been expected, but an exact relation. To obtain a physical interpretation for his formula, Planck then turned to Boltzmann's 1877 paper on the statistical interpretation of entropy, which led him to introduce the fundamental concept of energy discreteness into physics. A novel aspect of our account that has been missed in previous historical studies of Planck's discovery is to show that Planck could have found his phenomenological formula partially derived in Boltzmann's paper in terms of a variational parameter. But the dependence of this parameter on temperature is not contained in this paper, and it was first derived by Planck.

  3. Estimation of optimum density and temperature for maximum efficiency of tin ions in Z discharge extreme ultraviolet sources

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Masnavi, Majid; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Hotta, Eiki

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) discharge-based lamps for EUV lithography need to generate extremely high power in the narrow spectrum band of 13.5{+-}0.135 nm. A simplified collisional-radiative model and radiative transfer solution for an isotropic medium were utilized to investigate the wavelength-integrated light outputs in tin (Sn) plasma. Detailed calculations using the Hebrew University-Lawrence Livermore atomic code were employed for determination of necessary atomic data of the Sn{sup 4+} to Sn{sup 13+} charge states. The result of model is compared with experimental spectra from a Sn-based discharge-produced plasma. The analysis reveals that considerably larger efficiency compared to the so-called efficiency of amore » black-body radiator is formed for the electron density {approx_equal}10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. For higher electron density, the spectral efficiency of Sn plasma reduces due to the saturation of resonance transitions.« less

  4. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  5. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Dose Calculator Use the Radiation ... the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) Radiation Protection Radiation Sources and Doses Calculate Your Radiation Dose ...

  6. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and typically one to two years of clinical physics training. They are certified by the American Board of Radiology or the American Board of Medical Physics . Radiation Therapist Radiation therapists work with radiation oncologists. ...

  7. Time-Resolved Properties and Global Trends in dMe Flares from Simultaneous Photometry and Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.

    We present a homogeneous survey of near-ultraviolet (NUV) /optical line and continuum emission during twenty M dwarf flares with simultaneous, high cadence photometry and spectra. These data were obtained to study the white-light continuum components to the blue and red of the Balmer jump to break the degeneracy with fitting emission mechanisms to broadband colors and to provide constraints for radiative-hydrodynamic flare models that seek to reproduce the white-light flare emission. The main results from the continuum analysis are the following: 1) the detection of Balmer continuum (in emission) that is present during all flares, with a wide range of relative contribution to the continuum flux in the NUV; 2) a blue continuum at the peak of the photometry that is linear with wavelength from λ = 4000 - 4800Å, matched by the spectral shape of hot, blackbody emission with typical temperatures of 10 000 - 12 000 K; 3) a redder continuum apparent at wavelengths longer than Hβ; this continuum becomes relatively more important to the energy budget during the late gradual phase. The hot blackbody component and redder continuum component (which we call "the conundruum") have been detected in previous UBVR colorimetry studies of flares. With spectra, one can compare the properties and detailed timings of all three components. Using time-resolved spectra during the rise phase of three flares, we calculate the speed of an expanding flare region assuming a simple geometry; the speeds are found to be ~5- 10 km s-1 and 50 - 120 km s -1, which are strikingly consistent with the speeds at which two-ribbon flares develop on the Sun. The main results from the emission line analysis are 1) the presentation of the "time-decrement", a relation between the timescales of the Balmer series; 2) a Neupert-like relation between Ca \\pcy K and the blackbody continuum, and 3) the detection of absorption wings in the Hydrogen Balmer lines during times of peak continuum emission, indicative of

  8. Sensor for performance monitoring of advanced gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latvakoski, Harri M.; Markham, James R.; Harrington, James A.; Haan, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced thermal coating materials are being developed for use in the combustor section of high performance turbine engines to allow for higher combustion temperatures. To optimize the use of these thermal barrier coatings (TBC), accurate surface temperature measurements are required to understand their response to changes in the combustion environment. Present temperature sensors, which are based on the measurement of emitted radiation, are not well studied for coated turbine blades since their operational wavelengths are not optimized for the radiative properties of the TBC. This work is concerned with developing an instrument to provide accurate, real-time measurements of the temperature of TBC blades in an advanced turbine engine. The instrument will determine the temperature form a measurement of the radiation emitted at the optimum wavelength, where the TBC radiates as a near-blackbody. The operational wavelength minimizes interference from the high temperature and pressure environment. A hollow waveguide is used to transfer the radiation from the engine cavity to a high-speed detector and data acquisition system. A prototype of this system was successfully tested at an atmospheric burner test facility, and an on-engine version is undergoing testing for installation on a high-pressure rig.

  9. Photothermal effects during nanodiamond synthesis from a carbon aerogel in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Crane, Matthew J.; Smith, Bennett E.; Meisenheimer, Peter B.

    Nanodiamonds have emerged as promising materials for quantum computing, biolabeling, and sensing due to their ability to host color centers with remarkable photostability and long spin-coherence times at room temperature. Recently, a bottom-up, high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) approach was demonstrated for growing nanodiamonds with color centers from amorphous carbon precursors in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) that was supported by a near-hydrostatic noble gas pressure medium. However, a detailed understanding of the photothermal heating and its effect on diamond growth, including the phase conversion conditions and the temperature-dependence of color center formation, has not been reported. In this work, wemore » measure blackbody radiation during LH-DAC synthesis of nanodiamond from carbon aerogel to examine these temperature-dependent effects. Blackbody temperature measurements suggest that nanodiamond growth can occur at 16.3 GPa and 1800 K. We use Mie theory and analytical heat transport to develop a predictive photothermal heating model. This model demonstrates that melting the noble gas pressure medium during laser heating decreases the local thermal conductivity to drive a high spatial resolution of phase conversion to diamond. In conclusion, we observe a temperature-dependent formation of nitrogen vacancy centers and interpret this phenomenon in the context of HPHT carbon vacancy diffusion.« less

  10. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Evtushenko, Pavel E.; Klopf, John M.

    Frequency domain measurements with Martin-Puplett interferometer is one of a few techniques capable of bunch length measurements at the level of ~ 100 fs. As the bunch length becomes shorter, it is important to know and be able to measure the limitations of the instrument in terms of shortest measurable bunch length. In this paper we describe an experiment using a blackbody source with the modified Martin-Puplett interferometer that is routine- ly used for bunch length measurements at the JLab FEL, as a way to estimate the shortest, measurable bunch length. The limitation comes from high frequency cut-off of themore » wire-grid polarizer currently used and is estimated to be 50 fs RMS. The measurements are made with the same Golay cell detector that is used for beam measure- ments. We demonstrate that, even though the blackbody source is many orders of magnitude less bright than the coherent transition or synchrotron radiation, it can be used for the measurements and gives a very good signal to noise ratio in combination with lock-in detection. We also compare the measurements made in air and in vacuum to characterize the very strong effect of the atmospheric absorption.« less

  11. The Multiple Continuum Components in the White-Light Flare of 16 January 2009 on the dM4.5e Star YZ CMi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, A. F.; Hawley, S. L.; Holtzman, J. A.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Hilton, E. J.

    2012-03-01

    The white light during M dwarf flares has long been known to exhibit the broadband shape of a T≈10 000 K blackbody, and the white light in solar-flares is thought to arise primarily from hydrogen recombination. Yet, a current lack of broad-wavelength coverage solar flare spectra in the optical/near-UV region prohibits a direct comparison of the continuum properties to determine if they are indeed so different. New spectroscopic observations of a secondary flare during the decay of a megaflare on the dM4.5e star YZ CMi have revealed multiple components in the white-light continuum of stellar flares, including both a blackbody-like spectrum and a hydrogen-recombination spectrum. One of the most surprising findings is that these two components are anti-correlated in their temporal evolution. We combine initial phenomenological modeling of the continuum components with spectra from radiative hydrodynamic models to show that continuum veiling causes the measured anti-correlation. This modeling allows us to use the components' inferred properties to predict how a similar spatially resolved, multiple-component, white-light continuum might appear using analogies to several solar-flare phenomena. We also compare the properties of the optical stellar flare white light to Ellerman bombs on the Sun.

  12. A SUPER-EDDINGTON, COMPTON-THICK WIND IN GRO J1655–40?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Neilsen, J.; Homan, J.; Rahoui, F.

    2016-05-01

    During its 2005 outburst, GRO J1655–40 was observed at high spectral resolution with the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, revealing a spectrum rich with blueshifted absorption lines indicative of an accretion disk wind—apparently too hot, too dense, and too close to the black hole to be driven by radiation pressure or thermal pressure (Miller et al.). However, this exotic wind represents just one piece of the puzzle in this outburst, as its presence coincides with an extremely soft and curved X-ray continuum spectrum, remarkable X-ray variability (Uttley and Klein-Wolt), and a bright, unexpected optical/infrared blackbody component that varies on themore » orbital period. Focusing on the X-ray continuum and the optical/infrared/UV spectral energy distribution, we argue that the unusual features of this “hypersoft state” are natural consequences of a super-Eddington Compton-thick wind from the disk: the optical/infrared blackbody represents the cool photosphere of a dense, extended outflow, while the X-ray emission is explained as Compton scattering by the relatively cool, optically thick wind. This wind obscures the intrinsic luminosity of the inner disk, which we suggest may have been at or above the Eddington limit.« less

  13. Photothermal effects during nanodiamond synthesis from a carbon aerogel in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    DOE PAGES

    Crane, Matthew J.; Smith, Bennett E.; Meisenheimer, Peter B.; ...

    2018-05-17

    Nanodiamonds have emerged as promising materials for quantum computing, biolabeling, and sensing due to their ability to host color centers with remarkable photostability and long spin-coherence times at room temperature. Recently, a bottom-up, high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) approach was demonstrated for growing nanodiamonds with color centers from amorphous carbon precursors in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) that was supported by a near-hydrostatic noble gas pressure medium. However, a detailed understanding of the photothermal heating and its effect on diamond growth, including the phase conversion conditions and the temperature-dependence of color center formation, has not been reported. In this work, wemore » measure blackbody radiation during LH-DAC synthesis of nanodiamond from carbon aerogel to examine these temperature-dependent effects. Blackbody temperature measurements suggest that nanodiamond growth can occur at 16.3 GPa and 1800 K. We use Mie theory and analytical heat transport to develop a predictive photothermal heating model. This model demonstrates that melting the noble gas pressure medium during laser heating decreases the local thermal conductivity to drive a high spatial resolution of phase conversion to diamond. In conclusion, we observe a temperature-dependent formation of nitrogen vacancy centers and interpret this phenomenon in the context of HPHT carbon vacancy diffusion.« less

  14. The Observed Galactic Annihilation Line: Possible Signature of Accreting Small Mass Black Holes in the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Chardonnet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Various balloon and satellite observatories have revealed what appears to be an extended source of 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation with flux of approx. 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s centered on the Galactic Center. Positrons from radioactive products of stellar explosions can account for a significant fraction of the emission. We discuss an additional source for this emission: namely e(+)e(-) pairs produced when X-rays generated from the approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 6) solar mass Galactic Center Black Hole interact with approx. 10 MeV temperature blackbody emission from 10(exp 17) g black holes within 10(exp 14-l5) cm of the center. The number of such Small Mass Black Holes (SMMBHs) can account for the production of the 10(exp 42) e(+)/s that produces the observed annihilation in the inner Galaxy when transport effects are taken into account. We consider the possibility for confirming the presence of these SMMBHs in the Galactic Center region with future generations of gamma-ray instruments if a blackbody like emission of approx. 10 MeV temperature would be detected by them. Small Mass Black Hole can be a potential candidate for dark (invisible) matter hal

  15. An Unusual Stellar Death on Christmas Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thone, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Aloy, M. A.; Perley, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Janka, H. T.; Mimica, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most dramatic examples of massive stellar deaths, usually associated with supernovae. They release ultra-relativistic jets producing non-thermal emission through synchrotron radiation as they interact with the surrounding medium. Here we report observations of the peculiar GRB 101225A (the "Christmas burst"). Its gamma-ray emission was exceptionally long and followed by a bright X-ray transient with a hot thermal component and an unusual optical couuterpart. During the first 10 days, the optical emission evolved as an expanding, cooling blackbody after which an additional component, consistent with a faint supernova, emerged. We determine its distance to 1.6 Gpc by fitting the spectral-energy distribution and light curve of the optical emission with a GRB-supernova template. Deep optical observations may have revealed a faint, unresolved host galaxy. Our proposed progenitor is a helium star-neutron star merger that underwent a common envelope phase expelling its hydrogen envelope. The resulting explosion created a GRB-like jet which gets thermalized by interacting with the dense, previously ejected material and thus creating the observed black-body, until finally the emission from the supernova dominated. An alternative explanation is a minor body falling onto a neutron star io the Galaxy

  16. Operational methods of thermodynamics. Volume 1 - Temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, F. X.

    The principles of thermometry are examined, taking into account the concept of temperature, the Kelvin scale, the statistical theory of heat, negative absolute temperatures, the thermodynamic temperature scale, the thermodynamic temperature scale below 1 K, noise thermometry, temperature scales based on black-body radiation, acoustical thermometry, and the International Practical Temperature Scale 1968. Aspects of practical temperature measurement are discussed, giving attention to thermometers based on the expansion of a gas or a liquid, instruments utilizing the relative thermal expansion of two different metals, devices measuring the vapor pressure of a liquid, thermocouples, resistance thermometers, radiation pyrometers of various types, instruments utilizing the temperature dependence of a number of material characteristics, devices for temperature control, thermometer calibration, and aspects of thermometer installation and inertia. A description is presented of the approaches employed for the measurement of low temperatures.

  17. The Vela pulsar with an active fallback disk

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Özsükan, Gökçe; Ekşi, K. Yavuz; Hambaryan, Valeri

    2014-11-20

    Fallback disks are expected to form around young neutron stars. The presence of these disks can be revealed by their blackbody spectrum in the infrared, optical, and UV bands. We present a re-reduction of the archival optical and infrared data of the Vela pulsar, together with the existing infrared and UV spectrum of Vela, and model their unpulsed components with the blackbody spectrum of a supernova debris disk. We invoke the quiescent disk solution of Sunyaev and Shakura for the description of the disk in the propeller stage and find the inner radius of the disk to be inside themore » light cylinder radius. We perform a high-resolution X-ray analysis with XMM-Newton and find a narrow absorption feature at 0.57 keV that can be interpreted as the K {sub α} line of He-like oxygen (O VII). The strength of the line indicates an element over-abundance in our line of sight exceeding the amounts that would be expected from interstellar medium. The spectral feature may originate from the pulsar wind nebula and may be partly caused by the reprocessed X-ray radiation by the fallback disk. We discuss the lower-than-three braking index of Vela as partially due to the contribution of the propeller torques. Our results suggest that the pulsar mechanism can work simultaneously with the propeller processes and that the debris disks can survive the radiation pressure for at least ∼10{sup 4} yr. As Vela is a relatively close object, and a prototypical pulsar, the presence of a disk, if confirmed, may indicate the ubiquity of debris disks around young neutron stars.« less

  18. An application of statistical mechanics for representing equilibrium perimeter distributions of tropical convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.; Alva, S.; Glenn, I. B.; Krueger, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    There are two possible approaches for parameterizing sub-grid cloud dynamics in a coarser grid model. The most common is to use a fine scale model to explicitly resolve the mechanistic details of clouds to the best extent possible, and then to parameterize these behaviors cloud state for the coarser grid. A second is to invoke physical intuition and some very general theoretical principles from equilibrium statistical mechanics. This approach avoids any requirement to resolve time-dependent processes in order to arrive at a suitable solution. The second approach is widely used elsewhere in the atmospheric sciences: for example the Planck function for blackbody radiation is derived this way, where no mention is made of the complexities of modeling a large ensemble of time-dependent radiation-dipole interactions in order to obtain the "grid-scale" spectrum of thermal emission by the blackbody as a whole. We find that this statistical approach may be equally suitable for modeling convective clouds. Specifically, we make the physical argument that the dissipation of buoyant energy in convective clouds is done through mixing across a cloud perimeter. From thermodynamic reasoning, one might then anticipate that vertically stacked isentropic surfaces are characterized by a power law dlnN/dlnP = -1, where N(P) is the number clouds of perimeter P. In a Giga-LES simulation of convective clouds within a 100 km square domain we find that such a power law does appear to characterize simulated cloud perimeters along isentropes, provided a sufficient cloudy sample. The suggestion is that it may be possible to parameterize certain important aspects of cloud state without appealing to computationally expensive dynamic simulations.

  19. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activitymore » data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.« less

  20. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 1: physics, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Doran M; Jenkins, Mark S; Sugarman, Stephen L; Glassman, Erik S

    2014-03-01

    Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses are exceedingly rare; therefore, most physicians have never managed such conditions. When confronted with a possible radiation injury or illness, most physicians must seek specialty consultation. Protection of responders, health care workers, and patients is an absolute priority for the delivery of medical care. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, as well as radiation protection, requires a basic understanding of physics. Also, to provide a greater measure of safety when working with radioactive materials, instrumentation for detection and identification of radiation is needed. Because any health care professional could face a radiation emergency, it is imperative that all institutions have emergency response plans in place before an incident occurs. The present article is an introduction to basic physics, ionizing radiation, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation, and it provides a basis for management of the consequences of a radiologic or nuclear incident.

  1. First Octahedral Spherical Hohlraum Energetics Experiment at the SGIII Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Wen Yi; Li, Zhichao; Chen, Yao-Hua; Xie, Xufei; Ren, Guoli; Cao, Hui; Li, Shu; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Li, Yongsheng; Li, Sanwei; Guo, Liang; Liu, Yonggang; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Xiaohua; Hou, Lifei; Du, Huabing; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Chaoguang; Zhan, Xiayu; Wang, Zhebin; Deng, Keli; Wang, Qiangqiang; Deng, Bo; Wang, Feng; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Yuan, Guanghui; Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Baibin; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Qianqian; He, Zhibing; Du, Kai; Deng, Xuewei; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Liquan; Huang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yuancheng; Hu, Dongxia; Zheng, Kuixing; Zhu, Qihua; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-04-01

    The first octahedral spherical hohlraum energetics experiment is accomplished at the SGIII laser facility. For the first time, the 32 laser beams are injected into the octahedral spherical hohlraum through six laser entrance holes. Two techniques are used to diagnose the radiation field of the octahedral spherical hohlraum in order to obtain comprehensive experimental data. The radiation flux streaming out of laser entrance holes is measured by six flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRDs) and four M -band x-ray detectors, which are placed at different locations of the SGIII target chamber. The radiation temperature is derived from the measured flux of FXRD by using the blackbody assumption. The peak radiation temperature inside hohlraum is determined by the shock wave technique. The experimental results show that the octahedral spherical hohlraum radiation temperature is in the range of 170-182 eV with drive laser energies of 71 kJ to 84 kJ. The radiation temperature inside the hohlraum determined by the shock wave technique is about 175 eV at 71 kJ. For the flat-top laser pulse of 3 ns, the conversion efficiency of gas-filled octahedral spherical hohlraum from laser into soft x rays is about 80% according to the two-dimensional numerical simulation.

  2. Directional radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Dowell, Jonathan L.

    2017-09-12

    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  3. Development of a LED based standard for luminous flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardinha, André; Ázara, Ivo; Torres, Miguel; Menegotto, Thiago; Grieneisen, Hans Peter; Borghi, Giovanna; Couceiro, Iakyra; Zim, Alexandre; Muller, Filipe

    2018-03-01

    Incandescent lamps, simple artifacts with radiation spectrum very similar to a black-body emitter, are traditional standards in photometry. Nowadays LEDs are broadly used in lighting, with great variety of spectra, and it is convenient to use standards for photometry with spectral distribution similar to that of the measured artifact. Research and development of such standards occur in several National Metrology Institutes. In Brazil, Inmetro is working on a practical solution for providing a LED based standard to be used for luminous flux measurements in the field of general lighting. This paper shows the measurements made for the developing of a prototype, that in sequence will be characterized in photometric quantities.

  4. Quantum key distribution over a 72 dB channel loss using ultralow dark count superconducting single-photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroyuki; Honjo, Toshimori; Shimizu, Kaoru

    2014-09-01

    We report the first quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment over a 72 dB channel loss using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPD, SNSPD) with the dark count rate (DCR) of 0.01 cps. The DCR of the SSPD, which is dominated by the blackbody radiation at room temperature, is blocked by introducing cold optical bandpass filter. We employ the differential phase shift QKD (DPS-QKD) scheme with a 1 GHz system clock rate. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) below 3% is achieved when the length of the dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) is 336 km (72 dB loss), which is low enough to generate secure keys.

  5. In search of the black swans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Mark

    2009-04-01

    In 1890 an electricity company enticed the German physicist Max Planck to help it in its efforts to make more efficient light bulbs. Planck, as a theorist, naturally started with the fundamentals and soon became enmeshed in the thorny problem of explaining the spectrum of black-body radiation, which he eventually did by introducing the idea - a "purely formal" assumption, as he then considered it - that electromagnetic energy can only be emitted or absorbed in discrete quanta. The rest is history. Electric light bulbs and mathematical necessity led Planck to discover quantum theory and to kick start the most significant scientific revolution of the 20th century.

  6. Selected highly charged ions as prospective candidates for optical clocks with quality factors larger than 1015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan-mei; Sahoo, B. K.

    2018-04-01

    The Ni12 +, Cu13 +, Pd12 +, and Ag13 + highly charged ions (HCIs) are proposed for making very accurate optical clocks with the fractional uncertainties below 10-19 level. These HCIs have simple atomic energy levels, clock transitions with quality factors larger than 1015, and optical magnetic-dipole (M 1 ) transitions that can be used for laser cooling and detecting quantum jumps on the clock transitions by the shelving method. To demonstrate the projected fractional uncertainties, we estimate orders of magnitude of the Zeeman, Stark, blackbody radiation, and electric quadrupole shifts of the clock transitions by performing calculations of the relevant atomic properties in the above HCIs.

  7. Surface temperature of a magnetized neutron star and interpretation of the ROSAT data. 1: Dipole fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Dany

    1995-01-01

    We model the temperature distribution at the surface of a magnetized neutron star and study the effects on the observed X-ray spectra and light curves. Generalrelativistic effects, i.e., redshift and lensing, are fully taken into account. Atmospheric effects on the emitted spectral flux are not included: we consider only blackbody emission at the local effective temperature. In this first paper we restrict ourselves to dipole fields. General features are studied and compared with the ROSAT data from the pulsars 0833 - 45 (Vela), 0656 + 14, 0630 + 178 (Geminga), and 1055 - 52, the four cases for which there is strong evidence that thermal radiation from the stellar surface is detected. The composite spectra we obtain are not very different from a blackbody spectrum at the star's effective temperature. We conclude that, as far as blackbody spectra are considered, temperature estimates using single-temperature models give results practically identical to our composite models. The change of the (composite blackbody) spectrum with the star's rotational phase is also not very large and may be unobservable inmost cases. Gravitational lensing strongly suppresses the light curve pulsations. If a dipole field is assumed, pulsed fractions comparable to the observed ones can be obtained only with stellar radii larger than those which are predicted by current models of neutron star struture, or with low stellar masses. Moreover, the shapes of the theoretical light curves with dipole fields do not correspond to the observations. The use of magnetic spectra may raise the pulsed fraction sufficiently but will certainly make the discrepancy with the light curve shapes worse: dipole fields are not sufficient to interpret the data. Many neutron star models with a meson condensate or hypersons predict very small radii, and hence very strong lensing, which will require highly nondipolar fields to be able to reproduce the observed pulsed fractions, if possible at all: this may be a new

  8. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  9. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  10. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

    2011-11-25

    Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  11. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: detector spectral response effects on thermal emissive band calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong; Wu, Xiangqian

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will be aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) to supply data needed for operational weather forecasts and long-term climate variability studies, which depend on high quality data. Unlike the heritage operational GOES systems that have two or four detectors per band, ABI has hundreds of detectors per channel requiring calibration coefficients for each one. This increase in number of detectors poses new challenges for next generation sensors as each detector has a unique spectral response function (SRF) even though only one averaged SRF per band is used operationally to calibrate each detector. This simplified processing increases computational efficiency. Using measured system-level SRF data from pre-launch testing, we have the opportunity to characterize the calibration impact using measured SRFs, both per detector and as an average of detector-level SRFs similar to the operational version. We calculated the spectral response impacts for the thermal emissive bands (TEB) theoretically, by simulating the ABI response viewing an ideal blackbody and practically, with the measured ABI response to an external reference blackbody from the pre-launch TEB calibration test. The impacts from the practical case match the theoretical results using an ideal blackbody. The observed brightness temperature trends show structure across the array with magnitudes as large as 0.1 K for and 12 (9.61 µm), and 0.25 K for band 14 (11.2 µm) for a 300 K blackbody. The trends in the raw ABI signal viewing the blackbody support the spectral response measurements results, since they show similar trends in bands 12 (9.61µm), and 14 (11.2 µm), meaning that the spectral effects dominate the response differences between detectors for these bands. We further validated these effects using the radiometric bias calculated between calibrations using the external blackbody and

  12. Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This document is the Final Report for NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Grant 15-NIAC16A-0145, titled Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets. The research was focused on developing a system concept for probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets, such as Asteroids, Comets, Planets and Moons from a distant vantage, for example from a spacecraft that is orbiting the target (Hughes et al., 2015). The orbiting spacecraft is equipped with a high-power laser, which is run by electricity from photovoltaic panels. The laser is directed at a spot on the target. Materials on the surface of the target are heated by the laser beam, and begin to melt and then evaporate, forming a plume of asteroid molecules in front of the heated spot. The heated spot glows, producing blackbody illumination that is visible from the spacecraft, via a path through the evaporated plume. As the blackbody radiation from the heated spot passes through the plume of evaporated material, molecules in the plume absorb radiation in a manner that is specific to the rotational and vibrational characteristics of the specific molecules. A spectrometer aboard the spacecraft is used to observe absorption lines in the blackbody signal. The pattern of absorption can be used to estimate the molecular composition of materials in the plume, which originated on the target. Focusing on a single spot produces a borehole, and shallow subsurface profiling of the targets bulk composition is possible. At the beginning of the Phase I research, the estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the system was TRL-1. During the Phase I research, an end-to-end theoretical model of the sensor system was developed from first principles. The model includes laser energy and optical propagation, target heating, melting and evaporation of target material, plume density, thermal radiation from the heated spot, molecular cross section of likely asteroid materials, and estimation of the

  13. The structure and spectrum of a colliding-cloud system and its possible relationship to QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Macalpine, G. M.; Cox, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A collision between two gas clouds with initial densities of approximately 10 million per cu cm, velocities of about 1000 km/s, and radii of approximately 1 pc is investigated quantitatively by coupling a calculation of the radiation spectrum resulting from the anticipated shock fronts with a computation for the conversion of this high-energy radiation into optical emission in adjacent photoionized regions. The detailed structure of the colliding clouds is discussed, and the effects of an ambient magnetic field are considered. The combined emission-line spectrum is presented along with continuum emission estimates for thermal, synchrotron, and very-high-energy bremsstrahlung mechanisms. It is shown that significant continua can be produced over the range from 300 microns to 3 keV, including a blackbody contribution from a high-density neutral region between the shock fronts, free-free and free-bound radiation from the cooling zones directly behind the shocks, and free-free, free-bound, and two-photon radiation from the photoionized regions immediately ahead of and behind the cooling zones. The theoretical spectrum of the structure resulting from the collision is found to be similar in general and in some details to those observed for typical quasars.

  14. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  15. Experimental study of a SINIS detector response time at 350 GHz signal frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemzyakov, S.; Tarasov, M.; Mahashabde, S.; Yusupov, R.; Kuzmin, L.; Edelman, V.

    2018-03-01

    Response time constant of a SINIS bolometer integrated in an annular ring antenna was measured at a bath temperature of 100 mK. Samples comprising superconducting aluminium electrodes and normal-metal Al/Fe strip connected to electrodes via tunnel junctions were fabricated on oxidized Si substrate using shadow evaporation. The bolometer was illuminated by a fast black-body radiation source through a band-pass filter centered at 350 GHz with a passband of 7 GHz. Radiation source is a thin NiCr film on sapphire substrate. For rectangular 10÷100 μs current pulse the radiation front edge was rather sharp due to low thermal capacitance of NiCr film and low thermal conductivity of substrate at temperatures in the range 1-4 K. The rise time of the response was ~1-10 μs. This time presumably is limited by technical reasons: high dynamic resistance of series array of bolometers and capacitance of a long twisted pair wiring from SINIS bolometer to a room-temperature amplifier.

  16. Design and Construction of a Small Vacuum Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peawbang, P.; Thedsakhulwong, A.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research is designed and constructed of a small vacuum furnace. A cylindrical graphite was chosen as the material of the furnace, the cylinder aluminium and copper sheets were employed to prevent the heat radiation that transfers from the furnace to the chamber wall. A rotary pump used, the pressure of graphite furnace can be pumped up to 30 mTorr and heated up to 700 °C driving by wire and the temperature of the chamber wall is relatively remained too low. In addition, heat loss obtained from the graphite furnace by conduction, convection, and radiation were analyzed. The dominating heat loss was found to be caused by the blackbody radiation, which can thus be used to estimate the relationship between graphite furnace temperature and the drive power needed. The cylindrical graphite furnace has an inner diameter of 44 mm, the outer diameter of 60 mm and 45 mm in height, the 355.5 W of power is needed to drive the furnace to 700 °C.

  17. A physically based algorithm for non-blackbody correction of the cloud top temperature for the convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Luo, Z. J.; Chen, X.; Zeng, X.; Tao, W.; Huang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Cloud top temperature is a key parameter to retrieval in the remote sensing of convective clouds. Passive remote sensing cannot directly measure the temperature at the cloud tops. Here we explore a synergistic way of estimating cloud top temperature by making use of the simultaneous passive and active remote sensing of clouds (in this case, CloudSat and MODIS). Weighting function of the MODIS 11μm band is explicitly calculated by feeding cloud hydrometer profiles from CloudSat retrievals and temperature and humidity profiles based on ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis into a radiation transfer model. Among 19,699 tropical deep convective clouds observed by the CloudSat in 2008, the averaged effective emission level (EEL, where the weighting function attains its maximum) is at optical depth 0.91 with a standard deviation of 0.33. Furthermore, the vertical gradient of CloudSat radar reflectivity, an indicator of the fuzziness of convective cloud top, is linearly proportional to, d_{CTH-EEL}, the distance between the EEL of 11μm channel and cloud top height (CTH) determined by the CloudSat when d_{CTH-EEL}<0.6km. Beyond 0.6km, the distance has little sensitivity to the vertical gradient of CloudSat radar reflectivity. Based on these findings, we derive a formula between the fuzziness in the cloud top region, which is measurable by CloudSat, and the MODIS 11μm brightness temperature assuming that the difference between effective emission temperature and the 11μm brightness temperature is proportional to the cloud top fuzziness. This formula is verified using the simulated deep convective cloud profiles by the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model. We further discuss the application of this formula in estimating cloud top buoyancy as well as the error characteristics of the radiative calculation within such deep-convective clouds.

  18. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  19. Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

  20. Plume radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirscherl, R.

    1993-06-01

    The electromagnetic radiation originating from the exhaust plume of tactical missile motors is of outstanding importance for military system designers. Both missile- and countermeasure engineer rely on the knowledge of plume radiation properties, be it for guidance/interference control or for passive detection of adversary missiles. To allow access to plume radiation properties, they are characterized with respect to the radiation producing mechanisms like afterburning, its chemical constituents, and reactions as well as particle radiation. A classification of plume spectral emissivity regions is given due to the constraints imposed by available sensor technology and atmospheric propagation windows. Additionally assessment methods are presented that allow a common and general grouping of rocket motor properties into various categories. These methods describe state of the art experimental evaluation techniques as well as calculation codes that are most commonly used by developers of NATO countries. Dominant aspects influencing plume radiation are discussed and a standardized test technique is proposed for the assessment of plume radiation properties that include prediction procedures. These recommendations on terminology and assessment methods should be common to all employers of plume radiation. Special emphasis is put on the omnipresent need for self-protection by the passive detection of plume radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectral band.

  1. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  2. Radiation dosimetry and biophysical models of space radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Shavers, Mark R.; George, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons, and the absence of epidemiology data for these radiation types. Developing useful biophysical parameters or models that relate energy deposition by space particles to the probabilities of biological outcomes is a complex problem. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. In contrast to conventional dosimetric methods, models of radiation track structure provide descriptions of energy deposition events in biomolecules, cells, or tissues, which can be used to develop biophysical models of radiation risks. In this paper, we address the biophysical description of heavy particle tracks in the context of the interpretation of both space radiation dosimetry and radiobiology data, which may provide insights into new approaches to these problems.

  3. High-energy non-thermal and thermal emission from GRB 141207A detected by Fermi

    DOE PAGES

    Arimoto, Makoto; Asano, Katsuaki; Ohno, Masanori; ...

    2016-12-13

    A bright long gamma-ray burst GRB 141207A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and detected by both instruments onboard. The observations show that the spectrum in the prompt phase is not well described by the canonical empirical Band function alone, and that an additional power-law component is needed. In the early phase of the prompt emission, a modified blackbody with a hard low-energy photon index (α = +0.2 to +0.4) is detected, which suggests a photospheric origin. In a finely time-resolved analysis, the spectra are also well fitted by the modified blackbody combined with a power-law function. Heremore » we discuss the physical parameters of the photosphere such as the bulk Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow and the radius. We also discuss the physical origin of the extra power-law component observed during the prompt phase in the context of different models such as leptonic and hadronic scenarios in the internal shock regime and synchrotron emission in the external forward shock. In the afterglow phase, the temporal and spectral behaviors of the temporally extended high-energy emission and the fading X-ray emission detected by the X-Ray Telescope on-board Swift are consistent with synchrotron emission in a radiative external forward shock.« less

  4. System Concept for Remote Measurement of Asteroid Molecular Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, G. B.; Lubin, P. M.; Zhang, Q.; Brashears, T.; Cohen, A. N.; Madajian, J.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a method for probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets (asteroids, comets, planets, moons) from a distant vantage, such as from a spacecraft orbiting the object. A directed energy beam is focused on the target. With sufficient flux, the spot temperature rises rapidly, and evaporation of surface materials occurs. The melted spot creates a high-temperature blackbody source, and ejected material creates a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Molecular and atomic absorption of the blackbody radiation occurs within the ejected plume. Bulk composition of the surface material is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected material. Our proposed method differs from technologies such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes materials in the target; scattered ions emit characteristic radiation, and the LIBS detector performs atomic composition analysis by observing emission spectra. Standoff distance for LIBS is limited by the strength of characteristic emission, and distances greater than 10 m are problematic. Our proposed method detects atomic and molecular absorption spectra in the plume; standoff distance is limited by the size of heated spot, and the plume opacity; distances on the order of tens of kilometers are immediately feasible. Simulations have been developed for laser heating of a rocky target, with concomitant evaporation. Evaporation rates lead to determination of plume density and opacity. Absorption profiles for selected materials are estimated from plume properties. Initial simulations of absorption profiles with laser heating show great promise for molecular composition analysis from tens of kilometers distance. This paper explores the feasibility a hypothetical mission that seeks to perform surface molecular composition analysis of a near-earth asteroid while the craft orbits the asteroid. Such a system has compelling potential benefit for

  5. Ionizing Radiation: The issue of radiation quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prise, Kevin; Schettino, Giuseppe

    Types of Ionising radiations are differentiated from each other by fundamental characteristics of their energy deposition patterns when they interact with biological materials. At the level of the DNA these non-random patterns drive differences in the yields and distributions of DNA damage patterns and specifically the production of clustered damage or complex lesions. The complex radiation fields found in space bring significant challenges for developing a mechanistic understanding of radiation effects from the perspective of radiation quality as these consist of a diverse range of particle and energy types unique to the space environment. Linear energy transfer, energy deposited per unit track length in units of keV per micron, has long been used as a comparator for different types of radiation but has limitations in that it is an average value. Difference in primary core ionizations relative to secondary delta ray ranges vary significantly with particle mass and energy leading to complex interrelationships with damage production at the cellular level. At the cellular level a greater mechanistic understanding is necessary, linking energy deposition patterns to DNA damage patterns and cellular response, to build appropriate biophysical models that are predictive for different radiation qualities and mixed field exposures. Defined studies using monoenergetic beams delivered under controlled conditions are building quantitative data sets of both initial and long term changes in cells as a basis for a great mechanistic understanding of radiation quality effects of relevance to not only space exposures but clinical application of ion-beams.

  6. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  7. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Seong, Ki Moon; Kwon, TaeWoo; Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert's risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public's risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts' radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual's opinions have often exacerbated the public's confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years' research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at < 100 millisievert could alter the public's risk perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects < 100 millisievert is necessary for successful public communication. We concluded that sustained education addressing scientific findings is a critical attribute that will affect the risk perception of radiation exposure.

  8. Perception of low dose radiation risks among radiation researchers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Songwon; Lee, Dalnim; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Expert’s risk evaluation of radiation exposure strongly influences the public’s risk perception. Experts can inform laypersons of significant radiation information including health knowledge based on experimental data. However, some experts’ radiation risk perception is often based on non-conclusive scientific evidence (i.e., radiation levels below 100 millisievert), which is currently under debate. Examining perception levels among experts is important for communication with the public since these individual’s opinions have often exacerbated the public’s confusion. We conducted a survey of Korean radiation researchers to investigate their perceptions of the risks associated with radiation exposure below 100 millisievert. A linear regression analysis revealed that having ≥ 11 years’ research experience was a critical factor associated with radiation risk perception, which was inversely correlated with each other. Increased opportunities to understand radiation effects at < 100 millisievert could alter the public’s risk perception of radiation exposure. In addition, radiation researchers conceived that more scientific evidence reducing the uncertainty for radiation effects < 100 millisievert is necessary for successful public communication. We concluded that sustained education addressing scientific findings is a critical attribute that will affect the risk perception of radiation exposure. PMID:28166286

  9. Report on the measurement results for the EURAMET 658 extension: project to examine underlying parameters in radiance scale realisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Helen; Martin, Maria Jose; Steiner, Anton; Schreiber, Ekkehard; Girard, Ferruccio; Battuello, Mauro; Sadli, Mohamed; Ridoux, Pascal; Gutschwager, Berndt; Hollandt, Joerg; Diril, Ahmet; Pehlivan, Özlem

    2018-01-01

    This report describes the measurement procedures and participant results for the EURAMET project 658 extension—'project to examine underlying parameters in radiance temperature scale realisation from 156 °C to 1000 °C', with particular emphasis on the results of the variable temperature and fixed point blackbody measurements for the justification of radiation thermometry CMCs. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Radiometric observations of the 752.033-GHz rotational absorption line of H2O from a laboratory jet. [simulation of rocket plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionne, G. F.; Fitzgerald, J. F.; Chang, T.-S.; Fetterman, H. R.; Litvak, M. M.

    1980-01-01

    With the aid of a high-resolution two-stage heterodyne radiometer, spectral absorption measurements of the 752.033 GHz line of water vapor were carried out, using a blackbody continuum as a background radiation source for investigating the absorptive properties of the H2O content of high altitude rocket plumes. To simulate this physical situation in a laboratory environment, a small steam jet was operated within a large high-vacuum chamber, with the H2O jet plume traversing the radiometer line of sight. The experiments verified that this rotational line is optically thick, with excitation temperatures below 100 K, in the downstream part of the plume, as predicted by theoretical modelling.

  11. Fundamental studies in X-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Lightman, A. P.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical model calculation of the ionization structure of matter accreting onto a degenerate dwarf was carried out. Self-consistent values of the various parameters are used. The possibility of nuclear burning of the accreting matter is included. We find the blackbody radiation emitted from the stellar surface keeps hydrogen and helium ionized out to distances much larger than a typical binary separation. Except for low mass stars or high accretion rates, the assumption of complete ionization of the elements heavier than helium is a good first approximation. For low mass stars or high accretion rates the validity of assuming complete ionization depends sensitivity on the distribution of matter in the binary system.

  12. Fine Structure of Dark Energy and New Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Jejjala, Vishnu; Kavic, Michael; Minic, Djordje

    2007-01-01

    Following our recent work on the cosmological constant problem, in this letter we make a specific proposal regarding the fine structure (i.e., the spectrum) of dark energy. The proposal is motivated by a deep analogy between the blackbody radiation problem, which led to the development of quantum theory, and the cosmological constant problem, for which we have recently argued calls for a conceptual extension of the quantum theory. We argue that the fine structure of dark energy is governed by a Wien distribution, indicating its dual quantum and classical nature. We discuss observational consequences of such a picture of darkmore » energy and constrain the distribution function.« less

  13. Scaling studies of solar pumped lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Chang, J.

    1985-08-01

    A progress report of scaling studies of solar pumped lasers is presented. Conversion of blackbody radiation into laser light has been demonstrated in this study. Parametric studies of the variation of laser mixture composition and laser gas temperature were carried out for CO2 and N2O gases. Theoretical analysis and modeling of the system have been performed. Reasonable agreement between predictions in the parameter variation and the experimental results have been obtained. Almost 200 mW of laser output at 10.6 micron was achieved by placing a small sapphire laser tube inside an oven at 1500 K the tube was filled with CO2 laser gas mixture and cooled by longitudinal nitrogen gas flow.

  14. Scaling studies of solar pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Chang, J.

    1985-01-01

    A progress report of scaling studies of solar pumped lasers is presented. Conversion of blackbody radiation into laser light has been demonstrated in this study. Parametric studies of the variation of laser mixture composition and laser gas temperature were carried out for CO2 and N2O gases. Theoretical analysis and modeling of the system have been performed. Reasonable agreement between predictions in the parameter variation and the experimental results have been obtained. Almost 200 mW of laser output at 10.6 micron was achieved by placing a small sapphire laser tube inside an oven at 1500 K the tube was filled with CO2 laser gas mixture and cooled by longitudinal nitrogen gas flow.

  15. Investigation of Cloud Properties and Atmospheric Profiles with Modis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzel, Paul; Ackerman, Steve; Moeller, Chris; Gumley, Liam; Strabala, Kathy; Frey, Richard; Prins, Elaine; Laporte, Dan; Wolf, Walter

    1997-01-01

    A major milestone was accomplished with the delivery of all five University of Wisconsin MODIS Level 2 science production software packages to the Science Data Support Team (SDST) for integration. These deliveries were the culmination of months of design and testing, with most of the work focused on tasks peripheral to the actual science contained in the code. LTW hosted a MODIS infrared calibration workshop in September. Considerable progress has been made by MCST, with help from LTW, in refining the calibration algorithm, and in identifying and characterization outstanding problems. Work continues on characterizing the effects of non-blackbody earth surfaces on atmospheric profile retrievals and modeling radiative transfer through cirrus clouds.

  16. Doppler-Free Spectroscopy of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} Optical Clock Transition in Laser-Cooled Fermionic Isotopes of Neutral Mercury

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Petersen, M.; Chicireanu, R.; Dawkins, S. T.

    2008-10-31

    We report direct laser spectroscopy of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition at 265.6 nm in fermionic isotopes of neutral mercury in a magneto-optical trap. Measurements of the frequency against the LNE-SYRTE primary reference using an optical frequency comb yield 1 128 575 290 808.4{+-}5.6 kHz in {sup 199}Hg and 1 128 569 561 139.6{+-}5.3 kHz in {sup 201}Hg. The uncertainty, allowed by the observation of the Doppler-free recoil doublet, is 4 orders of magnitude lower than previous indirect determinations. Mercury is a promising candidate for future optical lattice clocks due to its low sensitivity to blackbody radiation.

  17. Planck, the Quantum, and the Historians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Clayton A.

    2002-05-01

    In late 1900, the German theoretical physicist Max Planck derived an expression for the spectrum of black-body radiation. That derivation was the first step in the introduction of quantum concepts into physics. But how did Planck think about his result in the early years of the twentieth century? Did he assume that his derivation was consistent with the continuous energies inherent in Maxwellian electrodynamics and Newtonian mechanics? Or did he see the beginnings, however tentative and uncertain, of the quantum revolution to come? Historians of physics have debated this question for over twenty years. In this article, I review that debate and, at the same time, present Planck's achievement in its historical context.

  18. High-impedance NbSi TES sensors for studying the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nones, C.; Marnieros, S.; Benoit, A.; Bergé, L.; Bideaud, A.; Camus, P.; Dumoulin, L.; Monfardini, A.; Rigaut, O.

    2012-12-01

    Precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are crucial in cosmology because any proposed model of the universe must account for the features of this radiation. The CMB has a thermal blackbody spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K, i.e. the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9-mm wavelength. Of all CMB measurements that the scientific community has not yet been able to perform, the CMB B-mode polarization is probably the most challenging from the instrumental point of view. The signature of primordial gravitational waves, which give rise to a B-type polarization, is one of the goals in cosmology today and amongst the first objectives in the field. For this purpose, high-performance low-temperature bolometric cameras, made of thousands of pixels, are currently being developed by many groups, which will improve the sensitivity to B-mode CMB polarization by one or two orders of magnitude compared to the Planck satellite HFI detectors. We present here a new bolometer structure that is able to increase the pixel sensitivities and to simplify the fabrication procedure. This innovative device replaces delicate membrane-based structures and eliminates the mediation of phonons: the incoming energy is directly captured and measured in the electron bath of an appropriate sensor and the thermal decoupling is achieved via the intrinsic electron-phonon decoupling of the sensor at very low temperature. Reported results come from a 204-pixel array of NbxSi1-x transition edge sensors with a meander structure fabricated on a 2-inch silicon wafer using electron-beam co-evaporation and a cleanroom lithography process. To validate the application of this device to CMB measurements, we have performed an optical calibration of our sample in the focal plane of a dilution cryostat test bench. We have demonstrated a light absorption close to 20% and an optical noise equivalent power of about 7×10-16 W/√Hz, which is highly

  19. Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Giannoula, Evanthia; Fountos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or sickness or poisoning or toxicity is induced after a whole body exposure of men to high doses of radiation between 1-12Gy. First symptoms are from the gastrointestinal system, which together with bone marrow are the most sensitive parts of our body. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) may be induced by smaller than 1Gy radiation doses or after a mild form of ARS. Prophylaxis and treatment suggestions are described. In cases of ARS, a large part of the exposed population after proper medical care may survive, while without medical care this part of the population will be lost. Prophylaxis may also save another part of the population.

  20. Impact of radiation frequency, precipitation radiative forcing, and radiation column aggregation on convection-permitting West African monsoon simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Toshi; Zhang, Sara Q.; Lang, Stephen E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Ichoku, Charles; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the impact of different configurations of the Goddard radiation scheme on convection-permitting simulations (CPSs) of the West African monsoon (WAM) is investigated using the NASA-Unified WRF (NU-WRF). These CPSs had 3 km grid spacing to explicitly simulate the evolution of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) and their interaction with radiative processes across the WAM domain and were able to reproduce realistic precipitation and energy budget fields when compared with satellite data, although low clouds were overestimated. Sensitivity experiments reveal that (1) lowering the radiation update frequency (i.e., longer radiation update time) increases precipitation and cloudiness over the WAM region by enhancing the monsoon circulation, (2) deactivation of precipitation radiative forcing suppresses cloudiness over the WAM region, and (3) aggregating radiation columns reduces low clouds over ocean and tropical West Africa. The changes in radiation configuration immediately modulate the radiative heating and low clouds over ocean. On the 2nd day of the simulations, patterns of latitudinal air temperature profiles were already similar to the patterns of monthly composites for all radiation sensitivity experiments. Low cloud maintenance within the WAM system is tightly connected with radiation processes; thus, proper coupling between microphysics and radiation processes must be established for each modeling framework.

  1. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  2. Risk Factors: Radiation

    Cancer.gov

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  3. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public Language: English ( ... radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose was high The ...

  4. Radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic radiology procedures, such as computed tomography (CT) and X-ray, are an increasing source of ionising radiation exposure to our community. Exposure to ionising radiation is associated with increased risk of malignancy, proportional to the level of exposure. Every diagnostic test using ionising radiation needs to be justified by clinical need. General practitioners need a working knowledge of radiation safety so they can adequately inform their patients of the risks and benefits of diagnostic imaging procedures.

  5. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ahlgren, Björn; Larsson, Josefin; Nymark, Tanja

    The origin of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still an unsolved problem and several different mechanisms have been suggested. We fit Fermi GRB data with a photospheric emission model which includes dissipation of the jet kinetic energy below the photosphere. The resulting spectra are dominated by Comptonization and contain no significant contribution from synchrotron radiation. In order to fit to the data, we span a physically motivated part of the model's parameter space and create DREAM (Dissipation with Radiative Emission as A table Model), a table model for XSPEC. Here, we show that this model can describemore » different kinds of GRB spectra, including GRB 090618, representing a typical Band function spectrum, and GRB 100724B, illustrating a double peaked spectrum, previously fitted with a Band+blackbody model, suggesting they originate from a similar scenario. We also suggest that the main difference between these two types of bursts is the optical depth at the dissipation site.« less

  6. Coherence-limited solar power conversion: the fundamental thermodynamic bounds and the consequences for solar rectennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashaal, Heylal; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2014-10-01

    Solar rectifying antennas constitute a distinct solar power conversion paradigm where sunlight's spatial coherence is a basic constraining factor. In this presentation, we derive the fundamental thermodynamic limit for coherence-limited blackbody (principally solar) power conversion. Our results represent a natural extension of the eponymous Landsberg limit, originally derived for converters that are not constrained by the radiation's coherence, and are irradiated at maximum concentration (i.e., with a view factor of unity to the solar disk). We proceed by first expanding Landsberg's results to arbitrary solar view factor (i.e., arbitrary concentration and/or angular confinement), and then demonstrate how the results are modified when the converter can only process coherent radiation. The results are independent of the specific power conversion mechanism, and hence are valid for diffraction-limited as well as quantum converters (and not just classical heat engines or in the geometric optics regime). The derived upper bounds bode favorably for the potential of rectifying antennas as potentially high-efficiency solar converters.

  7. Confronting GRB prompt emission with a model for subphotospheric dissipation

    DOE PAGES

    Ahlgren, Björn; Larsson, Josefin; Nymark, Tanja; ...

    2015-09-16

    The origin of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still an unsolved problem and several different mechanisms have been suggested. We fit Fermi GRB data with a photospheric emission model which includes dissipation of the jet kinetic energy below the photosphere. The resulting spectra are dominated by Comptonization and contain no significant contribution from synchrotron radiation. In order to fit to the data, we span a physically motivated part of the model's parameter space and create DREAM (Dissipation with Radiative Emission as A table Model), a table model for XSPEC. Here, we show that this model can describemore » different kinds of GRB spectra, including GRB 090618, representing a typical Band function spectrum, and GRB 100724B, illustrating a double peaked spectrum, previously fitted with a Band+blackbody model, suggesting they originate from a similar scenario. We also suggest that the main difference between these two types of bursts is the optical depth at the dissipation site.« less

  8. Extreme temperature robust optical sensor designs and fault-tolerant signal processing

    DOEpatents

    Riza, Nabeel Agha [Oviedo, FL; Perez, Frank [Tujunga, CA

    2012-01-17

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) probe designs for extreme temperature and pressure sensing uses a single crystal SiC optical chip encased in a sintered SiC material probe. The SiC chip may be protected for high temperature only use or exposed for both temperature and pressure sensing. Hybrid signal processing techniques allow fault-tolerant extreme temperature sensing. Wavelength peak-to-peak (or null-to-null) collective spectrum spread measurement to detect wavelength peak/null shift measurement forms a coarse-fine temperature measurement using broadband spectrum monitoring. The SiC probe frontend acts as a stable emissivity Black-body radiator and monitoring the shift in radiation spectrum enables a pyrometer. This application combines all-SiC pyrometry with thick SiC etalon laser interferometry within a free-spectral range to form a coarse-fine temperature measurement sensor. RF notch filtering techniques improve the sensitivity of the temperature measurement where fine spectral shift or spectrum measurements are needed to deduce temperature.

  9. Using VISAR to assess the M-band isotropy in hohlraums

    DOE PAGES

    Lanier, Nicholas Edward; Kline, John L.; Morton, John

    2016-09-27

    In laser based radiation flow experiments, drive variability can often overwhelm the physics sensitivity that one seeks to quantify. Hohlraums can help by providing a more symmetrized, Planckian-like source. However, at higher temperatures, the hohlraum’s actual emission can deviate significantly from a truly blackbody, Lambertian source. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), Dante provides the best quantification of hohlraum output. Unfortunately, limited diagnostic access coupled with NIF’s natural symmetry does not allow for Dante measurements at more than two angles. As part of the CEPHEUS campaign on NIF, proof-of-principle experiments to better quantify the gold M-band isotropy were conducted. Thesemore » experiments positioned beryllium/aluminum mirrors at differing angles, offset from the hohlraum. Filtering removes the thermal emission of the hohlraum and the remaining M-band radiation is preferentially absorbed in the aluminum layer. The subsequent hydrodynamic motion is measured via VISAR. Although indirect, this M-band measurement can be made at any angle.« less

  10. Communication skills training for radiation therapists: preparing patients for radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Halkett, Georgia; O'Connor, Moira; Aranda, Sanchia; Jefford, Michael; Merchant, Susan; York, Debra; Miller, Lisa; Schofield, Penelope

    2016-12-01

    Patients sometimes present for radiation therapy with high levels of anxiety. Communication skills training may assist radiation therapists to conduct more effective consultations with patients prior to treatment planning and treatment commencement. The overall aim of our research is to examine the effectiveness of a preparatory programme 'RT Prepare' delivered by radiation therapists to reduce patient psychological distress. The purpose of this manuscript was to describe the communication skills workshops developed for radiation therapists and evaluate participants' feedback. Radiation therapists were invited to participate in two communication skills workshops run on the same day: (1) Consultation skills in radiation therapy and (2) Eliciting and responding to patients' emotional cues. Evaluation forms were completed. Radiation therapists' consultations with patients were then audio-recorded and evaluated prior to providing a follow-up workshop with participants. Nine full day workshops were held. Sixty radiation therapists participated. Positive feedback was received for both workshops with 88% or more participants agreeing or strongly agreeing with all the statements about the different components of the two workshops. Radiation therapists highlighted participating in role play with an actor, discussing issues; receiving feedback; acquiring new skills and knowledge; watching others role play and practicing with checklist were their favourite aspects of the initial workshop. The follow-up workshops provided radiation therapists with feedback on how they identified and addressed patients' psychological concerns; time spent with patients during consultations and the importance of finding private space for consultations. Communication skills training consisting of preparing patients for radiation therapy and eliciting and responding to emotional cues with follow-up workshops has the potential to improve radiation therapists' interactions with patients undergoing

  11. Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a ...

  12. Wireless radiation sensor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, Jr, Layton N.; Mee, David K.

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting radiation. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a radiation sensitive material coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The radiation sensitive material is operable to change a tensile stress of the ferromagnetic metal upon exposure to radiation. The radiation is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  13. The 2006-2007 Active Phase of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61: Radiative and Timing Changes, Bursts,and Burst Spectral Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    After at least 6 years of quiescence, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 entered an active phase in 2006 March that lasted several months and included six X-ray bursts as well as many changes in the persistent X-ray emission. The bursts, the first seen from this AXP in > 11 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring, all occurred in the interval between 2006 April 6 and 2007 February 7. The burst durations ranged from 0.4 - 1.8 x 10(exp 3) s. The first five burst spectra are well modeled by blackbodies, with temperatures kT approx 2 - 9 keV. However, the sixth burst had a complicated spectrum that is well characterized by a blackbody plus two emission features whose amplitude varied throughout the burst. The most prominent feature was at 14.0 keV. Upon entry into the active phase the pulsar showed a significant change in pulse morphology and a likely timing glitch. The glitch had a total frequency jump of (1.9+/-0.4) x 10(exp -7) Hz, which recovered with a decay time of 17+/-2 days by more than the initial jump, implying a net spin-down of the pulsar. Within the framework of the magnetar model, the net spin-down of the star could be explained by regions of the superfluid that rotate. slower than the rest. The bursts, flux enhancements, and pulse morphology changes can be explained as arising from crustal deformations due to stresses imposed by the highly twisted internal magnetic field. However, unlike other AXP outbursts, we cannot account for a major twist being implanted in the magnetosphere.

  14. Radiation and People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freilich, Florence G.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the development of radiation as a tool of medicine. Includes topics on history of radiation, electromagnetic spectrum, X-ray tubes, high energy machines, radioactive sources, artificial radioactivity, radioactive scanning, units, present radiation background, and effect of radiation on living tissue. (DS)

  15. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident.

  16. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  17. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  18. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  19. Modeling Radiative Heat Transfer and Turbulence-Radiation Interactions in Engines

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Paul, Chandan; Sircar, Arpan; Ferreyro-Fernandez, Sebastian

    Detailed radiation modelling in piston engines has received relatively little attention to date. Recently, it is being revisited in light of current trends towards higher operating pressures and higher levels of exhaust-gas recirculation, both of which enhance molecular gas radiation. Advanced high-efficiency engines also are expected to function closer to the limits of stable operation, where even small perturbations to the energy balance can have a large influence on system behavior. Here several different spectral radiation property models and radiative transfer equation (RTE) solvers have been implemented in an OpenFOAM-based engine CFD code, and simulations have been performed for amore » full-load (peak pressure ~200 bar) heavy-duty diesel engine. Differences in computed temperature fields, NO and soot levels, and wall heat transfer rates are shown for different combinations of spectral models and RTE solvers. The relative importance of molecular gas radiation versus soot radiation is examined. And the influence of turbulence-radiation interactions is determined by comparing results obtained using local mean values of composition and temperature to compute radiative emission and absorption with those obtained using a particle-based transported probability density function method.« less

  20. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rosenstein, Barry S., E-mail: barry.rosenstein@mssm.ed; Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY; Held, Kathryn D.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educatorsmore » whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.« less

  1. Broadband Spectral Investigations of Magnetar Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki; Göğüş, Ersin

    2017-09-01

    We present our broadband (2-250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550-5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806-20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6% of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.

  2. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki

    We present our broadband (2–250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550−5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806−20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ( RXTE ) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6%more » of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.« less

  3. Toxic properties of specific radiation determinant molecules, derived from radiated species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav; Kedar, Prasad; Casey, Rachael; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: High doses of radiation induce the formation of radiation toxins in the organs of irradiated mammals. After whole body irradiation, cellular macromolecules and cell walls are damaged as a result of long-lived radiation-induced free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and fast, charged particles of radiation. High doses of radiation induce breaks in the chemical bonds of macromolecules and cross-linking reactions via chemically active processes. These processes result in the creation of novel modified macromolecules that possess specific toxic and antigenic properties defined by the type and dose of irradiation by which they are generated. Radiation toxins isolated from the lymph of irradiated animals are classified as hematotoxic, neurotoxic, and enteric non-bacterial (GI) radiation toxins, and they play an important role in the development of hematopoietic, cerebrovascular, and gastrointestinal acute radiation syndromes (ARS). Seven distinct toxins derived from post-irradiated animals have been designated as Specific Radiation Determinants (SRD): SRD-1 (neurotoxic radiation toxin generated by the cerebrovascular form of ARS), SRD-3 (enteric non-bacterial radiation toxins generated by the gastrointestinal form of ARS), and SRD-4 (hematotoxic radiation toxins generated by the hematological, bone marrow form of ARS). SRD-4 is further subdivided into four groups depending on the severity of the ARS induced: SRD-4/1, mild ARS; SRD-4/2, moderate ARS; SRD-4/3, severe ARS; and SRD-4/4, extremely severe ARS. The seventh SRD, SRD-2 is a toxic extract derived from animals suffering from a fourth form of ARS, as described in European literature and produces toxicity primarily in the autonimic nervous system. These radiation toxins have been shown to be responsible for the induction of important pathophysiological, immunological, and biochemical reactions in ARS. Materials and Methods: These studies incorporated the use of statistically significant numbers of a

  4. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (CvARS) is an extremely severe in-jury of Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). CvARS can be induced by the high doses of neutron, heavy ions, or gamma radiation. The Syndrome clinical picture depends on a type, timing, and the doses of radiation. Four grades of the CvARS were defined: mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. Also, four stages of CvARS were developed: prodromal, latent, manifest, outcome -death. Duration of stages depends on the types, doses, and time of radiation. The CvARS clinical symptoms are: respiratory distress, hypotension, cerebral edema, severe disorder of cerebral blood microcirculation, and acute motor weakness. The radiation toxins, Cerebro-Vascular Radiation Neurotoxins (SvARSn), determine development of the acute radiation syndrome. Mechanism of action of the toxins: Though pathogenesis of radiation injury of CNS remains unknown, our concept describes the Cv ARS as a result of Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity, cell death through apoptotic necrosis. Neurotoxicity occurs after the high doses radiation exposure, formation of radiation neuro-toxins, possible bioradicals, or group of specific enzymes. Intracerebral hemorrhage can be a consequence of the damage of endothelial cells caused by radiation and the radiation tox-ins. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB)and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB)is possibly the most significant effect of microcirculation disorder and metabolic insufficiency. NMDA-receptors excitotoxic injury mediated by cerebral ischemia and cerebral hypoxia. Dam-age of the pyramidal cells in layers 3 and 5 and Purkinje cell layer the cerebral cortex , damage of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus occur as a result of cerebral ischemia and intracerebral bleeding. Methods: Radiation Toxins of CV ARS are defined as glycoproteins with the molec-ular weight of RT toxins ranges from 200-250 kDa and with high enzymatic activity

  5. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correctmore » description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to

  6. Slope effects on shortwave radiation components and net radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Blad, Blaine L.; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) has been stated as 'the development of techniques that may be applied to satellite observations of the radiation reflected and emitted from the Earth to yield quantitative information concerning land surface climatological conditions.' The major field study, FIFE (the First ISLSCP Field Experiment), was conducted in 1978-89 to accomplish this objective. Four intensive field campaigns (IFC's) were carried out in 1987 and one in 1989. Factors contributing to observed reflected radiation from the FIFE site must be understood before the radiation observed by satellites can be used to quantify surface processes. Analysis since our last report has focused on slope effects on incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation and net radiation from data collected in 1989.

  7. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  8. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  9. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  10. PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

    1961-12-26

    A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

  11. Lifecycle of laser-produced air sparks

    DOE PAGES

    Harilal, S. S.; Brumfield, B. E.; Phillips, M. C.

    2015-06-03

    Here, we investigated the lifecycle of laser-generated air sparks or plasmas using multiple plasma diagnostic tools. The sparks were generated by focusing the fundamental radiation from an Nd:YAG laser in air, and studies included early and late time spark dynamics, decoupling of the shock wave from the plasma core, emission from the spark kernel, cold gas excitation by UV radiation, shock waves produced by the air spark, and the spark's final decay and turbulence formation. The shadowgraphic and self-emission images showed similar spark morphology at earlier and late times of its lifecycle; however, significant differences are seen in the midlifemore » images. Spectroscopic studies in the visible region showed intense blackbody-type radiation at early times followed by clearly resolved ionic, atomic, and molecular emission. The detected spectrum at late times clearly contained emission from both CN and N 2 +. Additional spectral features have been identified at late times due to emission from O and N atoms, indicating some degree of molecular dissociation and excitation. Detailed spatially and temporally resolved emission analysis provides insight about various physical mechanisms leading to molecular and atomic emission by air sparks, including spark plasma excitation, heating of cold air by UV radiation emitted by the spark, and shock-heating.« less

  12. Lifecycle of laser-produced air sparks

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Harilal, S. S., E-mail: hari@pnnl.gov; Brumfield, B. E.; Phillips, M. C.

    2015-06-15

    We investigated the lifecycle of laser-generated air sparks or plasmas using multiple plasma diagnostic tools. The sparks were generated by focusing the fundamental radiation from an Nd:YAG laser in air, and studies included early and late time spark dynamics, decoupling of the shock wave from the plasma core, emission from the spark kernel, cold gas excitation by UV radiation, shock waves produced by the air spark, and the spark's final decay and turbulence formation. The shadowgraphic and self-emission images showed similar spark morphology at earlier and late times of its lifecycle; however, significant differences are seen in the midlife images.more » Spectroscopic studies in the visible region showed intense blackbody-type radiation at early times followed by clearly resolved ionic, atomic, and molecular emission. The detected spectrum at late times clearly contained emission from both CN and N{sub 2}{sup +}. Additional spectral features have been identified at late times due to emission from O and N atoms, indicating some degree of molecular dissociation and excitation. Detailed spatially and temporally resolved emission analysis provides insight about various physical mechanisms leading to molecular and atomic emission by air sparks, including spark plasma excitation, heating of cold air by UV radiation emitted by the spark, and shock-heating.« less

  13. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  14. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Orton, C; Borras, C; Carlson, D

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protectionmore » will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples

  15. Cloud Radiative Effect to Downward Longwave Radiation in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, K.; Hayasaka, T.

    2014-12-01

    Downward longwave radiation is important factor to affect climate change. In polar regions, estimation of the radiative effect of cloud on the downward longwave radiation has large uncertainty. Relatively large cloud effect to the radiation occurs there due to low temperature, small amount of water vapor, and strong inversion layer. The cloud effect is, however, not evaluated sufficiently because the long term polar night and high surface albedo make satellite retrieval difficult. The intent of the present study is to quantify cloud radiative effect for downward longwave radiation in the polar regions by in-situ observation and radiative transfer calculation. The observation sites in this study are Ny-Ålesund (NYA), Syowa (SYO), and South Pole (SPO). These stations belong to the Baseline Surface Radiation Network. The period of data analysis is from 2003 to 2012. The effect of cloud on the downward longwave radiation is evaluated by subtraction of calculated downward longwave radiation under clear-sky condition from observed value under all-sky condition. Radiative transfer model was used for the evaluation of clear sky radiation with vertical temperature and humidity profile obtained by radiosonde observations. Calculated result shows good correlation with observation under clear-sky condition. The RMSE is +0.83±5.0. The cloud effect varied from -10 - +110 W/m2 (-10 - +40 %). Cloud effect increased with increasing of cloud fraction and decreasing of cloud base height and precipitable water. In SYO negative effects were sometimes obtained. The negative cloud effect emerged under dry and temperature inversion condition lower than 2 km. One of reasons of negative effect is considered to be existence of cloud at temperature inversion altitude. When the cloud effect is smaller than -5 W/m2 (standard deviation between calculation and observation), 50 % of them have a condition with cloud base height estimated by micro pulse lidar lower than 2 km.

  16. [Radiation safety of exploitation of radiation sources at the civil aviation airlines].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, R V; Zuev, V G; Berezin, G I; Sereda, V N; Zasiad'ko, A K

    2004-01-01

    Radiation risks from isotope-containing equipment, and ionizing and unused X-ray radiation sources are characterized and relevant normative documents with safety requirements to radiation sources installation, radiation safety of aircraft servicing and repair, hand luggage control and heavy luggage registration, personal protection items, system of radiation monitoring at airlines and aircraft works, and liability for breach of performance guidelines are cited.

  17. Medical students' knowledge of ionizing radiation and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Sarah K; Khafaji, Mawya A

    2011-05-01

    To assess the knowledge of fourth-year medical students in ionizing radiation, and to study the effect of a 3-hour lecture in correcting their misconceptions. A cohort study was conducted on fourth-year medical students at King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the academic year 2009-2010. A 7-question multiple choice test-type questionnaire administered before, and after a 3-hour didactic lecture was used to assess their knowledge. The data was collected from December 2009 to February 2010. The lecture was given to 333 (72%) participants, out of the total of 459 fourth-year medical students. It covered topics in ionizing radiation and radiation protection. The questionnaire was validated and analyzed by 6 content experts. Of the 333 who attended the lecture, only 253 (76%) students completed the pre- and post questionnaire, and were included in this study. The average student score improved from 47-78% representing a gain of 31% in knowledge (p=0.01). The results indicated that the fourth-year medical students' knowledge regarding ionizing radiation and radiation protection is inadequate. Additional lectures in radiation protection significantly improved their knowledge of the topic, and correct their current misunderstanding. This study has shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn, and absorb general principles regarding ionizing radiation.

  18. RADIATION WAVE DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Wouters, L.F.

    1960-08-30

    Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

  19. Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brenner, David J.

    The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in themore » conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.« less

  20. Readout and Data Acquisition for a Liquid Radiator Radiation Exposure Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Chad

    2017-09-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) prototype is a tungsten-sampling, oil/quartz radiating calorimeter placed on each side of the interaction point. The ZDC is used in heavy ion runs for centrality measurements. The UIUC group develops a ZDC that is significantly more radiation hard than the currently employed detector. The current ZDC uses scintillating quartz rods placed directly in the beamline whose optical transmission is known to degrade as a function of radiation dosage. Our prototype uses organic wavelength shifters (WLS) dissolved in oil in two stages to take Cherenkov light produced in the oil by the particle shower and guide it to a photodetector. This design allows the quartz rods be located away from the beam center to experience a lower radiation dose, and the oil containing WLS can be replaced periodically to negate radiation damage. Quantum dots are studied as a more radiation hard alternative to WLS. This increase in radiation hardness will allow ATLAS to operate the ZDC after the luminosity upgrades planned for the LHC. A test setup has been developed for the study of radiation hardness of liquid Cherenkov radiators and wavelength shifters. The setup will be described in this presentation with a focus on the readout electronics and data acquisition.

  1. Models for X-Ray Emission from Isolated Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.-H.; Ruderman, M.; Halpern, Jules P.; Zhu, T.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed for the observed combination of power-law and thermal X-rays from rotationally powered pulsars. For gamma-ray pulsars with accelerators very many stellar radii above the neutron star surface, 100 MeV curvature gamma-rays from e(-) or e(+) flowing starward out of such accelerators are converted to e1 pairs on closed field lines all around the star. These pairs strongly affect X-ray emission from near the star in two ways. (1) The pairs are a source of synchrotron emission immediately following their creation in regions where B approx. 10(exp 10) G. This emission, in the photon energy range 0.1 keV less than E(sub X) less than 5 MeV, has a power-law spectrum with energy index 0.5 and X-ray luminosity that depends on the back-flow current, and is typically approx. 10(exp 33) ergs/ s. (2) The pairs ultimately a cyclotron resonance "blanket" surrounding the star except for two holes along the open field line bundles which pass through it. In such a blanket the gravitational pull on e(+,-) pairs toward the star is balanced by the hugely amplified push of outflowing surface emitted X-rays wherever cyclotron resonance occurs. Because of it the neutron star is surrounded by a leaky "hohlraum" of hot blackbody radiation with two small holes, which prevents direct X-ray observation of a heated polar cap of a gamma-ray pulsar. Weakly spin modulated radiation from the blanket together with more strongly spin-modulated radiation from the holes through it would then dominate observed low energy (0.1-10 keV) emission. For non-y-ray pulsars, in which no such accelerators with their accompanying extreme relativistic back-flow toward the star are expected, optically thick e1 resonance blankets should not form (except in special cases very close to the open field line bundle). From such pulsars blackbody radiation from both the warm stellar surface and the heated polar caps should be directly observable. In these pulsars, details of the surface magnetic field

  2. Light-Cone Effect of Radiation Fields in Cosmological Radiative Transfer Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kyungjin

    2015-02-01

    We present a novel method to implement time-delayed propagation of radiation fields in cosmo-logical radiative transfer simulations. Time-delayed propagation of radiation fields requires construction of retarded-time fields by tracking the location and lifetime of radiation sources along the corresponding light-cones. Cosmological radiative transfer simulations have, until now, ignored this "light-cone effect" or implemented ray-tracing methods that are computationally demanding. We show that radiative trans-fer calculation of the time-delayed fields can be easily achieved in numerical simulations when periodic boundary conditions are used, by calculating the time-discretized retarded-time Green's function using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and convolving it with the source distribution. We also present a direct application of this method to the long-range radiation field of Lyman-Werner band photons, which is important in the high-redshift astrophysics with first stars.

  3. Polarization of Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Dissipative Photosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundman, Christoffer; Vurm, Indrek; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2018-04-01

    The MeV spectral peak of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is best explained as photospheric emission from a dissipative relativistic jet. The observed non-blackbody spectrum shows that sub-photospheric dissipation involves both thermal plasma heating and injection of nonthermal particles, which quickly cool through inverse Compton scattering and emission of synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron photons emitted around and above the photosphere are predicted to dominate the low-energy part of the GRB spectrum, starting from roughly a decade in energy below the MeV peak. We show that this leads to a unique polarization signature: a rise in GRB polarization toward lower energies. We compute the polarization degree of GRB radiation as a function of photon energy for a generic jet model, and show the predictions for GRBs 990123, 090902B, and 110721A. The expected polarization is significant in the X-ray band, in particular for bursts similar to GRB 090902B. The model predicts that radiation in the MeV peak (and at higher energies) is unpolarized as long as the jet is approximately uniform on angular scales δθ ≳ Γ‑1 where Γ is the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet.

  4. RADIATION WAVE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wouters, L.F.

    1958-10-28

    The detection of the shape and amplitude of a radiation wave is discussed, particularly an apparatus for automatically indicating at spaced lntervals of time the radiation intensity at a flxed point as a measure of a radiation wave passing the point. The apparatus utilizes a number of photomultiplier tubes surrounding a scintillation type detector, For obtainlng time spaced signals proportional to radiation at predetermined intervals the photolnultiplier tubes are actuated ln sequence following detector incidence of a predetermined radiation level by electronic means. The time spaced signals so produced are then separately amplified and relayed to recording means.

  5. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  6. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  7. Multiplate Radiation Shields: Investigating Radiational Heating Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Scott James

    1995-01-01

    Multiplate radiation shield errors are examined using the following techniques: (1) analytic heat transfer analysis, (2) optical ray tracing, (3) numerical fluid flow modeling, (4) laboratory testing, (5) wind tunnel testing, and (6) field testing. Guidelines for reducing radiational heating errors are given that are based on knowledge of the temperature sensor to be used, with the shield being chosen to match the sensor design. Small, reflective sensors that are exposed directly to the air stream (not inside a filter as is the case for many temperature and relative humidity probes) should be housed in a shield that provides ample mechanical and rain protection while impeding the air flow as little as possible; protection from radiation sources is of secondary importance. If a sensor does not meet the above criteria (i.e., is large or absorbing), then a standard Gill shield performs reasonably well. A new class of shields, called part-time aspirated multiplate radiation shields, are introduced. This type of shield consists of a multiplate design usually operated in a passive manner but equipped with a fan-forced aspiration capability to be used when necessary (e.g., low wind speed). The fans used here are 12 V DC that can be operated with a small dedicated solar panel. This feature allows the fan to operate when global solar radiation is high, which is when the largest radiational heating errors usually occur. A prototype shield was constructed and field tested and an example is given in which radiational heating errors were reduced from 2 ^circC to 1.2 ^circC. The fan was run continuously to investigate night-time low wind speed errors and the prototype shield reduced errors from 1.6 ^ circC to 0.3 ^circC. Part-time aspirated shields are an inexpensive alternative to fully aspirated shields and represent a good compromise between cost, power consumption, reliability (because they should be no worse than a standard multiplate shield if the fan fails), and accuracy

  8. Low-mass dielectrons in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions measured by the ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, Ivan

    2018-02-01

    Dielectrons produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the LHC provide a unique probe of the system evolution as they are unperturbed by final-state interactions. The dielectron continuum is extremely rich in physics sources: on top of ordinary Dalitz and resonance decays of pseudoscalar and vector mesons, thermal black-body radiation is of particular interest as it carries information about the temperature of the hot and dense system created in such collisions. The dielectron invariant-mass distribution is furthermore sensitive to medium modifications of the spectral function of short-lived vector mesons that are linked to the potential restoration of chiral symmetry at high temperatures. Correlated electron pairs from semi-leptonic charm and beauty decays provide complementary information about the heavy-quark energy loss.

  9. Determination of combustion gas temperatures by infrared radiometry in sooting and nonsooting flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Gracia-Salcedo, Carmen M.

    1989-01-01

    Flame temperatures in nonsooting and sooting environments were successfully measured by radiometry for pre-mixed propane-oxygen laminar flames stabilized on a water-cooled, porous sintered-bronze burner. The measured temperatures in the nonsooting flames were compared with fine-wire thermocouple measurements. The results show excellent agreement below 1700 K, and when the thermocouple measurements were corrected for radiation effects, the agreement was good for even higher temperatures. The benefits of radiometry are: (1) the flow is not disturbed by an intruding probe, (2) calibration is easily done using a blackbody source, and (3) measurements can be made even with soot present. The theory involved in the radiometry measurements and the energy balance calculations used to correct the thermocouple temperature measurements are discussed.

  10. Thermal ionization of Cs Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2009-01-01

    Rates Pnl of photoionization from Rydberg ns-, np-, nd-states of a valence electron in Cs, induced by black-body radiation, were calculated on the basis of the modified Fues model potential method. The numerical data were approximated with a three-term expression which reproduces in a simple analytical form the dependence of Pnl on the ambient temperature T and on the principal quantum number n. The comparison between approximate and exactly calculated values of the thermal ionization rate demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approximation for highly excited states with n from 20 to 100 in a wide temperature range of T from 100 to 10,000 K. We present coefficients of this approximation for the s-, p- and d-series of Rydberg states.

  11. Rare Earth Doped High Temperature Ceramic Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study develops a spectral emittance model for films of rare earth containing materials. Although there are several possible rare earth doped high temperature materials, this study was confined to rare earth aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectral emittances was found for erbium, thulium and erbium-holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of these films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For thulium aluminum garnet the efficiency is 0.38 at 1700 K but only 0.19 at 1262 K.

  12. Rare Earth Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie T.; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study presents a spectral emittance model for films and cylinders of rare earth doped yttrium aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical film spectral emittances was found for erbium and holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. For operating conditions of interest, the film emitter experiences a linear temperature variation whereas the cylinder emitter has a more advantageous uniform temperature. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For holminum aluminum garnet film the efficiency is 0.35 at 1446K but only 0.27 at 1270 K.

  13. The unusual carbon star HD 59643 - Alternative models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.; Eaton, J. A.; Querci, F. R.; Querci, M.; Baumert, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    A binary model for the carbon star HD 59643 is discussed in which the secondary spectrum is formed in an accretion disk. If this hot, ultraviolet-emitting disk radiates like a 20,000 K black-body, it must be 0.03 solar radii or less across at minimum emission. Large widths of C IV multiplet UV1 on high-resolution spectra indicate its formation in the inner parts of a disk. The semiforbidden C III and Si III lines, however, are much narrower and could be formed in the outer parts of a disk or in the carbon star's chromosphere. The electron density in the region of formation of C III is about 10 to the 10th/cu cm.

  14. Power law X- and gamma-ray emission from relativistic thermal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    Pair equilibrium in thermal plasmas emitting power law photon spectra by repeated Compton scatterings of a soft photon source active galactic nuclei was studied. Dependence of the spectral index on optical thickness and on temperature of the plasma is discussed. The equation for pair equilibrium is solved for the maximum steady luminosity. Analytical solutions for the subrelativistic region, and for the ultrarelativistic region are found. In the transrelativistic region the solutions are expressed by single integrals over the pair production cross sections, performed numerically. The constraints on soft photon source imposed by the condition that the soft photon flux cannot exceed the black-body flux are considered. For the Comptonized synchrotron radiation model a relation between magnetic field strength and output luminosity is found.

  15. The Emergent 1.1-1.7 μm Spectrum of the Exoplanet CoRoT-2b as Measured Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Knutson, Heather; McCullough, Peter; Ranjan, Sukrit

    2014-03-01

    We have used Hubble/WFC3 and the G141 grism to measure the secondary eclipse of the transiting, very hot Jupiter CoRoT-2b in the 1.1-1.7 μm spectral region. We find an eclipse depth averaged over this band equal to 395^{+69}_{-45} parts per million, equivalent to a blackbody temperature of 1788 ± 18 K. We study and characterize several WFC3 instrumental effects, especially the "hook" phenomenon described by Deming et al. We use data from several transiting exoplanet systems to find a quantitative relation between the amplitude of the hook and the exposure level of a given pixel. Although the uncertainties in this relation are too large to allow us to develop an empirical correction for our data, our study provides a useful guide for optimizing exposure levels in future WFC3 observations. We derive the planet's spectrum using a differential method. The planet-to-star contrast increases to longer wavelength within the WFC3 bandpass, but without water absorption or emission to a 3σ limit of 85 ppm. The slope of the WFC3 spectrum is significantly less than the slope of the best-fit blackbody. We compare all existing eclipse data for this planet to a blackbody spectrum, and to spectra from both solar abundance and carbon-rich (C/O = 1) models. A blackbody spectrum is an acceptable fit to the full data set. Extra continuous opacity due to clouds or haze, and flattened temperature profiles, are strong candidates to produce quasi-blackbody spectra, and to account for the amplitude of the optical eclipses. Our results show ambiguous evidence for a temperature inversion in this planet.

  16. The emergent 1.1-1.7 μm spectrum of the exoplanet COROT-2B as measured using the Hubble space telescope

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-03-10

    We have used Hubble/WFC3 and the G141 grism to measure the secondary eclipse of the transiting, very hot Jupiter CoRoT-2b in the 1.1-1.7 μm spectral region. We find an eclipse depth averaged over this band equal to 395{sub −45}{sup +69} parts per million, equivalent to a blackbody temperature of 1788 ± 18 K. We study and characterize several WFC3 instrumental effects, especially the 'hook' phenomenon described by Deming et al. We use data from several transiting exoplanet systems to find a quantitative relation between the amplitude of the hook and the exposure level of a given pixel. Although the uncertaintiesmore » in this relation are too large to allow us to develop an empirical correction for our data, our study provides a useful guide for optimizing exposure levels in future WFC3 observations. We derive the planet's spectrum using a differential method. The planet-to-star contrast increases to longer wavelength within the WFC3 bandpass, but without water absorption or emission to a 3σ limit of 85 ppm. The slope of the WFC3 spectrum is significantly less than the slope of the best-fit blackbody. We compare all existing eclipse data for this planet to a blackbody spectrum, and to spectra from both solar abundance and carbon-rich (C/O = 1) models. A blackbody spectrum is an acceptable fit to the full data set. Extra continuous opacity due to clouds or haze, and flattened temperature profiles, are strong candidates to produce quasi-blackbody spectra, and to account for the amplitude of the optical eclipses. Our results show ambiguous evidence for a temperature inversion in this planet.« less

  17. Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  18. Radiation Engineering for Designers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  19. Novel reference radiation fields for pulsed photon radiation installed at PTB.

    PubMed

    Klammer, J; Roth, J; Hupe, O

    2012-09-01

    Currently, ∼70 % of the occupationally exposed persons in Germany are working in pulsed radiation fields, mainly in the medical sector. It has been known for a few years that active electronic dosemeters exhibit considerable deficits or can even fail completely in pulsed fields. Type test requirements for dosemeters exist only for continuous radiation. Owing to the need of a reference field for pulsed photon radiation and accordingly to the upcoming type test requirements for dosemeters in pulsed radiation, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt has developed a novel X-ray reference field for pulsed photon radiation in cooperation with a manufacturer. This reference field, geared to the main applications in the field of medicine, has been well characterised and is now available for research and type testing of dosemeters in pulsed photon radiation.

  20. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  1. Driving gas shells with radiation pressure on dust in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Tiago; Rosdahl, Joakim; Sijacki, Debora; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2018-01-01

    We present radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of radiatively-driven gas shells launched by bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) in isolated dark matter haloes. Our goals are (1) to investigate the ability of AGN radiation pressure on dust to launch galactic outflows and (2) to constrain the efficiency of infrared (IR) multiscattering in boosting outflow acceleration. Our simulations are performed with the radiation-hydrodynamic code RAMSES-RT and include both single- and multiscattered radiation pressure from an AGN, radiative cooling and self-gravity. Since outflowing shells always eventually become transparent to the incident radiation field, outflows that sweep up all intervening gas are likely to remain gravitationally bound to their halo even at high AGN luminosities. The expansion of outflowing shells is well described by simple analytic models as long as the shells are mildly optically thick to IR radiation. In this case, an enhancement in the acceleration of shells through IR multiscattering occurs as predicted, i.e. a force \\dot{P} ≈ τ_IR L/c is exerted on the gas. For high optical depths τIR ≳ 50, however, momentum transfer between outflowing optically thick gas and IR radiation is rapidly suppressed, even if the radiation is efficiently confined. At high τIR, the characteristic flow time becomes shorter than the required trapping time of IR radiation such that the momentum flux \\dot{P} ≪ τ_IR L/c. We argue that while unlikely to unbind massive galactic gaseous haloes, AGN radiation pressure on dust could play an important role in regulating star formation and black hole accretion in the nuclei of massive compact galaxies at high redshift.

  2. Radiation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA’s mission in radiation protection is to protect human health and the environment from the ionizing radiation that comes from human use of radioactive elements. Other agencies regulate the ...

  3. Radiation Brain Drain? The Impact of Demographic Change on U.S. Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Hricak, Hedvig; Dauer, Lawrence T

    2017-02-01

    The use of radiation has a substantial beneficial impact, particularly in the areas of medicine, energy production, basic science research, and industrial applications. Radiation protection knowledge and experience are required for acquiring and implementing scientific knowledge to protect workers, members of the public, and the environment from potential harmful effects of ionizing radiation while facilitating the beneficial use and development of radiation-based technologies. However, demographic changes are negatively impacting U.S. radiation protection and response capabilities. The number of radiation professionals continues to decrease even as the demand for such professionals is growing. These concerns are most pronounced in the medical, energy, research, and security arenas. Though the United States has been the world leader in radiation protection and radiation sciences for many years, the country has no strategic plan to ensure the maintenance of expertise in radiobiology, radiation physics, and radiation protection. Solving this problem will require a significant increase in federal and state funding as well as formal partnerships and initiatives among academia, professional societies, government, and the private sector.

  4. Radiation-induced genomic instability: radiation quality and dose response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leslie E.; Nagar, Shruti; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instability is a term used to describe a phenomenon that results in the accumulation of multiple changes required to convert a stable genome of a normal cell to an unstable genome characteristic of a tumor. There has been considerable recent debate concerning the importance of genomic instability in human cancer and its temporal occurrence in the carcinogenic process. Radiation is capable of inducing genomic instability in mammalian cells and instability is thought to be the driving force responsible for radiation carcinogenesis. Genomic instability is characterized by a large collection of diverse endpoints that include large-scale chromosomal rearrangements and aberrations, amplification of genetic material, aneuploidy, micronucleus formation, microsatellite instability, and gene mutation. The capacity of radiation to induce genomic instability depends to a large extent on radiation quality or linear energy transfer (LET) and dose. There appears to be a low dose threshold effect with low LET, beyond which no additional genomic instability is induced. Low doses of both high and low LET radiation are capable of inducing this phenomenon. This report reviews data concerning dose rate effects of high and low LET radiation and their capacity to induce genomic instability assayed by chromosomal aberrations, delayed lethal mutations, micronuclei and apoptosis.

  5. Spacecraft radiator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  6. Studying radiation hardness of a cadmium tungstate crystal based radiation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtein, M. M.; Smekalin, L. F.; Stepanov, S. A.; Zatonov, I. A.; Tkacheva, T. V.; Usachev, E. Yu

    2016-06-01

    The given article considers radiation hardness of an X-ray detector used in production of non-destructive testing instruments and inspection systems. In the course of research, experiments were carried out to estimate radiation hardness of a detector based on cadmium tungstate crystal and its structural components individually. The article describes a layout of an experimental facility that was used for measurements of radiation hardness. The radiation dose dependence of the photodiode current is presented, when it is excited by a light flux of a scintillator or by an external light source. Experiments were carried out to estimate radiation hardness of two types of optical glue used in detector production; they are based on silicon rubber and epoxy. With the help of a spectrophotometer and cobalt gun, each of the glue samples was measured for a relative light transmission factor with different wavelengths, depending on the radiation dose. The obtained data are presented in a comprehensive analysis of the results. It was determined, which of the glue samples is most suitable for production of detectors working under exposure to strong radiation.

  7. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-radiation on thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Simon; Parsons, Ken

    2008-04-01

    When the sun shines on people in enclosed spaces, such as in buildings or vehicles, it directly affects thermal comfort. There is also an indirect effect as surrounding surfaces are heated exposing a person to re-radiation. This laboratory study investigated the effects of long wave re-radiation on thermal comfort, individually and when combined with direct solar radiation. Nine male participants (26.0 +/- 4.7 years) took part in three experimental sessions where they were exposed to radiation from a hot black panel heated to 100 degrees C; direct simulated solar radiation of 600 Wm(-2) and the combined simulated solar radiation and black panel radiation. Exposures were for 30 min, during which subjective responses and mean skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that, at a surface temperature of 100 degrees C (close to maximum in practice), radiation from the flat black panel provided thermal discomfort but that this was relatively small when compared with the effects of direct solar radiation. It was concluded that re-radiation, from a dashboard in a vehicle, for example, will not have a major direct influence on thermal comfort and that existing models of thermal comfort do not require a specific modification. These results showed that, for the conditions investigated, the addition of re-radiation from internal components has an effect on thermal sensation when combined with direct solar radiation. However, it is not considered that it will be a major factor in a real world situation. This is because, in practice, dashboards are unlikely to maintain very high surface temperatures in vehicles without an unacceptably high air temperature. This study quantifies the contribution of short- and long-wave radiation to thermal comfort. The results will aid vehicle designers to have a better understanding of the complex radiation environment. These include direct radiation from the sun as well as re-radiation from the dashboard and other internal surfaces.

  8. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  9. Radiation From Solar Activity | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and geomagnetic storms from the sun can send extreme bursts of ionizing radiation and magnetic energy toward Earth. Some of this energy is in the form ionizing radiation and some of the energy is magnetic energy.

  10. Radiation area monitor device and method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vencelj, Matjaz; Stowe, Ashley C.; Petrovic, Toni

    A radiation area monitor device/method, utilizing: a radiation sensor; a rotating radiation shield disposed about the radiation sensor, wherein the rotating radiation shield defines one or more ports that are transparent to radiation; and a processor operable for analyzing and storing a radiation fingerprint acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor. Optionally, the radiation sensor includes a gamma and/or neutron radiation sensor. The device/method selectively operates in: a first supervised mode during which a baseline radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated aboutmore » the radiation sensor; and a second unsupervised mode during which a subsequent radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor, wherein the subsequent radiation fingerprint is compared to the baseline radiation fingerprint and, if a predetermined difference threshold is exceeded, an alert is issued.« less

  11. RADIATION HAZARD

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Savenko, I.A.; Pisarenko, N.F.; Shavrin, P.I.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of data obtained by Sputnik V (August 19, 1961) at about 320 km made it possible to delineate the position of the radiation belts and to estimate the amount of radiation hazard present. Scintillation counter data show that the radiation in the belts is anisotropic and that the energy flux under a layer of matter of 2 x 10/sup -3/ g cm/sup -2/ is 10/sup 10/ ev cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. The mean energy released per quantum in the scintillation counter crystal is computed at 2.0 x 10/sup 5/ ev and the intensity of electrons in the outer beltmore » at 5 x 10/sup 4/ particles cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. The radiation dosage absorbed inside Sputnik V was determined by dividing the amount of energy liberated in the sodium iodide crystal of the scinitillation counter by the weight of the crystal (36.4 g) without the need of a detailed examination of the composition and spectrum of the radiation. A dosage value of 7 mrad/24 hr was obtained; in terms of the RBE (relative biological effect) of the cosmic charged particles this amounted to 5O mrem/24 hr. This dosage is considered relatively safe for astronauts during flights along trajectories similar to that of Sputnik V when the sun is quiet. Solar flares, however, could bring about an increase in radiation. Owing to latitude and longitude effects and the specifi distribution of radiation at this height, the dosage per orbit ranged from 0.35 to 0.70 mrad. (OTS)« less

  12. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  13. The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Carlton, R.E.; Tripp, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant (IRMA) system combines state-of-the-art radiation sensors and microprocessor based analysis techniques to perform radiation surveys. Control of the survey function is from a control station located outside the radiation thus reducing time spent in radiation areas performing radiation surveys. The system consists of a directional radiation sensor, a laser range finder, two area radiation sensors, and a video camera mounted on a pan and tilt platform. THis sensor package is deployable on a remotely operated vehicle. The outputs of the system are radiation intensity maps identifying both radiation source intensities and radiation levels throughout themore » room being surveyed. After completion of the survey, the data can be removed from the control station computer for further analysis or archiving.« less

  14. Radiation protection aspects of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D T

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the aircraft structure and its contents. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60, the European Union introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionising radiation, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. The revised Directive has been incorporated into laws and regulations in the European Union Member States. Where the assessment of the occupational exposure of aircraft crew is necessary, the preferred approach to monitoring is by the recording of staff flying times and calculated route doses. Route doses are to be validated by measurements. This paper gives the general background, and considers the radiation protection aspects of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew, with the focus on the situation in Europe.

  15. Radiation sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation therapy References Geleijns J, Tack D. Medical physics: radiation risks. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard ... Exposure Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health Topics A-Z Read more A.D.A. ...

  16. [Remote radiation planning support system].

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shinoto, Makoto; Asai, Kaori; Sakamoto, Katsumi; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    We constructed a remote radiation planning support system between Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Fukuoka and Kyushu University Beppu Hospital (KBH) in Oita. Between two institutions, radiology information system for radiotherapy division (RT-RIS) and radiation planning system (RTPS) were connected by virtual private network (VPN). This system enables the radiation oncologists at KUH to perform radiotherapy planning for the patients at KBH. The detail of the remote radiation planning support system in our institutions is as follows: The radiation oncologist at KBH performs radiotherapy planning and the data of the patients are sent anonymously to the radiation oncologists at KUH. The radiation oncologists at KUH receive the patient's data, access to RTPS at KBH, verify or change the radiation planning at KBH: Radiation therapy is performed at KBH according to the confirmed plan by the radiation oncologists at KUH. Our remote radiation planning system is useful for providing radiation therapy with safety and accuracy.

  17. Underwater radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, Lyle W.; McKnight, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

  18. Radiation and health*

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, B.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation has been a source of fascination and concern ever since Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen discovered X-rays on 8 November 1895. Over the years, health workers as well as the public have been concerned about medical uses of X-rays, the presence of radon in buildings, radioactive waste from nuclear power stations, fallout from nuclear test explosions, radioactive consumer products, microwave ovens, and many other sources of radiation. Most recently, the tragic accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR, and the subsequent contamination over most of Europe, has again wakened interest and concern and also reminded us about a number of misconceptions about radiation. This article describes the essentials about radiation (especially ionizing radiation) and its health effects. PMID:3496982

  19. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the cosmic radiations using COBE FIRAS instrument data: I. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I.; Lemberg, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    Using the explicit form of the functions to describe the monopole and dipole spectra of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the exact expressions for the temperature dependences of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, such as the total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, and pressure in the finite range of frequencies v 1≤ v≤ v 2 are obtained. Since the dependence of temperature upon the redshift z is known, the obtained expressions can be simply presented in z representation. Utilizing experimental data for the monopole and dipole spectra measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument in the 60-600 GHz frequency interval at the temperature T=2.72548 K, the values of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, as well as the radiation density constant a and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ are calculated. In the case of the dipole spectrum, the constants a and σ, and the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the CMB radiation are obtained using the mean amplitude T amp=3.358 mK. It is shown that the Doppler shift leads to a renormalization of the radiation density constant a, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ, and the corresponding constants for the thermodynamic functions. The expressions for new astrophysical parameters, such as the entropy density/Boltzmann constant, and number density of CMB photons are obtained. The radiative and thermodynamic properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation for the monopole and dipole spectra at redshift z≈1089 are calculated.

  20. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Williams, N.

    1965-01-01

    The main emphasis of a provincial radiation protection program is on ionizing radiation produced by machines, although assistance is given to the Federal Radiation Protection Division in its program relating to radioactive substances. The basis for the Saskatchewan program of radiation protection is the Radiological Health Act 1961. An important provision of the Act is annual registration of radiation equipment. The design of the registration form encourages a “do-it-yourself” radiation and electrical safety inspection. Installations are inspected every two years by a radiation health officer. Two hundred and twenty-one deficiencies were found during inspection of 224 items of radiation equipment, the commonest being failure to use personal film badges. Insufficient filtration of the beam, inadequate limitation of the beam, and unnecessary exposure of operators were other common faults. Physicians have a responsibility to weigh the potential advantages against the hazards when requesting radiographic or fluoroscopic procedures. PMID:14282164

  1. [Induced thymus aging: radiation model and application perspective for low intensive laser radiation].

    PubMed

    Sevost'ianova, N N; Trofimov, A V; Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma-radiation on morphofunctional state of thymus is rather like as natural thymus aging. However gamma-radiation model of thymus aging widely used to investigate geroprotectors has many shortcomings and limitations. Gamma-radiation can induce irreversible changes in thymus very often. These changes are more intensive in comparison with changes, which can be observed at natural thymus aging. Low intensive laser radiation can not destroy structure of thymus and its effects are rather like as natural thymus aging in comparison with gamma-radiation effects. There are many parameters of low intensive laser radiation, which can be changed to improve morphofunctional thymus characteristics in aging model. Using low intensive laser radiation in thymus aging model can be very perspective for investigations of aging immune system.

  2. Strategies for Discovery of Small Molecule Radiation Protectors and Radiation Mitigators

    PubMed Central

    Greenberger, Joel S.; Clump, David; Kagan, Valerian; Bayir, Hülya; Lazo, John S.; Wipf, Peter; Li, Song; Gao, Xiang; Epperly, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial targeted radiation damage protectors (delivered prior to irradiation) and mitigators (delivered after irradiation, but before the appearance of symptoms associated with radiation syndrome) have been a recent focus in drug discovery for (1) normal tissue radiation protection during fractionated radiotherapy, and (2) radiation terrorism counter measures. Several categories of such molecules have been discovered: nitroxide-linked hybrid molecules, including GS-nitroxide, GS-nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, p53/mdm2/mdm4 inhibitors, and pharmaceutical agents including inhibitors of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase pathway and the anti-seizure medicine, carbamazepine. Evaluation of potential new radiation dose modifying molecules to protect normal tissue includes: clonogenic radiation survival curves, assays for apoptosis and DNA repair, and irradiation-induced depletion of antioxidant stores. Studies of organ specific radioprotection and in total body irradiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome in the mouse model for protection/mitigation facilitate rational means by which to move candidate small molecule drugs along the drug discovery pipeline into clinical development. PMID:22655254

  3. Potential theory of radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical method is being developed by which the structure of a radiation field can be predicted by a radiation potential theory, similar to a classical potential theory. The introduction of a scalar potential is justified on the grounds that the spectral intensity vector is irrotational. The vector is also solenoidal in the limits of a radiation field in complete radiative equilibrium or in a vacuum. This method provides an exact, elliptic type equation that will upgrade the accuracy and the efficiency of the current CFD programs required for the prediction of radiation and flow fields. A number of interesting results emerge from the present study. First, a steady state radiation field exhibits an optically modulated inverse square law distribution character. Secondly, the unsteady radiation field is structured with two conjugate scalar potentials. Each is governed by a Klein-Gordon equation with a frictional force and a restoring force. This steady potential field structure and the propagation of radiation potentials are consistent with the well known results of classical electromagnetic theory. The extension of the radiation potential theory for spray combustion and hypersonic flow is also recommended.

  4. Vacuum Radiance-Temperature Standard Facility for Infrared Remote Sensing at NIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X. P.; Song, J.; Xu, M.; Sun, J. P.; Gong, L. Y.; Yuan, Z. D.; Lu, X. F.

    2018-06-01

    As infrared remote sensors are very important parts of Earth observation satellites, they must be calibrated based on the radiance temperature of a blackbody in a vacuum chamber prior to launch. The uncertainty of such temperature is thus an essential component of the sensors' uncertainty. This paper describes the vacuum radiance-temperature standard facility (VRTSF) at the National Institute of Metrology of China, which will serve to calibrate infrared remote sensors on Chinese meteorological satellites. The VRTSF can be used to calibrate vacuum blackbody radiance temperature, including those used to calibrate infrared remote sensors. The components of the VRTSF are described in this paper, including the VMTBB, the LNBB, the FTIR spectrometer, the reduced-background optical system, the vacuum chamber used to calibrate customers' blackbody, the vacuum-pumping system and the liquid-nitrogen-support system. The experimental methods and results are expounded. The uncertainty of the radiance temperature of VMTBB is 0.026 °C at 30 °C over 10 μm.

  5. Fourier transform spectrometer for spectral emissivity measurement in the temperature range between 60 and 1500°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jingmin; Wang, Xinbei; Yuan, Guibin

    2005-01-01

    A new spectral emissivity measurement system has been developed at Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT) by using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The spectral range between 0.6 and 25 µm was covered by a photovoltaic HgCdTe and a silicon photodiode detector. A SiC heater with a black hole was employed for heating the sample. The temperature of the sample can be controlled in a range between 60 and 1500°C with an error of less than 1°C. The system was calibrated against two high quality reference blackbodies: a low temperature heat-pipe blackbody operated in the temperature range between 60°C and 300°C and a high temperature blackbody with SiC heater operated in the temperature range between 300°C and 1500°C. Several tests were done for this new system. The estimated uncertainty of emissivity measurement is better than 3%.

  6. Angular radiation models for earth-atmosphere system. Volume 2: Longwave radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T.; Green, R. N.; Smith, G. L.; Wielicki, B. A.; Walker, I. J.; Taylor, V. R.; Stowe, L. L.

    1989-01-01

    The longwave angular radiation models that are required for analysis of satellite measurements of Earth radiation, such as those from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are presented. The models contain limb-darkening characteristics and mean fluxes. Limb-darkening characteristics are the longwave anisotropic factor and the standard deviation of the longwave radiance. Derivation of these models from the Nimbus 7 ERB (Earth Radiation Budget) data set is described. Tabulated values and computer-generated plots are included for the limb-darkening and mean-flux models.

  7. Power-line harmonic radiation - Can it significantly affect the earth's radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, R. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that harmonic radiation from the earth's 50- and 60-hertz power transmission lines might significantly influence the distribution of electrons in the radiation belts. On the basis of observations presented here, it seems advisable to accept such a hypothesis with caution. New evidence suggests that power-line radiation does not play any major role in the nonadiabatic dynamics of radiation belt electrons.

  8. Optical imaging of radiation-induced metabolic changes in radiation-sensitive and resistant cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhallak, Kinan; Jenkins, Samir V.; Lee, David E.; Greene, Nicholas P.; Quinn, Kyle P.; Griffin, Robert J.; Dings, Ruud P. M.; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2017-06-01

    Radiation resistance remains a significant problem for cancer patients, especially due to the time required to definitively determine treatment outcome. For fractionated radiation therapy, nearly 7 to 8 weeks can elapse before a tumor is deemed to be radiation-resistant. We used the optical redox ratio of FAD/(FAD+NADH) to identify early metabolic changes in radiation-resistant lung cancer cells. These radiation-resistant human A549 lung cancer cells were developed by exposing the parental A549 cells to repeated doses of radiation (2 Gy). Although there were no significant differences in the optical redox ratio between the parental and resistant cell lines prior to radiation, there was a significant decrease in the optical redox ratio of the radiation-resistant cells 24 h after a single radiation exposure (p=0.01). This change in the redox ratio was indicative of increased catabolism of glucose in the resistant cells after radiation and was associated with significantly greater protein content of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α), a key promoter of glycolytic metabolism. Our results demonstrate that the optical redox ratio could provide a rapid method of determining radiation resistance status based on early metabolic changes in cancer cells.

  9. Patents for Toll-like receptor ligands as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Pollard, Harvey B

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation exposure induces apoptosis of tissues in the hematopoietic, digestive, cutaneous, cardiovascular and nervous systems; extensive apoptosis of these tissues ultimately leads to acute radiation syndrome. A novel strategy for developing radiation countermeasures has been to imitate the genetic mechanisms acquired by radiation-resistant tumors. Two mechanisms that underlie this ability of tumor cells are the p53 and NF-κB pathways. The loss of p53 function results in the inactivation of pro-apoptotic control mechanisms, while constitutive activation of NF-κB results in the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes. Various Toll-like receptor ligands are capable of up regulating the NF-κB pathway, which increases radio-resistance and reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in various tissues. Several Toll-like receptor ligands have been patented and are currently under development as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome. Ongoing studies suggest that a few of these attractive agents are progressing well along the US FDA approval pathway to become radiation countermeasures.

  10. Patents for Toll-like receptor ligands as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay K; Pollard, Harvey B

    2015-01-01

    Acute radiation exposure induces apoptosis of tissues in the hematopoietic, digestive, cutaneous, cardiovascular and nervous systems; extensive apoptosis of these tissues ultimately leads to acute radiation syndrome. A novel strategy for developing radiation countermeasures has been to imitate the genetic mechanisms acquired by radiation-resistant tumors. Two mechanisms that underlie this ability of tumor cells are the p53 and NF-κB pathways. The loss of p53 function results in the inactivation of pro-apoptotic control mechanisms, while constitutive activation of NF-κB results in the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes. Various Toll-like receptor ligands are capable of up regulating the NF-κB pathway, which increases radio-resistance and reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in various tissues. Several Toll-like receptor ligands have been patented and are currently under development as radiation countermeasures for acute radiation syndrome. Ongoing studies suggest that a few of these attractive agents are progressing well along the US FDA approval pathway to become radiation countermeasures. PMID:26135043

  11. Radiation research society 1952-2002. Physics as an element of radiation research.

    PubMed

    Inokuti, Mitio; Seltzer, Stephen M

    2002-07-01

    Since its inception in 1954, Radiation Research has published an estimated total of about 8700 scientific articles up to August 2001, about 520, or roughly 6%, of which are primarily related to physics. This average of about 11 articles per year indicates steadily continuing contributions by physicists, though there are appreciable fluctuations from year to year. These works of physicists concern radiation sources, dosimetry, instrumentation for measurements of radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation physics, mechanisms of radiation actions, and applications. In this review, we have selected some notable accomplishments for discussion and present an outlook for the future.

  12. (Mis)Understanding Radiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schreiber, Stephen Bruce

    2016-02-10

    This set of slides discusses radiation and fears concerning it at a non-technical level. Included are some misconceptions and practical consequences resulting from these. The concept of radiation hormesis is explained. The author concludes that a number of significant societal benefits are being foregone because of overly cautious concerns about low-level radiation.

  13. Metabolomic applications in radiation biodosimetry: exploring radiation effects through small molecules.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fornace, Albert J; Laiakis, Evagelia C

    2017-10-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation has increased in the past decades, primarily due to long distance travel and medical procedures. On the other hand, accidental exposures, nuclear accidents, and elevated threats of terrorism with the potential detonation of a radiological dispersal device or improvised nuclear device in a major city, all have led to increased needs for rapid biodosimetry and assessment of exposure to different radiation qualities and scenarios. Metabolomics, the qualitative and quantitative assessment of small molecules in a given biological specimen, has emerged as a promising technology to allow for rapid determination of an individual's exposure level and metabolic phenotype. Advancements in mass spectrometry techniques have led to untargeted (discovery phase, global assessment) and targeted (quantitative phase) methods not only to identify biomarkers of radiation exposure, but also to assess general perturbations of metabolism with potential long-term consequences, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and pulmonary disease. Metabolomics of radiation exposure has provided a highly informative snapshot of metabolic dysregulation. Biomarkers in easily accessible biofluids and biospecimens (urine, blood, saliva, sebum, fecal material) from mouse, rat, and minipig models, to non-human primates and humans have provided the basis for determination of a radiation signature to assess the need for medical intervention. Here we provide a comprehensive description of the current status of radiation metabolomic studies for the purpose of rapid high-throughput radiation biodosimetry in easily accessible biofluids and discuss future directions of radiation metabolomics research.

  14. Radiation area monitor device and method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vencelj, Matjaz; Stowe, Ashley C.; Petrovic, Toni

    A radiation area monitor device/method, utilizing: a radiation sensor having a directional radiation sensing capability; a rotation mechanism operable for selectively rotating the radiation sensor such that the directional radiation sensing capability selectively sweeps an area of interest; and a processor operable for analyzing and storing a radiation fingerprint acquired by the radiation sensor as the directional radiation sensing capability selectively sweeps the area of interest. Optionally, the radiation sensor includes a gamma and/or neutron radiation sensor. The device/method selectively operates in: a first supervised mode during which a baseline radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor; and amore » second unsupervised mode during which a subsequent radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor, wherein the subsequent radiation fingerprint is compared to the baseline radiation fingerprint and, if a predetermined difference threshold is exceeded, an alert is issued.« less

  15. Solar radiation measurement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Xavier solar radiation measurement project and station are described. Measurements of the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface from an Eppley pyranometer were collected into computer data files. Total radiation in watt hours was converted from ten minute intervals to hourly intervals. Graphs of this total radiation data are included. A computer program in Fortran was written to calculate the total extraterrestrial radiation on a horizontal surface for each day of the month. Educational and social benefits of the project are cited.

  16. Ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, C. A.; Grigoryev, Y. G.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation encountered in space are considered. Biological experiments conducted in space and some experiences of astronauts during space flight are described. The effects of various levels of radiation exposure and the determination of permissible dosages are discussed.

  17. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The type of cancer The size of ...

  18. Radiation Attenuation and Stability of ClearView Radiation Shielding TM-A Transparent Liquid High Radiation Shield.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Jayeesh

    2018-04-01

    Radiation exposure is a limiting factor to work in sensitive environments seen in nuclear power and test reactors, medical isotope production facilities, spent fuel handling, etc. The established choice for high radiation shielding is lead (Pb), which is toxic, heavy, and abidance by RoHS. Concrete, leaded (Pb) bricks are used as construction materials in nuclear facilities, vaults, and hot cells for radioisotope production. Existing transparent shielding such as leaded glass provides minimal shielding attenuation in radiotherapy procedures, which in some cases is not sufficient. To make working in radioactive environments more practicable while resolving the lead (Pb) issue, a transparent, lightweight, liquid, and lead-free high radiation shield-ClearView Radiation Shielding-(Radium Incorporated, 463 Dinwiddie Ave, Waynesboro, VA). was developed. This paper presents the motivation for developing ClearView, characterization of certain aspects of its use and performance, and its specific attenuation testing. Gamma attenuation testing was done using a 1.11 × 10 Bq Co source and ANSI/HPS-N 13.11 standard. Transparency with increasing thickness, time stability of liquid state, measurements of physical properties, and performance in freezing temperatures are reported. This paper also presents a comparison of ClearView with existing radiation shields. Excerpts from LaSalle nuclear power plant are included, giving additional validation. Results demonstrated and strengthened the expected performance of ClearView as a radiation shield. Due to the proprietary nature of the work, some information is withheld.

  19. Radiation Damage Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The availability of data regarding the radiation behavior of GaAs and silicon solar cells is discussed as well as efforts to provide sufficient information. Other materials are considered too immature for reasonable radiation evaluation. The lack of concern over the possible catastrophic radiation degradation in cascade cells is a potentially serious problem. Lithium counterdoping shows potential for removing damage in irradiated P-type material, although initial efficiencies are not comparable to current state of the art. The possibility of refining the lithium doping method to maintain high initial efficiencies and combining it with radiation tolerant structures such as thin BSF cells or vertical junction cells could provide a substantial improvement in EOL efficiencies. Laser annealing of junctions, either those formed ion implantation or diffusion, may not only improve initial cell performance but might also reduce the radiation degradation rate.

  20. Fading Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, Izzet; Halilsoy, Mustafa; Pasaoglu, Hale

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we explore a particular type Hawking radiation which ends with zero temperature and entropy. The appropriate black holes for this purpose are the linear dilaton black holes. In addition to the black hole choice, a recent formalism in which the Parikh-Wilczek's tunneling formalism amalgamated with quantum corrections to all orders in ħ is considered. The adjustment of the coefficients of the quantum corrections plays a crucial role on this particular Hawking radiation. The obtained tunneling rate indicates that the radiation is not pure thermal anymore, and hence correlations of outgoing quanta are capable of carrying away information encoded within them. Finally, we show in detail that when the linear dilaton black hole completely evaporates through such a particular radiation, entropy of the radiation becomes identical with the entropy of the black hole, which corresponds to "no information loss".