Aguilera, L; Marquetti, M C; Navarro, A
The Amejeiras strain of Blatella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) kept in lab conditions since 1994 and susceptible to arpocarb, malathion and cipermethrin insecticides, was studied. This strain was treated with 4 diflubenzuron (Dimilin OMS 1804) concentrations supplied by feeding nymphs at their first stage of development, with the purpose of determining their effect on the survival, phenotype and period of nynmphal development of this species. The dosage-mortality line of regression was determined and the values of CE50 = 0.042% and CE95 = 0.357% were obtained. Sublethal effects were observed in the nymphs treated with the 4 tested concentrations whereas the morphogenetic effects in adult insects only occurred when they were exposed to higher concentrations (0.25% and 0.4%). The nymph development stage showed a highly significant increase when the diflubenzuron concentration was raised. (F = 11.64; p < 0.001).
Jung, Woo-Chul; Jang, Young-Su; Hieu, Tran Trung; Lee, Chong-Kyu; Ahn, Young-Joon
The insecticidal constituents of hexane-soluble fraction from a methanolic extract of the seeds from Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae) against adult females of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal activity of 13 Myristica seed compounds against female B. germanica was examined by using the filter-paper contact toxicity and vapor phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of the other 23 known compounds of Myristica seed and currently used insecticides: dichlorvos, deltamethrin, permethrin, and propoxur. In contact toxicity tests using female B. germanica, (IS)-(-) -beta-pinene (0.06 mg/cm2) was the most toxic insecticide, based on 24-h LD50 values. The insecticidal activity of this compound was comparable with that of permethrin (0.05 mg/cm2). (1R)-(+) -Camphor, (1S)-(-) -camphor, dipentene, (1R)-(+) -3-pinene, and (+)-alpha-terpineol (0.10-0.14 mg/cm2) were more toxic than propoxur (0.19 mg/cm2). (E)-Sabinene hydrate and propoxur were almost equitoxic. Potent insecticidal activity also was observed with (R)-(+) -citronellal, (S)-(-) -citronellal, (R)-(-) -alpha-phellandrene, (1S)-(-) -alpha-pinene, (1R)-(+) -alpha-pinene, and safrole (0.27-0.48 mg/cm2). In vapor phase toxicity tests, the compounds tested were effective in closed but not in open containers. These results indicate that the effect of these compounds was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Myristica seed compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides or as leads for the control of cockroaches.
Prakash, S; Srivastava, C P; Kumar, S; Pandey, K S; Kaushik, M P; Rao, K M
The residual repellency of N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) was studied against American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.); German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.); and brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.) at various concentrations. DEPA exhibited residual repellency for 4, 3, and 2 wk against American, German, and brownbanded cockroach, respectively, at a concentration of 0.5 mg/cm2.
Alexander, J B; Newton, J; Crowe, G A
Results are presented of a survey carried out by Rentokil Ltd on the distribution of the Oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis L. and the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. in the United Kingdom. The known ranges of both species are increased considerably by the findings of the survey, with several new vice-county records for Scotland (including the Western Isles), England and Wales. The frequency at which Blatta orientalis was observed in outdoor habitats may indicate that this species sometimes spreads to new areas without human assistance.
Herraiz, Alba; Chauvigné, François; Cerdà, Joan; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors
Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that form water channels, allowing rapid movement of water across cell membranes. AQPs have been reported in species of all life kingdoms and in almost all tissues, but little is known about them in insects. Our purpose was to explore the occurrence of AQPs in the ovary of the phylogenetically basal insect Blattella germanica (L.) and to study their possible role in fluid homeostasis during oogenesis. We isolated an ovarian AQP from B. germanica (BgAQP) that has a deduced amino acid sequence showing six potential transmembrane domains, two NPA motifs and an ar/R constriction region, which are typical features of the AQP family. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that BgAQP belongs to the PRIP group of insect AQPs, previously suggested to be water specific. However, ectopic expression of BgAQP in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that this AQP transports water and modest amounts of urea, but not glycerol, which suggests that the PRIP group of insect AQPs may have heterogeneous solute preferences. BgAQP was shown to be highly expressed in the ovary, followed by the fat body and muscle tissues, but water stress did not significantly modify the ovarian expression levels. RNA interference (RNAi) reduced BgAQP mRNA levels in the ovary but the oocytes developed normally. The absence of an apparent ovarian phenotype after BgAQP RNAi suggests that other functionally redundant AQPs that were not silenced in our experiments might exist in the ovary of B. germanica.
Dingha, Beatrice N; Appel, Arthur G; Eubanks, Micky D
The discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) was described in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) for the first time. Also, the effect of the DGC on water loss was investigated. The CO(2) emission pattern in both insecticide resistant and susceptible B. germanica varied with temperature. At 10, 15, and 20 degrees C the pattern was discontinuous. Cycle frequency increased at 25 and 30 degrees C, and at 35 degrees C the pattern became cyclic. In most DGCs, there was no clear distinction between the closed and flutter phases in both strains thus data for these phases were combined and analyzed as the interburst phase. The probability that B. germanica would breath discontinuously varied with temperature. Most cockroaches (62.8%) displayed DGCs at 10 degrees C, therefore measurement of metabolic rate and water loss was carried out at this temperature. Using repeated measures of analysis of variance, the interburst and burst V(.)(CO(2))(ml h(-1)) were not significantly different between the two strains. The variability in CO(2) emission during the interburst and burst phases over time was not significantly different from cycle to cycle or between strains. Overall metabolic rate during the entire recording was not significantly different between both strains. There was a significant difference in the duration of the interburst and burst phases between the strains. The susceptible strain had significantly longer interburst and burst phase durations during a complete DGC than the resistant strain. The interburst and burst phase durations were 5.01+/-0.19 and 6.21+/-0.13 min, respectively, for the resistant strain, whereas the durations were 7.16+/-0.37 and 6.73+/-0.17 min, respectively, for the susceptible strain. This resulted in a DGC of significantly longer duration (13.89+/-0.44 min) in the susceptible strain compared with the resistant strain (11.23+/-0.26 min). The duration of the interburst phase was significantly different from
Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre
Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115
Solomon, Fithamlak; Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre; Ali, Solomon
Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality.
Díaz, Pantoja Cristina; Alvarez Gavilán, Yudelmis; de Armas Rodríguez, Yaxsier; Bisset Lazcano, Juan A
In this paper, the level of resistance to four insecticides of 3 Blatella germanica strains collected from various places in the City of Havana province was evaluated. These strains were resistant to two pyrethroids (cypermethrin and lambda-cyalothrine) and to organophosphorate malathion but susceptible to carbamate propoxur. The values of alpha and beta esterases, acetylcholinesterase and gluthatione-S-transferase were estimated in three strains involved in the study. The results of the study showed high esterase activity in all the strains, mainly beta esterases and two of the three strains presented with high gluthation-S-transferase enzyme. No changes in acetylcholinesterase were demonstrated in relation to the reference strain. The association of levels of resistance to insecticides, the possible resistance mechanisms in each strain and the results of the enzymatic activity were also analyzed.
Aguilera, L; Marquetti, M C; Gutiérrez, A; Navarro, A
A study of the life tables of Blatella germanica (L.) 1767 was conducted under laboratory conditions. 3 treatments were used a according to the number of individuals in each breeding flask (A = 9 flasks with 20-25 individuals, B = 17 flasks with 30-35 individuals, and C = 30 flasks with a newly hatched nymph each). The main parameters of the population growth were calculated by the TABVID software . The respective values for treatments A and B were the following: net reproduction rate (Ro 2.23 and 2.37), natural increase finite rate (lambda = 1.06), natural increase intrinsic rate (r = 0.06), and mean generational time (T = 13.89 and 15.64). The behaviour of the survival probability by age, the fertility rate, and the mortality rate were graphically registered. Life expectancy for treatment C was 16.47 and the survival rate for this treatment was represented by a graph. Graphics of the growth curve of this species and of the survival rate for treatments A and B were shown. The latter was concave, which means that mortality is higher during the young stages. This study provides esential cuantitative basic date that allow to carry out a more efficient control if fight is directed to the period where the highest natural mortality was found, that is, at the step from nymph 6 to adult in treatments A and B.
Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W
The insecticidal activity of a cockroach gel bait containing a chitin synthesis inhibitor, noviflumuron, was evaluated using laboratory and field strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Noviflumuron gel bait (0.01-5 mg g(-1)) caused > or = 90% nymphal mortality to laboratory and field strains of B. germanica in choice tests after 11 and 19 days of continuous exposure respectively. In 1 m x 1 m bioassay arenas, laboratory strain B. germanica population levels exposed to 5 mg g(-1) noviflumuron bait or 0.1 mg g(-1) fipronil gel bait were significantly lower than untreated population levels after 3 weeks and 1 week of exposure respectively. Various noviflumuron bait exposure periods (2, 4 and 7 weeks) caused similar population reductions, with a mean of 99.3 (+/- 0.3)% at 7 weeks. Fipronil gel bait caused 100% population reduction at 2 weeks post-exposure. The control population increased 89.0% at 7 weeks. In a simulated kitchen experiment with mixed stage laboratory populations, cockroach trap catches decreased 96.8 (+/- 2.0)% at 8 weeks in the 0.5 mg g(-1) noviflumuron bait treatment. The trap catches in the control increased 506.5 (+/- 493.7)% during the same period. Trap catch reduction by 0.1 mg g(-1) fipronil gel bait reached 100% at 4 weeks. Noviflumuron bait caused significantly lower nymph/total ratios to B. germanica populations in bioassay arenas from 2 weeks after exposure, demonstrating its effectiveness as a control agent for B. germanica with a pattern of activity similar to that expected from a chitin synthesis inhibitor.
Comas, D; Piulachs, M D; Bellés, X
The present paper describes the effect of juvenile hormone III (JH III) upon vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression in cardioallatectomized females of Blattella germanica. Northern blot analyses of time course studies showed that Vg mRNA can be detected 2 h after the treatment with 1 microgram of JH III. Western blot analyses revealed that Vg protein is detectable 4 h after the same treatment. The study of the influence of the age showed that 48-h-old females seem more sensitive than 24-h-old females, whereas differences were less apparent between 48- and 72-h-old females. Dose-response studies indicated that 0.01 microgram of JH III is ineffective, whereas the doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 micrograms induced the synthesis of Vg in a dose-dependent fashion. Finally, the administration of three successive doses, of 0.01 microgram of JH III each, did not result in detectable Vg production, whereas two doses of 0.01 microgram followed by one of 1 microgram of JH III induced a greater response than that resulting from a sole dose of 1 microgram of JH III, which suggests that sub-effective doses of JH III elicit a priming effect on Vg production.
Diaz, Cristina; Alvarez, Yudelmis; de Armas, Yaxier; Bisset, Juan A
The resistance mechanisms of Blatella germanica, one of the most important urban plagues worldwide since it is a mechanical vector that houses a number of highly harmful viruses, fungi, helmints and bacteria were studied. There are different control methods used against Blattella germnanica, with insecticides playing the leading role. Their uncontrolled application has caused the development of insecticice resistance in this species. This paper adapted biochemical methods to detect the enzymes esterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathine-S-transferase as posible resistance mechanisms. To this end, all the parameters that allow finding out if a strain is susceptible or resistant to each mechanism were set.
Bujang, N S; Lee, C Y
The interspecific competition between a new cockroach pest species in Southeast Asia, the Smooth cockroach, Symploce pallens (Stephens) and the ubiquitous German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) was studied under different food and water regimes (unlimited food and water [control], limited water, limited food and limited food and water). Both species were found to have equal chances to coexist when both food and water are unlimited, when food is a limiting factor, and when both food and water are limited. However, under shorter evaluation periods (eg. 60 and 120 days), the intrinsic rate of increase (rn) of S. pallens appeared to be significantly lower than that of the B. germanica. This is possibly due to the shorter nymphal development period and higher fecundity of the latter species when compared to S. pallens. Both the food and water availability factor showed significant effects on the rn of both species.
Davari, B; Limoee, M; Khodavaisy, S; Zamini, G; Izadi, S
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) has been recognized as a serious health problem throughout the world. Control failures due to insecticide resistance and chemical contamination of environment have led some researchers focus on the other alternative strategy controls. Microbial insecticides such as those containing entomo pathogenic fungi could be of high significance. Lecanicillium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana grow naturally in soils throughout the world and act as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease. Thus, these two species could be considered as entomopathogenic fungi. The current study conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Conidial formulations of L. muscarium (PTCC 5184) and B. bassiana (PTCC5197) were prepared in aqueous suspensions with Tween 20. Bioassays were performed using two methods including submersion of cockroaches in conidial suspension and baiting. Data were analyzed by Probit program and LC50 and LC90 were estimated. The obtained results indicated that both fungi species were toxic against German cockroach however; Beauveria bassiana was significantly 4.8 fold more toxic than L. muscarium against German cockroach using submersion method.
Sakuma, M; Fukami, H
The aggregation pheromone of the German cockroach,Blattella germanica, consists of attractant and arrestant, which can be detected by olfactometer and choice-chamber assay, respectively. Both were extracted from the frass-contaminated filter paper being used as a shelter. They were separated by solvent partition withn-butanol and water. The arrestant from then-butanol phase was purified by open column chromatography and then successive HPLC isolated two major arrestant components. Spectral evidence from SI-MS, HR-EI-MS, and NMR experiments with pulse techniques provided possible structures as 1-(6α-chloro-4β,5β-epoxy-5β-stigmast-3β-yl)-β-D-glucopyranoside and 1-(6α-chloro-5β-hydroxy-5β-stigmast-3β-yl)-β-D-glu-copyranoside, denoted as blattellastanoside-A and blattellastanoside-B, respectively. They represented arrestant activity as median effective doses (ED50) at 0.044 (A) and 3.2 (B) nmol on 1.0 cm(2) of Whatman No. 1 filter paper.
Limoee, M; Enayati, A A; Khassi, K; Salimi, M; Ladonni, H
The development of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) is a serious problem in controlling this medically important household pest. The insecticide resistance status in three hospital-collected strains of the German cockroach using four commonly used insecticides from different classes (permethrin, cypermethrin, bendiocarb and chlorpyrifos) was detected by topical bioassay method and preliminary information on possible involvement of monooxygenases in permethrin resistant strains employing synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was obtained. For each insecticide, four to six concentrations resulting in >0% and <100% mortality were used. Three to six replicates of 10 cockroaches per concentration were conducted. For synergism studies, 100 μg PBO per gram body weight of cockroach as the maximum sublethal dose was administered to the first abdominal segment 1 h before insecticide treatment. The differences between LD50 (μg/g) values were considered statistically significant only when the 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. The resistance ratio and synergism ratio were calculated for each insecticide. All three hospital-collected strains of the German cockroach showed different levels of resistance to permethrin and cypermethrin based on resistance ratios compared with SUS strain. Permethrin and cypermethrin resistance ratios ranged from 11.61 to 17.64 and 11.45 to 26.45 at LD50 levels, respectively. Low to moderate levels of bendiocarb resistance and low level of chlorpyrifos resistance were also observed in the hospital-collected strains under study. The synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) significantly enhanced the toxicity of permethrin to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 2.45-, 1.87-, 2.51- and 2.38-fold, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in permethrin resistance.
Oz, E; Cetin, H; Cilek, J E; Deveci, O; Yanikoglu, A
Background: To compare the effectiveness of 3 commercial gel bait formulations containing fipronil (Goliath© Cockroach Gel 0.05% AI), chlorpyrifos-A (Clean Bait© Gel, 2% AI), and chloropyrifos-B (Serpa© Gel 2% AI) against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) when stored at 23°C and 30° C after treatment. Methods: Laboratory bioassays consisted of placing groups of fifteen cockroaches (a random combination of adult, mixed sex and large nymphs-stage 6) into a 5 L cylindrical plastic container with one drop of product (avg 0.10 g ± 0.01 g) applied to a 76 mm x 26 mm glass microscope slide affixed to the bottom of each container (one product tested per container). Cumulative mortality was assessed at 6 h, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d after application. To determine the further effects of storage temperature after treatment on residual activity of the gels, a drop of each product was applied to separate glass microscope slides and stored at either 23° C (warm) or 30° C (hot) under dark conditions for 0, 1, 7, 14, 30, 45, 60 and 90 d after application. Results: Freshly applied baits (day 0) containing fipronil provided complete cockroach mortality (100%) within 5 d whereas chloryrifos-A and chlorpyrifos-B provided ≈72% and 88% mortality, respectively. Generally, cockroach mortality was greater when gels were stored at 30°C compared with 23° C. Conclusion: The fipronil gel formulation proved to be as efficacious as the chlorpyrifos gels and in some instances surpased the latter formulations depending on storage time and temperature by providing ≈90% mortality at 90 d post treatment. PMID:23113028
Chung, Hyang Suk; Yu, Tai Hyun; Kim, Bong Jin; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Joo Yeong; Yu, Hak Sun; Jeong, Hae Jin; Ock, Mee Sun
Four hundred and sixty five randomly selected clones from a cDNA library of Blattella germanica were partially sequenced and searched using BLAST as a means of analyzing the transcribed sequences of its genome. A total of 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from 465 clones after editing and trimming the vector and ambiguous sequences. About 42% (154/363) of these clones showed significant homology with other data base registered genes. These new B. germanica genes constituted a broad range of transcripts distributed among ribosomal proteins, energy metabolism, allergens, proteases, protease inhibitors, enzymes, translation, cell signaling pathways, and proteins of unknown function. Eighty clones were not well-matched by database searches, and these represent new B. germanica-specific ESTs. Some genes which drew our attention are discussed. The information obtained increases our understanding of the B. germanica genome.
Chung, Hyang Suk; Yu, Tai Hyun; Kim, Bong Jin; Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Joo Yeong; Yu, Hak Sun; Jeong, Hae Jin
Four hundred and sixty five randomly selected clones from a cDNA library of Blattella germanica were partially sequenced and searched using BLAST as a means of analyzing the transcribed sequences of its genome. A total of 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from 465 clones after editing and trimming the vector and ambiguous sequences. About 42% (154/363) of these clones showed significant homology with other data base registered genes. These new B. germanica genes constituted a broad range of transcripts distributed among ribosomal proteins, energy metabolism, allergens, proteases, protease inhibitors, enzymes, translation, cell signaling pathways, and proteins of unknown function. Eighty clones were not well-matched by database searches, and these represent new B. germanica-specific ESTs. Some genes which drew our attention are discussed. The information obtained increases our understanding of the B. germanica genome. PMID:16340304
Karimifar, Nooshin; Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Gerhard
Stale beer and peanut butter are effective baits for the German cockroach (GCRs), Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). In still-air arena olfactometer experiments it was previously shown that headspace volatile extracts of peanut butter and solvent extract of beer attract male GCRs. The objective of this study was to identify the semiochemicals that mediate attraction of GCRs to these sources. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of these attractive extracts, or fractions thereof, and of synthetic standards revealed many candidate semiochemicals. Elaborate olfactometer experiments determined that 1-hexanol from peanut butter, and ethanol and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) from beer, are the key semiochemicals of these food sources. 1-Hexanol is a well-known headspace volatile of decomposing lipids, ethanol conveys food fermentation, and DDMP with a caramel-type flavor has been found in several types of food. By responding to these rather general food-derived compounds, the omnivorous GCRs appear to exploit semiochemicals that indicate the presence of various food components, such as lipids and carbohydrates. Synthetic equivalents of these semiochemicals may be formulated as baits or be added to, and thus enhance the attractiveness of, natural food sources as trap or insecticidal baits.
Ferrero, A A; Chopa, C Sánchez; González, J O Werdin; Alzogaray, R A
The biological activities of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle against adults of Blattella germanica were examined by repellence test and topical application. All extracts produced significant repellent effect and mortality.
Aguilera, L; Marquetti, M C; Fuentes, O; Navarro, A
In a study of Blatella germanica (L) 1767 (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) carried out in laboratory conditions, 6 nymphal stages were found in a period of 114.71 days, at 29 +/- 1 degrees C and 80-90% of relative humidity. Times of appearence and eclosion of every ovipositted ootheca, as well as the offspring average of each one, were determined. Females ovipositted up to 5 oothecas during their life. The maximum average of eggs found per ootheca was 29.22. The average longevity of males was lower that that of females (77.23 and 98.40 days, respectively) (t = 2.21; p < 0.05).
Durier, V; Rivault, C
Female German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and nymphs (stages 1, 3 and 6) were used to test the attractiveness and the feeding stimulation of several commercial gel formulations of insecticide food baits in laboratory binary choice tests. The four toxic gel baits tested were: 'Avert' (0.05% abamectin=avermectin B1), 'Drax' (33.3% boric acid), 'Goliath' (0.05% fipronil) and 'Maxforce' (2.15% hydramethylnon). The attractiveness of a bait was estimated by the number of cockroaches that chose it first, and by their tendency to change to it secondarily. Feeding stimulation was estimated by the mean duration of feeding bouts and total duration of food intake. Variability of these factors was assessed in relation to age of cockroaches and to age of baits. With a few exceptions, cockroach age did not affect performance in any of these tests. Attractiveness to B. germanica ranked 'Goliath' gel higher than 'Avert', 'Drax' and 'Maxforce' gels, whether or not the active ingredient fipronil was present in 'Goliath' gel. Feeding stimulation ranked 'Avert' and 'Maxforce' gels higher than 'Goliath' gel, and 'Drax' gel was inferior. With ageing up to 3 months, the feeding stimulation power of 'Goliath' and 'Maxforce' gels increased, whereas that of 'Avert' fluctuated. Assuming that all types of bait effectively kill cockroaches once ingested, these results illustrate the importance of behavioural observations on bait efficiency and show that ranking of these different food baits varies in relation to the parameter analysed.
Maestro, José L; Tobe, Stephen S; Belles, Xavier
Several lines of evidence point to leucomyosuppressin (LMS) and myosuppressin-related peptides as inhibitory modulators of heartbeat frequency in arthropods. Previous studies in Blattella germanica demonstrated that heartbeat frequency decreases after ootheca formation, and remains low during the period of ootheca transport. Subsequent work in this cockroach resulted in the characterization of LMS and the cloning and sequencing of its precursor. The present paper describes the activity of LMS on modulation of heartbeat in B. germanica. Assays using semi-isolated heart preparations revealed that LMS reduces heartbeat frequency in a dose dependent manner, at physiological concentrations. Additional experiments showed that LMS inhibits heartbeat rates in vivo. Finally, injection of dsRNA for LMS elicited a decrease in LMS mRNA to virtually undetectable levels and heartbeat frequency increased significantly in females carrying oothecae. These data suggest that LMS contributes to the modulation of cardiac rhythm in B. germanica during the reproductive cycle.
Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Tong, Ying; Zhu, Junwei Jerry; Qiu, Xinghui; Zeng, Xiaopeng
Background The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is an important insect pest that transmits various pathogens mechanically and causes severe allergic diseases. This insect has long served as a model system for studies of insect biology, physiology and ecology. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinder our further understanding about the German cockroach in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. To explore the transcriptome and identify unique sequences of interest, we subjected the B. germanica transcriptome to massively parallel pyrosequencing and generated the first reference transcriptome for B. germanica. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 1,365,609 raw reads with an average length of 529 bp were generated via pyrosequencing the mixed cDNA library from different life stages of German cockroach including maturing oothecae, nymphs, adult females and males. The raw reads were de novo assembled to 48,800 contigs and 3,961 singletons with high-quality unique sequences. These sequences were annotated and classified functionally in terms of BLAST, GO and KEGG, and the genes putatively coding detoxification enzyme systems, insecticide targets, key components in systematic RNA interference, immunity and chemoreception pathways were identified. A total of 3,601 SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats) loci were also predicted. Conclusions/Significance The whole transcriptome pyrosequencing data from this study provides a usable genetic resource for future identification of potential functional genes involved in various biological processes. PMID:25265537
Background German cockroach or Blattella germanica is commonly found in homes across the inter-tropical region. The contribution of sensitisation to Blattella germanica in people with asthma in sub-Saharan Africa has not received attention. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and investigate the predicting factors of sensitisation to Blattella germanica in patients with asthma in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between January 2012 and June 2013. All patients (aged 15 years and above) with asthma, receiving care at the Yaounde Jamot Hospital and the CEDIMER medical practice during the study period and who had received a prick skin testing for perennial aeroallergens were included in the study. Results The final sample comprised 184 patients including 123 (66.8%) women. The median age (25th-75th percentiles) was 38 (24–54) years. Prick skin test for Blattella germanica was positive in 47 (25.5%) patients. Sensitisation to Blattella germanica was associated with a sensitisation to mite in 41 (87.2%) patients, a sensitisation to Alternaria in 18 (38.3%) patients, and a sensitisation to cat or dog dander in 7 (14.9%) patients. Independent predicting factors of a sensitisation to Blattella germanica were the sensitisation to Blomia tropicalis [adjusted odd ratio (95% confidence interval) 4.10 (1.67-10.04), p = 0.002] and sensitisation to Alternaria [3.67 (1.53-7.46), p = 0.003]. Conclusions Sensitisation to Blattella germanica is present in about a quarter of adult patients with asthma in Yaounde. Sensitisation to Alternaria and Blomia tropicalis appears to be a powerful predicting factor of sensitisation to Blattella germanica in this setting. PMID:25152805
Zhang, Yingmei; Gandini, Carlo; Sabuneti, Andrew; Fasola, Mauro; Lambiase, Simonetta; Grigolo, Aldo
Organisms differ widely in their ability to metabolize and eliminate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We evaluated the retention of PCB congeners, reference standard mixture, experimentally injected into cockroach Blattella germanica, in relation to sex and time, and its elimination through the feces, exuviae and oothecae. The nymphs that died prematurely had a higher average PCB retention than those with a longer lifetime, 88% of the injected dose for those that died within 1 to 10 days, and 76% for those within 11-20 days. Diverse PCB congeners showed differential retention, and particularly the more volatile, low weight congeners were recovered in lower concentrations, the medium-weight ones were intermediate, while the high-weight congeners attained the highest concentration. PCBs were also detected in the excrements and in exuviae, which may therefore act as detoxification paths, and in the oothecae, thus showing that PCBs can be transferred from mother to progeny.
Sfara, Valeria; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A; Zerba, Eduardo N; Alzogaray, Raúl A
N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the active principle of most insect repellents used worldwide. However, its toxicity on insects has not been widely studied. The aim of this work is to study the effects of DEET on the locomotor activity of Blattella germanica. DEET has a dose-dependent repellent activity on B. germanica. Locomotor activity was significantly lower when insects were pre-exposed to 700 µg/cm(2) of DEET for 20 or 30 minutes, but it did not change when pre-exposure was shorter. Locomotor activity of insects that were pre-exposed to 2.000 µg/cm(2) of DEET for 10 minutes was significantly lower than the movement registered in controls. No differences were observed when insects were pre-exposed to lower concentrations of DEET. A 30-minute pre-exposure to 700 µg/cm(2) of DEET caused a significant decrease in locomotor activity. Movement was totally recovered 24 h later. The locomotor activity measured during the exposure to different concentrations of DEET remained unchanged. Insects with decreased locomotor activity were repelled to the same extent than control insects by the same concentration of DEET. We demonstrated that the repellency and modification of locomotor activity elicited by DEET are non-associated phenomena. We also suggested that the reduction in locomotor activity indicates toxicity of DEET, probably to insect nervous system.
Sfara, Valeria; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A.; Zerba, Eduardo N.; Alzogaray, Raúl A.
N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the active principle of most insect repellents used worldwide. However, its toxicity on insects has not been widely studied. The aim of this work is to study the effects of DEET on the locomotor activity of Blattella germanica. DEET has a dose-dependent repellent activity on B. germanica. Locomotor activity was significantly lower when insects were pre-exposed to 700 µg/cm2 of DEET for 20 or 30 minutes, but it did not change when pre-exposure was shorter. Locomotor activity of insects that were pre-exposed to 2.000 µg/cm2 of DEET for 10 minutes was significantly lower than the movement registered in controls. No differences were observed when insects were pre-exposed to lower concentrations of DEET. A 30-minute pre-exposure to 700 µg/cm2 of DEET caused a significant decrease in locomotor activity. Movement was totally recovered 24 h later. The locomotor activity measured during the exposure to different concentrations of DEET remained unchanged. Insects with decreased locomotor activity were repelled to the same extent than control insects by the same concentration of DEET. We demonstrated that the repellency and modification of locomotor activity elicited by DEET are non-associated phenomena. We also suggested that the reduction in locomotor activity indicates toxicity of DEET, probably to insect nervous system. PMID:24376701
Carrasco, Purificación; Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; van de Pol, Claudia; Baixeras, Joaquín; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo
The cockroach gut harbors a wide variety of microorganisms that, among other functions, collaborate in digestion and act as a barrier against pathogen colonization. Blattabacterium, a primary endosymbiont, lives in the fat body inside bacteriocytes and plays an important role in nitrogen recycling. Little is known about the mode of acquisition of gut bacteria or their ecological succession throughout the insect life cycle. Here we report on the bacterial taxa isolated from different developmental instars of the cockroach Blattella germanica. The bacterial load in the gut increased two orders of magnitude from the first to the second nymphal stage, coinciding with the incorporation of the majority of bacterial taxa, but remained similar thereafter. Pyrosequencing of the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA genes showed that the microbial composition differed significantly between adults and nymphs. Specifically, a succession was observed in which Fusobacterium accumulated with aging, while Bacteroides decreased. Blattabacterium was the only symbiont found in the ootheca, which makes the vertical transmission of gut bacteria an unlikely mode of acquisition. Scanning electron microscopy disclosed a rich bacterial biofilm in third instar nymphs, while filamentous structures were found exclusively in adults.
Xiao, Bo; Chen, Ai-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Hu, Chao-Chao; Zhu, Chao-Dong
The mitochondrial genomes are one of the most information-rich markers in phylogenetics. The relationships within superorder Dictyoptera have been debated in the literature. However, the closely related termites (Isoptera) are retained as unranked taxon within the order Blattaria (cockroaches). In this work, we sequenced the complete mitogenomes of two cockroaches, reconstructed the molecular phylogeny and attempted to infer the phylogenetic position of termites in Blattaria more reliably. The complete mtDNA nucleotide sequences of the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) are 15,025 and 15,584 bp in size, respectively. The genome shares the gene order and orientation with previously known Blattaria mitogenomes. Most tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, but the tRNA-Ser (AGN) of P. americana appears to be missing the dihydrouridine arm. Using nucleotide and amino acid sequences as phylogenetic markers, we proposed that termites should be treated as a superfamily (Termitoidea) of cockroaches. We suggested that Polyphagoidea was the sister group of Termitoidea in Blattaria and supported that the suborder Caelifera is more closely related to the Phasmatodea than to the suborder Ensifera of Orthoptera.
Pai, Hsiu-Hua; Chen, Wei-Chen; Peng, Chien-Fang
Cockroaches may harbor and disseminate microorganisms to the environment. In this study, Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica were collected from 40 households in Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Cockroach infestation was found in 50% of the studied households and 226 cockroaches (123 P. americana and 103 B. germanica) collected by trapping. P. americana was more often found in the kitchen (70.7%) whereas B. germanica in the storage room (51.5%) and kitchen (36.9%). There was no significant difference between the percentages of P. americana (99.9%) and B. germanica (98.0%) carrying bacteria. A total of 25 species of bacteria was isolated from P. americana and only 21 from B. germanica. Antibiotic resistance was found in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus species isolated from the cockroaches. These findings suggest a potential role of cockroaches in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria with antibiotic resistance in households.
Gore, J Chad; Schal, C
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), produces several potent human allergens, one of which, Blattella germanica allergen 1 (Bla g 1), is produced in the midgut and excreted in faeces. We tested with descriptive and experimental approaches the hypothesis that Bla g 1 production is related to food intake in adult males and females of the German cockroach. Bla g 1 mRNA expression in the female midgut (assayed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction), her Bla g 1 content (assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the female's faeces production and its Bla g 1 content tracked a cyclic pattern in relation to the gonadotrophic cycle. All four measures rose as food intake increased, declined before oviposition in relation to diminishing food intake, and remained low while the female carried an egg case for 20 days. After her first clutch of embryos hatched, the female resumed feeding, and faeces and Bla g 1 production increased concomitantly. Both Bla g 1 mRNA expression and Bla g 1 protein levels remained low in experimentally starved females. However, when starved females were allowed to feed, Bla g 1 production elevated and the gonadotrophic cycle resumed. Bla g 1 mRNA expression also increased six-fold in response to feeding compared to starved females. By contrast, there were no apparent cycles in the pattern of Bla g 1 production in males, reflecting their low and non-cyclic food intake. Our results therefore demonstrate that Bla g 1 production in B. germanica is modulated in relation to food intake.
Large numbers of a cockroach that resembled the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) were first observed during the winter of 2005-2006 in home turf settings in Weslaco, TX, 11 km from the United States border with northeastern Mexico. Subsequently, during nocturnal observations of arthropods ...
The control and elimination of German cockroach, the most important worldwide pest species, has been an economic and public health success. Too many studies have been conducted in Iran, whereas these researches was scattered in form of national and international articles that has needed to add up of them in an overview article. With doing of this work the way is smooth to future studies and the strategies of these studies will be distinguished. This article is outlook in direction of above aims. The susceptibility level and insecticide resistance mechanisms of German cockroach to organochlorated, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticide groups have been studied. The new insecticidal compounds include fipronil and avermectins acting at GABA and glutamate receptors in proximity to chloride channels, diacylhydrazines mimicking the action of ecdysone, indoxacarb acting at a novel site in sodium channels and imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad acting at novel sites on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, several promising products acting at new target sites, which are currently not affected by resistance that will be used for pest control specially Blattella germanica. Attentive to resistance of B. germanica to current consuming insecticides and ever-increasing add to intensity of it, the researchers have been considering the susceptibility level of B. germanica and efficiency estimation of them to above-mentioned insecticides for control of this pest. The strategies of future researches are study of the susceptibility level of B. germanica and efficiency estimation of them to above-mentioned insecticides for control of this pest in Iran.
Paszkiewicz, Monika; Sikora, Agata; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Włóka, Emilia; Stepnowski, Piotr; Gołębiowski, Marek
The results of our research on the cuticular and internal lipids of Blattella germanica males provide new information on variation in the composition of the cuticular and internal lipids of B. germanica males after exposure to the presence of the insecticide. gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and quantify the cuticular and internal lipid composition in males and males exposed to insecticide. There were significantly more acids having an even number of carbon atoms in the molecule, and these were also generally in higher concentrations. The following acids were in a higher concentration: C16:0 and C18:1, C18:2, C18:0. In both males and males exposed to insecticide, 24 fatty acids ranging from C6 to C22 were determined. However, there was a significantly higher content of fatty acids in the surface lipids of B. germanica males after exposure to insecticide. Our results indicate a higher content of n-alkanes, sterols, particularly cholesterol, fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters in the B. germanica surface after exposure to chlorpyrifos than in males that were not exposed.
Mukha, D V; Kagramanova, A S; Lazebnaya, I V; Lazebnyi, O E; Vargo, E L; Schal, C
Little information is available on genetic variation within and between populations of pest cockroaches. In this study, intraspecific HindIII polymorphism was investigated in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (Dictyoptera, Blattaria: Blattellidae), using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Individual male insects were collected from infestations at three different pig farms. Each population was characterized by HindIII restriction fragment frequencies and haplotype (a particular X-chromosome pattern) frequencies. The inheritance of the X-chromosome HindIII rDNA patterns over 12 generations (3 years) follows Mendelian patterns, and the stability of this polymorphic marker indicates infrequent genetic recombination of variable sites. Although pairwise genetic distance measures were uncorrelated with geographical distance, the pattern of genetic differentiation of the three cockroach populations suggests that human-mediated transport of cockroaches is an important force in shaping the population genetic structure of cockroach infestations, at least at the regional scale of 10-100 km. Sequence variation in the ribosomal NTS is a useful marker, and RFLP of rDNA is a simple, robust and reproducible technique for differentiating recently diverged cockroach populations.
Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Maiques, Elisa; Angelova, Alexandra; Carrasco, Purificación; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo
The gut microbiota of insects contributes positively to the physiology of its host mainly by participating in food digestion, protecting against pathogens, or provisioning vitamins or amino acids, but the dynamics of this complex ecosystem is not well understood so far. In this study, we have characterized the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica by pyrosequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of the whole bacterial community. Three diets differing in the protein content (0, 24 and 50%) were tested at two time points in lab-reared individuals. In addition, the gut microbiota of wild adult cockroaches was also analyzed. In contrast to the high microbial richness described on the studied samples, only few species are shared by wild and lab-reared cockroaches, constituting the bacterial core in the gut of B. germanica. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota of B. germanica is highly dynamic as the bacterial composition was reassembled in a diet-specific manner over a short time span, with no-protein diet promoting high diversity, although the highest diversity was found in the wild cockroaches analyzed. We discuss how the flexibility of the gut microbiota is probably due to its omnivorous life style and varied diets.
Mukha, D V; Chumachenko, A G; Dykstra, M J; Kurtti, T J; Schal, C
A new DNA virus (Parvoviridae: Densovirinae, Densovirus) was isolated and purified from descendants of field-collected German cockroaches, Blattella germanica. Viral DNA and cockroach tissues infected with B. germanica densovirus (BgDNV) were examined by electron microscopy. Virus particles, about 20 nm in diameter, were observed both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Virus DNA proved to be a linear molecule of about 1.2 microm in length. BgDNV isolated from infected cockroaches infected successfully and could be maintained in BGE-2, a B. germanica cell line. The complete BgDNV genome was sequenced and analysed. Five open reading frames (ORFs) were detected in the 5335 nt sequence: two ORFS that were on one DNA strand encoded structural capsid proteins (69.7 and 24.8 kDa) and three ORFs that were on the other strand encoded non-structural proteins (60.2, 30.3 and 25.9 kDa). Three putative promoters and polyadenylation signals were identified. Structural analysis of the inverted terminal repeats revealed the presence of extended palindromes. The genome structure of BgDNV was compared with that of other members of the family Parvoviridae; the predicted amino acid sequences were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analyses.
Qian, K.; Wei, XQ.; Zeng, XP.; Liu, T.; Gao, XW.
Stage-dependent dichlorvos and propoxur tolerance in a field population of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica Linnaeus (Blatodea: Blattellidae), was investigated in the laboratory using a topical application bioassay. The results showed the 6 week-old nymphs were more tolerant to dichlorvos and propoxur than the other ages tested. LD50 values of dichlorvos and propoxur for the 6 week-old nymphs were 2.003 µµg per insect and 5.296 µµg per insect, respectively. Tolerance ratios of 18.55-fold and 4.98-fold for LD50 were obtained from 6-week-old nymphs compared to 4 week-old nymphs. The specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from 1 week-old nymphs was the highest among all tested developmental stages of nymphs and adult males and females. The specific activity of AChE decreased significantly with increasing age. The sensitivity of AChE to dichlorvos was the highest with a ki value of 3.12××104 mol-1min-1 in the last nymphal stage of B. germanica (about 6 weeks-old). The AChE from 4 week-old nymphs was the most sensitive to propoxur, with the highest ki value being 2.63××105 mol-1min-1. These results indicated that the different developmental stages and sexes of B. germanica affected the inhibition of AChE by dichlorvos and propoxur. PMID:21268698
Helm, R M; Squillace, D L; Jones, R T; Brenner, R J
Whole-body extracts of the feral and peridomestic Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai) and the three domestic cockroach species, German (Blattella germanica), American (Periplaneta americana), and Oriental (Blatta orientalis), were compared allergenically using an IgE serum pool from 4 German cockroach sensitive individuals. In crossover radioallergosorbent inhibition analysis, the Asian cockroach shared allergenic activity primarily with the German cockroach polymer and to a lesser extent with either the American or Oriental cockroach polymers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and thin-layer isoelectric focusing analysis of the extracts showed similar although varying intensities of Coomassie blue stained banding patterns among five extracts analyzed. Electroblotting analysis with 12.5% SDS-PAGE of the whole-body German cockroach extract and IgE serum from individuals sensitive to German cockroach revealed eight allergenic components with apparent molecular weights of 92, 80, 67, 48, 36, 27, 25 and 18 kD. Five components could be identified in the whole-body extract of the Asian cockroach corresponding to apparent molecular weights of 92, 67, 48, 40, and 32 kD. Analysis of individual serum by immunoblot analysis with each of the cockroach extracts showed considerable heterogenicity in the IgE-binding pattern. Although the Asian cockroach demonstrated considerable cross-reacting allergenic components to German and relatively fewer cross-reacting allergenic components to either the Oriental or American, it is too early to establish genus- or species-specific cockroach allergens. It is important to point out that German cockroach sensitive individuals should be made aware of the potential exposure of Asian cockroach aeroallergens both indoors and outdoors in areas with high infestations of Asian cockroaches.
Zhang, F; Wang, X J; Huang, Y H; Zhao, Z G; Zhang, S S; Gong, X S; Xie, L; Kang, D M; Jing, X
A proteomic approach combining two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry was used to compare hemolymph expression profiles of a beta-cypermethrin-resistant Blattella germanica L. strain and a beta-cypermethrin-susceptible strain. Twenty-eight hemolymph proteins were differentially expressed in the resistant cockroach strain; 19 proteins were upregulated and 9 proteins were downregulated compared with the susceptible strain. Protein identification indicated that expression of putative cuticular protein, nitric oxide synthase, triosephosphate isomerase, alpha-amylase, ABC transporter, and Per a 3 allergen was elevated, and expression of arginine kinase and glycosidase was reduced. The differential expression of these proteins reflects the overall change in cellular structure and metabolism related to the resistance of pyrethroid insecticides.
Kilani-Morakchi, S; Aribi, N; Farine, J P; Smagghe, G; Soltani, N
Tebufenozide, a dibenzoylhydrazine insect growth regulator, was applied topically (1 microg/insect) on female adults of the German cockroach Blattella germanica and its effects on ovarian measurement and proteins contents were investigated during the first gonadotrophic cycle (0, 2, 4 and 6 days). Dissection of treated females showed a clear reduction in oocyte numbers and volume of the basal oocyte. The ovarian proteins content was also significantly reduced. Behavioral tests demonstrated that treatment of 6-days-old females with tebufenozide caused in 80% of the males an increase in numbers of antennal contacts, but there was no effect on the numbers of wing raisings. In contrast, it was striking that in 20% of the males there was a total loss of antennal contacts and wings raisings in response to a calling treated female. These behavior effects are probably caused by a reduced production of contact sex pheromone in the females and may help in explaining the lower ovary reproductive parameters.
Mutunga, James M; Boina, Dhana Raj; Anderson, Troy D; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Carlier, Paul R; Wong, Dawn M; Lam, Polo C-H; Totrov, Maxim M
A series of bis(n)-tacrines were used as pharmacological probes of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) catalytic and peripheral sites of Blattella germanica and Drosophila melanogaster, which express AChE-1 and AChE-2 isoforms, respectively. In general, the potency of bis(n)-tacrines was greater in D. melanogaster AChE (DmAChE) than in B. germanica AChE (BgAChE). The change in potency with tether length was high in DmAChE and low in BgAChE, associated with 90-fold and 5.2-fold maximal potency gain, respectively, compared to the tacrine monomer. The optimal tether length for Blattella was 8 carbons and for Drosophila was 10 carbons. The two species differed by only about twofold in their sensitivity to tacrine monomer, indicating that differential potency occurred among dimeric bis(n)-tacrines due to structural differences in the peripheral site. Multiple sequence alignment and in silico homology modeling suggest that aromatic residues of DmAChE confer higher affinity binding, and the lack of same at the BgAChE peripheral site may account, at least in part, to the greater overall sensitivity of DmAChE to bis(n)-tacrines, as reflected by in vitro assay data. Topical and injection assays in cockroaches found minimal toxicity of bis(n)-tacrines. Electrophysiological studies on D. melanogaster central nervous system showed that dimeric tacrines do not readily cross the blood brain barrier, explaining the observed nonlethality to insects. Although the bis(n)-tacrines were not good insecticide candidates, the information obtained in this study should aid in the design of selective bivalent ligands targeting insect, pests, and disease vectors.
Kagramanova, A S; Kapelinskaia, T V; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V
This is the first report providing results on identification, cloning, and sequencing of extended fragments (5'-truncated copies) of R1 and R2 retrotransposons integrated into Blattella germanica genome. Comparative structural analysis of the received clones revealed two distinct subfamilies of R1 elements. However, all B. germanica R1 clones have two common features: poly(T) tails and similar target site duplications. Nucleotide structure and organization of five sequenced R2 fragments was similar. Analysis of R2 nucleotide sequences revealed typical deletions at the 3'end of target sites and lack of homopolynucleotides tails.
Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby
Cockroaches, like many other animal species, form aggregations in which social stimuli from conspecifics can alter the physiology, morphology, or behavior of individuals. In adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, social isolation slows oocyte development, sexual maturation, and sexual receptivity, whereas social interactions as minimal as between just two females accelerate reproduction; however, the sensory modalities and pathways that mediate these physiological and behavioral changes are poorly understood. We explored the roles of visual, olfactory, and tactile cues in the reproductive physiology of German cockroach females, and whether their effects are species-specific and related to circadian time. Our results show that tactile cues are the primary sensory input associated with social conditions--with no evidence for involvement of the visual and olfactory systems--and that the antennae play an important role in the reception of these tactile cues. This conclusion is supported by the observation that interactions with other insect species of similar or larger size and with similar antennal morphology also stimulate oocyte development in B. germanica. Social facilitation of reproduction is expected to be influenced by the circadian timing system, as females engage in more social contact during the day when they shelter in aggregations with conspecifics. Surprisingly, however, the female's reproductive rate was unresponsive to social interactions during the photophase, whereas social interactions as short as two hours during the scotophase were sufficient to induce faster reproduction.We discuss the adaptive significance of these sensory-neuroendocrine responses in the German cockroach.
Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby
Cockroaches, like many other animal species, form aggregations in which social stimuli from conspecifics can alter the physiology, morphology, or behavior of individuals. In adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, social isolation slows oocyte development, sexual maturation, and sexual receptivity, whereas social interactions as minimal as between just two females accelerate reproduction; however, the sensory modalities and pathways that mediate these physiological and behavioral changes are poorly understood. We explored the roles of visual, olfactory, and tactile cues in the reproductive physiology of German cockroach females, and whether their effects are species-specific and related to circadian time. Our results show that tactile cues are the primary sensory input associated with social conditions—with no evidence for involvement of the visual and olfactory systems—and that the antennae play an important role in the reception of these tactile cues. This conclusion is supported by the observation that interactions with other insect species of similar or larger size and with similar antennal morphology also stimulate oocyte development in B. germanica. Social facilitation of reproduction is expected to be influenced by the circadian timing system, as females engage in more social contact during the day when they shelter in aggregations with conspecifics. Surprisingly, however, the female's reproductive rate was unresponsive to social interactions during the photophase, whereas social interactions as short as two hours during the scotophase were sufficient to induce faster reproduction. We discuss the adaptive significance of these sensory-neuroendocrine responses in the German cockroach. PMID:23405195
Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Vargo, Edward L; Mukha, Dmitry V; Schal, Coby
Although a number of species live syanthropically with humans, few rely entirely on humans for their survival and distribution. Unlike other cosmopolitan human commensals, the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), an insect of both public and livestock health concern, is considered incapable of dispersal outside human dwellings. Patterns of genetic association are therefore constrained and may not be associated with distance. Analogies with other human-commensal species are therefore impossible to draw with any degree of accuracy. In the past 2 decades, B. germanica has become a prominent pest within the US swine production system. Swine production is mainly carried out through contracted producers, each associated with a management company. It has been hypothesized that cockroach populations will be genetically structured based on association to a specific management company. Here, we tested this hypothesis using microsatellite genotypes (8 polymorphic loci) from 626 individual cockroaches collected from 22 farms in southeastern North Carolina representing 3 management companies. Significant genetic differentiation was detected (F(ST) = 0.171), most of which was partitioned among the 22 farms rather than the 3 management groups. All pair-wise population comparisons yielded F(ST) values significantly greater than zero. Our results reveal that structure does not correspond to management company of origin, but instead it may be regional and influenced strongly by the unintentional movement of cockroaches by farm workers.
Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier
Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent.
Menasria, Taha; Moussa, Fatima; El-Hamza, Souad; Tine, Samir; Megri, Rochdi; Chenchouni, Haroun
Background Cockroaches are among the most common pests in public dwellings and health facilities. Their presence can raise safety concerns, especially as they maybe carriers of pathogenic organisms. Methods This study was carried out to isolate and identify the bacterial flora from German cockroaches (Blattella germanica). Cockroaches collected by hand catches from two public hospital environments in Tebessa city (northeast Algeria) were screened for microbial load from their external surfaces and alimentary tract using standard bacterial protocols. Results A total of 174 bacterial isolates were isolated from 39 German cockroach specimens. The most common and abundant bacterial species belonged to the Pseudomonas group (23.5%) and Serratia (13.2%). Pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated, as well as opportunistic pathogens like Klebsiella species and food spoilage bacteria such as Enterobacter and Citrobacter species were isolated from both external surface and digestive tract of the insect. Generalized linear models (GLM) were performed to analyze the variation of abundances and occurrences of bacterial isolates harboured by B. germanica. The GLMs revealed that the main factors affecting variation of bacterial diversity and abundance were sex and hospital (P < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that German cockroach acts as reservoir and potential vector of some bacterial pathogens. PMID:24766338
Qian, K; Wei, Xq; Zeng, Xp; Liu, T; Gao, Xw
tage-dependent dichlorvos and propoxur tolerance in a field population of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica Linnaeus (Blatodea: Blattellidae), was investigated in the laboratory using a topical application bioassay. The results showed the 6 week-old nymphs were more tolerant to dichlorvos and propoxur than the other ages tested. LD₅₀ values of dichlorvos and propoxur for the 6 week-old nymphs were 2.003 µg per insect and 5.296 µg per insect, respectively. Tolerance ratios of 18.55-fold and 4.98-fold for LD₅₀ were obtained from 6-week-old nymphs compared to 4 week-old nymphs. The specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from 1 week-old nymphs was the highest among all tested developmental stages of nymphs and adult males and females. The specific activity of AChE decreased significantly with increasing age. The sensitivity of AChE to dichlorvos was the highest with a k(i) value of 3.12 × 10⁴ mol⁻¹min⁻¹ in the last nymphal stage of B. germanica (about 6 weeks-old). The AChE from 4 week-old nymphs was the most sensitive to propoxur, with the highest k(i) value being 2.63 × 10⁵ mol⁻¹ min⁻¹. These results indicated that the different developmental stages and sexes of B. germanica affected the inhibition of AChE by dichlorvos and propoxur.
González-García, T; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Sánchez-Arroyo, H; Prado-Ochoa, M G; Cuéllar-Ordaz, J A; Alba-Hurtado, F
The present study assessed the capacity of Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana to disseminate and transmit infective phases of T. canis to rats, which were used as a model paratenic host. P. americana and B. germanica inoculated orally with T. canis larvated eggs shed eggs and larvae in their fecal matter during the first 6days post-inoculation. Larvae were recovered from the brain, lungs, kidneys and liver of rats that had been inoculated with either infected cockroaches or their feces. ELISAs of serum detected an increase of antibodies anti-T. canis excretion-secretion antigens, whereas Western Blot (WB) showed 4 bands (120, 50, 35 and 28kDa) that were similar to those found in positive control rats. Macroscopically, the liver and kidneys of infected rats had hemorrhagic areas with milk-spot-like lesions. The lungs showed diffuse grey protuberances. Histologically, hemorrhagic areas with leucocytic infiltrate were observed in the liver, lungs and kidneys. Some larvae were found within a granuloma that was surrounded by eosinophils and other leucocytic infiltrates. Larvae were found in the brain, but without inflammatory infiltrate. Both cockroach species that ingested larvated eggs of T. canis may shed viable larvae or eggs in their fecal matter. The induction of specific serum antibodies, presence of larvae in tissues and characteristic lesions associated with larval migration in the organs of rats that had ingested either whole adults or feces of B. germanica or P. americana demonstrate the capacity of these cockroaches to transmit toxocariosis to paratenic hosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chang, Kyu-Sik; Ahn, Young-Joon
The insecticidal activities of materials derived from the fruit of star anise, Illicium verum, against adults of Blattella germanica were examined by direct contact application and fumigation methods, and compared with those of DDVP, deltamethrin and hydramethylnon. The biologically active constituent of the Illicium fruit was characterized as the phenylpropene, (E)-anethole, by spectroscopic analysis. In a filter paper diffusion test with females, (E)-anethole caused 80.3% mortality at 0.159 mg cm-2 at 1 and 3 days after treatment (DAT), whereas 16.7% mortality at 3 DAT was achieved at 0.079 mg cm-2. DDVP and deltamethrin gave > 90% mortality at 0.019 mg cm-2 at 1 DAT. At 0.009 mg cm-2, DDVP and deltamethrin showed 73.3 and 60% mortality at 1 DAT, respectively, but 93.3 and 76.7% mortality at 3 DAT. Hydramethylnon exhibited 0 and 93.3% mortality at 0.159 mg cm-2 at 1 and 3 DAT, respectively, whereas 6.7% mortality at 3 DAT was observed at 0.079 mg cm-2. In a fumigation test with females, (E)-anethole was much more effective in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the insecticidal activity of the compound was largely attributable to fumigant action. (E)-Anethole and DDVP caused 100% mortality at 0.398 and 0.051 mg cm-2 4 and 1 h after treatment, respectively. (E)-Anethole showed 46.7% mortality at 0.199 mg cm-2 at 3 DAT, whereas deltamethrin and hydramethylnon at 0.796 mg cm-2 was ineffective for 3-day period. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the I verum fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing populations of B germanica.
Jang, Young-Su; Yang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Dal-Soon; Ahn, Young-Joon
The toxicity of marjoram, Origanum majorana L., oil, 41 monoterpenoids, and 2 sesquiterpenoids against adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., was examined using direct contact and vapor phase toxicity bioassays and compared with those of deltamethrin, dichlorvos, permethrin, and propoxur, four commonly used insecticides. In a filter-paper contact toxicity bioassay, the adulticidal activities of pulegone (0.06 mg/cm2), (+/-)-camphor (0.07 mg/cm2), and verbenone (0.07 mg/cm2) were comparable to that of permethrin (0.05 mg/cm2) but more pronounced than that of propoxur (0.18 mg/cm2), as judged by the 24-h LC50 values. These compounds were less effective than either deltamethrin (0.013 mg/cm2) or dichlorvos (0.007 mg/cm2). The toxicity of marjoram oil, thymol, alpha-terpineol, (-)-alpha-thujone, linalool, 1,8-cineole, (-)-camphor, and (+)-carvone, ranging from 0.08 to 0.18 mg/cm2, was higher than that of propoxur. In vapor phase toxicity tests, verbenone (11.48 mg/L air) was the most toxic compound followed by (-)-alpha-thujone (18.43 mg/L of air), thymol (18.76 mg/L of air), alpha-terpineol (21.89 mg/L of air), (+/-)-camphor (24.59 mg/L of air), linalool (26.20 mg/L of air), and marjoram oil (38.28 mg/L of air) on the basis of the 24-h LC50 values. Dichlorvos (0.07 mg/L of air) was the most potent fumigant. Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as degrees of saturation and types of functional groups rather than types of carbon skeleton, and hydrophobicity and vapor pressure parameters appear to play a role in determining the monoterpenoid toxicities to adult B. germanica. Marjoram oil and the monoterpenoids described merit further study as potential fumigants or leads for the control of B. germanica.
López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés
Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.
Ons, Sheila; Bellés, Xavier; Maestro, José L
Orcokinins (OKs) are neuropeptides that were first identified in crustacean through their myotropic activity. In insects, the OK gene gives rise to two mRNAs coding for two different families of conserved mature neuropeptides: OKA and OKB. Although OKs are conserved in many insect species, its physiological role in this animal class is not fully understood. Until now prothoracicotropic, regulatory of light entrainment to the circadian clock and "awakening" activities have been reported for these peptides in different insect species. Here we report the identification of OKA and OKB precursors in the cockroach Blattella germanica. OKA mRNA was detected in brain, whereas OKB mRNA was detected both in brain and midgut. In vivo silencing of OK precursors suggests the involvement of OK gene products in the regulation of vitellogenin expression in the fat body, an action that appears to be independent of juvenile hormone. This is the first time that a function of this kind has been reported for OKs.
Fan, Yongliang; Eliyahu, Dorit; Schal, Coby
Cuticular hydrocarbons of arthropods serve multiple functions, including as barriers to water loss and as pheromones and pheromone precursors. In the oviparous German cockroach, Blattella germanica, long-chain hydrocarbons are produced by oenocytes within the abdominal integument and are transported by a blood lipoprotein, lipophorin, both to the cuticular surface and into vitellogenic oocytes. Using radiotracer approaches, we tracked the location and metabolic fate of 14C- and 3H-labeled hydrocarbons through vitellogenic females and their embryos and nymphs. A considerable amount ( approximately 50%) of radiolabeled maternal hydrocarbons was transferred to oocytes and persisted through a 20-day embryogenesis and the first two nymphal stadia. The maternal hydrocarbons were not degraded or lost during this protracted period, except for significant losses of cuticular hydrocarbons starting with the first-to-second instar molt. Thus, although embryos and nymphs can produce their own hydrocarbons, maternal hydrocarbons provide a significant fraction of the cuticular and hemolymph hydrocarbons of both stages. These results show, for the first time in any insect, that a mother provides a significant complement of her offspring's cuticular hydrocarbons. Further research will be needed to determine whether provisioning hydrocarbons to eggs is a general strategy among insects and other arthropods or if this strategy is limited to taxa where eggs and early instars are susceptible to desiccation.
Kim, Y H; Choi, J Y; Je, Y H; Koh, Y H; Lee, S H
Two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs; BgAChE1 and BgAChE2) from Blattella germanica were functionally expressed using the baculovirus system. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that BgAChE2 had higher catalytic efficiency but lower substrate specificity than BgAChE1. With the exceptions of paraoxon and propoxur, BgAChE1 was generally less sensitive to inhibitors than BgAChE2. Western blot analysis using anti-BgAChE antibodies revealed that BgAChE1 was far more abundant in all examined tissues compared to BgAChE2, which is only present in the central nervous system. Both BgAChEs existed in dimeric form, covalently connected via a disulphide bridge under native conditions. Most fractions of BgAChE1 had a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, but a small fraction comprised a collagen-like tail. BgAChE2 appeared to have a collagen-GPI-fused tail. Based on the kinetic and molecular properties, tissue distribution and abundance, BgAChE1 was confirmed to play a major role in postsynaptic transmission.
Erban, T; Hubert, J
Chromogenic microplate assays in 96 wells were used to determine the stability of enzyme activity in frass of Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Frass samples were exposed to controlled conditions [temperature 15-35 °C and/or 53-100% relative humidity (RH)] and to household conditions (apartment). Exposure times were 0 (control), 90, 183 and 276 days. Starch digestion and cellulolytic activities decreased during exposure. Non-specific proteolytic activities were affected by changes in selective proteolytic activities. Activities towards AAPpNA and SA(3) pNA strongly increased at 100% RH, indicating the possible influence of microorganisms growing on frass. Activities towards BApNA and ArgpNA decreased with increasing decomposition time, whereas activity towards ZRRpNA was not influenced by exposure time. The largest decrease in activities towards ArgpNA and BApNA occurred at temperatures of 15 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C and at 100% RH. Activities towards BApNA and ZRRpNA were very stable under different temperature and RH conditions; this was confirmed by findings showing that these activities were stable in the experimental apartment. In comparison with the control, activities towards ZRRpNA and BApNA after 276 days decreased by 1% and 19%, respectively. The longterm persistence of proteolytic activities in cockroach frass increases their allergenic hazard potential.
Hosseini, Seyyed Akbar; Bazrafkan, Sahar; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaei, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Mussa Soleimani; Tavassoli, Maryam; Shayeghi, Mansoreh
Objective To evaluate the insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth (DE) against adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica. Methods This cross sectional study has been done on the laboratory strain of German cockroaches. Two stages, nymph and adult, were exposed to six dose rates of the DE, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g/m2, at 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period. Mortality (number of dead cockroaches) was assessed after 24 h. Other exposed specimens were transferred to the beakers contained food and water for counting the retard mortality rate after 1 week. Results Increasing in dose rates of DE increased mortality rate, so that the lowest and highest mortality rates were observed in 2.5 and 25 g/m2, respectively. The results of the statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the lethality of 50% of DE plus water on the German cockroach nymphs. Conclusions Due to the resistance of German cockroach against organochloride, organophosphorus, carbamate and pyrethriodes insecticides, it is suggested to use DE for insect's control. PMID:25183087
Liu, N; Pridgeon, J W; Wang, H; Liu, Z; Zhang, L
Full-length mariner elements were isolated and sequenced from house flies (Musca domestica) and German cockroaches (Blattella germanica). The amino acid sequence of the house fly mariner element (accession number: AF373028) showed 99.5% identity with Mos1 and peach elements, whereas the German cockroach mariner element (accession number: AF355143) showed 98.8% and 99.8% identity, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the mariner elements in house flies and German cockroaches differed from the active Mos1 mariner element by seven and 15 nucleotides, respectively. Four essential nucleotide substitutions at positions 64, 154, 305, and 1203, which have been proposed to contribute to the loss of activity of the inactive elements, were detected in the German cockroach mariner element. In contrast, although the mariner element in house flies contained substitutions at positions 64, 154, and 305, it retained T at position 1203, identical to active mariner elements. Mariner is present in approximately eight copies in the German cockroach genome.
Fotedar, R.; Shriniwas, U. B.; Verma, A.
A study was conducted to isolate and identify microorganisms of medical importance from cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and to ascertain their vector potential in the epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. Important bacterial pathogens responsible for wound infections, were further studies by antibiograms. One hundred and fifty-eight out of 159 (99.4%) cockroaches collected from hospital (test) and 113 out of 120 (94.2%) cockroaches collected from residential areas (control) were carrying medically important microorganisms (P less than 0.05). significantly higher (P less than 0.001) number of test cockroaches were carrying a higher bacterial load (1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5] as compared to control cockroaches. Multiple drug-resistant bacterial were isolated from test cockroaches. The diversity of drug-resistant bacterial species isolated from test cockroaches suggests their involvement in the transmission of drug-resistant bacteria. Various fungi and parasitic cysts of medical importance were also isolated from the test and control cockroaches, but the carriage rates were low. The findings suggest that cockroaches, in hospitals, can act as potential vectors of medically important bacteria/parasites/fungi. PMID:1879483
Ko, Alexander E; Jensen, Kim; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is an excellent model omnivore for studying the effect of foraging effort on nutrient balancing behavior and physiology, and its consequences for performance. We investigated the effect of foraging distance on individual German cockroaches by providing two foods differing in protein-to-carbohydrate ratio at opposite ends of long containers or adjacent to each other in short containers. Each food was nutritionally imbalanced, but the two foods were nutritionally complementary, allowing optimal foraging by selective feeding from both foods. We measured nutrient-specific consumption in fifth instar nymphs and newly eclosed females foraging at the two distances, hypothesizing that individuals foraging over longer distance would select more carbohydrate-biased diets to compensate for the energetic cost of locomotion. We then determined dry mass growth and lipid accumulation in the nymphs as well as mass gain and the length of basal oocytes in the adult females as an estimate of sexual maturation. Nymphs foraging over longer distance accumulated less lipid relative to total dry mass growth, but contrary to our predictions, their protein intake was higher and they accumulated more structural mass. In concordance, adult females foraging over longer distance gained more body mass and matured their oocytes faster. Our results show a positive effect of foraging distance on fitness-related parameters at two life stages, in both cases involving increased consumption of specific nutrients corresponding to requirements at the respective life stage.
Wei, Y S; Lee, H J
A single 2h light pulse (250 lux) was given at various times to phase shift the locomotor circadian rhythm of two species of closely related cockroaches, Blattella bisignata and Blatella germanica. The phase-response curve (PRC) of both species showed a similar pattern. Phase delays and advances were induced by light pulse during the early and late subjective night, respectively, while no clear phase shifting was elicited during the subjective day. However, the magnitude of the phase delay (1.89h +/- 0.66h) and advance (0.69h +/- 0.36h) of B. bisignata was significantly larger than that of B. germanica (0.78h +/- 0.38h and 0.35h +/- 0.18h, respectively). This result indicates the superior adjustability of the circadian clock in B. bisignata. The period-response curve (PdRC) was also constructed for both species. Although both species did not show great flexibility in circadian period changes, the phase shifts were significantly correlated with the period changes in the advance zone of B. bisignata (r = 0.72, P < .1). This allowed the circadian clock of B. bisignata to display better entrainability since the phase advance adjustment was significantly more difficult than that of phase delay. The results indicate the overall adjustability of the circadian clock of B. germanica is inferior to that of B. bisignata. The significance of this finding is discussed from an ecological perspective.
Lin, Yu-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Mei; Huang, Jia-Hsin; Lee, How-Jing
The daily susceptibility rhythm to permethrin and the expression level of the delta class glutathione S-transferase (BgGSTD1) gene were investigated in Blattella germanica. Male cockroaches were exposed to the same concentration of permethrin at different times in a light-dark cycle, and results showed that the highest resistance occurred at night. Furthermore, the circadian rhythmicity of permethrin susceptibility was demonstrated by the highest resistance at subjective night under constant darkness. The mRNA level of the BgGSTD1 gene in the fat body of B. germanica peaked early in the day or subjective day under light-dark or constant dark conditions, whereas enzyme activity of cytosolic GSTs did not reflect the rhythmic pattern as well as BgGSTD1 expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to study the function of BgGSTD1 in the circadian rhythm of permethrin susceptibility in B. germanica. Both BgGSTD1 mRNA level and cytosolic GSTs activity were significantly decreased by dsGSTD1 injection. In addition, survival of B. germanica with silenced BgGSTD1 was significantly decreased at night but not in the day when the cockroaches were exposed to permethrin. Total cytosolic GSTs activity demonstrated that is not the only gene involved in the circadian regulation of the permethrin resistance, although it is one of the major regulators of permethrin resistance.
Saltzmann, K D; Saltzmann, K A; Neal, J J; Scharf, M E; Bennett, G W
The protein fraction of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), tergal gland secretion was examined. SDS-PAGE separation of proteins present in B. germanica tergal gland secretion revealed a tergal gland-secreted protein, BGTG-1, at approximately 63 kDa. BGTG-1 first appeared in tergal gland secretion at 2 days postimaginal moult and the amount of protein observed increased through day 5. A 2051 bp cDNA sequence, bgtg-1, was obtained by RACE polymerase chain reaction and contains a 1494 bp ORF encoding a predicted protein of 498 amino acids. In a Northern hybridization experiment using total RNA from B. germanica tergal gland tissue, a (32)P-labelled bgtg-1 probe hybridized to an RNA approximately 2000 bp and confirmed the 2051 bp cDNA size obtained by RACE PCR. Using the BLASTx sequence similarity search tool, the top match to the bgtg-1 ORF was found to be an alpha-amylase from Drosophila kikkawai (e-value = 1 x 10(-178)). Alignment of the bgtg-1 deduced protein sequence with alpha-amylases from fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.) and yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (L.), revealed conserved residues throughout the ORF and sequence identities ranging from 58.4 to 58.2%. Using a gel-based assay, degradation of starch by native BGTG-1 was demonstrated in vitro and we propose that BGTG-1 may be involved in processing phagostimulatory sugars present in B. germanica tergal gland secretion.
Vargo, Edward L; Crissman, Jonathan R; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Mukha, Dmitry V; Schal, Coby
Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city) than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents). About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species.
Nasirian, H; Ladonni, H; Aboulhassani, M; Limoee, M
The German cockroach is an important household insect pest worldwide and acts as a mechanical vector and reservoir for pathogenic agents. The aim of this study was to examine the basic laboratory toxicity of Blattella germanica to spinosad. The M, T, A22, AZAR4, BOOSTAN7 and ABAN21 strains were collected from field populations of six infested kitchen student dormitories and the SAMAN strain was collected from a residential area after insecticide spraying control failure in Tehran, Iran. Technical grade spinosad was delivered in 0.5 microL acetone to the first abdominal sternum of briefly CO2-anesthetize adult male cockroaches by topical application bioassay. Treated males monitored for mortality. Mortality data from the replicates was assessed by probit analysis. The average LD50 of susceptible strain was 494.3, 148.8 and 55.1 ng per insect after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The LD50 of spinosad decreased with time in the field population strains. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility or lower tolerance (1.6-folds) for spinosad compared with the susceptible laboratory strain and the steep slopes of dose-response curves indicated that the field population of these German cockroach strains was homogenous in response to spinosad. These results indicated that the spinosad was relatively slow-acting in topical application bioassay, with LD50 values decreasing until 72 h and becoming stable thereafter. The effectiveness of spinosad against susceptible and the field population German cockroach strains in laboratory condition showed that spinosad probably could be useful for the control of the German cockroach.
Kapelinskaya, Tatiana V; Martynova, Elena U; Schal, Coby; Mukha, Dmitry V
Blattella germanica densovirus (BgDNV) is an autonomous parvovirus that infects the German cockroach. BgDNV possesses three mRNAs for NS proteins, two of which are splice variants of the unspliced transcript. The unspliced variant encodes open reading frame 5 (ORF5) (NS3), while NSspl1 encodes ORF3 (NS1) and ORF4 (NS2) and NSspl2 encodes the C-proximal half of NS1. BgDNV possesses three VP transcripts, one of which (VP) is unspliced, while the other two (VPspl1 and VPspl2) are generated by alternative splicing. The unspliced VP transcript contains both ORF1 and ORF2, while in VPspl1, ORF1 and ORF2 are joined in frame. The transcription of NS genes begins at an earlier stage of the virus life cycle than the transcription of VP genes. NS and VP transcripts overlap by 48 nucleotides (nt). BgDNV is characterized by two additional NS transcripts overlapping by more than 1,650 nt with VP-coding transcripts. Four different bands (97, 85, 80, and 57 kDa) corresponding to three BgDNV capsid proteins were detected on SDS-PAGE. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the amino acid composition of the 85-kDa and 80-kDa proteins is the same. Moreover, both of these proteins are ubiquitinated. The BgDNV PLA(2) domain, which is critical for cellular uptake of the virus, is located in ORF2 and is present only in VP1. In contrast to all of the parvoviruses studied in this respect, VP2 has a unique N terminus that is not contained within VP1 and VP3. In situ recognition with NS1- and VP-specific antibodies revealed an uneven pattern of NS1 expression resembling a halo within the nuclear membrane.
López-Sánchez, Maria J.; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés
Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state. PMID:19911043
Jensen, Kim; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Insects have evolved fine-tuned gustatory and post-ingestive physiological mechanisms that enable them to self-select an optimal composition of macronutrients. Their ability to forage optimally among multiple food sources and maximize fitness parameters depends on their ability not only to taste and perceive the nutritional value of potential foods but also to avoid deleterious components; the strength of such avoidance should reflect the severity of the perceived hazard. In German cockroaches (Blattella germanica), glucose aversion has evolved in some populations in response to anthropogenic selection with glucose-containing insecticidal baits. In four feeding treatments, we gave newly eclosed glucose-averse female cockroaches free choice to feed from two artificial, nutritionally complementary foods varying in protein and carbohydrate composition, with glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source in either food. After 6days of feeding, we measured diet consumption and the length of basal oocytes as an estimate of sexual maturation. The females did not compromise on their aversion to glucose in order to balance their protein and carbohydrate intake, and experienced lower sexual maturation rates as a consequence. Nutrient specific hunger via feedback mechanisms, and adjustments to gustatory sensitivity thus do not override the deterrence of glucose, likely due to strong selection against ingesting even small amounts of toxin associated with glucose in baits. In the absence of baits, glucose aversion would be expected to incur a fitness cost compared to wild-type individuals due to lower overall food availability but also to larger difficulty in attaining a nutritionally balanced diet.
Vargo, Edward L.; Crissman, Jonathan R.; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G.; Mukha, Dmitry V.; Schal, Coby
Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city) than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents). About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species. PMID:25020136
Leyva, Maureen; Tacoronte, Juan E; Marquetti, María del Carmen
Gas chromatography test and Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry test allowed examining the essential oil from Pimenta racemosa leaves (Mill.) J.W. Moore (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). A total of 26 volatile compounds representing 99.5% of the whole composition were identified, being ternipen 4-ol and 1.8 cineol those having the largest portions. Lab bioassays were performed with 5 different oil doses on Blattella germanica. DL50, 15.55 and DL95 = 48.16% were estimated by a probit-log analysis as well as diagnostic dose of 2 microg/insect of 50% oil that is recommended for field surveillance of the use of various formulations in insect control programs.
Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Cristina; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a common domestic pest, which produces allergens that have been associated with broncho-pulmonary disease. Various protozoan species have been identified in the intestine of this cockroach and it has been hypothesised that these protozoa, or their proteases, may contribute to the burden of cockroach-associated allergens and adjuvants present in domestic dust. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence of protozoan species in the intestine of Blattella germanica. German cockroaches were anesthetised and dissected and gut contents are used to produce wet slides for microscopy. Both, Giemsa and Papanicolaou stains were used to confirm correct identification of Lophomonas blattarum. Representatives of four genera of protozoa were identified in 110 cockroaches: Nyctoterus sp. was observed in 91.8% of cases, Gregarina sp. in 64.5%, Amoeba sp. in 25.4% and Lophomonas blattarum in 13.6%. Nyctoterus and Gregarina were statistically significantly more likely to be found in diseased cockroaches compared to Amoeba or Lophomonas. The prevalence of Lophomonas blattarum was similar to that in published studies of a different species of cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Further work is needed to assess the interplay between protozoa, cockroaches and broncho-pulmonary diseases.
Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw
Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.
Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw
Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics. PMID:24649356
Fan, Y; Gore, J C; Redding, K O; Vailes, L D; Chapman, M D; Schal, C
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), produces several potent protein aeroallergens, including Bla g 4, a approximately 20 kDa lipocalin. RT-PCR, Northern analyses and in situ hybridization showed that Bla g 4 is expressed only in the adult male reproductive system. Western blotting and ELISA with rBla g 4 antiserum detected immunoreactivity in the utricles and the conglobate gland, but not in other tissues of the male reproductive system. The Bla g 4 protein content of males increased from adult emergence to day 14, but during copulation Bla g 4 was depleted in the male and transferred to the female within the spermatophore. Topical application of juvenile hormone III stimulated Bla g 4 production by both conglobate gland and utricles.
Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yan Hong; Liu, Shu Zhen; Zhang, Lei; Li, Bo Tai; Zhao, Xiao Xu; Fu, Ying; Liu, Jian Jun; Zhang, Xue Xia
Anti-Beauveria bassiana activity of aqueous fecal extracts from conventional German cockroaches [Blattella germanica (L.)] was detected, but was not detected in samples from germ-free German cockroaches. Subsequently, bacterial strain BGI-14 was isolated from the gut of conventional German cockroaches and was identified as Pseudomonas reactans based on 16S rDNA sequence. The strain BGI-14 not only inhibited the germination of conidia, but also inhibited the growth of B. bassiana hyphae. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-14 fermentation were significantly weakened. Compared with the control group, the cumulative mortality rate of treatment group was reduced by 10.3% at 20 d postinoculation. These studies imply that intestinal flora with anti-B. bassiana activity might contribute to resistance of infection by entomopathogenic fungi.
Kim, J I; Jung, C S; Koh, Y H; Lee, S H
Full length cDNAs encoding two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs; Bgace1 and Bgace2) were cloned and characterized from the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Sequence analyses showed that both genes possess all the typical features of ace, and that Bgace1 is orthologous to the insect ace1 whereas Bgace2 is to the insect ace2. Transcript level of Bgace1 was significantly higher (c. 10 fold) than that of Bgace2 in all 11 tissues examined, suggesting that Bgace1 likely encodes a predominant AChE. Multiple AChE bands were identified by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectricfocusing from various tissue preparations, among which ganglia produced distinct two major and two minor AChE bands, indicative of the presence of at least two active AChEs. B. germanica AChEs appeared to be mainly localized in the central nervous system as demonstrated by histochemical activity staining, together with quantitative analysis of Bgace transcripts. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of the 1st thoracic ganglion confirmed that Bgace1 is predominantly transcribed and further showed that its transcript is found in almost entire region of inter or motor neurones including the cell bodies and axonal/dendritic branches. Bgace2 transcript is found only in the subset of neurones, particularly in the cell body. In addition, certain neurones were observed to express Bgace1 only.
Treiblmayr, Karl; Pascual, Nuria; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Keller, Thomas; Belles, Xavier
Patterns of juvenile hormone have been intensively studied in the cockroach Blattella germanica under different physiological situations. However, data have been mainly obtained in vitro, and refer to hormone synthesized by isolated corpora allata, whereas information available on hormone concentration in the hemolymph is restricted to adult females. In order to complement our studies in vitro, we have measured juvenile hormone titer in the hemolymph of B. germanica females in four characteristic physiological situations: penultimate and last instar nymphs, adults during the first vitellogenic cycle, and adults transporting egg cases (ootheca). In general, a significant positive correlation between rates of hormone synthesis and concentration in the hemolymph is observed. The main disparities appear in the penultimate day of the period of ootheca transport, where titer is high whereas synthesis is low, and on day 6 of the first vitellogenic cycle, where synthesis increases whereas titer decreases. At these stages, the observed disparities between synthesis and titer might be explained by differential action of degradation enzymes. PMID:20233097
Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Hassanzadeh, J; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D
Although it has been difficult to prove the direct involvement of cockroaches (i.e. insects of the order Blattaria) in the transmission of pathogenic agents to humans, such insects often carry microorganisms that are important in nosocomial infections, and their medical importance in the spread of bacteria cannot be ruled out. In houses and institutions with poor standards of hygiene, heavy infestations with cockroaches, such as the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.), can occur. In the present study, cockroaches (126 B. germanica and 69 P. americana) were collected from four buildings (three public training hospitals and one house) in central Tehran, Iran. Each insect was processed, under sterile conditions, so that the bacteria on its external surfaces and in its alimentary tract and faecal pellets could be isolated and identified. The oldest and largest of the three hospitals sampled (a 1400-bed unit built 80 years ago) appeared to be the one most heavily infested with cockroaches, and cockroaches from this hospital accounted for most (65.4%) of the isolates of medically important bacteria made during the study. No significant difference was found between the percentages of P. americana and B. germanica carrying medically important bacteria (96.8% v. 93.6%; P>0.05). At least 25 different species of medically important bacteria were isolated and identified, and at least 22 were Gramnegative. The genus of enteric bacteria most frequently isolated from both cockroach species, at all four collection sites, was Klebsiella. The cockroaches from each hospital were much more likely to be found contaminated with medically important bacteria than those from the house. The hospital cockroaches were also more likely to be carrying medically important bacteria internally than externally (84.3% v. 64.1%; P<0.05). The implications of these and other recent results, for the control of cockroaches
Huang, Jia-Hsin; Bellés, Xavier; Lee, How-Jing
Hypertrehalosemic hormone (HTH) is a peptide hormone that belongs to the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family, which exerts pleiotropic actions related to catabolic reaction and stress response. AKH peptides have been demonstrated to participate in stress response including oxidative stress in several insects. In order to study the signaling pathway of HTH involved in anti-oxidative stress, we have characterized a HIH receptor cDNA in Blattella germanica (Blage-HTHR) in structural and in functional terms using RNA interference (RNAi). Blage-HTHR is expressed in various female adult tissues (brain-CC-CA, ventral nerve cord, midgut, fat body, oviduct), but maximal expression is observed in the fat body. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Blage-HTHR expression results in a significantly lower level of hemolymph trehalose, even though HTH is exogenously administered. Paraquat elicits lethal oxidative stress in B. germanica, and co-injection of paraquat and HTH reduces this detrimental effect and extends the median survival time. Interestingly, the "rescue" effect of HTH on mortality caused by paraquat is diminished in specimens with depleted expression of Blage-HTH and Blage-HTHR. Finally, lipid peroxidation in the hemolymph increases 4 h after paraquat treatment, in comparison with control specimens or with HTH-treated specimens. However, lipid peroxidation induced by paraquat was not "rescued" by HTH in Blage-HTH and Blage-HTHR knockdown specimens. Our results demonstrate that HTH acts as a stress hormone mediating anti-oxidative protection in B. germanica, and that its receptor, Blage-HTHR, is essential for this action.
Pathak, S C; Kulshrestha, V
Inoculation of a spore suspension of Aspergillus flavus in the haemocoel of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) resulted in large-scale invasion of various internal organs as seen in tissue sections stained with a fungal stain. The organs affected were the alimentary canal, fat bodies, muscle fibres, malpighian tubules and the cerebral neurosecretory cells. No invasion of the trachea and tracheoles was noted.
Niu, Dong-Juan; Liu, Yan; Dong, Xiao-Tong; Dong, Shuang-Lin
Blattalla germanica is one of the most notorious household insect pests, and evolutionally more primitive than those well studied moths and flies, regarding the molecular mechanisms of chemosensation. In this study, we sequenced, for the first time, the antennal transcriptome of B. germanica using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform and then conducted the bioinformatic analysis of the data. In total, we identified 73 putative chemosensory genes, with 62 genes being novel in this species. These chemosensory genes included 48 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 9 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 6 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 5 odorant receptors (ORs) and 5 ionotropic receptors (IRs). Notably, Plus-C OBPs account for an exceptionally high proportion (39.58%) of the total 48 OBPs in this primitive insect. To predict the chemosensory functions of the genes, a detailed global tissue expression profiling was investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Most OBP genes showed a chemosensory tissue biased profile, while CSP transcripts were widely and evenly expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, we found that more than half the chemosensory genes were expressed in the cerci, implying the important chemosensory functions of the organ in B. germanica. Taken together, our study provides important bases for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and evolution of insect chemosensation, and for development of the chemosensation based techniques to control B. germanica.
Cruz, Josefa; Martín, David; Bellés, Xavier
In hemimetabolous insects, the molecular basis of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)-triggered genetic hierarchy is practically unknown. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, we had previously characterized one isoform of the ecdysone receptor, BgEcR-A, and two isoforms of its heterodimeric partner, BgRXR-S and BgRXR-L. One of the early-late genes of the 20E-triggered genetic hierarchy, is HR3. In the present paper, we report the discovery of three isoforms of HR3 in B. germanica, that were named BgHR3-A, BgHR3-B(1) and BgHR3-B(2). Expression studies in prothoracic gland, epidermis and fat body indicate that the expression of the three isoforms coincides with the peak of circulating ecdysteroids at each nymphal instar. Experiments in vitro with fat body tissue have shown that 20E induces the expression of BgHR3 isoforms, and that incubation with 20E and the protein inhibitor cycloheximide does not inhibit the induction, which indicates that the effect of 20E on BgHR3 activation is direct. This has been further confirmed by RNAi in vivo of BgEcR-A, which has shown that this nuclear receptor is required to fully activate the expression of BgHR3. RNAi has been also used to demonstrate the functions of BgHR3 in ecdysis. Nymphs with silenced BgHR3 completed the apolysis but were unable to ecdyse (they had duplicated and superimposed the mouth parts, the hypopharinge, the tracheal system and the cuticle layers). This indicates that BgHR3 is directly involved in ecdysis. Finally, RNAi of specific isoforms has showed that they are functionally redundant, at least regarding the ecdysis process.
Borras-Castells, Ferran; Nieva, Claudia; Maestro, José L.; Maestro, Oscar; Belles, Xavier; Martín, David
In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity. Both factors are highly expressed in adult CA cells. Moreover, RNAi-knockdown of either BgSvp-B or BgFTZ-F1 results in adult animals with a complete block in two critical JH-dependent reproductive processes, vitellogenesis and oogenesis. We show that this reproductive blockage is the result of a dramatic impairment of JH biosynthesis, due to the CA-specific reduction in the expression of two key JH biosynthetic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase-1 (BgHMG-S1) and HMG-reductase (BgHMG-R). Our findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying the specific changes in the CA gland necessary for the proper transition to adulthood. PMID:28074850
Dietrich, Deborah E; Martin, Aaron D; Brogden, Kim A
Human β-defensin 3 (HBD3) is a small, well-characterized peptide in mucosal secretions with broad antimicrobial activities and diverse innate immune functions. Among these functions is the ability of HBD3 to bind to antigens. In this study, we hypothesize that HBD3 binds to the allergen Bla g2 from the German cockroach (Blattella germanica). The ability of HBD1 (used as a control β-defensin) and HBD3 to bind to Bla g2 and human serum albumin (HSA, used as a control ligand) was assessed using the SensíQ Pioneer surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy biosensor system. HBD1 was observed to bind weakly to Bla g2, while HBD3 demonstrated a stronger affinity for the allergen. HBD3 was assessed under two buffer conditions using 0.15 M and 0.3 M NaCl to control the electrostatic attraction of the peptide to the chip surface. The apparent K(D) of HBD3 binding Bla g2 was 5.9±2.1 μM and for binding HSA was 4.2±0.7 μM, respectively. Thus, HBD3, found in mucosal secretions has the ability to bind to allergens like Bla g2 possibly by electrostatic interaction, and may alter the ability of Bla g2 to induce localized allergic and/or inflammatory mucosal responses.
Irles, Paula; Elshaer, Nashwa; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors
The Notch pathway is an essential regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation during development. Its involvement in insect oogenesis has been examined in insect species with meroistic ovaries, and it is known to play a fundamental role in cell fate decisions and the induction of the mitosis-to-endocycle switch in follicular cells (FCs). This work reports the functions of the main components of the Notch pathway (Notch and its ligands Delta and Serrate) during oogenesis in Blattella germanica, a phylogenetically basal species with panoistic ovary. As is revealed by RNAi-based analyses, Notch and Delta were found to contribute towards maintaining the FCs in an immature, non-apoptotic state. This ancestral function of Notch appears in opposition to the induction of transition from mitosis to endocycle that Notch exerts in Drosophila melanogaster, a change in the Notch function that might be in agreement with the evolution of the insect ovary types. Notch was also shown to play an active role in inducing ovarian follicle elongation via the regulation of the cytoskeleton. In addition, Delta and Notch interactions were seen to determine the differentiation of the posterior population of FCs. Serrate levels were found to be Notch-dependent and are involved in the control of the FC programme, although they would appear to play no crucial role in panoistic ovary oogenesis.
Borras-Castells, Ferran; Nieva, Claudia; Maestro, José L; Maestro, Oscar; Belles, Xavier; Martín, David
In insects, the transition from juvenile development to the adult stage is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers metamorphosis and the end of the growth period, the reappearance of this hormone after the imaginal molt marks the onset of reproductive adulthood. Despite the importance of such transition, the regulatory mechanism that controls it remains mostly unknown. Here, using the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, we show that nuclear hormone receptors Seven-up-B (BgSvp-B) and Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) have essential roles in the tissue- and stage-specific activation of adult CA JH-biosynthetic activity. Both factors are highly expressed in adult CA cells. Moreover, RNAi-knockdown of either BgSvp-B or BgFTZ-F1 results in adult animals with a complete block in two critical JH-dependent reproductive processes, vitellogenesis and oogenesis. We show that this reproductive blockage is the result of a dramatic impairment of JH biosynthesis, due to the CA-specific reduction in the expression of two key JH biosynthetic enzymes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase-1 (BgHMG-S1) and HMG-reductase (BgHMG-R). Our findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying the specific changes in the CA gland necessary for the proper transition to adulthood.
Zhu, Wei Xiang; Zhao, Kun; Chu, Sha Sha; Liu, Zhi Long
Background: The efficacy of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides flowering aerial parts and its three main active ingredients was evaluated against Blattella germanica male adults. Methods: Composition of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Topical application bioassay was used to evaluate contact toxicity of essential oil and three main components. Fumigant toxicity of essential oil and its main components was measured using a sealed space method. Results: Twenty-two components were identified in the essential oil and the main components were (Z)-ascaridole (29.7%), isoascaridole (13.0%), ρ-cymene (12.7%) and piperitone (5.0%). The essential oil and (Z)-ascaridole, isoascaridole and ρ-cymene possessed fumigant toxicity against male German cockroaches with LC50 values of 4.13, 0.55, 2.07 and 6.92 mg/L air, respectively. Topical application bioassay showed that all the three compounds were toxic to male German cockroaches and (Z)-ascaridole was the strongest with a LD50 value of 22.02 μg/adult while the crude oil with a LD50 value of 67.46 μg/adult. Conclusion: The essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides and its three main active ingredients may be explored as natural potential insecticides in the control of cockroaches. PMID:23378965
Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli
Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria.
Gliniewicz, A; Krzemińska, A; Sawicka, B
The resistance to four pyrethroid insecticides: permethrin, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, etofenprox, and to two carbamate insecticides--bendiocarb, propoxur was investigated on field strains of German cockroaches (Blatella germanica L.) caught in hospitals from various parts of Poland. The tests were carried out only on males by the contact method recommended by the WHO. The resistance was evaluated on the basis of LT50S and resistance ratios (RRs). The tested fields strains showed high or moderate resistance to permethrin, deltamethrin, cypermethrin and bendiocarb: moderate resistance or tolerance to etofenproks (this compound has been never used in Poland before), and tolerance or susceptibility to propoxur.
Gholizadeh, S; Nouroozi, B; Ladonni, H
Pyrethroid insecticides are highly insecticidal compounds that are widely used against the German cockroach, a significant household insect pest. In several insect species, there is a point mutation in the para-type sodium channel gene associated with knockdown resistance (kdr). In the current study, genomic DNA was analyzed in the region where the kdr and super-kdr (an enhanced form of pyrethroid resistance) mutations reside in Blatella germanica (L., 1767) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) collected from Iran. Studies on the extracted DNA from hand-captured German cockroach specimens were conducted by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing to detect related mutations. The kdr mutation, substitution of G for C (L1014F), which results in amino acid replacement (leucine with phenylalanine), was detected in all 18 sequenced specimens from three different locations. However, the super-kdr mutation (M918T), which is detected in super-kdr house flies, was not found in the sequences of the current study. The high ratio of the kdr mutation in a field population of B. germanica in Urmia confirms that the individuals are homozygous. These data should be helpful in designing and implementing a control program and resistance management.
Sevala, V; Shu, S; Ramaswamy, S B.; Schal, C
High density lipophorin (HDLp) from the hemolymph of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Family Blattellidae), has an apparent molecular weight of 670kDa, with an isoelectric point of 7.0 and a density of 1.109g/ml. It is composed of two subunits, apolipoprotein-I (212kDa) and apolipoprotein-II (80kDa), and consists of 51.4% lipid, 46.2% protein and 2.4% carbohydrate. Hydrocarbons constitute 42.2% of the total lipids which also contain diacylglycerol, cholesterol and phospholipid. Lipophorin is rich in the amino acids glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine, valine, and leucine. Specificity of a polyclonal antibody was demonstrated by Western blotting and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion: the antiserum recognized native HDLp and apolipoprotein-I, but not apolipoprotein-II, purified vitellin, or other hemolymph proteins. It also recognized a protein in the hemolymph of Supella longipalpa (Blattellidae) but did not cross-react with hemolymph proteins from Periplaneta americana (Blattidae) or Diploptera punctata (Blaberidae). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed to measure the HDLp titer in the hemolymph of adult females. The titer of HDLp, a juvenile hormone binding protein, exhibited no clear relationship to the changing titer of juvenile hormone in hemolymph. The hemolymph titer of hydrocarbon, which is also carried by HDLp, showed some functional relation to the concentration of HDLp in the hemolymph. Because it concurrently serves multiple functions in insect development and reproduction, lipophorin titer might covary with the titers of lipid ligands that occur at high concentrations and require extensive shuttling through the hemolymph.
Wei, Y; Appel, A G; Moar, W J; Liu, N
A German cockroach (Blatella germanica (L)) strain, Apyr-R, was collected from Opelika, Alabama after control failures with pyrethroid insecticides. Levels of resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin in Apyr-R (97- and 480-fold, respectively, compared with a susceptible strain, ACY) were partially or mostly suppressed by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF), suggesting that P450 monooxygenases and hydrolases are involved in resistance to these two pyrethroids in Apyr-R. However, incomplete suppression of pyrethroid resistance with PBO and DEF implies that one or more additional mechanisms are involved in resistance. Injection, compared with topical application, resulted in 43- and 48-fold increases in toxicity of permethrin in ACY and Apyr-R, respectively. Similarly, injection increased the toxicity of deltamethrin 27-fold in ACY and 28-fold in Apyr-R. These data indicate that cuticular penetration is one of the obstacles for the effectiveness of pyrethroids against German cockroaches. However, injection did not change the levels of resistance to either permethrin or deltamethrin, suggesting that a decrease in the rate of cuticular penetration may not play an important role in pyrethroid resistance in Apyr-R. Apyr-R showed cross-resistance to imidacloprid, with a resistance ratio of 10. PBO treatment resulted in no significant change in the toxicity of imidacloprid, implying that P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxication is not the mechanism responsible for cross-resistance. Apyr-R showed no cross-resistance to spinosad, although spinosad had relatively low toxicity to German cockroaches compared with other insecticides tested in this study. This result further confirmed that the mode of action of spinosad to insects is unique. Fipronil, a relatively new insecticide, was highly toxic to German cockroaches, and the multi-resistance mechanisms in Apyr-R did not confer significant cross-resistance to this compound. Thus, we propose
Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Kang, Jae Soon; Kim, Gil-Hah; Park, Il-Kwon
We evaluated the insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition activity of 11 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents in adult male and female Blattella germanica. Of the 11 Apiaceae plant essential oils tested, dill (Anethum graveolens), carvi (Carum carvi), and cumin (Cuminum cyminum) demonstrated >90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 mg/filter paper. In a contact toxicity test, dill (Anethum graveolens), carvi (Carum carvi), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) produced strong insecticidal activity against adult male and female German cockroaches. Among the test compounds, (S)-(+)-carvone, 1,8-cineole, trans-dihydrocarvone, cuminaldehyde, trans-anethole, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene demonstrated strong fumigant toxicity against adult male and female B. germanica. In a contact toxicity test, carveol, cuminaldehyde, (S)-(+)-carvone, trans-anethole, thymol, and p-cymene showed strong contact toxicity against adult male and female B. germanica. IC(50) values of α-pinene, carvacrol, and dihydrocarvone against female AChE were 0.28, 0.17, and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The toxicity of the blends of constituents identified in 4 active oils indicated that carvone, cuminaldehyde, and thymol were major contributors to the fumigant activity or contact toxicity of the artificial blend.
Hansen, Kenneth Klingenberg; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn
Danish Blattella germanica (L) populations carry the resistance-associated mutation A302S within the Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) gene. The mutation has remained in field populations long after the discontinuation of dieldrin for cockroach control. The mutation has also persisted in our laboratory strains with high and intermediate frequencies for more than 8 years without selection. The toxicity of dieldrin was tested by topical application to male cockroaches in the susceptible strain DPIL-SUS and two field strains, Zo960302 and Su960304, which were 1270- and 15-fold resistant to dieldrin at LD50. We report the sequencing of exon 7 of the B. germanica Rdl gene and the finding of the putative resistance-associated A302S mutation. We have developed and implemented a PCR-based diagnostic method with the detection of a restriction endonuclease polymorphism, which allows for easy discrimination of susceptible, resistant and heterozygote genotypes. The frequency of the resistance-associate allele A302S was 0.97 and 0.38 in the Zo960302 and Su960304 populations, respectively. The cockroach Rdl A302S allele confers high dieldrin resistance in homozygotes and intermediate resistance in heterozygotes, and its presence is responsible for the persisting dieldrin resistance in Danish populations of B. germanica.
Lopes, R B; Alves, S B
Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 10(5) conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available.
Irles, Paula; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors
During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only)-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries.
Mané-Padrós, Daniel; Cruz, Josefa; Vilaplana, Lluïsa; Pascual, Nuria; Bellés, Xavier; Martín, David
Ecdysteroid hormones regulate key developmental processes throughout the life cycle of insects. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) acts upon binding to a heterodimeric receptor formed by the nuclear receptors EcR and USP. The receptor, once 20E bounds to it, elicits cascades of gene expression that mediate and amplify the hormonal signal. The molecular characterization of the 20E-mediated hierarchy of transcription factors has been analyzed in detail in holometabolous insects, especially in Drosophila melanogaster, but rarely in more basal hemimetabolous species. Using the hemimetabolous species Blattella germanica (German cockroach) as model, we have cloned and characterized five isoforms of B. germanica E75, a member of the nuclear receptor family participating in the 20E-triggered genetic hierarchy. The five isoforms present characteristic expression patterns during embryo and nymphal development, and experiments in vitro with fat body tissue have shown that the five isoforms display specific 20E responsiveness. RNAi experiments in vivo during the penultimate and last nymphal instars of B. germanica revealed that BgE75 is required for successfully complete nymphal-nymphal and nymphal-adult transitions. Detailed analysis of knockdown specimens during the last nymphal instar showed that BgE75 is required for the rise of circulating ecdysteroids that occurs towards the end of the instar. The main cause of ecdysteroid deficiency in BgE75 knockdowns is the premature stage-specific degeneration of the prothoracic gland. As a consequence, BgE75 knockdown nymphs do not molt, live for up to 90 days and start the adult developmental program properly, in spite of remaining as nymphs from a morphological point of view. Finally, RNAi of specific isoforms during the last nymphal instar of B. germanica has showed that they are functionally redundant. Furthermore, it also revealed the occurrence of a complex regulatory relationship among BgE75 isoforms, which is responsible of their
Huang, Y H; Wang, X J; Zhang, F; Huo, X B; Fu, R S; Liu, J J; Sun, W B; Kang, D M; Jing, X
A bacterial strain BGI-1 was isolated from the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) and was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rDNA sequence and morphological, physiological, and biochemical characters. The strain BGI-1 inhibited the growth of Beauveria bassiana; the diameter of the inhibition zone exceeded 30 mm. Vesicles were observed in B. bassiana hyphae on the edge of the inhibition zone. Fermentation of BGI-1 reduced the conidial germination rate by 12%. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-1 fermentation were significantly weakened. Cumulative mortality rate was 49.5% in the treatment group at the 20 d, while that of the control group was 62.3%. The study intends to understand the relationship between the intestinal flora and the cockroach. Those microbes with anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity might contribute to resisting the infection of pathogenic fungi.
Menasria, Taha; Tine, Samir; Mahcene, Djaouida; Benammar, Leyla; Megri, Rochdi; Boukoucha, Mourad; Debabza, Manel
A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of the external bacterial flora of two domestic cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis) collected from households in Tebessa (northeast Algeria). Three major bacterial groups were cultured (total aerobic, enterobacteria, and staphylococci) from 14 specimens of cockroaches, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested for both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas isolates. Culturing showed that the total bacterial load of cockroaches from different households were comparable (P<0.001) and enterobacteria were the predominant colonizers of the insect surface, with a bacterial load of (2.1 × 10⁵ CFU/insect), whereas the staphylococci group was the minority. Twenty-eight bacterial species were isolated, and susceptibility patterns showed that most of the staphylococci isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamycin, pristinamycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin; however, Pseudomonas strains exhibited resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, and the second-generation antibiotic cephalosporin cefuroxime.
Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Chen, Han; Liu, Qi Zhi; Jiang, Shi Yao; Liu, Zhi Long
The aim of this research was to evaluate contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Bentham leaves against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) (L.) and to isolate any active constituents. Essential oil of P. cablin leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-three components were identified in the essential oil, and the main constituents were patchoulol (41.31%), pogostone (18.06%), α-bulnesene (6.56%), caryophyllene (5.96%), and seychellene (4.32%). Bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation of the essential oil led to the isolation of pogostone, patchoulol, and caryophyllene as active compounds. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves exhibited acute toxicity against male B. germanica adults with an LC50 value of 23.45 μg per adult. The constituent compound, pogostone (LC50 = 8.51 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than patchoulol (LC50 = 207.62 μg per adult) and caryophyllene (LC50 = 339.90 μg per adult) against the male German cockroaches. The essential oil of P. cablin leaves and the three isolated constituents exhibited strong repellent activity against German cockroaches at a concentration of 5 ppm. The results indicated that the essential oil of P. cablin leaves and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural insecticides and repellents.
Huang, Jia-Hsin; Lee, How-Jing
Hypertrehalosemic hormone (HTH) is a neuropeptide within the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that induces a release of trehalose from fat body into hemolymph in a number of insects. In this study, we first showed that female adult German cockroach, Blattella germanica, displayed a cyclic fluctuation of hemolymph trehalose levels correlated to the maturation of oocytes in the reproductive cycle. After cloning the HTH cDNA from the German cockroach (Blage-HTH), expression studies indicated that Blage-HTH mRNA showed the cyclic changes during the first reproductive cycle, where peak values occurred in 8-day-old virgin female cockroaches, which were going to produce oothecae. The functions of Blage-HTH were studied using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown its expression. Adult virgin females of B. germanica injected with Blage-HTH dsRNA increased hemolymph trehalose levels in the late period of vitellogenesis more slowly than control. Furthermore, RNAi of Blage-HTH delayed oviposition time and some (10%) individuals did not produce the first ootheca until 15 days after eclosion, whereas the control group produced ootheca before 9 days in all cases.
Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Park, Chan; Ahn, Young-Joon
We assessed the toxicity of 17 steam distillate constituents of Cyperus rotundus (L.) rhizome, another seven known compounds of C. rotundus rhizome, and 14 structurally related compounds to females from an insecticide-susceptible KSS strain and two field-collected SEL and DJN colonies of Blattella germanica (L.). High contact + fumigant toxicity to KSS females was produced by p-cymene, nerol, linalool, o-cymene, (S)-(-)-citronellal, (1S)-(-)-camphor, terpinolene, and m-cymene (LD50, 0.29-0.47 mg/cm2). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical against females from any of the three strains, even though SEL and DJN females were resistant to six acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and three pyrethroids (resistance ratio, 9-154 and 12-195). These results indicate that the compounds and insecticides do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The test compounds were effective in closed but not in open containers against SEL females, indicating that their route of insecticidal action was largely a result of vapor action. Structure-activity relationship indicates that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, appear to play a role in determining the terpenoid toxicities to B. germanica. C. rotundus rhizome steam distillate constituents and related compounds described merit further study as potential fumigants for the control of resistant cockroach populations in light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in indoor environments.
Garbutt, Jennie S; Bellés, Xavier; Richards, Elaine H; Reynolds, Stuart E
RNA interference (RNAi) is a specific gene silencing mechanism mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which has been harnessed as a useful reverse genetics tool in insects. Unfortunately, however, this technology has been limited by the variable sensitivity of insect species to RNAi. We propose that rapid degradation of dsRNA in insect hemolymph could impede gene silencing by RNAi and experimentally investigate the dynamics of dsRNA persistence in two insects, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, a species in which experimental difficulty has been experienced with RNAi protocols and the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, which is known to be highly susceptible to experimental RNAi. An ex vivo assay revealed that dsRNA was rapidly degraded by an enzyme in M. sexta hemolymph plasma, whilst dsRNA persisted much longer in B. germanica plasma. A quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based assay revealed that dsRNA, accordingly, disappeared rapidly from M. sexta hemolymph in vivo. The M. sexta dsRNAse is inactivated by exposure to high temperature and is inhibited by EDTA. These findings lead us to propose that the rate of persistence of dsRNA in insect hemolymph (mediated by the action of one or more nucleases) could be an important factor in determining the susceptibility of insect species to RNAi.
Wannigama, D Leshan; Dwivedi, Rishabh; Zahraei-Ramazani, Alireza
Background Cockroaches are among the medically important pests found within the human habitations that cause serious public health problems. They may harbor a number of pathogenic bacteria on the external surface with antibiotic resistance. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. This study investigates the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India. Methods: Totally, 203 adult cockroaches were collected form 44 households and 52 food-handling establishments by trapping. Bacteriological examination of external surfaces of Pe. americana and Bl. germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods. Results: Among the places, we found that 54% had cockroache infestation in households and 77% in food- handling establishments. There was no significant different between the overall bacteria load of the external surface in Pe. americana (64.04%) and Bl. germanica (35.96%). However the predominant bacteria on cockroaches were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, Kl. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa were the most prevalent, drug-resistant strains were isolated from the cockroaches with 100% resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and ampicillin. For individual strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli was found to have multi-resistance to four antibiotic tested, Citrobacter freundii four, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis to three. Conclusion: Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in domestic environment, which can be a possible vector for transmission of drug-resistant bacteria and food-borne diseases. PMID:25629061
Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Silverman, Jules; Schal, Coby
Glucose is a universal phagostimulant in many animal species, including the cockroach Blattella germanica. However, some natural populations of B. germanica have been found that are behaviorally deterred from eating glucose. In dose-response studies, glucose was a powerful phagostimulant for wild-type cockroaches, but it strongly deterred feeding in a glucose-averse strain. Both strains, however, exhibited identical dose-response curves to other phagostimulants and deterrents. As a lead to electrophysiological and molecular genetics studies to investigate the mechanisms that underlie glucose-aversion, we used 2 assay paradigms to delineate which chemosensory appendages on the head contribute to the reception of various phagostimulatory and deterrent chemicals. Both simultaneous dual stimulation of the antenna and mouthparts of the insects and 2-choice preference tests in surgically manipulated insects showed that the glucose-averse behavior could be elicited through the gustatory systems of the antennae and mouthparts. The paraglossae alone were sufficient for maximum sensitivity to both phagostimulants and deterrents, including glucose as a deterrent in the glucose-averse strain. In addition to the paraglossae, the labial palps were more important than the maxillary palps in the reception of deterrents (caffeine in both strains and glucose in the glucose-averse strain). The maxillary palps, on the other hand, played a more important role in the reception of phagostimulants (fructose in both strains and glucose in the wild-type strain). Our results suggest that distinct inputs from the chemosensory system mediate opposite feeding responses to glucose in the wild-type and glucose-averse strains.
Elgderi, R M; Ghenghesh, K S; Berbash, N
Using standard bacteriological procedures, 403 cockroaches (Blattella germanica) collected in Tripoli, from hospitals or the households surrounding the hospitals, were examined for bacteria that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Almost all of the cockroaches (96.1% of the 253 from hospitals and 98.7% of the 150 from households) were found to be carrying potentially pathogenic bacteria, with similar mean burdens of 3.2 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) (range=0-1.4 x 10(7)) for each hospital cockroach and 1.9 x 10(5) cfu (range=0-3.1 x 10(6)) for each household cockroach (P>0.05). Overall, 27 and 25 species of potential pathogen were isolated from the hospital and household cockroaches, respectively, with Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia and Streptococcus predominant. Carriage of species of Serratia was significantly more common among the hospital cockroaches than among the household cockroaches, whereas carriage of Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Aeromonas was significantly more common among the household cockroaches than among the hospital. Multiple resistance, to at least six different antibiotics, was more commonly observed among the enteric bacteria isolated from the hospital cockroaches than among those recovered from the household cockroaches. Overall, >30% of the isolates of Enterobacteria recovered were each resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents, and 95% of the Pseudomonas isolates were each resistant to at least eight such agents. Cockroaches may play an important role in the spread of multiple-antibiotic-resistant, bacterial pathogens within the hospitals and surrounding communities of Tripoli and other, similar cities. The local health and environmental authorities need to be encouraged to treat B. germanica infestations seriously and to control them quickly and effectively.
Cruz, Josefa; Nieva, Claudia; Mané-Padrós, Daniel; Martín, David; Bellés, Xavier
Postembryonic development of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects occurs through successive molts triggered by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The molecular action of 20E has been extensively studied in holometabolous insects, but data on hemimetabolous are scarce. We have demonstrated that during the nymphal development of the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, 20E binds to the heterodimeric receptor formed by the nuclear receptors BgEcR-A and BgRXR activating a cascade of gene expression, including the nuclear receptors BgE75 and BgHR3. Herein, we report the characterization of BgFTZ-F1, another nuclear hormone receptor involved in 20E action. BgFTZ-F1 is activated at the end of each instar, and RNAi has demonstrated that BgHR3 is needed for BgFTZ-F1 activation, and that BgFTZ-F1 has critical functions of during the last nymphal instar. Nymphs with silenced BgFTZ-F1 cannot ecdyse, arrest development, and show structures of ectodermal origin duplicated. BgFTZ-F1 also controls the timing of the ecdysteroid molting pulse.
Mané-Padrós, Daniel; Borràs-Castells, Ferran; Belles, Xavier; Martín, David
Despite the differences in the developmental strategies between hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects, a common feature between both types of development is that periodic pulses of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) dictate each developmental transition. Although the molecular action of 20E has been extensively studied in holometabolous insects, data on hemimetabolous is scarce. To address this, we have used the German cockroach Blattella germanica to show that 20E signals through a transcriptional cascade of the nuclear hormone receptor-encoding genes BgE75, BgHR3 and BgFTZ-F1. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of BgHR4, another nuclear receptor involved in this cascade. Expression studies along with tissue incubations and RNAi experiments show that cross-regulation between BgE75 and BgHR3 directs the expression of BgHR4. Finally, we have also shown that BgHR4 is an essential gene required for successfully completing nymphal-nymphal and nymphal-adult transitions, by allowing the appropriate delay in the induction of BgFTZ-F1.
Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon
The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.
Revuelta, L; Piulachs, M D; Bellés, X; Castañera, P; Ortego, F; Díaz-Ruíz, J R; Hernández-Crespo, P; Tenllado, F
Cyclorrhapha insect genomes contain a single acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene while other insects contain at least two ace genes (ace1 and ace2). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the two ace paralogous from Blattella germanica have different contributions to AChE activity, using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown each one individually. Paralogous-specific depletion of Bgace transcripts was evident in ganglia of injected cockroaches, although the effects at the protein level were less pronounced. Using spectrophotometric and zymogram measurements, we obtained evidence that BgAChE1 represents 65-75% of the total AChE activity in nerve tissue demonstrating that ace1 encodes a predominant AChE. A significant increase in sensitivity of Bgace1-interfered cockroaches was observed after 48 h of exposure to chlorpyrifos. In contrast, Bgace2 knockdown had a negligible effect on mortality to this organophosphate. These results point out a key role, qualitative and/or quantitative, of AChE1 as target of organophosphate insecticides in this species. Silencing the expression of Bgace1 but not Bgace2 also produced an increased mortality in insects when synergized with lambda-cyhalothrin, a situation which resembles the synergistic effects observed between organophosphates and pyrethroids. Gene silencing of ace genes by RNAi offers an exciting approach for examining a possible functional differentiation in ace paralogous.
Maestro, J L; Bellés, X; Piulachs, M D; Thorpe, A; Duve, H
Immunoreactivity against peptides of the allatostatin family having a typical YXFGL-NH2 C-terminus has been localized in different areas of the central nervous system, stomatogastric nervous system and gut of the cockroach Blattella germanica. In the protocerebrum, the most characteristic immunoreactive perikarya are situated in the lateral and median neurosecretory cell groups. Immunoreactive median neurosecretory cells send their axons around the circumesophageal connectives to form arborizations in the anterior neuropil of the tritocerebrum. A group of cells in the lateral aspect of the tritocerebrum project to the antennal lobes in the deutocerebrum, where immunoreactive arborizations can be seen in the periphery of individual glomeruli. Nerve terminals were shown in the corpora allata. These terminals come from perikarya situated in the lateral neurosecretory cells in the pars lateralis and in the subesophageal ganglion. Immunoreactive axons from median neurosecretory cells and from cells positioned in the anteriormost part of the tritocerebrum enter together in the stomatogastric nervous system and innervate foregut and midgut, especially the crop and the valve between the crop and the midgut. The hindgut is innervated by neurons whose perikarya are located in the last abdominal ganglion. Besides immunoreactivity in neurons, allatostatin-immunoreactive material is present in endocrine cells distributed within the whole midgut epithelium. Possible functions for these peptides according to their localization are discussed.
Chuang, Jiing-Guang; Su, Song-Nan; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Lee, How-Jing; Chow, Lu-Ping
Although cockroaches are known to produce allergens that can cause IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, including perennial rhinitis and asthma, the various cockroach allergens have not yet been fully studied. Many proteins from the German cockroach show high IgE reactivity, but have never been comprehensively characterized. To identify these potential allergens, proteins were separated by 2-DE and IgE-binding proteins were analyzed by nanoLC-MS/MS or N-terminal sequencing analysis. Using a combination of proteomic techniques and bioinformatic allergen database analysis, we identified a total of ten new B. germanica IgE-binding proteins. Of these, aldolase, arginine kinase, enolase, Hsp70, triosephosphate isomerase, and vitellogenin have been reported as allergens in species other than B. germanica. Analysis of the Food Allergy Research and Resource Program allergen database indicated that arginine kinase, enolase, and triosephosphate isomerase showed significant potential cross-reactivity with other related allergens. This study revealed that vitellogenin is an important novel B. germanica allergen. Personalized profiling and reactivity of IgE Abs against the panel of IgE-binding proteins varied between cockroach-allergic individuals. These findings make it possible to monitor the individual IgE reactivity profile of each patient and facilitate personalized immunotherapies for German cockroach allergy disorders.
Montada, D; Guerrero, J A
Different insecticide formulations used for the control of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica (L.) were studied to know their effects on the gravid females of this species. The insecticides assayed were baygon 20% EC, diazinon 60 EC, and licon 2.5% EC. Exposure to each insecticide showed an effect on the oothecal drop (p < 0.001). Gravid females treated with baygon had the highest percent of oothecae detached (71%); whereas diazinon caused the lowest percent (33.5%). Doses of baygon, diazinon, and icon used showed that among the oothecas detached hatching occurred only in 19.01%; 34.2% and 39.11%, respectively. Of the oothecas retained by treated females, the lowest hatching percent was produced by baygon (13.79%) compared with diazinon and icon insecticides, which presented the highest hatching percentages with 39.84 and 47.82, respectively. Therefore, the effects of insecticides on females bearing oothecas may be considered at the time of selecting an insecticide to control the German cockroach.
Engelbrecht, H; Buske, M
Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis occur in the district of Potsdam (German Democratic Republic). B. germanica is the real cause of plague. Up to now 2,734 building properties have been infested with cockroaches. B. germanica was found in 2,644 properties; B. orientalis was found in 20 properties and both were found in 70 properties. Infestation with cockroaches increases with urbanisation. Infestation is especially frequent in works canteens and similar rooms. Outdoor distribution of cockroaches takes place passively in food transports. Inside buildings cockroaches spread through cracks in walls, through pipings, lift shafts etc. 70 to 80% of the properties infested by cockroaches are works canteens, shops, restaurants, hotels and bakeries. B. germanica was found in 82% of the larger hospitals and outpatients' clinics, in about 72% of the works canteens, in about 26% of the restaurants and hotels, in about 20% of the bakeries and the enterprises manufacturing beverages, in 17% of the shops, in 8.8% of the nurseries and crèches and in a smaller percentage in flats and newlybuilt residential areas.
Alzogaray, Raul A; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Masuh, Hector M
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the fumigant activity of the essential oils from 11 species of the genus Eucalyptus and two of their hybrids on first instar of Blattella germanica L. The fumigant activity and repellence of the four major monoterpene components of these essential oils also were tested. Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing nymphs to the vapors emitted by 50 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed container. The lowest knockdown time 50% (KT50) values, expressed in minutes, were elicited by the essential oils of the Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus tereticornis (57.9) hybrid, Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn (62.0), E. grandis X Eucalyptus camaldulensis (63.8) hybrid, Eucalyptus viminalis Labill (64.1), Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden (64.5), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden (68.7). The KT50 values for the remaining essential oils ranged between 74.5 (E. saligna Smith) and 161.4 min (E. tereticornis Smith). The essential oil from the hybrid E. grandis X E. tereticornis was 3.7 times less toxic than dichlorvos (positive control). The KT50 values of monoterpenes were 38.8 for alpha-pinene, 55.3 for 1,8-cineole, 175.6 for p-cymene, and 178.3 for gamma-terpinene. Alpha-pinene was 2.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. There was a strong positive correlation between the fumigant activity of essential oils and their corresponding 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene concentration. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of monoterpenes were studied (7 and 70 microg/cm2). All compounds produced a light repellent effect but only when applied at 70 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was less than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (positive control).
Zhang, Fan; Sun, Xiao X; Zhang, Xian C; Zhang, Shuo; Lu, Jie; Xia, Yong M; Huang, Yan H; Wang, Xue J
Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana mainly infect insects through the cuticle; gut infection occasionally occurs. Microorganisms existing in the gut may play a crucial role in the evolution and ecology of host defenses to fungal pathogens. To evaluate whether the gut bacteria participate in antifungal activity, and to determine their role in host protection, the interactions between gut bacteria and M. anisopliae and the diversity of gut microbiota in cockroaches were studied. Oral feeding test showed the mortality of conventional cockroaches was obviously decreased; both gut homogenates and aqueous fecal extracts showed antifungal activity, but the samples from germ-free cockroaches did not. Twenty-two bacterial strains with antifungal activity and siderophore producing ability were isolated from the gut and feces of cockroaches. Based on high-throughput sequencing techniques, a total of 23 different phyla and 212 genera were detected. The composition of the hindgut was vastly different from those of foregut and midgut; higher diversity and abundance of Bacteroides and Pseudomonas were found in the hindgut. The gut microbiota of German cockroaches might play a critical role in protecting cockroaches from fungi invasion and colonization. Removing certain bacteria in B. germanica microbiota may facilitate microbial control using fungal pathogens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Suazo, A; Gore, C; Schal, C
We used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the expression of a gene encoding Bla g 1, a human allergen produced by the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., to study its function in cockroach physiology. Females injected with 1 microg of double-stranded RNA contained 64% less Bla g 1 protein and Bla g 1 mRNA abundance was reduced by 91.4% compared to sham-injected females. Bla g 1 knockdown slowed the pace of weight gain, midgut growth, and colleterial gland and basal oocyte maturation, resulting in delayed egg case formation and lower fecundity. Exogenous juvenile hormone treatments rescued reproduction in RNAi-treated females, suggesting that Bla g 1 silencing lowered endogenous juvenile hormone, probably by reducing food intake and nutrient absorption.
Kapelinskaia, T V; Kagramanova, A S; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V
The rDNA locus of insects and other arthropods contains non-LTR retrotransposons (retroposons) that are specifically inserted into 28S rRNA genes. The most frequent retroposons are R1 and R2, but the mechanism of insertion and the functions of these mobile elements have not been studied in detail. A clone containing a full-length R1 retroposon copy was islated from the cosmid library of Blattella germanica genes and sequenced. The amino acid sequences encoded by ORF1 of the R1 retroposon were subjected to bioinformatic analysis. It was found that ORF1 of this mobile element encodes a protein (ORF1p) belonging to the superfamily of zinc finger (CCHC) retroviral nucleocapsid proteins and contains two conserved RRM domains (RNA-recognizing motifs) identified on the basis of analysis of the secondary structure of this protein. The discovery of RRM domains in ORF1p of R1 retroposons can contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of their retrotransposition. We revealed a coiled-coil motif in the N-terminal region of R1 ORF1p, which is similar to the coiled-coil domain involved in homo- or heteromultimerization of proteins and in protein-protein interactions. The domain organization of homologous Gag-like proteins of retroposons in some insects and fungi was found to be similar to the structure established by us for R1 ORF1p of B. germanica.
Primary structures of hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptides isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the cockroaches Leucophaea maderae, Gromphadorhina portentosa, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis and of the stick insect Extatosoma tiaratum assigned by tandem fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.
Gäde, G; Rinehart, K L
Hypertrehalosaemic peptides were isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography from corpora cardiaca of four species of cockroaches (Leucophaea maderae, Gromphadorhina portentosa, Blattella germanica, and Blatta orientalis) and one stick insect species (Extatosoma tiaratum), and their primary sequences were assigned by collision-induced decomposition tandem fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS/CID/MS). The members of the cockroach families Blaberidae (L. maderae and G. portentosa) and Blattellidae (B. germanica) contained an identical decapeptide (Glu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Gly-Trp-Gly-ThrNH2), whereas the member of the cockroach family Blattidae (B. orientalis) had two octapeptides (Glu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-TrpNH2 and Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-TrpNH2). The structure of the stick insect hypertrehalosaemic compound was assigned as a decapeptide (Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-Gly-ThrNH2). The respective synthetic peptides elevated blood carbohydrates in their respective acceptor species. The results are discussed in the light of family-specificity of members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family.
Díaz, Cristina; Enríquez, Dagoberto; Bisset, Juan A
A study of the levels of resistance to 10 insecticides: 4 organophosphate compounds (malathion, clorpirifos, methylpyrimifos and diazinon), 2 carbamates (propoxur and bendiocarb) and 4 pyrethroids (cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lamdacyhalothrin and cyfluthrin) was conducted in 5 strains of Blatella germanica (Linnaeus, 1767) collected in the field of Pinar del Rio. High levels of resistance to bediocarb, cypermethrin and deltamethrin insecticides; low level of resistance to diazinon; from moderate to high resistance to methyl-pyrimifos, as well as susceptibility to one insecticide in each study group: clorpirifos (organophosphate), propoxur (carbamate) and cyfluthrin (pyrethroid); were detected. Only a strain presented low resistance to malathion (Inicio Carlos Manuel) and to lambda-cyhalothrin (Consejo Celso Maragoto). Cypermethrin-deltamethrin cross resistance was evidenced. It did not affect the susceptibility to lambda-cyalothrin and cyfluthrin.
Sims, S R; O'Brien, T E
Two mineral oils and 12 linear primary alcohols were studied, alone and in combination, to determine their contact toxicity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). The more toxic oil, PD23 (LD50 = 1.45 mg per cockroach) was used for combination studies. Alcohols with carbon chain lengths of C3 and C8 through C12 were the most toxic, with LD50 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 mg. C1 (methanol) and C14 (1-tetradecanol) were least toxic, with LD50 values of 2.35 and 1.75 mg, respectively. Eight of the 12 combinations of a nonlethal dose of PD23 oil with an LD10 dose of alcohol produced significantly greater mortality than predicted under the assumption of additive effects. A sample of five synergistic oil + alcohol combinations, covering most of the alcohol carbon chain length range over which synergy occurred, was further studied by calculating LD50 values for three fixed mixture ratios (80:20, 50:50, and 20:80) of each combination. Results were analyzed using both graphical techniques (isobole analysis) and by nonlinear regression. At least one, but not necessarily all, of the three fixed ratio combinations of each oil + alcohol pairing indicated synergy. The conclusions drawn from the isobole and regression analyses were consistent.
Smith, L M; Appel, A G
German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), catch by five types of traps and modifications of each, were tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Cockroach catch differed significantly among traps. Lo-line trap caught the greatest number of cockroaches in the test arena for each size class (23% small nymphs, 39% of gravid females, and 60% of other size classes in the experimental arena). Jar traps caught the least number of cockroaches in the test arena for each size class (range, 7-23% of each size class trapped). Modifications of traps also altered catch of cockroaches. Food bait tablets increased catch significantly; however, increases were small (<10%). Size of traps did not affect catch; whole traps or half traps caught the same number of cockroaches. Jar traps were much less effective than sticky traps, catching only half the number of cockroaches as sticky traps. A thin layer of petrolatum was a more effective barrier in jar traps to cockroach escape than powdered Olancha clay. Traps with petrolatum caught about twice as many cockroaches as traps with clay. Trapping of any of six life stages was not significantly affected by catch of any of the other stages. Rather, trap catch of each life stage was dependent on the number of that life stage available in the experimental arenas. In conclusion, of the traps tested, the Lo-line trap was the most sensitive for measuring cockroach catch, whereas the Detector trap (one third of trap) was the most economical trap (greatest sensitivity for lowest cost).
Kagramanova, A S; Korolev, A L; Schal, C; Mukha, D V
Using polymerase chain reaction technique with primers flanking target sites of retrotransposons R1 and R2, integrated copies of these transposable elements were amplified in various cockroach species (Blattodea). It was shown that each species has a unique pattern of "5'-undertranscripts" with the definite set of amplified fragments of different lengths. Intraspecies polymorphism was revealed in analysis of German cockroach specimens obtained upon individual mating. This is the first report providing results of identifying, cloning, and sequencing extended fragments (5'-truncated copies) of Blatella germanica R1 and R2 retrotransposons. It may be assumed that patterns of 5'-truncated copies of R1 and R2 elements can be used as markers in population and phylogenetic studies. Moreover, cloned and sequenced fragments will be employed in our further studies for screening of the German cockroach genomic library in order to detect full-length copies in this class transposable elements.
Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A.; González-Audino, Paola A.
Insects under different stimuli from the environment modify behavioural responses due to changes in the sensitivity of neurons at the peripheral and/or at the central level of the nervous system. This phenomenon is called neuronal plasticity, and sensory adaptation is an example of it. An insect repellent is a chemical that produces oriented movements of the insects away from its source. In this work we studied the modulation of the behavioural and electrical response to the repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) in males of the German cockroach B. germanica produced by previous exposure to the same repellent. Methods. We determined repellency using a circular arena, one half of which was treated with DEET. The time spent by insects in each half of the arena was measured, and a repellency coefficient (RC) was calculated. The RCs of pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed insects were compared. To determine a possible role of nitric oxide in the modulation of the response to DEET after pre-exposure, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC) was applied on cockroaches’ antennae. The electrical activity of the cockroaches’ antennae in response to DEET was recorded using electroantennogram (EAG) technique. The response to DEET was recorded also after a long stimulation with the same repellent, and after topical application of SNAC and dbcGMP (a cGMP analogue) on the antennae. Results. We found that previous exposure of B. germanica males to the repellent DEET produced an increase of the repellency at the behavioural level, measured as RC. A possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the transduction pathway of this phenomenon is suggested, since treatment of the cockroaches with the NO donor SNAC also produced an increase of the repellency elicited by DEET. On the other hand, the response of the cockroaches’ antennae exposed to DEET was determined electrophysiologically. The electrical activity in response to DEET decreased when the insects’ antennae
Sfara, Valeria; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A; González-Audino, Paola A
Insects under different stimuli from the environment modify behavioural responses due to changes in the sensitivity of neurons at the peripheral and/or at the central level of the nervous system. This phenomenon is called neuronal plasticity, and sensory adaptation is an example of it. An insect repellent is a chemical that produces oriented movements of the insects away from its source. In this work we studied the modulation of the behavioural and electrical response to the repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) in males of the German cockroach B. germanica produced by previous exposure to the same repellent. Methods. We determined repellency using a circular arena, one half of which was treated with DEET. The time spent by insects in each half of the arena was measured, and a repellency coefficient (RC) was calculated. The RCs of pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed insects were compared. To determine a possible role of nitric oxide in the modulation of the response to DEET after pre-exposure, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC) was applied on cockroaches' antennae. The electrical activity of the cockroaches' antennae in response to DEET was recorded using electroantennogram (EAG) technique. The response to DEET was recorded also after a long stimulation with the same repellent, and after topical application of SNAC and dbcGMP (a cGMP analogue) on the antennae. Results. We found that previous exposure of B. germanica males to the repellent DEET produced an increase of the repellency at the behavioural level, measured as RC. A possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the transduction pathway of this phenomenon is suggested, since treatment of the cockroaches with the NO donor SNAC also produced an increase of the repellency elicited by DEET. On the other hand, the response of the cockroaches' antennae exposed to DEET was determined electrophysiologically. The electrical activity in response to DEET decreased when the insects' antennae were
Population growth and behavior of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) in experimentally established shipboard infestations. M. H. Ross, B. L...6. Secretion of dispersion-inducing substance by the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Orthoptera: Blattellidae). C. Suto and N. Kumada...deprivation effects on reproduction in female Blattella germanica (L.) Ent. exp. appl. (In press). -6- Table 1. Comparative strength of responses to
Zukowski, K; Bajan, C; Popowska-Nowak, E
In this paper results of infestation of Blatella germanica L with mixed culture of insecticidal fungi belonging to one two species are presented. In the first stage of experiment the insects were infested first with B. bassiana spores and later with P. farinosus spores (strains L and P) was used as first and B. bassiana as second with time sequence of only 24 and 72 hours. Out of one species cultures tests were done alternately with strains L and P of P. farinosus. The control insects were always infested with fungi applied to cockroach in the first place. From comparison of data it results that irrespective of the time that elapsed from application of the first pathogen to the time of application of the second pathogen the number of dead individuals was always higher in experimental series than in control i.e. when only one pathogen was applied. After 30 days of experiment the highest mortality in females amounted to, 3.3% and in males--80.0% whereas in the control it amounted 6.6% and 20.0%. Respectively, after feeding on diet infested only with one pathogen. After 50 years the highest mortality amounted to 20% in females and 100% in males with control of 30% and 53.3% in meals and females, respectively. When the sequence of pathogen application was reversed, mortality after 30 day amounted to 53.3% in females and 36.7% in meals with corresponding numbers in controls beginning 26.6% and 26.6%, respectively. After elapse of 50 days the highest mortality in females was 90% and in males--100% with control showing mortality of 36.7% and 63.3% respectively. From comparison of numerical data complied in Table 1 it results that most advantageous time span between first and second infestation with fungi is 48 h. Mortality of cockroaches infested with fungi of two different species was higher than in insects infested with one species of fungi.
Nagaty, H F; Emami-Nouri, M
A case of invasion of the human ear by the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L) IN Mash'had, Khorassan, Iran is described. As far as the Author is aware this is the first such case recorded and published from Iran.
Sims, Steven R; Appel, Arthur G; Eva, Marla J
Responses of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), to microencapsulated (ME) formulations of six insecticides (bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin) were compared with emulsifiable concentrates (EC) (chlorpyrifos, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin) or ready-to-use (RTU) formulations (bifenthin and lambda-cyhalothrin). Two rates were tested per comparison. Baseline toxicity (LT50 value) was determined by continuous exposure to residual deposits. Repellency, toxicity (LT50), and performance index (PI) values were determined using Ebeling choice boxes. Baseline toxicity of the permethrin formulations was similar, but all other active ingredients had significant toxicity differences at one or both formulation x dose comparisons. Baseline toxicity and repellency were negatively correlated. Choice box LT50 and the time to reach 50% of the maximum PI were positively correlated. The maximum PI was positively correlated (P < 0.06) with baseline LT50 and negatively correlated (P < 0.07) with repellency. Chlorpyrifos had the lowest repellency except for the EC at 0.25%. Bifenthrin ME and lambda-cyhalothrin ME had greater PI values than comparative RTU formulations. Cyfluthrin EC at 0.03% and deltamethrin ME at 0.01% had significantly lower PI values than comparison treatments. Permethrin PI value for the EC at 0.03% exceeded that for the ME, but at 0.05% the ME had a significantly greater PI. These data demonstrate the difficulty in making generalizations about the relative performance of ME compared with EC or RTU formulations. Variable results observed within, and between, formulations may be influenced by application rate, formulation type, other formulation components, and the toxicity-repellency of the active ingredient.
The Use of Double Translocation Heterozygotes To Control Populations of the German Cockroach and the Use of Genetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Characteristics To Control Natural Populations of the German Cockroach.
Keil, C. B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ. Entomol. 10: 534-542. Ross, M. H...Cochran. 1981. The release of sterile males into natural populations of the German cockroach Blattella germanica . Ent. Exp. Appl. 30: 241-253. Bret, B. L...M. H. Ross, and G. I. Holtzmann. 1983. Influence of adult females on within-shelter distribution patterns of Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera
Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby
The Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, first introduced to Florida in 1986, has been spreading throughout the southeastern United States. Populations can reach extremely high densities and cause damage to crops as well as become a nuisance in residential settings. Because the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is its closest extant relative, we characterized the B. asahinai male response to blattellaquinone, the sex pheromone of the German cockroach, in an effort to develop monitoring tools for B. asahinai. Electroantennogram (EAG) analysis was conducted on B. asahinai and B. germanica males and females, and revealed that the antennae of males of both species responded significantly more to blattellaquinone than females, and in both males and females absolute EAG responses of B. asahinai were greater than in B. germanica males and females, respectively. However, normalized male EAG response curves and ED50 values (effective dose to elicit 50% of maximal response) did not differ significantly between the two species. Results of field trapping experiments demonstrated that male B. asahinai were more attracted to blattellaquinone than any other life stage, and 10 μg of blattellaquinone attracted the most males. These results suggest that blattellaquinone or a similar compound might be a component of the sex pheromone of B. asahinai females.
A total of 1,365,609 raw reads with an average length of 529 bp, which were de novo assembled into 48,800 contigs and 3,961 singletons for a total of 52,761 high-quality unique sequences are generated. These sequences are annotated in terms of GO and KEGG, and the results reveal putative genes of va...
Ross, M H; Cochran, D G
Productivity in crosses involving two independent reciprocal translocations in Blattella germanica are reported. Lethal effects alone could not account for the reductions in hatch since completely unproductive crosses occurred frequently. The latter are attributed to the inability of reduced numbers of viable embryos to force open the egg case. The implications for genetic control of the joint dominant effects from embryonic trapping and translocation semisterility are discussed.
Ko, Alexander E; Bieman, Donald N; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Bait formulations are considered to be the most effective method for reducing German cockroach (Blattella germanica) infestations. An important property of some bait formulations is secondary kill, whereby active ingredient (AI) is translocated in insect-produced residues throughout the cockroach population, especially affecting relatively sedentary early-instar nymphs. B. germanica was collected from a location where baits containing hydramethylnon, fipronil or indoxacarb had become ineffective, and these AIs were topically applied to adult males. Results revealed the first evidence for hydramethylnon resistance, moderate resistance to fipronil and extremely high resistance to indoxacarb. Insecticide residues excreted by field-collected males that had ingested commercial baits effectively killed nymphs of an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain of B. germanica but failed to kill most nymphs of the field-collected strain. We report three novel findings: (1) the first evidence for hydramethylnon resistance in any insect; (2) extremely high levels of indoxacarb resistance in a field population; (3) reduced secondary mortality in an insecticide-resistant field-collected strain of B. germanica. We suggest that, while secondary mortality is considered to be advantageous in cockroach interventions, the ingestion of sublethal doses of AI by nymphs may select for high insecticide resistance by increasing the frequency of AI resistance alleles within the population. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby
The Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai Mizukubo) was introduced to Florida in 1986 and has since spread throughout the Southeastern United States. Blattella asahinai is a peridomestic pest and high population densities in residential areas can become a nuisance, especially when adults fly into homes. Few studies to date have been conducted on Asian cockroach control, and we evaluated the efficacy of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait and Maxforce Complete Granular Insect Bait against this species in the laboratory compared with the closely related German cockroach (Blattella germanica (L.)). In no-choice and two-choice assays with both species, Zyrox bait and Maxforce bait achieved nearly 100% mortality within two and five days, respectively. We also tested Zyrox bait against B. asahinai in an invasive field population in North Carolina at the label rate (2 g/m(2)) and at approximately three times the label rate (6.9 g/m(2)), and found that broadcast applications at both rates reduced populations by an average of 64 and 92%, respectively, for 35 d after the initial application. Zyrox Fly Bait appears to be effective against the Asian and German cockroaches, and could be another tool in an integrated pest management program, if its label could be extended or the active ingredient (cyantraniliprole) formulated into a cockroach bait.
Ko, Alexander E.; Bieman, Donald N.; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
BACKGROUND Bait formulations are considered the most effective method for reducing German cockroach infestations. An important property of some bait formulations is secondary kill, whereby active ingredient is translocated in insect-produced residues throughout the cockroach population, especially affecting relatively sedentary early instar nymphs. RESULTS Blattella germanica was collected from a location where baits containing hydramethylnon, fipronil, or indoxacarb became ineffective, and these AIs were topically applied to adult males. Results revealed the first evidence for hydramethylnon resistance, moderate resistance to fipronil and extremely high resistance to indoxacarb. Insecticide residues excreted by field-collected males that ingested commercial baits effectively killed nymphs of an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain of B. germanica but failed to kill most nymphs of the field-collected strain. CONCLUSIONS We report three novel findings: 1) The first evidence for hydramethylnon resistance in any insect; 2) extremely high levels of indoxacarb resistance in a field population; and 3) reduced secondary mortality in an insecticide-resistant field-collected strain of B. germanica. We suggest that while secondary mortality is considered to be advantageous in cockroach interventions, the ingestion of sublethal doses of AI by nymphs may select for high insecticide resistance by increasing the frequency of AI resistance alleles within the population. PMID:26689433
Habbachi, Wafa; Bensafi, Hanene; Adjami, Yasmine; Ouakid, Mohamed L; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Everaerts, Claude
Spinosad is a biopesticide, derived from fermentation by the soil-dwelling actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, which is used to control a variety of insects. Spinosad kills a wide range of insect pests when ingested or topically applied, by overexciting the nervous system, yet is harmless to mammals and many predatory insects. Other modes of action of this insecticide have not been documented. Here, we report that a non-lethal dose of spinosad causes adult male and female German cockroach, Blattella germanica, to exhibit altered responses to their aggregation pheromone as well as to have a changed cuticular hydrocarbon profile.
Ko, Alexander E; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Bait formulations are widely used to control German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations. To perform optimally, these formulations must compete favorably with non-toxic alternative foods present within the insect's habitat. We hypothesized that the nutritional history of cockroaches and their acceptance or avoidance of glucose would affect their food preference and thus bait efficacy. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment, first providing glucose-accepting and glucose-averse cockroaches nutritionally defined diets and then offering them identical diets containing the insecticide hydramethylnon as a bait proxy to evaluate the effect of diets of differing macronutrient composition on bait performance. The interaction between diet composition and bait composition affected the survival of adult males as well as first-instar nymphs exposed to excretions produced by these males. Survival analyses indicated different responses of glucose-averse and glucose-accepting insects, but generally any combination of diet and bait that resulted in high diet intake and low bait intake reduced secondary kill. This study represents a comprehensive examination of the effect of alternative foods on bait efficacy. We suggest that disparities between the nutritional quality of baits and the foods that are naturally available could profoundly impact the management of German cockroach infestations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Nalyanya, G; Liang, D; Kopanic, R J; Schal, C
Several insecticide bait formulations were evaluated for their attractiveness to cockroaches in olfactometer assays in the laboratory and in trapping experiments in the field. Included in the assays were bait stations, gels, pastes, and a powder that contained one of the following active ingredients: abamectin, boric acid, chlorpyrifos, or hydramethylnon. There were significant differences among the baits in their attractiveness to the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). In trapping experiments, Avert powder (abamectin), Maxforce station and gel, and Siege gel (all hydramethylnon) were consistently attractive to B. germanica adults and nymphs. Laboratory olfactometer assays with adult males confirmed these results and showed that nymphs were as responsive as males whereas females were less responsive. Our bioassays also demonstrate that attractiveness of bait can be dramatically affected by the age of the bait. One week of aging significantly reduced the attractiveness of Avert powder in both laboratory and field assays. Aging, however did not diminish the attractiveness of Maxforce gel, indicating that the formulation may be critical for retention of attractiveness of baits. Baits that were most attractive to the German cockroach were also the most attractive to nymphs and adults of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.).
DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W
Second- and fifth-instar Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) were examined for mortality and developmental abnormalities. All compounds were active against B. germanica (L.), with lower diet concentrations being required to kill second instars compared with fifth instars. Chlorfluazuron was significantly more active against second and fifth instars (LC50 = 0.000191 and 0.000363% AI, respectively for the second and fifth instars). UC 84572 also killed nymphs at extremely low concentrations (LC50 = 0.000508 and 0.000754% AI, respectively, for second and fifth instars). LC50's for hexafluron and triflumuron against fifth instars were more than 1,000 times higher than that for chlorfluazuron. Sensitive periods of exposure were determined by comparing effects when four different age classes of fifth instars (1-, 4-, 7-, and 10-d old) fed on the compounds for 3 d. Triflumuron was most effective when ingested during the first three age classes and hexafluron was most effective during the last three age classes. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 were most effective when ingested during the second age class (days 4-6). Adults surviving exposure during the fifth instar were often deformed and weak; they died at a greater rate than the controls. However, most surviving adults were able to reproduce normally.
Nalyanya, G; Schal, C
Lures that are used to attract German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), to traps were compared in olfactometer assays in the laboratory and in trapping experiments in cockroach-infested homes and a swine farm. In olfactometer assays, AgriSense GP-2 was the most attractive lure, followed by peanut butter, and distiller's grain. Other lures, including Trapper tablet; Victor pheromone, a crude fecal extract that ostensibly contains B. germanica aggregation pheromone; and Victor food lure elicited upwind orientation from <50% of the test insects. Peanut butter and distiller's grain were equally attractive in trapping experiments in swine production barns and they captured significantly more cockroaches than the GP-2 tablet or the Victor pheromone lure; the commercial lures failed to attract significantly more cockroaches than the unbaited control traps. When tested against blank controls, cockroaches preferred to rest in shelters that contained the aggregation pheromone-based lure (Victor), but this lure was the least attractive to cockroaches in olfactometer assays. These results do not support claims that commercial crude fecal extracts attract cockroaches to traps, and they highlight a need for developing more attractive lures for detection of cockroaches and for monitoring populations.
Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S
Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations.
Koehler, P G; Atkinson, T H; Patterson, R S
Abamectin was fed to German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), in non-choice tests. LT50s and LC50s were estimated by probit analysis. The LT50s for the German cockroach ranged from 4.4 to 1.7 d for males, from 9.0 to 2.4 d for females, and from 4.4 to 1.6 d for nymphs for bait concentrations of abamectin between 0.0025 and 0.0500%. The LC50s of abamectin were 0.0110 and 0.0040% from males, 0.0240 and 0.0090% for females, and 0.0200 and 0.0080% for nymphs at 3 and 6 d, respectively. The LT50 values of 0.0550% abamectin bait were 3.4, 3.4, 2.4, 7.5, 2.9, and 4.5 d for Periplaneta americana (L.), P. fuliginosa (Serville), P. brunnea Burmeister, P. australasiae (F.), Blatta orientalis L., and Supella longipalpa (Serville). Although the bait was effective against various cockroach species, time to death for the larger species was longer than for the German cockroach. In preference tests in which male German cockroaches were allowed to feed on rat chow or abamectin bait, all died within 5 d of exposure to abamectin bait. Abamectin bait consumption was not significantly lower than that of untreated rat chow. Arena tests with 0.0550% abamectin bait resulted in 31-75% mortality of German cockroaches after 9 d, with most control being achieved by treating harborages with the bait. The hydramethylnon standard resulted in 65% mortality after 9 d.
Anikwe, Joseph Chuks; Adetoro, Fouad Abidemi; Anogwih, Joy Anuri; Makanjuola, Winifred Ayinke; Kemabonta, Kehinde Abike; Akinwande, Kayode Lawrence
Indoxacarb gel bait was evaluated for its efficacy in the laboratory and field against American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), and German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.). Advion 0.6% indoxacarb gel bait was toxic to both P. americana and B. germanica. There were no significant differences in the LT50 (h) values for treatment levels of 0.25 g, 0.5 g, and 1.0 g gel applied against P. americana, whereas gel applied at 0.5 g to B. germanica had a significantly greater LT50 (h) in the laboratory than the gel treatments on P. americana. The LT50 for both cockroach species ranged from 40.65 to 145.60 h. There was no control mortality in the laboratory bioassays. In the field, 55 houses were treated with 0.5 g of 6-8 spots of indoxacarb gel bait per kitchen of two or three bedroom bungalows from three Local Government Areas of Lagos State, comprising Surulere (22), Alimosho (12), and Shomolu (21). Mean reduction in cockroach populations varied from location to location based on the level of infestations. Percentage reductions in the indoxacarb gel-treated units ranged from 3.5% at 1 d after treatment to 99.8% at 14 d at Surulere, while reductions ranged from 8.9% at 1 d after treatment to 99.7% at 14 d at Shomolu; a similar trend was observed for Alimosho. Indoxacarb gel bait was highly effective in the control of cockroaches.
Mukha, D V; Schal, K
A new Blattella germanica densovirus (BgDNV, Parvoviridae: Densovirinae, Densovirus) was found. Virus DNA and cockroach tissues infected with BgDNV were examined by electron microscopy. Virus particles about 20 nm in diameter were observed both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Virus DNA proved to be a linear molecule sized about 1.2 microns. The complete BgDNV genome was sequenced and analyzed. Five ORF were detected: two coded for structural capsid proteins and were on one DNA strand, and three coded for regulatory proteins and were on the other strand. Potential promoters and polyadenylation signals were identified. Structural analysis was performed for terminal inverted repeats containing extended palindromes. The genome structure of BgDNV was compared with that of other Parvoviridae.
Metzger, R; Hanisch, J; Regenstein, W
For ecological investigations in natural populations of Blatella germanica a new method of dry incorporation of a porcelain tracer is developed. The quality of this method in contrast with other non radioactive and at present radioactive methods depends on the stable position of the tracer and the possibility of taking different marking substances for individually marking a large number of experimental animals. The identification bases on the previously investigated half-life values. The new method in combination with the recaptivate method is a good possibility to analyse a population of cockroaches.
Krzemińska, A; Gliniewicz, A; Styczyńska, B
Resistance to permethrin was tested in cockroaches caught in health service institutions in various parts of Poland. The tests were carried out by the contact method as recommended by the WHO. The density of the insecticide was 20 mg/m2. The experiment was done only on male insects, calculating the values of LT50 and LT90 in insect groups caught in various localities. These values were compared with LT50 and LT90 values in sensitive insects exposed to the insecticide, and the resistance indices R50 and R90 were calculated. This made possible determination of permethrin resistance of the populations from various areas. The results showed that the sensitivity of the insects varied. Cockroaches caught in Opole, Biała Podlaska, Szczecin, Warsaw were highly resistant to permethrin, while those from Płock, Piotrków Trybunalski, Chojnów, Nowy Sacz tolerated the insecticide, and those from Jedrzejów were as sensitive as control laboratory insects.
Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby
The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.
An extract from German cockroach appears effective in inhibiting browning on apples and potatoes. Successful identification of inhibitor(s) of PPO from German cockroach would be useful to the fruit and vegetable segments of the food industry, due to the losses they incur from enzymatic browning. Ide...
Yang, Yung-Yu; Wen, Chih-Jen; Mishra, Archana; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Lee, How-Jing
The cell distribution and immunoreactivity (ir) against period (PER), pigment dispersing factor (PDF) and corazonin (CRZ), were compared between adults and nymphs in the central nervous system of the German cockroach. Although PER-ir cells in the optic lobes (OL) were expressed in the nymphs from the first instar, the links between major clock cells became more elaborated after second/third instar. A circadian rhythm of locomotion was initiated at the fourth/fifth instar. The results suggest that the clock was running from hatching, but the control network needed more time to develop. In addition, the putative downstream regulators, PDF-ir and CRZ-ir, are co-localized in various regions of the brain, indicating potential output routes of the circadian clock. CRZ-ir cells with typical morphology of neurosecretory cells in the dorsolateral protocerebrum send out three neural fibers to reach the ipsilateral corpora cardiaca (CC), the antennal lobe and two hemispheres of the protocerebrum. Based on co-localization with some PER-ir/PDF-ir cells, the CRZ-ir cells have the potential to serve as a bridge between circadian neural signals and endocrine regulation. Based on PDF's role in the regulation of locomotion, our results support the finding that the locomotor circadian rhythm is possibly controlled by a hormonal route.
Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A
Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.
Martynova, E U; Kapelinskaia, T V; Schal, C; Mukha, D V
The intracellular localization of the regulatory proteins encoded by the genome of the densovirus of German cockroach was analyzed using western-blotting of nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts of the densovirus-infected passaging cells tissue culture BGE-2. Two of the three regulatory proteins, NS1 and NS3, were shown to possess mainly nuclear localization, while NS2 protein was distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Data obtained provide new information necessary for prediction of the functions of densovirus regulatory proteins. Intracellular localization of NS3 protein was described for the densoviruses for the first time.
Guo, Guang-Zhou; Geng, Yi-Jie; Huang, Da-Na; Xue, Cai-Fang; Zhang, Ren-Li
German cockroaches have become a large problem in the Shenzhen area because of their pesticide resistance, especially to pyrethroid. A pyrethroid called "Jia Chong Qing" to prevent pests for a long time were found to be resistant to "Jia Chong Qing" with resistance index of 3.88 measured using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that both CYP4G19 mRNA and CYP4G19 protein expression levels in the wild strain were substantially higher than that of a sensitive strain. dsRNA segments derived from the target gene CYP4G19 were prepared using in vitro transcription and were microinjected into abdomens of the wild strain. Two to eight days after injection, the result showed that CYP4G19 mRNA expressions were significantly reduced in the groups injected with dsRNAs.
Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S; Comins, Daniel L; Schal, Coby
The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male's antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis -- 11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system -- chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio -- have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.
Koehler, P G; Patterson, R S; Martin, W R
The susceptibility of American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.); smoky brown cockroaches, P. fuliginosa (Serville); oriental cockroaches, Blatta orientalis L.; German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.); and brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa (F.), to Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser (All strain) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. A 1-ml water suspension containing 500,000 nematodes was placed on filter paper in a petri dish or the pad of a bait station. German, brown-banded, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches died within 1 d after placement in the petri dishes. The relative order for the LT50s were American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than brown-banded = German. All cockroaches actively groomed nematodes from legs and antennae of forced (petri dish) exposure. The LT50s for S. carpocapsae for nonforced (bait station) exposure were significantly greater than those for forced exposure. The LT50s were 3.25, 4.13, 9.86, and 11.38 d for brown-banded, German, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches, respectively. The relative order of the LT50s after forced (American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than German = brown-banded) and nonforced (American greater than smoky-brown greater than oriental greater than German greater than brown-banded) exposure to S. carpocapsae was inversely related to the moisture of their preferred habitats.
Appel, Arthur G
Experimental indoxacarb powder and gel baits were evaluated in the laboratory, and a gel bait was evaluated in subsequent field studies against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). In continuous exposure tests, LT50 values were 1.90 and 1.10 d for 0.25 and 1% indoxacarb powder baits, respectively. However, 0.25% indoxacarb gel bait had an LT50 value of 0.68 d, similar to a 0.05% abamectin gel bait formulated with the same bait base. There was no difference in toxicity between fresh and 7-d-old gel bait deposits. A pyrethroid-resistant strain of German cockroaches was significantly resistant to both abamectin and indoxacarb gel baits. Gel bait contained approximately 40% water, desiccated rapidly at 25-28 degrees C and 30-45% RH, but did not rehydrate when held at 56.7% RH for 3 d. Powder indoxacarb baits contained <1% water and did not desiccate or gain water. Indoxacarb gel bait (0.25%) was relatively nonrepellent (approximately 30%) and had positive maximum performance index values (approximately 100) in Ebeling choice box experiments. In field experiments in cockroach-infested kitchens, the 0.25% indoxacarb gel bait significantly reduced visual counts of German cockroaches approximately 74% at 3 d and >95% at 14 d. Indoxacarb baits are toxic, relatively nonrepellent, and can significantly reduce German cockroach populations.
Sims, Steven R; Balusu, Rammohan R; Ngumbi, Esther N; Appel, Arthur G
Topical and fumigant toxicity of saturated aliphatic fatty acids with chain lengths of C1 through C14 were determined against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). In the C1 to C11 series, topical toxicity (LD50 in milligram per adult male) ranged from 0.145 (C1) to 0.322 mg (C2). Toxicity declined dramatically with C12 and C14 acids whose LD50 values could not be calculated. The relative fumigation toxicity (LC50 in microliter per liter) of C1 through C5 acids was positively correlated with topical toxicity with values ranging from 6.159 (C3) to 12.302 microl/liter (C2). Fumigant toxicity decreased sharply with C6 (LC50 = 37.691 microl/liter) and there was no mortality of cockroaches exposed to vapors from C7 to C14 acids. The low fumigant toxicity of the C6 to C11 acids was correlated with their relatively low vapor pressure, but differences in diffusion of the vapors into the spiracles and subsequent passage to the target sites may have also been involved.
Buczkowski, G; Schal, C
Horizontal transmission of insecticide occurs when foragers contact or ingest an insecticide, return to the aggregation or nest, and translocate the insecticide to the shelter and its vicinity. Relatively more sedentary members of the population then contact or eat the translocated insecticide and die. We evaluated three different methods of delivering fipronil to adult male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), for their potential to cause such secondary mortality in various developmental stages of the cockroach. Adult males topically treated with 5 ng of fipronil (approximately LD99) caused low mortality in untreated nymphs and no mortality in untreated adults within the same aggregation. Males exposed to residual fipronil on a glass surface translocated more insecticide, resulting in higher mortality of cockroaches they contacted, but only early instars were affected and no adult mortality was observed. Ingested fipronil bait, however, was most effectively translocated, and caused high mortality of untreated adults and nymphs. Ingestion of fipronil also caused greater secondary kill compared with a topical application of 25 ng, approximately the same amount recovered from the exterior of males that ingested 1 mg of 0.05% fipronil bait. Secondary mortality in the untreated population was significantly affected by the duration of contact between the treated and untreated cockroaches, the quantity and freshness of excretions from the treated insects, and the accessibility of the secretions to untreated cockroaches. The mechanisms that cause secondary kill may include ingestion of excreted fipronil residues, cannibalism of bait-fed cockroaches, as well as contact with fipronil-contaminated substrates.
Kristensen, Michael; Hansen, Kenneth Klingenberg; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn
The toxicity of fipronil and dieldrin was determined in one susceptible laboratory strain and seven insecticide-resistant field-collected strains of Blattella germanica (L). The Zo960302 and Ga021001 strains were 1,270- and 2,030-fold resistant to dieldrin and 15- and 14-fold resistant to fipronil. The Su960304 and Od010803 strains were 15- and 13-fold resistant to dieldrin and two- and four-fold resistant to fipronil. Three strains showed no or a low level of resistance to dieldrin and fipronil. Crosses were performed between the susceptible strain Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory (DPIL)-SUS and the resistant strains Zo960302 and Su960304 and resistance to dieldrin and fipronil were intermediate compared with the susceptible and the resistant strains. Backcrosses to both of the parental strains showed cosegregation of dieldrin and fipronil resistance. The toxicity of dieldrin and fipronil was correlated when compared at LD50, and 93% of the observed variation in LD50 of fipronil can be ascribed to variation among predictions based on the value of LD50 of dieldrin. The frequency of the A302S substitution in the resistance to dieldrin (Rdl) gene in the highly dieldrin- and fipronil-resistant strains Zo960302 and Ga021001 and the moderately resistant Su960304 was 0.97, 1.0, and 0.38, respectively. We consider the connection between the frequency of the Rdl mutation and dieldrin and fipronil resistance a causal connection and not merely a coincidence.
Abolghasemi, E; Moosa, Kazem SH; Abolhasani, M; Davoudi, M
Objective To determine the sensitivity of Blattela germanica L (B. germanica L) to differenct doses of insulin. Methods B. germanica were reared in laboratory conditions at (25±2) °C and (50±5)% relative humidity (RH), and exposure period of 12:12 L/D. Different concentrations, viz. 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 µ of insulin N, R, (N+R) were prepared and injected to 10 treated cockroaches with another 10 cockroaches which were injected with normal saline as control group. Results Insulin N with a dose of 20 µ caused more than 70% mortality of B. germanica in this study. There was a significant difference between 20 µ of insulin N with other doses of 5, 10, 15 and 25 µ, and its comparison with other forms of medication also showed obvious difference (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that effective drug doses of insulin which can be used as posion bait or gel against German cockroaches could be utilized in the control of B. germanica in the future field studies. PMID:23569776
Alali, F Q; Kaakeh, W; Bennett, G W; McLaughlin, J L
Six compounds, representing the mono-tetrahydrofuran (THF) (gigantetrocin A, annomontacin), adjacent bis-THF (asimicin, parviflorin), and nonadjacent bis-THF (sylvaticin, bullatalicin) classes of annonaceous acetogenins, were compared with technical grades of synthetic amidinohydrazone (hydramethylnon), carbamate (propoxur, bendiocarb), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos), and pyrethroid (cypermethrin) insecticides to determine their dietary toxicities to insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Differential susceptibility occurred among B. germanica nymphs of both strains to this variety of the acetogenins and the 5 conventional synthetic insecticides. The speed of kill (LT50) values against insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant 2nd and 5th instars permitted ranking of all 11 compounds. The adjacent bis-THF acetogenins showed the highest potency among the 3 acetogenin classes. The acetogenins caused high percentages of mortality and delays in development of the 5th instars of both strains. Insecticide-susceptible nymphal development was mainly affected by gigantetrocin A and annomontacin, whereas insecticide-resistant nymphal development was mainly affected by gigantetrocin A and bullatalicin. Most tested acetogenins performed better than the conventional insecticides against both stages of both strains. No growth regulation effects were caused by any of the compounds tested. Low resistance ratios were obtained for most compounds (except chlorpyrifos). Low resistance ratios values for 2nd instars ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 with the natural acetogenins and from 1.0 to 3.8 with the synthetic compounds; the 5th instars ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 with the natural acetogenins and from 0.6 to 8.0 with the synthetic compounds. Insecticidal properties and characteristics of acetogenins and the possible use of acetogenins in baits for cockroach control are discussed.
Ang, Ling-Hui; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Lee, Chow-Yang
Extensive usage and heavy reliance on insecticides have led to the development of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Six field-collected strains of B. germanica from Singapore were used to investigate resistance to fipronil and dieldrin. The three strains (Boat Quay, Cavenagh Road, and Ghimmoh Road) with greatest resistance to fipronil were subjected to selection with fipronil bait up to the F5 generation. Synergism assay and molecular detection of a target site mutation were used to elucidate the mechanism of fipronil resistance in these strains. With the exception of the Cavenagh Road strain, all parental strains were susceptible to dieldrin. This strain exhibited resistance to dieldrin and fipronil with resistance ratios of 4.1 and 3.0, respectively. Piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate were antagonistic toward fipronil toxicity in all strains. Bait selection significantly increased fipronil and dieldrin resistance in the three chosen strains, either in topical bioassay or bait evaluations. There was a significant positive relationship [y = (6,852.69 +/- 1,988.37) x - (708.93 +/- 1,226.28), where x = fipronil toxicity and y = dieldrin toxicity] between dieldrin and fipronil resistance levels, indicating significant cross-resistance between the insecticides. High frequencies of individuals possessing the Rdl gene mutation were found in the F5 generation of the three strains selected with fipronil bait. The synergism assays indicated that monooxygenase and esterase were not involved in fipronil resistance in the strains studied herein. The A302S Rdl mutation was the major mechanism contributing to fipronil and dieldrin resistance in these strains.
Appel, Arthur G
The effects of contamination of insecticidal bait formulations, by using mint oil and silica aerogel, were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Bait consumption at 3 d for uncontaminated baits ranged from 0.01 g for Avert dust to 0.399 g for Combat dry bait with hydramethylnon presented in a station. LT50 values for uncontaminated gel bait deposits ranged from 0.4 d for PreEmpt containing imidacloprid to 4.1 d for Maxforce containing hydramethylnon. As a group, significantly more gel bait was consumed than solid formulations even when both formulations had similar concentrations of the same active ingredient. As a result, gel baits were significantly more toxic than solid formulations. Application of mint oil directly to bait deposits significantly decreased bait consumption and increased overall LT50 values. When bait formulation types were examined individually, there was no difference in consumption or toxicity between contaminated and uncontaminated gel formulations. Contaminated solid baits, however, had significantly greater LT50 values and less consumption than uncontaminated solid baits. Gel formulations probably absorbed the contaminants and removed them from the surface of the bait deposits resulting in normal bait consumption and toxicity. Gel and solid bait deposits, inside plastic exposure stations or alone with no station and placed onto mint oil-contaminated substrates, had significantly lower bait consumption and greater LT50 values than baits placed on uncontaminated substrates. Contamination of a baited area is more likely than contamination of just the bait deposit and therefore a more realistic test of the effects of contamination on bait performance. The importance of contamination to the performance of cockroach baits is discussed.
Wu, Xiaoyan; Appel, Arthur G
German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), remain one of the most difficult indoor insect species to control because of its ability to develop resistance to insecticides. The toxicity and resistance levels of five technical-grade insecticides (permethrin, chlorpyrifos, propoxur, imidacloprid, and fipronil) were determined for adult males of seven strains of the German cockroach, a laboratory-reared susceptible strain (S) and six field-collected strains (B, D, E, G, H, and I). Using topical application methods, fipronil was the most toxic insecticide to all seven strains. The LD50 values of fipronil in the susceptible strain (S) and the field-collected strains B, D, E, G, H, and I were 1.33, 2.62, 11.53, 5.07, 7.66, 5.15, and 10.15 ng/insect, respectively. The field-collected strains were most resistant to permethrin among the five insecticides, except for strain H. The resistance ratios of strains B, D, E, G, and I to permethrin were 31.8, 37.3, 51.9, 34.9, and 37.5, respectively. With a resistance ratio of 6.4, the field-collected strain H was most resistant to chlorpyrifos. The field-collected strains were not significantly resistant to propoxur. Strains B, H, and I were not significantly resistant to imidacloprid when compared with the susceptible strain. Based on the different resistance ratios for each insecticide, we conclude that there are high rates of insecticide resistance in German cockroaches from Franklin County, NC, and that the field-collected strains most likely had different treatment histories.
Czapla, T H; Hopkins, T L; Kramer, K J
Catecholamines and related o-diphenols extracted from the cuticle and hemolymph of adult cockroaches during sclerotization and pigmentation of the cuticle were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC with electrochemical detection. At ecdysis, dopamine (DA) o-conjugates predominated in the hemolymph of Periplaneta americana, P. australasiae, P. fuliginosa, P. brunnea, and Blatta orientalis (Blattidae); Blattella germanica (Blattellidae); and Gromphadorhina portentosa and Blaberus craniifer (Blaberidae). N-Acetyldopamine (NADA) conjugates were second in abundance in these species, but were major in the hemolymph of the other blaberoid species, Leucophaea maderae and Nauphoeta cinerea. After ecdysis NADA became the major hemolymph catecholamine in all species as DA decreased rapidly. N-beta-Alanyldopamine (NBAD) concentrations in the hemolymph remained low in all species, although NBAD and its metabolite, N-beta-alanylnorepinephrine (NBANE), were generally the major catecholamines in tanning cuticle. Catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) occurred mainly as a conjugate(s) at high levels in the hemolymph of nymphs and adults of all blattid species. Only trace amounts were detected in B. germanica and Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae), and none was found in any of the blaberoid species. High concentrations of NBANE and NBAD accumulated in tanning cuticle of B. germanica, G. portentosa, and all blattid species, whereas NADA and DA predominated in cuticle from the other blaberoid species, particularly L. maderae and N. cinerea. However, cockroaches as a group appear to utilize both the N-acetyl and N-beta-alanyl catecholamines for stabilization of the exoskeleton. The Blattidae differed most from the other families in having considerably higher concentrations of catecholamines in hemolymph and cuticle, as well as the large amounts of catechol conjugates in the hemolymph.
Nalyanya, G; Moore, C B; Schal, C
"Push-pull" is a behavior manipulation strategy in which behavior-modifying stimuli are integrated with a pest control agent. We evaluated the efficacy of an insecticide bait in combination with attractants ("pull"), repellents ("push"), or both ("push-pull") using a hydramethylnon-based bait, feces-contaminated surfaces as an attractant, and methyl neodecanamide-treated surfaces to repel cockroaches. Both adult males and first-instar German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), chose shelters nearest the attractant-treated surfaces and farthest from the repellent-treated surfaces. Food consumption was highest from food nearest the preferred shelters, and mortality was highest when the insecticide bait was near the preferred shelter. These patterns were more apparent in first instars than in adults. Our results from large arena studies in the laboratory show that the push-pull strategy can be used to displace pests from resources or commodities that are to be protected, and simultaneously lure the pest to an attractant source coupled with a pest control agent. Concentrating cockroaches into a limited area should facilitate the precision-targeting of the pest population and promises to reduce insecticide use.
Masciocchi, Maité; Martinez, Andrés S; Pereira, Ana J; Villacide, José M; Corley, Juan C
Understanding the factors that affect animal dispersal behavior is important from both fundamental and applied perspectives. Dispersal can have clear evolutionary and ecological consequences, but for nonnative insect pests, dispersal capacity can also help to explain invasion success. Vespula germanica is a social wasp that, in the last century, has successfully invaded several regions of the world, showing one of the highest spread rates reported for a nonnative insect. In contrast with nonsocial wasps, in social species, queens are responsible for population redistribution and spread, as workers are sterile. For V. germanica, it has been observed that queen flight is limited to 2 distinct periods: early autumn, when new queens leave the nest to mate and find sheltered places in which to hibernate, and spring when new colonies are founded. Our aim was to study the flight behavior of V. germanica queens by focusing on the different periods in which dispersal occurs, characterizing as well the potential contribution of queen flight (i.e., distance) to the observed geographical spread. Our results suggest that the distances flown by nonoverwintered queens is greater than that flown by overwintered individuals, suggesting that the main queen dispersal events would occur before queens enter hibernation. This could relate to a behavioral trait of the queens to avoid the inbreeding with related drones. Additionally, given the short distances flown and remarkable geographical spread observed, we provide evidence showing that queen dispersal by flight is likely to contribute proportionately less to population spread than human-aided factors.
d'Adamo, P; Corley, J C; Lozada, M
The socialwasp Vespula germanica (F.) is a serious pest in many regions it has invaded. Control programs to reduce its populations are commonly based on the use of poison baits. These baits also attract nonpestiferous invertebrates and vertebrates. In this work we studied the attraction of V. germanica foragers by conspecific worker squashes, comparing the effect of head and abdomen squashes in wasps behavior. We found that head squashes attract V. germanica foragers, elicit landing and transportation to nests. Furthermore, the addition of squashed heads to a protein bait increased attraction. This could be an alternative to improve baiting programs.
Nawwar, Mahmoud A.; Swilam, Noha F.; Hashim, Amani N.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.; Lindequist, Ulrike
Tamgermanitin, a unique N-trans-Isoferuloyltyramine, together with the hitherto unknown polyphenolics, 2,4-di-O-galloyl-(α/β)-glucopyranose and kaempferide 3,7-disulphate have been isolated from the leaf aqueous ethanol extract of the false tamarisk, Myricaria germanica DESV. In addition, 18 known phenolics were also separated and characterized. All structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of 1D- 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and HRFTESIMS spectral data. The extract, its chromatographic column fractions and the isolated isoferuloyltyramine, tamgermanetin demonstrated potential cytotoxic effect against three different tumor cell lines, namely liver (Huh-7), breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC-3). The IC50''s were found to be substantially low with low-resistance possibility. DNA flow-cytometic analysis indicated that column fractions and tamgermanetin enhanced pre-G apoptotic fraction. Both materials showed inhibiting activity against PARP enzyme activity. In conclusion, we report the isolation and identification of a novel compound, tamgermanitin, from the aqueous ethanol extract of Myricaria germanica leaves. Further, different fractions of the extract and tamgermanitin exhibit potent cytotoxic activities which warrant further investigations. PMID:23123452
Nawwar, Mahmoud A; Swilam, Noha F; Hashim, Amani N; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Lindequist, Ulrike
Tamgermanitin, a unique N-trans-Isoferuloyltyramine, together with the hitherto unknown polyphenolics, 2,4-di-O-galloyl-(α/β)-glucopyranose and kaempferide 3,7-disulphate have been isolated from the leaf aqueous ethanol extract of the false tamarisk, Myricaria germanica DESV. In addition, 18 known phenolics were also separated and characterized. All structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed analysis of 1D- (1)H and (13)C NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and HRFTESIMS spectral data. The extract, its chromatographic column fractions and the isolated isoferuloyltyramine, tamgermanetin demonstrated potential cytotoxic effect against three different tumor cell lines, namely liver (Huh-7), breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC-3). The IC 50''s were found to be substantially low with low-resistance possibility. DNA flow-cytometic analysis indicated that column fractions and tamgermanetin enhanced pre-G apoptotic fraction. Both materials showed inhibiting activity against PARP enzyme activity. In conclusion, we report the isolation and identification of a novel compound, tamgermanitin, from the aqueous ethanol extract of Myricaria germanica leaves. Further, different fractions of the extract and tamgermanitin exhibit potent cytotoxic activities which warrant further investigations.
Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Pancer, Katarzyna W; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Mikulak, Ewa; Laudy, Agnieszka; Podsiadło, Barbara; Rabczenko, Daniel
The aim of our study was to determine what a hazard for patients creates the presence of cockroaches in hospital environment. The probable hospital infections cases in 9 hospitals in Warsaw were found in database of the Country Hospital Morbidity Register for the year 2004 and correlation between such factors as: drug resistance of bacteria isolated from external part of cockroach's bodies, their ability to biofilm building, adherence, resistance to disinfectants, resistance of cockroaches to insecticides, infestation level vs. infections of several body systems was examined. The microbiological hazard of cockroaches in hospital environment has been proven by our findings that some of bacterial strains carried on the body of cockroaches belonged to well known species responsible for hospital infections everywhere The strains resistant to several antibiotics used in hospital and the strains able to form virulence factors were found. Some correlation was found between resistance of cockroaches for biocides and higher infestation of the hospital environment. Cockroaches infected in hospital environment might be the active carrier of bacterial strains as well as indicator of the bacterial presence on the surfaces in the hospital building not enough treated with disinfectants. On the base of our findings we may suppose that in hospital infections the role of infected cockroaches are less important than the other factors but should be not completely neglected. Surveillance and control of hospital infections should be more completed, connected not only with continuous monitoring of resistance of bacterial strains to antibiotics but also to disinfectants used in hospital as well as evaluation of infestation of the hospital environment and resistance of cockroaches to biocides.
Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G
Six species of the order Mantodea (praying mantises) are investigated for the presence and sequence of putative adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The selected species span a wide evolutionary range of various families and subfamilies of the clade Mantodea. The corpora cardiaca of the different species are dissected, methanolic extracts prepared, peptides separated by liquid chromatography, and AKHs detected and sequenced by ion trap mass spectrometry. All six species investigated contain an octapeptide with the primary structure pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide, which is code-named Emppe-AKH and had been found earlier in three other species of Mantodea. Conspecific bioassays with the species Creoboter sp. (family Hymenopodidae) reveal an adipokinetic but not a hypertrehalosemic function of Emppe-AKH. Comparison with other members of the Dictyoptera (cockroaches, termites) show that Emppe-AKH is only found in certain termites, which have been recently placed into the Blattaria (cockroaches) as sister group to the family Cryptocercidae. Termites and cockroaches both show biodiversity in the sequence of AKHs, and some cockroach species even contain two AKHs. In contrast, all praying mantises-irrespective of their phylogenetic position-synthesize uniformly only one and the same octapeptide Emppe-AKH.
The medlar (Mespilus germanica) is a pome fruit related to pear (Pyrus sp.) and hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) that has been cultivated for many centuries for its edible fruit. It was also an important medicinal plant in the Middle Ages. The center of origin for Mespilus is the Trans-Caucasus region and t...
Snoddy, Edward T; Appel, Arthur G
Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Because this species is a peridomestic pest, mulch preferences may be a key part of an integrated pest management program for homeowners. Five mulches were used: cypress, oak leaf litter, pine straw, rubber, and topsoil. Large arena experiments showed that adult male Asian cockroaches preferred oak leaf litter and pine straw, while adult females preferred oak leaf litter and rubber mulches. Nymphal stages preferred rubber (48.3-62.5% for small and medium instars, respectively) to all other mulches. All stages of the Asian cockroach showed very little preference to topsoil (0%) and cypress mulch (6.3%). Ebeling choice box tests confirmed lack of preference or repellency of adult males to topsoil (17.8 +/- 3.6%) and rubber mulch (15.7 +/- 3.6%). Continuous exposure experiments indicated that pine straw was significantly more toxic to adult males than other mulches (66.7 +/- 18.4% mortality at 7 d). Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach may be mediated by characteristics of the interstitial spaces in the different mulches. Rubber mulch afforded smaller, more humid spaces that were inaccessible to adults. Because cypress mulch was least preferred by nymphs and adults, use of cypress mulch in an integrated pest management program around homes may help to reduce Asian cockroach populations and limit insecticide exposure to humans, animals, and the environment.
Fardisi, Mahsa; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.
Abstract Insecticide resistance in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica (L.)) has been a barrier to effective control since its first documentation in the 1950s. A necessary first step toward managing resistance is to understand insecticide susceptibility profiles in field-collected strains so that active ingredients (AIs) with lowest resistance levels can be identified. As a first step in this study, diagnostic concentrations (DCs) were determined for 14 insecticide AIs based on lethal concentrations that killed 99% or 90% of the individuals from a susceptible lab strain (JWax-S). Next, cockroaches were collected from two low-income multifamily housing complexes in Danville, IL, and Indianapolis, IN, and used to establish laboratory strains. These strains were screened against the 14 AI-DCs in vial bioassays, and susceptibility profiles were determined by comparing percent mortalities between the field strains relative to the JWax-S strain. Results revealed lowest resistance of field strains to boric acid, abamectin, dinotefuran, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and chlorfenapyr. For the AIs hydramethylnon and imidacloprid, field strains did not display survivorship different than the lab strain, but >90% mortality was never achieved. Lastly, both field strains displayed resistance to indoxacarb, fipronil, acetamiprid, beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, but at varying levels. These results satisfy two objectives. First, baseline monitoring DCs were established for 14 insecticides presently registered for use against cockroaches, which represents a useful resource. Second, our findings reveal insecticide AIs with lowest resistance levels for use in forthcoming field studies that will investigate impacts of different insecticide deployment strategies on resistance management and evolution in cockroach field populations. PMID:28334270
Fardisi, Mahsa; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Scharf, Michael E
Insecticide resistance in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica (L.)) has been a barrier to effective control since its first documentation in the 1950s. A necessary first step toward managing resistance is to understand insecticide susceptibility profiles in field-collected strains so that active ingredients (AIs) with lowest resistance levels can be identified. As a first step in this study, diagnostic concentrations (DCs) were determined for 14 insecticide AIs based on lethal concentrations that killed 99% or 90% of the individuals from a susceptible lab strain (JWax-S). Next, cockroaches were collected from two low-income multifamily housing complexes in Danville, IL, and Indianapolis, IN, and used to establish laboratory strains. These strains were screened against the 14 AI-DCs in vial bioassays, and susceptibility profiles were determined by comparing percent mortalities between the field strains relative to the JWax-S strain. Results revealed lowest resistance of field strains to boric acid, abamectin, dinotefuran, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and chlorfenapyr. For the AIs hydramethylnon and imidacloprid, field strains did not display survivorship different than the lab strain, but >90% mortality was never achieved. Lastly, both field strains displayed resistance to indoxacarb, fipronil, acetamiprid, beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, but at varying levels. These results satisfy two objectives. First, baseline monitoring DCs were established for 14 insecticides presently registered for use against cockroaches, which represents a useful resource. Second, our findings reveal insecticide AIs with lowest resistance levels for use in forthcoming field studies that will investigate impacts of different insecticide deployment strategies on resistance management and evolution in cockroach field populations.
Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André; Svenson, Gavin J; Robillard, Tony; Pellens, Roseli; Grandcolas, Philippe
Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera-and stem-mantises-would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.
Pridgeon, Julia W; Liu, Nannan
A cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COXI) was identified and isolated as a differentially expressed gene between insecticide susceptible ACY and resistant Apyr-R German cockroach strains using PCR-selected subtractive hybridization and cDNA array techniques. The cDNA sequence of COXI has an open reading frame of 1533 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 511 amino acid residues. Northern blot analysis indicated that levels of COXI expression were similar in three life stages (eggs, nymphs, and adults) of the susceptible ACY strain. The expression of COXI in the resistant Apyr-R strain was developmentally regulated, with low expression in eggs, an increase (approximately 1.4-fold) in nymphs, and rose to a maximum (approximately 3-fold) in both adult females and males. Comparison of COXI expression between ACY and Apyr-R strains indicated that there was no difference in the eggs of the two strains, but expression was higher (approximately 1.5-fold) in nymphs and much higher (approximately 3- to 4-fold) in adult males and females of the Apyr-R strain. The levels of COXI mRNA showed about 1.4- and 1.7-fold increase in the abdomen tissues compared with the head+thorax tissues of ACY and Apyr-R strains, respectively. Although expression patterns of COXI in head+thorax and abdomen tissues were similar (i.e. lower in the head+thorax tissues and higher in the abdomen tissues) in both the ACY and Apyr-R strains, the expression of COXI was about 2.5-fold higher in the head+thorax and approximately 3-fold higher in the abdomen tissues of the Apyr-R strain compared with the corresponding ACY samples. The overexpression of COXI in resistant German cockroaches merits the investigation of the importance of the gene in insecticide resistant German cockroaches.
Saltzmann, K A; Saltzmann, K D; Neal, J J; Scharf, M E; Bennett, G W
Male German cockroaches possess secretory glands that secrete fluid into a pair of transverse depressions on the seventh and eighth abdominal tergites. We investigated the effects of altered juvenoid titer during the first part of the last instar on tergal gland secretory tissue development and the production of tergal gland secretion proteins. Male fifth (last) instar nymphs (1-3 days post-emergent) were topically treated with the JH analog pyriproxyfen. Light and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that treatment with pyriproxyfen produced a visible decrease in the amount of tergal gland tissue present, a deformation of the overall shape of the gland located on tergite seven, and a less orderly arrangement of the secretory cells in the tissue. The protein fraction of tergal gland secretion was examined in pyriproxyfen-treated and control insects 1, 5, and 15 days after the insects molted to the adult stage. Amounts of all tergal secretion proteins were reduced in treated insects.
Salehi, Afshin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Hazratian, Teimour; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Hooshyar, Hossein; Arbabi, Mohsen; Salim-Abadi, Yaser; Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Reza; Gorouhi, Mohammad Amin; Paksa, Azim
Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the serious problems for German cockroach control program. This study was conducted to determine the bendiocarb and Carbaryl resistance mechanisms in German cockroaches using the piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Methods: Bioassay tests were conducted with 4 to 6 different concentrations of both insecticides with four replicates of 10 susceptible strain cockroaches per concentration to determine of discriminative concentration. After determining discriminative concentration, the result was compared to wild strain. The levels of susceptibility and resistance ratio (RR) and synergism ratio (SR) were calculated for each five wild strains. Moreover resistance mechanisms in wild strains were determined using PBO synergist in vivo. Results: Hospital strains showed different levels of resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl compared to susceptible strain. The bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance ratios ranged from 2.11 to 7.97 and 1.67 to 2 at LD50 levels, respectively. The synergist PBO significantly enhanced the toxicity of bendiocarb and carbaryl to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 1.31, 1.39, 3.61, 1.78, 1.62 and 2.1 fold for bendiocarb, 1.19, 1.18, 1.12. 1.29, 1.45 and 1.11-fold for carbaryl, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance. Conclusion: The synergetic effect of PBO had the highest effect on bendiocarb and resistance level was significantly reduced, which indicates the important role of monoxidase enzyme in creating resistance to Bendiocarb. Piperonyl butoxide did not have a significant synergistic effect on carbaryl and did not significantly break the resistance. PMID:27308298
X,-Cyhalothrin resistance levels of 13 recently collected field strains of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), were determined by topical...resistance detection is discussed. 14. SUBJECT TERMS SERDP, Blattella germanica , diagnostic concentration, resistance detection, insecticide resistance, X...is discussed. KEY WORDS Blattella germanica , diagnostic concentration, resistance detection, insecticide re- sistance, A-cyhalothrin THE GERMAN
Miller, D M; Meek, F
The long-term costs and efficacy of two treatment methodologies for German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), control were compared in the public housing environment. The "traditional" treatment for German cockroaches consisted of monthly baseboard and crack and crevice treatment (TBCC) by using spray and dust formulation insecticides. The integrated pest management treatment (IPM) involved initial vacuuming of apartments followed by monthly or quarterly applications of baits and insect growth regulator (IGR) devices. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were also monitored with sticky traps. Technician time and the amount of product applied were used to measure cost in both treatments. Twenty-four hour sticky trap catch was used as an indicator of treatment efficacy. The cost of the IPM treatment was found to be significantly greater than the traditional treatment, particularly at the initiation of the test. In the first month (clean-out), the average cost per apartment unit was dollar 14.60, whereas the average cost of a TBCC unit was dollar 2.75. In the second month of treatment, the average cost of IPM was still significantly greater than the TBCC cost. However, after month 4 the cost of the two treatments was no longer significantly different because many of the IPM apartments were moved to a quarterly treatment schedule. To evaluate the long-term costs of the two treatments over the entire year, technician time and product quantities were averaged over all units treated within the 12-mo test period (total 600 U per treatment). The average per unit cost of the IPM treatment was (dollar 4.06). The average IPM cost was significantly greater than that of the TBCC treatment at dollar 1.50 per unit. Although the TBCC was significantly less expensive than the IPM treatment, it was also less effective. Trap catch data indicated that the TBCC treatment had little, if any, effect on the cockroach populations over the course of the year. Cockroach populations in
Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M
Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.
Dang, Kai; Wu, Haoyang; Wang, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun
The position of the Zoraptera remains one of the most challenging and uncertain concerns in ordinal-level phylogenies of the insects. Zoraptera have been viewed as having a close relationship with five different groups of Polyneoptera, or as being allied to the Paraneoptera or even Holometabola. Although rDNAs have been widely used in phylogenetic studies of insects, the application of the complete 28S rDNA are still scattered in only a few orders. In this study, a secondary structure model of the complete 28S rRNAs of insects was reconstructed based on all orders of Insecta. It was found that one length-variable region, D3-4, is particularly distinctive. The length and/or sequence of D3-4 is conservative within each order of Polyneoptera, but it can be divided into two types between the different orders of the supercohort, of which the enigmatic order Zoraptera and Dictyoptera share one type, while the remaining orders of Polyneoptera share the other. Additionally, independent evidence from phylogenetic results support the clade (Zoraptera+Dictyoptera) as well. Thus, the similarity of D3-4 between Zoraptera and Dictyoptera can serve as potentially valuable autapomorphy or synapomorphy in phylogeny reconstruction. The clades of (Plecoptera+Dermaptera) and ((Grylloblattodea+Mantophasmatodea)+(Embiodea+Phasmatodea)) were also recovered in the phylogenetic study. In addition, considering the other studies based on rDNAs, this study reached the highest congruence with previous phylogenetic studies of Holometabola based on nuclear protein coding genes or morphology characters. Future comparative studies of secondary structures across deep divergences and additional taxa are likely to reveal conserved patterns, structures and motifs that can provide support for major phylogenetic lineages. PMID:23301099
Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André; Svenson, Gavin J.; Robillard, Tony; Pellens, Roseli; Grandcolas, Philippe
Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera—and stem-mantises—would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies. PMID:26200914
Tee, Hui-Siang; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Lee, Chow-Yang
The population size, age-class structure, and movement of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), were studied in three sewers in Penang, Malaysia, from September 2008 to October 2009. Eighteen to 20 glass-jar traps (two per manhole) were deployed for a 24-h period during each sampling occasion at each sewer. Adults and nymphs were active throughout the study period, with an average monthly trap catch of 57-97 adults and 79-99 nymphs. The mean proportions of adults and nymphs at the three sewers ranged from 0.47 to 0.57. Of the 2177 male and 2717 female cockroaches marked and released over the three sewers, recapture rates were 29.4-45.8 and 30.8-47.0%, respectively. The proportion of marked males and females did not differ significantly from the proportion of recaptured marked males and females. However, the mean number of times a marked female was recaptured was significantly greater than that of males. Of the 783 males and 1,030 females that were marked and recaptured, 19.4 and 24.7%, respectively, had moved between manholes, and significantly more females than males moved between manholes. Of the 406 recaptured marked adults that moved between manholes, 90.4% moved a distance of 2-20 m from their initial release site; one male moved 192 m, the longest distance recorded. Trap catch on each sampling occasion was positively correlated with daily mean temperature. The number of cockroach movements between manholes also was correlated with the mean daily minimum temperature.
Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Eggleton, Paul
Termites (Isoptera) offer an alternative model for the development of eusociality which is not dependent on a high degree of relatedness as found between sisters in hymenopterans (bees, wasps, ants). Recent phylogenetic studies have established that termites belong within the cockroaches as sister to the subsocial Cryptocercidae. Cryptocercidae shares several important traits with termites, thus we need to understand the phylogenetic position of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to determine how these traits evolved. However, placement of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is still uncertain. We used both molecular (12S, 16S, COII, 18S, 28S, H3) and morphological characters to reconstruct the phylogeny of Dictyoptera. We included all previously suggested sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera as well as taxa which might represent additional major cockroach lineages. We used Bayes factors to test different sister groups for Cryptocercidae+Isoptera and assessed character support for the consensus tree based on morphological characters and COII amino acid data. We used the molecular data and fossil calibration to estimate divergence times. We found the most likely sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to be Tryonicidae, Anaplecta or Tryonicidae+Anaplecta. Anaplecta has never previously been suggested as sister group or even close to Cryptocercidae+Isoptera, but was formerly placed in Blaberoidea as sister to the remaining taxa. Topological tests firmly supported our new placement of Anaplecta. We discuss the morphological characters (e.g. retractable genitalic hook) that have contributed to the previous placement of Anaplecta in Blaberoidea as well as the factors that might have contributed to a parallel development of genitalic features in Anaplecta and Blaberoidea. Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is placed in a clade with Tryonicidae, Anaplecta and possibly Lamproblattidae. Based on this, we suggest that wood-feeding, and the resultant need to conserve nitrogen, may have been an important
Clopton, Richard E
Blabericola rhyparobiae n. comb. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae) is redescribed from the Madeira cockroach, Rhyparobia maderae (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae: Oxyhaloinae: Nauphoetini). Oocysts within the genus are typically dolioform with nonprojecting polar plates. Those of B. rhyparobiae differ from all other species of Blabericola in being oblong rather than dolioform. Morphometrically, the oocysts of B. rhyparobiae are significantly narrower than those of any other known species in the genus; they are significantly longer than those of Blabericola haasi, Blabericola migrator, and Blabericola princisi, but they are significantly shorter than those of Blabericola cubensis (oocyst width 4.47 μm vs. 4.74 μm, 4.70 μm, 5.06 μm, 5.21 μm, respectively; oocyst length 8.98 μm vs. 7.94 μm, 7.93 μm, 8.85 μm, 9.26 μm, respectively). All 5 species are also distinguished by unique sporozoite-bearing cavity sizes and morphometric ratios. Gametocysts of Blabericola species are either orbicular (B. cubensis, B. princisi) or elliptoid (B. haasi , B. migrator, B. rhyparobiae). Among Blabericola species with elliptoid gametocysts, the gametocysts of B. rhyparobiae are intermediate in size relative to the much larger gametocysts of B. migrator and the much smaller gametocysts of B. haasi (gametocyst length 462.06 μm vs. 728.11 μm, 272.02 μm; gametocyst width 297.12 μm vs. 461.31 μm, 178.36 μm, respectively). No structurally unique feature of the gamont distinguishes among species of Blabericola, but gamonts of all 5 species differ morphometrically. Gamonts of B. rhyparobiae differ significantly from all other species in the genus in the primite's protomerite and deutomerite lengths, the satellite' deutomerite lengths, and the total length of both primite and satellite in association. The gamonts of B. rhyparobiae are significantly smaller than those of B. cubensis, B. migrator, and B. princisi but significantly larger than those of B. haasi and can be readily
Lozada, Mariana; D’ Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N.
Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication), foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded), or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted). Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps’ arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes. PMID:26990864
Lozada, Mariana; D' Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N
Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication), foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded), or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted). Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.
Jesus, Bruno; Méléder, Vona; Geslin, Emmanuelle
Some shallow water benthic foraminifera are able to retain functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) from their food source, i.e. diatoms. Here we assessed the functionality of the kleptoplast xanthophyll cycle (XC, i.e. the main diatom short-term photo-regulation mechanism) and we surveyed Haynesina germanica kleptoplast pigment composition over time and at different light regimes. Six common diatom lipophilic pigments were detected, two chlorophylls (Chl a, Chl c) and four carotenoids (fucoxanthin and by-products, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β-carotene), the same pigment profile as the diatom species frequently isolated at the sampling site. The xanthophyll cycle (XC) was functional with kleptoplast diatoxanthin (DT) content increase with concomitant diadinoxanthin (DD) decrease after short term light exposure. DT/(DT+DD) and DT/DD ratios increased significantly in specimens exposed to low light and high light in comparison to specimens maintained in the dark. Specimens placed in very low light after the light treatments reverted to values close to the initial ones, suggesting that H. germanica XC is functional. A functional XC is an indication of H. germanica kleptoplasts capacity for short-term photo-protection from photo-oxidative damages caused by excess of light. Furthermore, the pigment survey suggests that H. germanica preserved some chloroplasts over a longer time than others and that pigment content is influenced by previous light history. Finally, the current study highlighted seasonal differences, with higher pigment contents in winter specimens (27.35 ± 1.30 ng cell-1) and lower in summer specimens (6.08 ± 1.21 ng cell-1), a quantitative and qualitative composition suggesting light acclimation to low or high light availability, according to the season. PMID:28231315
Jauffrais, Thierry; Jesus, Bruno; Méléder, Vona; Geslin, Emmanuelle
Some shallow water benthic foraminifera are able to retain functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) from their food source, i.e. diatoms. Here we assessed the functionality of the kleptoplast xanthophyll cycle (XC, i.e. the main diatom short-term photo-regulation mechanism) and we surveyed Haynesina germanica kleptoplast pigment composition over time and at different light regimes. Six common diatom lipophilic pigments were detected, two chlorophylls (Chl a, Chl c) and four carotenoids (fucoxanthin and by-products, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β-carotene), the same pigment profile as the diatom species frequently isolated at the sampling site. The xanthophyll cycle (XC) was functional with kleptoplast diatoxanthin (DT) content increase with concomitant diadinoxanthin (DD) decrease after short term light exposure. DT/(DT+DD) and DT/DD ratios increased significantly in specimens exposed to low light and high light in comparison to specimens maintained in the dark. Specimens placed in very low light after the light treatments reverted to values close to the initial ones, suggesting that H. germanica XC is functional. A functional XC is an indication of H. germanica kleptoplasts capacity for short-term photo-protection from photo-oxidative damages caused by excess of light. Furthermore, the pigment survey suggests that H. germanica preserved some chloroplasts over a longer time than others and that pigment content is influenced by previous light history. Finally, the current study highlighted seasonal differences, with higher pigment contents in winter specimens (27.35 ± 1.30 ng cell-1) and lower in summer specimens (6.08 ± 1.21 ng cell-1), a quantitative and qualitative composition suggesting light acclimation to low or high light availability, according to the season.
continuation of studies designed to enhance our understanding of population behavior and dynamics of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). It...Entomol. Soc. Wash. 83: 160-163. Keil, C.B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ... Blattella germanica . Ent. exp. & appl. 30: 241-253. Ross, M. H. and D. G. Cochran. 1981. Genetics and ,togenetics of the German cockroach. In Cytogenetics
preferred environment of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is that favored by man. It thrives particularly well where there are large...Keil, C. B. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cock- roach ( Blattella germanica L.) populations. Environ. Ent. (in press). 1981. This... Blattella germanica L.) populations. Environ. Entomol. (in press). 1981. Ross, M. H. Genetics and Cytogenetics of the German Cockroach. Ab- stracts XVIth
program aimed at suppression of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica . Entomogenous nematodes potentially could provide a cheap, non-insecticidal...while providing a continuous measure of attraction, foraging behavior in a population of Blattella germanica was observed from videotape at 3X normal...Methods A population of Blattella germanica was housed at the center of a stainless steel circular arena 1.0 meter across and 0.15 meter deep and painted
and Identlfy by block number) Genetic control Cockroach behavior A Blattella germanica C20 ABSTRACT fConfinue an reverse aide It necessary and Idenllfy...Soc. Wash. 83: 160-163. Keil, C. B. 1981. Structure and estimation of shipboard German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ) populations. Environ. Entomol... Blattella germanica . Ent. exp. & appl. 30: 241-253. Ross, M. H. and D. G. Cochran. 1981. Genetics and Cytogenetics of the German cockroach. In Cytogenetics
Neoaplectana Xenorhabdue nematoohilus • • !-•—••• — Blattella germanica 20. ABSTRACT (Conllnuo on rovorto »Ido II nocotoory »no* Identity by...the German cockroach Blattella germanica , under laboratory conditions. All developmental stages, including oothecae, were tested for susceptibility...the aggregation behavior of the German cockroach, ( Blattella germanica (L.) (Orthoptera: Blattidae). The first is that aggregation serves to
The authors investigated the possibility of controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica , by using chromosome translocations. The first...translocations for control in B. germanica . Such mechanisms are potentially capable of reducing field populations.
Michielon, Bruno; Campagnaro, Thomas; Porté, Annabel; Hoyle, Jo; Picco, Lorenzo; Sitzia, Tommaso
Comparing the ecology of woody species in their alien and native ranges may provide interesting insights for theoretical ecology, invasion biology, restoration ecology and forestry. The literature which describes the biological evolution of successful plant invaders is rich and increasing. However, no general theories have been developed about the geomorphic settings which may limit or favour the alien woody species expansion along rivers. The aim of this contribution is to explore the research opportunities in the comparison of ecohydrological processes occurring in the alien vs. the native ranges of invasive tree and shrub species along the riverine corridor. We use the endangered shrub Myricaria germanica as an example. Myricaria germanica is an Euro-Asiatic pioneer species that, in the native range, develops along natural rivers, wide and dynamic. These conditions are increasingly limited by anthropogenic constraints in most European rivers. This species has been recently introduced in New Zealand, where it is spreading in some natural rivers of the Canterbury region (South Island). We present the current knowledge about the natural and anthropogenic factors influencing this species in its native range. We compare this information with the current knowledge about the same factors influencing M. germanica invasiveness and invasibility of riparian habitats in New Zealand. We stress the need to identify potential factors which could drive life-traits and growing strategies divergence which may hinder the application to the alien ranges of existing ecohydrological knowledge from native ranges. Moreover, the pattern of expansion of the alien range of species endangered in their native ranges opens new windows for research.
Wukovits, Julia; Bukenberger, Patrick; Enge, Annekatrin; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Heinz, Petra
Phytodetritus represents a major component of particulate organic carbon in intertidal mudflats. Estuaries and tidal currents yield an extensive amount of these particles that display a substantial nutrient source for littoral food webs. For benthic foraminifera, a group of marine protists, phytodetritus serves as the main food source. Foraminifera are considered to play a significant role in marine carbon turnover processes and show seasonally very high population densities in intertidal sediments. Therefore, it is important to gather explicit data about the specific carbon uptake behavior of intertidal foraminiferal species. In this study, laboratory feeding experiments were carried out to observe phytodetrital carbon uptake of foraminiferal specimen collected in the German Wadden Sea. Artificially produced phytodetritus was labelled with 13C to follow carbon ingestion into foraminiferal cytoplasm over time at different simulated conditions. The experiments were performed with monocultures under exclusion of other meiofauna. Chlorophyte detritus (Dunaliella tertiolecta) was fed to the two common species Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica. Ammonia tepida showed a significantly higher affinity to this food source than H. germanica. Testing the effect of temperature revealed a significant decrease of carbon ingestion with increasing temperature in H. germanica. Observations focusing on A. tepida showed a rising phytodetrital carbon content in the biomass of juvenile individuals in contrast to adult foraminifera. In general, carbon uptake reaches saturation levels a few hours after food supply. Furthermore, A. tepida benefits from constant availability of fresh food rather than from a high amount of phytodetritus derived from a single food pulse. Our investigations showed that the foraminiferal impact on intertidal processing of phytodetrital carbon sources is species specific, temperature related and depends on developmental stage and input dynamics
Berzhets, B M; Petrova, N S; Barashkina, O F; Efremenko, I I; Dotsenko, E A; Prishchepa, I M
The results of the development of manufacturing technology for the preparation of allergen from the bodies of cockroaches and the physico-chemical characteristics of this allergen are presented. The complex allergological examination of patients with atopic bronchial asthma revealed that 69.3% of such patients were sensitized to house dust, and in 68.4% of them IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens were detected. Patients with atopic bronchial asthma, not sensitized to house dust, were found to have sensitization to Blatella germanica in 12.2% of cases.
Roth, Steffen; Fromm, Bastian; Gäde, Gerd; Predel, Reinhard
Background Neuropeptide ligands have to fit exactly into their respective receptors and thus the evolution of the coding regions of their genes is constrained and may be strongly conserved. As such, they may be suitable for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within higher taxa. CAPA peptides of major lineages of cockroaches (Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Blattidae, Polyphagidae, Cryptocercidae) and of the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis were chosen to test the above hypothesis. The phylogenetic relationships within various groups of the taxon Dictyoptera (praying mantids, termites and cockroaches) are still highly disputed. Results Tandem mass spectrometry of neuropeptides from perisympathetic organs was used to obtain sequence data of CAPA peptides from single specimens; the data were analysed by Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Interference. The resulting cladograms, taking 61 species into account, show a topology which is in general agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses, including the recent phylogenetic arrangement placing termites within the cockroaches. When sequence data sets from other neuropeptides, viz. adipokinetic hormones and sulfakinins, were included, the general topology of the cladogram did not change but bootstrap values increased considerably. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of neuropeptides of insects for solely phylogenetic purposes and concludes that sequences of short neuropeptides are suitable to complement molecular biological and morphological data for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. PMID:19257902
Tee, Hui-Siang; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Lee, Chow-Yang
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to control American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), in sewer manholes and in crevices around buildings. Parasitoids were released weekly for 12 wk from laboratory parasitized heat-killed oothecae, and parasitism monitored using sentinel oothecae of American cockroaches. In addition, preference of A. hagenowii for 1- to 4-wk-old oothecae was evaluated in the laboratory. A. hagenowii females showed no preference for any ootheca age. Twenty of the 30 tested females parasitized one ootheca, whereas the other 10 parasitized two oothecae. The total progeny (males, females, and total) that emerged from a single ootheca parasitized by a female was not significantly different to the total progeny that emerged from two oothecae parasitized by a female. The number of males, females, and total progeny that emerged from the second parasitized ootheca was significantly less than the number that emerged from the first parasitized ootheca. The weekly mean sentinel oothecal parasitism rate in wall crevices was 18.1 +/- 3.2% and in sewer manholes was 13.3 +/- 2.0%. The mean number of released A. hagenowii females per number of parasitized sentinel oothecae recorded in crevices was 189 +/- 18, whereas it was 428 +/- 50 in sewers. A. hagenowii females were more effective at parasitizing sentinel oothecae placed at high and middle levels in manholes than at a low level when releases were made at the midpoint of the manhole shaft.
Pereira, Ana Julia; Corley, Juan C.
Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded – 35 yrs earlier – by another wasp, Vespula germanica. Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion process of V. vulgaris wasps in Patagonia by focusing on the foraging interaction between both species. This is because food searching and exploitation are likely to overlap strongly among Vespula wasps. We carried out choice tests where two types of baits were presented in a pairwise manner. We found experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that V. germanica and V. vulgaris have an asymmetrical response to baits with stimuli simulating the presence of each other. V. germanica avoided baits with either visual or olfactory cues indicating the V. vulgaris presence. However, V. vulgaris showed no preference between baits with or lacking V. germanica stimuli. These results suggest that the presence of an established population of V. germanica may not contribute to added biotic resistance to V. vulgaris invasion. PMID:27503470
Pereira, Ana Julia; Pirk, Gabriela I; Corley, Juan C
Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded - 35 yrs earlier - by another wasp, Vespula germanica Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion process of V. vulgaris wasps in Patagonia by focusing on the foraging interaction between both species. This is because food searching and exploitation are likely to overlap strongly among Vespula wasps. We carried out choice tests where two types of baits were presented in a pairwise manner. We found experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that V. germanica and V. vulgaris have an asymmetrical response to baits with stimuli simulating the presence of each other. V. germanica avoided baits with either visual or olfactory cues indicating the V. vulgaris presence. However, V. vulgaris showed no preference between baits with or lacking V. germanica stimuli. These results suggest that the presence of an established population of V. germanica may not contribute to added biotic resistance to V. vulgaris invasion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Wukovits, Julia; Enge, Annekatrin Julie; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Heinz, Petra
Benthic foraminifera are highly abundant heterotrophic protists in marine sediments, but future environmental changes will challenge the tolerance limits of intertidal species. Metabolic rates and physiological processes in foraminifera are strongly dependent on environmental temperatures. Temperature-related stress could therefore impact foraminiferal food source processing efficiency and might result in altered nutrient fluxes through the intertidal food web. In this study, we performed a laboratory feeding experiment on Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica, two dominant foraminiferal species of the German Wadden Sea/Friedrichskoog, to test the effect of temperature on phytodetritus retention. The specimens were fed with 13C and 15N labelled freeze-dried Dunaliella tertiolecta (green algae) at the start of the experiment and were incubated at 20, 25 and 30 °C respectively. Dual labelling was applied to observe potential temperature effects on the relation of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen retention. Samples were taken over a period of 2 weeks. Foraminiferal cytoplasm was isotopically analysed to investigate differences in carbon and nitrogen uptake derived from the food source. Both species showed a positive response to the provided food source, but carbon uptake rates of A. tepida were 10-fold higher compared to those of H. germanica. Increased temperatures had a far stronger impact on the carbon uptake of H. germanica than on A. tepida. A distinct increase in the levels of phytodetrital-derived nitrogen (compared to more steady carbon levels) could be observed over the course of the experiment in both species. The results suggest that higher temperatures have a significant negative effect on the carbon exploitation of H. germanica. For A. tepida, higher carbon uptake rates and the enhanced tolerance range for higher temperatures could outline an advantage in warmer periods if the main food source consists of chlorophyte phytodetritus. These conditions are
Jauffrais, Thierry; Jesus, Bruno; Metzger, Edouard; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Jorissen, Frans; Geslin, Emmanuelle
Some benthic foraminifera have the ability to incorporate functional chloroplasts from diatoms (kleptoplasty). Our objective was to investigate chloroplast functionality of two benthic foraminifera (Haynesina germanica and Ammonia tepida) exposed to different irradiance levels (0, 25, 70 µmol photon m-2 s-1) using spectral reflectance, epifluorescence observations, oxygen evolution and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry (maximum photosystem II quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and rapid light curves (RLC)). Our results clearly showed that H. germanica was capable of using its kleptoplasts for more than 1 week while A. tepida showed very limited kleptoplastic ability with maximum photosystem II quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm = 0.4), much lower than H. germanica and decreasing to zero in only 1 day. Only H. germanica showed net oxygen production with a compensation point at 24 µmol photon m-2 s-1 and a production up to 1000 pmol O2 cell-1 day-1 at 300 µmol photon m-2 s-1. Haynesina germanica Fv/Fm slowly decreased from 0.65 to 0.55 in 7 days when kept in darkness; however, it quickly decreased to 0.2 under high light. Kleptoplast functional time was thus estimated between 11 and 21 days in darkness and between 7 and 8 days at high light. These results emphasize that studies about foraminifera kleptoplasty must take into account light history. Additionally, this study showed that the kleptoplasts are unlikely to be completely functional, thus requiring continuous chloroplast resupply from foraminifera food source. The advantages of keeping functional chloroplasts are discussed but more information is needed to better understand foraminifera feeding strategies.
First Report of German Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as Reservoirs of CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Batna University Hospital, Algeria
Loucif, Lotfi; Gacemi-Kirane, Djamila; Cherak, Zineb; Chamlal, Naima; Grainat, Nadia
Here we report the isolation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from German cockroaches caught in the burn unit of Batna University Hospital in Algeria. Nine of 12 isolates harbored the blaCTX-M-15 ESBL gene. One Enterobacter cloacae isolate belonging to sequence type 528 coexpressed the blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M-15, and blaTEM genes. Our findings indicate that cockroaches may be one of the most dangerous reservoirs for ESBL and carbapenemase producers in hospitals. PMID:27458214
First Report of German Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as Reservoirs of CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Batna University Hospital, Algeria.
Loucif, Lotfi; Gacemi-Kirane, Djamila; Cherak, Zineb; Chamlal, Naima; Grainat, Nadia; Rolain, Jean-Marc
Here we report the isolation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from German cockroaches caught in the burn unit of Batna University Hospital in Algeria. Nine of 12 isolates harbored the blaCTX-M-15 ESBL gene. One Enterobacter cloacae isolate belonging to sequence type 528 coexpressed the blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M-15, and blaTEM genes. Our findings indicate that cockroaches may be one of the most dangerous reservoirs for ESBL and carbapenemase producers in hospitals.
Fauver, Joseph R; Clopton, Richard E; Clopton, Debra T
Protomagalhaensia richardsoni n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae) is described from the giant lobster cockroach, Henschoutedenia flexivitta (Dictyoptera: Blattaria: Blaberidae: Oxyhaloinae: Nauphoetini). Oocysts within the genus are dolioform with polar plates. Those of Protomagalhaensia granulosae, Protomagalhaensia wolfi, and Protomagalhaensia blaberae possess distinct apical spines and a sagittal depression that are absent or reduced in P. richardsoni and Protomagalhaensia cerastes. Oocysts of P. richardsoni are significantly longer with larger sporozoite-bearing cavities than those of P. blaberae, P. cerastes, P. granulosae, and P. wolfi (external oocyst length 8.07 μm vs. 7.42 μm, 7.50 μm, 6.87 μm, 7.56 μm, respectively; internal oocyst length 6.94 μm vs. 6.44 μm, 6.77 μm, 6.09 μm, 6.72 μm, respectively). All 5 species are also distinguished by unique oocyst length/width ratios. No unique morphological structure distinguishes among the gametocysts of Protomagalhaensia species, but gametocysts of P. richardsoni are significantly shorter than those of P. blaberae, P. cerastes, P. granulosae, and P. wolfi (gametocyst length 184.3 μm vs. 325.15 μm, 253.27 μm, 273.63 μm, 218.3 μm, respectively). No structurally unique morphological gamont feature distinguishes among species of Protomagalhaensia. Rather, species distinctions are morphometric in nature. In general, gamonts of P. richardsoni are readily distinguished from those of P. cerastes and P. wolfi based on size alone: the latter species being roughly half the size of P. richardsoni. Gamonts of P. richardsoni are most similar to those of P. granulosae and P. blaberae but with relatively smaller primites and more slender satellites.
Pusceddu, Michelina; Floris, Ignazio; Buffa, Franco; Salaris, Emanuele
Predator–prey relationships between sympatric species allow the evolution of defense behaviors, such as honeybee colonies defending their nests against predatory wasps. We investigated the predator–prey relationship between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) and the European wasp (Vespula germanica) by evaluating the effectiveness of attack and defense behaviors, which have coevolved in these sympatric species, as well as the actual damage and disturbance caused to the colonies under attack. Attack and defense behaviors were recorded in front of the hive to observe attacks at the hive entrance (68 attacks in 279 h) and at ground level on isolated and weakened honeybees close to the hive (465 attacks in 32 h). We found that V. germanica attacked the hive entrance infrequently due to the low success rate of this strategy and instead preferred a specialized attack method targeting adult honeybees at ground level, demonstrating opportunistic scavenger behavior. Individual honeybees usually responded effectively to an attack by recruiting an average of two nestmates, causing the wasp to flee, whereas collective balling behavior was only observed on four occasions. V. germanica does not appear to disrupt the foraging activity of the colonies under attack. We found that agonistic events supported by other nestmates were typically the most intense ones, involving physical combat and prolonged attacks at the entrance to the hive. These observations support the hypothesis that A. mellifera ligustica can adapt its behavior to match the severity of the threat and the context of the attack. PMID:28678826
Lehrer, Miriam; Campan, Raymond
Wasps ( Paravespula germanica) were trained and tested at an artificial feeding site, using convex shapes that produced colour contrast, luminance contrast, or motion contrast against the background. With each of the three types of contrast, we tested the wasps' capacity to discriminate the learned shape from novel shapes. In addition, in each experiment we tested the wasps' capability to recognize the learned shape when it offered a different type of contrast than that it had during the training. With the coloured shapes, a side-glance at the colour discrimination performance of the wasps was possible in addition. Wasps are found to discriminate between a variety of convex shapes regardless of the type of contrast that they produce against the background. Mainly, they discriminate the learned shape from novel shapes even if the colour of the shapes or the type of contrast they produce against the background is altered in the test. Thus, wasps generalize the learned shape from one colour to another, as well as between colour contrast, luminance contrast, and motion contrast.
sadat Tabatabaei, Neda; Mazandaranee, Masomeh
In late century increase side effects consume of chemical drug and appearance different diseases and cansers in result increase importance use of medicinal plants. Mespilus germanica 1. is one of the most endemic medicine shrubs in temperate fortest of Golestan province and belongs to Rosaceae with common name Kondos. Mespilus is deciduous shrub. This plant has wide dispersion in side forest of Caspian sea in north of Iran. From sea level to 1200 meter. field observation in this research showed that this plant growth in soils with clay_silty and sandy tissue, PH in 6.9, EC in 0.7, organic carbon 3.25 percent, nitrogen 33 percent, absorbable phosphor is 8.6 P.P.m, absorbable potassium is 90 P.P.m. Phenology study showed that flower appearance from May to June and seed ripe in November and propagation is in way seed or bud. Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology data obtained from the two rural healirs about common name, natural habitat, part uses, consumption method and it uses for treatment of frequent diseases such as blood pressure, heart tonic, heart rato and leaf extract is useful for mouth and throat infection, fruit is for relaxant and purgative use in remedy diarrhea and its seed useful for expel bladder stone. Results Test quality of secondary metabolites in ripe and un ripe fruits of this plant showed that flavonoide of ripe fruit is more than un ripe fruit. But the quality of tannins in un ripe fruit is more.
Juárez, M Patricia
Insect cuticular hydrocarbons are synthesized de novo in integumental tissue through the concerted action of fatty acid synthases (FASs), fatty acyl-CoA elongases, a reductase, and a decarboxylase to produce hydrocarbons and CO2. Elongation of fatty acyl-CoAs to very long chain fatty acids was studied in the integumental microsomes of the German cockroach, Blatella germanica. Incubation of [1-14C]palmitoyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and NADPH resulted in the production of 18-CoA with minor amounts of C20, C22, C24, C30, and C32 labeled acyl-CoA moieties. Similar experiments with [1-14C]stearoyl-CoA rendered C20-CoA as the major product, and lesser amounts of C22 and C24-CoAs were also detected. After solubilization of the microsomal FAS, kinetic parameters were determined radiochemically or by measuring NADPH consumption. The reaction velocity was linear for up to 3 min incubation time, and with a protein concentration up to 0.025 microg/microl. The effect of the chain length on the reaction velocity was compared for palmitoyl-CoA, stearoyl-CoA, and eicosanoyl-CoA. The optimal substrate concentration was 10 microM for C16-CoA, between 8 and 12 microM for C18-CoA, and close to 3 microM for C20-CoA. In vivo hydrocarbon biosynthesis was inhibited from 55.5 to 72.5% in the presence of 1 mM trichloroacetic acid, a known inhibitor of elongation reactions.
Meyer, Chris J.; Seago, James L.; Peterson, Carol A.
Background and Aims Most studies of exodermal structure and function have involved species with a uniseriate exodermis. To extend this work, the development and apoplastic permeability of Iris germanica roots with a multiseriate exodermis (MEX) were investigated. The effects of different growth conditions on MEX maturation were also tested. In addition, the exodermises of eight Iris species were observed to determine if their mature anatomy correlated with habitat. Methods Plants were grown in soil, hydroponics (with and without a humid air gap) or aeroponics. Roots were sectioned and stained with various dyes to detect MEX development from the root apical meristem, Casparian bands, suberin lamellae and tertiary wall thickenings. Apoplastic permeability was tested using dye (berberine) and ionic (ferric) tracers. Key Results The root apical meristem was open and MEX development non-uniform. In soil-grown roots, the exodermis started maturing (i.e. Casparian bands and suberin lamellae were deposited) 10 mm from the tip, and two layers had matured by 70 mm. In both hydro- and aeroponically grown roots, exodermal maturation was delayed. However, in areas of roots exposed to an air gap in the hydroponic system, MEX maturation was accelerated. In contrast, maturation of the endodermis was not influenced by the growth conditions. The mature MEX had an atypical Casparian band that was continuous around the root circumference. The MEX prevented the influx and efflux of berberine, but had variable resistance to ferric ions due to their toxic effects. Iris species living in well-drained soils developed a MEX, but species in water-saturated substrates had a uniseriate exodermis and aerenchyma. Conclusions MEX maturation was influenced by the roots' growth medium. The MEX matures very close to the root tip in soil, but much further from the tip in hydro- and aeroponic culture. The air gap accelerated maturation of the second exodermal layer. In Iris, the type of exodermis was
Jeknić, Zoran; Jeknić, Stevan; Jevremović, Slađana; Subotić, Angelina; Chen, Tony H H
Genetic modulation of the carotenogenesis in I. germanica 'Fire Bride' by ectopic expression of a crtB gene causes several flower parts to develop novel orange and pink colors. Flower color in tall bearded irises (Iris germanica L.) is determined by two distinct biochemical pathways; the carotenoid pathway, which imparts yellow, orange and pink hues and the anthocyanin pathway, which produces blue, violet and maroon flowers. Red-flowered I. germanica do not exist in nature and conventional breeding methods have thus far failed to produce them. With a goal of developing iris cultivars with red flowers, we transformed a pink iris I. germanica, 'Fire Bride', with a bacterial phytoene synthase gene (crtB) from Pantoea agglomerans under the control of the promoter region of a gene for capsanthin-capsorubin synthase from Lilium lancifolium (Llccs). This approach aimed to increase the flux of metabolites into the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and lead to elevated levels of lycopene and darker pink or red flowers. Iris callus tissue ectopically expressing the crtB gene exhibited a color change from yellow to pink-orange and red, due to accumulation of lycopene. Transgenic iris plants, regenerated from the crtB-transgenic calli, showed prominent color changes in the ovaries (green to orange), flower stalk (green to orange), and anthers (white to pink), while the standards and falls showed no significant differences in color when compared to control plants. HPLC and UHPLC analysis confirmed that the color changes were primarily due to the accumulation of lycopene. In this study, we showed that ectopic expression of a crtB can be used to successfully alter the color of certain flower parts in I. germanica 'Fire Bride' and produce new flower traits.
Giuliani, Claudia; Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Tirillini, Bruno; Bini, Laura Maleci
The essential oils from both leaves (L) and flowers (F) of Stachys germanica subsp. salviifolia (Ten.) Gams (Labiatae/Lamiaceae) from Italy were analyzed by GC-MS for the first time. The distribution, morphology and histochemistry of the different types of glandular trichomes present on the epidermal surface were also determined. Twenty-nine constituents, representing 89.4% of the total leaf oil, and forty-one compounds, forming 97.8% of the total flower oil, were identified. Germacrene D (39.4%), phytol (10.2%), beta-bourbonene (3.5%) and beta-ylangene (3.3%) were recognized as the main constituents of the leaf essential oil, while limonene (24.1%), beta-pinene (18.7%), germacrene D (12.8%) and (E)-nerolidol (6.6%) were the main compounds of the flower essential oil.
Moreyra, Sabrina; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana
Social insects exhibit complex learning and memory mechanisms while foraging. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is an invasive social wasp that frequently forages on undepleted food sources, making several flights between the resource and the nest. Previous studies have shown that during this relocating behavior, wasps learn to associate food with a certain site, and can recall this association 1 h later. In this work, we evaluated whether this wasp species is capable of retrieving an established association after 24 h. For this purpose, we trained free flying individuals to collect proteinaceous food from an experimental plate (feeder) located in an experimental array. A total of 150 individuals were allowed 2, 4, or 8 visits. After the training phase, the array was removed and set up again 24 h later, but this time a second baited plate was placed opposite to the first. After 24 h we recorded the rate of wasps that returned to the experimental area and those which collected food from the previously learned feeding station or the nonlearned one. During the testing phase, we observed that a low rate of wasps trained with 2 collecting visits returned to the experimental area (22%), whereas the rate of returning wasps trained with 4 or 8 collecting visits was higher (51% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, wasps trained with 8 feeding visits collected food from the previously learned feeding station at a higher rate than those that did from the nonlearned one. In contrast, wasps trained 2 or 4 times chose both feeding stations at a similar rate. Thus, significantly more wasps returned to the previously learned feeding station after 8 repeated foraging flights but not after only 2 or 4 visits. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of long-term spatial memory in V. germanica wasps. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
de Villiers, Marelize; Kriticos, Darren J; Veldtman, Ruan
The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa.
Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We hypothesized that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B...
Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Zayed, Mohamed F; Ross, Samir A
Iris species are well recognized as wealthy sources of isoflavonoids. In the present study, phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Iris germanica (Iridaceae) procure the isolation of two new isoflavonoids namely, 8-hydroxyirilone 5-methyl ether (2) and 8-hydroxyirilone (3), along with eight known isoflavonoids: irilone 4'-methyl ether (1), irilone (4), irisolidone (5), irigenin S (6), irigenin (7), irilone 4'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), iridin S (9), and iridin (10). The isolated flavonoids were structurally characterized with the assist of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRMS) and comparing with the published data. They were estimated for their antioxidant and antidaibetic capacities using DPPH and α-amylase inhibition assays, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, and 4 exhibited prominent antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 12.92, 9.23, and 10.46μM, respectively compared to propyl gallate (IC50 7.11μM). Moreover, 2-5 possessed highest α-amylase inhibitory activity with % inhibition 66.1, 78.3, 67.3, and 70.1, respectively in comparison to acarbose (reference α-amylase inhibitor). Additionally, their structure-activity relationship has been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
are several sorts, and 2) food substances. Two types of pheromones have been isolated from the German cockroach Blatella germanica . They are the sex...German cockroach, Blattella germanica . Initial investigations focused on the potential and capacity of the DD-136 strain of Neoaplectana carpocapsae
Kaya, Murat; Bağrıaçık, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat
There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), has been the subject of numerous biological studies. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of information...d1.0+ ’+ , . * + " ," . . . " . . .. " SUMMARY FROM ALL EXPERIMENTS ON THE INACTIVE SHIP Table 1. Comparisons of percent kill of B. germanica according...of kill of a susceptible (orange-body) strain to that of a baygon-resistant (wild-type) strain of B. germanica following an initial treatment with 1
The interactions occurring between host and graft leg epidermis at a non-congruent junction were studied in the cockroach, Blatella germanica. Graft and host tibia were cut perpendicular to the proximal-distal axis and two heteropleural combinations were used to reverse separately the two transverse axes of the graft relative to the host. Use of dark and light cuticle colour mutants gave a good indication of the graft or host origin of regenerated structures. Graft/host junctions regenerated segmented structures in various spatial arrangements, always comprising two copies of all structures distal to the level of the junction. It is concluded that the categories--two separate laterals, double lateral, completely and partially autonomous regeneration--reflect two processes. (i) If the graft tarsus is removed, graft and host may not heal together and interact, but form autonomous regenerates lying in mirror-image symmetry separating original graft and host levels. (ii) If interaction occurs between graft and host (or their developing autonomous regenerates) two laterals of dual origin are produced, one from each point of transverse axis incongruity. These laterals may secondarily fuse together to form a double structure originating from a point of congruity. The orientation and composition of the component tarsi of the double structure depend on the site of origin and the extent to which the two laterals fuse. It is argued that the four 'faces' and two 'transverse axes' of the leg are merely descriptive terms. A new model is developed whereby lateral regeneration arises directly from the circumferential organisation of the leg epidermis. Previous work has shown that position is specified continuously around the circumference, and that intercalary regeneration occurs by the shortest route between confronted positions. After reversal of one 'transverse axis' the shortest route between confronted graft and host positions is different on the two sides of each of the two
Styczyńska, B; Krzemińska, A; Sobótka, W; Balicki, R
The biological activity was determined of 20 compounds from the group of asymmetrically substituted urea derivatives. They were derivatives of 1-(hetero)-aryl-3(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea, compounds in Table 1, (1-12) which represented three groups of compounds: a) monochlorine or trifluoromethyl derivatives of benzene, b) monomethyl-substituted 2-pyridine derivatives, c) a derivative of 5-bromo-3-pyridine, and symmetrical derivates (Table 2 compounds 1-8) 2.2; 3.3; 4.4 groupings: a) N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea derivatives, and b) N-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzoyl)urea derivatives. The experiment was carried out on larvae and adult forms of M. domestica L. and Blatella germanica L. The tested substances were administered in food to the insects. Of the tested compounds complete inhibition of the development of flies was caused by the compound designated with the symbol AG 6. Compounds AG 13, AG 15 and AG 17 given to larvae inhibited the development of the insects by 33 to 100% acting mainly in later phases of the development (pupation). Compound AG 5 was found to be a very strong inhibitor of the development of cockroaches acting on larvae and adult females Of 800 tested larvae exposed to concentrations 0.001 to 1% none reached the adult phase. The exposed adult females formed cocoons but no larvae hatched from them.
Studies on the developmental cycle of Trichospirura leptostoma (Nematoda: Thelaziidae). Experimental infection of the intermediate hosts Blatella germanica and Supella longipalpa and the definitive host Callithrix jacchus and development in the intermediate hosts.
Illgen-Wilcke, B; Beglinger, R; Pfister, R; Heider, K
The cockroaches Blatella germanica and Supella longipalpa can act as intermediate hosts of Trichospirura leptostoma as demonstrated by experimental infestation. The parasite developed from the embryonated egg into the infective larval stage (L3) in cockroaches within 5-6 weeks. After experimental infection of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), eggs were first found in faecal samples (prepatency) at 8-9 weeks post-infection. Patency lasts about 2 years. Despite the presence of living adult worms in the marmosets' pancreas, no additional eggs were observed in their faeces after the patent period.
Gretchen Schultz; Chris Peterson; Joel Coats
Recent research has focused on the repellent properties of extracts from the catnip plant (Nepeta cataria) and the Osage orange (Maclura pornifera) fruit. This chapter includes results on German cockroach (Blattella germanica), and house fly (Musca domestics) contact irritancy to catnip...
Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru
The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes ( C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.
Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru
The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes (C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is the prevalent species in the district of Rostock. There was also an occurrence of Blatta orientalis and, in one case, of Periplaneta australasiae. Periplaneta americana is occasionally introduced from warmer regions of the globe via containers. Extent and intensity of infestation of many buildings has increased making large-scale control measures necessary. Most control measures have been taken in food industry enterprises. The quantity of cockroach control increases with growing population density.
TuC16-2 We have begun a study of the immune system of the German cockroach Blattella Germanica using these techniques and initial images of blood cells...O-+ ( 1/2,1/ 2 )1 LINES G. Hazak, A. Bar Shalom , D. Shvarts and L. A. Levin Nuclear Research Center,Negev P.O. Box 900 I, Beer -Sheva,lsrael Summary
Valles, S M; Koehler, P G; Brenner, R J
Topical bioassays using propoxur, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin were conducted on eight cockroach species. Based on lethal dose values, the relative toxicities of the insecticide classes were generally pyrethroid > carbamate > organophosphorous. Lambda-Cyhalothrin and propoxur were more toxic toward the Blattidae as compared with the Blattellidae. The order of lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity was Periplaneta americana > Periplaneta brunnea = Periplaneta australasiae = Periplaneta fuliginosa = Blatta orientalis > Blattella asahinai = Blattella germanica > Blattella vaga. The order of propoxur toxicity was B. orientalis > P. americana > P. brunnea = P. australasiae > B. asahinai > P. fuliginosa = B. germanica > B. vaga. The order of chlorpyrifos toxicity was P. americana > B. asahinai = B. vaga > B. orientalis = P. australasiae = P. brunnea > B. germanica = P. fuliginosa. Detoxification enzyme activities for each species also were measured and compared with insecticide toxicity. Propoxur LD50 was significantly (P = 0.01; r = 0.81) correlated with glutathione S-transferase activity. Lambda-Cyhalothrin LD50 correlated with methoxyresorufin O-demethylase activity (P = 0.01; r = 0.81), carboxylesterase activity (P = 0.03; r = - 0.75), general esterase activity (P = 0.02; r = - 0.79), and cockroach weight (P = 0.01; r = -0.95).
Sriwichai, P; Nacapunchai, D; Pasuralertsakul, S; Rongsriyam, Y; Thavara, U
This study aimed to investigate the species distribution of indoor cockroaches in dwellings in Bangkok. Commercial sticky traps were used to catch cockroaches in 128 private residences (40 single houses, 49 townhouses, 39 apartments), 34 offices, and 30 small groceries. The cockroaches were identified as Periplaneta americana, Supella longipalpa, Blattella germanica, Neostylopyga rhombifolia, P. brunnea, P. australasiae, Pycnoscelus surinamensis, and B. lituricallis; two were unidentified species. The most common species were P. americana, S. longipalpa and B. germanica--most of which were nymphal stages. P. americana and S. longipalpa infested all kinds of buildings, especially private residences (50.0% and 17.2%, respectively) and offices (61.8% and 58.8%, respectively); they were also found mostly (15.1%) in mixed infestation and with no predominant species. B. germanica (26.7%) were significantly predominant in groceries. Air conditioners have no influence on cockroach distribution.
Clynen, Elke; Ciudad, Laura; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors
In Drosophila melanogaster, male courtship behaviour is regulated by the fruitless gene. In D. melanogaster, fruitless encodes a set of putative transcription factors that are sex-specifically spliced. Male-specific variants are necessary and sufficient to elicit male courtship behaviour. Fruitless sequences have been reported in other insect species, but there are no data available on their functional role. In the present work, we cloned and sequenced fruitless in males of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and we studied its expression in male brain and testes. B. germanica fruitless encodes a 350-amino acid protein with BTB and Zinc finger domains typical of fruitless sequences. Upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of fruitless in B. germanica, males no longer exhibit courtship behaviour, thus implying that fruitless is necessary for male sexual behaviour in our cockroach model. This suggests that the role of fruitless as master regulator of male sexual behaviour has been conserved along insect evolution, at least from cockroaches to flies.
Imen, Saïd; Christian, Malosse; Virginie, Durier; Colette, Rivault
Chemical communication is necessary to induce aggregation and to maintain the cohesion of aggregates in Periplaneta americana (L.) cockroaches. We aimed to identify the chemical message inducing aggregation in this species. Two types of bioassays were used-binary choice tests in Petri dishes and tests in Y-olfactometer. Papers conditioned by direct contact of conspecifics induce aggregation when proposed in binary choice tests and were attractive in a Y-olfactometer. The identification of the molecules present on these conditioned papers indicated that dichloromethane extracts contained mainly cuticular hydrocarbons whereas methanol extracts contained more volatile molecules. Only a mixture of extracts in both solvents induced aggregation. High concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are necessary to induce aggregation when presented alone. When presented with volatile molecules present in methanol extracts, low concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are sufficient to induce aggregation if they are presented in contact. Among volatile molecules collected on filter paper, a mixture of three compounds-hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and pentaethylene glycol-induced aggregation. Our results provide evidence that aggregation processes in P. americana relies on a dual mechanism: attraction over long distances by three volatile molecules and maintenance on site by contact with cuticular hydrocarbons.
Sun, Baoqing; Zheng, Peiyan; Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao
This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r = 0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r = 0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r = 0.701), Blattella germanica (r = 0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r = 0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens.
Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao
Objectives This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. Methods A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Results Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r = 0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r = 0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r = 0.701), Blattella germanica (r = 0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r = 0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. Conclusion In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens. PMID:24787549
Oothuman, P; Jeffery, J; Aziz, A H; Abu Bakar, E; Jegathesan, M
A survey was conducted in 4 paediatric wards in Malaysia to determine the distribution of various species of cockroaches and to examine their gut contents for bacteria. Cockroaches were trapped from food dispensing areas (kitchens), store rooms, cupboards and open wards. 104 cockroaches were caught, consisting of Periplaneta americana (67.3%), Blattella germanica (26%), P. brunnea (4.8%), and Supella longipalpa (1.9%). Bacteria were isolated from all cockroaches except 3 P. americana. Many bacterial species were identified, including the pathogenic and potentially pathogenic species Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebseilla oxytoca, K. ozaena and Serratia marcescens.
Romański, B; Dziedziczko, A; Pawlik-Miskiewicz, K; Wilewska-Klubo, T; Zbikowska-Gotz, M
Cockroach allergy was investigated in a group of 56 patients with atopic bronchial asthma (37 men and 19 women with ages ranging from 16 to 65) all allergic to house dust antigen. In all patients, both intracutaneous tests and bronchial provocation tests were performed with cockroach antigen prepared from the species most common in Poland, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis. Positive skin reactions to cockroach antigen were found in 17 patients while an immediate bronchoconstrictive response was noted in 11. In the authors opinion, cockroach antigens may be partly responsible for the antigenic properties of house dust and may play a causative role in some cases of atopic asthma.
Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M
The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana.
Schal, C; Chiang, A S
Many animals exhibit specific behaviors associated with sexual receptivity only when they are reproductively competent. In insects with gonadal maturation cycles, these behaviors usually coincide with ovarian maturation. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), regulates female reproductive physiology. Various experimental manipulations, including ablation of the CA, therapy with JH analogs, CA denervation, ovariectomy, and changing nutrient quality, coupled with time-lapse video recording, support the hypothesis that JH also controls female sexual receptivity. A re-examination of the role of the CA in the maturation of male sexual readiness shows that, while sexual behavior develops in the absence of JH in both B. germanica and Supella longipalpa, JH accelerates the expression of sexual readiness.
González, Jorge Werdin; Yeguerman, Cristhian; Marcovecchio, Diego; Delrieux, Claudio; Ferrero, Adriana; Band, Beatriz Fernández
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sublethal activity of polymer-based essential oils (EOs) nanoparticles (NPs) on adults of B. germanica. The LC50 and LC25 for contact toxicity were determined. To evaluate the repellency of EOs and NPs at LC25, a software was specially created in order to track multiple insects on just-recorded videos, and generate statistics using the obtained information. The effects of EOs and NPs at LC25 and LC50 on the nutritional physiology were also evaluated. The results showed that NPs exerted sublethal effects on the German cockroach, since these products enhance the repellent effects of the EOs and negatively affected the nutritional indices and the feeding deterrence index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Small, Taika; Ochoa-Zapater, M Amparo; Gallello, Gianni; Ribera, Antonio; Romero, Francisco M; Torreblanca, Amparo; Garcerá, M Dolores
The present work shows the effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) orally administered on reproduction and development of the insect Blattella germanica. Newly emerged females were provided with food containing AuNPs (87.44μg/g) of a size between 15 and 30nm (mean 21.8nm), and were allowed to mate with males. Food ingestion, mortality, reproductive parameters (time to ootheca formation and eclosion, ootheca viability and fertility) as well as postembryonic developmental parameters of the first ootheca (nymphal survival and life span) were recorded throughout the experiment. Gold from AuNPs was accumulated by adults of B. germanica with a bioaccumulation factor of 0.1. Ingestion of AuNPs did not disturb the time for ootheca formation nor ootheca eclosion. However, ootheca viability was decreased almost by 25% in AuNPs treated females in comparison to controls. At the same time the number of hatched nymphs was decreased by 32.8% (p<0.001) in AuNP group respect to control one. The postembryonic developmental parameters were also affected by AuNPs treatment, with a 35.8% of decrease (p<0.01) in number of nymphs that moulted to second and third instars and a reduction of their life span. Ingestion of AuNPs causes sublethal effects in B. germanica that compromises life-traits involved in population dynamics. B. germanica is proposed as a model species in nanotoxicological studies for urban environments.
Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Pagone, Viviana; Bellés, Xavier
The Broad-Complex (BR-C) is a primary response gene in the ecdysteroid signaling pathway which encodes a family of transcription factors that play a key role in metamorphic processes. With the aim of studying the possible functions of BR-C in the embryogenesis of a short germ band insect, we cloned BR-C cDNAs in the cockroach Blattella germanica (BgBR-C) and obtained the full coding region of six BR-C isoforms (Z1-Z6) of which, Z1-Z5 have homologous sequences in other insects, whereas Z6 is new. Temporal-expression patterns indicate that BgBR-C isoforms are present throughout the embryogenesis of B. germanica, although with weak fluctuations. Silencing all BgBR-C isoforms in the embryo through parental RNAi elicited a diversity of phenotypes. These phenotypes suggest roles for BgBR-C in different embryogenesis processes of B. germanica, mainly in the formation of the germ band, in the transition from 30% to 35% of total development, when the amnion and serosa rupture and the secondary dorsal organ is formed, and in the hatching process, which involves neural, endocrine and muscular coordination.
Irles, Paula; Ramos, Saray; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors
The importance of juvenile hormone regulating insect oogenesis suggests looking for genes whose expression is regulated by this hormone. SPARC is a calcium-binding glycoprotein that forms part of the extracellular membranes, which in vertebrates participates in bones mineralization or regulating cell proliferation in some cancer types. This large number of functions described for SPARC in different species might be related to the significant differences in its structure observed when comparing different species-groups. Indeed, these structural differences allow characterizing the different clades. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, a SPARC homolog emerged from ovarian transcriptomes that were constructed to find genes responding to juvenile hormone. In insects, SPARC functions have been studied in oogenesis and in embryo development of Drosophila melanogaster. In the present work, using RNAi approaches, novel functions for SPARC in the B. germanica panoistic ovaries are described. We found that depletion of SPARC does not allow to the follicular cells to complete mitosis, resulting in giant follicular cells nuclei and in a great alteration of the ovarian follicle cytoskeleton. The SPARC contribution to B. germanica oogenesis occurs stabilizing the follicular cell program and helping to maintain the nuclear divisions. Moreover, SPARC is necessary to maintain the cytoskeleton of the follicular cells. Any modification of these key processes disables females for oviposition.
Chiang, A S; Gadot, M; Schal, C
The number of cells and their sizes in the corpus allatum (CA) of adult female Blattella germanica, Supella longipalpa and Diploptera punctata were determined during oocyte maturation. Cell number and size were directly measured in cell suspensions following enzymatic dissociation of freshly excised CA. Cell numbers were verified by total cell counts in whole-mount CA monolayers and by hemocytometric sampling. In all three species, cell number did not change during the period of CA activation, averaging ca. 2000 cells per gland in B. germanica, 3500 cells per gland in S. longipalpa and 11,000 cells per gland in D. punctata. Cell diameter increased significantly in all three species during this period from a mean value of 8.9 microns to 11.7 microns in B. germanica, from 9.2 microns to 14.6 microns in S. longipalpa and from 10.0 microns to 15.6 microns in D. punctata. During a 4 h incubation period, dissociated CA cells incorporated L-[methyl-3H]-methionine into juvenile hormone-III at rates comparable to intact glands. These data suggest that CA activation in the first ovarian cycle of these species is associated mainly with an increase in cell size with minor changes in cell number.
Santos, Carolina G; Fernandez-Nicolas, Ana; Belles, Xavier
In contrast with Drosophila melanogaster, practically nothing is known about the involvement of the TGF-β signaling pathway in the metamorphosis of hemimetabolan insects. To partially fill this gap, we have studied the role of Smad factors in the metamorphosis of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. In D. melanogaster, Mad is the canonical R-Smad of the BMP branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway, Smox is the canonical R-Smad of the TGF-β/Activin branch and Medea participates in both branches. In insects, metamorphosis is regulated by the MEKRE93 pathway, which starts with juvenile hormone (JH), whose signal is transduced by Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which stimulates the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) that acts to repress E93, the metamorphosis trigger. In B. germanica, metamorphosis is determined at the beginning of the sixth (final) nymphal instar (N6), when JH production ceases, the expression of Kr-h1 declines, and the transcription of E93 begins to increase. The RNAi of Mad, Smox and Medea in N6 of B. germanica reveals that the BMP branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway regulates adult ecdysis and wing extension, mainly through regulating the expression of bursicon, whereas the TGF-β/Activin branch contributes to increasing E93 and decreasing Kr-h1 at the beginning of N6, crucial for triggering adult morphogenesis, as well as to regulating the imaginal molt timing.
Matos, Yvonne K; Sierras, Angela; Schal, Coby
Baits are a preferred method of urban pest management. Baits enable more targeted insecticide applications with a fraction of the active ingredient used in residual sprays. Bait translocation by foragers, and consequent secondary kill of nonforagers, enhances bait effectiveness in social insects, and in other group-living species like German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). We investigated the potential for secondary kill in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), another gregarious species, using a liquid bait. We first investigated whether blood-fed adults enhance nymph survivorship within aggregations by increasing the local relative humidity (RH) and providing fecal nutrients. Higher RH (50% and 95%) resulted in greater survivorship of first instars compared with 0% RH. Therefore, in subsequent experiments, we controlled RH to decouple its effect on nymph survivorship from effects of fecal nutrients. The presence of fed or unfed adults did not increase unfed first instar survivorship, suggesting that if nymphs ingested feces, its nutritional benefits were minimal. Nymph survivorship was unaffected by the presence of adult males fed fipronil or clothianidin, suggesting that unlike in cockroaches, highly effective insecticides might not be effective as secondary kill toxicants in bed bugs. To directly compare secondary kill in first-instar bed bugs and B. germanica, we exposed both to insecticide-laden adult B. germanica feces. Whereas first-instar B. germanica died in the presence of insecticide-laden feces, bed bugs did not. We, therefore, conclude that secondary kill with neuroactive insecticides will likely not be a significant factor in bed bug population suppression. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Che, Yanli; Gui, Shunhua; Lo, Nathan; Ritchie, Andrew
We collected Ectobiidae cockroach specimens from 44 locations in the south of the Yangtze valley. We obtained 297 COI sequences specimens and carried out phylogenetic and divergence dating analyses, as well as species delimitation analysis using a General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) framework. The intraspecific and interspecific sequence divergence in Ectobiidae cockroaches ranged from 0.0 to 7.0% and 4.6 to 30.8%, respectively. GMYC analysis resulted in 53 (confidence interval: 37–65) entities (likelihood ratio = 103.63) including 14 downloaded species. The COI GMYC groups partly corresponded to the ectobiid species and 52 ectobiid species were delimited successfully based on the combination of GMYC result with morphological information. We used the molecular data and 6 cockroach fossil calibrations to obtain a preliminary estimate of the timescale of ectobiid evolution. The major subfamilies in the group were found to have diverged between ~125–110 Ma, and morphospecies pairs were found to have diverged ~10 or more Ma. PMID:28046038
Syed, Ruhma; Manzoor, Farkhanda; Adalat, Rooma; Abdul-Sattar, Abida; Syed, Azka
Background The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of insecticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP) from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objective of this study was to determine which of these insecticides were most effective against American cockroach. Methods: These insecticides were tested for their LC50 values against Periplaneta americana under topical bioassay method, using different concentrations for each chemical. Results: Fipronil 2.5% EC was highly effective at all concentrations applied, while DDVP 50% EC was least toxic amongst all. One way analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between mortality of P. americana and different concentrations applied (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Locality differentiation is an important factor in determining the range of resistance between various localities, as all three localities behaved differently in terms of their levels of resistance. PMID:25629062
Kim, Tina; Rust, Michael K
The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become an important invasive species throughout the southwestern United States and has been reported in the southern United States. It is rapidly replacing the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis (L.), in urban areas of the southwestern United States as the most important peri-domestic species. They typically inhabit in-ground containers such as water meter, irrigation, and electrical boxes, raises of concrete, cracks and crevices, and hollow block walls. On occasion, they will invade dwellings. At 26.7 degrees C, male and female nymphs developed into adults in an average of 222 and 224 d, respectively. Both males and females had five nymphal instars. Adult females deposited up to 25 oothecae. The oothecae averaged 16.8 eggs and 13.9 nymphs emerged per egg capsule, resulting in an 82.7% hatch rate. Adults lived for at least 612 d. Two parameters that might contribute to the success of Turkestan cockroaches compared with oriental cockroaches are that the developmental period of the nymphs of Turkestan cockroaches are shorter and adult female Turkestan cockroaches produce considerably more oothecae than do oriental cockroaches. These may explain the observations by Pest Management Professionals that Turkestan cockroaches are displacing oriental cockroaches in outdoor habitats throughout the southwestern United States.
Ye, Fei; Lan, Xu-e; Zhu, Wen-bo; You, Ping
Insect mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) contain a conserved set of 37 genes for an extensive diversity of lineages. Previously reported dictyopteran mitogenomes share this conserved mitochondrial gene arrangement, although surprisingly little is known about the mitogenome of Mantodea. We sequenced eight mantodean mitogenomes including the first representatives of two families: Hymenopodidae and Liturgusidae. Only two of these genomes retain the typical insect gene arrangement. In three Liturgusidae species, the trnM genes have translocated. Four species of mantis (Creobroter gemmata, Mantis religiosa, Statilia sp., and Theopompa sp.-HN) have multiple identical tandem duplication of trnR, and Statilia sp. additionally includes five extra duplicate trnW. These extra trnR and trnW in Statilia sp. are erratically arranged and form another novel gene order. Interestingly, the extra trnW is converted from trnR by the process of point mutation at anticodon, which is the first case of tRNA reassignment for an insect. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed amongst mantodean mitogenomes with variable copies of tRNA according to comparative analysis of codon usage. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the characteristics of tRNA only possess limited phylogenetic information in this research. Nevertheless, these features of gene rearrangement, duplication, and reassignment provide valuable information toward understanding mitogenome evolution in insects. PMID:27157299
Evangelista, Dominic A.; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Wilson, Megan M.; Ware, Jessica L.
Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics. PMID:25684997
Hristov, Georgi H; Chobanov, Dragan P
An annotated checklist of the Bulgarian species of cockroaches is prepared based on a full published scientific record and own unpublished data. According to the current state of knowledge the Bulgarian cockroach fauna includes 17 species and subspecies. One synonymization is established-Phyllodromica marginata erythronota Br. v. W., syn. n. = Ph. marginata. Two species (Capraiellus tamaninii and Supella longipalpa) are recorded for the first time for this country and other three (Ectobius punctatissimus, Phyllodromica subaptera and Phyllodromica pallida) are eliminated from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. The list is complemented with maps and full locality data and a dichotomic identification key for the studied taxa is presented.
Short, J E; Edwards, J P
At 27 degrees C and 45% r.h. in the laboratory, the oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis (L.) developed to adulthood in seven to nine instars for males (66% had eight instars) and eight to ten instars for females (67% had nine instars) in mixed groups, with up to twelve instars for isolated females. Nymphal development lasted 185 +/- 2 days for males, 216 +/- 4 days for females, with 89% survival to adulthood. Adult longevity was significantly more for males than females in mixed groups. Virgin females lived for 135 +/- 6 days compared with 87 +/- 9 days for females kept with males. After an initial maturation time of 12.2-13.5 +/- 0.4 days for mated and unmated females, oothecae were produced, on average, every 6-7 (range 2-29) days. Ootheca viability was 68% from females kept with males, 32% from females kept apart from males. Numbers of nymphs emerging were 14.1 +/- 0.26 after 45 days from mated female oothecae 8.2 +/- 0.3 after 49 days from unmated females. With sexual reproduction the sex ratio of progeny reaching adulthood was 1.1 males per female (n = 443), whereas unmated females produced only female progency, which is consistent with parthenogenetic reproduction. Drawings of the ventral aspect of the terminalia are given to show features useful for instar determination and for distinguishing between male and female nymphs and adults of B. orientalis.
Bao, N G; Robinson, W H
Hydroprene had a considerable effect on the morphogenesis of external genitalia of the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis L. Exposure of nymphs to hydroprene resulted in abnormal adultoids with structural and positional distortions, and reduced or absent cuticular sclerotizations of the external genitalia. Late nymphal instars were significantly more sensitive to hydroprene than were early instars. In males, the epithelial cells of wings, serrata of the right phallomere, titillator and other lobes of the left phallomere were sensitive to hydroprene. The left phallomere was often prolapsed, distorted, and reduced in sclerotization. The right phallomere, particularly the serrata, was extremely malformed. In severe cases, phallomeres were entirely distorted or fused to each other. In females, the overall structure of the ovipositor appeared flaccid, less sclerotized, and misshapen. The first and second pairs of valvulae were often misshapen and reduced in sclerotization and length, or even fused with the third valvulae. This study provides morphological evidence that B. orientalis with malformed genitalia after treatment with hydroprene would be unsuccessful in copulation and fertilization. A high correlation between wrinkled wings and malformed male genitalia can be an important criterion to evaluate the effects of hydroprene on this species.
Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Nalepa, Christine; Lo, Nathan
Isoptera are highly specialized cockroaches and are one of the few eusocial insect lineages. Cryptocercus cockroaches have appeared to many as ideal models for inference on the early evolution of termites, due to their possible phylogenetic relationship and several shared key attributes in life history. Recently, Pellens, Grandcolas, and colleagues have proposed the blaberid cockroach Parasphaeria boleiriana to be an alternative model for the early evolution in termites. We compare the usefulness of Cryptocercus and P. boleiriana as models for termite evolution. Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera (1) can both feed on comparatively recalcitrant wood, (2) have an obligate, rich and unique hypermastigid and oxymonadid fauna in the hindgut, (3) transfer these flagellates to the next generation by anal trophallaxis, (4) have social systems that involve long-lasting biparental care, and, finally, (5) are strongly suggested to be sister groups, so that the key attributes (1)-(4) appear to be homologous between the two taxa. On the other hand, P. boleiriana (1) feeds on soft, ephemeral wood sources, (2) shows no trace of the oxymonadid and hypermastigid hindgut fauna unique to Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera, nor does it have any other demonstrated obligate relationship with hindgut flagellates, (3) is likely to lack anal trophallaxis, (4) has only a short period of uniparental brood care, and (5) is phylogenetically remote from the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade. These facts would argue against any reasonable usage of P. boleiriana as a model for the early evolution of Isoptera or even of the clade Cryptocercus+Isoptera. Cryptocercus thus remains an appropriate model-taxon-by-homology for early termite evolution. As compared to P. boleiriana, some other Blaberidae (such as the Panesthiinae Salganea) appear more useful as model-taxa-by-homoplasy for the early evolution of the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade, as their brooding behavior is more elaborate than in P. boleiriana.
Anisyutkin, Leonid N; Anichkin, Alexandr E; Thinh, Nguyen Van
The genus Macrostylopyga gen. nov. and two species (M. grandis sp. nov. and M. bidupi sp. nov.) are described. A detailed morphological description with special attention to the male genitalic structures is provided. Some aspects of the evolution of wingless cockroaches are briefly discussed.
Suiter, D R; Koehler, P G; Patterson, R S
The effects of feeding several ages of adult and nymphal German cockroaches a laboratory rat chow diet containing 0.10% allopurinol were investigated. All cockroaches fed the allopurinol diet suffered increased mortality. The range of LT50 values (the time required to kill 50% of an experimental cohort) for four ages of nymphs (1-8, 16-23, 21-28, and 28-35 d old following hatch) continuously fed the allopurinol diet was 1.36 wk (4.72-6.08 wk). Regardless of sex, young adult (1-7 d old following eclosion) cockroaches fed the allopurinol diet died significantly sooner than older adults (28-35 d old following eclosion); males died significantly sooner than females. All females fed the allopurinol diet as nymphs aborted their oothecae. Although an initial ootheca were hatched from cockroaches fed the allopurinol diet as adults, all subsequent oothecae were aborted. Untreated females mated with allopurinol-fed males experienced successful reproduction, but allopurinol-fed females mated with either allopurinol- or control diet-fed males failed to reproduce. Evidence suggests that cockroaches suffer increased mortality and reproductive failure from increased levels of hypoxanthine and xanthine.
Zhang, Hong-Li; Ye, Fei
Praying mantises are a diverse group of predatory insects. Although some Mantodea mitogenomes have been reported, a comprehensive comparative and evolutionary genomic study is lacking for this group. In the present study, four new mitogenomes were sequenced, annotated, and compared to the previously published mitogenomes of other Mantodea species. Most Mantodea mitogenomes share a typical set of mitochondrial genes and a putative control region (CR). Additionally, and most intriguingly, another large non-coding region (LNC) was detected between trnM and ND2 in all six Paramantini mitogenomes examined. The main section in this common region of Paramantini may have initially originated from the corresponding control region for each species, whereas sequence differences between the LNCs and CRs and phylogenetic analyses indicate that LNC and CR are largely independently evolving. Namely, the LNC (the duplicated CR) may have subsequently degenerated during evolution. Furthermore, evidence suggests that special intergenic gaps have been introduced in some species through gene rearrangement and duplication. These gaps are actually the original abutting sequences of migrated or duplicated genes. Some gaps (G5 and G6) are homologous to the 5' and 3' surrounding regions of the duplicated gene in the original gene order, and another specific gap (G7) has tandem repeats. We analysed the phylogenetic relationships of fifteen Mantodea species using 37 concatenated mitochondrial genes and detected several synapomorphies unique to species in some clades. PMID:28367101
Salama, Elham M
In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Liu, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Wan, Jing; Liu, Zhong
To investigate aeroallergen spectrum of patients with allergic rhinitis in Enshi area and analyze its related factors. Skin prick test was carried out in 463 patients with allergic rhinitis with 13 inhaled allergens. Detailed history was collected in all cases. Three hundred and eighty-seven cases (83.6%) showed positive reaction to at least one allergen of 13 allergens. The most common allergens found in patients were Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, followed by tropical mite, Periplaneta americana, Blattella germanica and dog hair. The positive reaction rate of single specie allergen were 51.9%, and most of them was positive to mites (49.6%). The positive reaction degree was significantly related to family history, asthma, age and housing enviroment. The major allergen of allergic rhinitis was mite. The positive reaction degree related to genetics, asthma, age and housing enviroment.
Elias-Neto, Moysés; Belles, Xavier
Wings were a fundamental morphological innovation for the adaptive radiation of insects, the most diversified group among all animals. Pterygote insects have two pairs of wings, the mesothoracic (T2) forewings and the metathoracic (T3) hindwings, whereas the prothorax (T1) is wingless. Using RNA interference approaches, we have found that the gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) determines the wingless identity of T1 in the cockroach Blattella germanica. Interference of Scr triggers the formation of ectopic wing structures in T1, which are formed from the expansion of the latero-posterior region of the pronotum, along with a contribution of the epimeron, a pleurite of T1. These data support the theory of a dual origin for insect wings, from pronotal (tergal origin theory) and pleural (pleural origin theory) structures and genes.
Krzemińska, A; Sawicka, B; Gliniewicz, A; Kanclerski, K
The evaluation of the infestation and methods of insect disease vectors control in 748 hospitals in Poland in the period of 1990 to 1995 were done. The insect species, places of their occurrence and control agents were analysed. Blattella germanica L. occurred most frequently (71% hospitals). Blatta orientalis and Monomorium pharaonis were found in 40% and 17% hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and baths were most infested. Sometimes insects were found also in central sterilization units and operating theaters. Controls of insects in hospitals were performed one to four times a year mostly by spraying with residual formulation. The control agents contained pyrethroids (mostly permethrin, but also deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur). Baits with hydramethylnon, boric acid, methoprene and chlorpyrifos were used not very often. The authors suggest reduction in using the spraying agents. The baits are recommended because they delay the development of the resistance to pesticides in controlling insect populations and are safer.
Cloarec, A.; Rivault, C.; Fontaine, F.; Le Guyader, A.
The potential risk of bacterial dissemination due to the presence of cockroaches (Blattella germanica, Blattellidae) in low-income flats was investigated. Cockroaches can carry a great variety of bacterial species; we identified 30 different species from 52 different flats. Klebsiella oxycytoca, K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae were the most frequently found. Pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria represented 54% of all the bacterial identifications. Bacteria were carried either on the cuticle or in the gut. Contamination through external contact is sufficient to insure bacterial diffusion. There was a very low level of overlap estimated by Pianka's index (a) between the bacterial flora of neighbouring blocks of flats, and (b) between bacterial flora of different flats in the same block. PMID:1468532
Oldenburg, Marcus; Baur, Xaver
Cockroaches are detected ashore worldwide. At present, little is known about cockroach infestation on ships. The authors' objective in this study was to assess the current prevalence of cockroach infestation on seagoing vessels. In August 2005, port officials investigated cockroach infestation on 59 ships in Hamburg's port via standardized procedures (ie, illuminating hiding places and using pyrethrum spray). About 3 minutes after illumination or chemical provocation, the inspectors counted the number of insects escaping from their hiding places. The examination revealed cockroach presence in the galley or mess room of 6 ships (10.2%). These ships were bigger than 10,000 gross register tons (GRT) and older than 7 years. Inspectors detected the cockroach species Blattella germanica on 5 ships and Blatta orientalis on 1 ship. The standardized use of pyrethrum spray more frequently detected cockroaches than did inspection or illumination of their hiding places.
Barnes, K C; Brenner, R J
Fifty-one atopic asthmatic and/or allergic rhinitic children and 23 nonatopic control from Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, were skin tested with an extract mix of three cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, and Periplaneta americana). Sixteen percent of the atopics and none of the nonatopics demonstrated positive immediate skin reactions to the cockroach mix (chi 2 = 4.05, p = 0.04). Hypersensitivity was correlated with the quality of the homes; 22% (8/36) of the atopics who lived in a concrete home were skin test positive to the cockroach mix, while none (0/15) of the atopics who lived in a wood home were skin test positive (chi 2 = 4.86, p = 0.03). Although the incidence of cockroach allergy in this study is lower than that found elsewhere, these data support the notion that, in this tropical environment, sensitization to cockroaches is associated with housing quality.
Fu, Xue; Ye, Lefu; Ge, Feng
Cockroaches are worldwide indoor pests carrying microorganisms of medical importance. German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) were sampled in five habitats (hospital, restaurant, office home, and market) in Beijing, and the bacteria were isolated from their external surface and alimentary tract and identified using a Biolog identification system. Cockroach densities significantly differed among habitats (market > home > office > restaurant > hospital). However, no significant differences in bacterial abundance carried by individual German cockroaches (of either sex) were found among habitats. The bacterial abundance in the gut was significantly higher than that on the surface. There were no significant differences in bacterial species richness observed among habitats, sex, carrying position or their interaction. Cluster analysis showed that cockroach densities and bacterial abundance found in the market differed significantly from the other four habitats. The bacterial diversity was not significantly reduced in sensitive facilities such as hospital and restaurant, even though pesticide and bactericide were more frequently applied there. The implications of these findings were discussed in this article.
Kagramanova, A S; Kapelinskaia, T V; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V
Using cosmid vector, a gene library of German cockroach Blattella germanica was constructed. From this library, clones containing full-length copies of two subfamilies of R1 retroposons were selected. Retroposons R1 of German cockroach belonging to different subfamilies were shown to be different in domain organization of the ORF2 C-terminal region. For the first time, retroposons transmembrane domains were identified in the sequences of R1. It was demonstrated that two retroposon R1 subfamilies of German cockroach arose as a result of intragenomic divergence rather than via horizontal transfer of alien mobile element into cockroach genome. The differences in domain organization appeared not as a result of saltatory recombination processes, but as a consequence of gradual mutation accumulation, which led to either degeneration, or to domain formation.
Maiza, A; Aribi, N; Smagghe, G; Soltani, N
Conventional insecticides have been widely used to control cockroaches but these insects have developed resistance to several compounds. Safer insecticides with a low toxicity such as oxadiazine have been advanced: indoxacarb (30% WG) is designated to be a reduced-risk insecticide and is considered as an organophosphate replacement. Insecticidal activity occurs via blockage of the sodium channels in the insect nervous system. In a first series of experiments, the toxicity of different concentrations (15, 20, 25 and 30 ppm) administrated by topical application to newly emerged adults was studied on the German cockroach Blattella germanica, and the LC50 and LT50 values were determined. In a second series of experiments, the compound was applied at its LC50 and LC90 over a period of 6 days, and the effects on the biochemical composition of ovaries (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) during the adult life (2, 4 and 6 days) were examined.
Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Sawicka, Bozena; Czajka, Ewa
The prevalent synantropic species present in hospitals in Poland was the German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.), found in about 70% hospitals. It was followed by Oriental cockroach (Blatta orientais L.) and Pharaoh's ant (Monomorium pharaonis L.) occurred in 40% and 17% of hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and lavatories were the most often infested places. Preliminary investigation of German cockroaches caught in hospitals in Poland showed on their body surfaces presence of bacteria known as these causing nosocomial infection. Several strains were resistant to antibacterial drugs widely used for treatment and showed insensitivity to chemical disinfectants used for surface treatment. Additional risk elements in Poland could be high resistance levels to many insecticides used for insect control in hospitals.
Wings were a fundamental morphological innovation for the adaptive radiation of insects, the most diversified group among all animals. Pterygote insects have two pairs of wings, the mesothoracic (T2) forewings and the metathoracic (T3) hindwings, whereas the prothorax (T1) is wingless. Using RNA interference approaches, we have found that the gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) determines the wingless identity of T1 in the cockroach Blattella germanica. Interference of Scr triggers the formation of ectopic wing structures in T1, which are formed from the expansion of the latero-posterior region of the pronotum, along with a contribution of the epimeron, a pleurite of T1. These data support the theory of a dual origin for insect wings, from pronotal (tergal origin theory) and pleural (pleural origin theory) structures and genes. PMID:27853616
GRAYSON, J M
Specimens of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) from two different locations near Owensboro, Ky., USA, were tested in the laboratory for resistance to diazinon and malathion. Those from one location were reared for three generations, and those from the other for four generations, before testing was completed. The results showed that both strains possessed resistance to diazinon, but neither strain was resistant to malathion. The males and females of one strain were, respectively, 2.5 and 2.6 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 3.0 and 3.8 times resistant at LC(90): while those of the other strain were 5.8 and 8.0 times resistant to diazinon at LC(50) and 9.3 and 15.3 times resistant at LC(90).
Attractivity of some heat-isolating materials (glass wool, mineral wool, foam polystyrol, "texdur"-sheets and textile isolating mats) to the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L. and the effects on rate of increase were studied in the laboratory in comparison with folded cardboard as a check. The influence of structure (pressed sheets or loosely quilted materials) and exposition (single, piled or between sheets of plaster) was represented. Loose glass wool, open or between plaster sheets, shows a clearly higher attractivity than the other materials tested. increase of populations on glass wool is almost the same as on folded cardboards. The solid variants were less suitable for the settlement of the cockroaches. General recommendations for the prevention of infestations by cockroaches are given.
Salehzadeh, A; Tavacol, P; Mahjub, H
To determine the possible role of cockroaches in dissemination of medically important microorganisms, a study was carried out in public hospitals and residential areas of Hamadan city, west of Iran. Bacteria, fungi and parasites of medical importance were isolated and identified. The total number of Blattella germanica collected from hospitals were 133 as the case group. The cockroaches collected from residential areas were 45 as the control group. A total of 178 cockroaches were collected, over a period of two years (133 from hospitals; and 45 from residential areas) in Hamadan. Medically important microorganisms were isolated from external and internal surfaces using standard methods. In the case group, 130 out of 133 (98%) Blattella germanica showed contamination with high bacterial load (more than 1 x 10(3)) whereas only 2 out of 45 (4.45%) cockroaches of the control group were carrying medically important bacteria with high bacterial load. Bacteriological examinations revealed that almost all test cockroaches had at least one of the following microorganisms either in their body surface or digestive tract. Enterobacter (22.6%), Klebsiela (21%), Enterococcus (17.3%), Staphylococcus (16.5%), Esherichia coli and Streptococcus (8.3%), Pseudomonas (3%), and also Shigella, Haemophilus and group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus each less than 1%. In addition the results showed (74.4.%) of test cockroaches harboured fungi-Candida (48.9%), Mucor (10.5%), Aspergillus niger (7.5%), Rhizopus (4.5) and also Penicillium and Aspergillus fumigans each 1.5%. Some parasitic worms of medical importance were also isolated from the test cockroaches, but carriage rates were low. The data from this study emphasise the importance of cockroaches as potential vectors of medically important microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria and fungi in hospital environments.
Süren-Castillo, Songül; Abrisqueta, Marc; Maestro, José L
FoxO proteins are a subgroup of the Forkhead-box family of transcription factors, which function as the main transcriptional effectors of the insulin receptor pathway. This pathway, activated by the binding of insulin or IGFs (or insect insulin-like peptides), promotes the phosphorylation and inactivation of FoxO because of its export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The homolog of FoxO in the cockroach Blattella germanica works in a situation of nutrient shortage by inhibiting the endocrine induction of reproduction. Using Blattella germanica as a model, we studied the functions of FoxO using RNA interference methodologies. We analyzed the mRNA levels of hypertrehalosemic hormone (HTH) and genes related to lipolysis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and quantified triacylglycerides, glycogen and trehalose. FoxO knockdown eliminates the starvation-induced expression of HTH in the corpora cardiaca. In addition, FoxO knockdown prevents the activation of the expression of Brummer lipase, glycogen phosphorylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the fat body of starved females. Starvation-induced activation of FoxO stimulates the transcription of different genes related to catabolic processes, including HTH and genes involved in lipolysis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Our results show conservation in the action of the transcription factor FoxO in the activation of catabolic processes from basal insects to vertebrates. The results also describe a new and essentially different mode of action of transcription factor FoxO, which works through the activation of neuropeptide HTH expression, which will subsequently produce its own catabolic stimulatory function. © 2013.
Pefura-Yone, Eric Walter; Kengne, André Pascal; Kuaban, Christopher
Sensitisation of asthmatic patients to mites in sub-Saharan Africa has been less described. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of sensitisation to mites in asthmatic adolescents and adults in Yaounde, Cameroon. This was a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were employed to investigate the determinants of sensitisation to mites. This study was carried out at the Jamot Hospital and CEDIMER private centre, in Yaounde, capital city of Cameroon. All asthmatic patients received in consultations from January 2012 to June 2013 and in whom prick-skin tests for perennial aeroallergens were performed were included. Prevalence of sensitisation to mites and associated factors. In total, 201 patients (132 being women, 65.7%), with a median age of 36 (25th-75th centiles: 20-54) years were included, with 135 (67.2%) having a positive skin test for mites. Sensitisation to Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis was found in 53.2%, 49.8% and 47.8% of the patients, respectively. Intermittent rhinitis (16.3% vs 7.6%) and persistent rhinitis (43.0% vs 22.7%) were more frequent in sensitised patients than in the non-sensitised ones (p<0.010). Independent allergological determinants of sensitisation to mites were sensitisation to Alternaria alternata (adjusted OR 14.98 (95% CIs 1.96 to 114.4)) and sensitisation to Blattella germanica (3.48 (1.34 to 9.00)). Sensitisation to mites was found in about two-thirds of asthmatic patients in this setting, with a frequent multiple sensitisations to A alternata and Blattella germanica. Systematically investigating asthmatic patients for mites' sensitisation and determinants will help optimising the care in this setting by combining the aetiological treatment for the allergy with symptomatic treatment for asthma, in order to modify the natural course of the disease.
Lai, Ka Man
Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination. PMID:28106812
Lai, Ka Man
Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination.
Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chungryul; Yong, Tai-Soon
Allergen extracts from dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean homes were used to evaluate their enzymatic activity as they are believed to influence allergenicity. Allergen extracts were prepared from 3 dust mite species (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and 3 cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and P. fuliginosa) maintained in the Korea National Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank. Proteins were extracted in PBS after homogenization using liquid nitrogen. The activities of various enzymes were investigated using the API Zym system. No significant difference in phosphatase, lipase, or glycosidase activity was observed among the 6 allergen extracts, but much difference was observed in protease activity. Protease activity was assessed in more detail by gelatin zymography and the EnzChek assay. Extract from T. putrescentiae showed the highest protease activity, followed by those of the cockroach extracts. Extracts from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus showed only weak protease activity. Gelatinolytic activity was detected mainly in a 30-kDa protein in D. farinae, a 28-kDa protein in D. pteronyssinus, a > 26-kDa protein in T. putrescentiae, a > 20-kDa protein in B. germanica, and a > 23-kDa protein in P. americana and P. fuliginosa. The information on various enzymatic activities obtained in this study may be useful for future studies. In particular, the strong protease activity found in cockroach extracts could contribute to sensitization to cockroach allergens, which is known to be associated with the development of asthma.
Lihoreau, Mathieu; Rivault, Colette
Communication and learning from each other are part of the success of animal societies. Social insects invest considerable effort into signalling to their nestmates the locations of the most profitable resources in their environment. Growing evidence also indicates that insects glean such information through cues inadvertently provided by their conspecifics. Here, we investigate social information use in the foraging decisions by gregarious cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.). Individual cockroaches given a simultaneous choice in a Y-olfactometer between the odour of feeding conspecifics and the mixed odour of food plus non-feeding conspecifics showed a preference for the arm scented with the odour of feeding conspecifics. Social information (the presence of feeding conspecifics) was produced by cockroaches of all age classes and perceived at short distance in the olfactometer arms, suggesting the use of inadvertently provided cues rather than signals. We discuss the nature of these cues and the role of local enhancement (the selection of a location based on cues associated with the presence of conspecifics) in the formation of feeding aggregations in B. germanica. Similar cue-mediated recruitments could underpin a wide range of collective behaviours in group-living insects. PMID:21811557
Uzsák, Adrienn; Dieffenderfer, James; Bozkurt, Alper; Schal, Coby
Tactile stimuli provide animals with important information about the environment, including physical features such as obstacles, and biologically relevant cues related to food, mates, hosts and predators. The antennae, the principal sensory organs of insects, house an array of sensory receptors for olfaction, gustation, audition, nociception, balance, stability, graviception, static electric fields, and thermo-, hygro- and mechanoreception. The antennae, being the anteriormost sensory appendages, play a prominent role in social interactions with conspecifics that involve primarily chemosensory and tactile stimuli. In the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) antennal contact during social interactions modulates brain-regulated juvenile hormone production, ultimately accelerating the reproductive rate in females. The primary sensory modality mediating this social facilitation of reproduction is antennal mechanoreception. We investigated the key elements, or stimulus features, of antennal contact that socially facilitate reproduction in B. germanica females. Using motor-driven antenna mimics, we assessed the physiological responses of females to artificial tactile stimulation. Our results indicate that tactile stimulation with artificial materials, some deviating significantly from the native antennal morphology, can facilitate female reproduction. However, none of the artificial stimuli matched the effects of social interactions with a conspecific female.
Uzsák, Adrienn; Dieffenderfer, James; Bozkurt, Alper; Schal, Coby
Tactile stimuli provide animals with important information about the environment, including physical features such as obstacles, and biologically relevant cues related to food, mates, hosts and predators. The antennae, the principal sensory organs of insects, house an array of sensory receptors for olfaction, gustation, audition, nociception, balance, stability, graviception, static electric fields, and thermo-, hygro- and mechanoreception. The antennae, being the anteriormost sensory appendages, play a prominent role in social interactions with conspecifics that involve primarily chemosensory and tactile stimuli. In the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) antennal contact during social interactions modulates brain-regulated juvenile hormone production, ultimately accelerating the reproductive rate in females. The primary sensory modality mediating this social facilitation of reproduction is antennal mechanoreception. We investigated the key elements, or stimulus features, of antennal contact that socially facilitate reproduction in B. germanica females. Using motor-driven antenna mimics, we assessed the physiological responses of females to artificial tactile stimulation. Our results indicate that tactile stimulation with artificial materials, some deviating significantly from the native antennal morphology, can facilitate female reproduction. However, none of the artificial stimuli matched the effects of social interactions with a conspecific female. PMID:24695432
Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby
Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect-insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites.
Uzsák, Adrienn; Schal, Coby
In many animal species, social interactions can influence the morphology, physiology and behavior of individuals, including their rate of development and reproduction. Reproduction in cockroaches is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), and social interactions have been shown to accelerate female reproduction in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), by stimulating JH production. However, it is not clear in this or any other insect species whether social facilitation of the reproductive rate occurs throughout the ovarian cycle or only at certain stages. We compared the effects of social interactions during the pre-oviposition period (when JH production is high) and during gestation (when little JH is produced), as well as during the first ovarian cycle (when females are virgin) and the second ovarian cycle (after females had mated). Social interaction with one conspecific female was sufficient to accelerate JH production and oocyte maturation, but this effect was reversed by crowding. Social interactions also accelerated the onset of sexual receptivity in virgin females. However, social interactions failed to shorten gestation, suggesting that social cues stimulate JH production only when the corpora allata (CA) are active and not when CA activity is suppressed by the central nervous system. Females were most responsive to transient social isolation and transient social interactions when 2-3 days old, suggesting that they are particularly sensitive to social interactions when their CA become active. Overall, these results show that all JH-dependent events in the reproductive cycle of B. germanica females are under the strong influence of social interactions.
Polido, Júlia Gomes Fernandes; Cabral, Thiago; Perini, Paula de Resende Campos; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Marcelos; de Freitas, Denise; dos Santos Araújo, Maria Emília Xavier; Serracarbassa, Pedro Durães
To evaluate ocular allergies in patients at the Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (HSPE) and the correlations with serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels. We performed a longitudinal study of patients with ocular allergies who were treated at the Cornea and Immunology and Allergy Department. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 4 groups. We conducted the following laboratory tests and measurements: blood count, eosinophil count, total serum IgE, and specific IgE. Among 61 patients, 16 (26.2%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 23 (37.7%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 19 (31.1%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 3 (4.9%) had atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Mixed dust mites were positive in 94.9% of patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (df) antigens were positive in 93.2% of patients followed by Blattella germanica, Blomia tropicalis, and mixed animal epithelia (81%, 75.9%, and 25.8%, respectively). Perennial allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder and demonstrated higher positivity in class V/VI for specific antigens (mixed dust mites, dp, and df), indicating high antigenicity. Dust mites, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, B. germanica, and B. tropicalis were the primary triggers of the studied ocular allergies.
Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby
Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect–insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites. PMID:26644557
Irles, Paula; Silva-Torres, Fernanda A; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors
Na(+), K(+)-ATPases is a heterodimer protein consisting of α- and β-subunits that control the ion transport through cell membranes. In insects the β-subunit of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, known as Nervana, was characterized as a nervous system-specific glycoprotein antigen from adult Drosophila melanogaster heads. Nervana is expressed ubiquitously in all insect tissues, and in epithelial cells appeared located in a basolateral position as part of the septate junctions. Herein we study two Nervana isoforms from Blattella germanica, a cockroach species with panoistic ovaries. The sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis results suggest that these two isoforms are orthologs of D. melanogaster Nervana 1 and Nervana 2, respectively. Nervana 1 is highly expressed in the ovary of B. germanica, and depleting its expression results in changes in oocyte shape that do not impair oviposition. However, the resulting embryos show different defects and never hatch. These findings highlight the importance of this type of membrane pump in insect oogenesis as well as in embryo development, and its possible regulation by juvenile hormone.
Irles, Paula; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, M. Dolors
Background Insect eggshells must combine protection for the yolk and embryo with provisions for respiration and for the entry of sperm, which are ensured by aeropyles and micropyles, respectively. Insects which oviposit the eggs in an egg-case have a double problem of respiration as gas exchange then involves two barriers. An example of this situation is found in the cockroach Blattella germanica, where the aeropyle and the micropyle are combined in a complex structure called the sponge-like body. The sponge-like body has been well described morphologically, but nothing is known about how it is built up. Methodology/Principal Findings In a library designed to find genes expressed during late chorion formation in B. germanica, we isolated the novel sequence Bg30009 (now called Brownie), which was outstanding due to its high copy number. In the present work, we show that Brownie is expressed in the follicle cells localized in the anterior pole of the oocyte in late choriogenesis. RNA interference (RNAi) of Brownie impaired correct formation of the sponge-like body and, as a result, the egg-case was also ill-formed and the eggs were not viable. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that the novel gene Brownie plays a pivotal role in building up the sponge-like body. Brownie is the first reported gene involved in the construction of complex eggshell respiratory structures. PMID:20020062
Rego, Francisca X M; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Kalil, Jorge; Arruda, L. Karla; Toledo-Barros, Myrthes
INTRODUCTION: Asthma affects approximately 10% of the world's population. Sensitization to allergens is an important risk factor, and exposure to allergens is associated with disease severity. METHODS: We performed skin tests to evaluate allergen sensitization to mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds in 73 asthmatic patients. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to assay the mite and cockroach allergens found in dust from the bedding, hammocks, bedroom floors, living rooms, and kitchens of 29 patients and 14 controls. RESULTS: Fifty patients (68.5%) had positive skin test responses. There were positive responses to D. pteronyssinus (52.0%), B. tropicalis (53.4%), T. putrescentiae (15.0%), E. maynei (12.3%), L. destructor (8.2%), B. germanica (20.5%), P. americana (21.9%), Felis catus (10.9%), C. herbarium (2.7%), A. alternata (4.1%), and P. notatun (1.3%). The exposure to mite and cockroach allergens was similar in the patients and the controls. The Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Group 1 levels were highest in the beds and hammocks. The Blattella germanica Group 1 levels were highest in the kitchens, living rooms and hammocks. DISCUSSION: The positive skin tests to mites, cockroaches and cats were consistent with previous studies. D pteronyssinus was the most prevalent home dust mite, and hammocks were a source of allergens. To improve asthma prophylaxis, it is important to determine its association with mite allergen exposure in hammocks. PMID:21876974
McGorry, Clare A.; Newman, Caroline N.; Triblehorn, Jeffrey D.
The wind-sensitive insect cercal sensory system is involved in important behaviors including predator detection and initiating terrestrial escape responses as well as flight maintenance. However, not all insects possessing a cercal system exhibit these behaviors. In cockroaches, wind evokes strong terrestrial escape responses in Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica, but only weak escape responses in Blaberus craniifer and no escape responses in Gromphadorhina portentosa. Both P. americana and Blab. craniifer possesses pink flight muscles correlated with flight ability while Blat. germanica possesses white flight muscles that cannot support flight and G. portentosa lacks wings. These different behavioral combinations could correlate with differences in sensory processing of wind information by the cercal system. In this study, we focused on the wind-sensitive interneurons (WSIs) since they provide input to the premotor/motor neurons that influence terrestrial escape and flight behavior. Using extracellular recordings, we characterized the responses from the WSI population by generating stimulus-response (S-R) curves and examining spike firing rates. Using cluster analysis, we also examined the activity of individual units (four per species, though not necessarily homologous) comprising the population response in each species. Our main results were: 1) all four species possessed ascending WSIs in the abdominal connectives; 2) wind elicited the weakest WSI responses (lowest spike counts and spike rates) in G. portentosa; 3) wind elicited WSI responses in Blab. craniifer that were greater than P. americana or Blat. germanica; 4) the activity of four individual units comprising the WSI population response in each species was similar across species. PMID:24879967
Melén, E; Pomés, A; Vailes, L D; Arruda, L K; Chapman, M D
Sensitization to allergens produced by German and American cockroaches is strongly associated with the cause of asthma. Most of the cockroach allergens identified to date have been species specific. The aim of this study was to identify and sequence cross-reactive cockroach allergens. A Periplaneta americana cDNA library was screened with IgE antibody from patients in the United States who were allergic to cockroach and who were sensitized to Blattella germanica. A cDNA clone was isolated that contained an 870-bp sequence with a 695-bp open reading frame, encoding a 231 amino acid protein, molecular weight 26.2 kd. Plaque immunoassays using anti-Bla g 1 and anti-Per a 1 mAbs and a panel of human IgE antibodies showed that the protein expressed by these clones was Per a 1. Sequence homology searches showed that Per a 1 was homologous to 5 previously reported, but unidentified, sequences from B germanica and P americana. These sequences encoded proteins with multiple molecular sizes containing approximately 100 amino acid repeats. The Per a 1 sequence also showed 31% identity to a mosquito precursor protein, ANG12, which may be involved in digestion. The Per a 1 cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris to produce purified recombinant allergen (yield, 14 mg/L). The results define the molecular structure and antigenic relationships between a new family of cross-reactive "Group 1" allergens produced by both P americana and B germanica. These recombinant allergens and specific mAbs will provide tools to improve the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases caused by cockroaches.
McGorry, Clare A; Newman, Caroline N; Triblehorn, Jeffrey D
The wind-sensitive insect cercal sensory system is involved in important behaviors including predator detection and initiating terrestrial escape responses as well as flight maintenance. However, not all insects possessing a cercal system exhibit these behaviors. In cockroaches, wind evokes strong terrestrial escape responses in Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica, but only weak escape responses in Blaberus craniifer and no escape responses in Gromphadorhina portentosa. Both P. americana and B. craniifer possesses pink flight muscles correlated with flight ability while B. germanica possesses white flight muscles that cannot support flight and G. portentosa lacks wings. These different behavioral combinations could correlate with differences in sensory processing of wind information by the cercal system. In this study, we focused on the wind-sensitive interneurons (WSIs) since they provide input to the premotor/motor neurons that influence terrestrial escape and flight behavior. Using extracellular recordings, we characterized the responses from the WSI population by generating stimulus-response (S-R) curves and examining spike firing rates. Using cluster analysis, we also examined the activity of individual units (four per species, though not necessarily homologous) comprising the population response in each species. Our main results were: (1) all four species possessed ascending WSIs in the abdominal connectives; (2) wind elicited the weakest WSI responses (lowest spike counts and spike rates) in G. portentosa; (3) wind elicited WSI responses in B. craniifer that were greater than P. americana or B. germanica; (4) the activity of four individual units comprising the WSI population response in each species was similar across species.
Memona, H; Manzoor, F; Anjum, A A
This study focuses on isolation of pathogenic bacteria from external and internal surfaces of cockroaches collected from houses and hospitals in Lahore. In total, 240 adult cockroaches were collected from houses and hospitals by hand or using sticky traps and food-bait traps. Cockroach species were identified, and microbial screening was done for external surfaces and gut tracts of cockroaches. Jaccard's index of similarity, Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity, and Shannon-Wiener's diversity index were used to measure the bacterial community diversity (all species of bacteria) in each habitat. Relative abundance and frequency were measured for each bacterial species on external and internal surfaces of cockroaches. Among human habitations, two major species of cockroaches were isolated, i.e., Periplaneta americana (P americana) and Blattella germanica (B germanica). Out of 240 cockroaches collected, 167 were P americana and 73 were B germanica In total, 11 bacterial species were isolated, but no different bacterial load in each habitat was observed. The most common diagnostic bacterium isolated from the external surface of cockroaches was found to be Escherichia coli (10.31%). In contrast, the most common isolate from the internal gut tract of cockroaches was found to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with relative frequency of 19.96%. Jaccard's index of similarity of bacterial species found on cockroaches was highest (0.3125) in houses, whereas Bray-Curtis' index of dissimilarity was highest for hospitals (0.2174). The highest Shannon-Wiener's diversity index value was found in bacteria on cockroaches collected from the Punjab Institute of Cardiology (2.610632). No Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Streptococcus pneumonia were found in the digestive tract of any cockroach.
Lozano, Jesus; Kayukawa, Takumi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Belles, Xavier
Recent studies in vitro have reported that the Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Taiman (Tai) complex is the functional receptor of juvenile hormone (JH). Experiments in vivo of Met depletion have confirmed this factor's role in JH signal transduction, however, there is no equivalent data regarding Tai because its depletion in larval or nymphal stages of the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus results in 100% mortality. We have discovered that the cockroach Blattella germanica possesses four Tai isoforms resulting from the combination of two indels in the C-terminal region of the sequence. The presence of one equivalent indel-1 in Tai sequences in T. castaneum and other species suggests that Tai isoforms may be common in insects. Concomitant depletion of all four Tai isoforms in B. germanica resulted in 100% mortality, but when only the insertion 1 (IN-1) isoforms were depleted, mortality was significantly reduced and about half of the specimens experienced precocious adult development. This shows that Tai isoforms containing IN-1 are involved in transducing the JH signal that represses metamorphosis. Reporter assays indicated that both T. castaneum Tai isoforms, one that contains the IN-1 and another that does not (DEL-1) activated a JH response element (kJHRE) in Krüppel homolog 1 in conjunction with Met and JH. The results indicate that Tai is involved in the molecular mechanisms that repress metamorphosis, at least in B. germanica, and highlight the importance of distinguishing Tai isoforms when studying the functions of this transcription factor in development and other processes. PMID:25356827
Jandt, Jennifer M.; Curry, Christine; Hemauer, Sarah; Jeanne, Robert L.
Vespine wasps have been shown to deposit an attractive chemical in the nest entrance. Foragers use this to help locate the nest when returning to it. We determined how many individuals need to track (pass through) the entrance before the chemical is recognized. We found a logistic response as the number of tracks increased. At 200 tracks and above there was a 75 90% positive response rate to the chemical. We found no evidence of trail-marking behavior performed by foragers inside the nest entrance. We conclude that the trail is not an evolved signal, but is a cue composed of an accumulation of hydrocarbons deposited from the legs or feet of workers as they walk on a substrate. This is the first quantitative measurement of the attractiveness of the nest-entrance chemical in a social wasp.
Barbieri, M; Salami, A; Cordone, G; Sovatzis, A; Mora, F; Cordone, M P; Mora, R; Yoo, T J
Allergies are a widespread phenomenon and one that is in continuous expansion, especially in large cities. A heretofore underestimated allergen, at least in Italy, is the cockroach. Between April and June 2000, we administered a prick test (including the cockroach antigen in the allergen kit) to 163 patients. The prick test was executed utilizing histamine as the positive control and a normal diluent as the negative control; both indoor allergens (including dermatophagoids and dog and cat epithelium) and outdoor allergens (including trees, grasses, pollens and spores) were employed. The results obtained were evaluated by comparing the reaction provoked by these allergens to that of the histamine. About 20% of the patients who reacted to the other indoor allergens also tested positive to the cockroach antigen. Also on the basis of experiences previously carried out in other countries (United States, Korea, Japan, Turkey), the cockroach must be borne in mind as a possible significant cause of allergic reactions in Italy, too.
Ross, M H
An extraneous heterochromatic segment was discovered in a strain selected for a large-body trait. Derivation from the X chromosome is indicated by its behavior at metaphase I and association with the X and nucleolus in early prophase I. The segment does not pair with the X. Association with a mid-length bivalent is attributed to fusion of heterochromatin. Centromeric activity of small fragments, independent of, but apparently derived from, the X, is also reported.
Bouquegneau, J M; Ballan-Dufrancais, C; Jeantet, A Y
Cockroach ileum has a high capability to concentrate mercury compared with other tissues. Part of the mercury contained in the soluble phase of this organ is bound to metallothionein. It is suggested that mercury of the insoluble phase is stored in lysosomes under a polymerized metallothionein form.
Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette
Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.
Anisyutkin, Leonid N
The new genus Indoapterolampra, gen. nov. and two new species (I. rugosiuscula sp. nov. and Morphna lucida sp. nov.) are described. Rhabdoblatta praecipua (Walker, 1868) is removed from the synonymy with 'Polyzosteria' terranea Walker, 1868. The latter species is considered Epilamprinae gen. sp. The lectotype of Phoraspis (Thorax) porcellana Saussure, 1862 is designated. A key for the genera of Epilamprinae from South India and Sri Lanka is provided. Detailed morphological descriptions of the studied taxa are given. The structure of the male genitalia of I. rugosiuscula sp. nov., M. lucida sp. nov., M. plana (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), M. decolyi (Bolivar, 1897) and R. praecipua and that of the female genital complex of M. decolyi, P. (T.) porcellana and Phlebonotus anomalus (Saussure, 1863) are described for the first time. Some aspects of the cockroach evolution are briefly discussed.
Vélez-Bravo, Andrés H
The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given.
Agrawal, V K; Agarwal, Ashok; Choudhary, Varsha; Singh, Rajiv; Ahmed, Nadeem; Sharma, Mahender; Narula, Kusum; Agrawal, Pooja
Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the spray insecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which can be selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies but very few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil (0.01%) and imidacloprid (2.15%) gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin) and propoxur (2%) aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field. Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and houses by visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houses having high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments and houses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control). Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroid aerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil and imidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave better indications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followed for post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks. Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestation in the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation up to 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction and propoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroach density by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started declining after 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gel baits for control of cockroaches.
Clopton, Richard E
Complete synoptic redescriptions, including complete morphometric data for all life cycle stages, species recognition characters, and differential comparisons are presented for the 4 gregarine species comprising Blabericola . Blabericola cubensis ( Peregrine, 1970 ), Blabericola haasi (Geus, 1969), Blabericola migrator ( Clopton, 1995 ), and Blabericola princisi ( Peregrine, 1970 ) are redescribed from their type hosts, i.e., the discoid cockroach Blaberus discoidalis , the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea , the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa , and the Bolivian cockroach Blaberus boliviensis , respectively. These gregarine species descriptions are stabilized through deposition of extensive new voucher collections. Species of Blabericola are distinguished by differences in relative metric ratios, morphology of oocysts, and by relative metric ratios of mature gamonts in association. This work is discussed as a model for morphological species descriptions in the Eugregarinorida including the 6 principles for morphological gregarine species descriptions, i.e., a centroid and population variation approach, adequate sample size, partitioning developmental variation and sexual dimorphism, recognition and minimization of fixation and physiological artifacts to eliminate false morphotypes, and comparative data sets across multiple life cycle stages.
Pick, Christian; Schneuer, Marco; Burmester, Thorsten
Hemocyanins are copper-containing, respiratory proteins that have been thoroughly studied in various arthropod subphyla. Specific O(2)-transport proteins have long been considered unnecessary in Hexapoda (including Insecta), which acquire O(2) via an elaborate tracheal system. However, we recently identified a functional hemocyanin in the stonefly Perla marginata (Plecoptera) and in the firebrat Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma). We used RT-PCR and RACE experiments to study the presence of hemocyanin in a broad range of ametabolous and hemimetabolous hexapod taxa. We obtained a total of 12 full-length and 5 partial cDNA sequences of hemocyanins from representatives of Collembola, Archeognatha, Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Phasmatodea, Mantodea, Isoptera and Blattaria. No hemocyanin could be identified in Protura, Diplura, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, or in the Eumetabola (Holometabola + Hemiptera). It is not currently known why hemocyanin has been lost in some taxa. Hexapod hemocyanins usually consist of two distinct subunit types. Whereas type 1 subunits may represent the central building block, type 2 subunits may be absent in some species. Phylogenetic analyses support the Pancrustacea hypothesis and show that type 1 and type 2 subunits diverged before the emergence of the Hexapoda. The copperless insect storage hexamerins evolved from hemocyanin type 1 subunits, with Machilis germanica (Archeognatha) hemocyanin being a possible 'intermediate'. The evolution of hemocyanin subunits follows the widely accepted phylogeny of the Hexapoda and provides strong evidence for the monophyly of the Polyneoptera (Plecoptera, Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Phasmatodea, Mantodea, Isoptera, Blattaria) and the Dictyoptera (Mantodea, Isoptera, Blattaria). The Blattaria are paraphyletic with respect to the termites.
Mané-Padrós, Daniel; Cruz, Josefa; Vilaplana, Lluisa; Nieva, Claudia; Ureña, Enric; Bellés, Xavier; Martín, David
Metamorphosis in holometabolous insects is mainly based on the destruction of larval tissues. Intensive research in Drosophila melanogaster, a model of holometabolan metamorphosis, has shown that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signals cell death of larval tissues during metamorphosis. However, D. melanogaster shows a highly derived type of development and the mechanisms regulating apoptosis may not be representative in the insect class context. Unfortunately, no functional studies have been carried out to address whether the mechanisms controlling cell death are present in more basal hemimetabolous species. To address this, we have analyzed the apoptosis of the prothoracic gland of the cockroach Blattella germanica, which undergoes stage-specific degeneration just after the imaginal molt. Here, we first show that B. germanica has two inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and that one of them, BgIAP1, is continuously required to ensure tissue viability, including that of the prothoracic gland, during nymphal development. Moreover, we demonstrate that the degeneration of the prothoracic gland is controlled by a complex 20E-triggered hierarchy of nuclear receptors converging in the strong activation of the death-inducer Fushi tarazu-factor 1 (BgFTZ-F1) during the nymphal-adult transition. Finally, we have also shown that prothoracic gland degeneration is effectively prevented by the presence of juvenile hormone (JH). Given the relevance of cell death in the metamorphic process, the characterization of the molecular mechanisms regulating apoptosis in hemimetabolous insects would allow to help elucidate how metamorphosis has evolved from less to more derived insect species.
In 2009 we reported that depletion of Dicer-1, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of miRNA biosynthesis, prevents metamorphosis in Blattella germanica. However, the precise regulatory roles of miRNAs in the process have remained elusive. In the present work, we have observed that Dicer-1 depletion results in an increase of mRNA levels of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a juvenile hormone-dependent transcription factor that represses metamorphosis, and that depletion of Kr-h1 expression in Dicer-1 knockdown individuals rescues metamorphosis. We have also found that the 3′UTR of Kr-h1 mRNA contains a functional binding site for miR-2 family miRNAs (for miR-2, miR-13a, and miR-13b). These data suggest that metamorphosis impairment caused by Dicer-1 and miRNA depletion is due to a deregulation of Kr-h1 expression and that this deregulation is derived from a deficiency of miR-2 miRNAs. We corroborated this by treating the last nymphal instar of B. germanica with an miR-2 inhibitor, which impaired metamorphosis, and by treating Dicer-1-depleted individuals with an miR-2 mimic to allow nymphal-to-adult metamorphosis to proceed. Taken together, the data indicate that miR-2 miRNAs scavenge Kr-h1 transcripts when the transition from nymph to adult should be taking place, thus crucially contributing to the correct culmination of metamorphosis. PMID:25775510
Crissman, Jonathan R; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Mukha, Dmitry V; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a major residential pest with the potential to vector various pathogens and produce and disseminate household allergens. Understanding population genetic structure and differentiation of this important pest is critical to efforts to eradicate infestations, yet little is known in this regard. Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation within and among 18 apartments from six apartment complexes located in Raleigh, NC. No departure from panmixia was found between rooms within apartments, indicating that active dispersal resulting in gene flow may occur among rooms within apartment units. Alternatively, aggregations within apartments may exist in relative isolation under a metapopulation framework, derived from a recent, common source. Thus, in the event of population control practices leading to incomplete cockroach eradication within an apartment, recolonization of shelters and rooms is likely to occur from a genetically similar aggregation. A pattern of isolation-by-distance across the six apartment complexes indicated that dispersal was more common within complexes than among them, and F statistics suggested greater genetic similarity between apartments in a single building than between separate buildings of an apartment complex. Similarly, neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses were able to cluster only those apartments that were within a single building, indicating higher dispersal with associated gene flow within buildings than between them. The lack of any broader connectivity, as indicated by significant F(ST) and G-tests suggests that human-mediated dispersal of B. germanica between buildings of an apartment complex or between complexes occurs infrequently enough to have negligible effects on gene flow.
Lozano, Jesus; Montañez, Raúl; Belles, Xavier
In 2009 we reported that depletion of Dicer-1, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of miRNA biosynthesis, prevents metamorphosis in Blattella germanica. However, the precise regulatory roles of miRNAs in the process have remained elusive. In the present work, we have observed that Dicer-1 depletion results in an increase of mRNA levels of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a juvenile hormone-dependent transcription factor that represses metamorphosis, and that depletion of Kr-h1 expression in Dicer-1 knockdown individuals rescues metamorphosis. We have also found that the 3'UTR of Kr-h1 mRNA contains a functional binding site for miR-2 family miRNAs (for miR-2, miR-13a, and miR-13b). These data suggest that metamorphosis impairment caused by Dicer-1 and miRNA depletion is due to a deregulation of Kr-h1 expression and that this deregulation is derived from a deficiency of miR-2 miRNAs. We corroborated this by treating the last nymphal instar of B. germanica with an miR-2 inhibitor, which impaired metamorphosis, and by treating Dicer-1-depleted individuals with an miR-2 mimic to allow nymphal-to-adult metamorphosis to proceed. Taken together, the data indicate that miR-2 miRNAs scavenge Kr-h1 transcripts when the transition from nymph to adult should be taking place, thus crucially contributing to the correct culmination of metamorphosis.
Ureña, Enric; Manjón, Cristina; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Martín, David
All immature animals undergo remarkable morphological and physiological changes to become mature adults. In winged insects, metamorphic changes either are limited to a few tissues (hemimetaboly) or involve a complete reorganization of most tissues and organs (holometaboly). Despite the differences, the genetic switch between immature and adult forms in both types of insects relies on the disappearance of the antimetamorphic juvenile hormone (JH) and the transcription factors Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) during the last juvenile instar. Here, we show that the transcription factor E93 is the key determinant that promotes adult metamorphosis in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects, thus acting as the universal adult specifier. In the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, BgE93 is highly expressed in metamorphic tissues, and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BgE93 in the nymphal stage prevented the nymphal-adult transition, inducing endless reiteration of nymphal development, even in the absence of JH. We also find that BgE93 down-regulated BgKr-h1 and BgBR-C expression during the last nymphal instar of B. germanica, a key step necessary for proper adult differentiation. This essential role of E93 is conserved in holometabolous insects as TcE93 RNAi in Tribolium castaneum prevented pupal-adult transition and produced a supernumerary second pupa. In this beetle, TcE93 also represses expression of TcKr-h1 and TcBR-C during the pupal stage. Similar results were obtained in the more derived holometabolous insect Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that winged insects use the same regulatory mechanism to promote adult metamorphosis. This study provides an important insight into the understanding of the molecular basis of adult metamorphosis.
Audsley, N; Weaver, R J
The stomatogastric nervous system plays a pivotal role in feeding behaviour. Central to this system is the frontal ganglion, which is responsible for foregut motor activity, and hence the passage of food through the gut. Many insect peptides, which exhibit myoactivity on the visceral muscles of the gut in vitro, have been detected in the stomatogastric nervous system by immunochemical or mass spectrometric techniques. This localisation of myoactive peptides, particularly in the frontal ganglion, implies roles for these peptides in the neural control and modulation of feeding in insects. Insect sulfakinins, tachykinins, allatotropin and proctolin have all been shown to stimulate the foregut muscles, whereas myosuppressins, myoinhibitory peptides and allatostatins all inhibited spontaneous contractions of the foregut in a variety of insects. Some of these peptides, when injected, inhibited feeding in vivo. Both the A-type and B-type allatostatins suppressed feeding activity when injected into the cockroach, Blattella germanica and the Manduca sexta C-type allatostatin and allatotropin inhibited feeding when injected into the larvae of two noctuid moths, Lacanobia oleracea and Spodoptera frugiperda, respectively. Injection of sulfakinins into the fly Phormia regina, the locust Schistocera gregaria and the cockroach B. germanica also suppressed feeding, whereas silencing the sulfakinin gene through the injection of double stranded RNA resulted in an increase in food consumption in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. The regulation of feeding in insects is clearly very complex, and involves the interaction of a number of mechanisms, one of which is the release, either centrally or locally, of neuropeptides. However, the role of neuropeptides, their mechanisms of action, interactions with each other, and their release are still poorly understood. It is also unclear why insects possess such a number of different peptides, some with multiples copies or homologues, which
Periplaneta americana, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa are the most common worldwide cockroaches that mentioned in the "22 common pest" or "22 dirty" species named as "group I". They are able to infest any type of buildings. A meta-analysis review was conducted between January 2015 and July 2016 on any literature published about infestation of cockroaches. Scientific reports and papers about infestation of cockroaches and relevant topics were collected from various specific scientific websites such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, Elsevier, Scopus, and Google Scholar. About 271 scientific reports and papers were collected and after a preliminary review, 63 were selected to become part of the detailed synthesis review and meta-analysis. Results showed that the global world mean infestation trend of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species ranged 49.0-55.0, 40.0-70.0 and 60.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species were 52.3, 55.2 and 65.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the global world mean infestation of cockroaches and P. americana cockroach species (P=0.019). The global mean infestation trend of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world ranged 55.0-65.0 and 50.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world were 60.4 and 57.7%, respectively. Although some factors affect the infestation of cockroaches and the sanitation and quality structure of the buildings are also being improved. While as present study reveal that the globally the world infestation trend of cockroaches are being increased and recent studies also indicate that the prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the decades
Irles, Paula; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, M Dolors
Background Insect ovarioles are classified into two categories: panoistic and meroistic, the later having apparently evolved from an ancestral panoistic type. Molecular data on oogenesis is practically restricted to meroistic ovaries. If we aim at studying the evolutionary transition from panoistic to meroistic, data on panoistic ovaries should be gathered. To this end, we planned the construction of a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) library to identify genes involved in panoistic choriogenesis, using the cockroach Blattella germanica as model. Results We constructed a post-vitellogenic ovary library by SSH to isolate genes involved in choriogenesis in B. germanica. The tester library was prepared with an ovary pool from 6- to 7-day-old females, whereas the driver library was prepared with an ovary pool from 3- to 4-day-old females. From the SSH library, we obtained 258 high quality sequences which clustered into 34 unique sequences grouped in 19 contigs and 15 singlets. The sequences were compared against non-redundant NCBI databases using BLAST. We found that 44% of the unique sequences had homologous sequences in known genes of other organisms, whereas 56% had no significant similarity to any of the databases entries. A Gene Ontology analysis was carried out, classifying the 34 sequences into different functional categories. Seven of these gene sequences, representative of different categories and processes, were chosen to perform expression studies during the first gonadotrophic cycle by real-time PCR. Results showed that they were mainly expressed during post-vitellogenesis, which validates the SSH technique. In two of them corresponding to novel genes, we demonstrated that they are specifically expressed in the cytoplasm of follicular cells in basal oocytes at the time of choriogenesis. Conclusion The SSH approach has proven to be useful in identifying ovarian genes expressed after vitellogenesis in B. germanica. For most of the genes, functions
Offermann, Lesa R; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian
Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. Accession numbers: The atomic coordinates and the structure factors have been deposited to the Protein Data Band under accession codes: 4N7C for native Bla g 4 and 4N7D for the Se-Met Bla g 4 structure.
Shik, J Z; Schal, C; Silverman, J
Organisms have diverse adaptations for balancing dietary nutrients, but often face trade-offs between ingesting nutrients and toxins in food. While extremely omnivorous cockroaches would seem excluded from such dietary trade-offs, German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in multiple populations have rapidly evolved a unique dietary specialization - an aversion to glucose, the phagostimulant in toxic baits used for pest control. We used factorial feeding experiments within the geometric framework to test whether glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches with limited access to this critical metabolic fuel have compensatory behavioural and physiological strategies for meeting nutritional requirements. GA cockroaches had severely constrained intake, fat and N mass, and performance on glucose-based diets relative to wild-type (WT) cockroaches and did not appear to exhibit digestive strategies for retaining undereaten nutrients. However, a GA × WT 'hybrid' had lower glucose aversion than GA and greater access to macronutrients within glucose-based diets - while still having lower intake and survival than WT. Given these intermediate foraging constraints, hybrids may be a reservoir for this maladaptive trait in the absence of positive selection and may account for the rapid evolution of this trait following bait application.
Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C
Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia.
Residents in long-term care facilities and nursing homes have a relative higher risk for infections. The nocturnal and filthy habits of cockroaches may be ideal disseminators of pathogenic microorganisms in these institutions. This study was designed to determine the infestation and vector potential of cockroaches under this institutional environment. Cockroaches were collected from 69 long-term care facilities and nursing homes in Kaohsiung City. Risk factors related to cockroach infestation were determined by questionnaire survey. In addition, bacteria were isolated and identified from the alimentary tract and external surface of these insects. Antibiotic resistances of these microorganisms were then determined. Cockroach infestation was found in 45 (65.2%) institutions and 558 cockroaches (119 Periplaneta americana and 439 Blattella germanica) were collected. A significant association was found between cockroach infestation and indoor environmental sanitation. From 250 adult cockroaches, 38 species of gram-negative bacteria, 20 species of glucose non-fermenter bacilli and 6 species of gram-positive bacteria were isolated. Moreover, antibiotic resistances were found among the bacteria isolated. These findings indicate that cockroaches have the potential in transmitting pathogenic bacteria with multidrug resistances in long-term care facilities and nursing homes.
Lee, Hyo-Rim; Kim, Gil-Hah; Choi, Won-Sil; Park, Il-Kwon
We evaluated the repellent activity of 12 Apiaceae plant essential oils and their components against male and female adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica L., to find new natural repellents. Of all the plant essential oils tested, ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oils showed the most potent repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches. Repellent activities of chemicals already identified in active oils were also investigated. Of the compounds identified, carvacrol, thymol, and R-(-)-carvone showed >80% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 2.5 µg/cm2. S-(+)-Carvone, (+)-dihydrocarvone, and terpinen-4-ol showed >70% repellent activity against male and female adult German cockroaches at 10 µg/cm2. Our results indicated that Apiaceae plant essential oils and their constituents have good potential as natural repellents against adult German cockroaches. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Zhong, Zhuqing; Wang, Fang; Wang, Tiansheng; Li, Liangming; Tan, Guolin
To investigate aeroallergen spectrum and allergy positive rates of patients with child allergic rhinitis and analyze its related factors. Skin prick test was carried out in 562 cases with child allergic rhinitis using 13 inhaled allergens, and detailed history was collected in all cases. Four hundred and fifty-seven (81.3%) of 562 cases showed positive reaction to at least one allergen out of 13 allergens. The most common allergens found in patients was Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and positive reaction was 93.1% in child allergic rhinitis, followed by tropical mite, Periplaneta americana, Blattella germanica and dog hair. The pollen allergen, most common in American and European, was pretty rare in this study. The prevalence of child allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in urban than in rural (P<0.01). There was no adverse effect appeared in children with allergic rhinitis underwent skin prick test. The major allergen of allergic rhinitis is mite for child allergic rhinitis, and relates to housing enviroment. Most of patients with child allergic rhinitis can be treated by the mite specific immunotherapy. The skin prick test is a safe technique for diagnosis of children with allergic rhinitis.
Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria; Smith, Jennifer J.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Gilchrist, John; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Nicholson, Graham M.; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F.
The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis. In striking contrast, Ae1a was lethal to closely related fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) but induced no adverse effects in the recalcitrant lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that Ae1a potently inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel BgNaV1 from the German cockroach Blattella germanica by shifting the threshold for channel activation to more depolarized potentials. In contrast, Ae1a failed to significantly affect sodium currents in dorsal unpaired median neurons from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. We show that Ae1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor and that sensitivity to the toxin is conferred by natural sequence variations in the S1-S2 loop of domain II. The phyletic specificity of Ae1a provides crucial information for development of sodium channel insecticides that target key insect pests without harming beneficial species.
Ylla, Guillem; Fromm, Bastian; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier
Is there a correlation between miRNA diversity and levels of organismic complexity? Exhibiting extraordinary levels of morphological and developmental complexity, insects are the most diverse animal class on earth. Their evolutionary success was in particular shaped by the innovation of holometabolan metamorphosis in endopterygotes. Previously, miRNA evolution had been linked to morphological complexity, but astonishing variation in the currently available miRNA complements of insects made this link unclear. To address this issue, we sequenced the miRNA complement of the hemimetabolan Blattella germanica and reannotated that of two other hemimetabolan species, Locusta migratoria and Acyrthosiphon pisum, and of four holometabolan species, Apis mellifera, Tribolium castaneum, Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster. Our analyses show that the variation of insect miRNAs is an artefact mainly resulting from poor sampling and inaccurate miRNA annotation, and that insects share a conserved microRNA toolkit of 65 families exhibiting very low variation. For example, the evolutionary shift toward a complete metamorphosis was accompanied only by the acquisition of three and the loss of one miRNA families. PMID:27883064
Smith, Jennifer J.; Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Bosmans, Frank; Nicholson, Graham M.; King, Glenn F.
Many chemical insecticides are becoming less efficacious due to rising resistance in pest species, which has created much interest in the development of new, eco-friendly bioinsecticides. Since insects are the primary prey of most spiders, their venoms are a rich source of insect-active peptides that can be used as leads for new bioinsecticides or as tools to study molecular receptors that are insecticidal targets. In the present study, we isolated two insecticidal peptides, µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b, from venom of the African tarantula Monocentropus balfouri. Recombinant µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b paralyzed both Lucilia cuprina (Australian sheep blowfly) and Musca domestica (housefly), but neither peptide affected larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworms). Both peptides inhibited currents mediated by voltage-gated sodium (NaV) and calcium channels in Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) dorsal unpaired median neurons, and they also inhibited the cloned Blattella germanica (German cockroach) NaV channel (BgNaV1). An additional effect seen only with Mb1a on BgNaV1 was a delay in fast inactivation. Comparison of the NaV channel sequences of the tested insect species revealed that variations in the S1–S2 loops in the voltage sensor domains might underlie the differences in activity between different phyla. PMID:28475112
Smith, Jennifer J; Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Bosmans, Frank; Nicholson, Graham M; King, Glenn F
Many chemical insecticides are becoming less efficacious due to rising resistance in pest species, which has created much interest in the development of new, eco-friendly bioinsecticides. Since insects are the primary prey of most spiders, their venoms are a rich source of insect-active peptides that can be used as leads for new bioinsecticides or as tools to study molecular receptors that are insecticidal targets. In the present study, we isolated two insecticidal peptides, µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b, from venom of the African tarantula Monocentropus balfouri. Recombinant µ/ω-TRTX-Mb1a and -Mb1b paralyzed both Lucilia cuprina (Australian sheep blowfly) and Musca domestica (housefly), but neither peptide affected larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworms). Both peptides inhibited currents mediated by voltage-gated sodium (NaV) and calcium channels in Periplaneta americana (American cockroach) dorsal unpaired median neurons, and they also inhibited the cloned Blattella germanica (German cockroach) NaV channel (BgNaV1). An additional effect seen only with Mb1a on BgNaV1 was a delay in fast inactivation. Comparison of the NaV channel sequences of the tested insect species revealed that variations in the S1-S2 loops in the voltage sensor domains might underlie the differences in activity between different phyla.
Yan, Dah-Chin; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Syh-Jae; Wan, Gwo-Hwa
This study examined seasonal changes in indoor Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 (Der p 1)/Blattella germanica 1 (Bla g 1) antigen concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic and atopic nonasthmatic children. Possible associations between environmental allergen exposure and levels of exhaled breath indices were also evaluated.A total of 38 atopic children were recruited for this cross-sectional study: 22 were asthmatic and 16 were nonasthmatic. Home visits were conducted for indoor air and dust sampling each season. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)/spirometric measurements were taken and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected after sampling of the domestic environment.The highest Der p 1 concentrations were on the top of mattresses in the homes of recruited children. The floors of kitchens and living rooms had the highest Bla g 1 concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic children. A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure of mattress, bedroom floor, and living room floor and eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children. The Der p 1 concentrations on the surfaces of mattress and bedroom floor were positively related to high eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children after adjusting for season. No association was found between Der p 1 exposure and EBC pH values in the recruited children.A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure and high eNO levels in atopic asthmatic children, especially in Der p 1 exposure of mattress and bedroom floor.
Ikonomopoulou, Maria P; Smith, Jennifer J; Herzig, Volker; Pineda, Sandy S; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Er, Sing-Yan; Durek, Thomas; Gilchrist, John; Alewood, Paul F; Nicholson, Graham M; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F
Sheep flystrike is caused by parasitic flies laying eggs on soiled wool or open wounds, after which the hatched maggots feed on the sheep flesh and often cause large lesions. It is a significant economic problem for the livestock industry as infestations are difficult to control due to ongoing cycles of larval development into flies followed by further egg laying. We therefore screened venom fractions from the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix to identify toxins active against the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, which is the primary cause of flystrike in Australia. This screen led to isolation of two insecticidal peptides, Ct1a and Ct1b, that are lethal to blowflies within 24 h of injection. The primary structure of these peptides was determined using a combination of Edman degradation and sequencing of a C. tropix venom-gland transcriptome. Ct1a and Ct1b contain 39 and 38 amino acid residues, respectively, including six cysteine residues that form three disulfide bonds. Recombinant production in bacteria (Escherichia coli) resulted in low yields of Ct1a whereas solid-phase peptide synthesis using native chemical ligation produced sufficient quantities of Ct1a for functional analyses. Synthetic Ct1a had no effect on voltage-gated sodium channels from the American cockroach Periplanata americana or the German cockroach Blattella germanica, but it was lethal to sheep blowflies with an LD50 of 1687 pmol/g.
Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria; Smith, Jennifer J; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Gilchrist, John; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Nicholson, Graham M; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F
The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis. In striking contrast, Ae1a was lethal to closely related fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) but induced no adverse effects in the recalcitrant lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that Ae1a potently inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel BgNaV1 from the German cockroach Blattella germanica by shifting the threshold for channel activation to more depolarized potentials. In contrast, Ae1a failed to significantly affect sodium currents in dorsal unpaired median neurons from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. We show that Ae1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor and that sensitivity to the toxin is conferred by natural sequence variations in the S1-S2 loop of domain II. The phyletic specificity of Ae1a provides crucial information for development of sodium channel insecticides that target key insect pests without harming beneficial species.
Jensen, Kim; Ko, Alexander E.; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Fitness-related costs of evolving insecticide resistance have been reported in a number of insect species, but the interplay between evolutionary adaptation to insecticide pressure and variable environmental conditions has received little attention. We provisioned nymphs from three German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations, which differed in insecticide resistance, with either nutritionally rich or poor (diluted) diet throughout their development. One population was an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain; the other two populations originated from a field-collected indoxacarb-resistant population, which upon collection was maintained either with or without further selection with indoxacarb. We then measured development time, survival to the adult stage, adult body size, and results of a challenge with indoxacarb. Our results show that indoxacarb resistance and poor nutritional condition increased development time and lowered adult body size, with reinforcing interactions. We also found lower survival to the adult stage in the indoxacarb-selected population, which was exacerbated by poor nutrition. In addition, nutrition imparted a highly significant effect on indoxacarb susceptibility. This study exemplifies how poor nutritional condition can aggravate the life-history costs of resistance and elevate the detrimental effects of insecticide exposure, demonstrating how environmental conditions and resistance may interactively impact individual fitness and insecticide efficacy.
Herboso, Leire; Oliveira, Marisa M.; Talamillo, Ana; Pérez, Coralia; González, Monika; Martín, David; Sutherland, James D.; Shingleton, Alexander W.; Mirth, Christen K.; Barrio, Rosa
Animals have a determined species-specific body size that results from the combined action of hormones and signaling pathways regulating growth rate and duration. In Drosophila, the steroid hormone ecdysone controls developmental transitions, thereby regulating the duration of the growth period. Here we show that ecdysone promotes the growth of imaginal discs in mid-third instar larvae, since imaginal discs from larvae with reduced or no ecdysone synthesis are smaller than wild type due to smaller and fewer cells. We show that insulin-like peptides are produced and secreted normally in larvae with reduced ecdysone synthesis, and upstream components of insulin/insulin-like signaling are activated in their discs. Instead, ecdysone appears to regulate the growth of imaginal discs via Thor/4E-BP, a negative growth regulator downstream of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor/Tor pathways. Discs from larvae with reduced ecdysone synthesis have elevated levels of Thor, while mutations in Thor partially rescue their growth. The regulation of organ growth by ecdysone is evolutionarily conserved in hemimetabolous insects, as shown by our results obtained using Blattella germanica. In summary, our data provide new insights into the relationship between components of the insulin/insulin-like/Tor and ecdysone pathways in the control of organ growth. PMID:26198204
Yan, Dah-Chin; Chung, Fen-Fang; Lin, Syh-Jae; Wan, Gwo-Hwa
Abstract This study examined seasonal changes in indoor Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 (Der p 1)/Blattella germanica 1 (Bla g 1) antigen concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic and atopic nonasthmatic children. Possible associations between environmental allergen exposure and levels of exhaled breath indices were also evaluated. A total of 38 atopic children were recruited for this cross-sectional study: 22 were asthmatic and 16 were nonasthmatic. Home visits were conducted for indoor air and dust sampling each season. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO)/spirometric measurements were taken and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected after sampling of the domestic environment. The highest Der p 1 concentrations were on the top of mattresses in the homes of recruited children. The floors of kitchens and living rooms had the highest Bla g 1 concentrations in the homes of atopic asthmatic children. A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure of mattress, bedroom floor, and living room floor and eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children. The Der p 1 concentrations on the surfaces of mattress and bedroom floor were positively related to high eNO levels in the atopic asthmatic children after adjusting for season. No association was found between Der p 1 exposure and EBC pH values in the recruited children. A positive correlation was found between Der p 1 exposure and high eNO levels in atopic asthmatic children, especially in Der p 1 exposure of mattress and bedroom floor. PMID:27684812
Bellés, X; Graham, L A; Bendena, W G; Ding, Q I; Edwards, J P; Weaver, R J; Tobe, S S
Allatostatins (ASTs) of the Tyr/Phe-Xaa-Phe-Gly Leu/Ile-NH2 family are a group of insect neuropeptides that inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the corpora allata. We have obtained genomic DNA sequences that specify the preproallatostatin precursor for the cockroaches, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica, Blaberus (cranufer and Supella longipalpa. The sequences obtained are similar to those of Diploptera punctata and Periplaneta americana reported previously. The precursors of all these cockroach species are similar in size, and the organization of the ASTs that they contain (there are 13 or 14, depending on the species) have been conserved. With the sequences of these precursors, and using the homologous sequence in the orthopteran Schistocera gregari as an outgroup, a phylogenetic analysis using parsimony was carried out. The dendrograms obtained from these analyses. using the amino acid as well as the nucleotide sequences, are comparable with current models for cockroach phylogeny. Parsimony analysis was also used to study the genealogy of the different ASTs within the same precursor. Results suggest that the AST sequences were generated through a process of internal gene duplication which occurred before these species diverged from each other in evolutionary time.
Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu
A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.
Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Kumar, Ranjit; Suib, Steven L; Silverman, Jules
Territorial boundaries between conspecific social insect colonies are maintained through a highly developed nestmate recognition system modulated by heritable and, in some instances, nonheritable cues. Argentine ants, Linepithema humile, use both genetic and environmentally derived cues to discriminate nestmates from nonnestmates. We explored the possibility that intraspecific aggression in the Argentine ant might diminish when colonies shared a common diet. After segregating recently field-collected colony pairs into high or moderate aggression categories, we examined the effect of one of three diets: two hydrocarbon-rich insect prey, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa, and an artificial (insect-free) diet, on the magnitude of aggression loss. Aggression diminished between colony pairs that were initially moderately aggressive. However, initially highly aggressive colony pairs maintained high levels of injurious aggression throughout the study, independent of diet type. Each diet altered the cuticular hydrocarbon profile by contributing unique, diet-specific cues. We suggest that acquisition of common exogenous nestmate recognition cues from shared food sources may diminish aggression and promote fusion in neighboring colonies of the Argentine ant.
Development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol for rapid detection and differentiation of four cockroach vectors (group I "Dirty 22" species) responsible for food contamination and spreading of foodborne pathogens: public health importance.
Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Khristova, Marina; Tang, Kevin; Sulaiman, Nikhat; Phifer, Edwin; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil
Assessing the adulteration of food products and the presence of filth and extraneous materials is one of the measures that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes in implementing regulatory actions of public health importance. To date, 22 common pest species (also known as the "Dirty 22" species) have been regarded by this agency as the spreaders of foodborne diseases. We have further categorized the Dirty 22 species into four groups: I has four cockroach species, II has two ant species, III has 12 fly species, and IV has four rodent species. The presence of any Dirty 22 species is also considered an indicator of unsanitary conditions in food processing and storage facilities. In this study, we describe the development of a two-step nested PCR protocol to amplify the small subunit ribosomal gene of group I Dirty 22 species that include four cockroach species: Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Supella longipalpa, along with the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection and differentiation of these violative species. This method will be utilized when the specimen cannot be identified with conventional microscopic taxonomic methods, especially when only small body parts are separated and recovered from food samples for analysis or when these body parts are in a decomposed state. This new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism will provide correct identification of group I Dirty 22 species; this information can then be used in regulation and prevention of foodborne pathogens.
García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.
Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli
Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host's nitrogen economy.
Liccardi, G; Noschese, P; Salzillo, A; Morandi, M; Calderaro, F; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G
The aim of our study was the evaluation of the role of these insects as causative agents of perennial rhinitis. We studied 317 subjects of both sexes (175 F and 142 M) living in Naples area and examined consecutively in our Centre for perennial nasal symptoms of suspected IgE mediated aetiology. All patients underwent the following diagnostic procedures: anamnestic procedures by using an internal questionnaire, clinical examination, skin prick test by using commercially available allergenic extracts and an allergenic extract containing the whole bodies of Blattella germanica and orientalis, Periplaneta americana. Blood samples for specific IgE determinations and a rhinologic visit were also carried out in patients with cockroach skin Prick test positivity. 14 of 317 subjects, prevalently young males, presented a skin positivity to cockroach allergens. All patients showed a moderate low degree of cutaneous and a low degree of serologic sensitization to allergens of these insects. Our preliminary data seem to demonstrate a mild role of cockroaches as causative agents of perennial rhinitis in Naples area. Further studies are necessary for a more appropriate knowledge of this allergy.
López-Sánchez, María José; Neef, Alexander; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Navarro, Lara; Jiménez, Ricardo; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés
Blattabacteria are intracellular endosymbionts of cockroaches and primitive termites that belong to the class Flavobacteria and live only in specialized cells in the abdominal fat body of their hosts. In the present study we determined genome sizes as well as genome copy numbers for the endosymbionts of three cockroach species, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana and Blatta orientalis. The sole presence of blattabacteria in the fat body was demonstrated by rRNA-targeting techniques. The genome sizes of the three blattabacteria were determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The resulting total genome sizes for the three symbionts were all approximately 650 +/- 15 kb. Comparison of the genome sizes with those of free-living Bacteroidetes shows extended reduction, as occurs in other obligatory insect endosymbionts. Genome copy numbers were determined based on cell counts and determination of DNA amounts via quantitative PCR. Values between 10.2 and 18.3 and between 323 and 353 were found for the symbionts of P. americana and B. orientalis respectively. Polyploidy in intracellular bacteria may play a significant role in the genome reduction process.
Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli
Many insect species have established long-term symbiotic relationships with intracellular bacteria. Symbiosis with bacteria has provided insects with novel ecological capabilities, which have allowed them colonize previously unexplored niches. Despite its importance to the understanding of the emergence of biological complexity, the evolution of symbiotic relationships remains hitherto a mystery in evolutionary biology. In this study, we contribute to the investigation of the evolutionary leaps enabled by mutualistic symbioses by sequencing the genome of Blattabacterium cuenoti, primary endosymbiont of the omnivorous cockroach Blatta orientalis, and one of the most ancient symbiotic associations. We perform comparative analyses between the Blattabacterium cuenoti genome and that of previously sequenced endosymbionts, namely those from the omnivorous hosts the Blattella germanica (Blattelidae) and Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and the endosymbionts harbored by two wood-feeding hosts, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus (Cryptocercidae) and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis (Termitidae). Our study shows a remarkable evolutionary stasis of this symbiotic system throughout the evolutionary history of cockroaches and the deepest branching termite M. darwiniensis, in terms of not only chromosome architecture but also gene content, as revealed by the striking conservation of the Blattabacterium core genome. Importantly, the architecture of central metabolic network inferred from the endosymbiont genomes was established very early in Blattabacterium evolutionary history and could be an outcome of the essential role played by this endosymbiont in the host’s nitrogen economy. PMID:23355305
Kleespies; Tidona; Darai
Typical signs of an iridovirus infection were observed in two species of fatally diseased crickets, Gryllus campestris L. and Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). The infection was manifested by hypertrophy and bluish iridescence of the affected fat body cells. Electron microscope investigations led to the identification of a new iridovirus, which was termed cricket iridovirus (CrIV). In negatively stained preparations the size of the icosahedral virus particles ranged from 151 nm (side-side) to 167 nm (apex-apex). Assembly of virions occurred in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied fat body cells, where they often accumulated in paracrystalline arrays. Genetic analyses of purified viral DNA using a variety of restriction enzymes revealed that CrIV is distinct from all other known iridoviruses that have been isolated from insects and reported so far. In host range studies it was shown that CrIV can be transmitted perorally to other orthopteran species, causing characteristic symptoms and fatal disease. These species include Gryllus bimaculatus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae), which represents one of the most important pest insects in developing countries, as well as the cockroaches Blattella germanica L. and Blatta orientalis L. (both Orthoptera, Blattidae). Consequently, the isolation and characterization of this new cricket iridovirus is of particular interest in view of its possible use in biological or integrated control. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Pfiester, Margie; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M
The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., like other bed bug species, is difficult to visually locate because it is cryptic. Detector dogs are useful for locating bed bugs because they use olfaction rather than vision. Dogs were trained to detect the bed bug (as few as one adult male or female) and viable bed bug eggs (five, collected 5-6 d after feeding) by using a modified food and verbal reward system. Their efficacy was tested with bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs placed in vented polyvinyl chloride containers. Dogs were able to discriminate bed bugs from Camponotus floridanus Buckley, Blattella germanica (L.), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), with a 97.5% positive indication rate (correct indication of bed bugs when present) and 0% false positives (incorrect indication of bed bugs when not present). Dogs also were able to discriminate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs from dead bed bugs, cast skins, and feces, with a 95% positive indication rate and a 3% false positive rate on bed bug feces. In a controlled experiment in hotel rooms, dogs were 98% accurate in locating live bed bugs. A pseudoscent prepared from pentane extraction of bed bugs was recognized by trained dogs as bed bug scent (100% indication). The pseudoscent could be used to facilitate detector dog training and quality assurance programs. If trained properly, dogs can be used effectively to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.
Shahraki, GholamHossein; Bin Ibrahim, Yusof; Noor, Hafidzi Mohd; Rafinejad, Javad; Shahar, Mohd Khadri
This study assessed the effectiveness of a biorational control approach using 2% hydramethylnon gel bait on German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) in some residential and hospital buildings in South Western Iran. In total, three buildings consisting of 150 apartment units and 101 hospital units were monitored weekly via sticky trap for German cockroach infestations over a period of eight months. These infested units were randomly subjected to intervention and control treatments. Pamphlets and posters were provided and lectures were given to support the educational programmes as a tactic of the biorational system. Survey on cockroach index for intervention units showed 67-94% recovery to achieve clean level of infestation for intervention units of the residential buildings and 83% for the hospital. Mean percentage reductions for treatment groups throughout the 15-week treatment period were 76.8% for the residential buildings and 88.1% for the hospital, showing significant differences compared to the control groups. Linear regression of infestation rates were recorded weekly after treatment and their negative slope for treatment groups substantiated significant reductions for interventions. The results of this study showed that biorational control method, using gel bait, educational programmes and sanitation, is an effective way to manage German cockroach infestation.
Maestro, José L; Pascual, Núria; Treiblmayr, Karl; Lozano, Jesús; Bellés, Xavier
Levels of juvenile hormone III (JH), FGLamide allatostatin peptides (ASTs), ASTs precursor (preproAST) mRNA and methyl farnesoate epoxidase (CYP15A1) mRNA were measured in embryos of the cockroach Blattella germanica. JH starts to rise just after dorsal closure, reaches maximal levels between 60% and 80% of embryogenesis, and decrease subsequently to undetectable levels. ASTs show low levels during the first two thirds of embryogenesis, increase thereafter and maintain high levels until hatching. PreproAST mRNA shows quite high levels during the two days following oviposition, thus behaving as a maternal transcript, the levels then become very low until mid embryogenesis, and increase afterwards, peaking towards the end of embryo development. CYP15A1 transcripts were detected around 25% embryogenesis and the levels tended to increase through embryogenesis, although differences amongst the days studied were not statistically significant. The opposite patterns of JH and AST towards the end of embryo development, along with the detection of AST immunoreactivity in corpora allata from late embryos, suggest that JH decline is caused by the increase of AST. Moreover, the uncorrelated patterns of JH concentration and CYP15A1 mRNA levels suggest that CYP15A1 expression does not modulate JH production.
Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Scherer, Clay W; Bennett, Gary W
Horizontal transfer of indoxacarb in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), was examined under laboratory conditions. Results show that a single bait-fed adult cockroach (i.e., the donor) transferred indoxacarb to numerous primary recipients (secondary mortality),which then became secondary donors. These recipients subsequently became donors to other cockroaches and caused significant mortality in other members of the aggregation, resulting in tertiary kill. Indoxacarb was effectively transferred among adult cockroaches and resulted in significant secondary mortality. When adult males served as donors and vectored the insecticide to adult males, the donor:recipient ratio affected the mortality of the recipients and the rate of secondary mortality increased with increasing the ratio of donors to recipients. Furthermore, secondary mortality in the untreated cockroaches was significantly affected by the freshness of excretions from the donors, the presence of alternative food, and the duration of contact between the donors and the recipients. Ingested indoxacarb was most effectively translocated when the recipients interacted with freshly symptomatic donors in the absence of alternative food. The transfer of indoxacarb continued beyond secondary mortality and resulted in significant tertiary mortality. Excretions from a single bait-fed adult killed 38/50 (76%) nymphs within 72 h. The dead nymphs then vectored indoxacarb to 20 adult males and killed 16/20 (81%) recipients within 72 h. Behavioral mechanisms involved in the horizontal transfer of indoxacarb may include: contact with excretions, necrophagy, emetophagy, and ingestion of other excretions that originate from the donors.
Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Silva, Isabel; Cooper, Bruce; Scharf, Michael E
Insecticides that are used for pest control undergo physical and biological (enzymatic) degradation. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine class sodium channel blocker insecticide used for German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) control. At present, no information is available on enzymatic biotransformation or metabolism of indoxacarb in this important urban pest. We studied the biotransformation pathways of indoxacarb in one susceptible and three field strains with varying susceptibility levels using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As shown in other insect species we found evidence for hydrolase-based bioactivation of indoxacarb to a toxic decarbomethoxylated metabolite, DCJW. In addition, both indoxacarb and DCJW were further metabolized to hydroxy, oxadiazine ring-opened and hydroxylated ring-opened metabolites. In general, higher indoxacarb disappearance, increased formation of DCJW and the above-mentioned metabolites were observed in the three field strains. In vitro biotransformation studies showed that hydroxylated and oxadiazine ring-opened metabolite formation is NADPH/cytochrome P450-dependent. Bioassays and in vivo metabolism experiments using the enzyme-inhibiting insecticide synergists, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), provided insights into potential indoxacarb resistance mechanisms that may proliferate in German cockroach field strains following unchecked selection pressures. The information presented here is an essential step toward developing indoxacarb resistance management programs and also reveals mechanisms of secondary/tertiary indoxacarb toxicity.
Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M
The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.
Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Ozaki, Mamiko; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishikawa, Michiko; Nishida, Ritsuo
Females of Blattella germanica feed compulsively on a nuptial secretion from the male's eighth tergal gland (TG-8) during courtship. Using TG-8 extract and its essential ingredients, maltotriose (MT) and 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (PC), we investigated the perception of the secretion by gustatory sensilla in both sexes. Female-biased chemosensitivity was found in the feeding responses to the TG-8 extract. The TG-8 extract induced specific impulses in four functionally different receptor cells: the sugar, salt and other two types of receptor cells in a single gustatory sensillum on the paraglossae in both sexes. The impulse frequencies of the sugar receptor cell and a receptor cell of unknown type were significantly higher in females than those in males. There were no sexual differences in the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to MT alone; no responses were elicited by PC. However, a mixture of MT and PC elicited the behavioral responses more strongly than MT in females. The impulse frequency of sugar receptor cells toward the mixture of MT and PC also increased in females but not in males. These results suggest that the synergistic effect of PC on 'sweetness' of MT in the female cockroach contributes to her compulsive nuptial feeding. The female-biased gustatory sensitivity seems to ensure successful coupling during the nuptial feeding.
Saitou, Keiko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Kawakami, Yasushi; Fukuyama, Masafumi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were isolated from 45 of 370 (12.2%) cockroaches captured in hospitals. By cockroach species, the bacterial strains were isolated from 39 of 181 (21.5%) Periplaneta fuliginosa and 6 of 183 (3.3%) Blattella germanica, showing a significant difference (p<0.01). Many P. aeruginosa-carrying cockroaches inhabited locker rooms (66.7%) and kitchens (17.8%). In terms of serotyping, many isolates were typed into groups A, G, and B. In drug sensitivity tests, strains showed the highest sensitivity to ciprofloxacin with an MIC90 of 0.25 microg/ml, followed by 2 microg/ml meropenem, and 4 microg/ml ceftazidime, gentamicin, and ofloxacin. In contrast, many strains were resistant to cefotaxime and minocycline, accounting for 86.7% of all resistant strains. However, there was no multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strain, and all strains were negative for the metallo-beta-lactamase gene (IMP-1 and VIM-2). These findings suggested that cockroach-derived P. aeruginosa may contaminate hospital environments, for which the control of disease-carrying insects in hospitals is important.
Chen, Hao; Yang, Hai-Wei; Wei, Ji-Fu; Tao, Ai-Lin
Per a 6 and Bla g 6 are cockroach allergens found in Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica, respectively. The objective of the present study was to predict the B‑ and T‑cell epitopes of the Per a 6 and Bla g 6 allergens. Three immunoinformatics tools, the DNAStar Protean system, the Bioinformatics Predicted Antigenic Peptides system and the BepiPred 1.0 server, were used to predict the potential B‑cell epitopes, while Net‑MHCIIpan‑2.0 and NetMHCII‑2.2 were used to predict the T‑cell epitopes of the two allergens. As a result, seven peptides were predicted in the Per a 6 allergen and seven peptides were predicted in the Bla g 6 allergen in the B‑cell epitope predictions. In the T‑cell prediction, the Per a 6 allergen was predicted to have nine strongly binding nonamer core epitope sequences (IC50<50 nm) and 28 weakly binding sequences (50 nm
Gomez-Orte, Eva; Belles, Xavier
How does a juvenile insect transform into an adult? This question, which sums up the wonder of insect metamorphosis, has fascinated mankind since ancient times. Modern physiology has established the endocrine basis regulating these transformations, which mainly depend on two hormone types: ecdysteroids, which promote molts, and juvenile hormones, which repress the transformation into the adult stage. The interplay of these two hormones regulates the genes involved in juvenile and adult programs and the shift from one to the other. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, which participate in many biological processes, and we wondered whether they might be also involved in insect metamorphosis. In insects, Dicer-1 ribonuclease transforms miRNA precursors into mature miRNAs. Thus, using systemic RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the expression of Dicer-1 in the hemimetabolan insect Blattella germanica, we depleted miRNA contents in the last instar nymph. This practically inhibited metamorphosis after the next molt, as the resulting specimens showed nymphoid features and were able to molt again. The experiments show that miRNAs play a key role in hemimetabolan metamorphosis, perhaps regulating genes that are juvenile hormone targets.
Jensen, Kim; Ko, Alexander E.; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Fitness-related costs of evolving insecticide resistance have been reported in a number of insect species, but the interplay between evolutionary adaptation to insecticide pressure and variable environmental conditions has received little attention. We provisioned nymphs from three German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations, which differed in insecticide resistance, with either nutritionally rich or poor (diluted) diet throughout their development. One population was an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain; the other two populations originated from a field-collected indoxacarb-resistant population, which upon collection was maintained either with or without further selection with indoxacarb. We then measured development time, survival to the adult stage, adult body size, and results of a challenge with indoxacarb. Our results show that indoxacarb resistance and poor nutritional condition increased development time and lowered adult body size, with reinforcing interactions. We also found lower survival to the adult stage in the indoxacarb-selected population, which was exacerbated by poor nutrition. In addition, nutrition imparted a highly significant effect on indoxacarb susceptibility. This study exemplifies how poor nutritional condition can aggravate the life-history costs of resistance and elevate the detrimental effects of insecticide exposure, demonstrating how environmental conditions and resistance may interactively impact individual fitness and insecticide efficacy. PMID:27345220
Gore, J Chad; Schal, Coby
Boric acid dust has a long history as an insecticide in urban pest management, and it has been shown to be an effective alternative to conventional neurotoxic insecticides. However, dust formulations require specialized equipment and are difficult to apply, whereas gel and paste formulations contain large amounts of boric acid and tend to be less efficacious than other insecticide baits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of borate solutions as baits against the German cockroach. Several borate-sugar combinations were evaluated in choice and no-choice assays in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded for 15 d and expressed as lethal time90, the time taken to kill 90% of the cockroaches. Results showed that boric acid was more effective than sodium tetraborate or disodium octaborate tetrahydrate and that aqueous solutions containing mixtures of 0.5-2% boric acid and any of several inexpensive sugars, including fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose as a phagostimulant, at molar concentrations of 0.05-1.0, can provide rapid and effective kill of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.).
Szumlas, Daniel E
Behavioral responses and mortality of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), after exposure to solutions of common household dishwashing liquid diluted in tap water without other known insecticidal active ingredients are described. Soap solutions of 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0% were tested on first and second instars, fifth and sixth instars, and adults. Cockroaches were treated individually or in groups. Behavioral observations after treatment included an immediate knockdown period, an awakening and a struggle period, an unresponsive period, and either death or recovery between 30 min and 18 h after treatment. Probit analysis gave an excellent fit of unresponsive rates 18 h after treatment with the various soap concentrations, and LD50 and LD99 values were calculated to be 0.4 and 3.0% soap, respectively. Adult females were the most difficult to kill, but at soap concentrations of 1% or higher, 95% or greater unresponsiveness and death occurred. Soap concentrations of 3% or greater resulted in 100% unresponsiveness after 3 min, and eventually resulted in 100% mortality within 72 h for all adults and nymphs treated. Observations on the mode and site of action for soap are consistent with the blockage of spiracles and/or tracheae that results in asphyxiation and death. Future investigations into the efficacy of soaps against other arthropod groups are warranted and may be beneficial in certain situations.
Jensen, Kim; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Glucose-aversion is a heritable trait that evolved in a number of German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations in response to strong selection with glucose-containing insecticide baits. However, in the absence of glucose-containing bait, glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches have lower performance than wild-type (WT) cockroaches in several fitness-determining traits. We allocated 48 caged populations initiated with homozygous GA and WT adults to four dietary treatments consisting of either pure rodent chow, rodent chow mixed to yield a content of either 20% glucose or 20% fructose, or a treatment consisting of choice between the 20% glucose- and the 20% fructose-containing food. After 6 months we found significantly higher frequency of WT individuals in populations restricted to the 20% glucose food, and after 12 months all dietary treatments contained significantly more WT individuals than expected. In accompanying experiments, we found lower survival and longer development time of GA nymphs restricted to glucose-containing food. We furthermore found evidence for assortative mating of females with males from their own genotype, with significant differences within WT cockroaches. Our study shows experimental evidence that within heterogeneous populations, WT German cockroaches will over time prevail in abundance over GA individuals, even when glucose is not a dietary component. PMID:28406167
Li, Yongqiang; Li, Chaojie; Zheng, Yanlong; Wei, Xingcun; Ma, Qiaoqiao; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yuxiu; Qin, Yaoguo; Yang, Na; Sun, Yufeng; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Wang, Qingmin
Two series of novel 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolines containing an oxime ether moiety were designed and synthesized via the key intermediate N-(2-chloro-1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide. The bioassay results showed that the target compounds with an oxime ether substituent at the para position of 4-phenyl exhibited excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus in the laboratory. Moreover, all of the target compounds had much higher activities than etoxazole, as the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the target compounds I-a-I-l and II-a-II-n against T. cinnabarinus were all over 90% at 0.001 mg L(-1), but etoxazole gave only 30% and 40% respectively at the same concentration. The activity order of compounds with regard to acaricidal activity in vivo was almost consistent with their affinity activity with sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of Blattella germanica in vitro, hence, it was supposed that the acaricidal mechanism of action of the target compounds was that they can bind with the site of SUR and therefore inhibit chitin synthesis. Moreover, the eminent effect of the compound II-l, [2-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde O-(4-(2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-4-yl)benzyl) oxime], against Panonychus citri and T. cinnabarinus in the field indicated that II-l exhibited a promising application prospect as a new candicate for controlling spider mites in the field.
Belles, Xavier; Santos, Carolina G
Recent studies on transcription factor E93 revealed that it triggers adult morphogenesis in Blattella germanica, Tribolium castaneum and Drosophila melanogaster. Moreover, we show here that Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a transducer of the antimetamorphic action of juvenile hormone (JH), represses E93 expression. Kr-h1 is upstream of E93, and upstream of Kr-h1 is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), the latter being the JH receptor in hemimetabolan and holometabolan species. As such, the Met - Kr-h1 - E93 pathway (hereinafter named "MEKRE93 pathway") appears to be central to the status quo action of JH, which switch adult morphogenesis off and on in species ranging from cockroaches to flies. The decrease in Kr-h1 mRNA and the rise of E93 expression that triggers adult morphogenesis occur at the beginning of the last instar nymph or in the prepupae of hemimetabolan and holometabolan species, respectively. This suggests that the hemimetabolan last nymph (considering the entire stage, from the apolysis to the last instar until the next apolysis that gives rise to the adult) is ontogenetically homologous to the holometabolan pupa (also considered between two apolyses, thus comprising the prepupal stage).
Böröczky, Katalin; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Batchelor, Dale; Zhukovskaya, Marianna; Schal, Coby
Grooming, a common behavior in animals, serves the important function of removing foreign materials from body surfaces. When antennal grooming was prevented in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy images revealed that an unstructured substance accumulated on nongroomed antennae, covering sensillar pores, but not on groomed antennae of the same individuals. Gas chromatography analysis of antennal extracts showed that over a 24-h period nongroomed antennae accumulated three to four times more cuticular hydrocarbons than groomed antennae. Moreover, nongroomed antennae accumulated significantly more environmental contaminants from surfaces (stearic acid) and from air (geranyl acetate) than groomed antennae. We hypothesized that the accumulation of excess native cuticular hydrocarbons on the antennae would impair olfactory reception. Electroantennogram experiments and single-sensillum recordings supported this hypothesis: antennae that were prevented from being groomed were significantly less responsive than groomed antennae to the sex pheromone component periplanone-B, as well as to the general odorants geranyl acetate and hexanol. We therefore conclude that antennal grooming removes excess native cuticular lipids and foreign chemicals that physically and/or chemically interfere with olfaction, and thus maintains the olfactory acuity of the antennae. Similar experimental manipulations of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus), and the housefly (Musca domestica), which use different modes of antennal grooming, support the hypothesis that antennal grooming serves a similar function in a wide range of insect taxa. PMID:23382193
Ferroni, Claudia; Bassetti, Lucio; Borzatta, Valerio; Capparella, Elisa; Gobbi, Carlotta; Guerrini, Alberto; Varchi, Greta
Pyrethroids are synthetic derivatives of naturally occurring pyrethrum. These molecules are widely used in agriculture for ant, fly and mosquito control and for lawn and garden care. Pyrethroids are the optically active esters of 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)-cyclopropane carboxylic acid, also known as chrysanthemic acid. However, their intense use has resulted in the development of resistance in many insect species. Herein, specific structural modifications of the pyrethroid scaffold and their effect on insecticidal activity, especially on resistant pests strains, are reported. The exposure to (1R)-trans-(E/Z)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzyl-3-(buta-1,3-dienyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate and its diastereomers produced 100% mortality in yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti), house mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) and houseflies (Musca domestica). Moreover, this compound provided complete knockdown within 15 min of exposure against cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and maintained an excellent knockdown activity at 10 days after treatment. Novel pyrethroid derivatives obtained from 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylpropenyl)-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid are described. These derivatives display high insecticidal activity, a wide spectrum of action and no toxicity towards mammalians. The proposed synthetic procedures are highly efficient and inexpensive, and therefore suitable for industrial scale-up. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Sultana, Israt; Ikeda, Izumi; Ozoe, Yoshihisa
Ten analogues of 6'-chloro-3-benzylideneanabaseine (CBA) bearing substituents at the ortho- and the para-positions of the phenyl group were synthesized, together with two related compounds. The affinity of the synthesized compounds for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the nerve cord of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) was examined by the radioligand binding assay using [(3)H]epibatidine (EPI), a nAChR agonist. All 12 tested compounds inhibited [(3)H]EPI binding, showing K(i) values ranging from 14.6 to 6830nM. The potency variation of para-substituted CBA analogues was explained by the steric (Delta B(1)) and electronic (sigma(p)) parameters of the para-substituents, or by the steric parameter and the charge of the N1 nitrogen atom (qN(1)). Among the CBA analogues, only two compounds containing a dimethylamino group and a methoxy group at the para-position showed high insecticidal activity against the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) when injected after pretreatment with metabolic inhibitors. High-affinity analogues of CBA might be suitable probes for use in classifying and characterizing insect nAChR subtypes.
Randall, J.; Cable, J.; Guschina, I. A.; Harwood, J. L.; Lello, J.
Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641
Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen
Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Kim; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules
Glucose-aversion is a heritable trait that evolved in a number of German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations in response to strong selection with glucose-containing insecticide baits. However, in the absence of glucose-containing bait, glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches have lower performance than wild-type (WT) cockroaches in several fitness-determining traits. We allocated 48 caged populations initiated with homozygous GA and WT adults to four dietary treatments consisting of either pure rodent chow, rodent chow mixed to yield a content of either 20% glucose or 20% fructose, or a treatment consisting of choice between the 20% glucose- and the 20% fructose-containing food. After 6 months we found significantly higher frequency of WT individuals in populations restricted to the 20% glucose food, and after 12 months all dietary treatments contained significantly more WT individuals than expected. In accompanying experiments, we found lower survival and longer development time of GA nymphs restricted to glucose-containing food. We furthermore found evidence for assortative mating of females with males from their own genotype, with significant differences within WT cockroaches. Our study shows experimental evidence that within heterogeneous populations, WT German cockroaches will over time prevail in abundance over GA individuals, even when glucose is not a dietary component.
Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria; Smith, Jennifer J.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Gilchrist, John; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Nicholson, Graham M.; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F.
The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis. In striking contrast, Ae1a was lethal to closely related fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) but induced no adverse effects in the recalcitrant lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that Ae1a potently inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel BgNaV1 from the German cockroach Blattella germanica by shifting the threshold for channel activation to more depolarized potentials. In contrast, Ae1a failed to significantly affect sodium currents in dorsal unpaired median neurons from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. We show that Ae1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor and that sensitivity to the toxin is conferred by natural sequence variations in the S1–S2 loop of domain II. The phyletic specificity of Ae1a provides crucial information for development of sodium channel insecticides that target key insect pests without harming beneficial species. PMID:27383378
Offermann, Lesa R.; Chan, Siew Leong; Osinski, Tomasz; Tan, Yih Wan; Chew, Fook Tim; Sivaraman, Jayaraman; Mok, Yu-Keung; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian
Bla g 4 is a male cockroach specific protein and is one of the major allergens produced by Blattella germanica (German cockroach). This protein belongs to the lipocalin family that comprises a set of proteins that characteristically bind small hydrophobic molecules and play a role in a number of processes such as: retinoid and pheromone transport, prostaglandin synthesis and mammalian immune response. Using NMR and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry we demonstrated that Bla g 4 binds tyramine and octopamine in solution. In addition, crystal structure analysis of the complex revealed details of tyramine binding. As tyramine and octopamine play important roles in invertebrates, and are counterparts to vertebrate adrenergic transmitters, we speculate that these molecules are physiological ligands for Bla g 4. The nature of binding these ligands to Bla g 4 sheds light on the possible biological function of the protein. In addition, we performed a large-scale analysis of Bla g 4 and Per a 4 (an allergen from American cockroach) homologs to get insights into the function of these proteins. This analysis together with a structural comparison of Blag 4 and Per a 4 suggests that these proteins may play different roles and most likely bind different ligands. PMID:24769496
Jéhan, H; Courtois, D; Ehret, C; Lerch, K; Pétiard, V
Irones are violet-scented ketonic compounds contained in the rhizome of certain species of iris. As cultivation of the iris tends to decrease, a selection program has been initiated to find the best performing clones in terms of growth and yield. Parallel to this selection, in vitro regeneration studies have been carried out in order to multiply interesting clones. A method of rapid multiplication by somatic embryogenesis associated with multibudding was developed. Callus was obtained from leaf bases, flower pieces or rhizome apices; the best explants were flower pieces. The induction media used to obtain embryogenic callus were Murashige & Skoog (1962) media. Assays with adding of proline in these media have showed that it could double the yield of embryogenic callus. The embryogenic expression medium was the Knudson's orchid agar (Knudson 1946) medium. Conformity of the plants obtained was checked by comparing their chemotypes with those of the mother plants.
Most up-to-data data from the literature, as well as our experience gained during the routine clinical practice, led us to investigate the incidence of sensibilization on the cockroaches, as well as its role in development of allergic rhinitis. The study included 46 patients with chronic rhinitis. Out of that number, 11 were sensibilized to cockroach extract, while in another 8 senzibilized patients, allergic rhinitis, induced by the same allergen, was evidenced as well. According to this study, we have concluded that in our conditions, cockroach is to be considered significant factor of sensibilization which is to be included into the standard set of inhalation allergens for skin tests.
Legendre, Frédéric; Whiting, Michael F; Bordereau, Christian; Cancello, Eliana M; Evans, Theodore A; Grandcolas, Philippe
A phylogenetic hypothesis of termite relationships was inferred from DNA sequence data. Seven gene fragments (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome oxidase II and cytochrome b) were sequenced for 40 termite exemplars, representing all termite families and 14 outgroups. Termites were found to be monophyletic with Mastotermes darwiniensis (Mastotermitidae) as sister group to the remainder of the termites. In this remainder, the family Kalotermitidae was sister group to other families. The families Kalotermitidae, Hodotermitidae and Termitidae were retrieved as monophyletic whereas the Termopsidae and Rhinotermitidae appeared paraphyletic. All of these results were very stable and supported with high bootstrap and Bremer values. The evolution of worker caste and foraging behavior were discussed according to the phylogenetic hypothesis. Our analyses suggested that both true workers and pseudergates ("false workers") were the result of at least two different origins. Our data support a traditional hypothesis of foraging behavior, in which the evolutionary transition from a one-piece type to a separate life type occurred through an intermediate behavioral form.
[Hymenolepis nana var. fraterna (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) in Leucophaea maderae (Dictyoptera: Blattidae): the host-parasite conflict after experimental inhibition of haemocytic reaction (author's transl)].
Pesson, B; Leger, N
Development of non-encapsulated cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana var. fraterna, in the haemocoele of Leucophaea maderae occured after the inhibition of the haemocytic reaction by irradiation or injection of a soluble antigen of Hymenolepis nana. Fine structure of the tegument of free larvae is observed and the mechanism of a possible defence of the parasite by the microvillar coat, discussed.
Effects of Developmental Temperature on Gametocysts and Oocysts of Two Species of Gregarines Blabericola migrator and Blabericola cubensis (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae) Parasitizing Blaberid Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae).
Kolman, Jon A; Clopton, Richard E; Clopton, Debra T
Abiotic environmental conditions, especially temperature and humidity, have profound effects on the growth and development of gregarines, but these effects remain largely undocumented. Quantifying the effects of environmental conditions on the growth and development of exogenous gregarine ontogenetic stages is an important first step in understanding the transmission, population dynamics, and environmental persistence of gregarine infection. In this study, we examined the effect of 6 environmental temperatures (10, 18, 22, 27, 35, and 40 C) at constant humidity (0 mmHg vapor pressure deficit) on gametocyst development and oocyst viability in 2 gregarine species: Blabericola migrator and Blabericola cubensis parasitizing the Tiger-striped Hissing Cockroach, Princisia vanwaerebecki, and the Discoid Cockroach, Blaberus discoidalis, respectively. Temperature has a significant effect on gametocyst development and oocyst viability for both gregarine species. Gametocyst development for both gregarine species displays a similar threshold response to environmental temperature: 10 and 40 C represent extremes outside their developmental range, but within these extremes, the relationship between gametocyst development and temperature is weakly direct. Dehiscence increased with temperature from 68% at 18 C to 93% at 22 C and remained at that level through 35 C. Developmental temperature also has a meaningful but inverse effect on oocyst viability of both B. migrator and B. cubensis. For both species, oocyst viability is highest at 18 and 22 C and is significantly reduced at 27 and 35 C. Thus oocyst production and sporozoite viability are linked but environmentally independent phenomena. Overall, there is an acceptable developmental temperature zone for B. migrator and B. cubensis that ranges from 18 to 27 C, but production of viable sporozoites is greatest in a relatively narrow zone around 22 C. Prior studies have postulated that mechanisms that concentrate oocysts and hosts, such as host behavior or host microhabitat preference, increase the host-oocyst encounter rate and thus transmission. This study indicates that abiotic influences on gametocyst development may also lead to heterogeneous oocyst distributions in the environment and increase the likelihood of host-oocyst encounters.
Trotter, Andrew J; McRAE, Jane M; Main, Dean C; Finston, Terrie L
Three new species of subterranean cockroach of the genus Nocticola from the Pilbara region of Western Australia are described on morphological characters of males. Nocticola quartermainei n. sp., Nocticola cockingi n. sp. and Nocticola currani n. sp. occur in fractured rock landforms and have varying degrees of troglomorphies. Sequence divergence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) clearly demonstrated populations are reproductively isolated over very short distances for the highly troglomorphic Nocticola cockingi n. sp. and Nocticola currani n. sp. and conversely, there is less isolation within the same landforms for the less troglomorphic Nocticola quartermainei n. sp.
Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression pattern of the ultraspiracle gene homolog (RXR/USP) from the hemimetabolous insect Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera, Blattidae) during vitellogenesis.
Elgendy, Azza M; Elmogy, Mohamed; Takeda, Makio
Ecdysteroid and sequiterpenoids juvenile hormones play a gonadotrophic role in the insect adult female vitellogenesis. The molecular basis of hormone action has been analyzed in great detail in flies and moths, but rarely in primitive insect orders. The primitive hemimetabolous insect Periplaneta americana was used, as a model, to isolate and characterize, for the first time, two cDNAs of RXR/USP, a component of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor. These two cDNAs correspond to two isoforms, named PamRXR-S (short form) and PamRXR-L (long form). Both are identical except for 25 amino acids deletion/insertion located in the loop between helices H1 and H3 of the ligand-binding domain. The two isoforms are differentially expressed in different tissues as revealed by RT-PCR and northern blot analysis. In fat body, brain, ovary, and muscle tissues, the predominant form was PamRXR-S, whereas PamRXR-L was abundant in ovaries. The PamRXR transcript was detected during all stages of vitellogenesis in the fat body with different levels. It was little low during the early vitellogenic period (days 2, 3), then a peak of increase was detected during days 4-6 (day 5) which was followed by another peak of increase at the end of vitellogenesis, day 9. We assumed that PamRXR might play a dual role of induction of vitellogenin through JH at early vitellogenesis and suppression through 20E during late vitellogenesis. The present work will pave the way for several other investigations to understand both the ecdysteroid-dependent genetic hierarchy and JH mechanism controlling vitellogenesis in the American cockroach, P. americana.
Environmental Persistence and Infectivity of Oocysts of Two Species of Gregarines, Blabericola migrator and Blabericola cubensis (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae), Parasitizing Blaberid Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae).
Clopton, Richard E; Steele, Shelby M; Clopton, Debra T
For apicomplexan parasites using an oral-fecal transmission route with significant environmental exposure, the environmental persistence and infectivity of the oocyst has a direct impact on local infection dynamics, including the ability to withstand extended periods without readily available hosts. Herein we quantify the environmental persistence and infectivity of the oocysts of 2 septate gregarine species at controlled temperature and humidity and demonstrate that they can persist over multiple generational time spans. Species of Blabericola generally complete their endogenous life cycles from oocyst to oocyst within 10 days. The median residual environmental oocyst lifetime for Blabericola oocysts in this study is 21-28 days, but a significant number of oocysts of Blabericola migrator persisted and remained infective in the environment for up to 39 days while those of Blabericola cubensis persisted and remained infective for up to 92 days. Although long-lived relative to their own generational time, the oocysts of Blabericola species infecting cockroaches are short-lived relative to gregarines infecting tenebrionid beetles. For these gregarines, oocysts can persist in the environment and remain infective for up to 787 days. Mechanistically, environmental persistence and infectivity are probably energy-limited phenomena related to the amount of stored amylopectin and the basal metabolic rate of quiescent oocysts.
Pellens, Roseli; D'Haese, Cyrille A; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Legendre, Frédéric; Wheeler, Ward C; Grandcolas, Philippe
Cockroaches have always been used to understand the first steps of social evolution in termites because they are close relatives with less complex and integrated social behaviour. Termites are all eusocial and ingroup comparative analysis would be useless to infer the origin of their social behaviour. The cockroach genus Cryptocercus was used as a so-called "prototermite" model because it shows key-attributes similar to the termites (except Termitidae): wood-feeding, intestinal flagellates and subsocial behaviour. In spite of these comparisons between this subsocial cockroach and eusocial termites, the early and remote origin of eusocial behaviour in termites is not well understood yet and the study of other relevant "prototermite" models is however needed. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out to validate a new "prototermite" model, Parasphaeria boleiriana which shows a peculiar combination of these key-attributes. It shows that these attributes of Parasphaeria boleiriana have an independent origin from those of other wood-eating cockroaches and termites. The case of P. boleiriana suggests that a short brood care was selected for with life on an ephemeral wood resource, even with the need for transmission of flagellates. These new phylogenetic insights modify evolutionary hypotheses, contradicting the assumption made with Cryptocercus model that a long brood care is necessary for cooperation between broods in the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis. An ephemeral wood resource is suggested to prompt generation overlap and the evolution of cooperation, even if brood care is shortened.
Abrisqueta, Marc; Süren-Castillo, Songül; Maestro, José L
Female reproductive processes, which comprise, amongst others, the synthesis of yolk proteins and the endocrine mechanisms which regulate this synthesis, need a considerable amount of energy and resources. The role of communicating that the required nutritional status has been attained is carried out by nutritional signalling pathways and, in particular, by the insulin receptor (InR) pathway. In the present study, using the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, as a model, we analysed the role of InR in different processes, but mainly those related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and vitellogenin production. We first cloned the InR cDNA from B. germanica (BgInR) and then determined that its expression levels were constant in corpora allata and fat body during the first female gonadotrophic cycle. Results showed that the observed increase in BgInR mRNA in fat body from starved compared to fed females was abolished in those females treated with systemic RNAi in vivo against the transcription factor BgFoxO. RNAi-mediated BgInR knockdown during the final two nymphal stages produced significant delays in the moults, together with smaller adult females which could not spread the fore- and hindwings properly. In addition, BgInR knockdown led to a severe inhibition of juvenile hormone synthesis in adult female corpora allata, with a concomitant reduction of mRNA levels corresponding to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase-1, HMG-CoA synthase-2, HMG-CoA reductase and methyl farnesoate epoxidase. BgInR RNAi treatment also reduced fat body vitellogenin mRNA and oocyte growth. Our results show that BgInR knockdown produces similar phenotypes to those obtained in starved females in terms of corpora allata activity and vitellogenin synthesis, and indicate that the InR pathway mediates the activation of JH biosynthesis and vitellogenin production elicited by nutrition signalling.
Sastre, J; Ibañez, M D; Lombardero, M; Laso, M T; Lehrer, S
Previous studies have established that cockroach allergens are important sensitizing agents in the induction of rhinitis and asthma principally in urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess skin test reactivity and specific IgE antibody reactivity to extracts of Periplaneta americana (P.a.), Blattella germanica (B.g.), B. orientalis (B.o.), and a fecal extract of B. germanica (FEB.g.) in a group of patients with rhinitis and asthma living in an urban area in Europe. We examined clinical characteristics and aerollergen sensitivities of 171 consecutive Madrid urban patients with rhinitis and asthma who met the criteria for the study. A comprehensive clinical evaluation was followed by skin prick test with common allergens and saline extracts of P.a., B.g., B.o., and FEB.g. and measurement of serum specific IgE antibody to cockroach extracts. The age of patients ranged from 7 to 68 years (mean 20.4 +/- 16). A total of 153 (90.5%) subjects were atopic and 19 (10%) were considered nonallergic. Pollen sensitivity (66.5%) was most prevalent, distantly followed by sensitivity to cockroach (25.7%), mite (20%), cat (15.5%), Alternaria alternata (14.5%), dog (14%), and food (2%). Skin test reactivity to cockroach extracts was 37 (21.6%) to B.o., 20 (11.6%) to P.a., 19 (11.1%) to B.g. and five (2.9%) to FEB.g. Twenty-one of these patients had rhinitis, 19 rhinitis and asthma, and one only asthma; 26 had perennial symptoms, while 16 had seasonal (spring) symptoms; three (1.7%) patients had only positive prick test to cockroach; all had perennial rhinitis and/or asthma. Eighteen (10.5%) patients had specific serum IgE (RAST 1 or 2) to B.o., 13 (7.6%) to P.a., and six (3.5%) to B.g. Eighty (46.7%) patients had visual evidence of cockroach infestation in their home, mostly B.o.; 31 had positive prick test to cockroach (P < 0.0003). The results indicate that sensitivity to outdoor allergens (pollen) is more prevalent than to indoor allergens. Cockroach sensitization is the
Wen, Chih-Jen; Lee, How-Jing
The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and the double-striped cockroach, B. bisignata, are sibling species with a similar period sequence but a distinctive circadian rhythm in locomotion. The cell distribution of immunoreactivity (ir) against three clock-related proteins, Period (PER), Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF), and Corazonin (CRZ), was compared between the species. The PER-ir cells tend to form clusters and are sprayed out in the central nervous system. Three major PER-ir cells are located in the optic lobes, which are the sites of the major circadian clock. They are interconnected with PER-ir axon bundles. Interestingly, the potential output signal of the circadian clock, PDF, is co-localized with PER in all three groups of cells. However, only two CRZ-ir cells and their axons are found in the optic lobes and they are not co-localized with PER-ir or PDF-ir cells and axons. Since only one circadian rhythm is expressed in locomotion, the time signals from both major clocks in optic lobes are coupled by connection with PDF-ir axons. A group of 3-4 PER-ir cells in the protocerebrum display typical characteristics of neurosecretary cells. In addition, there are numerous, small PER-ir and PDF-ir co-localized cells in the pars intercerebralis (PI), which have direct connections with the neurohemoorgan, corpora cardiaca, through PER-ir and PDF-ir axons. Based on these findings, the cellular connection shows a circadian control through the endocrine route. For the rest of central nervous system, only a few PER-ir and PDF-ir cells or axons are detected. This finding implies the circadian clock for locomotion is not located in subesophageal ganglion, thoracic or abdominal ganglia, but may use other neural messengers to pass on circadian signals. Since the overall distribution pattern of the clock cells are the same for B. germanica and B. bisignata, the possible explanation for the different expressions of locomotion between the species depends on genes downstream
Oukkache, Naoual; ElJaoudi, Rachid; Chgoury, Fatima; Rocha, Marisa Teixeira; Sabatier, Jean-Marc
In the present study, a 'novel' toxin, called Am IT from the venom of scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus is isolated and characterized. A detailed analysis of the action of Am IT on insect axonal sodium currents is reported. Am IT was purified through gel filtration followed by C18 reversed-phase HPLC. Toxicity of Am IT in vivo was assessed on male German cockroach (Blattella germanica) larvae and C57/BL6 mice. Cross-reactivity of Am IT with two β-toxins was evidenced using (125)I-iodinated toxin-based radioimmunoassays with synaptosomal preparations from rat brain. The complete amino acid sequence of Am IT was finally determined by Edman sequencing. Am IT was observed to compete with AaH IT4 purified from the venom of scorpion Androctonus australis in binding assays. It was recognized by an antibody raised against a β-type toxin, which indicated some structural similarity with β-toxins (or related toxin family). The 'novel' toxin exhibited dual activity since it competed with anti-mammal toxins in binding assays as well as showed contracting activity to insect. The toxin competed with radio-labeled β-toxin Css IV by binding to Na(+) channels of rat brain synaptosomes. Analysis of toxin amino acid sequences showed that Am IT shares high structural identity (92%) with AaH IT4. In conclusion, Am IT not only reveals an anti-insect compound properties secreted by 'Old World' scorpions, paralyzing insect larvae by binding to Na(+) channels on larvae's nerve-cell membranes, but also exerts toxic activity in mice, which is similar to anti-mammal toxins from 'New World' scorpions (North and South Americas). Therefore, Am IT appears to be structurally and functionally similar to AaH IT4.
Ureña, Enric; Pirone, Lucia; Chafino, Silvia; Pérez, Coralia; Sutherland, James D.; Lang, Valérie; Rodriguez, Manuel S.; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Blanco, Francisco J.; Barrio, Rosa; Martín, David
SUMOylation, the covalent binding of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) to target proteins, is a posttranslational modification that regulates critical cellular processes in eukaryotes. In insects, SUMOylation has been studied in holometabolous species, particularly in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster, which contains a single SUMO gene (smt3). This has led to the assumption that insects contain a single SUMO gene. However, the analysis of insect genomes shows that basal insects contain two SUMO genes, orthologous to vertebrate SUMO1 and SUMO2/3. Our phylogenetical analysis reveals that the SUMO gene has been duplicated giving rise to SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 families early in Metazoan evolution, and that later in insect evolution the SUMO1 gene has been lost after the Hymenoptera divergence. To explore the consequences of this loss, we have examined the characteristics and different biological functions of the two SUMO genes (SUMO1 and SUMO3) in the hemimetabolous cockroach Blattella germanica and compared them with those of Drosophila Smt3. Here, we show that the metamorphic role of the SUMO genes is evolutionary conserved in insects, although there has been a regulatory switch from SUMO1 in basal insects to SUMO3 in more derived ones. We also show that, unlike vertebrates, insect SUMO3 proteins cannot form polySUMO chains due to the loss of critical lysine residues within the N-terminal part of the protein. Furthermore, the formation of polySUMO chains by expression of ectopic human SUMO3 has a deleterious effect in Drosophila. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional consequences of the evolution of SUMO genes. PMID:26538142
Shahraki, Gholam H; Hafidzi, M N; Khadri, M S; Rafinejad, J; Ibrahim, Y B
This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using hydramethylnon gel baits compared with conventional spraying for controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in two residential buildings in Yasuj, Iran. The IPM approach was based on educational programs using pamphlets, posters and lectures, sanitation using vacuuming and application of hydramethylnon gel baits. Conventional approach used cypermethrin (10% EC) on baseboard and cracks-and-crevices. Sticky traps were used as tools for monitoring cockroach population densities. The IPM approach reduced (943%) the rate of insecticide application compared to the conventional spray. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were significantly reduced from an average of 12.2 ± 3.01 cockroaches per unit before treatment to zero cockroach per unit by week four and thereafter. Cockroach populations in the conventional spray treatment were reduced from an average of 11.5 ± 4.43 cockroaches per unit before treatment to an average of 3.4 ± 0.99 cockroach per unit after 11 weeks of post treatment. The IPM treatment improved 100% of infested units compared to 78% for spray treatment to obtain a clean level of infestation (< 1cockroach per trap per unit). The results suggest that the intervention by IPM using hydramethylnon gel baits significantly reduced cockroach infestation compared to cypermethrin spray throughout the 11 weeks of post-treatment period. However, within the study period, the IPM system involving gel baits, educational program and sanitation was 363.2% more expensive than the conventional method.
Hou, Weiyuan; Jiang, Chu; Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shen, Yanhui; Zhao, Yan
A principal method for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is the broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate); however, extensive and repeated application has resulted in the development of resistance to chlorpyrifos in this insect. Evidence suggests that ATP-binding cassette protein transporters, including P-glycoprotein, are involved in insecticide resistance. However, little is known of the role of P-glycoprotein in insecticide resistance in the German cockroach. Here, we developed a chlorpyrifos-resistant strain of German cockroach and investigated the relationship between P-glycoprotein and chlorpyrifos resistance using toxicity assays; inhibition studies with two P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and quinine; P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity assays; and western blotting analysis. After 23 generations of selection from susceptible strain cockroaches, we obtained animals with high resistance to chlorpyrifos. When P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity was inhibited by verapamil and quinine, we observed enhanced susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in both control and chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroaches. No significant alterations of P-glycoprotein expression or ATPase activity were observed in cockroaches acutely exposed to LD50 doses of chlorpyrifos for 24 h, while P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity were clearly elevated in the chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroach strain. Thus, we conclude that P-glycoprotein is associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach and that elevated levels of P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity may be an important mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach.
Wu, Hsin-Hue; Lee, How-Jing; Horng, Shwu-Bin; Berec, Ludek
The German cockroach Blattella germanica is obviously one of the most spread household pests in the world, and is now virtually impossible to sustain outside human constructions. The double-striped cockroach B. bisignata, on the other hand, is limited to Southeast Asia and mostly living in the open space, yet is able to establish in cockroach-free households, too. In this article, we develop a stage-structured population model of these two species to explore (i) whether their circadian clocks impact their long-term population dynamics, (ii) which of these species is a superior competitor, and (iii) how stringent potential pest control strategies have to be to significantly impact established populations of the German cockroach. The results of the model are as follows. Firstly, phase shifts in the light-to-dark cycle did not affect cockroach population dynamics unless males and females were out of phase and their mate finding abilities rather limited. In addition, for the hypothesized circadian clock genotypes, the shorter is the inactivity period relative to the activity one or the less arrhythmic is the population, the more viable the population is and the quicker it grows to large numbers. Secondly, the German cockroach was the superior competitor: it was able to invade and drive out established populations of the double-striped cockroach and prevent any invasion of the latter. Finally, only a significant and simultaneous reduction in a number of most sensitive German cockroach parameters resulted in species extirpation. Only carefully designed and data-based models of German (and double-striped) cockroach population dynamics can be helpful in our quest to win the fight over this unwelcome but very sturdy species.
Zhu, Wen-Liang; Cui, Jin-Yu; Cui, Lan-Yu; Liang, Wei-Fan; Yang, Song; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui
Methylotrophic biosynthesis using methanol as a feedstock is a promising and attractive method to solve the over-dependence of the bioindustry on sugar feedstocks derived from grains that are used for food. In this study, we introduced and engineered the mevalonate pathway into Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 to achieve high mevalonate production from methanol, which could be a platform for terpenoid synthesis. We first constructed a natural operon (MVE) harboring the mvaS and mvaE genes from Enterococcus faecalis as well as an artificial operon (MVH) harboring the hmgcs1 gene from Blattella germanica and the tchmgr gene from Trypanosoma cruzi that encoded enzymes with the highest reported activities. We achieved mevalonate titers of 56 and 66 mg/L, respectively, in flask cultivation. Introduction of the phaA gene from Ralstonia eutropha into the operon MVH increased the mevalonate titer to 180 mg/L, 3.2-fold higher than that of the natural operon MVE. Further modification of the expression level of the phaA gene by regulating the strength of the ribosomal binding site resulted in an additional 20 % increase in mevalonate production to 215 mg/L. A fed-batch fermentation of the best-engineered strain yielded a mevalonate titer of 2.22 g/L, which was equivalent to an overall yield and productivity of 28.4 mg mevalonate/g methanol and 7.16 mg/L/h, respectively. The production of mevalonate from methanol, which is the initial, but critical step linking methanol with valuable terpenoids via methylotrophic biosynthesis, represents a proof of concept for pathway engineering in M. extorquens AM1.
Mankin, R W; Hodges, R D; Nagle, H T; Schal, C; Pereira, R M; Koehler, P G
Crawling and scraping activity of three stored-product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and two urban pests, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) and Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), were monitored individually by infrared sensors, microphones, and a piezoelectric sensor in a small arena to evaluate effects of insect locomotory behavior and size on the ability of an inexpensively constructed instrument to detect insects and distinguish among different species. Adults of all species could be detected when crawling or scraping. The smallest insects in the study, first-fourth-instar C. lectularius nymphs, could not be detected easily when crawling, but could be detected when scraping. Sound and vibration sensors detected brief, 3-10-ms impulses from all tested species, often grouped in distinctive trains (bursts), typical of impulses in previous acoustic detection experiments. To consider the potential for targeting or focusing detection on particular species of interest, indicators were developed to assess the likelihood of detection of C. lectularius. Statistically significant differences were found between C. lectularius and other species in distributions of three measured variables: infrared signal durations, sound impulse-burst durations, and sound pressure levels (energy) of impulses that best matched an averaged spectrum (profile) of scraping behavior. Thus, there is potential that signals collected by an inexpensive, polymodal-sensor instrument could be used in automated trapping systems to detect a targeted species, 0.1 mg or larger, in environments where servicing of traps is difficult or when timeliness of trapping information is important.
Aicart-Ramos, Clara; Valhondo-Falcón, Margarita; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; Rodriguez-Crespo, Ignacio
We have recombinantly expressed and purified the ligand binding domains (LBDs) of four insect nuclear receptors of the E75 family. The Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori nuclear receptors were purified as ferric hemoproteins with Soret maxima at 424 nm, whereas their ferrous form had a Soret maximum at 425 nm that responds to ·NO and CO binding. In contrast, the purified LBD of Oncopeltus fasciatus displayed a Soret maximum at 415 nm for the ferric protein that shifted to 425 nm in its ferrous state. Binding of ·NO to the heme moiety of D. melanogaster and B. mori E75 LBD resulted in the appearance of a peak at 385 nm, whereas this peak appeared at 416 nm in the case of the O. fasciatus hemoprotein, resembling the behaviour displayed by its human homolog Rev-erbβ. HPLC analysis revealed that, unlike the D. melanogaster and B. mori counterparts, the heme group of O. fasciatus is covalently attached to the protein through the side-chains of two amino acids. The large sequence homology with O. fasciatus E75 led us to clone and express the LBD of Blattella germanica, which established that its spectral properties closely resemble those of O. fasciatus and that it also has the heme group covalently bound to the protein. Hence, ·NO/CO regulation of the transcriptional activity of these nuclear receptors might be differently controlled among various insect species. In addition, covalent heme binding provides strong evidence that at least some of these nuclear receptors function as diatomic gas sensors rather than heme sensors. Finally, our findings expand the classes of hemoproteins in which the heme group is normally covalently attached to the polypeptide chain. PMID:22946928
Ureña, Enric; Pirone, Lucia; Chafino, Silvia; Pérez, Coralia; Sutherland, James D; Lang, Valérie; Rodriguez, Manuel S; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Blanco, Francisco J; Barrio, Rosa; Martín, David
SUMOylation, the covalent binding of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) to target proteins, is a posttranslational modification that regulates critical cellular processes in eukaryotes. In insects, SUMOylation has been studied in holometabolous species, particularly in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster, which contains a single SUMO gene (smt3). This has led to the assumption that insects contain a single SUMO gene. However, the analysis of insect genomes shows that basal insects contain two SUMO genes, orthologous to vertebrate SUMO1 and SUMO2/3. Our phylogenetical analysis reveals that the SUMO gene has been duplicated giving rise to SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 families early in Metazoan evolution, and that later in insect evolution the SUMO1 gene has been lost after the Hymenoptera divergence. To explore the consequences of this loss, we have examined the characteristics and different biological functions of the two SUMO genes (SUMO1 and SUMO3) in the hemimetabolous cockroach Blattella germanica and compared them with those of Drosophila Smt3. Here, we show that the metamorphic role of the SUMO genes is evolutionary conserved in insects, although there has been a regulatory switch from SUMO1 in basal insects to SUMO3 in more derived ones. We also show that, unlike vertebrates, insect SUMO3 proteins cannot form polySUMO chains due to the loss of critical lysine residues within the N-terminal part of the protein. Furthermore, the formation of polySUMO chains by expression of ectopic human SUMO3 has a deleterious effect in Drosophila. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional consequences of the evolution of SUMO genes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Villa-Nova, H; Spinola-Castro, A M; Garcia, F E; Solé, D
The prevalence of atopic diseases in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) has been reported as lower. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases and allergic sensitisation in Brazilian children and adolescents with DM1. 96 patients with DM1 (aged 4-18 years, 45 boys) followed for at least one year were evaluated for allergic disease through a detailed allergological anamnesis and skin prick tests (SPT) to inhalant allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, dog epithelium, cat epithelium, mix fungi), foods (cow's milk, egg-white, yolk, soy, wheat, corn), and positive (histamine 1 mg/ml) and negative (saline) controls. Wheals with a mean diameter of induration equal to or greater than 3mm identified a positive SPT. The prevalence values of rhinitis, asthma and atopic eczema (isolated or associated) were 68.0%, 59.1% and 44.4%, respectively. 20.6% of the patients had no allergic disease. 46.8% of the patients had been diagnosed with DM1 for at least four years and there was no relationship between the period of DM1 and the presence of allergic disease, nor of the gender. 48.0% patients were sensitised with predominance of D. pteronyssinus, B. topicalis and D. farinae. The frequency of positive SPT was significantly higher among patients with history of allergic disease (OR=6.98, 95%CI: 2.60-18.74, p<0.001). The prevalence of allergic diseases and sensitisation in patients with DM1 was higher than usually expected and deserves further investigation to identify possible causes for these findings and to evaluate their importance and influence on the metabolic control. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Duhamel, R C; Kunkel, J G
Larval-specific protein (LSP) is the most abundant protein in the hemolymph of cockroaches shortly before molting, but is rapidly cleared from the hemolymph during the molt (Kunkel, J. G., and Lawler, D. M. (1974) Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 47B, 697-710). Blatta orientalis LSP was purified by sedimentation in preparative sucrose gradients followed by 2-hydroxypropylamino-cellulose anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration on a column of Bio-Gel A-1.5m. The amino acid composition of LSP includes 16.3 mol % tyrosine and 4.9 mol % phenylalanine, but virtually no cysteine and little methionine. The following physical properties were determined for LSP: R8 = 68.3 A, 8(20),w = 17.8, and V = 0.723. From these values an Mr = 507,900 was calculated. In electron micrographs, LSP appears as rectangular particles of 121 by 134 A. In disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, native LSP exhibits a single band, but in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, LSP is resolved into a doublet of closely spaced bands of Mr = 88,100 and 84,400 present in a ratio of 1.38:1. These data indicate that native B. orientalis LSP is a hexamer of subunits averaging approximately Mr = 86,000. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis of Blattella germanica larval serum indicates that LSP in that species is a hexamer composed of a random assortment of two subunits of different charge in the ratio 1.25:1. The amino acid composition and physical properties of LSP suggest that LSP may be the hemimetabolous analogue of the tyrosine- and phenylalanine-rich storage proteins of holometabolous insects.
Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Scharf, Michael E
German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) have significant impacts on human health, most notably they are implicated as causes of childhood asthma. Gel bait formulations of fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, have been in use for German cockroach control in the United States since 1998. Previously, dieldrin resistant German cockroach strains were shown to have 7- to 17-fold cross-resistance to fipronil. More recently, a field-collected strain (GNV-R) displayed approximately 36-fold resistance to topically applied fipronil at the LD50 level, which is the highest level of fipronil resistance reported to date in the German cockroach. The aim of the current research was to identify mechanism(s) responsible for high-level fipronil resistance in the GNV-R strain. Synergist bioassays conducted using topical and injection application methods implicated cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification in resistance. Electrophysiological recordings using the suction-electrode technique revealed the nervous system of the GNV-R strain is insensitive to fipronil. In agreement with electrophysiology results, the alanine to serine (A302S) mutation encoded by the gamma-amino butyric acid-gated chloride channel subunit gene resistance to dieldrin, which confers limited cross-resistance to fipronil, was detected in 95% of GNV-R strain individuals. Logistic regression analysis showed that A302S mutation frequency correlates with neurological insensitivity as shown by electrophysiology data. Overall, results of synergism bioassays, electrophysiological recordings, and A302S mutation frequency measurements suggest that fipronil resistance in the GNV-R strain is caused by the combined effects of enhanced metabolism by cytochrome P450s and target-site insensitivity caused by the A302S-encoding mutation in the resistance to dieldrin gene.
Nalyanya, Godfrey; Gore, J Chad; Linker, H Michael; Schal, Coby
Cockroach suppression is fundamental to cockroach allergen mitigation in infested homes. The effects of various cockroach control strategies on cockroach populations and allergen concentration have not been examined in schools. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) and conventional pest control in controlling German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations and concentrations of the cockroach allergen Bla g 1 in public school buildings. Two school districts included six schools that used conventional pest control and one district included seven schools that used IPM to control pests. Cockroach traps were deployed to assess the level of infestation, settled dust samples were collected in food service areas, classrooms, and other school areas, and the Bla g 1 allergen was quantified by ELISA. Both cockroach counts and Bla g 1 concentrations were dependent on the pest control approach, with highly significant differences between IPM-treated schools and conventionally treated schools in both the cockroach mean trap counts (0 versus 82.6 +/- 17.3 cockroaches/trap/wk, respectively) and in the amount of Bla g 1 in dust samples (2.8 +/- 0.3 versus 30.6 +/- 3.4 U/g dust). Cockroaches and Bla g 1 were primarily associated with food preparation and food service areas and much less with classrooms and offices. Our data extend recent findings from studies in homes, showing that cockroach allergens can be reduced by cockroach elimination alone or by integrating several tactics including education, cleaning, and pest control. IPM is not only effective at controlling cockroaches but also can lead to long-term reductions in cockroach allergen concentrations, resulting in a healthier environment for students and school personnel.
Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen
Among cockroaches (CR) that live in people's homes, two species, i.e., German CR (Blattella germanica) and American CR (Periplaneta americana) predominate in temperate and tropical areas, respectively. CR is an important source of inhalant indoor allergens that sensitize atopic subjects to (localized) type I hypersensitivity or atopy including allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In Thailand the predominant CR species is P. americana. CR allergens are found throughout CR infested houses; the number found in kitchens correlates with the degree of CR infestation while sensitization and reactivation of the allergic morbidity are likely to occur in the living room and bedroom. Levels of the CR allergens in homes of CR allergic Thais, measured by using locally made quantification test kits, revealed that the highest levels occur in dust samples collected from the wooden houses of urban slums and in the cool and dry season. CR allergens are proteins that may be derived from any anatomical part of the insect at any developmental stage. The allergens may be also from CR secretions, excretions, body washes or frass. The proteins may be the insect structural proteins, enzymes or hormones. They may exist as dimers/multimers and/or in different isoforms. Exposure to CR allergens in infancy leads to allergic morbidity later in life. Clinical symptoms of CR allergy are usually more severe and prolonged than those caused by other indoor allergens. The mechanisms of acute and chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) have been addressed including specific IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms, i.e., role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Participation of various allergen activated-CD4+ T cells of different sublineages, i.e., Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, Th25, Tregs/Th3 as well as invariant NKT cells, in asthma pathogenesis have been mentioned. The diagnosis of CR allergy and the allergy intervention by CR population control are also discussed.
Buczkowski, G; Kopanic, R J; Schal, C
Foraging cockroaches ingest insecticide baits, translocate them, and can cause mortality in untreated cockroaches that contact the foragers or ingest their excretions. Translocation of eight ingested baits by adult male Blattella germanica (L.) was examined in relation to the type of the active ingredient, formulation, and foraging area. Ingested boric acid, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, and hydramethylnon that were excreted by adults in small dishes killed 100% of first instars within 10 d and >50% of second instars within 14 d. Residues from these ingested baits were also highly effective on nymphs in larger arenas and killed 16-100% of the adults. However, when the baits and dead cockroaches were removed from the large arenas and replaced with new cockroaches, only residues of the slow-acting hydramethylnon killed most of the nymphs and adults, whereas residues of fast acting insecticides (chlorpyrifos and fipronil) killed fewer nymphs and adults. Excretions from cockroaches that ingested abamectin baits failed to cause significant mortality in cockroaches that contacted the residues. These results suggest that hydramethylnon is highly effective in these assays because cockroaches that feed on the bait have ample time to return to their shelter and defecate insecticide-laden feces. The relatively high concentration of hydramethylnon in the bait (2.15%) and its apparent stability in the digestive tract and feces probably contribute to the efficacy of hydramethylnon. To control for differences among baits in inert ingredients and the amount of active ingredient, we compared 1% chlorpyrifos with 1% hydramethylnon in identical baits. Again, hydramethylnon residues provided greater secondary kill, but the results highlighted the importance of the inert ingredients. We conclude that, in the absence of cannibalism and necrophagy, translocation of baits and secondary kill are most effective with slow acting insecticides in palatable baits that can traverse the digestive tract
Sun, Bao-Qing; Lai, Xu-Xin; Gjesing, Birgitte; Spangfort, Michael Dho; Zhong, Nan-Shan
Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients. The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches. Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females. Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients, 88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der p sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach. A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.
Background Cockroaches are terrestrial insects that strikingly eliminate waste nitrogen as ammonia instead of uric acid. Blattabacterium cuenoti (Mercier 1906) strains Bge and Pam are the obligate primary endosymbionts of the cockroaches Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, respectively. The genomes of both bacterial endosymbionts have recently been sequenced, making possible a genome-scale constraint-based reconstruction of their metabolic networks. The mathematical expression of a metabolic network and the subsequent quantitative studies of phenotypic features by Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) represent an efficient functional approach to these uncultivable bacteria. Results We report the metabolic models of Blattabacterium strains Bge (iCG238) and Pam (iCG230), comprising 296 and 289 biochemical reactions, associated with 238 and 230 genes, and 364 and 358 metabolites, respectively. Both models reflect both the striking similarities and the singularities of these microorganisms. FBA was used to analyze the properties, potential and limits of the models, assuming some environmental constraints such as aerobic conditions and the net production of ammonia from these bacterial systems, as has been experimentally observed. In addition, in silico simulations with the iCG238 model have enabled a set of carbon and nitrogen sources to be defined, which would also support a viable phenotype in terms of biomass production in the strain Pam, which lacks the first three steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. FBA reveals a metabolic condition that renders these enzymatic steps dispensable, thus offering a possible evolutionary explanation for their elimination. We also confirm, by computational simulations, the fragility of the metabolic networks and their host dependence. Conclusions The minimized Blattabacterium metabolic networks are surprisingly similar in strains Bge and Pam, after 140 million years of evolution of these endosymbionts in separate cockroach
González-Domenech, Carmen Maria; Belda, Eugeni; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Peretó, Juli; Latorre, Amparo
Cockroaches are terrestrial insects that strikingly eliminate waste nitrogen as ammonia instead of uric acid. Blattabacterium cuenoti (Mercier 1906) strains Bge and Pam are the obligate primary endosymbionts of the cockroaches Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, respectively. The genomes of both bacterial endosymbionts have recently been sequenced, making possible a genome-scale constraint-based reconstruction of their metabolic networks. The mathematical expression of a metabolic network and the subsequent quantitative studies of phenotypic features by Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) represent an efficient functional approach to these uncultivable bacteria. We report the metabolic models of Blattabacterium strains Bge (iCG238) and Pam (iCG230), comprising 296 and 289 biochemical reactions, associated with 238 and 230 genes, and 364 and 358 metabolites, respectively. Both models reflect both the striking similarities and the singularities of these microorganisms. FBA was used to analyze the properties, potential and limits of the models, assuming some environmental constraints such as aerobic conditions and the net production of ammonia from these bacterial systems, as has been experimentally observed. In addition, in silico simulations with the iCG238 model have enabled a set of carbon and nitrogen sources to be defined, which would also support a viable phenotype in terms of biomass production in the strain Pam, which lacks the first three steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. FBA reveals a metabolic condition that renders these enzymatic steps dispensable, thus offering a possible evolutionary explanation for their elimination. We also confirm, by computational simulations, the fragility of the metabolic networks and their host dependence. The minimized Blattabacterium metabolic networks are surprisingly similar in strains Bge and Pam, after 140 million years of evolution of these endosymbionts in separate cockroach lineages. FBA performed on the
Song, Weizhong; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Luo, Ningguang; Turkov, Michael; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Goldin, Alan L.; Dong, Ke
Scorpion β-toxins bind to the extracellular regions of the voltage-sensing module of domain II and to the pore module of domain III in voltage-gated sodium channels and enhance channel activation by trapping and stabilizing the voltage sensor of domain II in its activated state. We investigated the interaction of a highly potent insect-selective scorpion depressant β-toxin, Lqh-dprIT3, from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus with insect sodium channels from Blattella germanica (BgNav). Like other scorpion β-toxins, Lqh-dprIT3 shifts the voltage dependence of activation of BgNav channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to more negative membrane potentials but only after strong depolarizing prepulses. Notably, among 10 BgNav splice variants tested for their sensitivity to the toxin, only BgNav1-1 was hypersensitive due to an L1285P substitution in IIIS1 resulting from a U-to-C RNA-editing event. Furthermore, charge reversal of a negatively charged residue (E1290K) at the extracellular end of IIIS1 and the two innermost positively charged residues (R4E and R5E) in IIIS4 also increased the channel sensitivity to Lqh-dprIT3. Besides enhancement of toxin sensitivity, the R4E substitution caused an additional 20-mV negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation of toxin-modified channels, inducing a unique toxin-modified state. Our findings provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of the domain III voltage-sensing module in the action of scorpion β-toxins. This hypersensitivity most likely reflects an increase in IIS4 trapping via allosteric mechanisms, suggesting coupling between the voltage sensors in neighboring domains during channel activation. PMID:21454658
Al-Ghouleh, Abeer; Johal, Ramneek; Sharquie, Inas K.; Emara, Mohammed; Harrington, Helen; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.
Allergens are initiators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. They are recognised at the site of entry by epithelial and dendritic cells (DCs), both of which activate innate inflammatory circuits that can collectively induce Th2 immune responses. In an attempt to have a better understanding of the role of carbohydrates in the recognition and uptake of allergens by the innate immune system, we defined common glycosylation patterns in major allergens. This was done using labelled lectins and showed that allergens like Der p 1 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1), Fel d 1 (Felis domisticus), Ara h 1 (Arachis hypogaea), Der p 2 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2), Bla g 2 (Blattella germanica) and Can f 1 (Canis familiaris) are glycosylated and that the main dominant sugars on these allergens are 1–2, 1–3 and 1–6 mannose. These observations are in line with recent reports implicating the mannose receptor (MR) in allergen recognition and uptake by DCs and suggesting a major link between glycosylation and allergen recognition. We then looked at TSLP (Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin) cytokine secretion by lung epithelia upon encountering natural Der p 1 allergen. TSLP is suggested to drive DC maturation in support of allergic hypersensitivity reactions. Our data showed an increase in TSLP secretion by lung epithelia upon stimulation with natural Der p 1 which was carbohydrate dependent. The deglycosylated preparation of Der p 1 exhibited minimal uptake by DCs compared to the natural and hyperglycosylated recombinant counterparts, with the latter being taken up more readily than the other preparations. Collectively, our data indicate that carbohydrate moieties on allergens play a vital role in their recognition by innate immune cells, implicating them in downstream deleterious Th2 cell activation and IgE production. PMID:22479478
Ureña, Enric; Chafino, Silvia; Manjón, Cristina; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Martín, David
Complete metamorphosis (Holometaboly) is a key innovation that underlies the spectacular success of holometabolous insects. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Holometabola form a monophyletic group that evolved from ancestors exhibiting hemimetabolous development (Hemimetaboly). However, the nature of the changes underlying this crucial transition, including the occurrence of the holometabolan-specific pupal stage, is poorly understood. Using the holometabolous beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model insect, here we show that the transient up-regulation of the anti-metamorphic Krüppel-homolog 1 (TcKr-h1) gene at the end of the last larval instar is critical in the formation of the pupa. We find that depletion of this specific TcKr-h1 peak leads to the precocious up-regulation of the adult-specifier factor TcE93 and, hence, to a direct transformation of the larva into the adult form, bypassing the pupal stage. Moreover, we also find that the TcKr-h1-dependent repression of TcE93 is critical to allow the strong up-regulation of Broad-complex (TcBr-C), a key transcription factor that regulates the correct formation of the pupa in holometabolous insects. Notably, we show that the genetic interaction between Kr-h1 and E93 is also present in the penultimate nymphal instar of the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, suggesting that the evolution of the pupa has been facilitated by the co-option of regulatory mechanisms present in hemimetabolan metamorphosis. Our findings, therefore, contribute to the molecular understanding of insect metamorphosis, and indicate the evolutionary conservation of the genetic circuitry that controls hemimetabolan and holometabolan metamorphosis, thereby shedding light on the evolution of complete metamorphosis.
Donohue, Kevin V; Bures, Brian L; Bourham, Mohamed A; Roe, R Michael
Helium atmospheric pressure plasma discharge (APPD) was previously shown to have insecticidal activity with a possible site of action on the insect nervous, neuromuscular system, or both. In the current study, methods to increase the insecticidal activity of plasma by using increased APPD temperature and the introduction of molecular oxygen were investigated for the first time. An increase in the helium plasma temperature from 37 to 50 degrees C increased the insecticidal activity of plasma for the control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); and citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso). This increase in activity could not be explained by the increase in air temperature alone, and it suggests that the enhanced insecticidal activity resulted from increased ionization of the APPD and ion bombardment of the insect. Emission spectroscopy showed that the introduction of 0.5% oxygen into helium plasma produced ionic molecular oxygen at 559.7 and 597.3 nm. The introduction of oxygen to the APPD greatly increased the insecticidal activity of plasma for the citrus mealybug but not the German cockroach or western flower thrips. For the mealybug as an example, the mortality of a 60-s exposure of 37 degrees C helium plasma was 0% at 1 h after exposure and 100% under the same conditions after the introduction of oxygen. It seems that increases in temperature and the introduction of oxygen even at low levels can increase the insecticidal activity of plasma to varying degrees depending on the insect species. The symptomology of cockroach death for both hot plasma and plasma containing trace amounts of molecular oxygen continued to suggest that the site of action of APPD is the insect nervous system, neuromuscular system, or both.
Mori, Kazuki; Okumoto, Takashi; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Ozoe, Yoshihisa
To investigate the action of dinotefuran (MTI-446, 1-methyl-2-nitro-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl)guanidine), a recently developed insecticide, on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), we determined the potencies of the compound and 15 analogues in inhibiting the specific binding of [3H]epibatidine (EPI), a nAChR agonist, and [3H]alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BGT), a competitive nAChR antagonist, to the nerve cord membranes of American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). Racemic dinotefuran inhibited [3H]EPI binding with an IC50 of 890 nM and [3H]alpha-BGT binding with an IC50 of 36.1 microM. Scatchard analysis indicated that the dinotefuran inhibition of [3H]EPI binding was a competitive one. Slight structural modification caused a drastic reduction in potency; only four analogues were found to be equipotent to or more potent than dinotefuran. Chloropyridinyl and chlorothiazolyl neonicotinoid insecticides displayed two or three orders of magnitude higher potency than dinotefuran. There was a good correlation between the IC50 values of tested compounds obtained with [3H]EPI and those obtained with [3H]alpha-BGT. A better correlation was observed between 3-h knockdown activities (KD50) against German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) and IC50 values obtained from [3H]EPI assays than between 24-h lethal activities (LD50) and IC50 values. While the results indicate that dinotefuran and its analogues interact with the ACh-binding site in cockroach nAChRs, it remains to be elucidated why they displayed lower potencies than those expected based on their insecticidal activities.
Sempo, Grégory; Canonge, Stéphane; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis
In fragmented landscape, individuals have to cope with the fragmentation level in order to aggregate in the same patch and take advantage of group-living. Aggregation results from responses to environmental heterogeneities and/or positive influence of the presence of congeners. In this context, the fragmentation of resting sites highlights how individuals make a compromise between two individual preferences: (1) being aggregated with conspecifics and (2) having access to these resting sites. As in previous studies, when the carrying capacity of available resting sites is large enough to contain the entire group, a single aggregation site is collectively selected. In this study, we have uncoupled fragmentation and habitat loss: the population size and total surface of the resting sites are maintained at a constant value, an increase in fragmentation implies a decrease in the carrying capacity of each shelter. For our model organism, Blattella germanica, our experimental and theoretical approach shows that, for low fragmentation level, a single resting site is collectively selected. However, for higher level of fragmentation, individuals are randomly distributed between fragments and the total sheltered population decreases. In the latter case, social amplification process is not activated and consequently, consensual decision making cannot emerge and the distribution of individuals among sites is only driven by their individual propensity to find a site. This intimate relation between aggregation pattern and landscape patchiness described in our theoretical model is generic for several gregarious species. We expect that any group-living species showing the same structure of interactions should present the same type of dispersion-aggregation response to fragmentation regardless of their level of social complexity.
Chase, J; Touhara, K; Prestwich, G D; Schal, C; Blomquist, G J
The biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromone production in the female German cockroach (Blattella germanica) were determined. Radio-TLC and radio-GLC were used to demonstrate the metabolism of 3,11-dimethylnonacosane, a major cuticular lipid component, to the corresponding alkan-2-ol and methyl ketone. [11,12-3H2]-3,11-Dimethylnonacosan-2-ol was efficiently metabolized to the methyl ketone, and radio-GLC showed that the methyl ketone product from both experiments was coeluted with a methyl ketone standard. A comparison of the metabolism of the labeled dimethylalkane and dimethylalkan-2-ol by age and sex showed that both males and females from day 1 through day 9 after adult emergence readily metabolized the alcohol to the corresponding methyl ketone, whereas only females of 5-9 days postemergence efficiently converted the labeled dimethylalkane to the corresponding methyl ketone. Application of the juvenile hormone analog hydroprene induced significant increases in the conversion of the labeled hydrocarbon to the methyl ketone in starved adult females as well as in females fed a protein-free diet, conditions under which endogenous juvenile hormone biosynthesis is nearly undetectable. These data show that the methyl ketone sex pheromone is formed by the hydroxylation and oxidation of the 3,11-dimethylalkane at the 2 position, show that the age- and sex-specific step in this process is the conversion of 3,11-dimethylnonacosane to 3,11-dimethylnonacosan-2-ol, and provide evidence that juvenile hormone regulates sex pheromone production in the German cockroach. Images PMID:1631090
Menon, P; Menon, V; Hilman, B; Stankus, R; Lehrer, S B
Forty-six atopic asthmatic subjects aged 3 to 58 years attending the allergy clinic of a university hospital were evaluated for prick skin test reactivity with commercially available extracts of cockroach (CCE) and house dust (HD). Additionally, skin testing was performed with American cockroach whole body (AWBE) and fecal extracts (AFE) as well as German cockroach whole body (GWBE) and fecal extracts (GFE) prepared in our laboratory. Commercial cockroach extract was prepared from American, German, and Oriental cockroach whole bodies. Skin test reactivity to the different extracts were as follows: 83% to HD, 70% to CCE, 70% to AWBE and/or GWBE, 63% to AWBE, 57% to GWBE, 63% to AFE and/or GFE, 52% to AFE, 50% to GFE, 48% to both AWBE and GWBE, and 39% to both AFE and GFE. The subjects with positive skin tests to AWBE and/or GWBE (70%) were the same individuals who showed skin test reactivity to CCE (70%). Subjects from lower income families (less than $10,000) had a significantly higher skin test reactivity to cockroach allergens than those from families with an annual income of $11,000 to $24,000 (P = .04). These results demonstrate the significance of cockroach sensitization in atopic asthmatics, suggest the importance of fecal cockroach allergens, and support earlier observations of shared interspecies allergens between American and German cockroach whole bodies.
Anisyutkin, Leonid N; Yushkova, Olga V
New cockroach species from South India (Aptera brindlei sp.nov., Rhabdoblattella alexeevi sp.nov., R. euptera sp.nov., Morphna indica sp.nov.) and Sri Lanka (Placoblatta beybienkoi sp.nov., Morphna srilankensis sp.nov.) are described. The genus Rhabdoblattella Anisyutkin, 2000 is re-diagnosed. A revised key to the genera of Epilamprinae from South India and Sri Lanka and detailed morphological descriptions of new species are provided. The structure of the female genital complex of Aptera fusca (Thunberg, 1784) is described for the first time. Possible biogeographical connections of the cockroach fauna of Indian subcontinent and the phylogenetic significance of the right phallomere are briefly discussed.
Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Anagnostopoulou, Rimma; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, Anna; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%), 11 with cockroaches (52.3%), three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96%) traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03), and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007), no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02), and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05). Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03). Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more persistent in older
Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Anagnostopoulou, Rimma; Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, Anna; Theodoridou, Kalliopi; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%), 11 with cockroaches (52.3%), three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96%) traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03), and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007), no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02), and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05). Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03). Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more persistent in older ships. HACCP system aids in the
Texas Studies in Bilingualism. Spanish, French, German, Czech, Polish, Sorbian, and Norwegian in the Southwest. (With a Concluding Chapter on Code-Switching and Modes of Speaking in American Swedish.) Studia Linguistica Germanica.
Gilbert, Glenn G., Ed.
This book contains studies of seven non-English languages spoken in Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana, as well as a final chapter based on data obtained from Swedish-English bilinguals in Massachusetts, Illinois, and Minnesota. The individual studies are: Lurline H. Coltharp, "Invitation to the Dance: Spanish in the El Paso Underworld"; Janet B.…
Texas Studies in Bilingualism. Spanish, French, German, Czech, Polish, Sorbian, and Norwegian in the Southwest. (With a Concluding Chapter on Code-Switching and Modes of Speaking in American Swedish.) Studia Linguistica Germanica.
Gilbert, Glenn G., Ed.
This book contains studies of seven non-English languages spoken in Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana, as well as a final chapter based on data obtained from Swedish-English bilinguals in Massachusetts, Illinois, and Minnesota. The individual studies are: Lurline H. Coltharp, "Invitation to the Dance: Spanish in the El Paso Underworld"; Janet B.…
Crawling or running, scraping or shuffling, and wriggling activity of three stored-product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and two urban pests, Blattella germanic...
Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi
The Polyneoptera represents one of the earliest insect radiations, comprising the majority of hemimetabolous orders, in which many species have great economic importance. Here, we sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes of the polyneopteran insects by using high throughput pooled sequencing technology, and presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for this group based on expanded mitochondrial genome data. Our analyses included 189 taxa, of which 139 species represent all the major polyneopteran lineages. Multiple results support the monophyly of Polyneoptera, the monophyly of Dictyoptera, and the monophyly of Orthoptera. Sister taxon relationships Plecoptera + Dermaptera, and Zoraptera + Embioptera are also supported by most analyses. Within Dictyoptera, the Blattodea is consistently retrieved as paraphyly due to the sister group relationship of Cryptocercus with Isoptera. In addition, the results demonstrate that model selection, data treatment, and outgroup choice can have significant effects on the reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of Polyneoptera.
Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi
The Polyneoptera represents one of the earliest insect radiations, comprising the majority of hemimetabolous orders, in which many species have great economic importance. Here, we sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes of the polyneopteran insects by using high throughput pooled sequencing technology, and presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for this group based on expanded mitochondrial genome data. Our analyses included 189 taxa, of which 139 species represent all the major polyneopteran lineages. Multiple results support the monophyly of Polyneoptera, the monophyly of Dictyoptera, and the monophyly of Orthoptera. Sister taxon relationships Plecoptera + Dermaptera, and Zoraptera + Embioptera are also supported by most analyses. Within Dictyoptera, the Blattodea is consistently retrieved as paraphyly due to the sister group relationship of Cryptocercus with Isoptera. In addition, the results demonstrate that model selection, data treatment, and outgroup choice can have significant effects on the reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of Polyneoptera. PMID:27782189
Insect kinin neuropeptides share a common C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe1-Xaa1-2-Xaa2-3-Trp4-Gly5-NH2 (Xaa1-2 = His, Asn, Phe, Ser or Tyr; Xaa2-3 = Pro, Ser or Ala) and have been isolated from a number of insects, including species of Dictyoptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera. They have been a...
Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W
Many low-income housing units in the United States continue to have chronic German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), infestations and high prevalence of cockroach allergens despite the availability of highly effective cockroach control products. Several studies have demonstrated the greater effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) compared with routine chemical interventions in apartment buildings and the benefit of cockroach allergen reduction using IPM. Yet, there has been little information on the cost and benefit of community-wide cockroach IPM, which is critical for voluntary adoption of IPM programs. We evaluated a community-wide IPM program in two low-income apartment complexes in Gary, IN. The program included education of staff and residents, monthly monitoring, and nonchemical (laying sticky traps) and chemical treatment based on monitoring results. One complex of 191 apartments was treated with cockroach gel bait, boric acid dust, and sticky traps by state licensed entomologists from Purdue University (E-IPM group). The other complex of 251 apartments was treated by pest management professionals (PMPs) from a contractor (C-IPM group) following the same protocol as the E-IPM group. Purdue University researchers trained Gary Housing Authority (GHA) staff on cockroach biology and management and cockroach allergen reduction techniques. GHA staff educated all residents in the two complexes on cockroach control and allergen reduction through printed materials, demonstrations, or both. Purdue University entomologists conducted the initial and monthly monitoring in both complexes (laying six sticky traps per apartment and retrieving them the next day) with the assistance from GHA to evaluate program effectiveness, guide insecticide applications, and identify apartments with poor sanitation conditions. Dust samples were collected from kitchen floors of 72 cockroach-infested apartments at the beginning, and again at 6 and 12 mo to evaluate changes in
Ohler, Bonnie J; Guédot, Christelle; Zack, Richard S; Landolt, Peter J
Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I. germanica flowers elicited attraction of T. glabra to the flowers. This study suggests that I. pallida flowers may attract T. glabra males to aggregate because they release the known attractant, methyl anthranilate, whereas I. germanica flowers may not be attractive because they do not release methyl anthranilate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
1. Photocopy of illustration opposite p.164 in William G. Bek, The German Settlement Society of Philadelphia and its Colony Herman, Missouri, (Philadelphia: Americana Germanica Press, 1907). EXTERIOR IN 1906. - Concert Hall, 206 East First Street, Hermann, Gasconade County, MO
Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Bendena, William G; Chang, Belinda S W; Tobe, Stephen S
FGLamide allatostatins are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related orders and also show myomodulatory activity. The FGLamide allatostatin (AST) gene structure in Dictyoptera is intronless within the ORF, whereas in 9 species of Diptera, the FGLamide AST ORF has one intron. To investigate the evolutionary history of AST intron structure, (intron early versus intron late hypothesis), all available Arthropoda FGLamide AST gene sequences were examined from genome databases with reference to intron presence and position/phase. Three types of FGLamide AST ORF organization were found: intronless in I. scapularis and P. humanus corporis; one intron in D. pulex, A. pisum, A. mellifera and five Drosophila sp.; two introns in N. vitripennis, B. mori strains, A. aegypti, A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus. The literature suggests that for the majority of genes examined, most introns exist between codons (phase 0) which may reflect an ancient function of introns to separate protein modules. 60% of the FGLamide AST ORFs introns were between the first and second base within a codon (phase 1), 28% were between the second and third nucleotides within a codon (phase two) and 12% were phase 0. As would be required for correct intron splicing consensus sequence, 84% of introns were in codons starting with guanine. The positioning of introns was a maximum of 9 codons from a dibasic cleavage site. Our results suggest that the introns in the analyzed species support the intron late model.
Uses illustrations from the history of Germanica to explain the concept of exaptation when dealing with language evolution, i.e., the reuse of language material that has been coded by morphology but has since lost its grammatical distinction. (46 references) (GLR)
The Latin essay "De re Scholastica Anglica cum Germanica Comparata" (English and German school education compared) published in 1795-1798 by the Freiberg/Saxony grammar school principal Friedrich August Hecht is the first treatise in comparative education. The rediscovery of the text, its earlier mentioning in the history of comparative…
Lavaine, Catherine; Evette, André; Piégay, Hervé
We tested the bioengineering capabilities and resistance to drought of cuttings of two typical riparian species of Mediterranean and Alpine streams scarcely used in soil bioengineering: Myricaria germanica (L.) Desv. and Tamarix gallica L. We conducted two experiments, one ex situ and one in situ, with different drought treatments on cuttings of these two species in comparison with Salix purpurea L., a willow very commonly used in bioengineering. The biological traits considered were resprouting/survival rate, quantity of structural roots, above- and belowground biomass, shoot-to-root ratio, and ratio of the biomass increase between the first and second season. T. gallica and M. Germanica showed generally good capabilities for soil bioengineering use. T. gallica showed especially good resprouting rates in drought conditions with a survival rate of 97% in dry modality of the in situ experiment. M. germanica cuttings presented a much lower survival rate than the other two species in in situ experiments with harsh drought conditions from the beginning. T. gallica had a lower shoot-to-root ratio than S. purpurea for all drought treatments. M. germanica and T. gallica showed a very significant increase in belowground biomass during the second vegetative period, demonstrating that these species can quickly achieve strong anchoring. These observations confirmed the interest of these species in bioengineering.
Tests were conducted with Bedbugs , Cimex lectularius German cockroaches, Blatella germanica and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana strains...that 0.5% diazinon should control bedbugs and 0.05% diazinon should control German cockroaches and 3.0% malathion should control American cockroaches
1. Photocopy of photograph 'ONE OF THE WINE VAULTS AT HERMANN - 300 FEET LONG' From William G. Bek, The German Settlement Society of Philadelphia and its Colony Herman, Missouri, (Philadelphia: Americana Germanica Press, 1907), 154. - Wine Vault, Hermann, Gasconade County, MO
The Latin essay "De re Scholastica Anglica cum Germanica Comparata" (English and German school education compared) published in 1795-1798 by the Freiberg/Saxony grammar school principal Friedrich August Hecht is the first treatise in comparative education. The rediscovery of the text, its earlier mentioning in the history of comparative…
Lavaine, Catherine; Evette, André; Piégay, Hervé
We tested the bioengineering capabilities and resistance to drought of cuttings of two typical riparian species of Mediterranean and Alpine streams scarcely used in soil bioengineering: Myricaria germanica (L.) Desv. and Tamarix gallica L. We conducted two experiments, one ex situ and one in situ, with different drought treatments on cuttings of these two species in comparison with Salix purpurea L., a willow very commonly used in bioengineering. The biological traits considered were resprouting/survival rate, quantity of structural roots, above- and belowground biomass, shoot-to-root ratio, and ratio of the biomass increase between the first and second season. T. gallica and M. Germanica showed generally good capabilities for soil bioengineering use. T. gallica showed especially good resprouting rates in drought conditions with a survival rate of 97 % in dry modality of the in situ experiment. M. germanica cuttings presented a much lower survival rate than the other two species in in situ experiments with harsh drought conditions from the beginning. T. gallica had a lower shoot-to-root ratio than S. purpurea for all drought treatments. M. germanica and T. gallica showed a very significant increase in belowground biomass during the second vegetative period, demonstrating that these species can quickly achieve strong anchoring. These observations confirmed the interest of these species in bioengineering.
Watala, C; Kowalczyk, J K
1. The action of crude venoms of four aculeate species: Apis mellifera, Vespa crabro, Vespula germanica and Vespula vulgaris on human erythrocytes was investigated in order to determine the lytic and phospholipase activity of different aculeate venoms and their ability to induce red blood cell hemolysis. 2. Bee venom was the only extract to completely lyse red blood cells at the concentration of 2-3 micrograms/ml. 3. Phospholipase activity in all of the examined vespid venoms was similar and the highest value was recorded in V. germanica. 4. Vespid venoms exhibited phospholipase B activity, which is lacking in honeybee venom. 5. In all membrane phospholipids but lecithin, lysophospholipase activity of vespid venoms was 2-6 times lower than the relevant phospholipase activity. 6. The incubation of red blood cells with purified bee venom phospholipase A2 was not accompanied by lysis and, when supplemented with purified melittin, the increase of red blood cell lysis was approximately 30%.
Brouwer, G. M.; Duijnstee, I. A. P.; Hazeleger, J. H.; Rossi, F.; Lourens, L. J.; Middelburg, J. J.; Wolthers, M.
This study shows foraminiferal dynamics after experimentally induced hypoxia within the wider context of ecosystem recovery. 13C-labeled bicarbonate and glucose were added to the sediments to examine foraminiferal diet shifts during ecosystem recovery and test-size measurements were used to deduce population dynamics. Hypoxia-treated and undisturbed patches were compared to distinguish natural (seasonal) fluctuations from hypoxia-induced responses. The effect of timing of disturbance and duration of recovery were investigated. The foraminiferal diets and population dynamics showed higher fluctuations in the recovering patches compared to the controls. The foraminiferal diet and population structure of Haynesina germanica and Ammonia beccarii responded differentially and generally inversely to progressive stages of ecosystem recovery. Tracer inferred diet estimates in April and June and the two distinctly visible cohorts in the test-size distribution, discussed to reflect reproduction in June, strongly suggest that the ample availability of diatoms during the first month of ecosystem recovery after the winter hypoxia was likely profitable to A. beccarii. Enhanced reproduction itself was strongly linked to the subsequent dietary shift to bacteria. The distribution of the test dimensions of H. germanica indicated that this species had less fluctuation in population structure during ecosystem recovery but possibly reproduced in response to the induced winter hypoxia. Bacteria seemed to consistently contribute more to the diet of H. germanica than diatoms. For the diet and test-size distribution of both species, the timing of disturbance seemed to have a higher impact than the duration of the subsequent recovery period.
Nakazawa, Takuya; Satinover, Shama M; Naccara, Lisa; Goddard, Lucy; Dragulev, Bojan P; Peters, Edward; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E
Harmonia axyridis, the Asian ladybug (ALB), was repeatedly introduced between 1916 and 1990. These beetles are intolerant to cold and move indoors during the winter. To investigate sensitization to ALB. Proteins in ALB extracts were purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Purified fractions were screened for IgE antibody using the streptavidin CAP technique in sera from 20 patients with allergy living in ALB-infested houses. Two proteins were fully purified. Serum antibodies were also assessed in sera from 68 adult patients with asthma. Fifteen of the 20 sera had measurable IgE antibody, 7 with high titers, > 10 IU/mL, to ALB extract. The 2 proteins, Har a 1, 10 kd, and Har a 2, 55 kd, bound IgE antibody in 65% and 75% of the sera, respectively. Sequencing revealed a novel N-terminal sequence for Har a 1. Sequencing of Har a 2 demonstrated homology to a dehydrogenase from the red flour beetle. Although sera from 18 of the patients with asthma were positive for IgE antibody to ALB, they were also positive to Blatella germanica. These subjects did not report exposure to H axyridis, and inhibition studies with B germanica blocked > or = 95% of ALB IgE antibody binding. Two proteins of ALB have been purified and used to demonstrate that patients exposed to this beetle can develop high-titer IgE antibody. Cross-reactivity with B germanica was found but was significant only among patients primarily exposed to cockroaches. Asian ladybug has become an important seasonal indoor allergen in the United States.
Wukovits, Julia; Enge, Annekatrin Julie; Oberrauch, Max; Watzka, Margarete; Wanek, Wolfgang; Heinz, Petra
Benthic foraminifera (eukaryotic protists) are to a large extent acting as detrivores, feeding on microalgal detritus. Phytodetritus constitutes a main component of the intertidal carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pool, thus making foraminifera important players in intertidal nutrient fluxes. These fluxes are strongly dependent on interactions between biotic and abiotic environmental factors, as e.g. the energetic value or the quality of phytodetritus that depends on environmental nutrient availability. Increased inorganic C concentrations in coastal water bodies (e.g. due to increased atmospheric CO2) can have a negative effect on the phytodetrital quality by increasing microalgal C:N ratios. Simultanous warming of the environment can cause increased metabolic rates of exposed heterotrophic organisms, like foraminifera. The combination of lower food quality and increased metabolic rates is supposed to cause cascading effects on organismic C cycling, potentially diminishing the role of detrivorous food as a C sink in marine food webs by increased discharge of excess C. In this study, the above described scenario was tested in laboratory feeding experiments on a common and abundant intertidal foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, collected in the German Wadden Sea). Two batches of artificially produced and dual isotope labeled (13C and 15N) chlorophyte detritus (1.5 gDW m-2) with different C:N ratios (5.5 and 7.6) and one batch of isotopically labelled diatom detritus (C:N 5.6) were fed under controlled conditions at three different temperatures. Results were extrapolated to the in situ abundance of live H. germanica individuals in the sampling area (sediment core data), to estimate the magnitude of the effect on an areal basis within the natural habitat. The study revealed significant, temperature induced variations in the carbon and nitrogen processing of H. germanica. The food source with an increased C:N ratio doubled the release of carbon from the H. germanica
Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer; de Jong, Yde
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The "Orthopteroid orders" is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper.
Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Bendena, William G; Chang, Belinda S W; Tobe, Stephen S
The FGLamide allatostatins (ASTs) are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related orders. They also show myomodulatory activity. FGLamide AST nucleotide frequencies and codon bias were investigated with respect to possible effects on mRNA secondary structure. 367 putative FGLamide ASTs and their potential endoproteolytic cleavage sites were identified from 40 species of crustaceans, chelicerates and insects. Among these, 55% comprised only 11 amino acids. An FGLamide AST consensus was identified to be (X)(1→16)Y(S/A/N/G)FGLGKR, with a strong bias for the codons UUU encoding for Phe and AAA for Lys, which can form strong Watson-Crick pairing in all peptides analyzed. The physical distance between these codons favor a loop structure from Ser/Ala-Phe to Lys-Arg. Other loop and hairpin loops were also inferred from the codon frequencies in the N-terminal motif, and the first amino acids from the C-terminal motif, or the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Our results indicate that nucleotide frequencies and codon usage bias in FGLamide ASTs tend to favor mRNA folds in the codon sequence in the C-terminal active peptide core and at the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oppert, Cris; Klingeman, William E; Willis, Jonathan D; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L
Efficient cellulolytic enzymes are needed to degrade recalcitrant plant biomass during ethanol purification and make lignocellulosic biofuels a cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels. Despite the large number of insect species that feed on lignocellulosic material, limited availability of quantitative studies comparing cellulase activity among insect taxa constrains identification of candidate species for more targeted identification of effective cellulolytic systems. We describe quantitative determinations of the cellulolytic activity in gut or head-derived fluids from 68 phytophagous or xylophagous insect species belonging to eight different taxonomic orders. Enzymatic activity was determined for two different substrates, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), approximating endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and complete cellulolytic activity, respectively. Highest CMC gut fluid activities were found in Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Isoptera, and Orthoptera, while highest MCC gut fluid activities were found in Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera. In most cases, gut fluid activities were greater with CMC compared to MCC substrate, except in Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. In contrast, cellulolytic activity levels in most head fluids were greater on the MCC substrate. Our data suggests that a phylogenetic relationship may exist for the origin of cellulolytic enzymes in insects, and that cellulase activity levels correlate with taxonomic classification, probably reflecting differences in plant host or feeding strategies.
Fischer, Rainer; Ostafe, Raluca; Twyman, Richard M
Bioethanol is currently produced by the fermentation of sugary and starchy crops, but waste plant biomass is a more abundant source because sugars can be derived directly from cellulose. One of the limiting steps in the biomass-to-ethanol process is the degradation of cellulose to fermentable sugars (saccharification). This currently relies on the use of bacterial and/or fungal cellulases, which tend to have low activity under biorefinery conditions and are easily inhibited. Some insect species feed on plant biomass and can efficiently degrade cellulose to produce glucose as an energy source. Although insects were initially thought to require symbiotic relationships with bacteria and fungi to break down cellulose, several species in the orders Dictyoptera, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera have now been shown to produce their own cellulases in the midgut or salivary glands, and putative cellulase genes have been identified in other orders. Insect cellulases often work in concert with cellulases provided by symbiotic microbiota in the gut to achieve efficient cellulolysis. We discuss the current status of insect cellulases and potential strategies that could be used to find novel enzymes and improve their efficiency.
Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Matushkina, Natalia A
The exoskeleton of the female genitalic region (abdominal venters 7-9) in Petrobiellus takunagae (Machilidae-Petrobiellinae) is studied using light microscopy and SEM. Sclerites are distinguished from membrane by the degree of cuticular flexibility. However, the microsculpture of the cuticle is shown to be useful in characterising the heterogeneity of the cuticle and in detecting weak sclerotisations. The morphology of Petrobiellus is compared with that in Trigoniophthalmus alternatus (Machilidae-Machilinae) described previously. While venter 7 is similar, venters 8 and 9 show many differences in the presence/absence or fusion/separation of particular sclerites. This suggests female genitalic morphology to be a valuable character system for phylogenetic and taxonomic work in Archaeognatha. Comparison with other insect orders is aimed at detecting homologous structures and conditions. Important points are: (1) Petrobiellus has a sclerotised genital lobe posteriorly on venter 7, similar to Zygentoma and Dictyoptera; it bears the gonopore. (2) Petrobiellus has a posterior sclerite on venter 9 that is very similar to a sclerite of Odonata. (3) The morphology of the coxal lobes of venter 9 (gonoplacs) suggests their function as a sheath of the ovipositor. From female genitalic morphology we deduce the process of oviposition, describing an external egg transportation tract. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bohn, Horst; Haas, Fabian; Willemse, Fer
Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The “Orthopteroid orders“ is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups. It contains series of mostly well-known insect orders: Embiodea (webspinners), Dermaptera (earwigs), Phasmatodea (walking sticks), Orthoptera s.s. (grasshoppers, crickets, bush-crickets) and Dictyoptera with the suborders Mantodea (mantids), Blattaria (cockroaches) and Isoptera (termites). For the Orthopteroid orders, data from 35 families containing 1,371 species are included in this paper. PMID:27660531
Jones, Susan C; Vargo, Edward L; Keefer, T Chris; Labadie, Paul; Scherer, Clay W; Gallagher, Nicola T; Gold, Roger E
Subterranean termites are the most economically important structural pests in the USA, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Dictyoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is the most widely distributed species. Soil treatment with a liquid termiticide is a widely used method for controlling subterranean termites in structures. We assessed the efficacy of a nonrepellent termiticide, Altriset(®) (active ingredient: chlorantraniliprole), in controlling structural infestations of R. flavipes in Texas, North Carolina, and Ohio and determined the post-treatment fate of termite colonies in and around the structures. In all three states, microsatellite markers indicated that only one R. flavipes colony was infesting each structure. A single chlorantraniliprole treatment provided effective structural protection as there was no further evidence of termite activity in and on the majority of structures from approximately 1 month to 2 years post-treatment when the study concluded. Additionally, the treatment appeared to either severely reduce the infesting colony's footprint at monitors in the landscape or eliminate colony members from these monitors. A supplemental spot-treatment was conducted at one house each in Texas and North Carolina at 5 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively; no termites were observed thereafter in these structures and associated landscaping. The number of colonies found exclusively in the landscape (not attacking the structure) varied among the states, with the largest number of colonies in Texas (0-4) and North Carolina (0-5) as compared to 0-1 in Ohio, the most northern state.
Baum, Eileen; Hertel, Wieland; Beutel, Rolf Georg
The head capsule, the circulatory system and the central nervous system of the head of Prosarthria teretrirostris (Proscopiidae) is described in detail, with special consideration of modifications resulting from the aberrant head shape. The transformations of the head are completely different from those found in phasmatodeans, which are also characterised by twig mimesis. The circulatory system is distinctly modified. A hitherto undescribed additional structure in the posterior head region very likely functions as a pulsatile organ. The cephalic central nervous system is strongly elongated, with changes in the position of the suboesophageal ganglion, the corpora cardiaca and the course of the nervus mandibularis. Three-dimensional reconstructions of these two organ systems in combination with the pharynx were made using Alias Maya 6.0 software. Comparisons with other representatives of Caelifera suggest a clade comprising Proscopiidae and Morabinae. The presence of a transverse muscle connecting the antennal ampullae in Prosarthria shows that this structure likely belongs to the groundplan of Orthoptera, even though it is missing in different representatives of this group. The transverse ampullary muscle is a potential synapomorphy of Orthoptera, Phasmatodea and Dictyoptera.
Koehler, Rene; Predel, Reinhard
Dictyoptera which consist of cockroaches, termites, and praying mantids are among the oldest pterygote insects known. Whereas the localization and sequences of neuropeptides from a number of cockroaches are very well known, nearly nothing is known about the neuropeptides typical of praying mantids. In this study, the neuroanatomy of the median neuroendocrine system in the abdominal ventral nerve cord and the sequences of the CAPA-peptides which are expressed in the respective neuroendocrine cells were analyzed. Altogether, 40 species belonging to different families of Mantodea were included. In contrast to cockroaches, the mantids mostly express two CAPA-periviscerokinins (PVKs), only in Mantis religiosa a third PVK was identified. These PVKs are sequence-related to the PVKs of basal cockroaches (Polyphagidae). In a group of closely related Mantodea (Paramantinae), extended forms of PVK-2 were observed. As shown, these forms are possibly the result of substitutions in the N-terminal cleavage sites of the respective PVKs. No trace of a CAPA-pyrokinin was found in any of the praying mantids.
Steinacher, Gerlinde; Wagner, Johanna
In high-mountains, cold spells can occur at any time during the growing season and plants may be covered with snow for several days. This raises the question to what extent sexual processes are impaired by low temperatures. We tested pollen performance and fertilization capacity of high-mountain species with different elevational distribution in the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Gentianella germanica, Ranunculus glacialis, R. alpestris, Saxifraga bryoides, S. caesia, S. moschata) during simulated cold snaps in the laboratory. Plants were exposed to 0 °C (the temperature below the snow) for 12, 36, 60 and 84 h. In S. caesia, the experiment was verified in situ during a cold snap. Sexual processes coped well with large temperature differences and remained functional at near-freezing temperatures for a few days. During the cooling-down phase a high percentage (67–97%) of pollen grains germinated and grew tubes into the style. At zero degrees, tube growth continued slowly both in the laboratory and in situ below the snow. Fertilization occurred in up to 100% of flowers in the nival species and in G. germanica, but was strongly delayed or absent in the alpine species. During rewarming, fertilization continued. Overall, progamic processes in high-mountain plants appear fairly robust toward weather extremes increasing the probability of successful reproduction. PMID:27137380
Masson, Jerome; Liberto, Erica; Brevard, Hugues; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia
This study aimed to discriminate 22 samples of commercial Iris rhizomes (orris root) by species and origin (Iris germanica (Morocco), I. albicans (Morocco), I. pallida (Morocco), I. pallida (China), I. pallida (Italy)) by applying a strategy derived from those adopted in metabolomics. The specimens' fingerprints from conventional analysis methods (LC-UV and/or LC-MS) were unable to provide clear discrimination. A strategy combining UHPLC/TOF-HRMS, in positive and negative modes, with multivariate statistical methods was therefore applied. Exact mass/retention time (EMRT) pairs obtained by UHPLC-TOF/HRMS were successfully submitted to statistical processing by principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and then orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), to extract the discriminating EMRT pairs through their trend views. 146 EMRT pairs were selected on the basis of their trend views, because they significantly varied, and 104 of them were included to discriminate between species and origins. 32 of them were tentatively identified as discriminating markers (flavonoids, isoflavonoids, triterpenoids, benzophenone derivatives and related glycosides …) from the reference database created on the basis of Iris genus components reported in the literature: eight of them specific for I. albicans, four for I. germanica, five for I. pallida (Italy), five for I. pallida (China), and ten for I. pallida (Morocco). The reliability of this strategy was confirmed by identifying species and origin of two unknown samples submitted to the same analytical procedure.
Monk, Lorna S.; Fagerstedt, Kurt V.; Crawford, Robert M. M.
The perennating organ, the rhizome, was chosen for examination of response to anoxia in the species Iris pseudacorus L., Iris germanica L. var Quechei, and Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmberg. These monocots are known to differ in their tolerance of anoxia. Intact rhizomes were subjected to periods of prolonged anoxia of up to 28 days and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined in a 48 hour postanoxic recovery phase. Tests were performed to ensure the accuracy of the measured enzyme activities. In the most anoxia tolerant species, I. pseudacorus, SOD activity rose continuously during the period of imposed anoxia, and levels were maintained in the postanoxic recovery phases: 28 days brought about a 13-fold increase to 1576 U SOD per milligram protein. Small increases were found in the less anoxia tolerant I. germanica during anoxic/postanoxic phases, while a drop in activity was recorded in the least anoxia tolerant G. maxima. However, initial levels in G. maxima were more than twice as high as in the other two species. Experiments applying cycloheximide to anoxic rhizome slices of I. pseudacorus inhibited the increase in SOD activity. This indicates that SOD is, paradoxically, induced under anoxia and we suggest that in this species SOD is one of the enzymes identified as anaerobic polypeptides. The significance of the induction of an `oxygen-protecting' enzyme during complete oxygen deprivation is discussed with regard to a possible critical role during recovery from anoxic stress. PMID:16665795
Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena
Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.
The host specificity of Gregarina blattarum was evaluated among five species of domiciliary cockroaches: Blatella germanica, Supella longipalpa, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Periplaneta fuliginosa. Third- and fourth-instar nymphs were allowed to feed on crushed dog kibble contaminated with G. blattarum oocysts. Cockroaches were killed 8 days postinfection and examined for parasites. Gregarina blattarum infections were observed in all experimentally infected replications of B. germanica. No infection was observed in an experimentally infected replication of S. longipalpa, B. orientalis, P. americana, or P. fuliginosa, nor was an infection observed in a time zero or ending time control group. In vitro excystation assays using extracts of host gut homogenates demonstrate that G. blattarum sporozoites successfully excyst and begin the life cycle in all five cockroach species tested. No excystation was observed in neutral buffered saline controls. These data suggest that G. blattarum comprises a complex of cryptic species marked by narrow host utilization rather than a single species parasitizing a broad array of cockroach taxa.
Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated. PMID:22958880
Kolarich, Daniel; Loos, Andreas; Léonard, Renaud; Mach, Lukas; Marzban, Gorji; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Altmann, Friedrich
The venoms of stinging insects belong to the most dangerous allergen sources and can cause fatal anaphylactic reactions. Reliable prediction of a patient's risk to anaphylactic reactions is vital, and diagnosis requires the knowledge of the relevant allergens. Recently, a new hyaluronidase -like glycoprotein from Vespula vulgaris (Ves v 2b) was identified. This led us to investigate hyaluronidases and also other major allergens from V. germanica and four additional Vespula species. By MALDI-Q-TOF-MS, the new hyaluronidase-like protein was shown to be the major component of the 43-kDa band in all Vespula species studied. LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS sequencing of Ves g 2a and Ves g 2b facilitated the cloning of their cDNA. Ves v 2b and Ves g 2b turned out to be essentially identical on protein level. Whereas the less abundant "a" form displayed enzymatic activity, the new "b" homologue did not. This is probably caused by amino acid exchanges in the active site, and it raises questions about the physiological role of this protein. Sequence comparisons by MS/MS of antigen 5 and phospholipases from V. vulgaris, germanica, maculifrons, pensylvanica, flavopilosa and squamosa revealed the latter as a taxonomic outlier and led to the discovery of several not previously reported amino acid differences.
Koch, Christiane; Kollmann, Johannes
The scope of re-introduction as a measure for plant species protection is increasing, but as long as no standardized methods are available, species-specific assessments are necessary to determine whether seeds, adult plants or plant fragments should be used. The endangered German False Tamarisk ( Myricaria germanica), which occurs on gravel bars along pre-alpine rivers, is difficult to grow from seeds. Thus, propagation of stem cuttings was investigated as an alternative method. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and a field site with three treatments: cutting length 5 or 10 cm, vertical burial 5 or 10 cm, and water level low or high. Plants grown in the greenhouse were transplanted to the River Isar to test establishment of rooted cuttings on gravel bars. The cuttings in the greenhouse showed high survival (34-96 %). Survival and biomass production were greatest for 10-cm cuttings buried at 10-cm depth, while only one of the 5-cm cuttings survived at this depth, and no significant effect of variation in water level was observed. None of the cuttings transplanted to field sites survived, most likely because of drought stress and competition. We conclude that for re-introduction of Myricaria germanica rooted cuttings can be easily produced in large quantities, while transplantation to near-natural environments has to be improved to reduce mortality.
Sabrina, Moreyra; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana
Memory has been little studied in social wasps. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) frequently revisits nondepleted food sources, making several trips between the resource and the nest. In this study, we analyzed this relocating behavior in order to evaluate whether this species is capable of remembering an established association after 1 h. To this end, we trained wasps to feed from a certain array. Then it was removed, setting it up again 1 h later, but this time 2 baited feeders were put in place, one at the original feeding site and the other opposite the first. We recorded the proportion of returning foragers, and their choice of feeder, after either 1 or 4 feeding trials. After 1 h, 78% of wasps trained with 4 feeding trials and 65% trained with 1, returned to the experimental area. Furthermore, during the testing phase, wasps trained with 4 feeding trials collected food from the previously learned feeder significantly more frequently than from the nonlearned one (P < 0.05). In contrast, wasps that had been trained only once chose both feeders equally. Thus, memory retrieval could be observed 1 h after wasps had collected food on 4 consecutive occasions, but not after only 1. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that V. germanica is capable of remembering an association 1 h after the last associative event, demonstrating that 1 h does not impair memory retention if 4 feeding experiences have occurred. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Ware, Jessica L; Grimaldi, David A; Engel, Michael S
Among insects, eusocial behavior occurs in termites, ants, some bees and wasps. Isoptera and Hymenoptera convergently share social behavior, and for both taxa its evolution remains poorly understood. While dating analyses provide researchers with the opportunity to date the origin of eusociality, fossil calibration methodology may mislead subsequent ecological interpretations. Using a comprehensive termite dataset, we explored the effect of fossil placement and calibration methodology. A combined molecular and morphological dataset for 42 extant termite lineages was used, and a second dataset including these 42 taxa, plus an additional 39 fossil lineages for which we had only morphological data. MrBayes doublet-model analyses recovered similar topologies, with one minor exception (Stolotermitidae is sister to the Hodotermitidae, s.s., in the 42-taxon analysis but is in a polytomy with Hodotermitidae and (Kalotermitidae + Neoisoptera) in the 81-taxon analysis). Analyses using the r8s program on these topologies were run with either minimum/maximum constraints (analysis a = 42-taxon and analysis c = 81-taxon analyses) or with the fossil taxon ages fixed (ages fixed to be the geological age of the deposit from which they came, analysis b = 81-taxon analysis). Confidence intervals were determined for the resulting ultrametric trees, and for most major clades there was significant overlap between dates recovered for analyses A and C (with exceptions, such as the nodes Neoisoptera, and Euisoptera). With the exception of isopteran and eusiopteran node ages, however, none of the major clade ages overlapped when analysis B is compared with either analysis A or C. Future studies on Dictyoptera should note that the age of Kalotermitidae was underestimated in absence of kalotermitid fossils with fixed ages.
Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O
Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more
Lopes, Adriana R; Sato, Paloma M; Terra, Walter R
Insect digestive chymotrypsins are present in a large variety of insect orders but their substrate specificity still remains unclear. Four insect chymotrypsins from 3 different insect orders (Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, and two Lepidoptera) were isolated using affinity chromatography. Enzymes presented molecular masses in the range of 20 to 31 kDa and pH optima in the range of 7.5 to 10.0. Kinetic characterization using different colorimetric and fluorescent substrates indicated that insect chymotrypsins differ from bovine chymotrypsin in their primary specificity toward small substrates (like N-benzoyl-L-Tyr p-nitroanilide) rather than on their preference for large substrates (exemplified by Succynil-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide). Chloromethyl ketones (TPCK, N- alpha-tosyl-L-Phe chloromethyl ketone and Z-GGF-CK, N- carbobenzoxy-Gly-Gly-Phe-CK) inactivated all chymotrypsins tested. Inactivation rates follow apparent first-order kinetics with variable second order rates (TPCK, 42 to 130 M(-1) s(-1); Z-GGF-CK, 150 to 450 M(-1) s(-1)) that may be remarkably low for S. frugiperda chymotrypsin (TPCK, 6 M(-1) s(-1); Z-GGF-CK, 6.1 M(-1) s(-1)). Homology modelling and sequence alignment showed that in lepidopteran chymotrypsins, differences in the amino acid residues in the neighborhood of the catalytic His 57 may affect its pKa value. This is proposed as the cause of the decrease in His 57 reactivity toward chloromethyl ketones. Such amino acid replacement in the active site is proposed to be an adaptation to the presence of dietary ketones.
Wang, Xiao-Yu; He, Zheng Chun; Song, Li-Yan; Spencer, Shawn; Yang, Lei Xiang; Peng, Fang; Liu, Guang-Ming; Hu, Ming-Hui; Li, Hai Bo; Wu, Xiu-Mei; Zeng, Su; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Stöckigt, Joachim; Zhao, Yu; Qian, Jin Fu
The organic extract of Periplaneta americana L. (Dictyoptera; Blattidae) has been traditionally used in southwestern China as an alternative medicine against disorders such as hepatitis, trauma, gastric ulcers, burns, and heart disease. The present study describes bioassay-guided purification and chemotherapeutic evaluation of the 60% ethanolic fraction of P americana organic extracts (PAE60). The most effective cytotoxic fraction was determined by way of repeated in vitro screenings against 12 distinct cultured human carcinoma cell lines: Eca 109, BGC823, HO8910, LS174T, CNE, HeLa, K562, PC-3, A549, BEL 7404, HL-60, and KB, followed by in vivo antitumor assays of the lead fraction (PAE60). The complexity of enriched active fraction was qualitatively evaluated using thin layer chromatography. Reconstituted PAE60 was effective at inhibiting HL-60, KB, CNE, and BGC823 cell growth with IC(50) values <20 µg mL-(1). PAE60 reduced tumor growth in S180-bearing immunocompetent mice by 72.62% after 10 days following oral doses of 500 mg kg d-(1) compared with 78.75% inhibition following 40 mg kg d-(1) of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Thymus and spleen indices of S180-bearing mice treated with PAE60 were significantly greater (P < .05) than CTX treatment groups, suggesting potential immunomodulation of antitumor host defenses by PAE60. Antiviral activity was also investigated and PAE60 inhibited herpes simplex type-2 replication (IC(50) = 4.11 ± 0.64 µg mL-(1)) with a selectivity index (CC(50) to IC(50) ratio) of 64.84 in Vero cells but was less effective on type-1 virus (IC(50) of 25.6 ± 3.16 µg mL-(1)). These results support future clinical trials on P. americana as an alternative or complementary medicinal agent.
Gannon, B; le Patourel, G; Young, R
Exposure to high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) killed adult and nymphal stages of the oriental cockroach Blatta orientalis L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) with LT50 values of 11.5-16.2 h for 60% CO2 in air and 5.7-7.1 h for 100% CO2 at 20 degrees C; corresponding LT50s at 28 degrees C were 2.8-4.6 h for 60% CO2 in air and 2.3-3.6 h for 100% CO2. Complete kill of mobile stages was obtained within 24 h using 60% CO2 at 20 degrees C. Survivors of treatments with 100% CO2 at 28 degrees C remained completely paralysed for up to 3 days post-treatment and took up to 5 days to regain normal movement, but adult females then resumed production of oothecae with no significant loss in fecundity. Oothecae 5 or 30 days after deposition required 60-84 h exposure to 60% CO2 at 20 degrees C to prevent emergence of nymphs but less time using 100% CO2 at 28 degrees C. At 28 degrees C, when adult females were treated with 100% CO2 and 52% r.h. for 6 h (giving 100% mortality) loss of weight was significantly greater than that following treatment with air at 52% r.h. for 6 h (giving no mortality). However, significantly greater weight loss also occurred when they were treated with dried air (< 10% r.h.) for 6 h, also with no mortality. The toxicity of CO2 to mobile stages of the oriental cockroach appeared to result from irreversible effects on the nervous system, rather than from water loss during exposure.
Ma, Jinnan; Du, Chao; Zhou, Chuang; Sheng, Yongmei; Fan, Zhenxin; Yue, Bisong
Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of two cockroach species, Periplaneta australasiae and Neostylopyga rhombifolia, 15,605 bp and 15,711 bp in length, respectively, were determined. As reported for other cockroach mitogenomes, the two mitogenomes possessed typical ancestral insect mitogenome gene composition and arrangement. Only several small intergenic spacers were found: one, which was common in all sequenced cockroach mitogenomes except for the genus Cryptocercus, was between tRNA-Ser (UCN) and ND1 and contained a 7bp highly conserved motif (WACTTAA). Three different types of short tandem repeats in the N. rhombifolia control region (CR) were observed. The homologous alignments of these tandem repeats with other six cockroach mitogenome CRs revealed a low similarity. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB) were detected in both cockroach mitochondrial CRs. CSB1 was specific for blattinine mitogenomes and was highly conserved with 95% similarity, speculating that this block was a possible molecular synapomorphy for this subfamily. CSB3 located nearby downstream of CSB1 and has more variations within blattinine mitogenomes compared with CSB1. The CSB3 was capable of forming stable stem-loop structure with a small T-stretch in the loop portion. We assessed the influence of four datasets and two inference methods on topology within Orthopteroidea. All genes excluding the third codon positions of PCGs could generate more stable topology, and higher posterior probabilities than bootstrap values were presented at some branch nodes. The phylogenetic analysis with different datasets and analytical methods supported the monophyly of Dictyoptera and supported strongly the proposal that Isoptera should be classified as a family (Termitidae) of the Blattaria. Specifically, Shelfordella lateralis was inserted in the clade Periplaneta. Considering the K2P genetic distance, morphological characters, and the phylogenetic trees, we suggested that S. lateralis should be
Defelipe, L.A; Dolghih, E.; Roitberg, A.E.; Nouzova, M.; Mayoral, J.G; Noriega, F.G.; Turjanski, A.G.
Juvenile hormones (JHs) play key roles in regulating metamorphosis and reproduction in insects. The last two steps of JH synthesis diverge depending on the insect order. In Lepidoptera, epoxidation by a P450 monooxygenase precedes esterification by a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). In Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera epoxidation follows methylation. The aim of our study was to gain insight into the structural basis of JHAMT’s substrate recognition as a means to understand the divergence of these pathways. Homology modeling was used to build the structure of Aedes aegypti JHAMT. The substrate binding site was identified, as well as the residues that interact with the methyl donor (S-adenosylmethionine) and the carboxylic acid of the substrate methyl acceptors, farnesoic acid (FA) and juvenile hormone acid (JHA). To gain further insight we generated the structures of Anopheles gambiae, Bombyx mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum JHAMTs. The modeling results were compared with previous experimental studies using recombinant proteins, whole insects, corpora allata or tissue extracts. The computational study helps explain the selectivity towards the (10R)-JHA isomer and the reduced activity for palmitic and lauric acids. The analysis of our results supports the hypothesis that all insect JHAMTs are able to recognize both FA and JHA as substrates. Therefore, the order of the methylation/epoxidation reactions may be primarily imposed by the epoxidase’s substrate specificity. In Lepidoptera, epoxidase might have higher affinity than JHAMT for FA, so epoxidation precedes methylation, while in most other insects there is no epoxidation of FA, but esterification of FA to form MF, followed by epoxidation to JH III. PMID:21195763
Martins, Virgínia A; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Tramonte, Keila M; Figueira, Rubens C L; Miranda, Paulo; Sequeira, Cristina; Fernández-Fernández, Sandra; Dias, João A; Yamashita, Cintia; Renó, Raquel; Laut, Lazaro L M; Silva, Frederico S; Rodrigues, Maria Antonieta da C; Bernardes, Cristina; Nagai, Renata; Sousa, Silvia H M; Mahiques, Michel; Rubio, Belén; Bernabeu, Ana; Rey, Daniel; Rocha, Fernando
This work analyses the distribution of heavy metals in the sediments of Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) assessed by total digestion and sequential chemical extraction of the sediments. The influence of environmental parameters on the living benthic foraminiferal assemblages was studied. The most polluted parts in the Ria de Aveiro are areas where the residence time is high and cohesive sediments are deposited. Organic matter, which is an excellent scavenger for a number of metals, is in general more abundant in the finer deposits of this lagoon, which act as sinks of anthropogenic pollutants. This condition is observed in Aveiro canals and Murtosa channel where sediments with the highest concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr are found. The sediments of Murtosa channel are also enriched in As, Co and Hg. In Aveiro canals the enrichment of heavy metals is mostly related to the past industrial production at their margins (ceramic and metallurgy), whereas in Murtosa channel with effluent discharges of the Chemical Complex of Estarreja. Foraminiferal density and diversity reach higher values near the lagoon mouth under higher marine influence and decline in general under very low-oxygen conditions. Some species seems to be indifferent to the increasing of TOC (e.g. Haynesina germanica and Ammonia tepida) and some have an opportunistic behaviour in areas with very depressed levels of oxygen (e.g. A. tepida and Quinqueloculina seminulum) whereas other species can better tolerate sulphide/reducing conditions (e.g. H. germanica, Bolivina ordinaria, Buliminella elegantissima, Bulimina elongata/gibba and Nonionella stella) a widespread condition in this lagoon. Foraminiferal density and some species are negatively correlated with concentrations of heavy metals. A most sensitive group of species to higher concentrations of heavy metals is identified (such as B. ordinaria, B. pseudoplicata and B. elongata/gibba) and another one of more tolerant species (such as H. germanica A. tepida
Ree, Han-Il; Lee, In-Yong; Jeon, Soung-Hoo
A field trial on the control effect of fipronil poison bait against German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) was carried out at different restaurant types in Sinchon, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Monitoring was performed applying food baited traps for 2 days per week. Reduction rates of German cockroaches by applying fipronil baits were 90.9% at Korean restaurants, 96.4% at Chinese restaurants, and 89.4% in beer hall kitchens after 4 weeks of the treatment. Overall average of the reduction rate was 93.9%. As the natural reduction rate at untreated restaurants was 11.5% after 4 weeks, a correction of the average reduction rate by applying the Abbot formula was 93.1%. PMID:16969066
Půza, Vladimír; Mrácek, Zdenĕk
Living and freeze-killed natural and laboratory hosts, with different susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes, were exposed to the larvae of Steinernema affine and Steinernema kraussei in two different experimental arenas (Eppendorf tubes, Petri dishes), and the success of the colonisation and eventual progeny production were observed. Both nematodes were able to colonise both living and dead larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) and adult Blatella germanica (Blattodea) even though the progeny production in dead hosts was lower on average. Living carabid beetles, Poecilus cupreus, and elaterid larvae (Coleoptera) were resistant to the infection, however, both nematodes were able to colonise and multiply in several dead P. cupreus and in a majority of dead elaterid larvae. By scavenging, EPNs can utilise cadavers of insects that are naturally resistant to EPN infection, and so broaden their host range.
Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Ito, Katsuhiko; Otsuki, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Komai, Koichiro; Matsuda, Kazuhiko
Bacillus cereus isolated from the larvae of Myrmeleon bore was found to secrete proteins that paralyze and kill German cockroaches, Blattela germanica, when injected. One of these active proteins was purified from the culture broth of B. cereus using anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified toxin, with a molecular mass of 34 kDa, was identified as sphingomyelinase C (EC 188.8.131.52) on the basis of its N-terminal and internal amino-acid sequences. A recombinant sphingomyelinase C expressed in Escherichia coli was as potent as the native protein in killing the cockroaches. Site-directed mutagenesis (His151Ala) that inactivated the sphingomyelinase activity also abolished the insecticidal activity, suggesting that the rapid insect toxicity of sphingomyelinase C results from its phospholipid-degrading activity.
Cavazos Galván, Mario; Guerrero Núñez, Belinda; Ramírez Aragón, Daniel
In Mexico there are few research papers dealing with mites and cockroaches sensibilizing in patients suffering from respiratory allergies and even less susceptibility comparative studies to the same between cities having different climatic and geographic characteristics. To research in a prospective study skin sensibilizing to eighy different mites and two cockroaches species in patients with respiratory allergies in three cities of Mexico: Monterrey, NL, Tampico, Tamps., and Irapuato, Gto., in order to determine if there are sensibilizing differences due to climatic and geographic conditions. Skin tests were performed by scarification in 58 patients suffering diverse respiratory allergies such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and combinations of the same. Tests were performed on 18 patients from Monterrey, 20 from Tampico and 20 from Irapuato. Mites used were: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescientiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Euroglyphus maynei, Acarus siro, Dermatophagoides microceras and 2 cockroaches species, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica. Of the total 58 patients, the most important and frequent reactions were produced by D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and E. maynei, which were found in 40, 33 and 32 patients respectively, then D. microceras in 21 patients, A. siro in 18, and B. tropicalis in 13 patients. In Tampico, the mite with the most frequent susceptibility was E. maynei, in Monterrey and Irapuato the most relevant were D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, respectively. In Tampico, B. tropicalis was positive in 8 patients vs only 4 in Monterrey and 1 in Irapuato. The skin response to cockroaches was not important and the city with most positives was Irapuato with 6 patients responding to B. germanica, and 3 to P. americana; in Tampico 5 patients reacted to P. americana and 3 to B. germanica, and in Monterrey skin reactivity was slight and only 2
Khanna, Nikki; Godbold, Jasmin A; Austin, William E N; Paterson, David M
Culturing experiments were performed on sediment samples from the Ythan Estuary, N. E. Scotland, to assess the impacts of ocean acidification on test surface ornamentation in the benthic foraminifer Haynesina germanica. Specimens were cultured for 36 weeks at either 380, 750 or 1000 ppm atmospheric CO2. Analysis of the test surface using SEM imaging reveals sensitivity of functionally important ornamentation associated with feeding to changing seawater CO2 levels. Specimens incubated at high CO2 levels displayed evidence of shell dissolution, a significant reduction and deformation of ornamentation. It is clear that these calcifying organisms are likely to be vulnerable to ocean acidification. A reduction in functionally important ornamentation could lead to a reduction in feeding efficiency with consequent impacts on this organism's survival and fitness.
Ree, Han-Il; Lee, In-Yong; Jeon, Soung-Hoo; Yong, Tai-Soon
A field trial on the control effect of fipronil poison bait against German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) was carried out at different restaurant types in Sinchon, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Monitoring was performed applying food baited traps for 2 days per week. Reduction rates of German cockroaches by applying fipronil baits were 90.9% at Korean restaurants, 96.4% at Chinese restaurants, and 89.4% in beer hall kitchens after 4 weeks of the treatment. Overall average of the reduction rate was 93.9%. As the natural reduction rate at untreated restaurants was 11.5% after 4 weeks, a correction of the average reduction rate by applying the Abbot formula was 93.1%.
Harmanci, E; Metintas, M; Alatas, F; Erginel, S; Mutlu, S
Allergy to cockroach and latex are said to be causes of asthma particularly in some groups. We studied allergy to cockroach and latex in asthmatic patients from Eskisehir (Anatolia), Turkey in order to determine whether these allergens play an important role in the Anatolian region. A total of 216 asthmatic patients (mean age 43.7+/-11.0 years) were skin tested with common aeroallergens, Blatella germanica and latex. Sixty-three patients were allergic (29.1%) and 153 were nonallergic (70.8%) according to skin test results. Sensitization to pollens (57%) and mites (55.5%) was most common among allergic patients. We found a low sensitization to cockroach (4.7%) and latex (1.4%). We suggested that cockroach sensitization plays a small role in sensitization in our geographic area and that latex sensitization is low in allergic asthmatic patients who were referred for reasons other than latex-related symptoms.
Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton
Summary In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (Ta: ∼0–40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights. Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on Ta on their arrival (mean Tth = 30–40°C) and departure (mean Tth = 33–40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (Tth−Ta) above ambient air of about 5–18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the Tth on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg. PMID:23162695
Hartbauer, Manfred; Gepp, Johannes; Hinteregger, Karin; Koblmüller, Stephan
In the genus Panorpa (Insecta: Mecoptera), also known as scorpionflies, premating behavior includes repeated sequences of slow wing movements (waving, fanning, flagging) which are accompanied by rapid abdomen vibrations that generate substantial substrate-borne sound. It is still unknown whether wing patterns or vibratory signals contain information about species identity, sex and/or the quality of potential mating partners. Besides species-specific pheromones, these multimodal signals may be of particular importance for the maintenance of reproductive isolation in sympatrically occurring scorpionfly species. Here, we analyzed phyologenetic relationships among, and the pattern of forewings as well as substrate-borne sound in 3 different sympatric Central-European scorpionfly species (P. communis, P. germanica, and P. alpina). Divergence time estimates, based on 879 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene, indicate longstanding separate evolutionary histories for the studied Panorpa species. Morphological analysis revealed that wing length as an indicator of body size increased in the following order: P. alpina < P. germanica < P. communis. Individuals can be assigned to the correct species and sex with high accuracy just by evaluation of the number of dark spots and the proportion of wing pigmentation. Despite high variability of interpulse period at an individual level, across species analysis revealed a positive correlation of average interpulse period as well as mean signal amplitude with forewing length. These results suggest wing patterns, but less likely vibratory signals, to contain information about species identity. Furthermore, receivers may be able to estimate the body size of a signaler solely on the basis of substrate-borne sound. © 2014 The Authors. Insect Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Kenawy, Mohamed A; Amer, Hanan S; Lotfy, Nadia M; Khamis, Nagwa; Abdel-Hamid, Yousrya M
A study was planned to examine the insect fauna associated with two hospitals: urban (A) in Cairo and rural (B) in Banha, Egypt with varying hygienic levels and their adjacent residential areas (AC) and (BC), respectively and to investigate the effect of hygienic level on species composition and relative abundance. A total of 22 species belonging to 7 orders and 15 families were reported in the four study areas of which, Dipterous flies were the most common (8/22, 36.36% species). A total of 5257 adults were collected of which Dipterous flies were the abundant (3800, 72.28% insect) and Musca domestica was the most abundant species (3535, 67.24% insect) which was present in all areas where it was more common / predominant species (21.94%-90.91% insect). Moreover, higher densities of M domestica were in (B) and BC than in (A) or (AC). The heavily infested area was AC (54.55% species) followed by (A), (BC) and (B) however, the total number of the collected insects was higher in (BC) and (B) than in (AC) and (A). This was confirmed by finding maximum diversity indices in (AC) and minimum ones in B. In all areas, means of M domestica was more common during summer/autumn and spring than in the winter. Periplaneta americana collected oily during autumn in AC and was more common in autumn in (BC) while Blatella germanica collected only during summer in (AC) and was more common in autumn in (B). The prevalence and higher abundance of the medically important species mainly M domestica, P. americana and B. germanica in rural hospital than in urban one attribute mainly to the lower hygienic level of rural hospital This require a control program based mainly on sanitation supplemented by other measures to overcome the risk of disease transmission by such insects
Quesada-Moraga, E; Santos-Quirós, R; Valverde-García, P; Santiago-Alvarez, C
Virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain EAMa 01/121-Su against the German Cockroach, Blatella germanica (L.), was determined using four concentrations ranging from 4.2 x 10(6) to 4.2 x 10(9) spores per milliliter. The LD50 value was 1.4 x 10(7) spores per milliliter (56,000 spores per cockroach) and LT50 values were 14.8 days and 5.3 days for 4.2 x 10(8) and 4.2 x 10(9) spores per milliliter, respectively. An experiment was conducted to evaluate whether a fungal transmission could exist among infected and healthy cockroaches. Percentage mortality at a ratio of 1:10 of infected to unexposed cockroaches was 87.5% and LT50 was 12.2 days, which indicated the potential of this strain to be horizontally transmitted and to rapidly spread the infection in the insect population. The effect of a sublethal dose (ca. LD60) of M. anisopliae EAMa 01/121-Su strain, applied topically on German cockroaches, was studied by reciprocal crossing. Othecal production, oothecal hatchability, and nymphal production declined upon exposure to M. anisopliae EAMa 01/121-Su strain. The mean number of oothecae laid by female was progressively and significantly reduced by fungal treatment from second oviposition period onwards. Oothecal hatch of fungally challenged females was reduced by 46-49%, oothecal viability by 48-85%, and nymphal production by 22-35%. Only treated females showed an effect on oothecal production, oothecal hatch, and nymphal production, although oothecal hatch was also governed by treated males at a higher significance level. Our results on virulence and horizontal transmission of fungal conidia of M. anisopliae EAMa 01/121-Su strain and its sublethal reproductive effects on German cockroach females are discussed in terms of its potential to decrease the pest status of B. germanica in the short and long terms.
Saad, Salha A; Wade, Christopher M
Time series foraminiferal data were obtained from samples collected from three sites at Brancaster Overy Staithe, Burnham Overy Staithe and Thornham on the North Norfolk coast over a 1-year period. At each collection point, six environmental variables-temperature, chlorophyll, sand, mud, pH and salinity-were also measured. The principle aim of this study was to examine the benthic foraminiferal fauna in regard to the temporal variability of foraminiferal abundance, seasonal trend, dominant species, species diversity and the impact of environmental variables on the foraminiferal communities in the top 1 cm of sediment over a 1-year time series. The foraminiferal assemblages at the three sites were dominated by three species: Haynesina germanica, Ammonia sp. and Elphidium williamsoni. Foraminiferal species showed considerable seasonal and temporal fluctuation throughout the year at the three investigated sites. The foraminiferal assemblage at the three low marsh zones showed a maximum abundance in autumn between September and November and a minimum abundance observed between July and August. There were two separate peaks in the abundance of Ammonia sp. and E. williamsoni, one in spring and another in autumn. In contrast, H. germanica showed a single peak in its abundance in autumn. A generalized additive modelling approach was used to explain the variation in the observed foraminiferal abundance and to estimate the significant impact of each of the environmental variables on living foraminiferal assemblages, with taxa abundance as the dependent variable. When included in the model as predictors, most of the environmental variables contributed little in explaining the observed variation in foraminiferal species abundance. However, the hypotheses for differences amongst sites, salinity and pH were significant and explained most of the variability in species relative abundance.
Hartbauer, Manfred; Gepp, Johannes; Hinteregger, Karin; Koblmüller, Stephan
In the genus Panorpa (Insecta: Mecoptera), also known as scorpionflies, premating behavior includes repeated sequences of slow wing movements (waving, fanning, flagging) which are accompanied by rapid abdomen vibrations that generate substantial substrate-borne sound. It is still unknown whether wing patterns or vibratory signals contain information about species identity, sex and/or the quality of potential mating partners. Besides species-specific pheromones, these multimodal signals may be of particular importance for the maintenance of reproductive isolation in sympatrically occurring scorpionfly species. Here, we analyzed phyologenetic relationships among, and the pattern of forewings as well as substrate-borne sound in 3 different sympatric Central-European scorpionfly species (P. communis, P. germanica, and P. alpina). Divergence time estimates, based on 879 bp of the mitochondrial COI gene, indicate longstanding separate evolutionary histories for the studied Panorpa species. Morphological analysis revealed that wing length as an indicator of body size increased in the following order: P. alpina < P. germanica < P. communis. Individuals can be assigned to the correct species and sex with high accuracy just by evaluation of the number of dark spots and the proportion of wing pigmentation. Despite high variability of interpulse period at an individual level, across species analysis revealed a positive correlation of average interpulse period as well as mean signal amplitude with forewing length. These results suggest wing patterns, but less likely vibratory signals, to contain information about species identity. Furthermore, receivers may be able to estimate the body size of a signaler solely on the basis of substrate-borne sound. PMID:24818592
Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton
In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (T(a): ~0-40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights.Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on T(a) on their arrival (mean T(th) = 30-40°C) and departure (mean T(th) = 33-40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (T(th)-T(a)) above ambient air of about 5-18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the T(th) on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.
Schmahl, Günter; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz
The paper summarizes the acaricidal and insecticidal effects of a patented neem seed extract when diluted 1:10 with shampoo or 1:20, 1:30, 1:33, 1:40, respectively, 1:66 with tap water. It was shown that a broad range of pests and parasites, such as house dust mites, poultry mites, harvest mites, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus ticks, cat fleas (adults, larvae), bed bugs (all stages), head lice and mallophaga, cockroaches (genera Blatta, Blattella, Gomphadorhina), raptor bugs (Triatoma), and even food-attacking beetle (Tenebrio molitor) might be controlled with this extract, which is available as Tre-san (against house dust mites) and MiteStop (against mites, ticks, insects of any kind) to become water diluted or as Wash Away Louse or Picksan LouseStop being diluted in a shampoo. Tests on skin compatibility proved that there are no skin irritations during or after use. However, some target species are less sensible (beetles, Triatoma stages, fly maggots), while the specimens of the other species cited above were successfully killed even at low concentrations of the extract.
Komatsu, Noriyuki; Kishimoto, Toshio; Uchida, Akihiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean
A survey of cockroach fauna was carried out on the 3 inhabited islands of the Ogasawara chain island of Japan, namely, Chichijima island, Hahajima island and Iwo island. Seven species, namely, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775), Blattella lituricollis (Walker, 1868), Onychostylus vilis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Opisthoplatia orientalis (Burmeister, 1838), were collected on Chichijima island. Four species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, O. vilis and P. surinamensis were collected on Hahajima island and 6 species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, B. lituricollis, O. vilis, P. surinamensis and Neostylopyga rhombifolia were collected on Iwo island. This is the first record of N. rhombifolia and Onychostylus orientalis on the Ogasawara chain islands. Our study increases the recorded taxon of cockroaches on the Ogasawara from 3 families, 5 genera 10 species to 4 families, 7 genera, 12 species. A list of the cockroach species on Ogasawara islands reported to date as well as a key for their identification is also presented. Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, being the dominant species, together with S. longipalpa, were collected mostly in the indoor environment, indicating their preference for this habitat. Pycnoscelus surinamensis, which is considered as an outdoor insect has been found in semi-household environments such as greenhouse and shed, indicating their new adaptation to the changing environment.
Mojtahid, M.; Geslin, E.; Coynel, A.; Gorse, L.; Vella, C.; Davranche, A.; Zozzolo, L.; Blanchet, L.; Bénéteau, E.; Maillet, G.
Ninety-seven surface sediment samples were collected in September 2012 from intertidal and subtidal areas along the Loire estuary (western France). The main objective of this work is to study the spatial distributional patterns of living benthic foraminifera and their link to the environmental parameters (distance to sea, elevation, grain size, total organic carbon, trace metals, sedimentary carbonates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the Loire estuary. Foraminiferal analysis was also extended to the dead assemblages in thirty-three surface samples from the lower inner estuary. The highest absolute densities of living benthic foraminifera are found in the lower inner estuary within the polyhaline domain. This is attributed to the presence of mudflats with abundant food source, i.e. microphytobenthos. The low densities found in the outer estuary (euhaline domain) are attributed partly to the sandy nature of the sediments and the food source inhabiting this substrate. The near absence of foraminifera in the inner estuary (mesohaline and polyhaline domains) is inferred to the physical disturbance resulting from the regular dredging of the navigation channel. The living assemblages are dominated by three typical estuarine species: Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica in the intertidal mudflats of the lower inner estuary and Cribroelphidium excavatum in the sandy subtidal sediments of the lower inner and outer estuary. In the Loire estuary, H. germanica has an unusual intermediate geographical distribution along the estuary between A. tepida and C. excavatum while in most temperate estuaries this species is present upstream in the mesohaline domain. This is most likely the result of the regular dredging of the navigation channel damaging its natural habitat. This might be also the explanation for the total absence of agglutinated species usually dominating the oligohaline domain. The canonical correspondence analysis shows that elevation (and its link to time
Ward, Juliette N; Pond, David W; Murray, John W
Foraminiferal ecology at sewage outfalls has been investigated in numerous field studies over the last 30 years. Foraminifera have been frequently used as biomonitors of sewage pollution since they are both abundant and ubiquitous. Sewage outfalls have been demonstrated to have both positive and negative effects on adjacent foraminiferal populations, but it has never been shown conclusively why sewage affects foraminifera in these ways. Such information on the impact mechanisms of sewage pollution is essential if foraminifera are to be used as sewage pollution biomonitors, and also to understand the ecology of these important protists. One possible cause of a positive effect is the direct consumption of sewage-derived particulate organic matter (POM) by the foraminifera themselves. However this hypothesis has never been tested experimentally. Here, lipid (fatty acid and sterol) biomarker techniques were applied to study the ingestion of two potential food items by the foraminiferan Haynesina germanica in the laboratory. An experiment was conducted to confirm that the laboratory conditions were conducive to the survival and feeding of the foraminifera. In this experiment, foraminifera were provided with the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which was considered to be a suitable food source. After 2 weeks, a four-fold increase in the levels of the diatom fatty acid biomarker, 20:5(n-3), in the foraminifera suggested that they had fed actively on the diatoms and survived under the experimental conditions. These experimental conditions were used in the main experiment, where foraminifera were fed the POM from sewage. Lipid biomarker analysis indicated that H. germanica did not consume secondary treated sewage-derived POM. Neither fatty acid profiles in the sewage nor coprostanol, the diagnostic human faecal sterol, were detected in foraminifera after exposure to the potential sewage food source. However, foraminifera may have consumed bacteria associated with
Blokhina, O B; Chirkova, T V; Fagerstedt, K V
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was detected cytochemically in plant tissues during anoxia and re-oxygenation by transmission electron microscopy using its reaction with cerium chloride to produce electron dense precipitates of cerium perhydroxides. Anoxia-tolerant yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus) and rice (Oryza sativa), and anoxia-intolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and garden iris (Iris germanica) were used in the experiments. In all plants tested, anoxia and re-oxygenation increased H2O2 in plasma membranes and the apoplast. In the anoxia-tolerant species the response was delayed in time, and in highly tolerant I. pseudacorus plasma membrane associated H2O2 was detected only after 45 d of oxygen deprivation. Quantification of cerium precipitates showed a statistically significant increase in the amount of H2O2 caused by anoxia in wheat root meristematic tissue, but not in the anoxia-tolerant I. pseudacorus rhizome parenchyma. Formation of H2O2 under anoxia is considered mainly an enzymatic process (confirmed by an enzyme inhibition analysis) and is due to the trace amount of dissolved oxygen (below 10(-5) M) present in the experimental system. The data suggest oxidative stress is an integral part of oxygen deprivation stress, and emphasize the importance of the apoplast and plasma membrane in the development of the anoxic stress response.
Abdel Samad, Nour; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Hidalgo, Oriane; El Zein, Rana; Douaihy, Bouchra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja
Despite being an important target of conservation concern and horticultural interest, Lebanese irises yet have a confusing taxonomic history and species’ delimitation is often considered problematic, more especially among royal irises (Iris section Oncocyclus). Indeed, these irises of exceptionally large and spectacular flowers have radiated across Caucasus and eastern Mediterranean giving rise to a number of strict endemic taxa, many of them being considered under threat. Whilst efforts have mostly focused on clarifying the evolutionary relationships in the group based on morphological and molecular data, karyological and cytogenetic characters have been comparatively overlooked. In this study, we established for the first time the physical mapping of 35S rDNA loci and heterochromatin, and obtained karyo-morphological data for ten Lebanese Iris species belonging to four sections (Iris, Limniris, Oncocyclus and Scorpiris). Our results evidenced distinctive genomic profiles for each one of the sections, where Oncocyclus irises, while having the lowest chromosome numbers, exhibit both the highest number of 35S loci and CMA3+ sites. The continental radiation of royal irises has been accompanied by a relative karyological and cytogenetic stasis, even though some changes were observed regarding karyotype formula and asymmetry indexes. In addition to that, our results enabled taxonomic differentiation between I. germanica and I. mesopotamica–two taxa currently considered as synonyms–and highlighted the need for further studies on populations of I. persica and I. wallasiae in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. PMID:27525415
Taylor, Benjamin J.; Schalk, Dane R.; Jeanne, Robert L.
While foraging, social insects encounter a dynamic array of food resources of varying quality and profitability. Because food acquisition influences colony growth and fitness, natural selection can be expected to favor colonies that allocate their overall foraging ef