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Sample records for blended edible oil

  1. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  2. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Rapid determination of the components in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared transmission spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Li; Chen, Hua-Cai

    2009-08-01

    The FT-NIR transmission spectra of ternary blended edible oil samples were collected over 10 000-4 200 cm(-1). After being pretreated with different methods, the calibration models of quantitative analysis of soybean oil, peanut oil and corn oil contents in ternary blended edible oil were established using partial least square (PLS) regression. The accuracy and precision of the models for the predicted sample set were examined to make sure of the practicability of the models. After being pretreated with first derivative and multiplicative signal correction (FD+MSC), the optimal soybean oil NIR model was built over 5 450.1-4 597.7 cm(-1). The best prediction model for peanut oil was established between 7 521.3 and 6 098.1 cm(-1) after using first derivative with straight line subtraction (FD+SLS) preprocess method. The best pretreated method and the best spectrum range for corn oil content model were first derivative (FD) and 9 993.7-7 498.2 cm(-1), respectively. The best correlation coefficients (R2) of the three prediction models were 99.89%, 99.88% and 99.76%, respectively. The RMSEP of the soybean oil content model was 1.09%, while the peanut oil prediction model's RMSEP was 1.17%, and 1.48% for the corn oil prediction model. The values of the t-test were between 0.007 9 and 0.371 9, and all values of the relative standard deviation (RSD) were less than 1.50%. The results showed that NIR could be an ideal tool for fast determination of the soybean oil, peanut oil and corn oil contents in ternary blended edible oil.

  4. Anti-inflammatory properties of blended edible oil with synergistic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Upadya, Haridas; Devaraju, C J; Joshi, Shashank R

    2015-01-01

    Blending of oil combines the potency of two edible oils and offers a balance of fatty acids. Various cooking preparations existing across different ethnicities and regions subject oil to different cooking temperatures thereby causing deterioration of the oil due to oxidative stress. In order to prevent the oxidative damage of unsaturated fatty acid, a blend of rice bran oil (RBO) and safflower oil (SO) (70:30) with an antioxidant technology was designed. A controlled trial was carried out to assess the efficacy of the blend on different biomarkers including lipid parameters and some important inflammatory markers that have the potency to lead to various lifestyle diseases. A prospective, double-blind, randomized, parallel group study (on 80 adult hyperlipidemic patients) was conducted for 3 months. During the study, all the subjects were recommended lifestyle modifications, which included, exercise regime and diet counseling; oil quantity consumed was 1 L/person/month for both the groups. The subjects were divided into two groups; one group, continued with their regularly consumed oil whereas, the other was given the test oil. Biomarkers assessed were lipid profile and seven other inflammatory markers were assessed. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) the primary marker for cardiovascular diseases showed a decrease of 56.07 ± 04.31 mg/dL and 31.98 ± 03.81 mg/dL (P < 0.001 by analysis of variance [ANOVA]) from baseline in test and control group, respectively, during 3 months. Similar reduction trends were observed for total cholesterol where -52.31 ± 13.04 mg/dL and 31.98 ± 04.12 mg/dL (P < 0.001 by ANOVA, between the groups) were seen in test and control group, respectively. Oxidized LDL and high sensitivity C-reactive protein showed a reduction of 2.23 ± 1.3 units/dL and 0.87 ± 2.85 mg/L in test group whereas; an increase of 1.04 ± 1.73 units/dL and 0.44 ± 2.37 mg/L was seen in the control group, respectively (P < 0.05 by Student's t-test, between

  5. Anti-inflammatory properties of blended edible oil with synergistic antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Upadya, Haridas; Devaraju, C. J.; Joshi, Shashank R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blending of oil combines the potency of two edible oils and offers a balance of fatty acids. Various cooking preparations existing across different ethnicities and regions subject oil to different cooking temperatures thereby causing deterioration of the oil due to oxidative stress. In order to prevent the oxidative damage of unsaturated fatty acid, a blend of rice bran oil (RBO) and safflower oil (SO) (70:30) with an antioxidant technology was designed. A controlled trial was carried out to assess the efficacy of the blend on different biomarkers including lipid parameters and some important inflammatory markers that have the potency to lead to various lifestyle diseases. Study Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, parallel group study (on 80 adult hyperlipidemic patients) was conducted for 3 months. During the study, all the subjects were recommended lifestyle modifications, which included, exercise regime and diet counseling; oil quantity consumed was 1 L/person/month for both the groups. The subjects were divided into two groups; one group, continued with their regularly consumed oil whereas, the other was given the test oil. Biomarkers assessed were lipid profile and seven other inflammatory markers were assessed. Results: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) the primary marker for cardiovascular diseases showed a decrease of 56.07 ± 04.31 mg/dL and 31.98 ± 03.81 mg/dL (P < 0.001 by analysis of variance [ANOVA]) from baseline in test and control group, respectively, during 3 months. Similar reduction trends were observed for total cholesterol where −52.31 ± 13.04 mg/dL and 31.98 ± 04.12 mg/dL (P < 0.001 by ANOVA, between the groups) were seen in test and control group, respectively. Oxidized LDL and high sensitivity C-reactive protein showed a reduction of 2.23 ± 1.3 units/dL and 0.87 ± 2.85 mg/L in test group whereas; an increase of 1.04 ± 1.73 units/dL and 0.44 ± 2.37 mg/L was seen in the control group, respectively (P

  6. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  7. [Preparation of biodiesel from waste edible oils and performance and exhaust emissions of engines fueled with blends of the biodiesel].

    PubMed

    Ge, Yun-shan; Lu, Xiao-ming; Gao, Li-ping; Han, Xiu-kun; Ji, Xing

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of biodiesel on environment and to investigate the effect of the biodiesel made of waste edible oils on the performance and emissions of engines. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and diesel was introduced and the results of the LCA of both the fuels were given. The technological process of biodiesel production from waste edible oils, which is called transesterification of waste oils and methanol catalyzed with NaOH, was presented. Two turbocharged DI engines fueled with different proportions of biodiesel and diesel, namely, B50 (50% biodiesel + 50% diesel) and B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% diesel), were chosen to conduct performance and emission tests on a dynamometer. The results of the study indicate that there was a slight increase in fuel consumption by 8% and a drop in power by 3% with the blends of biodiesel, compared with diesel, and that the best improvements in emissions of smoke, HC, CO and PM were 65%, 11%, 33% and 13% respectively, but NOx emission was increased. The study also shows that it is satisfied to fuel engines with the low proportion blends of the biodiesel, without modifying engines, in performance and emissions.

  8. A new analytical method for quantification of olive and palm oil in blends with other vegetable edible oils based on the chromatographic fingerprints from the methyl-transesterified fraction.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Carvelo, Ana M; González-Casado, Antonio; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis

    2017-03-01

    A new analytical method for the quantification of olive oil and palm oil in blends with other vegetable edible oils (canola, safflower, corn, peanut, seeds, grapeseed, linseed, sesame and soybean) using normal phase liquid chromatography, and applying chemometric tools was developed. The procedure for obtaining of chromatographic fingerprint from the methyl-transesterified fraction from each blend is described. The multivariate quantification methods used were Partial Least Square-Regression (PLS-R) and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The quantification results were evaluated by several parameters as the Root Mean Square Error of Validation (RMSEV), Mean Absolute Error of Validation (MAEV) and Median Absolute Error of Validation (MdAEV). It has to be highlighted that the new proposed analytical method, the chromatographic analysis takes only eight minutes and the results obtained showed the potential of this method and allowed quantification of mixtures of olive oil and palm oil with other vegetable oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Research on Rapid Discrimination of Edible Oil by ATR Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Hu, Ai-qin; Li, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Zhong; Li, Xiu-qin; Guo Zhen; Zhu, Zhi-qiang

    2015-07-01

    A rapid discrimination method of edible oils, KL-BP model, was proposed by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The model extracts the characteristic of classification from source data by KL and reduces data dimension at the same time. Then the neural network model is constructed by the new data which as the input of the model. 84 edible oil samples which include sesame oil, corn oil, canola oil, blend oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, olive oil, soybean oil and tea seed oil, were collected and their infrared spectra determined using an ATR FT-IR spectrometer. In order to compare the method performance, principal component analysis (PCA) direct-classification model, KL direct-classification model, PLS-DA model, PCA-BP model and KL-BP model are constructed in this paper. The results show that the recognition rates of PCA, PCA-BP, KL, PLS-DA and KL-BP are 59.1%, 68.2%, 77.3%, 77.3% and 90.9% for discriminating the 9 kinds of edible oils, respectively. KL extracts the eigenvector which make the distance between different class and distance of every class ratio is the largest. So the method can get much more classify information than PCA. BP neural network can effectively enhance the classification ability and accuracy. Taking full of the advantages of KL in extracting more category information in dimension reducing and the features of BP neural network in self-learning, adaptive, nonlinear, the KL-BP method has the best classification ability and recognition accuracy and great importance for rapidly recognizing edible oil in practice.

  10. Identification and quantification of Cu-chlorophyll adulteration of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingchih; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Wu, Guan-Yan; Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Kuo, Ching-Hao; Hsu, Che-Lun; Kao, Ya-Min; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Cu-pyropheophytin a, the major Cu-pigment of Cu-chlorophyll, was determined in edible oil by high-resolution mass spectrometry with a high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole (HPLC-Q)-Orbitrap system and by HPLC coupled with a photodiode-array detector. Respective limit of detection and limit of quantification levels of 0.02 μg/g and 0.05 μg/g were obtained. Twenty-nine commercial oil products marked as olive oil, grapeseed oil and blended oil, all sourced directly from a food company that committed adulteration with Cu-chlorophyll, were investigated. In this company, four green dyes illegally used in oils were seized during factory investigation by the health authorities. The food additive Cu-pyropheophytin a was found in all confiscated samples in concentrations between 0.02 and 0.39 μg/g. Survey results of another 235 commercial oil samples manufactured from other companies, including olive pomace oil, extra virgin olive oil, olive oil, grapeseed oil and blended oil, indicated high positive incidences of 63%, 39%, 44%, 97% and 8%, respectively, with a concentration range between 0.02 and 0.54 μg/g. High Cu-chlorophyll concentrations are indications for fraudulent adulteration of oils.

  11. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    PubMed

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p < 0.05) in all attributes except the purity. The results indicated that the blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils.

  12. Chemical, Rheological and Nutritional Characteristics of Sesame and Olive Oils Blended with Linseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Hashempour-Baltork, Fataneh; Torbati, Mohammadali; Azadmard-Damirchi, Sodeif; Peter Savage, Geoffrey

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: Nutritional quality and oxidation stability are two main factors in the evaluation of edible oils. Oils in their pure form do not have an ideal fatty acid composition or suitable oxidative stability during processing or storage. Methods: This study was designed to evaluate the chemical, nutritional and rheological properties of oil mixtures in three ratios of olive: sesame: linseed, 65:30:5; 60:30:10 and 55:30:15. Acidity value, peroxide value, rancimat test, fatty acid profile, nutritional indexes and rheological properties of the oil blends were determined. The nutritional quality was determined by indexes, including the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexs; the ratios of hypocholesterolemic: hypercholesterolemic; poly unsaturated fatty acid: saturated fatty acid and the ω 6 :ω 3 . Results: The results indicated that blending of other vegetable oils with linseed oil could balance ω 6 :ω 3 . Results showed that formulated oils had a good balance of oxidation stability and nutritional properties as well. Rheological data showed that these oil blends followed Newtonian behavior at 4°C and 25°C. Conclusion: According to the results, addition of linseed oil to vegetable oils containing high levels of bioactive compounds was a simple and economic practice to obtain a functional oil with good nutritional and stability properties.

  13. [Rapid discriminating hogwash oil and edible vegetable oil using near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Kong, Qing-Ming; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Bing-Xiu; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a new method using near infrared spectroscopy combined with optical fiber sensing technology was applied to the analysis of hogwash oil in blended oil. The 50 samples were a blend of frying oil and "nine three" soybean oil according to a certain volume ratio. The near infrared transmission spectroscopies were collected and the quantitative analysis model of frying oil was established by partial least squares (PLS) and BP artificial neural network The coefficients of determina- tion of calibration sets were 0.908 and 0.934 respectively. The coefficients of determination of validation sets were 0.961 and 0.952, the root mean square error of calibrations (RMSEC) was 0.184 and 0.136, and the root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) was all 0.111 6. They conform to the model application requirement. At the same time, frying oil and qualified edible oil were identified with the principal component analysis (PCA), and the accurate rate was 100%. The experiment proved that near infrared spectral technology not only can quickly and accurately identify hogwash oil, but also can quantitatively detect hog- wash oil. This method has a wide application prospect in the detection of oil.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of edible vegetable oils in Iran: A risk assessment study.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Mojtaba; Shemshadi, Ghazal; Khorshidian, Nasim; Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi, Vahid; Fakhri, Yadolah; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin

    2018-05-29

    Totally forty samples (23 brands) of different types of edible oils including frying oil (n = 14), blended oil (n = 13), sunflower oil (n = 6), corn oil (n = 5) and canola oil (n = 2) from Iran's market were analyzed for PAHs content by a High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Also, the Health risk assessment in the adults and children consumers were estimated by the calculating margin of exposure (MOE) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. Approximately all of the samples contained different amounts of PAHs, while concentrations of BaP, PAH 4, PAH 8 and PAH 13 were reported as 0.90-11.33, 3.51-84.03, 7.41-117.12 and 129.28-19.54 μg/kg, respectively. Light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons corresponded to 65% of total PAHs while the remaining 35% belonged to heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on BaP content, 12 samples were above the standard limits (2 μg/kg) which set by the Standard Organization of Iran and the European Union, whereas 15 samples exceeded maximum limit 10 μg/kg set for PAH 4 established by EU. Percentile 95% of MOE in the adults due to ingestion of sunflower, corn, frying and blended oils were determined as 4.10E+5; 4.05E+5; , 2.17E+5, 2.33E+5, respectively and in the children due to ingestion of sunflower oil, corn oil, frying oil and blended oil were calculated as 5.38E+4, 4.49E+4, 2.86E+4, 3.37E+4. Regarding the percentile of 95% ILCR in the adults due to ingestion of sunflower oil, corn oil, frying oil and blended oil were reported as 4.5E-6, 4.17E-6l, 5.20E-6, 4.93E-6 and also this value in the children in the same rank order of products can be summarized as 3.43E-5, 3.94 E-5, 3.17E-5, 3.76E-5. The rank order of edible oils investigated based on MOE was sunflower oil > corn oil > blended oil > frying oil; and based on ILCR, frying oil > blended oil > sunflower oil > corn oil. The health risk assessment according to

  15. [Efficiency evaluation of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oils from edible vegetable oils].

    PubMed

    Mao, Lisha; Liu, Honghe; Kang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Liao, Shicheng; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Pingjian

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oil from edible vegetable oil. 14 raw vegetable oils, 24 fried waste oils, 34 kitchen-waste oils, 32 edible non-peanut vegetable oil, 32 edible peanuts oil, 16 edible oil add flavorand and 11 refined bio-waste oils were prepared and examined for capsaicinoids including capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nonylic acid vanillylamide. The detection results of the above samples were statistically tested based on sample category to assessment identify the effectiveness of the bio-waste oils with capsaicinoids. As a indicator, capsaincin was possessed of high detection sensitivity and has the highest efficiency to discern kitchen-waste oils and refined bio-waste oils samples from edible non-peanut vegetable oil correctly. The accuracy rate of identification were 100% and 90.1% respectively. There is the background in peanut oil. CONCLUSION Capsaicin added in cooking process can be retained in the refining process and hardly be removed in the refining process. In the case of fully eliminating the background interference, capsaicinoids can effectively identify bio-waste oils and edible vegetable oil in combination.

  16. Combustion Characteristics of CI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Blends of Jatropha Oil Biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Yunus Sheikh, Mohd.; Singh, Dharmendra; Nageswara rao, P.

    2018-03-01

    Jatropha Curcas oil is a non-edible oil which is used for Jatropha biodiesel (JBD) production. Jatropha biodiesel is produced using transesterification technique and it is used as an alternative fuel in CI diesel engine without any hardware modification. Jatropha biodiesel is used in CI diesel engine with various volumetric concentrations (blends) such as JBD5, JBD15, JBD25, JBD35 and JBD45. The combustion parameters such as in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, net heat release, cumulative heat release, mass fraction burned are analyzed and compared for all blends combustion data with mineral diesel fuel (D100).

  17. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  18. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a mixture of edible fats and oils containing less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent...

  19. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a mixture of edible fats and oils containing less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent...

  20. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a mixture of edible fats and oils containing less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent...

  1. Experimental assessment of non-edible candlenut biodiesel and its blend characteristics as diesel engine fuel.

    PubMed

    Imdadul, H K; Zulkifli, N W M; Masjuki, H H; Kalam, M A; Kamruzzaman, M; Rashed, M M; Rashedul, H K; Alwi, Azham

    2017-01-01

    Exploring new renewable energy sources as a substitute of petroleum reserves is necessary due to fulfilling the oncoming energy needs for industry and transportation systems. In this quest, a lot of research is going on to expose different kinds of new biodiesel sources. The non-edible oil from candlenut possesses the potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The present study aims to produce biodiesel from crude candlenut oil by using two-step transesterification process, and 10%, 20%, and 30% of biodiesel were mixed with diesel fuel as test blends for engine testing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were performed and analyzed to characterize the biodiesel. Also, the fuel properties of biodiesel and its blends were measured and compared with the specified standards. The thermal stability of the fuel blends was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scan calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Engine characteristics were measured in a Yanmar TF120M single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Biodiesel produced from candlenut oil contained 15% free fatty acid (FFA), and two-step esterification and transesterification were used. FTIR and GC remarked the biodiesels' existing functional groups and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition. The thermal analysis of the biodiesel blends certified about the blends' stability regarding thermal degradation, melting and crystallization temperature, oxidative temperature, and storage stability. The brake power (BP), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the biodiesel blends decreased slightly with an increasing pattern of nitric oxide (NO) emission. However, the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxides (CO) of biodiesel blends were found decreased.

  2. Time resolved thermal lens in edible oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, T. A. S.; Pedreira, P. R. B.; Medina, A. N.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Bento, A. C.; Baesso, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    In this work time resolved thermal lens spectrometry is applied to investigate the optical properties of the following edible oils: soya, sunflower, canola, and corn oils. The experiments were performed at room temperature using the mode mismatched thermal lens configuration. The results showed that when the time resolved procedure is adopted the technique can be applied to investigate the photosensitivity of edible oils. Soya oil presented a stronger photochemical reaction as compared to the other investigated samples. This observation may be relevant for future studies evaluating edible oils storage conditions and also may contribute to a better understanding of the physical and chemical properties of this important foodstuff.

  3. Electrocapillary Phenomena at Edible Oil/Saline Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ohzono, Takuya; Shoji, Kohei; Yagihara, Shin; Hayashi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    Interfacial tension between edible oil and saline was measured under applied electric fields to understand the electrocapillary phenomena at the edible oil/saline interfaces. The electric responses of saline droplets in edible oil were also observed microscopically to examine the relationship between the electrocapillary phenomena and interfacial polarization. When sodium oleate (SO) was added to edible oil (SO-oil), the interfacial tension between SO-oil and saline decreased. However, no decrease was observed for additive-free oil or oleic acid (OA)-added oil (OA-oil). Microscopic observations suggested that the magnitude of interfacial polarization increased in the order of additive-free oil < OA-oil < SO-oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena between OA- and SO-oils was closely related to the polarization magnitude. In the case of SO-oil, the decrease in interfacial tension was remarkably larger for saline (pH 5.4~5.6) than that for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2~7.4). However, no difference was observed between the electric responses of PBS and saline droplets in SO-oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena for PBS and saline could not be simply explained in terms of polarization magnitude. The ratio of ionized and non-ionized OA at the interfaces changed with the saline pH, possibly leading to the above difference.

  4. Determination of aflatoxins in edible oil from markets in Hebei Province of China by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-xin; Liu, Yin-ping; Miao, Hong; Dong, Bin; Yang, Na-jing; Chang, Feng-qi; Yang, Li-xue; Sun, Jing-bo

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) in 76 edible oil samples (peanut oil, soybean oil, corn embryo oil and blended oil) was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The oils were sampled from three areas (Shijiazhuang, Baoding and Tangshan) of Hebei Province of China. AFB1 was detected in 22 samples representing 28.9%, followed by AFB2 (7.89%) and AFG1 (3.95%), while no AFG2 contamination was detected in any samples. AFB1 levels in oil samples ranged 0.14-2.72 µg kg(-1) and AFB2 ranged 0.15-0.36 µg kg(-1), while lower levels of 0.01-0.02 µg kg(-1) for AFG1 were recorded. The paper is part of an on-going investigation of aflatoxin contamination in Chinese edible oils.

  5. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  6. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  7. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  8. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of § 102...

  9. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of § 102...

  10. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  11. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  12. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  13. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  14. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  15. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty... edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  16. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty... edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  17. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  1. [Fast discrimination of edible vegetable oil based on Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiu-Jun; Dai, Lian-Kui; Li, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    A novel method to fast discriminate edible vegetable oils by Raman spectroscopy is presented. The training set is composed of different edible vegetable oils with known classes. Based on their original Raman spectra, baseline correction and normalization were applied to obtain standard spectra. Two characteristic peaks describing the unsaturated degree of vegetable oil were selected as feature vectors; then the centers of all classes were calculated. For an edible vegetable oil with unknown class, the same pretreatment and feature extraction methods were used. The Euclidian distances between the feature vector of the unknown sample and the center of each class were calculated, and the class of the unknown sample was finally determined by the minimum distance. For 43 edible vegetable oil samples from seven different classes, experimental results show that the clustering effect of each class was more obvious and the class distance was much larger with the new feature extraction method compared with PCA. The above classification model can be applied to discriminate unknown edible vegetable oils rapidly and accurately.

  2. Influence of non-edible vegetable based oil as cutting fluid on chip, surface roughness and cutting force during drilling operation of Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.; Jyothi, P. N.

    2016-09-01

    Friction between work piece-cutting tool-chip generates heat in the machining zone. The heat generated reduces the tool life, increases surface roughness and decreases the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This can be overcome by using cutting fluids during machining. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and work piece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. Non-edible vegetable oils have received considerable research attention in the last decades owing to their remarkable improved tribological characteristics and due to increasing attention to environmental issues, have driven the lubricant industry toward eco friendly products from renewable sources. In the present work, different non-edible vegetable oils are used as cutting fluid during drilling of Mild steel work piece. Non-edible vegetable oils, used are Karanja oil (Honge), Neem oil and blend of these two oils. The effect of these cutting fluids on chip formation, surface roughness and cutting force are investigated and the results obtained are compared with results obtained with petroleum based cutting fluids and dry conditions.

  3. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2015-07-16

    Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-cost humic acid-bonded silica as an effective solid-phase extraction sorbent for convenient determination of aflatoxins in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Neng-Zhi; Liu, Ping; Su, Xiao-Chuan; Liao, Yan-Hua; Lei, Ning-Sheng; Liang, Yong-Hong; Zhou, Shao-Huan; Lin, Wen-Si; Chen, Jie; Feng, Yu-Qi; Tang, Yang

    2017-06-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic secondary metabolites produced by the toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. AFs tend to contaminate a wide range of foods which is a serious and recurring food safety problem worldwide. Currently, immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) has become the most conventional sample clean-up method for determining AFs in foodstuffs. However, IAC method is limited in the large-scale food analysis because it requires the use of expensive disposable cartridges and the IA procedure is time-consuming. Herein, to achieve the cost-effective determination of AFs in edible oils, we developed a promising solid-phase extraction (SPE) method based on commercially available humic acid-bonded silica (HAS) sorbent, followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. In HAS-SPE, AFs can be captured by the HAS sorbent with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, whereas the oil matrix was captured only with the hydrophobic interactions. The oil matrix can be sufficiently washed off with isopropanol, while the AFs were still retained on the SPE packing, thus achieving selective extraction of AFs and clean-up of oil matrices. Under the optimal conditions of HAS-SPE, satisfactory recoveries ranging from 82% to 106% for four AFs (B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , and G 2 ) were achieved in various oil matrices, containing blended oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil, peanut oil, sunflower seed oil, corn oil, blended olive oil, rice oil, soybean oil, and sesame oil. Only minor matrix effects ranging from 99% to 105% for four AFs were observed. Moreover, the LODs of AFs between 0.012 and 0.035 μg/kg completely meet the regulatory levels fixed by the EU, China or other countries. The methodology was further validated for assaying the naturally contaminated peanut oils, and consistent results between the HAS-SPE and the referenced IAC were obtained. In

  5. Characteristics of particulate emissions from a diesel generator fueled with varying blends of biodiesel and fossil diesel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the particulate matter (PM), particle-bound carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a diesel-engine generator fuelled with blends of pure fossil diesel oil (D100) and varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel (W10, 10 vol %; W20, 20 vol %; W30, 30 vol %; and W50, 50 vol %) under generator loads of 0, 1.5, and 3 kW. On average, the PM emission factors of all blends was 30.5 % (range, 13.7-52.3 %) lower than that of D100 under the tested loads. Substituting pure fossil diesel oil with varying percentages of waste-edible-oil biodiesel reduced emissions of particle-bound total carbon (TC) and elemental carbon (EC). The W20 blend had the lowest particle-bound organic carbon (OC) emissions. Notably, W10, W20, and W30 also had lower Total-PAH emissions and lower total equivalent toxicity (Total-BaP(eq)) compared to D100. Additionally, the brake-specific fuel consumption of the generator correlated positively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel. However, generator energy efficiency correlated negatively with the ratio of waste-edible-oil biodiesel to pure fossil diesel.

  6. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel edible oil sources: Microwave heating and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Koubaa, Mohamed; Lopez-Cervantes, Jaime; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi; Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Karimi, Masoumeh; Motazedian, Azam; Asadifard, Samira

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various microwave heating times (1, 3, 5, 10, and 15min) on the chemical properties of novel edible oil sources, including Mashhadi melon (Cucumis melo var. Iranians cv. Mashhadi), Iranian watermelon (Citrullus lanatus cv. Fire Fon), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo var. Styriaca), and yellow apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) seed oils. The evaluated parameters were peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD) and triene (CT) values, carbonyl value (CV), p-anisidine value (AnV), oil stability index (OSI), radical scavenging activity (RSA), total tocopherols, total phenolics, as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Results showed that extended microwave heating involves decreased quality of the seed oils, mainly due to the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. Microwave heating time also affects the total contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolics and tocopherols, which clearly decrease by increasing the exposure time. The order of oxidative stability of the analyzed edible oils was pumpkin>Mashhadi melon>Iranian watermelon>yellow apple. The obtained results demonstrated the promising potential of these novel edible oils for different food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    PubMed

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  9. Effect of blend ratio of PP/kapok blend nonwoven fabrics on oil sorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Do-Hyung; Shin, Min-Seung; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Han-Do

    2013-01-01

    More research and development on novel oil sorbent materials is needed to protect the environmental pollution. New nonwoven fabrics (pads) of polypropylene (PP)/kapok blends (blend ratio: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 10/90) were prepared by needle punching process at a fixed (optimized) condition (punch density: 50 punches/cm2 and depth: 4mm). This study focused on the effect of blend ratio of PP/kapok nonwoven fabrics on oil sorption capacities to find the best blend ratio having the highest synergy effect. The PP/kapok blend (50/50) sample has the lowest bulk density and showed the best oil absorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of PP/kapok blend (50/50) nonwoven fabric for kerosene/soybean oil [21.09/27.01 (g oil/g sorbent)] was 1.5-2 times higher than those of commercial PP pad oil sorbents. The highest synergy effect of PP/kapok blend (50/50) was ascribed to the lowest bulk density of PP/kapok blend (50/50), which might be due to the highest morphologically incompatibility between PP fibre and kapok. These results suggest that the PP/kapok blend (50/50) having the highest synergy effect has a high potential as a new high-performance oil sorbent material.

  10. Studies on piston bowl geometries using single blend ratio of various non-edible oils.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Karthickeyan; Pasupathy, Balamurugan

    2017-07-01

    The depletion of fossil fuels and hike in crude oil prices were some of the main reasons to explore new alternatives from renewable source of energy. This work presents the impact of various bowl geometries on diesel engine with diesel and biodiesel samples. Three non-edible oils were selected, namely pumpkin seed oil, orange oil and neem oil. These oils were converted into respective biodiesel using transesterification process in the presence of catalyst and alcohol. After transesterification process, the oils were termed as pumpkin seed oil methyl ester (PSOME), orange oil methyl ester (OME) and neem oil methyl ester (NOME), respectively. The engine used for experimentation was a single-cylinder four-stroke water-cooled direct-injection diesel engine and loads were applied to the engine using eddy current dynamometer. Two bowl geometries were developed, namely toroidal combustion chamber (TCC) and trapezoidal combustion chamber (TRCC). Also, the engine was inbuilt with hemispherical combustion chamber (HCC). The base line readings were recorded using neat diesel fuel with HCC for various loads. Followed by 20% of biodiesel mixed with 80% neat diesel for all prepared methyl esters and termed as B1 (20% PSOME with 80% diesel), B2 (20% OME with 80% diesel) and B3 (20% NOME with 80% diesel). All fuel samples were tested in HCC, TCC and TRCC bowl geometries under standard injection timing and with compression ratio of 18. Increased brake thermal efficiency and reduced brake specific fuel consumption were observed with diesel in TCC geometry. Also, higher heat release and cylinder pressures with lower ignition delay were recorded with TCC bowl geometry. TCC bowl geometry showed lower CO, HC and smoke emissions with B2 fuel sample than diesel and other biodiesel samples. But, higher NOx emission was observed in HCC and TCC than that in TRCC bowl geometry. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  11. Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Boukerroui, Abdelhamid; Belhocine, Lydia; Ferroudj, Sonia

    2017-08-21

    A spent bleaching earth (SBE) from an edible oil refinery has been regenerated by thermal processing in oven, followed by washing with a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (1M). Optimal regeneration conditions have been controlled by decolorization tests of degummed and neutralized soybean oil. Optimal values of treatment (temperature 350°C, carbonization time 01 h, and HCl concentration 1M) gave a very efficient material. After bleaching oil by regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE), the chlorophyll-a and β-carotenes contained in crude edible oil and observed respectively at 430, 454, and 483 nm, value of λ max , are very much decreased. The results obtained after decolorization of edible oil by RSBE material indicate, that, during the process, the bleaching oil did not undergo any changes in the free fatty acid content. The peroxide value (PV) was reduced from 4.2 to 1.8 meq O 2 /kg, and the color has been improved (Lovibond color yellow/red: from 50/0.5 to 2.7/0.3, respectively). The RSBE material obtained was characterized by several techniques (FTIR, SEM). The results show that the heat treatment did not affect the mineral structure of RSBE, and the regenerated material recovered its porous structure.

  12. Properties of cassava starch-based edible coating containing essential oils.

    PubMed

    Oriani, Vivian Boesso; Molina, Gustavo; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Pastore, Gláucia Maria; Hubinger, Miriam Dupas

    2014-02-01

    Edible coatings were produced using cassava starch (2% and 3% w/v) containing cinnamon bark (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) or fennel (0.05% to 0.30% v/v) essential oils. Edible cassava starch coating at 2% and 3% (w/v) containing or not containing 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oils conferred increased in water vapor resistance and decreased in the respiration rates of coated apple slices when compared with uncoated fruit. Cassava starch coatings (2% w/v) added 0.10% or 0.30% (v/v) fennel or cinnamon bark essential oils showed antioxidant capacity, and the addition of 0.30% (v/v) of each essential oil demonstrated antimicrobial properties. The coating containing cinnamon bark essential oil showed a significant antioxidant capacity, comparing to fennel essential oil. Antimicrobial tests showed that the addition of 0.30% (v/v) cinnamon bark essential oil to the edible coating inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella choleraesuis, and 0.30% fennel essential oil inhibited just S. aureus. Treatment with 2% (w/v) of cassava starch containing 0.30% (v/v) of the cinnamon bark essential oil showed barrier properties, an antioxidant capacity and microbial inhibition. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Suppawat, Supatcha; Tintawee, Anchalee; Saramas, Phanida; Jareonvong, Suchada; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2012-10-01

    Antimicrobial activities of two blended essential oil preparations comprising lavender oil, petigrain oil, clary sage oil, ylang ylang oil and jasmine oil were evaluated against various pathogenic microorganisms. Both preparations showed antimicrobial activity in the agar disc diffusion assay against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and S. epidermidis isolated strain, the fungus, Candida albicans ATCC10231, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, but showed no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these preparations was evaluated. By the broth microdilution assay, preparation 1, comprising lavender oil, clary sage oil, and ylang ylang oil (volume ratio 3:4:3), exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than preparation 2, which was composed of petigrain oil, clary sage oil, and jasmine oil (volume ratio 3:4:3). Moreover, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentrations (Sigma fic) of preparation 1 expressed a synergistic antimicrobial effect against the tested microorganisms (Sigma ficblended essential oil preparations, characterized for their components by GC/MS, contained linalyl acetate, and linalool as major components. Our experiments showed that the differential antimicrobial effect of either blended oil preparations or single/pure essential oils may be influenced by the amount of linalool and linalyl acetate, and the number of active components in either the blended preparations or single/pure essential oils. In addition, blended oil preparations expressed synergistic antimicrobial effect by the accumulation of active components such as linalool and linalyl acetate and combining active constituents of more than one oil.

  14. Migrated phthalate levels into edible oils.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Sana; Okur, Ramazan; Turgut, Faruk Hilmi; Ustun, Ihsan; Gokce, Cumali

    2015-01-01

    The determination of phthalates in edible oils (virgin olive oil, olive oil, canola oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) sold in Turkish markets was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mean phthalate concentrations were between 0.102 and 3.863 mg L(-1) in virgin olive oil; 0.172 and 6.486 mg L(-1) in olive oil; 0.501 and 3.651 mg L(-1) in hazelnut oil; 0.457 and 3.415 mg L(-1) in canola oil; 2.227 and 6.673 mg L(-1) in sunflower oil; and 1.585 and 6.248 mg L(-1) in corn oil. Furthermore, the influence of the types of oil and container to the phthalate migration was investigated. The highest phthalate levels were measured in sunflower oil. The lowest phthalate levels were determined in virgin olive oil and hazelnut oil. The highest phthalate levels were determined in oil samples contained in polyethylene terephthalate.

  15. Stoichiometric determination of moisture in edible oils by Mid-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    van de Voort, F R; Tavassoli-Kafrani, M H; Curtis, J M

    2016-04-28

    A simple and accurate method for the determination of moisture in edible oils by differential FTIR spectroscopy has been devised based on the stoichiometric reaction of the moisture in oil with toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (TSI) to produce CO2. Calibration standards were devised by gravimetrically spiking dry dioxane with water, followed by the addition of neat TSI and examination of the differential spectra relative to the dry dioxane. In the method, CO2 peak area changes are measured at 2335 cm(-1) and were shown to be related to the amount of moisture added, with any CO2 inherent to residual moisture in the dry dioxane subtracted ratioed out. CO2 volatility issues were determined to be minimal, with the overall SD of dioxane calibrations being ∼18 ppm over a range of 0-1000 ppm. Gravimetrically blended dry and water-saturated oils analysed in a similar manner produced linear CO2 responses with SD's of <15 ppm on average. One set of dry-wet blends was analysed in duplicate by FTIR and by two independent laboratories using coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) procedures. All 3 methods produced highly linear moisture relationships with SD's of 7, 16 and 28 ppm, respectively over a range of 200-1500 ppm. Although the absolute moisture values obtained by each method did not exactly coincide, each tracked the expected moisture changes proportionately. The FTIRTSI-H2O method provides a simple and accurate instrumental means of determining moisture in oils rivaling the accuracy and specificity of standard KF procedures and has the potential to be automated. It could also be applied to other hydrophobic matrices and possibly evolve into a more generalized method, if combined with polar aprotic solvent extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of corn starch-based edible film incorporated with nutmeg oil nanoemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisyah, Y.; Irwanda, L. P.; Haryani, S.; Safriani, N.

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to formulate corn starch-based edible films by varying concentrations of nutmeg oil nanoemulsion and glycerol. Furthermore, the resulted edible film was characterized by its mechanical properties and antibacterial activity. The edible films were made using corn starch, nutmeg oil nanoemulsion, and glycerol. Concentrations of nutmeg oil nanoemulsion were 1%, 2%, and 3%, and glycerol were 10%, 20%, and 30%. Results indicated that the increase of nutmeg oil nanoemulsion concentration could increase the film thickness. However, the nutmeg oil had no effect on the film tensile strength and elongation. Glycerol had no effect on the film tensile strength. The best treatment of the corn starch-based film was obtained by adding 1% of nutmeg oil and 30% of glycerol, yielding a tensile strength of 18.73 Kgf/mm2, elongation of 69.44% and thickness of 0.0840. The addition of 1% nutmeg oil nanoemulsion has been able to inhibit the growth of two types of the bacteria tested (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli).

  17. [Survey of aflatoxins contamination of foodstuffs and edible oil in Shenzhen].

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Qiu, Fen; Yang, Mei; Liang, Zhaohai; Zhou, Haitao

    2013-07-01

    To identify the aflatoxins contamination of foodstuffs and edible oil sold in Shenzhen. As research subjects stratified random sampling of 238 foodstuffs and edible oil, and applied with immuno-affinity column clean-up plus UPLC to determine the content of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. Positive ratio of aflatoxin in rice, rice products, wheat flour, corn flour, edible oil were 35.3%, 33.8%, 13.9%, 46.7% and 24.5%,respectively. There were statistical differences between the positive ratio of aflatoxin in stereotypes packaged rice (26.5%) and bulk rice (56.3%) (chi2 = 11.6, P < 0.05). There were statistical differences between the positive ratio of aflatoxin in the rice produced in the area north of the Yangtze River (27.3%) and in the rice (41.4%) produced in the area south of the Yangtze River (chi2 = 7.257, P < 0.05). Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were detected in rice products, wheat flour, corn flour. Positive ratio of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 were 24.5%, 24.5%, 11.3% and 3.8% in the edible oil,respectively. The over standard rate of aflatoxin B1 was 5.66%, excessive samples were producted bulk and self-pressed peanut oil from unlicensed workshop. All the four kinds of aflatoxin were detected, while subtype B1 and B2 dominated aflatoxin contamination in the rice and edible oil samples. There are differences between in the northern and southern rice, and the same as in the stereotypes packaged and bulk rice sold at Shenzhen.

  18. Monitoring the Thermal Parameters of Different Edible Oils by Using Thermal Lens Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Lomelí Mejia, P.; Gutierrez-Fuentes, R.

    2009-08-01

    Several vegetable edible oils (sunflower, canola, soya, and corn) were used to study the thermal diffusivity of edible oils. Thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) was applied to measure the thermal properties. The results showed that the obtained thermal diffusivities with this technique have good agreement when compared with literature values. In this technique an Ar+ laser and intensity stabilized He-Ne laser were used as the heating source and probe beam, respectively. These studies may contribute to a better understanding of the physical properties of edible oils and the quality of these important foodstuffs.

  19. Thermal edible oil evaluation by UV-Vis spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rhayanna P; Março, Paulo H; Valderrama, Patrícia

    2014-11-15

    Edible oils such as colza, corn, sunflower, soybean and olive were analysed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution with Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). When vegetable oils were heated at high temperatures (frying), oxidation products were formed which were harmful to human health in addition to degrading the antioxidants present, and this study aimed to evaluate tocopherol (one antioxidant present in oils) and the behaviour of oxidation products in edible oils. The MCR-ALS results showed that the degradation started at 110°C and 85°C, respectively, for sunflower and colza oils, while tocopherol concentration decreased and oxidation products increased starting at 70°C in olive oil. In soybean and corn oils, tocopherol concentration started to decrease and oxidation products increased at 50°C. The results suggested that sunflower, colza and olive oils offered more resistance to increasing temperatures, while soybean and corn oils were less resistant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Facile synthesis of magnetic carbon nitride nanosheets and its application in magnetic solid phase extraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oil samples.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao-Bo; Ding, Jun; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a method to fabricate magnetic carbon nitride (CN) nanosheets by simple physical blending. Low-cost CN nanosheets prepared by urea possessed a highly π-conjugated structure; therefore the obtained composites were employed as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oil samples. Moreover, sample pre-treatment time could be carried out within 10 min. Thus, a simple and cheap method for the analysis of PAHs in edible oil samples was established by coupling magnetic CN nanosheets-based MSPE with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) for eight PAHs ranged from 0.4 to 0.9 ng/g. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15.0%. The recoveries of PAHs for spiked soybean oil samples ranged from 91.0% to 124.1%, with RSDs of less than 10.2%. Taken together, the proposed method offers a simple and cost-effective option for the convenient analysis of PAHs in oil samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determining the Time of Flight and Speed of Sound on Different types of Edible Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, N. A.; Hamid, S. B. Abd

    2017-11-01

    Edible oil is most often plant-based oils that have been extracted from various seeds. There are cases where the fully virgin edible oil was found to be a fraud. The adulterated edible oil indicates the intentional, fraudulent addition of extraneous, improper or cheaper ingredients puts into the oil or the dilution or removal of some valuable ingredient of the oil in order to increase profits. Hence, decrease the reliability of the Malaysian food product quality. This research was done by using the method of time of flight obtained using the Texas Instrument board, TDC1000-TDC7200 EVM connected to an ultrasonic transducer with 1 MHz frequency. The authors measured the time of flight and temperatures controlled from 20°C to 40°C of five vegetable oils (olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, coconut oil, and mustard oil). The value is observed and compared with other research from the literature review. From the study, time of flight values decreases exponentially while speed of sound value increases. This relationship will be useful in spectrum unfolding method to investigate the adulteration in different type of edible oil.This research outcome is to investigate the quality value of the different type of edible oil while eliminates the issues where the quality of Malaysian food product is not reliable.

  2. Recognition of edible oil by using BP neural network and laser induced fluorescence spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Guo, Pan; Chen, He; Zhang, Hong-yan; Liu, Xiao-hua; Wang, Yuan; Bu, Zhi-chao

    2013-09-01

    In order to accomplish recognition of the different edible oil we set up a laser induced fluorescence spectrum system in the laboratory based on Laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology, and then collect the fluorescence spectrum of different edible oil by using that system. Based on this, we set up a fluorescence spectrum database of different cooking oil. It is clear that there are three main peak position of different edible oil from fluorescence spectrum chart. Although the peak positions of all cooking oil were almost the same, the relative intensity of different edible oils was totally different. So it could easily accomplish that oil recognition could take advantage of the difference of relative intensity. Feature invariants were extracted from the spectrum data, which were chosen from the fluorescence spectrum database randomly, before distinguishing different cooking oil. Then back propagation (BP) neural network was established and trained by the chosen data from the spectrum database. On that basis real experiment data was identified by BP neural network. It was found that the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 83.2%. Experiments showed that the laser induced fluorescence spectrum of different cooking oil was very different from each other, which could be used to accomplish the oil recognition. Laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology, combined BP neural network,was fast, high sensitivity, non-contact, and high recognition rate. It could become a new technique to accomplish the edible oil recognition and quality detection.

  3. Thermal Diffusivity Measurements in Edible Oils using Transient Thermal Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, R. Carbajal.; Pérez, J. L. Jiménez.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Martín-Martínez, E. San.

    2006-11-01

    Time resolved thermal lens (TL) spectrometry is applied to the study of the thermal diffusivity of edible oils such as olive, and refined and thermally treated avocado oils. A two laser mismatched-mode experimental configuration was used, with a He Ne laser as a probe beam and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical expression for a transient thermal lens. The results showed that virgin olive oil has a higher thermal diffusivity than for refined and thermally treated avocado oils. This measured thermal property may contribute to a better understanding of the quality of edible oils, which is very important in the food industry. The thermal diffusivity results for virgin olive oil, obtained from this technique, agree with those reported in the literature.

  4. Authentication of edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Zhijian; Hu, Xiaosong; Shen, Qun; Wu, Jihong

    2012-06-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy to authenticate edible vegetable oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed and soybean oil) adulterated with used frying oil was introduced in this paper. The FTIR spectrum of oil was divided into 22 regions which corresponded to the constituents and molecular structures of vegetable oils. Samples of calibration set were classified into four categories for corn and peanut oils and five categories for rapeseed and soybean oils by cluster analysis. Qualitative analysis of validation set was obtained by discriminant analysis. Area ratio between absorption band 19 and 20 and wavenumber shift of band 19 were treated by linear regression for quantitative analysis. For four adulteration types, LODs of area ratio were 6.6%, 7.2%, 5.5%, 3.6% and wavenumber shift were 8.1%, 9.0%, 6.9%, 5.6%, respectively. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to authenticate the edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal Characterization of Edible Oils by Using Photopyroelectric Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara-Hernández, G.; Suaste-Gómez, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.; Sánchez-Sinéncio, F.; Valcárcel, J. P.; García-Quiroz, A.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal properties of several edible oils such as olive, sesame, and grape seed oils were obtained by using the photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. Also, the back photopyroelectric configuration was used to obtain the thermal diffusivity of these oils; this thermal parameter was obtained by fitting the theoretical equation for this configuration, as a function of the sample thickness (called the thermal wave resonator cavity), to the experimental data. All measurements were done at room temperature. A complete thermal characterization of these edible oils was achieved by the relationship between the obtained thermal diffusivities and thermal effusivities with their thermal conductivities and volumetric heat capacities. The obtained results are in agreement with the thermal properties reported for the case of the olive oil.

  6. Combustion performance of pyrolysis oil/ethanol blends in a residential-scale oil-fired boiler

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 40 kWth oil-fired commercial boiler was fueled with blends of biomass pyrolysis oil (py-oil) and ethanol to determine the feasibility of using these blends as a replacement for fuel oil in home heating applications. An optimal set of test parameters was determined for the combustion of these blend...

  7. Preparation and mechanical properties of edible rapeseed protein films.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung-Ae; Lim, Geum-Ok; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-03-01

    Edible films were manufactured from rapeseed oil extraction residues. To prepare rapeseed protein (RP) films, various concentrations of plasticizers and emulsifiers were incorporated into the preparation of a film-forming solution. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the RP film were 2% sorbitol/0.5% sucrose as plasticizer and 1.5% polysorbate 20 as an emulsifier. In addition, RP blend films were prepared. Gelidium corneum or gelatin was added to improve the physical properties of the RP film, and the highest tensile strength value of the films was 53.45 MPa for the 3% RP/4% gelatin film. Our results suggest that the RP-gelatin blend film is suitable for applications in food packaging. Edible RP films prepared in the present investigation can be applied in food packaging.

  8. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  9. Rapid analytical procedure for determination of mineral oils in edible oil by GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Wrona, Magdalena; Pezo, Davinson; Nerin, Cristina

    2013-12-15

    A procedure for the determination of mineral oils in edible oil has been fully developed. The procedure consists of using a sulphuric acid-impregnated silica gel (SAISG) glass column to eliminate the fat matter. A chemical combustion of the fatty acids takes place, while the mineral oils are not affected by the sulphuric acid. The column is eluted with hexane using a vacuum pump and the final extract is concentrated and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detector (FID). The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) in hexane were 0.07 and 0.21 μg g(-1) respectively and the LOQ in vegetable oil was 1 μg g(-1). Only a few minutes were necessary for sample treatment to have a clean extract. The efficiency of the process, measured through the recoveries from spiked samples of edible oil was higher than 95%. The procedure has been applied to determine mineral oil in olive oil from the retailed market. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatty acid profile of edible oils and fats consumed in India.

    PubMed

    Dorni, Charles; Sharma, Paras; Saikia, Gunendra; Longvah, T

    2018-01-01

    A total 320 samples of edible oils and fats (Oils-236; Vanaspati- 45; Ghee-39) were sampled from 107 sampling sites in India and were evaluated for their fatty acid profile. This is the first comprehensive report on fatty acids profile of fats & oil commonly consumed in India. Every variety of edible oil showed its own unique fatty acid profile with significant variation within each individual fatty acid. Pure safflower oil exhibited the highest total TPUFA (76.78%) while the highest TSFA was noticed for coconut oil (90.84%). High level of erucic acid in the range of 48.5 to 54.2% was observed in mustard oil.. Groundnut and rice bran oils showed TPUFA/TSFA ratio closer to WHO recommended value. Several vanaspati samples exhibited trans fatty acid beyond the permitted limit while trace amount of the same was also detected in ghee. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  12. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  13. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  14. Monitoring of high refractive index edible oils using coated long period fiber grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Luís.; Viegas, Diana; Santos, José Luís.; de Almeida, Jose Manuel M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the quality of high refractive index edible oils is of great importance for the human health. Uncooked edible oils in general are healthy foodstuff, olive oil in particular, however, they are frequently used for baking and cooking. High quality edible oils are made from seeds, nuts or fruits by mechanical processes. Nevertheless, once the mechanical extraction is complete, up to 15% of the oil remains in oil pomace and in the mill wastewater, which can be extracted using organic solvents, often hexane. Optical fiber sensors based on long period fiber gratings (LPFG) have very low wavelength sensitivity when the surround refractive index is higher than the refractive index of the cladding. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated LPFG could lead to the realization of high sensitivity chemical sensor for the food industry. In this work LPFG coated with a TiO2 thin film were successfully used for to detect small levels of hexane diluted in edible oils and for real time monitoring the thermal deterioration of edible oils. For a TiO2 coating of 30 nm a wavelength sensitivity of 1361.7 nm/RIU (or 0.97 nm / % V/V) in the 1.4610-1.4670 refractive index range was achieved, corresponding to 0 to 12 % V/V of hexane in olive oil. A sensitivity higher than 638 nm/RIU at 225 ºC was calculated, in the 1.4670-1.4735 refractive index range with a detection limit of thermal deterioration of about 1 minute.

  15. Application of edible coating with essential oil in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jian; Xie, Yunfei; Guo, Yahui; Cheng, Yuliang; Qian, He; Yao, Weirong

    2018-03-26

    Compared with other types of packaging, edible coatings are becoming more and more popular because of their more environmentally friendly properties and active ingredients carrying ability. The edible coating can reduce the influence of essential oils (EOs) on the flavor of the product and also can prolong the action time of EOs through the slow-release effect, which effectively promote the application of EOs in food. Understanding the different combinations of edible coatings and EOs as well as their antimicrobial effects on different microorganisms will be more powerful and targeted to promote the application of EOs in real food systems. The review focus on the contribution of the combination of EOs and edible coatings (EO-edible coatings) to prolong the shelf life of food products, (1) specifically addressing the main materials used in the preparation of EO-edible coatings and the application of EO-edible coatings in the product, (2) systematically summarizing the main production method of EO-edible coatings, (3) discussing the antiseptic activity of EO-edible coatings on different microorganisms in food.

  16. A novel method for qualitative analysis of edible oil oxidation using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Yu, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) was used for rapid assessment of the degree of oxidation in edible oils. Peroxide and acid values of edible oil samples were analyzed using data obtained by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method for reference. Qualitative discrimination between non-oxidized and oxidized oils was conducted using the E-nose technique developed in combination with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results from CA, PCA and LDA indicated that the E-nose technique could be used for differentiation of non-oxidized and oxidized oils. LDA produced slightly better results than CA and PCA. The proposed approach can be used as an alternative to AOCS Official Method as an innovative tool for rapid detection of edible oil oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical Composition and Character Impact Odorants in Volatile Oils from Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Usami, Atsushi; Motooka, Ryota; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the odor-active components of volatile oils from three edible mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, and Pleurotus abalonus, which are well-known edible mushrooms. The volatile components in these oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC/MS, GC-olfactometry (GC-O), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The oils contained 40, 20, and 53 components, representing 83.4, 86.0, and 90.8% of the total oils in P. ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. abalonus, respectively. Odor evaluation of the volatile oils from the three edible mushrooms was also carried out using GC-O, AEDA, and odor activity values, by which 13, eight, and ten aroma-active components were identified in P. ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. abalonus, respectively. The most aroma-active compounds were C8 -aliphatic compounds (oct-1-en-3-ol, octan-3-one, and octanal) and/or C9 -aliphatic aldehydes (nonanal and (2E)-non-2-enal). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Extraction of trace elements by ultrasound-assisted emulsification from edible oils producing detergentless microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Kara, Derya; Fisher, Andrew; Hill, Steve

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new method for the extraction and preconcentration of trace elements from edible oils via an ultrasound-assisted extraction using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) producing detergentless microemulsions. These were then analyzed using ICP-MS against matrix matched standards. Optimum experimental conditions were determined and the applicability of the proposed ultrasound-assisted extraction method was investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (μg kg(-1)) were 2.47, 2.81, 0.013, 0.037, 1.37, 0.050, 0.049, 0.47, 0.032 and 0.087 for Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Ti, V and Zn respectively for edible oils (3Sb/m). The accuracy of the developed method was checked by analyzing certified reference material. The proposed method was applied to different edible oils such as sunflower seed oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil and cod liver oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of edible oil choice by households in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Gurrappa Naidu; Suryaprakash, Satrasala

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the major determinants that influence the choice of edible oils by households across geographical zones in Tamil Nadu state, India. The primary data from 1,000 sample households were collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Multinomial logit model was fitted for determining the factors. The results revealed that education, income, and households with a history of health problems were the important determinants that influenced the choice of low-saturated-fat oils, whereas the larger size households and weaker section households preferred low-priced palm oil. Income and education levels in Tamil Nadu state surged ahead in recent years. In consonance to these changes the nontraditional low-saturated fat containing sunflower oil demand will increase in many folds in coming years. Hence, besides traditional oils, sunflower oil production has to be stepped up on "mission mode" through appropriate production programs to meet the present and future edible oil demand domestically.

  20. Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.

    PubMed

    Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2011-08-01

    Although blended essential oils are increasingly being used for the improvement of the quality of life and for the relief of various symptoms in patients, the scientific evaluation of the aroma-therapeutic effects of blended essential oils in humans is rather scarce. In this study, we hypothesized that applying blended essential oil would provide a synergistic effect that would have a chance for success in treating depression or anxiety. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the blended essential oil on autonomic parameters and on emotional responses in humans following transdermal absorption. The blended essential oil consisted of lavender and bergamot oils. Human autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate, breathing rate, and skin temperature, were recorded as indicators of the arousal level of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, subjects had to rate their emotional condition in terms of relaxation, vigor, calmness, attentiveness, mood, and alertness in order to assess subjective behavioral arousal. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Blended essential oil was applied topically to the skin of the abdomen of each subject. Compared with placebo, blended essential oil caused significant decreases of pulse rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which indicated a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the blended essential oil group rated themselves as 'more calm' and 'more relaxed' than subjects in the control group. This finding suggests a decrease of subjective behavioral arousal. In conclusion, our investigation demonstrates the relaxing effect of a mixture of lavender and bergamot oils. This synergistic blend provides evidence for its use in medicine for treating depression or anxiety in humans.

  1. Efficient quantification of water content in edible oils by headspace gas chromatography with vapour phase calibration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2018-06-01

    An automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyse the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapour phase calibration technique with an external vapour standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e. the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%. The present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Impacts of China’s Edible Oil Pricing Policy on Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    China’s health profile has shifted to one dominated by obesity and nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs) necessitating an examination of how economic policies can improve this situation. Edible oil consumption is responsible for much of the increase in energy density of the Chinese diet and particularly linked with the shifting burden of NR-NCDs toward the poor. Longitudinal analysis among adults in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) covering the period 1991 to 2000 revealed that price policy effects on edible oil can influence dietary composition (particularly of the poor) and the results identify a key preventive policy need. PMID:17996345

  3. Glycidyl fatty acid esters in refined edible oils: A review on formation, occurrence, analysis, and elimination methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs), one of the main contaminants in processed oil, are mainly formed during the deodorization step in the oil refining process of edible oils and therefore occur in almost all refined edible oils. GEs are potential carcinogens, due to the fact that they hydrolyze into t...

  4. High-throughput authentication of edible oils with benchtop Ultrafast 2D NMR.

    PubMed

    Gouilleux, B; Marchand, J; Charrier, B; Remaud, G S; Giraudeau, P

    2018-04-01

    We report the use of an Ultrafast 2D NMR approach applied on a benchtop NMR system (43 MHz) for the authentication of edible oils. Our results demonstrate that a profiling strategy based on fast 2D NMR spectra recorded in 2.4 min is more efficient than the standard 1D experiments to classify oils from different botanical origins, since 1D spectra on the same samples suffer from strong peak overlaps. Six edible oils with different botanical origins (olive, hazelnut, sesame, rapeseed, corn and sunflower) have been clearly discriminated by PCA analysis. Furthermore, we show how this approach combined with a PLS model can detect adulteration processes such as the addition of hazelnut oil into olive oil, a common fraud in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical Methods to Evaluate the Quality of Edible Fats and Oils: The JOCS Standard Methods for Analysis of Fats, Oils and Related Materials (2013) and Advanced Methods.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasushi

    2018-01-01

    Edible fats and oils are among the basic components of the human diet, along with carbohydrates and proteins, and they are the source of high energy and essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids. Edible fats and oils are used in for pan- and deep-frying, and in salad dressing, mayonnaise and processed foods such as chocolates and cream. The physical and chemical properties of edible fats and oils can affect the quality of oil foods and hence must be evaluated in detail. The physical characteristics of edible fats and oils include color, specific gravity, refractive index, melting point, congeal point, smoke point, flash point, fire point, and viscosity, while the chemical characteristics include acid value, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid composition, trans isomers, triacylglycerol composition, unsaponifiable matters (sterols, tocopherols) and minor components (phospholipids, chlorophyll pigments, glycidyl fatty acid esters). Peroxide value, p-anisidine value, carbonyl value, polar compounds and polymerized triacylglycerols are indexes of the deterioration of edible fats and oils. This review describes the analytical methods to evaluate the quality of edible fats and oils, especially the Standard Methods for Analysis of Fats, Oils and Related Materials edited by Japan Oil Chemists' Society (the JOCS standard methods) and advanced methods.

  6. Fungal inactivation by Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Hernández-Zamoran, Erika; López-Mendoza, Ingrid; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-04-01

    Edible films can incorporate antimicrobial agents to provide microbiological stability, since they can be used as carriers of a wide number of additives that can extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of pathogenic bacteria growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of low antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Oregano essential oil was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan, and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. Mold radial growth was evaluated inoculating spores in 2 ways: edible films were placed over inoculated agar, Film/Inoculum mode (F/I), or the edible films were first placed in the agar and then films were inoculated, Inoculum/Film mode (I/F). The modified Gompertz model adequately described growth curves. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth parameters between the 2 modes of inoculation. Antifungal effectiveness of edible films was starch > chitosan > amaranth. In starch edible films, both studied molds were inhibited with 0.50% of essential oil. Edible films added with Mexican oregano essential oil could improve the quality of foods by controlling surface growth of molds.

  7. Soluble lipase-catalyzed synthesis of methyl esters using a blend of edible and nonedible raw materials.

    PubMed

    Wancura, João H C; Rosset, Daniela V; Brondani, Michel; Mazutti, Marcio A; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Tres, Marcus V; Jahn, Sérgio L

    2018-04-26

    This work investigates the use of blends of edible and nonedible raw materials as an alternative feedstock to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) production through enzymatic catalysis. As biocatalyst, liquid lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Callera™ Trans L), was used. Under reaction conditions of 35 °C, methanol to feedstock molar ratio of 4.5:1 and 1.45% of catalyst load, the best process performance was reached using 9% of water concentration in the medium-yield of 79.9% after 480 min of reaction. In terms of use of tallow mixed with soybean oil, the best yield was obtained when 100% of tallow was used in the process-84.6% after 480 min of reaction-behavior that was associated with the degree of unsaturation of the feedstock, something by that time, not addressed in papers of the area. The results show that tallow can be used as an alternative to FAME production, catalyzed by soluble lipase.

  8. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  9. Hypolipidemic effect of oils with balanced amounts of fatty acids obtained by blending and interesterification of coconut oil with rice bran oil or sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Reena, Malongil B; Lokesh, Belur R

    2007-12-12

    Blended oils comprising coconut oil (CNO) and rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO) with saturated fatty acid/monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid at a ratio of 1:1:1 and polyunsaturated/saturated ratio of 0.8-1 enriched with nutraceuticals were prepared. Blended oils (B) were subjected to interesterification reaction using sn-1,3 specific Lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Fatty acid composition and nutraceutical contents of the blended oil were not affected by interesterification reaction. Male Wistar rats were fed with AIN-76 diet containing 10% fat from CNO, RBO, SESO, CNO+RBO blend (B), CNO+SESO(B), CNO+RBO interesterified (I), or CNO+SESO(I) for 60 days. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols (TAGs) were reduced by 23.8, 32.4, and 13.9%, respectively, in rats fed CNO+RBO(B) and by 20.5, 34.1, and 12.9%, respectively, in rats fed CNO+SESO(B) compared to rats given CNO. Rats fed interesterified oils showed a decrease in serum TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TAGs in CNO+RBO(I) by 35, 49.1, and 23.2 and by 33.3, 47, and 19.8% in CNO+SESO(I), respectively, compared to rats given CNO. Compared to rats fed CNO+RBO blended oils, rats on CNO+RBO interesterified oil showed a further decrease of 14.6, 24.7, and 10% in TC, LDL-C, and TAG. Rats fed CNO+SESO interesterified oils showed a decrease in serum TC, LDL-C, and TAG by 16.2, 19.6, and 7.8%, respectively, compared to rats given blended oils of CNO+SESO (B). Liver lipid analysis also showed significant change in the TC and TAG concentration in rats fed blended and interesterified oils of CNO+RBO and CNO+SESO compared to the rats given CNO. The present study suggests that feeding fats containing blended oils with balanced fatty acids lowers serum and liver lipids. Interesterified oils prepared using Lipase have a further lowering effect on serum and liver lipids even though the fatty acid composition of blended and interesterified

  10. Validation of Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Detect Adulteration of Edible Oil in Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) by Applying Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hina; Saleem, Muhammad; Anser, Muhammad Ramzan; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Bilal, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Due to high price and nutritional values of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), it is vulnerable to adulteration internationally. Refined oil or other vegetable oils are commonly blended with EVOO and to unmask such fraud, quick, and reliable technique needs to be standardized and developed. Therefore, in this study, adulteration of edible oil (sunflower oil) is made with pure EVOO and analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy (excitation wavelength at 350 nm) in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. Fluorescent spectra contain fingerprints of chlorophyll and carotenoids that are characteristics of EVOO and differentiated it from sunflower oil. A broad intense hump corresponding to conjugated hydroperoxides is seen in sunflower oil in the range of 441-489 nm with the maximum at 469 nm whereas pure EVOO has low intensity doublet peaks in this region at 441 nm and 469 nm. Visible changes in spectra are observed in adulterated EVOO by increasing the concentration of sunflower oil, with an increase in doublet peak and correspondingly decrease in chlorophyll peak intensity. Principal component analysis showed a distinct clustering of adulterated samples of different concentrations. Subsequently, the PLS regression model was best fitted over the complete data set on the basis of coefficient of determination (R 2 ), standard error of calibration (SEC), and standard error of prediction (SEP) of values 0.99, 0.617, and 0.623 respectively. In addition to adulterant, test samples and imported commercial brands of EVOO were also used for prediction and validation of the models. Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with chemometrics showed its robustness to identify and quantify the specified adulterant in pure EVOO.

  11. Differentiation of refined and virgin edible oils by means of the trans- and cis-phytol isomer distribution.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; Schröder, Markus; Lehnert, Katja

    2012-06-20

    The differentiation of nonrefined (e.g., cold-pressed) and refined edible oils is an important task in food control because of the higher commercial value of the former. Here, we explored the suitability of the relative abundance of cis-phytol as a marker for authentication of nonrefined edible oils. Phytol, the tetramethyl-branched, monoenoic alcohol, is found widespread in nature as a part of chlorophyll. In chlorophyll, only trans-phytol is found. In this study, we present a method for the analysis of the phytol isomers, considering that traces of cis-phytol (contributing 0.1% to the phytol content) can be determined next to trans-phytol. For this purpose, phytol was gathered with the unsaponifiable matter from the oil, trimethylsilylated, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. With this method, 27 samples of edible oils (16 refined and 11 nonrefined edible oils) were analyzed for the abundance of cis-phytol relative to trans-phytol. In the nonrefined oils (e.g., olive oil, rapeseed oil, maize oil, and sunflower oil), cis-phytol contributed 0.1% (n = 3) or less (n = 8) to the phytol content. In contrast, the refined olive oils (n = 4) contained a share of 1.3-3% cis-phytol; the refined rapeseed oil (n = 3) contained a share of 0.7-1.0% cis-phytol; and the refined sunflower oil (n = 4) contained a share of 0.3-0.9% cis-phytol. Only one refined pomegranate kernel did not contain cis-phytol. The phytol concentration was not suited to distinguish nonrefined from refined oils. In contrast, our data suggest that the virtual absence of cis-phytol can be used as a marker for nonrefined (e.g., cold-pressed) edible oils.

  12. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-02

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.

  13. Improvement of engine emissions with conventional diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Akhter, Md Shamim; Zaglul Shahadat, Mhia Md

    2006-02-01

    In this report combustion and exhaust emissions with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends have been investigated. In the investigation, firstly biodiesel from non-edible neem oil has been made by esterification. Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is chemically known as mono-alkyl fatty acid ester. It is renewable in nature and is derived from plant oils including vegetable oils. BDF is non-toxic, biodegradable, recycled resource and essentially free from sulfur and carcinogenic benzene. In the second phase of this investigation, experiment has been conducted with neat diesel fuel and diesel-biodiesel blends in a four stroke naturally aspirated (NA) direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Compared with conventional diesel fuel, diesel-biodiesel blends showed lower carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. However, compared with the diesel fuel, NOx emission with diesel-biodiesel blends was slightly reduced when EGR was applied.

  14. Multielemental analysis in vegetable edible oils by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after solubilisation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Savio, Marianela; Ortiz, María S; Almeida, César A; Olsina, Roberto A; Martinez, Luis D; Gil, Raúl A

    2014-09-15

    Trace metals have negative effects on the oxidative stability of edible oils and they are important because of possibility for oils characterisation. A single-step procedure for trace elemental analysis of edible oils is presented. To this aim, a solubilisation with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was assayed prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection. Small amounts of TMAH were used, resulting in high elemental concentrations. This method was applied to edible oils commercially available in Argentine. Elements present in small amounts (Cu, Ge, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sr, Ti, and V) were determined in olive, corn, almond and sunflower oils. The limits of detection were between 0.004 μg g(-1) for Mn and Sr, and 0.32 μg g(-1) for Sb. Principal components analysis was used to correlate the content of trace metals with the type of oils. The two first principal components retained 91.6% of the variability of the system. This is a relatively simple and safe procedure, and could be an attractive alternative for quality control, traceability and routine analysis of edible oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Potential of Microalgae Lipids for Edible Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfei; Zhang, Dongmei; Xue, Shengzhang; Wang, Meng; Cong, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of oil-rich green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Nannochloropsis oceanica, to produce edible oil with respect to lipid and residue properties. The results showed that C. vulgaris and N. oceanica had similarly much higher lipid recovery (about 50 %) in hexane extraction than that of S. obliquus (about 25 %), and C. vulgaris had the highest content of neutral lipids among the three algae. The fatty acid compositions of neutral lipids from C. vulgaris and S. obliquus were mainly C16 and C18, resembling that of vegetable oils. ARA and EPA were the specific valuable fatty acids in lipids of N. oceanica, but the content of which was lower in neutral lipids. Phytol was identified as the major unsaponifiable component in lipids of the three algae. Combined with the evaluation of the ratios in SFA/MUFA/PUFA, (n-6):(n-3) and content of free fatty acids, lipids obtained from C. vulgaris displayed the great potential for edible oil production. Lipids of N. oceanica showed the highest antioxidant activity, and its residue contained the largest amounts of protein as well as the amino acid compositions were greatly beneficial to the health of human beings.

  16. [Determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li

    2014-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil.

  17. Application of edible paraffin oil for cationic dye removal from water using emulsion liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Zereshki, Sina; Daraei, Parisa; Shokri, Amin

    2018-05-18

    Using an emulsion liquid membrane based on edible oils is investigated for removing cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. There is a great potential for using edible oils in food industry extraction processes. The parameters affecting the stability of the emulsion and the extraction rate were studied. These parameters were the emulsification time, the stirring speed, the surfactant concentration, the internal phase concentration, the feed phase concentration, the volume ratio of internal phase to organic phase and the treat ratio. In order to stabilize the emulsion without using a carrier, edible paraffin oil and heptane are used at an 80:20 ratio. The optimum conditions for the extraction of methylene blue (MB), crystal violet and methyl violet (CV and MV) cationic dyes using edible paraffin oil as an environment friendly solvent are represented. A removal percentage of 95% was achieved for a mixture of dyes. The optimum concentration of sodium hydroxide in the internal phase, which results a stabile emulsion with a high stripping efficiency of 96%, was 0.04 M. An excellent membrane recovery was observed and the extraction of dyes did not decrease up to seven run cycles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G.; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  19. Impact of applying edible oils to silk channels on ear pests of sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Sparks, Alton N; Riley, David G; Li, Xianchun

    2011-06-01

    The impact of applying edible oils to corn silks on ear-feeding insects in sweet corn, Zea mays L., production was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six edible oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean. Water and two commercial insecticidal oils (Neemix neem oil and nC21 Sunspray Ultrafine, a horticultural mineral oil) were used as the controls for the experiment. Six parameters evaluated in this experiment were corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] damage rating, the number of sap beetle [Carpophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)] adults and larvae, the number of corn silk fly (or picture-winged fly) (Diptera: Ulidiidae) larvae, common smut [Ustilago maydis (D.C.) Corda] infection rate, and corn husk coverage. Among the two control treatments, neem oil reduced corn earworm damage at both pre- and postpollination applications in 2006, but not in 2007, whereas the mineral oil applied at postpollination treatments reduced corn earworm damage in both years. The mineral oil also reduced the number of sap beetle adults, whereas the neem oil applied at postpollination attracted the most sap beetle adults in 2007. Among the six edible oil treatments, the corn and sesame oils applied at postpollination reduced corn earworm damage only in 2007. The application of the peanut oil at postpollination attracted more sap beetle adults in 2006, and more sap beetle larvae in 2007. Olive and neem oils significantly reduced husk coverage compared with the water control in both years. The mineral oil application consistently increased smut infection rate in both 2006 and 2007. Ramifications of using oil treatments in ear pest management also are discussed.

  20. Retention of natural antioxidants of blends of groundnut and sunflower oils with minor oils during storage and frying.

    PubMed

    Sunil, L; Reddy, P Vanitha; Krishna, A G Gopala; Urooj, Asna

    2015-02-01

    Unrefined groundnut oil (GNO) and refined sunflower oil (SFO) were blended with four minor oils including laboratory refined red palmolein (RRPO), physically refined rice bran oil (RBO), unrefined sesame oil (SESO), and unrefined coconut oil (CNO) containing natural antioxidants viz., β-carotene, tocopherols, oryzanol and lignans. The five blends prepared were GNO + RRPO (80:20), GNO + RBO (80:20), GNO + SESO (80:20), SFO + RRPO (50:50) and SFO + CNO (60:40). Prepared blends contained saturated fatty acids (SFA) (16.7-53.3 %); monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (16.0-45.5 %) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (29.2-37.8 %). GNO blends viz., GNO + RRPO, GNO + RBO and GNO + SESO contained β-carotene (10.7 mg/100 g), oryzanol (0.12 g/100 g) and lignans (0.35 g/100 g) respectively as natural antioxidants. SFO was enriched with β-carotene (28.7 mg/100 g) and medium chain fatty acids (34.2 %) by blending with RRPO and CNO respectively. The oil blends (200 ml) were packed and stored at 38 °C/90 % relative humidity (RH) and 27 °C/65 % RH and samples were withdrawn at fixed intervals for analysis. Freshly prepared blends were also investigated for their frying performance. During storage, GNO + RBO blend showed highest oxidative stability probably due to the presence of oryzanol in the order GNO + RBO > GNO + SESO > GNO + RRPO. During frying, the peroxide value of GNO blends with RBO (rich in oryzanol) and SESO (rich in lignans) was less while the free fatty acid value was less in SFO blends with RRPO and CNO. Hence, blending of natural antioxidants rich minor oils (RRPO, RBO and SESO) with the major vegetable oils (GNO and SFO) may preserve them by lowering their rate of oxidation during storage and frying.

  1. New Edible Bionanocomposite Prepared by Pectin and Clove Essential Oil Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ronaldo S; Mattoso, Luiz H C; de Moura, Márcia Regina

    2016-06-01

    Nanocomposites are being extremely investigated to provide packaging with interesting characteristics for packages. Because of essential oils' natural occurrence and antibacterial activity, they are considered as an alternative for synthetic additives in the food industry. In this paper, we studied an edible bionanocomposite film made up of pectin and clove essential oil nanoemulsion for application as edible package. Mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and antibacterial activity were analyzed. From mechanical and WVP analyses, we noticed an interesting improvement in film properties. In the antibacterial activity test, disk diffusion was used to assess the inhibition zones of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. With these results, we concluded that the most interesting results were promoted by smaller nanodroplets (diameter of approximately 142 nm).

  2. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils

    PubMed Central

    Valchev, Dimitar G.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05–2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min. PMID:28680681

  3. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Dinovitser, Alex; Valchev, Dimitar G; Abbott, Derek

    2017-06-01

    Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that oil undergoes chemical and physical changes when heated above the smoke point, which can be detected in the 0.05-2 THz spectral range, measured using the conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The measurements demonstrate a null result in that there is no significant change in the spectra of terahertz optical parameters after heating above the smoke point for 5 min.

  4. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces.

  5. Transesterification of edible, non-edible and used cooking oils for biodiesel production using calcined layered double hydroxides as reusable base catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Sivashunmugam; Antonyraj, Churchil A; Kannan, S

    2012-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from edible, non-edible and used cooking oils with different fatty acid contents by transesterification with methanol using calcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as solid base catalysts. Among the catalysts, calcined CaAl2-LDH (hydrocalumite) showed the highest activity with >90% yield of FAME using low methanol:oil molar ratio (<6:1) at 65 °C in 5 h. The activity of the catalyst was attributed to its high basicity as supported by Hammett studies and CO(2)-TPD measurements. The catalyst was successfully reused in up to four cycles. Some of the properties such as density, viscosity, neutralization number and glycerol content of the obtained biodiesel matched well with the standard DIN values. It is concluded that a scalable heterogeneously catalyzed process for production of biodiesel in high yields from a wide variety of triglyceride oils including used oils is possible using optimized conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chitosan based edible films and coatings: a review.

    PubMed

    Elsabee, Maher Z; Abdou, Entsar S

    2013-05-01

    Chitosan is a biodegradable biocompatible polymer derived from natural renewable resources with numerous applications in various fields, and one of which is the area of edible films and coatings. Chitosan has antibacterial and antifungal properties which qualify it for food protection, however, its weak mechanical properties, gas and water vapor permeability limit its uses. This review discusses the application of chitosan and its blends with other natural polymers such as starch and other ingredients for example essential oils, and clay in the field of edible films for food protection. The mechanical behavior and the gas and water vapor permeability of the films are also discussed. References dealing with the antimicrobial behavior of these films and their impact on food protection are explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detergentless ultrasound-assisted extraction of trace elements from edible oils using lipase as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Kara, Derya; Fisher, Andrew; Hill, Steve

    2015-11-01

    A new method for the extraction and preconcentration of trace elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Ti, V and Zn) from edible oils by producing detergentless micro-emulsions via an ultrasound-assisted extraction using a water phase containing Lipase at pH 3 as an extractant was developed. The trace elements in the water phase post-extraction were determined against matrix matched standards using ICP-MS. In the first step of the work, the parameters that affect extraction, such as pH, the volume of 1% lipase in the water phase and the ultrasonic and centrifugation times were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits (µg kg(-1)) were 0.46, 0.03, 0.007, 0.028, 0.67, 0.038, 0.022, 0.14, 0.17, 0.05 and 0.07 for Al, Ba, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Ti, V and Zn respectively for edible oils (3 Sb/m). A certified reference material (EnviroMAT HU-1 Used oil) was analysed to check the accuracy of the developed method. Results obtained were in agreement with certified values with a t-test showing that no significant differences at the 95% confidence levels were found. The proposed method was applied to different edible oils such as sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, olive oil and salmon oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of tocopherol treatment on deterioration of edible oil quality (acid value, carbonyl value, free fatty acid and radical activity).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    In this study, waste edible oil was prepared by both heat and aeration treatment, and the increasing inhibitive effect of tocopherol treatment on the acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) of the oil was investigated. The AV and CV of waste edible oil treated with tocopherol were 0.1-1.0% lower than those of the nontreated oil, indicating that tocopherol exerted a radical-scavenging activity. The concentration of tocopherol decreased with time, while that of the remaining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals increased. These results suggest that the addition of tocopherol proved to be useful for preventing the deterioration of waste edible oil.

  9. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  10. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  11. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  12. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J.

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  13. Edible antimicrobial films based on microencapsulated lemongrass oil.

    PubMed

    Bustos C, Rubén O; Alberti R, Francesca V; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2016-01-01

    Edible films and coatings have been proposed as viable alternatives for the preservation of fresh food such as fruit, meat, fish and cheese. They can be designed to contain natural antioxidants, vitamins and antimicrobials in order to extend shelf life of the product keeping the natural sensorial properties. Essential oils have been targeted as potential active principles for edible films and coatings given their well-recognized antioxidant, antimicrobial and sensory properties. In the present work, lemongrass oil (LMO) microcapsules were prepared by the emulsification-separation method using sodium caseinate as wall material. Microcapsules had an average size of 22 μm and contained over 51 % oil in their nucleus. The release kinetics of the LMO components was studied for both, microcapsules and microcapsule containing films. Experimental data for the controlled release of LMO components showed good correlation with Peppas and Weibull models. The effect of the alginate matrix on the release parameters of the mathematical models could be detected by the modification of the b constant of the Weibull equation which changed from 0.167 for the microcapsules to 0.351 for the films. Films containing LMO at concentrations of 1250, 2500 and 5000 ppm were able to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Listeria monocytogenes ISP 65-08 in liquid cultures. A possible future application of these films for shelf life extension of fresh food is discussed.

  14. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly.

  15. A Blend of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils Lowers Hyperglycemia and Improves the Lipids.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Sankar; Chatterjee, Biprabuddha; Urata, Hidenori; Zhang, Bo; Ali, Amanat; Singh, Ravinder; Ganapathy, Sambandam

    2016-07-01

    Considering the health benefits of sesame oil and rice bran oil, the study was conducted to determine the extent to which the daily use of this blend of oils controls hyperglycemia and improves the lipid profile. In this 8-week open-label randomized dietary intervention study, 300 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 100 normoglycemic subjects were grouped as 1) normoglycemic subjects (n = 100) treated with sesame oil blend Vivo (Adani Wilmar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India), 2) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with sesame oil blend (n = 100), 3) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with glibenclamide (n = 100; 5 mg/d), and 4) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated in combination of glibenclamide (5 mg/d) and sesame oil blend (n = 100). Twelve-hour fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profile followed by postprandial blood glucose were measured at baseline. Sesame oil blend was supplied to the respective groups, who were instructed to use as cooking oil for 8 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose was measured at week 4 and week 8, while HbA1c and lipid profile were measured at week 8. At week 4 and week 8, type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with sesame oil blend or glibenclamide or combination of glibenclamide and sesame oil blend showed significant reduction of fasting and postprandial blood glucose (P <.001). HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced (P <.001), while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased at week 8 (P <.001) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with the sesame oil blend or combination of glibenclamide and sesame oil blend; whereas glibenclamide-alone-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients showed a significant reduction of HbA1c (P <.001) only. A novel blend of 20% cold-pressed unrefined sesame oil and 80% physically refined rice bran oil as

  16. Precolumn Derivatization with Bromine to Improve Separation and Detection Sensitivity of Triacylglycerols in Edible Oil by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Gong, Can; Xu, Xu

    2018-01-01

    The complexity of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in edible oils is largely due to the many similar unsaturated TAG compounds, which makes profiling TAGs difficult. In this study, precolumn derivatization with bromine (Br 2 ) was used to improve the separation and detection sensitivity of TAGs in edible oils by RP-HPLC. Oil samples dissolved in n-hexane and TAGs were derived by reaction with a Br2-CCl 4 (1:1, v/v) solution for 3 h at room temperature. The derivate product solution was stable and was best separated and detected by RP-HPLC using a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-n-hexane (91.5:8.5, v/v) at 25°C. A detection wavelength of 230 nm was used. The results showed that the approach enabled the separation and detection of more similar TAGs by RP-HPLC. The method was applied to profile 20 types of edible oil, and the results presented the differences in the TAG profiles of various edible oils, which may be useful in the identification of edible oils.

  17. A blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil lowers blood pressure and improves the lipid profile in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Sankar; Singh, Ravinder; Chatterjee, Biprabuddha; Zhang, Bo; Ali, Amanat

    2016-01-01

    Sesame oil and rice bran oil are known for their unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants contents and have been reported to reduce the cardiovascular risk. To determine the effect of a blend of 20% unrefined cold-pressed lignans-rich sesame oil and 80% physically refined γ-oryzanol-rich rice bran oil (Vivo) as cooking oil in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients. In this prospective, open-label dietary approach, 300 hypertensive patients and 100 normotensives were divided into groups as: (1) normotensives treated with sesame oil blend, (2) hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend, (3) hypertensives treated with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker (20 mg/d), and (4) hypertensives receiving the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (20 mg/d). Sesame oil blend was supplied to respective groups, and they were instructed to use it as the only cooking oil for 60 days. Resting blood pressure was measured at days 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60, whereas the fasting lipid profile was measured at days 0 and 60. Significant reduction in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial) from days 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 were observed in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone (P < .001), nifedipine alone (P < .001), and combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P < .001). Sesame oil blend with nifedipine-treated group showed greatest reduction in blood pressure. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels reduced, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly only in hypertensives treated with sesame oil blend alone and the combination of sesame oil blend and nifedipine (P < .001). We demonstrate for the first time that using a blend of sesame oil and rice bran oil as cooking oil showed a significant antihypertensive and lipid-lowering action and had noteworthy additive effect with antihypertensive medication. Copyright © 2016 National

  18. Occurrence of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in edible oils in the United States.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol are processing contaminants found in a wide range of edible oils. While both 3 MCPD and glycidol have toxicological properties that at present has concerns for food safety, the published occurrence data are limited. Occurrence information is presented for the concentrations of 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters in 116 retail and/or industrial edible oils and fats using LC-MS/MS analysis of intact esters. The concentrations for bound 3-MCPD ranged from below the limit of quantitation (oils and from 0.005 to 7.2 mg kg⁻¹ (ppm) in 94 refined oils. The concentrations for bound glycidol ranged from oil samples and from oil samples. The highest concentrations for both 3-MCPD and glycidol were seen in refined palm oil and palm olein samples. Palm olein samples also contained a higher percentage of 3-MCPD in mono-ester form than any other type of oil.

  19. Multiclass mycotoxin analysis in edible oils using a simple solvent extraction method and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eom, Taeyong; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kim, Junghyun; Park, Mihee; An, Jinyoung; Kim, Moosung; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Han, Sang Beom

    2017-11-01

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins - aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ; fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 ; ochratoxin A; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; and T-2 toxin - in edible oils was established using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe), QuEChERS with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and solvent extraction were examined for sample preparation. Among these methods, solvent extraction with a mixture of formic acid/acetonitrile (5/95, v/v) successfully extracted all target mycotoxins. Subsequently, a defatting process using n-hexane was employed to remove the fats present in the edible oil samples. Mass spectrometry was carried out using electrospray ionisation in polarity switching mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The developed LC-MS/MS method was validated by assessing the specificity, linearity, recovery, limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy and precision with reference to Commission Regulation (EC) 401/2006. Mycotoxin recoveries of 51.6-82.8% were achieved in addition to LOQs ranging from 0.025 ng/g to 1 ng/g. The edible oils proved to be relatively uncomplicated matrices and the developed method was applied to 9 edible oil samples, including soybean oil, corn oil and rice bran oil, to evaluate potential mycotoxin contamination. The levels of detection were significantly lower than the international regulatory standards. Therefore, we expect that our developed method, based on simple, two-step sample preparation process, will be suitable for the large-scale screening of mycotoxin contamination in edible oils.

  20. Effect of edible sesame oil on growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Toshiko; Nishio, Junko; Okada, Shinobu

    2014-07-01

    Elderly individuals are at increased risk of oral thrush (oral candidiasis) due to decreased saliva secretion. Due to their antimicrobial properties, edible oils can be effective natural agents for oral care. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of sesame oil, which is widely used for cooking in Asian countries, and two other edible oils on the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans, a causative microorganism of oral thrush. We assessed the effect of each oil in concentrations of 0.078%, 0.156%, and 0.313% on growth of the mycelial forms of the clinical isolates over 24 hr using the crystal violet method. We also evaluated the effect of each oil on growth of the yeast forms by counting the number of viable yeast cells after culturing in the oils for 24 hr. Sesame oil inhibited the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms. Safflower and olive oil also inhibited the growth of both forms of C. albicans but to a lesser extent than sesame oil. The ability to inhibit the growth of the mycelial form correlated with sesame oil concentration. Roasting influenced growth inhibition ability and high-roasted sesame oil most effectively inhibited the yeast form. The growth inhibitory effect differed among the five isolates. We hypothesize that the sesamin and fatty acid components of sesame oil are involved in its antifungal activity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Properties of Transformer Oil Blends with Antioxidants extracted from Turmeric Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhi, Veresha; Bissessur, Ajay; Ngila, Catherine Jane; Ijumba, Nelson Mutatina

    2013-07-01

    The blending of transformer oil (used mainly as an insulating oil) with appropriate synthetic antioxidants, such as BHT (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) and DBP (2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) have been previously reported. This article is focused on the use of antioxidant extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa), a natural source. Turmeric is well known for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties owing to the active nature of its components. Extracts from powdered turmeric were subsequently blended into naphthenic-based uninhibited virgin transformer oil, hereinafter referred to as extract-oil blends (E-OB). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil blends revealed that five components extracted from turmeric powder were successfully blended into the oil. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the presence of the compounds: curcumene, sesquiphellandrene, ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the extract-oil blends, containing various levels of extracts, revealed an average temperature shift of ˜8.21°C in the initial onset of degradation in comparison to virgin non-blended oil. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that an increase in the mass aliquot of turmeric extracts in the transformer oil increased the free radical scavenging activity of the oil. Electrical properties of the oil investigated showed that the dissipation factor in the blended oil was found to be lower than that of virgin transformer oil. Evidently, a lower dissipation value renders the oil blend as a superior insulator over normal virgin non-blended oil. This investigation elucidated improved physico-chemical properties of transformer oil blended with turmeric antioxidant extracts.

  2. Effect of cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil on the quality of papaya MJ9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Evirananda, I. P.; Kawiji

    2017-02-01

    Edible films and coatings have emerged as an alternative packaging in food applications and have received much attention due to their advantages. The incorporation of essential oils in film matrices to give antimicrobial properties had been observed recently, and could be used as promising preservation technology. In this study, cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) was applied by spraying and dipping methods to preserve papaya MJ9 during storage at room temperature. The quality of papaya MJ9 was analyzed based on its physicochemical and microbiological properties. The addition of lemongrass essential oil (1%) significantly inhibited the microbial growth on papaya MJ9 by reducing the value of total yeast and mold as compared to the control. This study also showed that for parameters of weight loss, total soluble solid, vitamin C, and total titratable acid, papaya MJ9 with cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) had the lower values than control, however, they had the higher value than control on firmness parameter. These results indicate that cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) can be used as an alternative preservation for papaya MJ9.

  3. [Determination of olive oil content in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Fengyan; Yang, Zhao

    2017-07-08

    A method for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC/MS) was established. The amount of the sample, the heating temperature, the heating time, the amount of injection, the injection mode and the chromatographic column were optimized. The characteristic compounds of olive oil were found by chemometric method. A sample of 1.0 g was placed in a 20 mL headspace flask, and heated at 180℃ for 2700 s. Then, 1.0 mL headspace gas was taken into the instrument. An HP-88 chromatographic column was used for the separation and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The results showed that the linear range was 0-100%(olive oil content). The linear correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) was more than 0.995, and the limits of detection were 1.26%-2.13%. The deviations of olive oil contents in the olive blend oil were from -0.65% to 1.02%, with the relative deviations from -1.3% to 6.8% and the relative standard deviations from 1.18% to 4.26% ( n =6). The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil.

  4. Effects of mesquite gum-candelilla wax based edible coatings on the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, S. A.; Bosquez-Molina, E.; Stolik, S.; Sánchez, F.

    2005-06-01

    The ability of composite edible coatings to preserve the quality of guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.) at 20ºC was studied for a period of 15 days. The edible coatings were formulated with candelilla wax blended with white mineral oil as the lipid phase and mesquite gum as the structural material. The use of edible coatings prolonged the shelf life of treated fruits by retarding ethylene emission and enhancing texture as compared to control samples. At the sixth day, the ethylene produced by the control samples was fivefold higher than the ethylene produced by the coated samples. In addition, the physiological weight loss of coated fruits was nearly 30% lower than the control samples.

  5. Elastohydrodynamics of oil-soluble PAGs, high-oleic sunflower oil and their blends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent reports indicate that the oxidative stability of vegetable oils can be improved for lubrication purposes by mixing them with oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (OS-PAG). This inspired a study of other lubrication-related properties of their blends. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic fi...

  6. Fast-HPLC Fingerprinting to Discriminate Olive Oil from Other Edible Vegetable Oils by Multivariate Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Carvelo, Ana M; González-Casado, Antonio; Pérez-Castaño, Estefanía; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis

    2017-03-01

    A new analytical method for the differentiation of olive oil from other vegetable oils using reversed-phase LC and applying chemometric techniques was developed. A 3 cm short column was used to obtain the chromatographic fingerprint of the methyl-transesterified fraction of each vegetable oil. The chromatographic analysis took only 4 min. The multivariate classification methods used were k-nearest neighbors, partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis, one-class PLS, support vector machine classification, and soft independent modeling of class analogies. The discrimination of olive oil from other vegetable edible oils was evaluated by several classification quality metrics. Several strategies for the classification of the olive oil were used: one input-class, two input-class, and pseudo two input-class.

  7. Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography for the analysis of aldehydes in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Ji, Jiaojiao; Tan, Connieal; Chen, Dongmei; Luo, Feng; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2014-03-01

    Oxidation has important effects on the quality of edible oils. In particular, the generation of aldehydes produced by the oxidation of oils is one of the deteriorative factors to their quality. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine the aldehydes as lipid oxidation markers in edible oils. Seven aldehydes generated from lipid oxidation were studied using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The extraction efficiency of five commercial fibers was investigated and the influence of extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption temperature, and desorption time were optimized. The best result was obtained with 85 μm carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane, extraction at 50 °C for 15 min and desorption in the gas chromatography injector at 250 °C for 2 min. Under the optimized conditions, the content of hexanal was the highest of the seven aldehydes in all edible oils. The limits of detection for hexanal in the three oils were found to range from 4.6 to 10.2 ng L(-1). The reproducibility of the method was evaluated and the relative standard deviations were less than 8.9%. This developed approach was successfully applied to analyze hexanal in peanut oil, soy oil, and olive oil samples, and these results were compared with those obtained using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) method. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Triacylglycerol composition, physico-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability of interesterified canola oil and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil blends.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-10-29

    Partial hydrogenation process is used worldwide to produce shortening, baking, and pastry margarines for food applications. However, demand for such products is decreased during last decade due to their possible links to consumer health and disease. This has raised the need to replace hydrogenation with alternative acceptable interesterification process which has advantage in context of modifying the physico-chemical properties of edible fat-based products. Therefore, the main mandate of research was the development of functional fat through chemical interesterification of canola oil (CaO) and fully hydrogenated cottonseed oil (FHCSO) mixtures. Blends were prepared in the proportions of 75:25 (T1), 50:50 (T2) and 25:75 (T3) of CaO:FHCSO (w/w). Interesterification was performed using sodium methoxide (0.2 %) as catalyst at 120 °C, under reduced pressure and constant agitation for 60 minutes. The non-interesterified and interesterified CaO:FHCSO blends were evaluated for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, physico-chemical characteristics, oxidative stability and consumer acceptability at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage interval. The oleic acid (58.3 ± 0.6 %) was predominantly present in CaO while the contents of stearic acid (72 ± 0.8 %) were significantly higher in FHCSO. Maximum trisaturated (S3) contents (63.9 ± 0.5 %) were found in T3 while monounsaturated (S2U), diunsaturated (U2S) and triunsaturated (U3) contents were quite low in T2 and T3 before interesterification. A marked reduction in S3 and U3 contents with concomitant increase in S2U and U2S contents was observed for all CaO:FHCSO blends on interesterification. During storage, the changes in S3, S2U and U2S contents were not found significant (p ≥ 0.05). However, maximum decrease 13 %, 7.5 and 5.6 % in U3 contents for T1, T2 and T3 was noted after 60-days of interesterification, respectively. The Lovibond color R, melting point, refractive index, specific gravity, peroxide and free

  9. Tumeric oil as the antioxidation agent in edible coating film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, N. A.; Sharif, Z. I. M.; Jai, J.; Yusof, N. M.; Mustapha, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Turmeric oil (TO) has been studied for its potential as an antioxidation agent in starch edible coating for fresh cut apples and its degree of oxidation was analysed. TO incorporate with starch edible coating was examined using FT-IR Spectroscopy to determine the presence of secondary metabolites. The presence of alcohol and aromatic ring in the edible coating film proved that the secondary metabolites from TO were existed. The fresh cut apples were underwent the sensory test and six out of ten panellist concluded that coated fresh cut apples have good appearance and surface colour. Fresh cut apples were coated with edible coating incorporated with different concentrations of TO (uncoated, 0μL, 5μL, 10μL, 15μL. Percentage weight loss for 15μL were the least which were 1.98% (day 6) and 3.95% (day 12). Colour measurement were done for few days and it shows that the total colour difference (ΔΕ) for 15μL were the lowest. Thus, the oxidation activities for 15μL is the slowest compared to the others. These can be proved through the degree of oxidation analysis using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Uncoated fresh cut apples have the highest degree of oxidation while those with 15μL have the lowest. This study can be illustrated that the oxidation activities of fresh cut apples could be postponed using edible film incorporated with TO.

  10. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the direct detection of 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) esters in edible oils.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Ridge, Clark D; Begley, Timothy H

    2014-12-03

    A new analytical method has been developed and validated for the detection and quantification of 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) esters in edible oils. The target compounds are potentially carcinogenic contaminants formed during the processing of edible oils. As the 2-MCPD esters that occur most frequently in refined edible oils were not commercially available, standards were synthesized with identity and purity (95+%) confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and (1)H NMR. Target analytes are separated from edible oil matrices using a two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extracts are then analyzed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI). The method has been validated for 11 2-MCPD diesters and 3 2-MCPD monoesters in soybean oil, olive oil, and palm oil using an external calibration curve. The ranges of average recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSD) across the three oil matrices at three spiking concentrations are 79-106% (3-13% RSD) for the 2-MCPD diesters and 72-108% (4-17% RSD) for the 2-MCPD monoesters, with limits of quantitation at or below 30 ng/g for the diesters and 90 ng/g for the monoesters.

  11. Facile one-pot synthesis of gold and silver nanocatalysts using edible coconut oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena Kumari, M.; Philip, Daizy

    2013-07-01

    The use of edible oil for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by wet chemical method is reported for the first time. The paper presents an environmentally benign bottom up approach for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using edible coconut oil at 373 K. The formation of silver nanoparticles is signaled by the brownish yellow color and that of gold nanoparticles by the purple color. Fine control over the nanoparticle size and shape from triangular to nearly spherical is achieved by varying the quantity of coconut oil. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. The chemical interaction of capping agents with metal nanoparticles is manifested using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The stable and crystalline nanoparticles obtained using this simple method show remarkable size-dependent catalytic activity in the reduction of the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) to leuco methylene blue (LMB). The first order rate constants calculated uphold the size dependent catalytic activity of the synthesized nanoparticles.

  12. Enhancement of antioxidative activity and cardiovascular protection in hamsters by camellia oil and soybean-camellia blended oil.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Yi; Lu, Yi-Fa; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of several vegetable oils and blended oil composed of soybean and camellia oils on blood lipid reduction and antioxidative activity. Forty male hamsters were fed an AIN-93 G diet for 1 wk, followed by dividing into five groups: control group-1 was fed a low-fat diet containing 5% oil for 6 wk, and the other four groups were fed high-fat diets with group-2 containing 14% palm oil, group-3 containing 14% camellia oil, group-4 containing 14% soybean oil, and group-5 containing 14% blended oil (8.4% soybean oil and 5.6% camellia oil) along with 0.2% cholesterol and 0.1% bile acid. High-fat diets raised serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase in hamsters without affecting alanine aminotransferase. Compared with palm oil-containing diet, the other three high-fat diets reduced serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with an opposite trend for liver total cholesterol. However, compared with the control group, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was raised for all four high-fat diets. The higher the degree of oil unsaturation, the higher the serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the lower the liver triacylglycerol level and activities of fatty acid synthase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzymes. Both soybean and blended oils lowered the antioxidative activity of liver. Camellia and blended oils were more efficient than soybean oil in elevating serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of different classification methods for analyzing electronic nose data to characterize sesame oils and blends.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaolong; Li, Hui; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-21

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was used to characterize sesame oils processed by three different methods (hot-pressed, cold-pressed, and refined), as well as blends of the sesame oils and soybean oil. Seven classification and prediction methods, namely PCA, LDA, PLS, KNN, SVM, LASSO and RF, were used to analyze the e-nose data. The classification accuracy and MAUC were employed to evaluate the performance of these methods. The results indicated that sesame oils processed with different methods resulted in different sensor responses, with cold-pressed sesame oil producing the strongest sensor signals, followed by the hot-pressed sesame oil. The blends of pressed sesame oils with refined sesame oil were more difficult to be distinguished than the blends of pressed sesame oils and refined soybean oil. LDA, KNN, and SVM outperformed the other classification methods in distinguishing sesame oil blends. KNN, LASSO, PLS, and SVM (with linear kernel), and RF models could adequately predict the adulteration level (% of added soybean oil) in the sesame oil blends. Among the prediction models, KNN with k = 1 and 2 yielded the best prediction results.

  14. Antifungal activity by vapor contact of essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Navarro Cruz, Addí Rhode; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2012-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into edible films to provide microbiological stability, since films can be used as carriers of a variety of additives to extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of microbial growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of small antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition by vapor contact of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) or lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oils (EOs) added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Essential oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 2.00, or 4.00%. Antifungal activity was evaluated by determining the mold radial growth on agar media inoculated with A. niger and P. digitatum after exposure to vapors arising from essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan or starch films using the inverted lid technique. The modified Gompertz model adequately described mold growth curves (mean coefficient of determination 0.991 ± 0.05). Chitosan films exhibited better antifungal effectiveness (inhibition of A. niger with 0.25% of Mexican oregano and cinnamon EO; inhibition of P. digitatum with 0.50% EOs) than amaranth films (2.00 and 4.00% of cinnamon and Mexican oregano EO were needed to inhibit the studied molds, respectively). For chitosan and amaranth films a significant increase (p<0.05) of lag phase was observed among film concentrations while a significant decrease (p<0.05) of maximum specific growth was determined. Chitosan edible films incorporating Mexican oregano or cinnamon essential oil could improve the quality of foods by the action of the volatile compounds on surface growth

  15. Edible oil structuring: an overview and recent updates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Dewettinck, Koen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, research dealing with edible oil structuring has received considerable interest from scientific community working in the area of food formulation. Much of this interest is linked to the possibility of using structured oil in development of newer product formats with improved nutritional profile (trans fat-free, low in saturated fats and high in mono and/or poly unsaturated fatty acids). In addition to the obvious industrial need of finding the alternative formulation approach, the interesting properties of structured systems (particularly, oleogels) also makes them a fascinating subject for fundamental studies. In this paper, we attempt to give a comprehensive and concise overview of the field of oil structuring with special emphasis on the updates from recent years. Specifically, several categories of food-grade oleogelators and their potential food applications are summarized with typical examples along with a discussion on the general principles and unresolved challenges related to this emerging area.

  16. Interlaboratory Comparison Test as an Evaluation of Applicability of an Alternative Edible Oil Analysis by 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zailer, Elina; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2017-11-01

    A proton (1H) NMR spectroscopic method was established for the quality assessment of vegetable oils. To date, several research studies have been published demonstrating the high potential of the NMR technique in lipid analysis. An interlaboratory comparison was organized with the following main objectives: (1) to evaluate an alternative analysis of edible oils by using 1H NMR spectroscopy; and (2) to determine the robustness and reproducibility of the method. Five different edible oil samples were analyzed by evaluating 15 signals (free fatty acids, peroxides, aldehydes, double bonds, and linoleic and linolenic acids) in each spectrum. A total of 21 NMR data sets were obtained from 17 international participant laboratories. The performance of each laboratory was assessed by their z-scores. The test was successfully passed by 90.5% of the participants. Results showed that NMR spectroscopy is a robust alternative method for edible oil analysis.

  17. Development of a Highly Specific Fluorescence Immunoassay for Detection of Diisobutyl Phthalate in Edible Oil Samples.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiping; Wu, Panpan; Lai, Dan; Zheng, Shengwu; Chen, Yingshan; Eremin, Sergei A; Peng, Wei; Zhao, Suqing

    2015-10-28

    The diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) hapten containing an amino group was synthesized successfully, and the polyclonal antibody against 4-amino phthalate-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was developed. On the basis of the polyclonal antibody, a rapid and sensitive indirect competitive fluorescence immunoassay (icFIA) has been established to detect DiBP in edible oil samples for the first time. Under the optimized conditions, the quantitative working range of the icFIA was from 10.47 to 357.06 ng/mL (R(2) = 0.991), exhibiting a detection limit of 5.82 ng/mL. In this assay, the specific results showed that other similar phthalates did not significantly interfere with the analysis, with the cross-reactivity less than 1.5%, except for that of DiBAP. Thereafter, DiBP contamination in edible oil samples was detected by icFIA, with the recovery being from 79 to 103%. Furthermore, the reliability of icFIA was validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Therefore, the developed icFIA is suitable for monitoring DiBP in some edible oil samples.

  18. Quantification of extra virgin olive oil in dressing and edible oil blends using the representative TMS-4,4'-desmethylsterols gas-chromatographic-normalized fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Castaño, Estefanía; Sánchez-Viñas, Mercedes; Gázquez-Evangelista, Domingo; Bagur-González, M Gracia

    2018-01-15

    This paper describes and discusses the application of trimethylsilyl (TMS)-4,4'-desmethylsterols derivatives chromatographic fingerprints (obtained from an off-line HPLC-GC-FID system) for the quantification of extra virgin olive oil in commercial vinaigrettes, dressing salad and in-house reference materials (i-HRM) using two different Partial Least Square-Regression (PLS-R) multivariate quantification methods. Different data pre-processing strategies were carried out being the whole one: (i) internal normalization; (ii) sampling based on The Nyquist Theorem; (iii) internal correlation optimized shifting, icoshift; (iv) baseline correction (v) mean centering and (vi) selecting zones. The first model corresponds to a matrix of dimensions 'n×911' variables and the second one to a matrix of dimensions 'n×431' variables. It has to be highlighted that the proposed two PLS-R models allow the quantification of extra virgin olive oil in binary blends, foodstuffs, etc., when the provided percentage is greater than 25%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Different Classification Methods for Analyzing Electronic Nose Data to Characterize Sesame Oils and Blends

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaolong; Li, Hui; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) was used to characterize sesame oils processed by three different methods (hot-pressed, cold-pressed, and refined), as well as blends of the sesame oils and soybean oil. Seven classification and prediction methods, namely PCA, LDA, PLS, KNN, SVM, LASSO and RF, were used to analyze the e-nose data. The classification accuracy and MAUC were employed to evaluate the performance of these methods. The results indicated that sesame oils processed with different methods resulted in different sensor responses, with cold-pressed sesame oil producing the strongest sensor signals, followed by the hot-pressed sesame oil. The blends of pressed sesame oils with refined sesame oil were more difficult to be distinguished than the blends of pressed sesame oils and refined soybean oil. LDA, KNN, and SVM outperformed the other classification methods in distinguishing sesame oil blends. KNN, LASSO, PLS, and SVM (with linear kernel), and RF models could adequately predict the adulteration level (% of added soybean oil) in the sesame oil blends. Among the prediction models, KNN with k = 1 and 2 yielded the best prediction results. PMID:26506350

  20. Effect of blending and emulsification on thermal behavior, solid fat content, and microstructure properties of palm oil-based margarine fats.

    PubMed

    Saadi, S; Ariffin, A A; Ghazali, H M; Miskandar, M S; Abdulkarim, S M; Boo, H C

    2011-01-01

    The ability of palm oil (PO) to crystallize as beta prime polymorph has made it an attractive option for the production of margarine fat (MF). Palm stearin (PS) expresses similar crystallization behavior and is considered one of the best substitutes of hydrogenated oils due to its capability to impart the required level of plasticity and body to the finished product. Normally, PS is blended with PO to reduce the melting point at body temperature (37 °C). Lipid phase, formulated by PO and PS in different ratios were subjected to an emulsification process and the following analyses were done: triacylglycerols, solid fat content (SFC), and thermal behavior. In addition, the microstructure properties, including size and number of crystals, were determined for experimental MFs (EMFs) and commercial MFs (CMFs). Results showed that blending and emulsification at PS levels over 40 wt% significantly changed the physicochemical and microstructure properties of EMF as compared to CMF, resulting in a desirable dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol content of less than 36.1%. SFC at 37 °C, crystal size, crystal number, crystallization, and melting enthalpies (ΔH) were 15%, 5.37 μm, 1425 crystal/μm(2), 17.25 J/g, and 57.69J/g, respectively. All data reported indicate that the formation of granular crystals in MFs was dominated by high-melting triacylglycerol namely dipalmitoyl-oleoyl-glycerol, while the small dose of monoacylglycerol that is used as emulsifier slowed crystallization rate. Practical Application: Most of the past studies were focused on thermal behavior of edible oils and some blends of oils and fats. The crystallization of oils and fats are well documented but there is scarce information concerning some mechanism related to crystallization and emulsification. Therefore, this study will help to gather information on the behavior of emulsifier on crystallization regime; also the dominating TAG responsible for primary granular crystal formations, as well as to determine

  1. Direct determination of 3-chloropropanol esters in edible vegetable oils using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS-Orbitrap).

    PubMed

    Graziani, Giulia; Gaspari, Anna; Chianese, Donato; Conte, Lanfranco; Ritieni, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    A series of refined edible oils derived from mixed seeds, peanuts, corn, sunflower and palm obtained from the local supermarket were analyzed for their content of 3-MCPD esters. A direct analytical method for the determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPD esters) was applied to investigate the major MCPD esters found in common edible oils; in particular seven types of monoesters and eleven types of diesters were detected. The limits of detection (LODs) for monoesters and diesters of 3-MCPD were in the range of 0.079-12.678 µg kg -1 and 0.033-18.610 µg kg -1 in edible oils, and the ranges of limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 0.979-38.035 µg kg -1 and 0.100-55 µg kg -1 , respectively. The recoveries of 3-MCPD esters from oil samples were in the range of 80-100%, with RSD ranging between 1.9 and 11.8%. The concentration levels of total 3-MCPD diesters in vegetable oil samples were in the range from 0.106 up to 3.444 μg g -1 whereas total monoesters ranged from 0.005 up to 1.606 μg g -1 .

  2. Preparation of organogel with tea polyphenols complex for enhancing the antioxidation properties of edible oil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Zhang, Qiuyue; Vriesekoop, Frank; Yuan, Qipeng; Liang, Hao

    2014-08-20

    Food-grade organogels are semisolid systems with immobilized liquid edible oil in a three-dimensional network of self-assembled gelators, and they are supposed to have a broad range of potential applications in food industries. In this work, an edible organogel with tea polyphenols was developed, which possesses a highly effective antioxidative function. To enhance the dispersibility of the tea polyphenols in the oil phase, a solid lipid-surfactant-tea polyphenols complex (organogel complex) was first prepared according to a novel method. Then, a food-grade organogel was prepared by mixing this organogel complex with fresh peanut oil. Compared with adding free tea polyphenols, the organogel complex could be more homogeneously distributed in the prepared organogel system, especially under heating condition. Furthermore, the organogel loading of tea polyphenols performed a 2.5-fold higher antioxidation compared with other chemically synthesized antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate) by evaluating the peroxide value of the fresh peanut oil based organogel in accelerated oxidation conditions.

  3. Emissions of Jatropha oil-derived biodiesel blend fuels during combustion in a swirl burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwazan, A. R.; Mohd. Jaafar, M. N.; Sapee, S.; Farouk, Hazir

    2018-03-01

    Experimental works on combustion of jatropha oil biodiesel blends of fuel with high swirling flow in swirl burner have been studied in various blends percentage. Jatropha oil biodiesel was produced using a two-step of esterification-transesterification process. The paper focuses on the emissions of biodiesel blends fuel using jatropha oil in lean through to rich air/fuel mixture combustion in swirl burner. The emissions performances were evaluated by using axial swirler amongst jatropha oil blends fuel including diesel fuel as baseline. The results show that the B25 has good emissions even though it has a higher emission of NOx than diesel fuel, while it emits as low as 42% of CO, 33% of SO2 and 50% of UHC emissions with high swirl number. These are due to the higher oxygen content in jatropha oil biodiesel.

  4. Fatty acid composition including trans-fatty acids in edible oils and fats: probable intake in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Sumita; Das, Mukul

    2012-10-01

    The susceptibility of trans-fat to the human health risk prompted the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) to prepare regulations or compulsory claims for trans-fatty acids (TFA) in edible oils and fats. In this study, analysis of fatty acid composition and TFA content in edible oils and fats along with the possible intake of trans-fat in Indian population was carried out. The analysis was carried out as per the Assn. of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methodology and the results were statistically analyzed. The average TFA content in nonrefined mustard and refined soybean oils exceeded by 1.16- to 1.64-fold as compared to the Denmark limit of 2% TFA in fats and oils destined for human consumption. In branded/nonbranded butter and butter oil samples, average TFA limit exceeded by 4.2- to 9.5-fold whereas hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) samples exceeded the limit by 9.8-fold, when compared to Denmark standards. The probable TFA intake per day through different oils in Indian population were found to be less than WHO recommendation. However Punjab having highest consumption of HVO (-15 g/d) showed 1.09-fold higher TFA intake than the WHO recommendation, which is alarming and may be one of the factors for high cardiovascular disease mortality rate that needs further elucidation. Thus there is a need to prescribe TFA limit for edible oil, butter, and butter oil in India and to reduce the already proposed TFA levels in HVO to safeguard the health of consumers. The probable daily intake of trans-fatty acid (TFA) especially through hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) was assessed. In absence of any specification for TFA and fatty acid composition for edible oils, butter, and butter samples, a pressing need was felt to prescribe TFA limit in India. The study indicates that TFA intake through HVO consumption is higher in States like Punjab than the recommended daily intake prescribed by WHO. Hence, strategies should be adopted to

  5. Utilizing biotechnology in producing fats and oils with various nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Flickinger, Brent D

    2007-01-01

    The role of dietary fat in health and wellness continues to evolve. In today's environment, trans fatty acids and obesity are issues that are impacted by dietary fat. In response to new information in these areas, changes in the amount and composition of edible fats and oils have occurred and are occurring. These compositional changes include variation in fatty acid composition and innovation in fat structure. Soybean, canola, and sunflower are examples of oilseeds with varied fatty acid composition, including mid-oleic, high-oleic, and low-linolenic traits. These trait-enhanced oils are aimed to displace partially hydrogenated vegetable oils primarily in frying applications. Examples of oils with innovation in fat structure include enzyme interesterified (EIE) fats and oils and diacylglycerol oil. EIE fats are a commercial edible fat innovation, where a lipase is used to modify the fat structure of a blend of hard fat and liquid oil. EIE fats are aimed to displace partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in baking and spread applications. Diacylglycerol and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based oils are commercial edible oil innovations. Diacylglycerol and MCT-based oils are aimed for individuals looking to store less of these fats as body fat when they are used in place of traditional cooking and salad oils.

  6. Blending of palm oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil in the preparation of table and pastry margarine.

    PubMed

    Norlida, H M; Md Ali, A R; Muhadhir, I

    1996-01-01

    Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of < or = 16%, while POs2 at level of < or = 20%. At 10 degrees C, eutectic interaction occur between PO and PKO which reach their maximum at about 60:40 blending ratio. Within the eutectic region, to maintain the SFC at 10 degrees C to be < or = 50%, POs1 may be added at level of < or = 7%, while POs2 at level of < or = 12%. The addition of palm stearin increased the blends solidification Tmin and Tmax values, while PKO reduced them. Blends which contained high amount of palm stearin showed melting point and cooling curves quite similar to that of pastry margarine.

  7. Analytical characterization of products obtained from slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum seed cake: study on performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with bio-oil blends.

    PubMed

    Rajamohan, Sakthivel; Kasimani, Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to analyse the characteristics and properties of the fractions obtained from slow pyrolysis of non-edible seed cake of Calophyllum inophyllum (CI). The gas, bio-oil and biochar obtained from the pyrolysis carried out at 500 °C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a heating rate of 30 °C/min were characterized by various analytical techniques. Owing to the high volatile content of CI biomass (72.61%), it was selected as the raw material in this present investigation. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of higher amount of oxygenated compounds, phenol derivatives, esters, acid and furans. The physicochemical properties of the bio-oil were tested as per ASTM norms which imply that bio-oil is a highly viscous liquid with lower heating value as compared to that of diesel fuel. The chemical composition of evolved gas was analysed by using GC testing which revealed the presence of combustible components. The FT-IR characterization of biochar showed the presence of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons whereas the elevated amount of carbon in biochar indicates its potential to be used as solid fuel. The performance and emission characteristics of CI engine were assessed with different CI bio-oil blends and compared with baseline diesel fuel. The results showed that addition of bio-oil leads to decreased brake thermal efficiency and increased brake specific energy consumption. Meanwhile, increase in blend ratio reduces harmful pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and smoke in the exhaust. From the engine testing, it is suggested to employ 20% of CI bio-oil blends in CI engine to obtain better operation.

  8. High internal phase emulsion (HIPE)-templated biopolymeric oleofilms containing an ultra-high concentration of edible liquid oil.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, Wahyu; Van der Meeren, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2018-04-25

    We report, for the first time, the fabrication of oleofilms (containing more than 97 wt% edible liquid oil) using high internal phase emulsions (with oil volume fraction φoil = 0.82) as templates. Advanced microscopy studies revealed an interesting microstructure of these films where jammed oil droplets were embedded in a dried matrix of biopolymeric complexes.

  9. Experimental investigation of engine emissions with marine gas oil-oxygenate blends.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates the diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil-alternative fuel additive. Marine gas oil (MGO) was selected as base fuel for the engine experiments. An oxygenate, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM), and a biodiesel (BD) jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) with a volume of 10% were blended with the MGO fuel. JOME was derived from inedible jatropha oil. Lower emissions with diesel-BD blends (soybean methyl ester, rapeseed methyl ester etc.) have been established so far, but the effect of MGO-BD (JOME) blends on engine performance and emissions has been a growing interest as JOME (BD) is derived from inedible oil and MGO is frequently used in maritime transports. No phase separation between MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends was found. The neat MGO, MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends are termed as MGO, Ox10 and B10 respectively. The experiments were conducted with a six-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged, direct-injection Scania DC 1102 (DI) diesel engine. The experimental results showed significant reductions in fine particle number and mass emissions, PM and smoke emissions with Ox10 and B10 fuels compared to the MGO fuel. Other emissions including total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and engine noise were also reduced with the Ox10 and B10 fuels, while maintaining similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency with MGO fuel. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, on the other hand, were slightly higher with the Ox10 and B10 fuels at high engine load conditions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    PubMed

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  11. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  12. Film-forming properties of castor oil polyol ester blends in elastohydrodynamic conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The viscosities and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness properties of binary blends of castor oil with polyol esters were determined experimentally. Predicted blend viscosity was calculated from the viscosity of the pure blend components. Measured viscosity values were closer to the values pre...

  13. Spray atomization of bio-oil/ethanol blends with externally mixed nozzles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the properties of sprays of pyrolysis oil from biomass (bio-oil) using an air assisted atomization nozzle operated without combustion to explore the potential of pyrolysis oil combustion in industrial and home furnaces. Bio-oil was blended with ethanol to im...

  14. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  15. Lipidemic effects of common edible oils and risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Oladapo, Olulola Olutoyin; Ojora, Kehinde Adeyemi; Quadri, Oluwafemi Majeed; Ajani, Rotimi Sunday

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Diabetic state potentiates atherosclerosis and the type of edible oil consumed by the individual may affect this further. This study aimed to determine if the common edible oils in Nigeria have any effects on the lipid profiles and arteries of alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. METHODS Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of normal control, diabetic control, animals on diet enriched with refined, bleached deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO), animals on diet enriched with soya oil, and animals on diet enriched with olive oil. At the end of 8 weeks, the lipid profiles of the animals were determined before sacrificing them. Their aortas were subsequently harvested for histological examination. RESULTS The olive oil fed group had the highest level of total cholesterol (TC), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), lowest HDL-C, and highest artherogenic index (AI). Diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had a lower non-HDL-C, higher HDL-C, and lower AI than diabetic animals fed on olive oil or soya oil. However, the diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had the highest triglyceride level. When the aortas were examined histologically, there were no atherosclerotic lesions in all the control and experimental groups except those fed on 10% soya oil enriched diet that had type II atherosclerotic lesions according to American Heart Association (AHA). CONCLUSION The result of our study showed that RBD-PO appears to offer a better lipid profile in the diabetic animals compared with olive oil and soya oil. Soya oil appears to cause the development of atherosclerosis in diabetic state. PMID:28761450

  16. Exposure assessment of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol esters from edible oils and fats in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang; Nie, Shao-Ping; Zhou, Yong-Qiang; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2015-01-01

    3-monochoropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) esters from edible oils are considered to be a possible risk factor for adverse effects in human. In the present study, the exposure assessment of 3-MCPD esters to Chinese population was performed. A total of 143 edible oil and fat samples collected from Chinese markets were determined for the concentrations of 3-MCPD esters. The concentration data together with the data of fats consumed were analyzed by the point evaluation and probabilistic assessment for the exposure assessment. The point evaluation showed that the mean daily intake (DI) of 3-MCPD esters were lower than the value of provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 3-MCPD (2 µg/kg BW/d). The mean DI values in different age groups obtained from probabilistic assessment were similar to the results of the point evaluation. However, in high percentiles (95th, 97.5th, 99th), the DI values in all age groups were undesirably higher than the value of PMTDI. Overall, the children and adolescents exposed more to 3-MCPD esters than the adults. Uncertainty was also analyzed for the exposure assessment. Decreasing the level of 3-MCPD esters in edible oils and consuming less oil were top priority to minimize the risk of 3-MCPD esters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of environmental factors on edible oil quality of organically grown Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lundon, Aina R; Haugen, John-Erik; Vogt, Gjermund; Borge, Grethe Iren A; Henriksen, Britt I F

    2013-04-03

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential for the production of edible oil from organically grown camelina ( Camelina sativa L. Crantz), focusing on the influence of environmental factors on nutritional quality parameters. Field experiments with precrop barley were conducted in Norway in the growing seasons 2007, 2008, and 2009. Trials were fully randomized with two levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization, 0 and 120 kg total N ha(-1), and two levels of sulfur (S) fertilization, 0 and 20 kg total S ha(-1). Weather conditions, that is, temperature and precipitation, were recorded. Additional experiments were performed in the years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of replacing precrop barley with precrop pea. Seed oil content was measured by near-infrared transmittance, and crude oil compositions of fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and phospholipids were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed significant seasonal variations in seed oil content and oil composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phospholipids that to a great extent could be explained by the variations in weather conditions. Furthermore, significant effects of N fertilization were observed. Seed oil content decreased at the highest level of N fertilization, whereas the oil concentrations of α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), erucic acid (22:1n-9), tocopherols, and campesterol increased. Pea compared to barley as precrop also increased the 18:3n-3 content of oil. S fertilization had little impact on oil composition, but an increase in tocopherols and a decrease in brassicasterol were observed. In conclusion, organically grown camelina seems to be well suited for the production of edible oil. Variations in nutritional quality parameters were generally small, but significantly influenced by season and fertilization.

  18. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as ‘0’ trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil). PMID:26483890

  19. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Arjun B.; Tango, Martin S.; Budge, Suzanne M.; Watts, K. Chris; Islam, M. Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L.) are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil. PMID:19325741

  20. Comparison of effects of soft margarine, blended, ghee, and unhydrogenated oil with hydrogenated oil on serum lipids: A randomized clinical trail

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadifard, Noushin; Hosseini, Mohsen; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Boshtam, Maryam; Nouri, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are known as the most harmful type of dietary fats. Therefore, this study was done to compare the effects of some different oils including unhydrogenated, blended, ghee, and soft magazine with hydrogenated oil on serum lipid profile of healthy adults. METHODS This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 206 healthy participants of 20 to 60 years of age. Subjects were randomly divided into 5 groups and each of them was treated with a diet containing unhydrogenated oil, ghee, blended oil, soft margarine, or hydrogenated oil for 40 days. Fasting serum lipids were measured before and after the study. RESULTS Compared to hydrogenated oil, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) had a significant reduction in all groups, LDL-C declined in unhydrogenated oil and soft margarine groups, and apolipoprotein (Apo) B only in unhydrogenated oil group (all P < 0.05). However, there was a significant enhancement in ApoA of ghee oil (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Consuming unhydrogenated oil, ghee, soft margarine, and blended oil had some beneficial effects on serum lipids. PMID:24575140

  1. Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.

    1997-10-01

    For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

  2. [Determination of capsaicinoids and eugenol in waste-edible-oil by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Ren, Fei; Zhang, Pan

    2012-11-01

    A method was developed for the determination of capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and synthetic capsaicin) and eugenol in waste-edible-oil extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The capsaicinoids and eugenol in waste-edible-oil were extracted by methanol, and then separated by a SUPEL COSIL ABZ + Plus dC18 column (150 mm x4.6 mm, 5 microm). The analysis was performed by MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive and negative ion modes with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limits of detection for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, synthetic capsaicin and eugenol were 0.02, 0.03, 0.03 and 0.6 microg/L, respectively. The good linear relationships were obtained in certain concentration ranges of capsaicinoids and eugenol. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=5) of same-worker and different-worker were less than 5%. The method is exclusive, sensitive and accurate, and can be used in waste-edible-oil determination.

  3. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber.

  4. Chitosan-edible oil based materials as upgraded adsorbents for textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Clayane Carvalho; Mouta, Rodolpho; Junior, Manoel Carvalho Castro; Santana, Sirlane Aparecida Abreu; Silva, Hildo Antonio Dos Santos; Bezerra, Cícero Wellington Brito

    2018-01-15

    Biopolymer chitosan is a low cost, abundant, environmentally friendly, very selective and efficient anionic dyes adsorbent, being a promising material for large-scale removal of dyes from wastewater. However, raw chitosan (CS) is an ineffective cationic dyes adsorbent and its performance is pH sensitive, thus, CS modifications that address these issues need to be developed. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of two new CS modifications using edible oils (soybean oil or babassu oil), and their adsorption performance for two dyes, one anionic (remazol red, RR) and one cationic (methylene blue, MB). Both modifications extended the pH range of RR adsorption. The babassu oil modification increased adsorption capacity of the cationic dye MB, whereas the soybean oil modification increased that of RR. Such improvements demonstrate the potential of these two new CS modifications as adsorbent candidates for controlling dyes pollution in effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus L. edible oil and phenolic extract.

    PubMed

    Mezni, F; Aouadhi, C; Khouja, M L; Khaldi, A; Maaroufi, A

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus L. is known in some Tunisian forest area by its fixed oil used in traditional medicine as an antiseptic product. This investigation is the first to study the antimicrobial activity of P.lentiscus edible oil and its phenolic extract. Oil was extracted from fruits harvested from six provenances located in Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity was tested using disc diffusion assay and the broth dilution method. Kbouch and Sidi Zid oils were most efficient (p < 0.003) against, respectively, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger with an inhibition zone of 9.33 mm. The phenolic extract had the largest spectrum of sensitive microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration results showed that all strains were inhibited by both oil and extract.

  6. Rice stubble as a new biopolymer source to produce carboxymethyl cellulose-blended films.

    PubMed

    Rodsamran, Pattrathip; Sothornvit, Rungsinee

    2017-09-01

    Rice stubble is agricultural waste consisting of cellulose which can be converted to carboxymethyl cellulose from rice stubble (CMCr) as a potential biomaterial. Plasticizer types (glycerol and olive oil) and their contents were investigated to provide flexibility for use as food packaging material. Glycerol content enhanced extensibility, while olive oil content improved the moisture barrier of films. Additionally, CMCr showed potential as a replacement for up to 50% of commercial CMC without any changes in mechanical and permeability properties. A mixture of plasticizers (10% glycerol and 10% olive oil) provided blended film with good water barrier and mechanical properties comparable with 20% individual plasticizer. Principle component (PC) analysis with 2 PCs explained approximately 81% of the total variance, was a useful tool to select a suitable plasticizer ratio for blended film production. Therefore, CMCr can be used to form edible film and coating as a renewable environmentally friendly packaging material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  8. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, C. R.; Grimson, M. J.; Smith, B. G.; Wills, P. R.

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  9. A Comparative Study on Formation of Polar Components, Fatty Acids and Sterols during Frying of Refined Olive Pomace Oil Pure and Its Blend Coconut Oil.

    PubMed

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Triki, Mehdi; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-04-04

    The frying performance of pure refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO) and blended with refined coconut oil (RCO) (80:20) was compared during a frying operation of French fries at 180 °C. Blending polyunsaturated oils with highly saturated or monounsaturated oils has been studied extensively, however in literature there is no study has been reported so far on blending ROPO (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) with RCO (rich in saturated fatty acids) to formulate new frying oils. At the end of the frying process, the blend of ROPO/RCO exhibited a higher chemical stability than the pure ROPO based on total polar compounds (TPC), and polymers. The rate of TPC formation was achieved 23.3% and 30.6% for the blend and the pure oil, respectively. Trans and free fatty acids content, as well as anisidine value were also observed to be the highest in the pure ROPO. This study evaluated the frying performance in the search for appropriate frying oils to deliver healthy fried products with optimized nutritional qualities.

  10. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  11. Design of Edible Oil Degradation Tool by Using Electromagnetic Field Absorbtion Principle which was Characterized to Peroxide Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isnen, M.; Nasution, T. I.; Perangin-angin, B.

    2016-08-01

    The identification of changes in oil quality has been conducted by indicating the change of dielectric constant which was showed by sensor voltage. Sensor was formed from two parallel flats that worked by electromagnetic wave propagation principle. By measuring its amplitude of electromagnetic wave attenuation caused by interaction between edible oil samples and the sensor, dielectric constant could be identified and estimated as well as peroxide number. In this case, the parallel flats were connected to an electric oscillator 700 kHz. Furthermore, sensor system could showed measurable voltage differences for each different samples. The testing carried out to five oil samples after undergoing an oxidation treatment at fix temperature of 235oC for 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Iodometry method testing showed peroxide values about 1.99, 9.95, 5.96, 11.86, and 15.92 meq/kg respectively with rising trend. Besides that, the testing result by sensor system showed voltages values 1.139, 1.147, 1.165, 1.173, and 1.176 volts with rising trend, respectively. It means that the higher sensor voltages showed the higher damage rate of edible oil when the change in sensor voltage was caused by the change in oil dielectric constant in which heating process caused damage in edible oil molecules structure. The more damage of oil structure caused the more difficulties of oil molecules to polarize and it is indicated by smaller dielectric constant. Therefore electric current would be smaller when sensor voltage was higher. On the other side, the higher sensor voltage means the smaller dielectric constant and the higher peroxide number.

  12. Regeneration of Waste Edible Oil by the Use of Virgin and Calcined Magnesium Hydroxide as Adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared virgin (S, L) and calcined (S-380, S-1000, L-380, L-1000) magnesium hydroxide for regeneration of waste edible oil. Deterioration of soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and olive oil was achieved by heat and aeration treatment. The properties of the different adsorbents were investigated using specific surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and surface pH measurement. Moreover, the relationship between the changes in acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) and the adsorbent properties were evaluated. The specific surface areas of S-380 and L-380 were greater than that of other adsorbents. In addition, the XRD results show that S-380 and L-380 contain both magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide structures. The decreases in AV and CV using S-380 and L-380 were greater than achieved using other adsorbents. The correlation coefficients between the decrease in AV and CV and specific surface area were 0.947 for soybean oil, 0.649 for rapeseed oil, and 0.773 for olive oil, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that a physical property of the adsorbent, namely specific surface area, was primarily responsible for the observed decreases in AV and CV. Overall, the results suggest that S-380 and L-380 are useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  13. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  14. Intensification of esterification of non edible oil as sustainable feedstock using cavitational reactors.

    PubMed

    Mohod, Ashish V; Subudhi, Abhijeet S; Gogate, Parag R

    2017-05-01

    Using sustainable feed stock such as non-edible oil for the biodiesel production can be one of the cost effective approaches considering the ever growing interest towards renewable energy and problems in existing approaches for production. However, due to the high free fatty acid content, non-edible oils require considerable preprocessing before the actual transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. The present work focuses on intensification of the esterification reaction used as preprocessing step based on acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation also presenting the comparison with the conventional approach. Karanja oil with initial acid value as 14.15mg of KOH/g of oil has been used as a sustainable feedstock. Effect of operating parameters such as molar ratio, catalyst loading, temperature and type of catalyst (sulfuric acid and Amberlyst-15) on the acid value reduction has been investigated. The maximum reduction in the acid value (final acid value as 2.7mg of KOH/g of oil) was obtained using acoustic cavitation at optimum molar ratio of oil to methanol as 1:5 and 2% sulfuric acid loading at ambient temperature. In the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, acid value reduced upto 4.2mg of KOH under optimized conditions of first stage processing. In the second stage esterification using hydrodynamic cavitation and conventional approach, the final acid value was 3.6 and 3.8mg of KOH/g of oil respectively. Energy requirement analysis for ultrasound and conventional approaches clearly established the superiority of the ultrasound based approach. The present study clearly demonstrated that significant intensification benefits can be obtained in terms of the reduction in the molar ratio and operating temperature for the case of acoustic cavitation as compared to the conventional approach with somewhat lower effects for the hydrodynamic cavitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Releasing intracellular product to prepare whole cell biocatalyst for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments in water-edible oil two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minglue; Zhang, Xuehong; Wang, Zhilong

    2016-11-01

    Selective releasing intracellular product in Triton X-100 micelle aqueous solution to prepare whole cell biocatalyst is a novel strategy for biosynthesis of Monascus pigments, in which cell suspension culture exhibits some advantages comparing with the corresponding growing cell submerged culture. In the present work, the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was successfully replaced by edible plant oils for releasing intracellular Monascus pigments. High concentration of Monascus pigments (with absorbance nearly 710 AU at 470 nm in the oil phase, normalized to the aqueous phase volume approximately 142 AU) was achieved by cell suspension culture in peanut oil-water two-phase system. Furthermore, the utilization of edible oil as extractant also fulfills the demand for application of Monascus pigments as natural food colorant.

  16. Formation of Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters Both in Real Edible Oils during Laboratory-Scale Refining and in Chemical Model during High Temperature Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2016-07-27

    In the present study, the formation mechanisms of glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) were investigated both in real edible oils (soybean oil, camellia oil, and palm oil) during laboratory-scale preparation and refining and in chemical model (1,2-dipalmitin (DPG) and 1-monopalmitin (MPG)) during high temperature exposure (160-260 °C under nitrogen). The formation process of GEs in the chemical model was monitored using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the roasting and pressing process could produce certain amounts of GEs that were much lower than that produced in the deodorization process. GE contents in edible oils increased continuously and significantly with increasing deodorization time below 200 °C. However, when the temperature exceeded 200 °C, GE contents sharply increased in 1-2 h followed by a gradual decrease, which could verify a simultaneous formation and degradation of GEs at high temperature. In addition, it was also found that the presence of acylglycerol (DAGs and MAGs) could significantly increase the formation yield of GEs both in real edible oils and in chemical model. Compared with DAGs, moreover, MAGs displayed a higher formation capacity but substantially lower contribution to GE formation due to their low contents in edible oils. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic evidence showed that cyclic acyloxonium ion intermediate was formed during GE formation derived from DPG and MPG in chemical model heated at 200 °C.

  17. Whey protein aerogel as blended with cellulose crystalline particles or loaded with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Maede; Madadlou, Ashkan; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2016-04-01

    Whey protein hydrogels blended with nanocrystalline and microcrystalline cellulose particles (NCC and MCC, respectively) were prepared, followed by freeze-drying, to produce aerogels. NCC blending increased the Young's modulus, and elastic character, of the protein aerogel. Aerogels were microporous and mesoporous materials, as characterized by the pores sizing 1.2 nm and 12.2 nm, respectively. Blending with NCC decreased the count of both microporous and mesoporous-classified pores at the sub-100 nm pore size range investigated. In contrast, MCC blending augmented the specific surface area and pores volume of the aerogel. It also increased moisture sorption affinity of aerogel. The feasibility of conveying hydrophobic nutraceuticals by aerogels was evaluated through loading fish oil into the non-blended aerogel. Oil loading altered its microstructure, corresponding to a peak displacement in Fourier-transform infra-red spectra, which was ascribed to increased hydrophobic interactions. Surface coating of aerogel with zein decreased the oxidation susceptibility of the loaded oil during subsequent storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented specific spoilage microorganism in tofu and fresh strawberry. Among all the citrus peel essential oils tested, lemon peel essential oil with 0.6% concentration showed significant activity as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. In other hand 1% of lemon peel essential oil is also considered to be the best concentration of inhibiting the Rhizopus Stolonifer and Botrytis sp. Lemon peel essential oil which has the highest antimicrobial activity was combined with two different kind of edible coating agents (cassava starch and sodium alginate) and was applied in both tofu and strawberry to observe whether it had possibility to decrease the degradation rate of tofu and strawberry. The addition of 0.6% and 1% lemon peel essential oil with each of edible coating agents was significantly able to reduce the degradation of tofu and fresh strawberry.

  19. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  20. Effects of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud essential oils in edible apple films on physical properties and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) derived from plants are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on contact and in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. EOs from cinnamon, allspice, and clove bud plants are compatible with the sensory characteristics of apple-based edible films. These films could extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. This study evaluated physical properties (water vapor permeability, color, tensile properties) and antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud oils in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: cinnamon oil > clove bud oil > allspice oil. The antimicrobial films were more effective against L. monocytogenes than against the S. enterica. The oils reduced the viscosity of the apple solutions and increased elongation and darkened the colors of the films. They did not affect water vapor permeability. The results show that apple-based films with allspice, cinnamon, or clove bud oils were active against 3 foodborne pathogens by both direct contact with the bacteria and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films.

  1. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  2. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of Arjan (Amygdalus reuteri) kernel oil as emerging edible oil.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Javad; Emadi, Teymour; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Munekata, Paulo Eduardo Sichetti; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel; Brnčić, Mladen; Barba, Francisco J

    2018-05-01

    The oxidative stability, as well as the chemical composition of Amygdalus reuteri kernel oil (ARKO), were evaluated and compared to those of Amygdalus scoparia kernel oil (ASKO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) during and after holding in the oven (170 °C for 8 h). The oxidative stability analysis was carried out by measuring the changes in conjugated dienes, carbonyl and acid values as well as oil/oxidative stability index and their correlation with the antioxidant compounds (tocopherol, polyphenols, and sterol compounds). The oleic acid was determined as the predominant fatty acid of ARKO (65.5%). Calculated oxidizability value and an iodine value of ARKO, ASKO and EVOO were reported as 3.29 and 3.24, 2.00 and 100.0, 101.4 and 81.9, respectively. Due to the high wax content (4.5% and 3.3%, respectively), the saponification number of ARKO and ASKO (96.4 and 99.8, respectively) was lower than that of EVOO (169.7). ARKO had the highest oxidative stability, followed by ASKO and EVOO. Therefore, ARKO can be introduced as a new source of edible oil with high oxidative stability. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Excerpts from U.S. Coast Guard Regulations and Policies Related to the Edible Oil Regulatory Reform Act -- P.L. 104-55

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-11

    The Edible Oil Regulatory Reform Act (P.L. 104-55) requires "the head of any Federal agency to differentiate between fats, oils, and greases of animal, marine, or vegetable origin, and other oils and : greases, in issuing certain regulations, and for...

  4. Production of Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) and its Performance test on four stroke single cylinder VCR engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Kittur, Prasanna; Parmar, Fulchand; Batakatti, Sachin; Kulkarni, Prasad; Kallannavar, Vinayak

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a substitute for gasoline that is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. It has gained popularity due to depleting fossil fuel resources, its renewable character and comparable combustion properties to diesel fuel. Biodiesel is formed from non-edible oils, edible oils, tallow, animal fats and waste cooked oils. Biodiesels are monoalkyl esters of elongated chain fatty acids. Biodiesel can be a viable choice for satisfying long term energy requirements if they are managed proficiently. The method of the transesterification shows how the reaction occurs and advances. In this study, biodiesel is produced from Madhuca indica seeds commonly known as Mahua by using transesterification process using a low capacity pressure reactor and by-product of transesterification is glycerol, which is used in preparation of soaps. Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) was produced from the Mahua oil and is mixed with diesel to get different ratios of blends. MOEE was tested in a 4-stroke single cylinder VCR diesel engine. The study was extended to understand the effect of biodiesel blend magnitude on the performance of engine parameters like, brake thermal efficiency, brake power and fuel properties like flash point, cloud point, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, cetane number and density were studied.

  5. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    PubMed

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) < CAS60 (163.93 m(2)/g) < CAS90 (187.47 m(2)/g). The mean pore diameter increased in the order of CAS90 (170.59 Å) < CAS60 (211.60 Å) < CAS30 (249.70 Å). The regeneration of waste edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  6. Swelling and tribological properties of melt-mixed fluoroelastomer/nitrile rubber blends under crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagelsir, Yasin; Li, San-Xi; Lv, Xiaoren; Wang, Shijie; Wang, Song; Osman, Zeinab

    2018-01-01

    The melt-mixed fluoroelastomer (FKM)/ nitrile rubber (NBR) blends of (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50) ratios with same hardness were prepared, and their swelling and tribological properties under crude oil were investigated for the purpose of developing high performance cost-effective elastomers meeting requirement of oil extraction progressive cavity pump stator. Differential scanning calorimetry confirmed compatible blend system for all blends. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed co-continuous morphology of 200-400 nm phase size for all blends, expect FKM/NBR (90/10) which exhibited partially continuous phase morphology of 100-250 nm phase size. The results of swelling and linear wear tests under crude oil indicated that swelling percentage, coefficient of friction and specific wear rate of FKM/NBR blends were much better than NBR, with FKM/NBR (90/10 and 80/20) showing swelling percentage and specific wear rate very close to FKM. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy disclosed that fracture of macromolecular chains was the main mechanochemical effect of unswollen and swollen worn surfaces, in addition to oxygenated degradation detected with increasing NBR ratio in the blends. The fracture of macromolecular chains resulted in slight fatigue wear mechanism, which was also confirmed by FE-SEM of the worn surfaces.

  7. Occurrence and incidence of 18 per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds in edible oils commonly consumed in Guiyang, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongbo; Li, Guihong; Rao, Zhu; Guo, Feng; Li, Zhanbin; Xie, Feng; Tan, Hong

    2017-09-01

    A systematic examination was conducted for the first time of a wide carbon-chain range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFASs) in 83 samples of edible vegetable and animal oils from Guiyang, China. The occurrence and levels of 18 PFASs in seven types of edible oil were analysed. Analytes were determined based on a simplified, sensitive and reliable solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Ten target PFASs were found and the most frequently detected compounds with maximum concentration were PFOS (88%, 1.93 ng g -1 ), PFNA (55.4%; 6.76 ng g -1 ), PFHxS (39.8%; 0.36 ng g -1 ), and PFOA (16.9%; 0.15 ng g -1 ), respectively. The total PFASs concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 6.76 ng g -1 , with a mean of 0.94 ng g -1 . Significant differences of occurrence between vegetable oils and animal oils were demonstrated based on comparative analysis of the existing data. The investigation results showed that the effect of production reductions of PFOS and PFOA by regulatory was also reflected in edible oils. The dietary intakes of PFOS and PFOA for adults were estimated, which were lower than the available tolerable daily intake (TDI). Because of the global lack of food regulatory thresholds for most per- or polyfluoroalkyl compounds, it was difficult to draw any conclusion at this stage as to how human health is affected through exposure to these compounds. The baseline information of this study will assist in guiding the direction for future investigations and monitoring studies on occurrence, fate and human health-effect research of PFASs.

  8. High-throughput and sensitive analysis of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters in edible oils by supercritical fluid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hori, Katsuhito; Matsubara, Atsuki; Uchikata, Takato; Tsumura, Kazunobu; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2012-08-10

    We have established a high-throughput and sensitive analytical method based on supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ MS) for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) fatty acid esters in edible oils. All analytes were successfully separated within 9 min without sample purification. The system was precise and sensitive, with a limit of detection less than 0.063 mg/kg. The recovery rate of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters spiked into oil samples was in the range of 62.68-115.23%. Furthermore, several edible oils were tested for analyzing 3-MCPD fatty acid ester profiles. This is the first report on the analysis of 3-MCPD fatty acid esters by SFC/QqQ MS. The developed method will be a powerful tool for investigating 3-MCPD fatty acid esters in edible oils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumer profile and acceptability of cooked beef steaks with edible and active coating containing oregano and rosemary essential oils.

    PubMed

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Kempinski, Emilia Maria Barbosa Carvalho; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Sary, Cesar; Ramos, Tatiane Rogelio; Campo, María Del Mar; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do

    2018-09-01

    Fresh animal products are highly perishable and characterized by a short shelf-life. Edible coatings with natural antioxidants (essential oils: EOs) could improve stability, ensure quality, and increase the shelf-life of fresh products. Due to the strong flavor of EOs, their use should consider consumer preferences and sensory acceptability. This study evaluated the effects of edible coating (with oregano and rosemary essential oil) on beef in relation to consumer preferences, besides the determination of habits of consumption and buying intentions of consumers. Acceptability scores from three clusters of consumers was described. Coating with oregano was the preferred. The higher consumer acceptance and willingness to buy this product indicate a great potential and possibility of using coatings with essential oils in fresh animal products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Incorporation of citrus essential oils into bacterial cellulose-based edible films and assessment of their physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrarti, L.; Indriyati

    2017-03-01

    The use of edible films in food protection and preservation has recently gained more interest since they offer several advantages over synthetic packaging materials. Biocellulose (BC) offers great opportunity as edible film due to their unique physical and mechanical properties. In this study, biocellulose films were prepared by solution casting with addition of 30% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 30% glycerol as the homogenizer and plasticizer, respectively. Furthermore, various citrus essential oils (EOs) including lemon, lime, and sweet orange were added at 50% w/w of BC dried weight. The solutions were then cast on the tray and allowed to dry in the air convection oven at 40°C overnight. The films were characterized for water solubility, tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EB), water vapour transmission rate (WVTR), and color. Those characteristics may influence consumer acceptability of the packaged products. Results revealed that addition of lemon and sweet orange EOs into BC-based edible film decreased water solubility and TS, but improved EB, as these oils acted as plasticizers in the film. However, different trend was observed for BC-based film incorporated with lime oil, which had higher solubility and TS, but lower EB and WVTR compared with that of control film. Addition of citrus EOs into BC-based films did not have much effect on color properties as stated in L*, a*, and b* values.

  11. Eri silkworm: a source of edible oil with a high content of α-linolenic acid and of significant nutritional value.

    PubMed

    Longvah, Thingnganing; Manghtya, Korra; Qadri, Syed S Y H

    2012-07-01

    The study was undertaken to provide value addition to spent eri silkworm as an alternative source of edible oil for the food and feed industry by carrying out a short-term nutritional and toxicological evaluation of eri silkworm pupae oil using Wistar NIN rats. Growth performance of rats fed either sunflower oil (Control) or eri silkworm pupae oil (Experimental) was comparable. Histopathological examination of the various tissues showed no signs of toxicity even after feeding the eri silkworm oil for 18 weeks. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased (P < 0.05) which is attributed to the high α-linolenic acid content of eri silkworm oil. The study showed that eri silkworm pupae oil is safe and nutritionally equivalent to commonly used vegetable oils. Eri silkworm pupae can be harvested to provide a cost effective alternative edible oil that can be used to nutritional advantage in the food and feed industry. Therefore eri silkworm and its host plants offer an excellent example of multiple product crops and of sustainable agricultural practice with excellent opportunity for economic and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  13. Fluorescent fingerprints of edible oils and biodiesel by means total synchronous fluorescence and Tucker3 modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insausti, Matías; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Camiña, José Manuel; de Araújo, Mario Cesar Ugulino; Band, Beatriz Susana Fernández

    2017-03-01

    The present work proposes the use of total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (TSFS) as a discrimination methodology for fluorescent compounds in edible oils, which are preserved after the transesterification processes in the biodiesel production. In the same way, a similar study is presented to identify fluorophores that do not change in expired vegetal oils, to associate physicochemical parameters to fluorescent measures, as contribution to a fingerprint for increasing the chemical knowledge of these products. The fluorescent fingerprints were obtained by Tucker3 decomposition of a three-way array of the total synchronous fluorescence matrices. This chemometric method presents the ability for modeling non-bilinear data, as Total Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra data, and consists in the decomposition of the three way data arrays (samples × Δλ × λ excitation), into four new data matrices: A (scores), B (profile in Δλ mode), C (profile in spectra mode) and G (relationships between A, B and C). In this study, 50 samples of oil from soybean, corn and sunflower seeds before and after its expiration time, as well as 50 biodiesel samples obtained by transesterification of the same oils were measured by TSFS. This study represents an immediate application of chemical fingerprint for the discrimination of non-expired and expired edible oils and biodiesel. This method does not require the use of reagents or laborious procedures for the chemical characterization of samples.

  14. An Overview of Chemical Profiles, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Commercial Vegetable Edible Oils Marketed in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Gangqiang, Gu; Quy, Tran Ngoc; Khanh, Tran Dang

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzed chemical components and investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of fourteen vegetable edible oils marketed in Japan. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify principal phenolic acids and flavonoids. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, Inca inchi, sesame, and rice bran showed markedly greater activity, whilst the percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI%) in sunflower, canola, cotton, grape, flax, perilla, Inca inchi, perillartine, and rice bran were significantly higher than other oils. Maximum total phenol content (TPC) was recorded in flax, followed by perillartine, rice bran, and perilla, whereas total flavonoid content (TFC) was the greatest in Inca inchi and sesame. Benzoic acid was the most common constituent, followed by vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, luteolin was the most abundant flavonoid, followed by esculetin, myricetin, isoquercetin, and kaempferol, while fisetin was detected only in sunflower. In general, all of the edible oils showed antimicrobial activity, but the growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of cotton, grape, chia, sesame, and rice bran were greater than other oils. PMID:29439420

  15. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  16. Antibacterial hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose edible films containing nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis essential oil for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Roya; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Rafati, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Edible films containing essential oils (EO) as natural antibacterial agents are promising systems for food preservation. In this work, nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis EO (wild; F1 and cultivated; F2) were loaded in hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films and the effect of different parameters (polymer, plasticizer, and EO concentration) on the film properties were analyzed and optimized. Prepared HPMC films were characterized in terms of EO loading, morphology, mechanical properties, and the antibacterial activity. The results of SEM showed uniform incorporation of nanoemulsions into the edible film. Investigation of the mechanical properties of two edible films revealed a plasticizing effect of T. daenensis EO on the films. Also, edible films had noticeable antimicrobial activity against selected microorganisms, i.e. 47.0±2.5mm and 22.6±0.5mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus for films containing F1 and F2, respectively. Incorporation of nanoemulsions into the HPMC films can be used for active food preservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  18. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  19. Effect of three edible oils on the intestinal absorption of caffeic acid: An in vivo and in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Prasadani, W. Chaturi; Senanayake, Chaturi M.; Jayathilaka, Nimanthi; Ekanayake, Sagarika

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenolic antioxidants are mainly absorbed through passive paracellular permeation regulated by tight junctions. Some fatty acids are known to modulate tight junctions. Fatty acids resulting from the digestion of edible oils may improve the absorption of polyphenolic antioxidants. Therefore, we explored the effect of three edible oils on the intestinal absorption of caffeic acid. Rats were fed with soybean oil and caffeic acid dissolved in distilled water. Caffeic acid contents in the plasma collected up to 1 hr were quantified. The experiment was repeated with coconut oil and olive oil. Component fatty acids of the oils were individually tested in vitro for their effect on permeability of caffeic acid using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Highest absorption of caffeic acid was observed in animals fed with coconut oil. In vitro transport percentages of caffeic acid in 2.5 mmol/L solutions of fatty acids were 22.01±0.12 (lauric), 15.30 ± 0.25 (myristic acid), 13.59 ± 0.35 (linoleic acid), 3.70 ± 0.09 (oleic acid) and 0.10–2.0 (all other fatty acids). Lauric acid and myristic acid are the two major fatty acids present in coconut oil. Therefore, these fatty acids may contribute to the higher absorption of caffeic acid in the presence of coconut oil. PMID:28617858

  20. Formation of hydrocarbon compounds during the hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils with cobalt-nickel supported on hierarchical HZSM-5 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlinda, L.; Al-Muttaqii, M.; Roesyadi, A.; Prajitno, D. H.

    2017-05-01

    The hierarchical Co-Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst with hierarchical pore structure was prepared by desilication and incipient wetness impregnation. Hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils at temperature of 400 °C, 20±5 bar for 2 h was performed in the presence of this type of catalyst under hydrogen initial pressure in pressured batch reactor. Non-edible vegetable oils, such as Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw (sunan candlenut) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed) were chosen to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length on hydrocarbon compounds obtained through hydrocracking. Cerbera manghas oil was also tested for comparison because the composition of fatty acid was different with the other oils The hydrocracking test indicated that liquid product produced has a similar hydrocarbon compounds with petroleum diesel. The most abundant hydrocarbon is pentadecane (n-C15) and heptadecane (n-C17). The high aromatic compounds were found in liquid product produced in hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil.

  1. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values < 5). The results showed that the LDPE Young's modulus increases but the other tensile properties and impact resistance deteriorate with the addition of PHB or CC. The tensile strength values of binary mixtures of LDPE lie in the range from 8.9 to 10 MPa. As some commercial grades of LDPE have mechanical strength in this range, it may be inferred that the addition of a certain amount of PHB or CC to LDPE may be considered as a possibility for obtaining LDPE based materials with increased susceptibility to biodegradation. The cubic model in pseudo components was selected for describe the flexural strength of the samples because it was

  2. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE LEFT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  3. Development of edible films obtained from submicron emulsions based on whey protein concentrate, oil/beeswax and brea gum.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Juan Pablo; Spotti, María J; Piagentini, Andrea M; Milt, Viviana G; Carrara, Carlos R

    2017-06-01

    Edible films with whey protein concentrate (WPC) with a lipid component, sunflower oil (O) or beeswax (W), to enhance barrier to water vapor were obtained. Brea gum was used as emulsifier and also as matrix component. In order to achieve emulsion with small and homogeneous droplet size, an ultrasonicator equipment was used after obtaining a pre-emulsion using a blender. The films were made by casting. Effects of lipid fraction on droplet size, zeta potential, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility, and optical properties were determined. The droplet size of emulsions with BG decreased when decreasing the lipid content in the formulation. The zeta potential was negative for all the formulations, since the pH was close to 6 for all of them and pI of BG is close to 2.5, and pI of ß-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin (main proteins in WPC) are 5.2 and 4.1, respectively. Increasing W or SO content in blended films reduced the tensile strength and puncture resistance significantly. BG and WPC films without lipid presented better mechanical properties. The presence of lipids decreased the WVP, as expected, and those films having BG improved this property. BG films were slightly amber as a result of the natural color of the gum. BG has shown to be a good polysaccharide for emulsifying the lipid fraction and improving the homogeneity and mechanical properties of the films with WPC and beeswax or oil.

  4. Anti-obesity effect of a traditional Chinese dietary habit-blending lard with vegetable oil while cooking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Yan, Sisi; Xiao, Haisi; Zhou, Huijuan; Liu, Shuiping; Zeng, Yu; Liu, Biying; Li, Rongfang; Yuan, Zhihang; Wu, Jing; Yi, Jine; Razack, Yarou Bao Sero; Wen, Lixin

    2017-10-31

    Obesity, which is associated with dietary habits, has become a global social problem and causes many metabolic diseases. In China, both percentages of adult obesity and overweight are far lower compared to western countries. It was designed to increase the two levels of daily intake in human, namely 3.8% and 6.5%, which are recommendatory intake (25 g/d) and Chinese citizens' practical intake (41.4 g/d), respectively. The mice were respectively fed with feeds added with soybean oil, lard or the oil blended by both for 12 weeks. In the mice fed with diet containing 3.8% of the three oils or 6.5% blended oil, their body weight, body fat rate, cross-sectional area of adipocytes, adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adipose were decreased, whereas hydrolysis of triglyserides in adipose was increased. This study demonstrated that the oil mixture containing lard and soybean oil had a remarkable anti-obesity effect. It suggests that the traditional Chinese dietary habits using oils blended with lard and soybean oil, might be one of the factors of lower percentages of overweight and obesity in China, and that the increasing of dietary oil intake and the changing of its component resulted in the increasing of obesity rate in China over the past decades.

  5. Thermal profiles, crystallization behaviors and microstructure of diacylglycerol-enriched palm oil blends with diacylglycerol-enriched palm olein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yayuan; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Zhen; Dong, Cao

    2016-07-01

    To elucidate the possible interaction mechanisms between DAG-enriched oils, this study investigated how mixtures of DAG-enriched palm-based oils influenced the phase behavior, thermal properties, crystallization behaviors and the microstructure in binary fat blends. DAG-enriched palm oil (PO-DAGE) was blended with DAG-enriched palm olein (POL-DAGE) in various percentages (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, 100%). Based on the observation of iso-solid diagram and phase diagram, the binary mixture of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE showed a better compatibility in comparison with their corresponding original blends. DSC thermal profiles exhibited that the melting and crystallization properties of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE were distinctively different from corresponding original blends. Crystallization kinetics revealed that PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends displayed a rather high crystallization rate and exhibited no spherulitic crystal growth. From the results of polarized light micrographs, PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends showed more dense structure with very small needle-like crystals than PO/POL. X-ray diffraction evaluation revealed when POL-DAGE was added in high contents to PO-DAGE, above 30%, β-polymorph dominated, and the mount of β' forms crystals was decreasing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils

    PubMed Central

    Castejón, David; Fricke, Pascal; Cambero, María Isabel; Herrera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual) was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol. PMID:26891323

  7. Enhanced reductive dechlorination in columns treated with edible oil emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Cameron M.; Borden, Robert C.

    2006-09-01

    The effect of edible oil emulsion treatment on enhanced reductive dechlorination was evaluated in a 14 month laboratory column study. Experimental treatments included: (1) emulsified soybean oil and dilute HCl to inhibit biological activity; (2) emulsified oil only; (3) emulsified oil and anaerobic digester sludge; and (4) continuously feeding soluble substrate. A single application of emulsified oil was effective in generating strongly reducing, anaerobic conditions for over 14 months. PCE was rapidly reduced to cis-DCE in all three live columns. Bioaugmentation with a halorespiring enrichment culture resulted in complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene in the soluble substrate column (yeast extract and lactate). However, an additional treatment with a pulse of yeast extract and bioaugmentation culture was required to stimulate complete dechlorination in the emulsion treated columns. Once the dechlorinating population was established, the emulsion only column degraded PCE from 90-120 μM to below detection with concurrent ethene production in a 33 day contact time. The lower biodegradation rates in the emulsion treated columns compared to the soluble substrate column suggest that emulsified oil barriers may require a somewhat longer contact time for effective treatment. In the HCl inhibited column, partitioning of PCE to the retained oil substantially delayed PCE breakthrough. However, reduction of PCE to more soluble degradation products ( cis-DCE, VC and ethene) greatly reduced the impact of oil-water partitioning in live columns. There was only a small decline in the hydraulic conductivity ( K) of column #1 (low pH + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.57) and column #2 (live + emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.73) indicating emulsion injection did not result in appreciable clogging of the clayey sand. However, K loss was greater in column #3 (sludge +emulsion, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.12) and column #4 (soluble substrate, Kfinal/ Kinitial = 0.03) indicating clogging due

  8. Complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters with biodiesel prepared from soybean and waste cooking oils to enhance fuel properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complementary blending of meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters (MFME) with soybean and waste cooking oil methyl esters (SME and WCME) was investigated. MFME prepared from cold-pressed meadowfoam oil exhibited an exceptionally high induction period (IP) of 66.2 h whereas SME and WCME yielded conside...

  9. Alkyl Caffeates Improve the Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Property and Oxidation Stability of Edible Oil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Gu, Shuang-Shuang; Pang, Na; Wang, Fang-Qin; Pang, Fei; Cui, Hong-Sheng; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CA) is distributed widely in nature and possesses strong antioxidant activity. However, CA has lower solubility in non-polar media, which limits its application in fat-soluble food. To increase the lipophilicity of natural antioxidant CA, a series of alkyl caffeates were synthesized and their antioxidant and antitumor activities were investigated. The antioxidant parameters, including the induction period, acid value and unsaturated fatty acid content, of the alkyl caffeates in edible oil were firstly investigated. The results indicated that alkyl caffeates had a lower DPPH IC50 (14–23 µM) compared to CA, dibutyl hydroxy toluene (BHT) and Vitamin C (24–51 µM), and significantly inhibited four human cancer cells (SW620, SW480, SGC7901 and HepG2) with inhibition ratio of 71.4–78.0% by a MTT assay. With regard to the induction period and acid value assays, methyl and butyl caffeates had higher abilities than BHT to restrain the oxidation process and improve the stability of edible oil. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil allowed maintenance of a higher unsaturated fatty acid methyl ester content (68.53%) at high temperatures. Overall, the alkyl caffeats with short chain length (n<5) assessed better oxidative stability than those with long chain length. To date, this is the first report to the correlations among the antioxidant activity, anticancer activity and oxidative stability of alkyl caffeates. PMID:24760050

  10. Strategy to Overcome Effect of Raw Materials on Enzymatic Process of Biodiesel from Non-edible Oils Using Candida sp. 99-125 Lipase.

    PubMed

    Nie, Kaili; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Luo

    2015-11-01

    Non-edible oils are preferred raw materials for biodiesel production. However, the properties of raw materials significantly affect the synthesis process, leading to difficulties to design one process suitable for any kind of raw material. In this study, the composition of five typical non-edible oils was analyzed. The major difference was the content of free fatty acids, reflected from their acid values. The influence of different oils was investigated by using lipase from Candida sp. 99-125. At low lipase dosage and low water content, the conversion was found proportional to the acid value. However, by increasing the water content or lipase dosage, we observed that the conversions for all kinds of oils used in this study could exceed 80%. Time course analysis indicates that the lipase used in this study catalyzed hydrolysis followed by esterification, rather than direct transesterification. Accumulation of free fatty acids at the very beginning was necessary. A high water content facilitated the hydrolysis of oils with low acid value. This lipase showed capability to transform all the oils by controlling the water content.

  11. Determination of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils using phase-transfer-catalyst-assisted saponification and supramolecular solvent microextraction coupled to HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Laping; Shi, Ludi; Yi, Tingquan; Wen, Yuxia; Wang, Juanli; Liu, Shuhui

    2017-01-01

    For the analysis of edible oils, saponification is well known as a useful method for eliminating oil matrices. The conventional approach is conducted with alcoholic alkali; it consumes a large volume of organic solvents and impedes the retrieval of analytes by microextraction. In this study, a low-organic-solvent-consuming method has been developed for the analysis of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Sample treatment involves aqueous alkaline saponification, assisted by a phase-transfer catalyst, and selective in situ extraction of the analyte with a supramolecular solvent. Comparison of the chromatograms of the oil extracts obtained by different microextraction methods showed that the supramolecular solvent has a better clean-up effect for the unsaponifiable matter from oil matrices. The method offered excellent linearity over a range of 0.03- 5.0 ng mL -1 (r > 0.999). Recovery rates varied from 94 to 102% (RSDs <5.0%). The detection limit and quantification limit were 0.06 and 0.19 μg kg -1 , respectively. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of 52 edible oils collected online in China; the analyte contents of 23 tested oil samples exceeded the maximum limit of 2 μg kg -1 for benzo[a]pyrene set by the Commission Regulation of the European Union. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Investigation of Phenols Activity in Early Stage Oxidation of Edible Oils by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and 19F NMR Spectroscopies Using Novel Lipid Vanadium Complexes As Radical Initiators.

    PubMed

    Drouza, Chryssoula; Dieronitou, Anthi; Hadjiadamou, Ioanna; Stylianou, Marios

    2017-06-21

    A novel dynamic method for the investigation of the phenols activity in early stage oxidation of edible oils based on the formation of α-tocopheryl radicals initiated by oil-soluble vanadium complexes is developed. Two new vanadium complexes in oxidation states V and IV were synthesized by reacting 2,2'-((2-hydroxyoctadecyl)azanediyl)bis(ethan-1-ol) (C18DEA) with [VO(acac) 2 ] and 1-(bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)octadecan-2-ol (C18DPA) with VOCl 2 . Addition of a solution of either complex in edible oils resulted in the formation of α-tocopheryl radical, which was monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The intensity of the α-tocopheryl signal in the EPR spectra was measured versus time. It was found that the profile of the intensity of the α-tocopheryl signal versus time depends on the type of oil, the phenolic content, and the storage time of the oil. The time interval until the occurrence of maximum peak intensity be reached (t m ), the height of the maximum intensity, and the rate of the quenching of the α-tocopheryl radical were used for the investigation of the mechanism of the edible oils oxidation. 19 F NMR of the 19 F labeled phenolic compounds (through trifluoroacetate esters) and radical trap experiments showed that the vanadium complexes in edible oil activate the one electron reduction of dioxygen to superperoxide radical. Superperoxide reacts with the lipids to form alkoperoxyl and alkoxyl lipid radicals, and all these radicals react with the phenols contained in oils.

  13. The Effect of Edible Coating Enriched With Kaffir Lime Leaf Essential Oil (Citrus hystrix DC) on Beef Sausage Quality During Frozen Storage (-18°±2°C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, R.; Kawiji; Khasanah, L. U.; Solikhah, R.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating enriched with kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) leaves essential oil at various concentration on beef sausage quality during frozen storage (-18°±2°C). The concentration of kaffir lime leaves essential oil enriched in edible coating were varied at 0%; 0.2%; 1.4%. Microbiological, physical and chemical characteristics (TPC, color, TBA, TVB, and pH) were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of storage. The result showed that edible coating with the addition of kaffir lime leaves essential oils decreased the microbial growth, TVB value, and TBA value of beef sausage. The color and pH of samples can be stabilized during storage. The selected kaffir lime leaves essential oil concentrations based on microbial, physical, and chemical characteristics of beef sausages during frozen storage at -18°C was 0.2%.

  14. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng; Lauritzen, Lotte; Mu, Huiling

    2008-10-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition. No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower concentration of triacylglycerols in the plasma 2 h after the meal in comparison with the commercial butter blend (p = 0.02); there was, however, no significant difference 24 h after the meal. In conclusion, fish oil-enriched butter blend provides a source to increase the intake of n-3 LCPUFA in the population, but has no acute effect on cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentration in human.

  15. Application of Edible Films Containing Oregano (Origanum vulgare) Essential Oil on Queso Blanco Cheese Prepared with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) Oil.

    PubMed

    Gurdian, Cristhiam; Chouljenko, Alexander; Solval, Kevin Mis; Boeneke, Charles; King, Joan M; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Fortification of queso blanco (QB) with flaxseed oil (FO) containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a functional food with health benefits such as improved cell, brain, and retina functionality, and protection against cardiovascular and immune-inflammatory diseases. However, QB experiences a short shelf life because of the early development of yeasts and molds and addition of FO may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Oregano essential oil (OEO) is known for its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, but due to its intense flavor compounds it may not be suitable for direct incorporation into QB. Thus, incorporation of OEO into an edible film prepared with whey protein isolate (WPI) may improve the shelf life of QB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that FO was successfully retained by the cheese after homogenization. The thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances (TBARS) and yeast and mold counts (YMC) of the wrapped cheeses were analyzed during 60 d of refrigerated storage. The oxidation rate increased significantly for nonwrapped QB containing FO (QBFO) during storage, however wrapping with WPI edible films containing OEO (WOF) significantly limited lipid oxidation and prevented growth of yeasts and molds. This study demonstrated the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of WOF for preservation of QBFO during refrigerated storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Hyphenation of supercritical fluid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for fast determination of four aflatoxins in edible oil.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fang; Li, Chenglong; Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-08-01

    Aflatoxins (AFTs) are of great concern all over the world. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has the advantage of fast, high resolution and excellent compatibility with a broad range of organic solvents and samples, thus hyphenating SFC with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used for the easy and fast determination of AFTs in edible oils. Edible oil was spiked with isotope-labeled aflatoxin standards, diluted with hexane and extracted with acetonitrile. The extraction was directly loaded to an SFC apparatus and separated on a UPC(2) 2-EP column with CO2 -methanol gradient elution. A post-column make-up flow was introduced to facilitate mass spectrometry performance, and the mixture was analyzed by MS/MS with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The SFC conditions including separation column, modifier and sample solvent were optimized, and the four target aflatoxins were baseline separated. The ESI interface parameters were also investigated, implicating the make-up flow as a critical factor for sensitive determination by SFC-MS/MS. The LOQs for the AFTs were 0.05-0.12 μg L(-1) , while the RSDs were lower than 8.5%. Supercritical fluid chromatography was successfully coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to establish a simple, fast and sensitive method for the analysis of four aflatoxins in edible oil. This shows the combination of SFC-MS/MS has great potential in determination of trace contaminants in food. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Bio-Oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends.

    PubMed

    Botella, Lucía; Stankovikj, Filip; Sánchez, José L; Gonzalo, Alberto; Arauzo, Jesús; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel) have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325°C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons), middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds, and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here.

  18. Bio-oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botella, Lucía; Stankovikj, Filip; Sánchez, José L.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Arauzo, Jesús; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel) have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325 °C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons), middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here.

  19. Bio-Oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends

    PubMed Central

    Botella, Lucía; Stankovikj, Filip; Sánchez, José L.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Arauzo, Jesús; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel) have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325°C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons), middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds, and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here. PMID:29675406

  20. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  1. A new methodology capable of characterizing most volatile and less volatile minor edible oils components in a single chromatographic run without solvents or reagents. Detection of new components.

    PubMed

    Alberdi-Cedeño, Jon; Ibargoitia, María L; Cristillo, Giovanna; Sopelana, Patricia; Guillén, María D

    2017-04-15

    The possibilities offered by a new methodology to determine minor components in edible oils are described. This is based on immersion of a solid-phase microextraction fiber of PDMS/DVB into the oil matrix, followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. It enables characterization and differentiation of edible oils in a simple way, without either solvents or sample modification. This methodology allows simultaneous identification and quantification of sterols, tocols, hydrocarbons of different natures, fatty acids, esters, monoglycerides, fatty amides, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, epoxides, furans, pyrans and terpenic oxygenated derivatives. The broad information provided by this methodology is useful for different areas of interest such as nutritional value, oxidative stability, technological performance, quality, processing, safety and even the prevention of fraudulent practices. Furthermore, for the first time, certain fatty amides, gamma- and delta-lactones of high molecular weight, and other aromatic compounds such as some esters derived from cinnamic acid have been detected in edible oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of edible oils and modeling of their physico-chemical properties by chemometric methods using mid-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    This research work describes two studies for the classification and characterization of edible oils and its quality parameters through Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) together with chemometric methods. The discrimination of canola, sunflower, corn and soybean oils was investigated using SVM-DA, SIMCA and PLS-DA. Using FT-mid-IR, DPLS was able to classify 100% of the samples from the validation set, but SIMCA and SVM-DA were not. The quality parameters: refraction index and relative density of edible oils were obtained from reference methods. Prediction models for FT-mid-IR spectra were calculated for these quality parameters using partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). Several preprocessing alternatives (first derivative, multiplicative scatter correction, mean centering, and standard normal variate) were investigated. The best result for the refraction index was achieved with SVM as well as for the relative density except when the preprocessing combination of mean centering and first derivative was used. For both of quality parameters, the best results obtained for the figures of merit expressed by the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) and prediction (RMSEP) were equal to 0.0001.

  3. Edible fat structures at high solid fat concentrations: Evidence for the existence of oil-filled nanospaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyronel, Fernanda; Quinn, Bonnie; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Pink, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the surfaces of grain boundaries in edible oils with high solid fat content by combining ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) with theoretical modelling and computer simulation. Our results will lead to understand the solid structures formed at the time of manufacturing fats like confectionery fats as well as pave the way for the engineering of innovative fat products. Edible fats are complex semi-solid materials where a solid structure entraps liquid oil. It was not until USAXS combined with modelling was used that the nano- to meso-structures for systems with less than 20% solids were understood. The interpretation of those results utilized models of crystalline nanoplatelets represented by rigid close-packed flat aggregates made of spheres and was allowed to aggregate using the Metropolis Monte Carlo technique. Here, we report on systems containing between 50% and 90% solids. We modelled the solid phase as being formed from seeds onto which solids condensed thereby giving rise to oil-filled nanospaces. The models predicted that the system (a) exhibits structures with fractal dimensions approximately 2, (b) a broad peak somewhat masking that slope, and (c) for smaller values of q, indications that the structures with fractal dimension approximately 2 are uniformly distributed in space. The interpretation of the experimental data was completely driven by these results. The computer simulation predictions were used in conjunction with the USAXS observations to conclude that the systems studied scattered from oil-cavities with sizes between ˜800 and ˜16 000 Å and possessed rough 2-dimensional walls.

  4. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Collaborative Study of an Indirect Enzymatic Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and Glycidyl Esters in Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Kinuko; Abe, Kousuke; Egawa, Yoshitsugu; Kido, Hirotsugu; Kitta, Tadashi; Miyashita, Takashi; Nezu, Toru; Nohara, Hidenori; Sano, Takashi; Takahashi, Yukinari; Taniguchi, Hideji; Yada, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Watanabe, Yomi

    2016-07-01

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate an indirect enzymatic method for the analysis of fatty acid esters of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD), 2-monochloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD), and glycidol (Gly) in edible oils and fats. The method is characterized by the use of Candida rugosa lipase, which hydrolyzes the esters at room temperature in 30 min. Hydrolysis and bromination steps convert esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and glycidol to free 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and 3-monobromo-1,2-propanediol, respectively, which are then derivatized with phenylboronic acid, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In a collaborative study involving 13 laboratories, liquid palm, solid palm, rapeseed, and rice bran oils spiked with 0.5-4.4 mg/kg of esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and Gly were analyzed in duplicate. The repeatability (RSDr) were < 5% for five liquid oil samples and 8% for a solid oil sample. The reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 5% to 18% for all oil samples. These RSDR values were considered satisfactory because the Horwitz ratios were ≤ 1.3% for all three analytes in all oil samples. This method is applicable to the quantification of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and Gly esters in edible oils.

  6. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids (complying with § 172.860) derived from edible coconut oil, edible palm kernel oil, or both oils. (b) The ingredient meets the following specifications: Acid number: Not to exceed 0.5..., citric acid, succinic acid, and spices; and (2) In compound coatings, cocoa creams, cocoa-based sweets...

  7. Thyme and basil essential oils included in edible coatings as a natural preserving method of oilseed kernels.

    PubMed

    Riveros, Cecilia G; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2016-01-15

    Sunflower seeds are susceptible to developing rancidity and off-flavours through lipid oxidation. Edible coatings and essential oils have proven antioxidant properties in different food products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of using an edible coating and thyme and basil essential oils to preserve the chemical and sensory quality parameters of roasted sunflower seeds during storage. 50% DPPH inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.278 and 0.0997 µg mL(-1) were observed for thyme and basil, respectively. On storage day 40, peroxide values were 80.68, 70.28, 68.43, 49.31 and 33.87 mEq O2 kg(-1) in roasted sunflower seeds (RS), roasted sunflower seeds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (RS-CMC), roasted sunflower seeds coated with CMC added with basil (RS-CMC-A), thyme (RS-CMC-T) and butylated hydroxytoluene (RS-CMC-BHT), respectively. RS-CMC-T and RS-CMC-BHT presented the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and p-anisidine values during storage. RS-CMC-BHT, RS-CMC-T, and RS-CMC-A showed the lowest oxidized and cardboard flavour intensity ratings. On storage day 40, roasted sunflower flavour intensity ratings were higher in RS-CMC-T and RS-CMC-A. Thyme and basil essential oils added to the CMC coating improved the sensory stability of this product during storage, but only thyme essential oil increased their chemical stability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Non-edible Oil Cakes as a Novel Substrate for DPA Production and Augmenting Biocontrol Activity of Paecilomyces variotii

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Krishna, Suresh B. N.; Adam, Jamila K.; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of waste non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, and Mahua) as a substrate for the growth of Paecilomyces variotii and dipicolinic acid (DPA) production. Previous researches proved the efficacy of DPA in suppressing certain pathogens that are deleterious to the plants in the rhizosphere. DPA production was statistical optimized by amending non-edible oil cakes in growing media as nitrogen and sugars (Dextrose, Glucose, and Lactose) as carbon source. Plackett-Burman design (PBD), indicated that Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose were the most significant components (p < 0.05) of the media and were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose at the concentration of 12.5, 4.5, and 10 g/l, respectively, yielded 250 mg/l of DPA, which was 2.5 fold more than that obtained from basal medium. HPLC analysis of the optimized medium (peak at retention time of 30 min) confirmed the enhanced DPA production by P. variotii. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that optimized medium impose a stress like condition (due to less C:N ratio) for the fungus and generated more spores as compared to the basal medium in which carbon source is easily available for the mycelial growth. The antimicrobial activity of the fungal extract was tested and found to be effective even at 10−2 dilution after 72 h against two plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahlia. Statistical experimental design of this study and the use of non-edible oil cakes as a substrate offer an efficient and viable approach for DPA production by P. variotii. PMID:28512455

  9. Non-edible Oil Cakes as a Novel Substrate for DPA Production and Augmenting Biocontrol Activity of Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kalpana; Sharma, Satyawati; Krishna, Suresh B N; Adam, Jamila K; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of waste non-edible oil cakes (Jatropha, Karanja, Neem, and Mahua) as a substrate for the growth of Paecilomyces variotii and dipicolinic acid (DPA) production. Previous researches proved the efficacy of DPA in suppressing certain pathogens that are deleterious to the plants in the rhizosphere. DPA production was statistical optimized by amending non-edible oil cakes in growing media as nitrogen and sugars (Dextrose, Glucose, and Lactose) as carbon source. Plackett-Burman design (PBD), indicated that Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose were the most significant components ( p < 0.05) of the media and were further optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Jatropha cake, Karanja cake, and Dextrose at the concentration of 12.5, 4.5, and 10 g/l, respectively, yielded 250 mg/l of DPA, which was 2.5 fold more than that obtained from basal medium. HPLC analysis of the optimized medium (peak at retention time of 30 min) confirmed the enhanced DPA production by P. variotii . The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that optimized medium impose a stress like condition (due to less C:N ratio) for the fungus and generated more spores as compared to the basal medium in which carbon source is easily available for the mycelial growth. The antimicrobial activity of the fungal extract was tested and found to be effective even at 10 -2 dilution after 72 h against two plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahlia . Statistical experimental design of this study and the use of non-edible oil cakes as a substrate offer an efficient and viable approach for DPA production by P. variotii .

  10. Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miao; Xia, Qinghai; Liu, Mousheng; Yang, Yaling

    2011-01-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method using Triton X-114 (TX-114) nonionic surfactant was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of propyl gallate (PG), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) from edible oils. The optimum conditions of CPE were 2.5% (v/v) TX-114, 0.5% (w/v) NaCl and 40 min equilibration time at 50 °C. The surfactant-rich phase was then analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 280 nm, using a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and 1.5% (v/v) acetic acid. Under the studied conditions, 4 synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) were successfully separated within 24 min. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.9 ng mL(-1) for PG, 11 ng mL(-1) for TBHQ, 2.3 ng mL(-1) for BHA, and 5.9 ng mL(-1) for BHT. Recoveries of the SPAs spiked into edible oil were in the range 81% to 88%. The CPE method was shown to be potentially useful for the preconcentration of the target analytes, with a preconcentration factor of 14. Moreover, the method is simple, has high sensitivity, consumes much less solvent than traditional methods, and is environment-friendly. Practical Application: The method established in this article uses less organic solvent to extract SPAs from edible oils; it is simple, highly sensitive and results in no pollution to the environment.

  11. Development of Seaweed-based Biopolymers for Edible Films and Lectins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praseptiangga, D.

    2017-04-01

    Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) as one of important groups of biopolymers play an important role in human life. Biopolymers have been studied regarding their film-forming properties to produce edible films intended as food packaging and active ingredient carriers. Edible film, a thin layer or which is an integral part of food and can be eaten together with, have been used to avoid food quality deterioration due to physico-chemical changes, texture changes, or chemical reactions. Film-forming materials can be utilized individually or as mixed composite blends. Proteins and polysaccharides used for their mechanical and structural properties, and hydrophobic substances (lipids, essential oils, and emulsifiers) to provide good moisture barrier properties. In addition, bioactive substances from marine natural products, including seaweeds, have been explored for being used in the fields of medicine, food science, pharmaceutical science, biochemistry, and glycobiology. Among them, lectins or carbohydrate-binding proteins from seaweeds have recently been remarked. Lectins (hemagglutinins) are widely distributed in nature and also good candidates in such prospecting of seaweeds. They are useful as convenient tools to discriminate differences in carbohydrate structures and reveal various biological activities through binding and interacting to carbohydrates, suggesting that they are promising candidates for medicinal and clinical application.

  12. Whey protein isolate edible films with essential oils incorporated to improve the microbial quality of poultry.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Mendoza, Mauricio; Maté, Juan I

    2013-09-01

    Whey protein isolate edible films with oregano or clove essential oils (EOs) incorporated as natural antimicrobials have been developed, with the aim of enhancing the microbial quality of poultry. The effectiveness of the films was determined against both the whole and selected microbiota developed during different periods of cold storage on the surface of skinless chicken breast. Tests were conducted by using both turbidimetric and agar disc diffusion methods. The antimicrobial edible films developed showed high effectiveness against the main spoilers developed on the surface of skinless chicken breasts cold-stored for 8 days. The films based on oregano EO showed greater effectiveness than those based on clove EO. Still, clove EO could be part of an effective antimicrobial edible film. Enterobacteriaceae was the most susceptible to the effect of the films when lower concentrations of EO were incorporated. The largest inhibition surfaces obtained were provoked by films with the highest concentration of oregano EO incorporated against lactic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial edible films developed in this study inhibited the growth of the microbial populations that developed through storage of the chicken breast and caused its spoilage. The results of this research have direct application in the food industry to enhance the control of the development of spoilers such as Pseudomonas spp. or lactic acid bacteria. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of deep frying on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils enriched with natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Mara I; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2011-07-13

    The influence of deep frying, mimicked by 20 heating cycles at 180 °C (each cycle from ambient temperature to 180 °C maintained for 5 min), on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils represented by three characteristic families of compounds (namely, phytosterols, aliphatic alcohols, and triterpenic compounds) has been studied. The target oils were extra virgin olive oil (with intrinsic content of phenolic antioxidants), refined sunflower oil enriched with antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from olive pomace, refined sunflower oil enriched with an autoxidation inhibitor (dimethylpolysiloxane), and refined sunflower oil without enrichment. Monitoring of the target analytes as a function of both heating cycle and the presence of natural antioxidants was also evaluated by comparison of the profiles after each heating cycle. Identification and quantitation of the target compounds were performed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Analysis of the heated oils revealed that the addition of natural antioxidants could be an excellent strategy to decrease degradation of lipidic components of the unsaponifiable fraction with the consequent improvement of stability.

  14. Policies for healthy and sustainable edible oil consumption: a stakeholder analysis for Thailand.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Bhavani; Thaiprasert, Nalitra; Gheewala, Shabbir; Smith, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil is a cheap and versatile edible oil in widespread use as a food ingredient that has been linked to negative health and environmental outcomes. The current study aimed to understand the prospects for future health-focused policy development to limit food use of palm oil and promote a greater diversity of oils in Thailand's food system. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of stakeholders. The interviews probed views on the economic, health and environmental dimensions of the issue, the prospects for health-focused policy development and the policy development process. Transcripts were analysed using a health policy analytical framework. Thailand. Stakeholders from a range of ministries, regulatory agencies, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. There are several impediments to the emergence of strong regulation, including the primacy of economic considerations in setting policy, doubt and misperception about health implications and a complex regulatory environment with little space for health-related considerations. At the same time, some sections of the food industry producing food for domestic consumption are substituting palm with other oils on the basis of consumer health perceptions. Strong regulation to curb the growth of palm oil is unlikely to emerge soon. However, a long-term strategy can be envisaged that relies on greater policy support for other indigenous oils, strategic rebalancing towards the use of palm oil for biofuels and oleochemicals, and harnessing Thailand's food technology capabilities to promote substitution in food production in favour of oils with healthier fatty acid composition.

  15. Production and optimization of polyhydroxyalkanoates from non-edible Calophyllum inophyllum oil using Cupriavidus necator.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, A; Senthamizhan, S G; Ponnusami, V; Sudalai, S

    2018-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable polymers found in the cellular masses of a wide range of bacterial species and the demand for PHA is steadily growing. In this work we have produced PHA from a low-cost substrate, Calophyllum inophyllum oil, using Cupriavidus necator. Effects of various process parameters such as Oil concentration, Nitrogen source and inoculum size on the production of PHA were studied using Response Surface Methodology. A quadratic equation was used in the model to fit the experimental data. It was found that the model could satisfactorily predict the PHA yield (R 2 =99.17%). Linear, quadratic and interaction terms used in the model were found to be statistically significant. Maximum PHA yield of 10.6gL -1 was obtained under the optimized conditions of oil concentration - 17.5%, inoculum concentration - 50mL/L and nitrogen content - 1.125gL -1 , respectively. The product obtained was characterized using FTIR and NMR to confirm that it was PHA. The results demonstrate that C. inophyllum oil, a non-edible oil, can be potentially used as a low-cost substrate for the production of PHA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative evaluation of the effect of sweet orange oil-diesel blend on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, S. M. Ashrafur; Hossain, F. M.; Van, Thuy Chu; Dowell, Ashley; Islam, M. A.; Rainey, Thomas J.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, global demand for essential oils was 165 kt and it is expected to grow 8.5% per annum up to 2022. Every year Australia produces approximately 1.5k tonnes of essential oils such as tea tree, orange, lavender, eucalyptus oil, etc. Usually essential oils come from non-fatty areas of plants such as the bark, roots, heartwood, leaves and the aromatic portions (flowers, fruits) of the plant. For example, orange oil is derived from orange peel using various extraction methods. Having similar properties to diesel, essential oils have become promising alternate fuels for diesel engines. The present study explores the opportunity of using sweet orange oil in a compression ignition engine. Blends of sweet orange oil-diesel (10% sweet orange oil, 90% diesel) along with neat diesel fuel were used to operate a six-cylinder diesel engine (5.9 litres, common rail, Euro-III, compression ratio 17.3:1). Some key fuel properties such as: viscosity, density, heating value, and surface tension are presented. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption) and emission parameters (CO, NOX, and Particulate Matter) were measured to evaluate running with the blends. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm (maximum torque condition) with different loads. The results from the property analysis showed that sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibits lower density, viscosity and surface tension and slightly higher calorific value compared to neat diesel fuel. Also, from the engine test, the sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibited slightly higher brake specific fuel consumption, particulate mass and particulate number; however, the blend reduced the brake specific CO emission slightly and brake specific NOX emission significantly compared to that of neat diesel.

  17. Relationship between total polar components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fried edible oil.

    PubMed

    An, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Lan; Liu, Hai-Lan

    2017-09-01

    Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The correlations were analysed of TPC with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), TPC and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) as well as TPC with PAH16 (USEPA 16 PAHs). The results revealed that the levels of TPC and PAHs in fried oil considerably increased with frying time, and the type of oil affected their formation, which could inform the choice of oil for frying. The total BaP equivalents (∑BaPeq) concentrations in fresh oil and in oil whose TPC exceeded 27% were 2.14-13.48 and 5.78-10.80 μg kg -1 , respectively, which means that the carcinogenic potency of frying oil was more pronounced than that of fresh oil. In addition, the TPC concentration was significantly correlated with the concentrations of the sum of the 16 PAHs, PAH4 and BaP, so that the levels of PAHs could be predicted according to the levels of TPC in fried oil. In European standards, the rejection point for TPC in frying oil should be recalculated when considered PAHs. In all, the concentration of PAHs is a vital factor for ensuring the safety of frying oil.

  18. The Phase Behavior of γ-Oryzanol and β-Sitosterol in Edible Oil.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Hassan; Venema, Paul; Bot, Arjen; Flöter, Eckhard; Adel, Ruud den; van der Linden, Erik

    The phase behavior of binary mixtures of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol and ternary mixtures of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol in sunflower oil was studied. Binary mixtures of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol show double-eutectic behavior. Complex phase behavior with two intermediate mixed solid phases was derived from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data, in which a compound that consists of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol molecules at a specific ratio can be formed. SAXS shows that the organization of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol in the mixed phases is different from the structure of tubules in ternary systems. Ternary mixtures including sunflower oil do not show a sudden structural transition from the compound to a tubule, but a gradual transition occurs as γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol are diluted in edible oil. The same behavior is observed when melting binary mixtures of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol at higher temperatures. This indicates the feasibility of having an organogelling agent in dynamic exchange between solid and liquid phase, which is an essential feature of triglyceride networks.

  19. Improvement of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons determination in edible oil by liquid-liquid-gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Mineral oils, which are mainly composed of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons, are widespread food contaminants. Liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection represents the method of choice to determine these two families. However, despite the high selectivity of this technique, the presence of olefins (particularly squalene and its isomers) in some samples as in olive oils, does not allow the correct quantification of the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons fraction, requiring additional off-line tools to eliminate them. In the present research, a novel on-line liquid chromatography coupled to gas chromatography method is described for the determination of hydrocarbon contamination in edible oils. Two different liquid chromatography columns, namely a silica one (to retain the bulk of the matrix) and a silver-ion one (which better retains the olefins), were coupled in series to obtain the mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons hump free of interfering peaks. Furthermore, the use of a simultaneous dual detection, flame ionization detector and triple quadrupole mass spectrometer allowed us not only to quantify the mineral oil contamination, but also to evaluate the presence of specific markers (i.e. hopanes) to confirm the petrogenic origin of the contamination. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Analysis of processing contaminants in edible oils. Part 1. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the direct detection of 3-monochloropropanediol monoesters and glycidyl esters.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Mazzola, Eugene; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2013-05-22

    A new analytical method has been developed and validated for the detection of glycidyl esters (GEs) and 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) monoesters in edible oils. The target compounds represent two classes of potentially carcinogenic chemical contaminants formed during the processing of edible oils. Target analytes are separated from edible oil matrices using a two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The extracts are then analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). Chromatographic conditions that separate sn-1 and sn-2 monoesters of 3-MCPD have been developed for the first time. The method has been validated for GEs, sn-1 3-MCPD monoesters of lauric, myristic, linolenic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids, and sn-2 3-MCPD monoesters of oleic and palmitic acids in coconut, olive, and palm oils using an external calibration curve. The range of average recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) across the three oil matrices at three spiking concentrations are 84-115% (3-16% RSD) for the GEs, 95-113% (1-10% RSD) for the sn-1 3-MCPD monoesters, and 76.8-103% (5.1-11.2% RSD) for the sn-2 3-MCPD monoesters, with limits of quantitation at or below 30 ng/g for the GEs, 60 ng/g for sn-1 3-MCPD monoesters, and 180 ng/g for sn-2 3-MCPD monoesters.

  1. An oil spill decision matrix in response to surface spills of various bitumen blends.

    PubMed

    King, Thomas L; Robinson, Brian; Cui, Fangda; Boufadel, Michel; Lee, Kenneth; Clyburne, Jason A C

    2017-07-19

    Canada's production, transport, and sale of diluted bitumen (dilbit) products are expected to increase by a million barrels per day over the next decade. The anticipated growth in oil production and transport increases the risk of oil spills in aquatic areas and places greater demands on oil spill capabilities to respond to spills, which have raised stakeholder concerns. Current oil spill models only predict the transport of bitumen blends that are used in contingency plans and oil spill response strategies, rather than changes in the oil's physical properties that are relevant to spill response. We conducted weathering studies of five oil products (two conventional oils and three bitumen blends) in the Department of Fisheries and Oceans' flume tank. We also considered two initial oil slick thicknesses, 4.0 mm and 7.0 mm. We found that there is a major difference in the time evolution of oil properties (density and viscosity), raising doubts on weathering models that do not consider the thickness of oil. We also developed empirical expressions for the evolution of the density and viscosity of these oil products. The findings from the 4.0 mm results were incorporated with data from the literature to provide an update on the factors to consider during the decision making for spills of diluted bitumen products. The matrix indicated that most response options, including chemical dispersants, work much more effectively within 48 hours of the initiation of weathering. After this window of opportunity closes, natural attenuation or in situ burning is the only option remaining, but containment of oil is a limiting factor for in situ burning.

  2. Phase transitions, solubility, and crystallization kinetics of phytosterols and phytosterol-oil blends.

    PubMed

    Vaikousi, Hariklia; Lazaridou, Athina; Biliaderis, Costas G; Zawistowski, Jerzy

    2007-03-07

    The thermal properties, solubility characteristics, and crystallization kinetics of four commercial phytosterol preparations (soy and wood sterols and stanols) and their blends with corn oil were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed narrow melting peaks between 138 and 145 degrees C for all phytosterol samples, reversible on rescan. Broader and less symmetrical melting transitions at lower temperatures with increasing oil content were observed for two samples of phytosterol-oil admixtures. The estimated, from the solubility law, deltaH values (34.7 and 70.7 mJ/mg for wood sterols and stanols, respectively), were similar to the DSC experimental data. Fatty acid esters of soy stanols differing in the chain length of the acyl groups (C2-C12) exhibited suppression of the melting point and increase of the fusion enthalpy with increasing chain length of the acyl group; the propionate ester exhibited the highest melting point (Tm: 151 degrees C) among all stanol-fatty acid esters. Solubility of phytosterols in corn oil was low (2-3% w/w at 25 degrees C) and increased slightly with a temperature rise. Plant sterols appeared more soluble than stanols with higher critical concentrations at saturation. The induction time for recrystallization of sterol-oil liquid blends, as determined by spectrophotometry, depended on the supersaturation ratio. The calculated interfacial free energies between crystalline sediments and oil were smaller for sterol samples (3.80 and 3.85 mJ/m2) than stanol mixtures (5.95 and 6.07 mJ/m2), in accord with the higher solubility of the sterol crystals in corn oil. The XRD patterns and light microscopy revealed some differences in the characteristics among the native and recrystallized in oil phytosterol preparations.

  3. Analysis of processing contaminants in edible oils. Part 2. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the direct detection of 3-monochloropropanediol and 2-monochloropropanediol diesters.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Shaun; Begley, Timothy H; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2013-05-22

    A method was developed and validated for the detection of fatty acid diesters of 2-monochloropropanediol (2-MCPD) and 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) in edible oils. These analytes are potentially carcinogenic chemical contaminants formed during edible oil processing. After separation from oil matrices using a two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure, the target compounds are quantitated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). The first chromatographic conditions have been developed that separate intact diesters of 2-MCPD and 3-MCPD, allowing for their individual quantitation. The method has been validated for 28 3-MCPD diesters of lauric, myristic, palmitic, linolenic, linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids in coconut, olive, and palm oils, as well as 3 2-MCPD diesters, using an external calibration curve. The range of average recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) across the three oil matrices at three spiking concentrations are 88-118% (2-16% RSD) with maximum limits of quantitation of 30 ng/g (ppb).

  4. E-nose, e-tongue and e-eye for edible olive oil characterization and shelf life assessment: A powerful data fusion approach.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Susanna; Malegori, Cristina; Benedetti, Simona; Oliveri, Paolo; Giovanelli, Gabriella

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the applicability of e-senses (electronic nose, electronic tongue and electronic eye) for the characterization of edible olive oils (extra virgin, olive and pomace) and for the assessment of extra virgin olive oil and olive oil quality decay during storage at different temperatures. In order to obtain a complete description of oil samples, physico-chemical analyses on quality and nutritional parameters were also performed. Data were processed by PCA and a targeted data processing flow-sheet has been applied to physico-chemical and e-senses dataset starting from data pre-processing introducing an innovative normalization method, called t0 centering. On e-senses data a powerful mid-level data fusion approach has been employed to extract relevant information from different analytical sources combining their individual contributions. On physico-chemical data, an alternative approach for grouping extra virgin olive oil and olive oil samples on the basis of their freshness was applied and two classes were identified: fresh and oxidized. A k-NN classification rule was developed to test the performance of e-senses to classify samples in the two classes of freshness and the average value of correctly classified samples was 94%. Results demonstrated that the combined application of e-senses and the innovative data processing strategy allows to characterize edible olive oils of different categories on the basis of their sensorial properties and also to follow the evolution during storage of extra-virgin olive oil and olive oil sensorial properties thus assessing the quality decay of oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Durbin-Watson partial least-squares regression applied to MIR data on adulteration with edible oils of different origins.

    PubMed

    Jović, Ozren

    2016-12-15

    A novel method for quantitative prediction and variable-selection on spectroscopic data, called Durbin-Watson partial least-squares regression (dwPLS), is proposed in this paper. The idea is to inspect serial correlation in infrared data that is known to consist of highly correlated neighbouring variables. The method selects only those variables whose intervals have a lower Durbin-Watson statistic (dw) than a certain optimal cutoff. For each interval, dw is calculated on a vector of regression coefficients. Adulteration of cold-pressed linseed oil (L), a well-known nutrient beneficial to health, is studied in this work by its being mixed with cheaper oils: rapeseed oil (R), sesame oil (Se) and sunflower oil (Su). The samples for each botanical origin of oil vary with respect to producer, content and geographic origin. The results obtained indicate that MIR-ATR, combined with dwPLS could be implemented to quantitative determination of edible-oil adulteration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification process for MUFA- and PUFA-based monoacylglycerols from edible oils.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, M J; Ramos-Bueno, R P; Rodríguez-García, I; Guil-Guerrero, J L

    2017-08-01

    Important health benefits have been attributed to monoacylglycerols (MAGs) due to their various physiological functions, owing to which they become candidates for use as functional foods in order to prevent the onset of certain diseases such as colon cancer. In this work, six edible oils, namely: olive, linseed, sunflower, evening primrose, DHASCO ® and ARASCO ® have been processed to obtain different MUFA- and PUFA- based MAGs. First, the oils were hydrolyzed by means of an enzymatic process using porcine pancreatic lipase and then the reaction products were fractionated by using a liquid chromatography column containing silica gel as stationary phase in order to purify the MAGs-enriched fraction. A second chromatography process was performed using silver nitrate coated silica gel as stationary phase, in order to obtain the different MUFA- and PUFA-based MAGs from the corresponding oils. Overall, MAGs based on oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids have been isolated in high yields and purities (92.6, 97.4, 95.3, 90.9, 100 and 95.3% purity, respectively). Positional distribution was determined by means of 1 H NMR, which revealed a mix of 1(3) and 2-MAGs in variable proportions in the different MAGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. [Simultaneous determination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol cannabidiol and cannabinol in edible oil using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aizhi; Wang, Quanlin; Mo, Shijie

    2010-11-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) in edible oil was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were extracted with methanol, purified by an LC-Alumina-N solid phase extraction cartridge, separated and detected by the UPLC-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis was corrected by an isotope internal standard method using delta-9-THC-D3 as internal standard. Average recoveries for the target compounds varied from 68.0% to 101.6% with the relative standard deviations ranging from 7.0% to 20.1% at three spiked levels. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method were from 0.06-0.17 microg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.20-0.52 microg/kg. The results showed that the method is able to meet the requirements for the simultaneous determination of THC, CBD and CBN in edible oil.

  8. The effects of intermolecular interactions on the physical properties of organogels in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Francesca R; Greco, Valeria; Baldino, Noemi; de Cindio, Bruno; Fischer, Peter; Gabriele, Domenico

    2016-12-01

    The microstructure of organogels based on monoglycerides of fatty acids (MAGs) and policosanol and on different edible oils was investigated by using different techniques (calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, rheology, polarized light microscopy) towards a better understanding and control of the oil gelation phenomena. Dynamic moduli were related via a fractal model to microstructural information such as solid content and fractal dimension. Infrared spectroscopy evidenced that network structure in MAGs gel is mainly due to hydrogen bonding, whereas in policosanol system is mainly given by van der Waals interactions. Because of the different relative contribution of molecular interactions, the investigated organogelators exhibit a distinguished macroscopic behavior. MAGs are sensitive to the utilized oil and structuration occurs quickly, even though at a temperature lower than policosanol. Policosanol organogels exhibit a behavior independent of the used oil and a slower gelation rate, as a result of the weaker van der Waals interactions. Nevertheless, at lower concentration a stronger final gel is obtained, probably due to of the large number of interactions arising among the long alkyl chains of the fatty alcohols. Obtained results evidenced that policosanol is very effective in gelation of different oils and seems promising for potential commercial uses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Quantitative risk assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dietary exposure from edible fats and oils in China].

    PubMed

    Cao, Mengsi; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Lishi; Yan, Weixing

    2016-02-01

    To assess the quantitative risk of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dietary exposure from edible fats and oils in China. One hundred samples of edible fats and oils were collected from the supermarkets and the farmers markets in 11 provinces of China from December in 2013 to May in 2014. Then they were tested for EU15+1 PAHs (16 PAHs were controlled in priority by European Food Safety Authority) by two test methods which were QuECHERS-GC-MS-MS and GPC-HPLC-FLD. Data of PAHs concentration and edible fats and oils consumption which were from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002 were combined to evaluate carcinogenic risk of PAHs in edible fats and oils by the method of margin of exposure (MOE). In this process, we divided the population into 6 groups, namely male adults (older than 18 years old), female adults (older than 18), male youths (13-17), female youths (13-17), school-agers (6-12) and preschoolers (2-5), and thought carcinogenicity as the critical toxicity end point of PAHs. Two quantitative risk assessment methods, i.e. point assessment and probability assessment, were used to evaluate the dietary exposure and MOEs. EU15+1 PAHs in one of 100 samples were not detected, other samples were polluted in different degrees; the detection rates were 3%-98% and the average contents were 0.26-3.26 μg/kg. The results of PAHs dietary exposure from both of point assessment and probability assessment were the same. The average exposures of PAH8 were as the following: male adults were 10.03 and (9.34 ± 12.61) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1)(The former was from point assessment and the latter from probability assessment, the same below), female adults were 9.95 and (9.60 ± 15.04) ng · kg(-1)·d (-1), male youths were 11.09 and (10.84 ± 16.54) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1), female youths were 10.06 and (9.58 ± 12.87) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1),school-agers were 15.29 and (15.62 ± 25.54) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1), preschoolers were 19.27 and (19.22 ± 28.91) ng·kg(-1)·d(-1). MOEs

  10. Automated solid-phase extraction coupled online with HPLC-FLD for the quantification of zearalenone in edible oil.

    PubMed

    Drzymala, Sarah S; Weiz, Stefan; Heinze, Julia; Marten, Silvia; Prinz, Carsten; Zimathies, Annett; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Koch, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Established maximum levels for the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) in edible oil require monitoring by reliable analytical methods. Therefore, an automated SPE-HPLC online system based on dynamic covalent hydrazine chemistry has been developed. The SPE step comprises a reversible hydrazone formation by ZEN and a hydrazine moiety covalently attached to a solid phase. Seven hydrazine materials with different properties regarding the resin backbone, pore size, particle size, specific surface area, and loading have been evaluated. As a result, a hydrazine-functionalized silica gel was chosen. The final automated online method was validated and applied to the analysis of three maize germ oil samples including a provisionally certified reference material. Important performance criteria for the recovery (70-120 %) and precision (RSDr <25 %) as set by the Commission Regulation EC 401/2006 were fulfilled: The mean recovery was 78 % and RSDr did not exceed 8 %. The results of the SPE-HPLC online method were further compared to results obtained by liquid-liquid extraction with stable isotope dilution analysis LC-MS/MS and found to be in good agreement. The developed SPE-HPLC online system with fluorescence detection allows a reliable, accurate, and sensitive quantification (limit of quantification, 30 μg/kg) of ZEN in edible oils while significantly reducing the workload. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an automated SPE-HPLC method based on a covalent SPE approach.

  11. A novel solution blending method for using olive oil and corn oil as plasticizers in chitosan based organoclay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Giannakas, A; Patsaoura, A; Barkoula, N-M; Ladavos, A

    2017-02-10

    In the current study a novel reflux-solution blending method is being followed with the introduction of small ethanol volumes into chitosan acetic acid aquatic solution in order to incorporate olive oil and corn oil in chitosan and its organoclay nanocomposites. Ethanol enables the direct interaction of chitosan with oils and results in effective plasticization of chitosan/oil films with remarkable increase of the strain at break from 8% of chitosan and chitosan/oil aquatic samples to app. 22% for chitosan/oil ethanol samples. Compared with olive oil, corn oil is less effective as plasticizer (max strain at break app. 14%). Addition of oils is beneficial for water sorption, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability response of the obtained films. Barrier properties are further improved after the use of OrgMMT, however OrgMMT results in significant reduction of strain at break of all oil containing samples (app. 8%) acting as stress concentrator upon deformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The dynamic model on the impact of biodiesel blend mandate (B5) on Malaysian palm oil domestic demand: A preliminary finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi; Sapiri, Hasimah

    2014-12-01

    Over the last ten years, world biofuels production has increased dramatically. The biodiesel demand is driven by the increases in fossil fuel prices, government policy mandates, income from gross domestic product and population growth. In the European Union, biofuel consumption is mostly driven by blending mandates in both France and Germany. In the case of Malaysia, biodiesel has started to be exported since 2006. The B5 of 5% blend of palm oil based biodiesel into diesel in all government vehicles was implemented in February 2009 and it is expected to be implemented nationwide in the nearest time. How will the blend mandate will project growth in the domestic demand of palm oil in Malaysia? To analyze this issue, a system dynamics model was constructed to evaluate the impact of blend mandate implementation on the palm oil domestic demand influence. The base run of simulation analysis indicates that the trend of domestic demand will increase until 2030 in parallel with the implementation of 5 percent of biodiesel mandate. Finally, this study depicts that system dynamics is a useful tool to gain insight and to experiment with the impact of changes in blend mandate implementation on the future growth of Malaysian palm oil domestic demand sector.

  13. A First Laboratory Utilizing NMR for Undergraduate Education: Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils by Quantitative [superscript 13]C NMR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.; Hofstetter, Heike; Bowman, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative [superscript 13]C NMR provides a straightforward method of analyzing edible oils in undergraduate chemistry laboratories. [superscript 13]C spectra are relatively easy to understand, and are much simpler to analyze and workup than corresponding [superscript 1]H spectra. Average chain length, degree of saturation, and average…

  14. Photoelectrochemical determination of tert-butylhydroquinone in edible oil samples employing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and LiTCNE.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Thatyara Oliveira; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Damos, Flávio Santos; Luz, Rita de Cássia Silva

    2017-07-15

    A novel photoelectrochemical sensor was developed for determination of tert-butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) in edible vegetable oils, based on CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots sensitized with lithium tetracyanoethylenide (LiTCNE). The CdSe/ZnS/LiTCNE photoelectrochemical sensor presented a TBHQ photocurrent about 13-fold higher and a charge transfer resistance 62-fold lower than observed for a CdSe/ZnS sensor. The photoelectrochemical sensor showed selectivity to TBHQ, with a high photocurrent for this antioxidant compared to the photocurrent responses for other phenolic antioxidants. The CdSe/ZnS/LiTCNE photoelectrochemical sensor presented a linear range from 0.6 to 250μmolL -1 , sensitivity of 0.012μALμmol -1 , and a limit of detection of 0.21μmolL -1 for TBHQ, under optimized experimental conditions. The sensor was successfully employed in the analysis of edible oil samples, with recoveries of between 98.25% and 99.83% achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-09

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel.

  16. Effect of Blended Feedstock on Pyrolysis Oil Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kristin M; Gaston, Katherine R

    Current techno-economic analysis results indicate biomass feedstock cost represents 27% of the overall minimum fuel selling price for biofuels produced from fast pyrolysis followed by hydrotreating (hydro-deoxygenation, HDO). As a result, blended feedstocks have been proposed as a way to both reduce cost as well as tailor key chemistry for improved fuel quality. For this study, two feedstocks were provided by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Both were pyrolyzed and collected under the same conditions in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU). The resulting oil properties were then analyzed and characterized for statistical differences.

  17. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends.

    PubMed

    Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Haddioui, Laïla; Roques, Christine

    2017-08-01

    New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibiotic-resistant strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.01% to 3% v/v with minimal bactericidal concentrations from <0.01% to 6.00% v/v; (2) a blend of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Syzygium aromaticum, Origanum vulgare EOs was antifungal to the six Candida strains tested, with MICs ranging from 0.01% to 0.05% v/v with minimal fungicidal concentrations from 0.02% to 0.05% v/v. Blend AB1 was also effective against H1N1 and HSV1 viruses. With this dual activity, against H1N1 and against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae notably, AB1 may be interesting to treat influenza and postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia infections. These blends could be very useful in clinical practice to combat common infections including those caused by microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial drugs. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Performance evaluation of NEEM oil and HONGE Oil as cutting fluid in drilling operation of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothi, P. N.; Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.

    2017-04-01

    Cutting fluids are used in machining industries for improving tool life, reducing work piece and thermal deformation, improving surface finish and flushing away chips from the cutting zone. Although the application of cutting fluids increases the tool life and Machining efficiency, but it has many major problems related to environmental impacts and health hazards along with recycling & disposal. These problems gave provision for the introduction of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. These oils play an important role in improving various machining properties, including corrosion protection, lubricity, antibacterial protection, even emulsibility and chemical stability. Compared to mineral oils, vegetable oils in general possess high viscosity index, high flash point, high lubricity and low evaporative losses. Vegetable oils can be edible or non-edible oils and Various researchers have proved that edible vegetable oils viz., palm oil, coconut oil, canola oil, soya bean oil can be effectively used as eco-friendly cutting fluid in machining operations. But in present situations harnessing edible oils for lubricants formation restricts the use due to increased demands of growing population worldwide and availability. In the present work, Non-edible vegetable oil like Neem and Honge are been used as cutting fluid for drilling of Mild steel and its effect on cutting temperature, hardness and surface roughness are been investigated. Results obtained are compared with SAE 20W40 (petroleum based cutting fluid)and dry cutting condition.

  19. Exploring the influence of radiation crosslinking on high-performance hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and polyamide 12 based blends with special reference to heat and oil resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed Reffai, Syed Ismail Syed; Chatterjee, Tuhin; Naskar, Kinsuk

    2018-07-01

    This paper reports the heat and oil resistant hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR)/Polyamide 12 (PA12) blends prepared by electron beam irradiation. Electron beam irradiated blends are characterized by processing behaviour like thermoplastic at elevated temperature and performance properties of vulcanized rubber at ambient temperature. In the present work, a new class of blends based on Hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and polyamide (PA12) has been developed. The blends are cured with different radiation dosage at a fixed blend ratio (70:30) of (HNBR/PA12). The blend having the 75 kGy shows the highest level of mechanical properties as well as superior thermal stability. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) also demonstrates the tanδ values of all the blends are lower and the storage modules are higher for HE-75 kGy blend system compared to other blend system. Heat aging, oil aging, oil swelling and cross-link density study have also been carried out in details to understand the performance behaviour of these blends at service condition (150 °C). These blends are considered to find potential application in automotive sector especially for automotive under-the-hood-applications.

  20. Antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of partially hydrolyzed sago starch-alginate edible film containing lemongrass oil.

    PubMed

    Maizura, M; Fazilah, A; Norziah, M H; Karim, A A

    2007-08-01

    Edible films were prepared from a mixture of partially hydrolyzed sago starch and alginate (SA). Lemongrass oil (0.1% to 0.4%, v/w) and glycerol (0% and 20%, w/w) were incorporated in the films to act as natural antimicrobial agent and plasticizer, respectively. The films were characterized for antimicrobial activity, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), percent elongation at break (%E), and water solubility (WS). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was conducted to determine functional group interactions between the matrix and lemongrass oil. The zone of inhibition was increased significantly (P < 0.05) by addition of lemongrass oil at all levels in the presence and the absence of glycerol. This indicates that the film containing lemongrass oil was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 at all levels. In the absence of glycerol, the tensile strength of film decreased as the oil content increased, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in percent elongation. The percent elongation at break and WVP values for film with 20% glycerol was found to be increased significantly (P < 0.05) with an increase in lemongrass oil content. Addition of lemongrass oil did not have any interaction with the functional groups of films as measured by FTIR.

  1. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DPPH scavenging, PRAP activities and essential oil composition of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. (Cyprus Vetch, Luvana) from Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of the aerial parts of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. was investigated by simultaneous GC, GC/MS analyses under the same conditions. Trace amount of oil (0.01> mL) obtained by hydro distillation of 200 g fresh plants was trapped in 1 mL n-hexane. Twenty components were detected representing 91.55 ± 0.56 % of the oil. The main components were phytol 49.39 ± 0.44 %, hexadecanoic acid 20.64 ± 0.89 % and pentacosane 4.20 ± 0.09 %. Essential oil solution (1% oil: n-hexane) afforded similar DPPH scavenging activity (9.28 ± 1.30 %) when compared with positive controls α-tocopherol (9.74 ± 0.21 %) and BHT (7.79 ± 0.26 %) at the same concentrations. Antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using a new HPTLC-PRAP assay. The oil afforded two fold higher reducing activity of phosphomolybdenum complex (594.85 ± 5.14 AU) when compared with positive controls α- tocopherol (271.10 ± 2.86 AU) and BHT (210.53 ± 1.81 AU) at the same concentration.

  3. LDL-cholesterol lowering activity of a blend of rice bran oil and safflower oil (8:2) in patients with hyperlipidaemia: a proof of concept, double blind, controlled, randomised parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Malve, Harshad; Kerkar, Prafulla; Mishra, Nidheesh; Loke, Sanjita; Rege, N N; Marwaha-Jaspal, Ankita; Jainani, Kiran J

    2010-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have emerged as major health burden worldwide in recent times. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) serves as the primary marker for cardiovascular diseases. Reports suggest that rice bran oil has antihyperlipidaemic properties. However, current evidence suggests that no single oil can provide the recommended dietary fat ratio. Hence the present study was undertaken in patients with hyperlipidaemia to study effects of substitution of the cooking oil with a blend of 80% rice bran oil and 20% safflower oil on LDL-C levels. The selected patients (n = 73) were randomly assigned either to the study oil group (blend under study) or control oil group (the oil which the patient was using before). The lipid profile was monitored monthly in these patients for 3 months during which they consumed the oil as per the randomisation. At each follow up, LDL-C levels showed a significant reduction from baseline in the study oil group and reduction was more than that observed in the control group. It was also observed that the percentage of the respondents was higher in the study oil group. At the end of the study period, 82% patients from this group had LDL levels less than 150 mg% as against 57% in the control group. Thus, the substitution of usual cooking oil with a blend of rice bran oil and safflower oil (8:2) was found to exert beneficial effects on the LDL-C levels shifting them to low-risk lipid category.

  4. Combination of Analytical and Chemometric Methods as a Useful Tool for the Characterization of Extra Virgin Argan Oil and Other Edible Virgin Oils. Role of Polyphenols and Tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Ascensión; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez, Rafael; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Seiquer, Isabel; Lara, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of phenolic profile and tocopherol fractions in conjunction with chemometrics techniques were used for the accurate characterization of extra virgin argan oil and eight other edible vegetable virgin oils (olive, soybean, wheat germ, walnut, almond, sesame, avocado, and linseed) and to establish similarities among them. Phenolic profile and tocopherols were determined by HPLC coupled with diode-array and fluorescence detectors, respectively. Multivariate factor analysis (MFA) and linear correlations were applied. Significant negative correlations were found between tocopherols and some of the polyphenols identified, but more intensely (P < 0.001) between the γ-tocopherol and oleuropein, pinoresinol, and luteolin. MFA revealed that tocopherols, especially γ-fraction, most strongly influenced the oil characterization. Among the phenolic compounds, syringic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, oleuropein, pinoresinol, and luteolin also contributed to the discrimination of the oils. According to the variables analyzed in the present study, argan oil presented the greatest similarity with walnut oil, followed by sesame and linseed oils. Olive, avocado, and almond oils showed close similarities.

  5. Molecular and enzymatic characterization of a subfamily I.4 lipase from an edible oil-degrader Bacillus sp. HH-01.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Takashi; Saito, Akihiro; Ema, Sadaharu; Yoh, Inchi; Hayashi, Hiroko; Nagata, Ryo; Nagata, Yoshiho; Ando, Akikazu

    2011-02-01

    An edible-oil degrading bacterial strain HH-01 was isolated from oil plant gummy matter and was classified as a member of the genus Bacillus on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. A putative lipase gene and its flanking regions were cloned from the strain based on its similarity to lipase genes from other Bacillus spp. The deduced product was composed of 214 amino acids and the putative mature protein, consisting of 182 amino acids, exhibited 82% amino acid sequence identity with the subfamily I.4 lipase LipA of Bacillus subtilis 168. The recombinant product was successfully overproduced as a soluble form in Escherichia coli and showed lipase activity. The gene was, therefore, designated as lipA of HH-01. HH-01 LipA was stable at pH 4-11 and up to 30°C, and its optimum pH and temperature were 8-9 and 30°C, respectively. The enzyme showed preferential hydrolysis of the 1(3)-position ester bond in trilinolein. The activity was, interestingly, enhanced by supplementing with 1 mM CoCl(2), in contrast to other Bacillus lipases. The lipA gene seemed to be constitutively transcribed during the exponential growth phase, regardless of the presence of edible oil.

  6. Effect of Alcohols on the Phase Behavior and Emulsification of a Sucrose Fatty Acid Ester/Water/Edible Oil System.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tsutashi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Ohara, Yukari; Nishina, Shogo; Nakanishi, Maho; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2018-02-01

    The effect of alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, propylene glycol, glycerin, sucrose) on the phase behavior and emulsification of sucrose stearic acid ester (SSE)/water/edible vegetable oil (EVO) systems was investigated. Adding sucrose, propylene glycol, and glycerin narrowed the oil-separated two-phase region in the phase diagram of the SSE/water/EVO systems, whereas adding ethanol and 1-propanol expanded the oil-separated two-phase region. Changing the course of emulsification in the phase diagram showed that the size of the oil-droplet particle typically decreased in a system with a narrowed oil-separated region. The emulsification properties of the systems varied with respect to changes in the phase diagram. The microstructure of the systems was examined using small-angle X-ray scattering, and the ability to retain the oil in the lamellar structure of the SSEs was suggested as an important role in emulsification, because the mechanism of the systems was the same as that for the liquid crystal emulsification method.

  7. Catalytic cracking of non-edible sunflower oil over ZSM-5 for hydrocarbon bio-jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Qiao, Qiquan; Dubey, Ashish; Anderson, Gary

    2015-03-25

    Non-edible sunflower oils that were extracted from sunflower residual wastes were catalytically cracked over a ZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor at three different reaction temperatures: 450°C, 500°C and 550°C. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, BET and SEM. Characterizations of the upgraded sunflower oils, hydrocarbon fuels, distillation residues and non-condensable gases were carried out. The effect of the reaction temperature on the yield and quality of liquid products was discussed. The results showed that the reaction temperature affected the hydrocarbon fuel yield but had a minor influence on its properties. The highest conversion efficiency from sunflower oils to hydrocarbon fuels was 30.1%, which was obtained at 550°C. The reaction temperature affected the component content of the non-condensable gases. The non-condensable gases generated at 550°C contained the highest content of light hydrocarbons (C1-C5), CO, CO2 and H2. Compared to raw sunflower oils, the properties of hydrocarbon fuels including the dynamic viscosity, pH, moisture content, density, oxygen content and heating value were improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of edible coatings with essential oils on the quality of red raspberries over shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcos de Souza; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Guimarães, Ana Clara Garcia; Guerreiro, Adriana Cavaco; Gago, Custódia Maria Luís; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Dias, Cristina Maria Barrocas; Manhita, Ana Cristina Cabaça; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Miguel, Maria Graça Costa; Antunes, Maria Dulce Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop strategies for increasing the shelf-life of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.), by preventing microorganism growth. Fruits coated with alginate plus lemon essential oil (0.2%) or orange essential oil (0.1%) after 15 days of storage had less red skin than the remaining samples. The less red color verified in these samples was also coincident with the lower concentration of anthocyanins at the end of the experiment as well as the lower capacity for scavenging ABTS free radicals or quenching singlet oxygen. Cyanidin and pelargonidin glucosides were found in raspberries fruits. The edible coatings supplemented with the essential oil of orange either at 0.1% or 0.2% were very efficient for controlling yeast and mold growth after 15 days of storage. To control the development of aerobic mesophilic bacteria the use of essential oil of lemon 0.2% and essential oil of orange 0.1% were the most efficient. The application of the film improved post-harvest quality of raspberry, since the addition of essential oils of citrus films promoted to the inhibitory effect of fungi and bacteria growth after 15 days of storage, without changing quality parameters. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In situ Bioreduction of Uranium (VI) in Groundwater and Sediments with Edible Oil as the Electron Donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Watson, D. B.; Mehlhorn, T.; Zhang, G.; Earles, J.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Boyanov, M.; Kemner, K. M.; Schadt, C. W.; Brooks, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P.

    2009-12-01

    In situ bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer was conducted at the US DOE Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. Edible oil was tested as a slow-release electron donor for microbially mediated U (VI) reduction. Uranium contaminated sediments from the site were used in laboratory microcosm tests to study the feasibility of using this electron donor under anaerobic, ambient temperature conditions. Parallel microcosms were established using ethanol as electron donor for comparison. The tests also examined the impact of sulfate concentrations on U (VI) reduction. The oil was degraded by indigenous microorganisms with acetate as a major product but at a much slower rate than ethanol. The rapid removal of U (VI) from the aqueous phase occurred concurrently with acetate production and sulfate reduction. Initial U(VI) concentration in the aqueous phase increased with increased sulfate concentration (1 vs. 5 mM), likely due to U(VI) desorption from the solid phase, but more U(VI) was reduced with higher initial sulfate level. Finally, the bioreaction in microcosms progressed to methanogenesis. Subsequently, a field test with the edible oil was conducted in a highly permeable gravelly layer (hydraulic conductivity 0.076 cm/sec). Groundwater at the site contained 5-6 μM U; 1.0-1.2 mM sulfate; 3-4 mM Ca; pH 6.8. Diluted emulsified oil (20% solution) was injected into three injection wells within 2 hrs. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential reduction of nitrate, Mn, Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of uranium from groundwater was observed in all wells connected to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. Uranium concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 0.126 μM (EPA drinking water standard), at some well locations. Rebound of U in groundwater was

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Njateng, Guy S S; He, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Gu, Jian-Long; Chen, Shan-Na; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Aristolochia delavayi Franch. (Aristolochiaceae), a unique edible aromatic plant consumed by the Nakhi (Naxi) people in Yunnan, China, was investigated using GC/MS analysis. In total, 95 components, representing more than 95% of the oil composition, were identified, and the main constituents found were (E)-dec-2-enal (52.0%), (E)-dodec-2-enal (6.8%), dodecanal (3.35%), heptanal (2.88%), and decanal (2.63%). The essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity (96% reduction) of the production of bacterial volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an effect that was comparable with that of the reference compound citral (91% reduction). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the isolated major compound against eight bacterial and six fungal strains were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Providencia stuartii and Escherichia coli, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 62.5 μg/ml. The oil also showed strong inhibitory activity against the fungal strains Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 31.25 μg/ml, while (E)-dec-2-enal presented a lower antifungal activity than the essential oil. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Experimental investigation on emission reduction in neem oil biodiesel using selective catalytic reduction and catalytic converter techniques.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Karthickeyan

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, non-edible seed oil namely raw neem oil was converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. In the experimentation, two biodiesel blends were prepared namely B25 (25% neem oil methyl ester with 75% of diesel) and B50 (50% neem oil methyl ester with 50% diesel). Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technique with catalytic converter (CC) was fixed in the exhaust tail pipe of the engine for the reduction of engine exhaust emissions. Initially, the engine was operated with diesel as a working fluid and followed by refilling of biodiesel blends B25 and B50 to obtain the baseline readings without SCR and CC. Then, the same procedure was repeated with SCR and CC technique for emission reduction measurement in diesel, B25 and B50 sample. The experimental results revealed that the B25 blend showed higher break thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) with lower break-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than B50 blend at all loads. On comparing with biodiesel blends, diesel experiences increased BTE of 31.9% with reduced BSFC of 0.29 kg/kWh at full load. A notable emission reduction was noticed for all test fuels in SCR and CC setup. At full load, B25 showed lower carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.09% volume, hydrocarbon (HC) of 24 ppm, and smoke of 14 HSU and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of 735 ppm than diesel and B50 in SCR and CC setup. On the whole, the engine with SCR and CC setup showed better performance and emission characteristics than standard engine operation.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Perfluorinated Compounds in Edible Oil by Gel-Permeation Chromatography Combined with Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Jin, Fen; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Yanxin; Wang, Jian; Shao, Hua; Jin, Maojun; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Jing

    2015-09-30

    A simple analytical method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 18 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in edible oil. The target compounds were extracted by acetonitrile, purified by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) using graphitized carbon black (GCB) and octadecyl (C18), and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) in negative ion mode. Recovery studies were performed at three fortification levels. The average recoveries of all target PFCs ranged from 60 to 129%, with an acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) (1-20%, n = 3). The method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.004 to 0.4 μg/kg, which was significantly improved compared with the existing liquid-liquid extraction and cleanup method. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of all target PFCs in edible oil samples collected from markets in Beijing, China, and the results revealed that C6-C10 perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCAs) and C7 perfluorosulfonic acid PFSAs were the major PFCs detected in oil samples.

  14. Fast and effective low-temperature freezing extraction technique to determine organotin compounds in edible vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxia; Ma, Yaqian; Wan, Yiqun; Guo, Lan; Wan, Xiaofen

    2016-06-01

    Most organotin compounds that have been widely used in food packaging materials and production process show serious toxicity effects to human health. In this study, a simple and low-cost method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of four organotins in edible vegetable oil samples was developed. Four organotins including dibutyltin dichloride, tributyltin chloride, diphenyltin dichloride, and triphenyltin chloride were simultaneously extracted with methanol using the low-temperature precipitation process. After being concentrated, the extracts were purified by matrix solid-phase dispersion using graphitized carbon black. The experimental parameters such as extraction solvent and clean-up material were optimized. To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the recoveries were investigated. In addition, a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was also proposed for comparison. The procedures of extracting and purifying samples for the analysis were simple and easy to perform batch operations, also showed good efficiency with lower relative standard deviation. The limits of detection of the four organotins were 0.28-0.59 μg/L, and the limits of quantification of the four organotins were 0.93-1.8 μg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of the four organotins in edible vegetable oil. Some analytes were detected at the level of 2.5-28.8 μg/kg. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Investigation on thermochemical behaviour of low rank Malaysian coal, oil palm biomass and their blends during pyrolysis via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Abd Rahman, Norazah; Ismail, Khudzir; Alias, Azil Bahari; Abd Rashid, Zulkifli; Aris, Mohd Jindra

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of Malaysian sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian), oil palm biomass (empty fruit bunches (EFB), kernel shell (PKS) and mesocarp fibre (PMF)) and their respective blends during pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The coal/palm biomass blends were prepared at six different weight ratios and experiments were carried out under dynamic conditions using nitrogen as inert gas at various heating rates to ramp the temperature from 25 degrees C to 900 degrees C. The derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) results show that thermal decomposition of EFB, PMF and PKS exhibit one, two and three distinct evolution profiles, respectively. Apparently, the thermal profiles of the coal/oil palm biomass blends appear to correlate with the percentage of biomass added in the blends, thus, suggesting lack of interaction between the coal and palm biomass. First-order reaction model were used to determine the kinetics parameters for the pyrolysis of coal, palm biomass and their respective blends. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of Starch/Gelatin Blend Microparticles by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Phromsopha, Theeraphol; Baimark, Yodthong

    2014-01-01

    Information on the preparation and properties of starch/gelatin blend microparticles with and without crosslinking for drug delivery is presented. The blend microparticles were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. Glutaraldehyde and methylene blue were used as the crosslinker and the water-soluble drug model, respectively. The blend microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The functional groups of the starch and gelatin blend matrices were determined from the FTIR spectra. Blend microparticles with a nearly spherical shape and internal porous structure were observed from SEM images. The average particle size of the gelatin microparticles depended on the crosslinker ratio but not on the starch/gelatin blend ratio. The in vitro drug release content significantly decreased as the crosslinker ratio increased and the starch blend ratio decreased. The results demonstrated that the starch/gelatin blend microparticles should be a useful controlled release delivery carrier for water-soluble drugs.

  17. Preparation of Starch/Gelatin Blend Microparticles by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Phromsopha, Theeraphol; Baimark, Yodthong

    2014-01-01

    Information on the preparation and properties of starch/gelatin blend microparticles with and without crosslinking for drug delivery is presented. The blend microparticles were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. Glutaraldehyde and methylene blue were used as the crosslinker and the water-soluble drug model, respectively. The blend microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The functional groups of the starch and gelatin blend matrices were determined from the FTIR spectra. Blend microparticles with a nearly spherical shape and internal porous structure were observed from SEM images. The average particle size of the gelatin microparticles depended on the crosslinker ratio but not on the starch/gelatin blend ratio. The in vitro drug release content significantly decreased as the crosslinker ratio increased and the starch blend ratio decreased. The results demonstrated that the starch/gelatin blend microparticles should be a useful controlled release delivery carrier for water-soluble drugs. PMID:24868207

  18. Simultaneous determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuangjiao; Liu, Liangliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhou, Dayun; Kuang, Meng; Fang, Dan; Yang, Weihua; Wei, Shoujun; Xiao, Aiping; Ma, Lei

    2016-08-01

    A simple, rapid, organic-solvent- and sample-saving pretreatment technique, called dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was developed for the determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants from edible oils before high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The entire procedure was composed of a two-step microextraction and a centrifugal process and could be finished in about 5 min, only consuming only 25 mg of sample and 1 mL of the organic solvent for each extraction. The influences of several important parameters on the microextraction efficiency were thoroughly investigated. Recovery assays for oil samples were spiked at three concentration levels, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, and provided recoveries in the 86.3-102.5% range with a relative standard deviation below 3.5%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions for the analysis were less than 3.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in different oil samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. Thus, the developed method represents a viable alternative for the quality control of synthetic phenolic antioxidant concentrations in edible oils. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Corn kernel oil and corn fiber oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unlike most edible plant oils that are obtained directly from oil-rich seeds by either pressing or solvent extraction, corn seeds (kernels) have low levels of oil (4%) and commercial corn oil is obtained from the corn germ (embryo) which is an oil-rich portion of the kernel. Commercial corn oil cou...

  20. Performance Test on Compression Ignition Engine by Blending Ethanol and Waste Plastic Pyrolysis Oil with Cetane Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; Jeswin Arputhabalan, J.; Chithrala, Varun; Ganesh Bairavan, P.

    2017-05-01

    The demand for diesel fuel is higher than that of petrol throughout the world hence seeking alternative to mineral diesel is a natural choice. Alternative fuels should be easily available at lower cost, environment friendly and fulfill energy needs without modifying engine’s operational parameters. Waste to energy is the trend in the selection of alternate fuels. In this work, Waste Plastic Pyrolysis oil (WPPO), Ethanol, Diesel blend with Cetane additive has been attempted as an alternative fuel. A Twin cylinder, Direct Injection engine was used to assess the engine performance and emission characteristics of waste plastic pyrolysis oil with cetane additive. Experimental results of blended plastic fuel and diesel fuel were compared.

  1. Serum fatty acids, biochemical indices and antioxidant status in goats fed canola oil and palm oil blend.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Kazeem D; Sabow, Azad B; Aghwan, Zeiad A; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Samsudin, Anjas A; Alimon, Abdul R; Sazili, Awis Q

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplementation of unsaturated fats in ruminants, if not stabilized, can instigate oxidative stress which can have negative impact on production performance and enhance the susceptibility to various diseases. The current study examined the effect of dietary 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil blend (CPOB) on serum fatty acids, antioxidant profile and biochemical indices in goats. Thirty Boer bucks (4-5 months old; initial BW, 20.34 ± 0.77 kg) were randomly assigned to diets containing 0, 4 or 8 % CPOB and fed daily for a period of 90 days. Blood was sampled from the goats on 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of the trial and the serum was analyzed for fatty acids, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, antioxidants and lipid oxidation. Neither diet nor sampling time influenced serum TBARS value, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and total protein. Goats fed 4 and 8 % CPOB had higher (P < 0.05) total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol than the control goats on day 30, 60 and 90. The proportion of C15:0 decreased with increasing level of CPOB on day 30 and 60. Serum C18:1n-9 increased with increasing level of CPOB in diet on day 60. The proportion of C18:3n-3 and C22:5n-3 increased (P < 0.05), while the proportion of C18:2n-6 decreased (P < 0.05) with increase in the level of CPOB on day 60 and 90. Dietary CPOB did not affect serum total carotenoid and δ-tocopherol but did increase (P < 0.05) α and γ-tocopherol. Dietary canola oil and palm oil blend could be supplemented in diets without instigating oxidative stress in goats.

  2. Clove and rosemary essential oils and encapsuled active principles (eugenol, thymol and vanillin blend) on meat quality of feedlot-finished heifers.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Monteschio, Jéssica; de Souza, Kennyson Alves; Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Kempinski, Emília Maria Barbosa Carvalho; Barcelos, Vinícius Cunha; Nascimento, Karina Favoreto; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2017-08-01

    Forty Nellore heifers were fed (73days) with different diets: with or without essential oils (clove and/or rosemary essential oil) and/or active principle blend (eugenol, thymol and vanillin). The pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area and water losses (thawing and drip) were evaluated 24h post mortem on the Longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (14days) was evaluated on the meat cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Treatments had no effect (P>0.05) on pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area, thawing and drip losses. However, treatments affected (P<0.05) cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. The diets with essential oil and the active principle blend reduced the lipid oxidation and reduced the color losses in relation to control diet. Aging affected (P<0.05) texture and lipid oxidation. The essential oil and active principles or its blend have potential use in animal feed aiming to maintain/improve meat quality during shelf-life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Response and resilience of soil microbial communities inhabiting in edible oil stress/contamination from industrial estates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vrutika; Sharma, Anukriti; Lal, Rup; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-03-22

    Gauging the microbial community structures and functions become imperative to understand the ecological processes. To understand the impact of long-term oil contamination on microbial community structure soil samples were taken from oil fields located in different industrial regions across Kadi, near Ahmedabad, India. Soil collected was hence used for metagenomic DNA extraction to study the capabilities of intrinsic microbial community in tolerating the oil perturbation. Taxonomic profiling was carried out by two different complementary approaches i.e. 16S rDNA and lowest common ancestor. The community profiling revealed the enrichment of phylum "Proteobacteria" and genus "Chromobacterium," respectively for polluted soil sample. Our results indicated that soil microbial diversity (Shannon diversity index) decreased significantly with contamination. Further, assignment of obtained metagenome reads to Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) of protein and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) hits revealed metabolic potential of indigenous microbial community. Enzymes were mapped on fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to elucidate their roles in possible catalytic reactions. To the best of our knowledge this is first study for influence of edible oil on soil microbial communities via shotgun sequencing. The results indicated that long-term oil contamination significantly affects soil microbial community structure by acting as an environmental filter to decrease the regional differences distinguishing soil microbial communities.

  4. Physical and antibacterial properties of açaí edible films formulated with thyme essential oil and apple skin polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Espitia, Paula J P; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Du, Wen-Xian; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Williams, Tina G; Wood, Delilah; McHugh, Tara H; Soares, Nilda F F

    2014-05-01

    Thyme essential oil (TEO) and apple skin polyphenols (ASP) are natural compounds considered as generally recognized as safe by FDA, with biological effects against bacteria and fungi. This work aimed to evaluate physical and antimicrobial properties of açaí edible films formulated with TEO and ASP at 3% and 6% (w/w) individually or combined at 3% (w/w) each. Physical properties studied include mechanical resistance, water vapor permeability (WVP), color, and thermal resistance. Antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes was determined using the overlay diffusion test. Addition of ASP resulted in improved mechanical properties. TEO at 6% (w/w) resulted in increased elongation. ASP films had significant higher WVP than control film. ASP films were lighter and had more red color than other films. Incorporation of ASP resulted in improved film thermal stability, whereas TEO caused rapid thermal decomposition. Presence of clusters was observed on the surface of films. Addition of ASP resulted in a smoother surface, whereas addition of TEO led to the formation of crater-like pits on the film surface. Açaí edible film incorporated with 6% (w/w) TEO presented the highest antimicrobial activity. However, both antimicrobials are necessary in the açaí films in order to obtain edible films with suitable physical-mechanical properties. The results of the present study showed that TEO and ASP can be used to prepare açaí edible films with adequate physical-mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity for food applications by direct contact. Developed açaí edible films presented antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes and good physical-mechanical properties, showing the potential use of açaí edible films in food preservation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Effects of Nano Additives in engine emission Characteristics using Blends of Lemon Balm oil with Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil kumar, J.; Ganesan, S.; Sivasaravanan, S.; Padmanabhan, S.; Krishnan, L.; Aniruthan, V. C.

    2017-05-01

    Economic growth in developing countries has led to enormous increase in energy demand. In India the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% every year. The crude oil demand of country is meet by bring in of about 70%. Thus the energy safety measures have become key issue for our country. Bio diesel an eco-friendly and renewable fuel alternate for diesel has been getting the consideration of researcher’s entire world. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the engine parameters using blend of pure lemon balm oil with diesel. Also nano Additives is used as a catalyst with blends of bio fuel to enhance the Emission Characteristics of various effective gases like CO2, NOx, CO and UHC with various levels of engine process parameters.

  6. Spectroscopic and Chemometric Analysis of Binary and Ternary Edible Oil Mixtures: Qualitative and Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    Jović, Ozren; Smolić, Tomislav; Primožič, Ines; Hrenar, Tomica

    2016-04-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate numerical methodology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of binary and ternary edible oil mixtures. Four pure oils (extra virgin olive oil, high oleic sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil), as well as their 54 binary and 108 ternary mixtures, were analyzed using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in combination with principal component and discriminant analysis, partial least-squares, and principal component regression. It was found that the composition of all 166 samples can be excellently represented using only the first three principal components describing 98.29% of total variance in the selected spectral range (3035-2989, 1170-1140, 1120-1100, 1093-1047, and 930-890 cm(-1)). Factor scores in 3D space spanned by these three principal components form a tetrahedral-like arrangement: pure oils being at the vertices, binary mixtures at the edges, and ternary mixtures on the faces of a tetrahedron. To confirm the validity of results, we applied several cross-validation methods. Quantitative analysis was performed by minimization of root-mean-square error of cross-validation values regarding the spectral range, derivative order, and choice of method (partial least-squares or principal component regression), which resulted in excellent predictions for test sets (R(2) > 0.99 in all cases). Additionally, experimentally more demanding gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid content was carried out for all specimens, confirming the results obtained by FTIR-ATR coupled with principal component analysis. However, FTIR-ATR provided a considerably better model for prediction of mixture composition than gas chromatography, especially for high oleic sunflower oil.

  7. Using bio-dispersive solution of chitosan for green dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of trace amounts of Cu(II) in edible oils prior to analysis by ICP-OES.

    PubMed

    Limchoowong, Nunticha; Sricharoen, Phitchan; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2017-09-01

    A green approach using chitosan solution as a novel bio-dispersive agent for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of trace amounts of Cu(II) in edible oils is presented. An emulsion was formed by mixing the oil sample with 300µL of 0.25% (w/v) chitosan solution containing 200µL of 6molL -1 HCl. Deionized water was used to induce emulsion breaking without centrifugation. The centrifuged Cu(II) extract was collected and analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. The detection and quantitation limits were 2.1 and 6.8µgL -1 , respectively. Trace amounts of Cu(II) in six edible oil samples were tested under optimum conditions for DLLME, with a recovery ranging from 90.3% to 109.3%. Therefore, the new dispersive agent in DLLME offers superior performance owing to the non-toxic nature of the solvent, short extraction time, high sensitivity, and easy operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An improved dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up method for the gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometric determination of multiclass pesticide residues in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Deme, Pragney; Azmeera, Tirupathi; Prabhavathi Devi, B L A; Jonnalagadda, Padmaja R; Prasad, R B N; Vijaya Sarathi, U V R

    2014-01-01

    An improved sample preparation using dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up was proposed for the trace level determination of 35 multiclass pesticide residues (organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroids) in edible oils. Quantification of the analytes was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). The limit of detection and limit of quantification of residues were in the range of 0.01-1ng/g and 0.05-2ng/g, respectively. The analytes showed recoveries between 62% and 110%, and the matrix effect was observed to be less than 25% for most of the pesticides. Crude edible oil samples showed endosulfan isomers, p,p'-DDD, α-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon residues in the range of 0.56-2.14ng/g. However, no pesticide residues in the detection range of the method were observed in refined oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Formulation and Stabilization of Concentrated Edible Oil-in-Water Emulsions Based on Electrostatic Complexes of a Food-Grade Cationic Surfactant (Ethyl Lauroyl Arginate) and Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Bai, Long; Xiang, Wenchao; Huan, Siqi; Rojas, Orlando J

    2018-05-14

    We report on high-internal-phase, oil-in-water Pickering emulsions that are stable against coalescence during storage. Viscous, edible oil (sunflower) was emulsified by combining naturally derived cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and a food-grade, biobased cationic surfactant obtained from lauric acid and L-arginine (ethyl lauroyl arginate, LAE). The interactions between CNC and LAE were elucidated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and supplementary techniques. LAE adsorption on CNC surfaces and its effect on nanoparticle electrostatic stabilization, aggregation state, and emulsifying ability was studied and related to the properties of resultant oil-in-water emulsions. Pickering systems with tunable droplet diameter and stability against oil coalescence during long-term storage were controllably achieved depending on LAE loading. The underlying stabilization mechanism was found to depend on the type of complex formed, the LAE structures adsorbed on the cellulose nanoparticles (as unimer or as adsorbed admicelles), the presence of free LAE in the aqueous phase, and the equivalent alkane number of the oil phase (sunflower and dodecane oils were compared). The results extend the potential of CNC in the formulation of high-quality and edible Pickering emulsions. The functional properties imparted by LAE, a highly effective molecule against food pathogens and spoilage organisms, open new opportunities in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications, where the presence of CNC plays a critical role in achieving synergistic effects with LAE.

  10. Deep eutectic liquid organic salt as a new solvent for liquid-phase microextraction and its application in ligandless extraction and preconcentraion of lead and cadmium in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mehdi; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Tamaddon, Fatemeh; Azadi, Davood

    2015-11-01

    Deep eutectic liquid organic salt was used as the solvent and a liquid phase microextraction (DES-LPME) combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for separation, preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium in edible oils. A 4:1 mixture of deep eutectic solvent and 2% nitric acid (200 µL) was added to an oil sample. The mixture was vortexed and transferred into a water bath at 50 °C and stirred for 5 minutes. After the extraction was completed, the phases were separated by centrifugation, and the enriched analytes in the deep eutectic solvent phase were determined by ETAAS. Under optimized extraction conditions and for an oil sample of 28 g, enhancement factors of 198 and 195 and limits of detection (defined as 3 Sb/m) of 8 and 0. 2 ng kg(-1) were achieved for lead and cadmium respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead and cadmium in various edible oils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Influence of enzymatic and chemical interesterification on crystallisation properties of refined, bleached and deodourised (RBD) palm oil and RBD palm kernel oil blends.

    PubMed

    Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Nur Azimah, Kamarulzaman; Zaliha, Omar

    2018-04-01

    Interesterification reaction involves rearrangement of the fatty acid radicals on the glycerol backbone, either randomly (chemical interesterification) or regioselectivity (enzymatic interesterification). Refined, bleached and deodourised palm oil (RBDPO) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were blended in ratios from 25:75 to 75:25 (wt/wt). All blends were subjected to enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) using Lipozyme TL IM (4% w/w) and sodium methoxide (0.2% m/m) as the catalysts, respectively. The effect of EI and CI on the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour, polymorphism, crystal morphology and crystallisation kinetics were studied. The aim of this research is to characterise the nature of crystals in food product for certain desired structure. The crystallisation behaviour discussed in this study involves microstructure (PLM), polymorphism (XRD), thermal properties and crystallisation kinetics by DSC. The alteration in TAG composition was greater after CI as compared to EI with the reduction of LaLaLa (from 11.00% to 5.15%) and POO (from 14.28% to 4.87%). The DSC complete melting and crystallisation temperature of blend with 75% PO increased after CI, from 39.58 °C to 41.67 °C and from -30.84 °C to -28.33 °C, respectively. EI contributed to finer crystals than CI. However, the β' and β polymorph mixture and crystallisation kinetics (n = 2) of PO-PKO blends did not change after CI and EI. The knowledge on controlling crystallisation of RBDPO and RBDPKO blends is vital for proper processing condition like margarine production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of hemicellulose films and their blends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell wall hemicelluloses are useful in various industries due to their ability to form edible and biodegradable films with plasticizers such as glycerol. The objective of this research was to extract hemicelluloses from Caesalpina pulcherrima and Tamarindus indica, produce film blends from them, and...

  13. The effect of food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on oil blend degradation during repeated frying.

    PubMed

    Flores-Álvarez, María Del Carmen; Molina-Hernández, Erika F; Hernández-Raya, José Concepción; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2012-11-01

    Oil that is reused multiple times for deep frying goes through changes in chemical composition and physical characteristics, affecting the quality of the fried foods. In this study, the effect of the food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on the degradation of an oil blend during the deep-fat frying of each food at 180°C during 12 days was determined, and the characteristics of the fried products were evaluated. The degradation of oil during repeated use was relatively faster when fish nuggets were fried than when French fries were fried, as higher values of total polar compounds were obtained. The results are useful for producers of French fries and fish nuggets, such as restaurants or fast foods sellers, providing them with practical guidelines within the permitted values established by the regulatory authorities. The studied foods have high economic importance and are different in their composition. Under the studied conditions, the tested oil blend may be used during 4 d (4 h per day) with a daily replenishment, without discarding the oil when frying fish nuggets, and must be discarded after 8 d when French fries are processed. This suggestion allows preparing safe fried foods for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. A new simplex chemometric approach to identify olive oil blends with potentially high traceability.

    PubMed

    Semmar, N; Laroussi-Mezghani, S; Grati-Kamoun, N; Hammami, M; Artaud, J

    2016-10-01

    Olive oil blends (OOBs) are complex matrices combining different cultivars at variable proportions. Although qualitative determinations of OOBs have been subjected to several chemometric works, quantitative evaluations of their contents remain poorly developed because of traceability difficulties concerning co-occurring cultivars. Around this question, we recently published an original simplex approach helping to develop predictive models of the proportions of co-occurring cultivars from chemical profiles of resulting blends (Semmar & Artaud, 2015). Beyond predictive model construction and validation, this paper presents an extension based on prediction errors' analysis to statistically define the blends with the highest predictability among all the possible ones that can be made by mixing cultivars at different proportions. This provides an interesting way to identify a priori labeled commercial products with potentially high traceability taking into account the natural chemical variability of different constitutive cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HPLC study of migration of terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid from PET bottles into edible oils.

    PubMed

    Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Limbo, Sara; Shoeibi, Shahram; Mazinani, Somayeh

    2014-08-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers for food oil packaging were evaluated with a newly established determination method for terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA). The analysis of monomers, TPA and IPA that migrate from PET bottles into oils was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Three types of commercial oils (sunflower oil, canola oil and blended oil which included sunflower oil, soy bean oil and cottonseed oil) were bottled in PET containers. These samples were incubated for 10 days at 49 °C as accelerated test condition. The means of recovery for this method varied from 70% to 72% and from 101% to 111% for TPA and IPA, respectively. The results showed that the amounts of specific migration of TPA and IPA into the samples conform to European Union legislation that identifies specific migration limits. More important, the results highlighted a different behavior of migration as a function of the fatty acid profile. Previous investigations have been performed with food simulants such as HB307 or 20% ethanol but our study used real food samples and determined trace amounts of the migrated compounds. Further investigation will be needed to better explain the influence of fatty acid conformation on migration of PET monomers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Characterization of cassava starch based foam blended with plant proteins, kraft fiber, and palm oil.

    PubMed

    Kaisangsri, Nattapon; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-09-22

    Cassava starch foam (CSF) trays blended with zein, gluten, soy protein, kraft fiber, and palm oil at various concentrations: 0, 5, 10 and 15% by weight of starch, were characterized. The addition of zein and gluten into CSF resulted in consolidated and homogeneous structural foams compared to its controls. Moreover, the flexural and compressive strength increased with increasing kraft, zein and gluten. CSF containing 15% kraft gave the highest flexural and compressive strength. However, the addition of palm oil into CSF gave the lowest flexural strength and compressive strength. The observed water absorption and water solubility index of CSFs blended with 15% zein and 15% gluten protein was lowest. Although kraft, zein and gluten could improve mechanical properties, water absorption and water solubility were greater than the expanded polystyrene foam (EPS). The CSF trays in this study might be an alternative for packing low water content foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) using polymer anion exchange (PAX) as the sorbent followed by UPLC-MS/MS for the rapid determination of four bisphenols in commercial edible oils.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yanping; Wu, Yuluan; Dong, Hao; Guo, Xindong; Wang, Bin; Wang, Li

    2017-09-29

    The present work presents a novel and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) in edible oil based on dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) for the first time followed by isotope dilution-ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The edible oil sample was dispersed by n-hexane and extracted with ammoniated methanol-water solution. Then the target analytes were dispersedly absorbed using the polymer anion exchange (PAX) as the sorbent and eluted by acidic methanol. After that, four bisphenols were separated on a C18 column by gradient elution with methanol and 0.05% ammonium hydroxide in water as mobile phase, detected by MS/MS under multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode and quantified by internal standard method. The PAX amounts, adsorption time, concentrations of formic acid in the elution solvent and volume of elution solvent for the DMSPE technique were optimized. The limit of detection and quantitation (LOD and LOQ), matrix effect, recovery and precision of the developed method were investigated. Results indicated that BPS and the rest three bisphenols displayed excellent linearity in the concentration ranges of 0.1-50μg/L and 0.5-250μg/L, respectively, with correlation coefficients (R 2 ) all larger than 0.998. Achieved MLODs (S/N=3) varied between 0.1-0.4μg/kg for all bisphenols. The mean recoveries at three spiked levels in edible oil were in the range of 87.3-108%. Intra-day precision (n=6) and inter-day precision (n=5) were <9% and <11%, respectively. This method is of rapid-and-simple pretreatment, accurate and sensitive, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols in edible oil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid)-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone)-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-PHB

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Campo, María Jesús; Quiles-Carrillo, Luis; Masia, Jaime; Reig-Pérez, Miguel Jorge; Montanes, Nestor

    2017-01-01

    Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), maleinized soybean oil (MSO) and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL) and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr) of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy’s impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives. PMID:29165359

  19. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid)-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone)-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-PHB.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Campo, María Jesús; Quiles-Carrillo, Luis; Masia, Jaime; Reig-Pérez, Miguel Jorge; Montanes, Nestor; Balart, Rafael

    2017-11-22

    Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), maleinized soybean oil (MSO) and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL) and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr) of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy's impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives.

  20. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  1. Experimental investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of J20, P20, N20 Biodiesel blends and Sound Characteristics of P20 Biodiesel blend Used in Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    rajasekar, R.; karthik, N.; Xavier, Goldwin

    2017-05-01

    Present work provides the effect of biodiesel blends and Sound Characteristics of P20 Biodiesel blend compared with Performance and emission Characteristics of diesel. Methods and analysis biodiesel blends was prepared by the Transesterification Process. Experiments were conducted in single cylinder constant speed direct injection diesel engine for various test fuels. Research is mainly focused on pongamia oil. It was observed that a 20% Pongamia oil blends and its properties were similar to diesel. The results showed that 20% Pongamia oil blends gave better performance, less in noise and emission compared with ester of Jatropha and neem oil blends. Hence Pongamia blends can be used in existing diesel engine without compromising the engine performance.

  2. The effect of maleinized linseed oil (MLO) on mechanical performance of poly(lactic acid)-thermoplastic starch (PLA-TPS) blends.

    PubMed

    Ferri, J M; Garcia-Garcia, D; Sánchez-Nacher, L; Fenollar, O; Balart, R

    2016-08-20

    In this work, poly(lactic acid), PLA and thermoplastic starch, TPS blends (with a fixed content of 30wt.% TPS) were prepared by melt extrusion process to increase the low ductile properties of PLA. The TPS used contains an aliphatic/aromatic biodegradable polyester (AAPE) that provides good resistance to aging and moisture. This blend provides slightly improved ductile properties with an increase in elongation at break of 21.5% but phase separation is observed due to the lack of strong interactions between the two polymers. Small amounts of maleinized linseed oil (MLO) can positively contribute to improve the ductile properties of these blends by a combined plasticizing-compatibilizing effect. The elongation at break increases over 160% with the only addition of 6phr MLO. One of the evidence of the plasticizing-compatibilizing effect provided by MLO is the change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) with a decrease of about 10°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) of PLA-TPS blends with varying amounts of maleinized linseed oil also suggests an increase in compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  4. Influence of the apex angle of a hollow prism made from an ordinary commercial glass plate as a simple refractometer to the accuracy of the refractive index measurement of the edible oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, N.; Maswati; Yusibani, E.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the apex angle of a hollow prism used as a simple refractometer to the accuracy of a refractive index measurement of the edible oil samples was studied. The hollow prism was made from an ordinary commercial glass plate with a thickness of 2 mm. The apex angle of the constructed hollow prism was varied. The edible oil sample used in this study was palm oil, namely the packaged, branded oil sample and the bulk oil sample. For measuring the refractive index, the oil sample was filled in the constructed hollow prism, and then a helium-neon laser beam was passed through the oil sample at a certain angle of incidence. The angle of minimum deviation of the transmitted laser He-Ne beam was measured and then was used for calculating the refractive index of the oil sample. The refractive index measurement was made using the hollow prism with different apex angles, ranging from 300 to 600. The measurement accuracy was estimated by comparing the refractive index measured using the hollow prisms to that of obtained using a standard Abbe refractometer. It was found that the refractive index of the edible oil can be measured accurately by using the hollow prism. It was also found that the accuracy of the refractive index measurement significantly changes with the apex angle of the hollow prism. The refractive index values measured using this simple refractometer deviate up to 3,49% from the refractive index value measured using the standard Abbe refractometer, especially when the apex angle of the prism is 30°. The measurement results with high accuracies obtained when using the hollow prisms with apex angles of 450 and 600. The optimum apex angle for the present constructed hollow prism is 450. The refractive index obtained using the hollow prism with the apex angle of 450 is 1,4623 and 1,4438 for the bulk oil and the packed, branded oil samples, respectively. This result suggests that the apex angle of the prism used affects largely the accuracy of the

  5. Determination of Benzo[α]pyrene in Edible Oil Using Tetraoxocalix[2]arene[2]triazine Bonded Silica SPE Sorbent.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Deng, Zhi-Fen; Hongbo, Wang; Peng, Bin; Ma, Xue; Lan, Chen; Zhang, Shu-Sheng

    2018-06-01

    Benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) is a well-known carcinogen in edible oil. In this study, a method combined solid-phase extraction (SPE) with fluorescent detection was developed using tetraoxocalix[2]arene[2]triazine sorbent (SiO 2 -OCA) for the clean-up and enrichment of BaP. The interaction between SiO 2 -OCA and BaP involves a donor-acceptor complex mechanism. The experimental procedure was as follows: BaP was extracted from edible oil with DMF/H 2 O (9:1, v/v). Then, the ratio of DMF/H 2 O was adjusted to 1:2 prior to SPE. The final concentrate was analyzed using a fluorescence detector at excitation and emission wavelengths of 255 and 420 nm. The method was fully validated. The linearity was in the range of 0.1-100 μg kg -1 with a coefficient of 0.999. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.03 and 0.1 μg kg -1 , respectively. The average recoveries were in the range of 88.0-122.3%. The intraday and interday precisions were 6.8% and 9.2%, respectively. Compared with other methods, the method reported in this article shows a good detection limit, high reproducibility and recovery, and linearity over a broad concentration range. This established method was also applied to evaluate real samples. The concentration of six tested samples was below 5 μg kg -1 .

  6. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters ( d 32 ) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness ( L* ≈90). Parameter a * decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆ E ) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R 2 ≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  7. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Summary The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90). Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆E) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased. PMID:27904396

  8. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  9. Fish oil disrupts seabird feather microstructure and waterproofing.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2014-10-15

    Seabirds and other aquatic avifauna are highly sensitive to exposure to petroleum oils. A small amount of oil is sufficient to break down the feather barrier that is necessary to prevent water penetration and hypothermia. Far less attention has been paid to potential effects on aquatic birds of so called 'edible oils', non-petroleum oils such as vegetable and fish oils. In response to a sardine oil discharge by a vessel off the coast of British Columbia, we conducted an experiment to assess if feather exposure to sheens of sardine oil (ranging from 0.04 to 3 μm in thickness) resulted in measurable oil and water uptake and significant feather microstructure disruption. We designed the experiment based on a previous experiment on effects of petroleum oils on seabird feathers. Feathers exposed to the thinnest fish oil sheens (0.04 μm) resulted in measurable feather weight gain (from oil and water uptake) and significant feather microstructure disruption. Both feather weight gain and microstructure disruption increased with increasing fish oil thickness. Because of the absence of primary research on effects of edible oils on sea birds, we conducted interviews with wildlife rehabilitation professionals with experience rehabilitating sea birds after edible oil exposure. The consensus from interviews and our experiment indicated that physical contact with fish and other 'edible oils' in the marine environment is at least as harmful to seabirds as petroleum oils. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and stability evaluation of water-in-edible oils emulsions formulated with the incorporation of hydrophilic Hibiscus sabdariffa extract.

    PubMed

    Pimentel-Moral, Sandra; Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Martínez-Férez, Antonio

    2018-09-15

    New functional oils (extra virgin olive oil, EVOO and sunflower oil, SO) containing antioxidants from Hibiscus sabdariffa extract were developed by W/O emulsion. Their physical and chemical stability was measured over time. The lowest coalescence rate was obtained with 8 and 12 wt% surfactant amount for EVOO and SO emulsions, respectively. Before the evaluation of the oxidative stability, an optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from emulsions by multi-response surface methodology was performed. EVOO emulsions were chemically more stable over time than SO emulsions in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and chemical composition measured by HPLC-ESI.TOF-MS. TPC significantly increased (from 2.02 ± 0.07 to 2.71 ± 0.06 mg Eq GAE/g extract) and the antioxidant activity measured by TEAC remained constant for 1 month of storage. Thus, W/O emulsion technology has proven to be a potential method to vehiculize and stabilize bioactive compounds from H. sabdariffa into edible oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modified Gas Chromatographic Method to Determine Monoacylglycerol and Diacylglycerol Contents in Edible Fats and Oils.

    PubMed

    Satou, Chiemi; Goto, Hirofumi; Yamazaki, Yuya; Saitou, Katsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Shoji; Takahashi, Ou; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Ikuta, Keiichi; Yajima, Yosuke

    2017-06-01

    Monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are minor components of edible fats and oils, and they relate to the quality of these foods. The AOCS official method Cd 11b-91 has been used to determine MAG and DAG contents in fats and oils. There are, however, difficulties in the determination of MAG and DAG using this analytical procedure. Therefore, we improved this method by modifying the trimethylsilyl derivatization procedure and replacing the internal standard (IS) material. In our modified method, TMS-HT (mixture of hexamethyldisilazane and trimethylchlorosilane) was used for derivatization of MAG and DAG, which was followed by liquid-liquid extraction with water and n-hexane solution containing the IS, tricaprin. Using the modified method, we demonstrated superior repeatability in comparison with that of the AOCS method by reducing procedural difficulties. The relative standard deviation of distearin peak areas was 1.8% or 2.9% in the modified method, while it was 5.6% in the AOCS method. In addition, capillary columns, such as DB-1ht and DB-5ht could be used in this method.

  12. Recovery potential of cold press byproducts obtained from the edible oil industry: physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Karasu, Salih; Tornuk, Fatih; Toker, Omer Said; Geçgel, Ümit; Sagdic, Osman; Ozcan, Nihat; Gül, Osman

    2015-03-04

    Physicochemical, bioactive, and antimicrobial properties of different cold press edible oil byproducts (almond (AOB), walnut (WOB), pomegranate (POB), and grape (GOB)) were investigated. Oil, protein, and crude fiber content of the byproducts were found between 4.82 and 12.57%, between 9.38 and 49.05%, and between 5.87 and 45.83%, respectively. GOB had very high crude fiber content; therefore, it may have potential for use as a new dietary fiber source in the food industry. As GOB, POB, and WOB oils were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, AOB was rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Oil byproducts were also found to be rich in dietary mineral contents, especially potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. WOB had highest total phenolic (802 ppm), flavonoid (216 ppm), and total hydrolyzed tannin (2185 ppm) contents among the other byproducts. Volatile compounds of all the byproducts are mainly composed of terpenes in concentration of approximately 95%. Limonene was the dominant volatile compound in all of the byproducts. Almond and pomegranate byproduct extracts showed antibacterial activity depending on their concentration, whereas those of walnut and grape byproducts showed no antibacterial activity against any pathogenic bacteria tested. According to the results of the present study, walnut, almond, pomegranate, and grape seed oil byproducts possess valuable properties that can be taken into consideration for improvement of nutritional and functional properties of many food products.

  13. Effects of carbohydrate/protein ratio on the microstructure and the barrier and sorption properties of wheat starch-whey protein blend edible films.

    PubMed

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Starch and whey protein isolate and their mixtures were used for making edible films. Moisture sorption isotherms, water vapour permeability, sorption of aroma compounds, microstructure, water contact angle and surface properties were investigated. With increasing protein content, the microstructure changes became more homogeneous. The water vapour permeability increases with both the humidity gradient and the starch content. For all films, the hygroscopicity increases with starch content. Surface properties change according to the starch/whey protein ratio and are mainly related to the polar component of the surface tension. Films composed of 80% starch and 20% whey proteins have more hydrophobic surfaces than the other films due to specific interactions. The effect of carbohydrate/protein ratio significantly influences the microstructure, the surface wettability and the barrier properties of wheat starch-whey protein blend films. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Simultaneous determination of zearalenone and its derivatives in edible vegetable oil by gel permeation chromatography and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Liqin; Jin, Nuo; Wang, Jianmei; Jiang, Kezhi

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive gas chromatographic-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (GC-QqQ MS) analytical method, for the determination of zearalenone and its five derivatives in edible vegetable oil, was developed. After the vegetable oil samples were prepared using gel permeation chromatography, the eluent was collected, evaporated and dried with nitrogen gas. The residue was silylated with N,O-bis-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide, containing 1% trimethylchlorosilane. GC-QqQ MS was performed in the reaction-monitoring mode to confirm and quantify mycotoxins in vegetable oil. The limits of quantitation were 0.03-0.2 μg kg(-1) for the six mycotoxins. The average recoveries, measured at 2, 20 and 200 μg kg(-1), were in the range 80.3-96.5%. Zearalenone was detected in the range 5.2-184.6 μg kg(-1) in nine maize oils and at 40.7 μg kg(-1) in a rapeseed oil from the local market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasonication extraction and gel permeation chromatography clean-up for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oil by an isotope dilution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Guo, Cui

    2010-07-09

    An analytical method for the determination of US EPA priority pollutant 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oil was developed by an isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Extraction was performed with ultrasonication mode using acetonitrile as solvent, and subsequent clean-up was applied using narrow gel permeation chromatographic column. Three deuterated PAHs surrogate standards were used as internal standards for quantification and analytical quality control. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were globally below 0.5 ng/g, the recoveries were in the range of 81-96%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were lower than 20%. Further trueness assessment of the method was also verified through participation in international cocoa butter proficiency test (T0638) organised by the FAPAS with excellent results in 2008. The results obtained with the described method were satisfying (z ≤ 2). The method has been applied to determine PAH in real edible oil samples.

  16. Improving Flavonoid Bioaccessibility using an Edible Oil-Based Lipid Nanoparticle for Oral Delivery.

    PubMed

    Ban, Choongjin; Park, So Jeong; Lim, Seokwon; Choi, Seung Jun; Choi, Young Jin

    2015-06-03

    To enhance the oral bioaccessibility of flavonoids, including quercetin, naringenin, and hesperetin, we prepared an edible oil-based lipid nanoparticle (LNP) system. Flavonoid-loaded LNPs were similar to the blank LNP in physicochemical characteristics (z average <154.8 nm, polydispersity index <0.17, and ζ potential < -40.8 mV), and their entrapment efficiency was >81% at 0.3 wt % flavonoid concentration of the lipid phase. In the simulated digestion assay (mouth, stomach, and small intestine), LNPs were hydrolyzed under small intestine conditions and protected successfully incorporated flavonoids (≥94%). Moreover, the relative bioaccessibility of flavonoids was >71%, which was otherwise <15%, although flavonoids were released rapidly from LNPs into the medium. In conclusion, since the flavonoids incorporated in LNPs were preserved well during oral digestion and had improved bioaccessibility, the designed LNP system may serve as an encapsulation strategy to enhance the bioavailability of nonbioaccessible nutraceuticals in foods.

  17. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  18. Effect of a blend of essential oil compounds on the colonization of starch-rich substrates by bacteria in the rumen.

    PubMed

    Duval, S M; McEwan, N R; Graham, R C; Wallace, R J; Newbold, C J

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the mode of action of a blend of essential oil compounds on the colonization of starch-rich substrates by rumen bacteria. Starch-rich substrates were incubated, in nylon bags, in the rumen of sheep organized in a 4 x 4 latin square design and receiving a 60:40 silage : concentrate diet. The concentrate was either high or low in crude protein, and the diet was supplemented or not with a commercial blend of essential oil compounds (110 mg per day). The total genomic DNA was extracted from the residues in the bags. The total eubacterial DNA was quantified by real-time PCR and the proportion of Ruminobacter amylophilus, Streptococcus bovis and Prevotella bryantii was determined. Neither the supplementation with essential oil compounds nor the amount of crude protein affected the colonization of the substrates by the bacteria quantified. However, colonization was significantly affected by the substrate colonized. The effect of essential oils on the colonization of starch-rich substrates is not mediated through the selective inhibition of R. amylophilus. This study enhances our understanding of the colonization of starch-rich substrates, as well as of the mode of action of the essential oils as rumen manipulating agents.

  19. Least square neural network model of the crude oil blending process.

    PubMed

    Rubio, José de Jesús

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the recursive least square algorithm is designed for the big data learning of a feedforward neural network. The proposed method as the combination of the recursive least square and feedforward neural network obtains four advantages over the alone algorithms: it requires less number of regressors, it is fast, it has the learning ability, and it is more compact. Stability, convergence, boundedness of parameters, and local minimum avoidance of the proposed technique are guaranteed. The introduced strategy is applied for the modeling of the crude oil blending process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Study on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Using Fish Oil Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesha, D. K.; Thimmannachar, Rajiv K.; Simhasan, R.; Nagappa, Manjunath; Gowda, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    Bio-fuel is a clean burning fuel made from natural renewable energy resource; it operates in C. I. engine similar to the petroleum diesel. The rising cost of diesel and the danger caused to the environment has led to an intensive and desperate search for alternative fuels. Among them, animal fats like the fish oil have proven to be a promising substitute to diesel. In this experimental study, A computerized 4-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine was operated on fish oil-biodiesel of different blends. Three different blends of 10, 20, and 30 % by volume were used for this study. Various engine performance, combustion and emission parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, Peak Pressure, Exhaust Gas Temperature, etc. were recorded from the acquired data. The data was recorded with the help of an engine analysis software. The recorded parameters were studied for varying loads and their corresponding graphs have been plotted for comparison purposes. Petroleum Diesel has been used as the reference. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that fish oil biodiesel is a better replacement for diesel without any engine modification.

  1. Stability of lime essential oil microparticles produced with protein-carbohydrate blends.

    PubMed

    Campelo, Pedro Henrique; Sanches, Edgar Aparecido; Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga; Borges, Soraia Vilela

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze the influence of maltodextrin equivalent dextrose on the lime essential oil reconstitution, storage, release and protection properties. Four treatments were evaluated: whey protein concentrate (WPC), and blends of maltodextrin with dextrose equivalents of 5 (WM5), 10 (WM10) and 20 (WM20). The reconstitution and storage properties of the microparticles (solubility, wettability and density), water kinetics adsorption, sorption isotherms, thermogravimetric properties, controlled release and degradation kinetics of encapsulated lime essential oil were studied to measure the quality of the encapsulated materials. The results of the study indicated that the DE degree influences the characteristics of reconstitution, storage, controlled release and degradation characteristics of encapsulated bioactive compounds. The increase in dextrose equivalent improves microparticle solubility, wettability and density, mainly due to the size of the maltodextrin molecules. The adsorption kinetics and sorption isotherm curves confirmed the increase in the hygroscopicity of maltodextrins with higher degrees of polymerization. The size of the maltodextrin chains influenced the release and protection of the encapsulated lime essential oil. Finally, the maltodextrin polymerization degree can be considered a parameter that will influence the physicochemical properties of microencapsulated food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  3. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  4. High-throughput analysis of lipid hydroperoxides in edible oils and fats using the fluorescent reagent diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine.

    PubMed

    Santas, Jonathan; Guzmán, Yeimmy J; Guardiola, Francesc; Rafecas, Magdalena; Bou, Ricard

    2014-11-01

    A fluorometric method for the determination of hydroperoxides (HP) in edible oils and fats using the reagent diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) was developed and validated. Two solvent media containing 100% butanol or a mixture of chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v) can be used to solubilise lipid samples. Regardless of the solvent used to solubilise the sample, the DPPP method was precise, accurate, sensitive and easy to perform. The HP content of 43 oil and fat samples was determined and the results were compared with those obtained by means of the AOCS Official Method for the determination of peroxide value (PV) and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) method. The proposed method not only correlates well with the PV and FOX methods, but also presents some advantages such as requiring low sample and solvent amounts and being suitable for high-throughput sample analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gum arabic based composite edible coating on green chillies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiathan, Sreejit; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Green chillies were coated with a composite edible coating composed of gum arabic (5%), glycerol (1%), thyme oil (0.5%) and tween 80 (0.05%) to preserve the freshness and quality of green chillies and thus reduce the cost of preservation. In the present work, the chillies were coated with the composite edible coating using the dipping method with three dipping times (1, 3 and 5 min). The physicochemical parameters of the coated and control chillies stored at room temperature (28±2ºC) were evaluated at regular intervals of storage. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in the physicochemical properties between the control chillies and coated chillies with 1, 3 and 5 min dipping times. The coated green chillies showed significantly (p≤0.05) lower weight loss, phenolic acid production, capsaicin production and significantly (p≤0.05) higher retention of ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll content, colour, firmness and better organoleptic properties. The composite edible coating of gum arabic and thyme oil with 3 min dipping was effective in preserving the desirable physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of the green chillies up to 12 days, compared to the uncoated chillies that had a shelf life of 6 days at room temperature.

  6. Development and characterization of an edible composite film based on chitosan and virgin coconut oil with improved moisture sorption properties.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Ravishankar, C N; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2013-04-01

    An edible composite film was prepared from an emulsion system based on chitosan and virgin coconut oil (VCO). The effect of incorporation of VCO was evaluated at various concentrations and the optimum concentration was chosen based on resultant changes in the properties of the film. Addition of VCO in film forming solution resulted in increase in film thickness and marginal reduction in film transparency. Compatibility of VCO with chitosan was better at lower concentration of VCO as indicated by the microstructure of composite film in scanning electron micrographs. Phase separation was evident at higher level of oil incorporation and the optimal oil/chitosan ratio was determined to be at 0.5 to 1 mL/g chitosan. Furthermore, chemical interaction took place between VCO and chitosan as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data. Even though control chitosan films exhibited superior gas barrier properties, composite film with optimum VCO concentration revealed better mechanical and moisture sorption properties. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  8. Detailed characterization of bio-oil from pyrolysis of non-edible seed-cakes by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, Vatsala; Prakash, Shanti; Ramu, Emmandi; Arora, Ajay Kumar; Bansal, Veena; Kagdiyal, Vivekanand; Saxena, Deepak

    2017-07-15

    Bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis is highly complicated mixture with valued chemicals. In order to reduce the complexity for unambiguous characterization of components present in bio-oil, solvent extractions using different solvents with increasing polarity have been adopted. The fractions have been analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for identifying the functional groups and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for detailed characterization of components present in various fractions, thereby providing in-depth information at molecular level of various components in bio-oil. This paper reveals the potential of the analytical techniques in identification and brings out the similarities as well as differences in the components present in the bio-oil obtained from two non-edible oil seed-cakes, viz., Jatropha and Karanjia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Water-contained surfactant-based vortex-assisted microextraction method combined with liquid chromatography for determination of synthetic antioxidants from edible oil.

    PubMed

    Amlashi, Nadiya Ekbatani; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nazari, Seyed Saman Seyed Jafar

    2014-09-26

    For the first time, a novel water-contained surfactant-based vortex-assisted microextraction method (WSVAME) was developed for the extraction of two synthetic antioxidants (t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)) from edible oil samples. The novel microextraction method is based on the injection of an aqueous solution of non-ionic surfactant, Brij-35, into the oil sample in a conical bottom glass tube to form a cloudy solution. Vortex mixing was applied to accelerate the dispersion process. After extraction and phase separation by centrifugation, the lower sediment phase was directly analyzed by HPLC. The effects of the four experimental parameters including volume and concentration of extraction solvent (aqueous solution of Brij-35), percentage of acetic acid added to the oil sample and vortex time on the extraction efficiency were studied with a full factorial design. The central composite design and multiple linear regression method were applied for the construction of the best polynomial model based on experimental recoveries. The proposed method showed good linearity within the range of 0.200-200 μg mL(-1), the square of correlation coefficient higher than 0.999 and appropriate limit of detection (0.026 and 0.020 μg mL(-1) for TBHQ and BHA, respectively), while the precision for inner-day was ≤ 3.0 (n=5) and it was ≤ 3.80 (n=5) for inter-day assay. Under the optimal condition (30 μL of 0.10 mol L(-1) Brij-35 solution as extraction solvent and vortex time 1 min), the method was successfully applied for determination of TBHQ and BHA in different commercial edible oil samples. The recoveries in all cases were above 95%, with relative standard deviations below 5%. This approach is considered as a simple, sensitive and environmentally friendly method because of biodegradability of the extraction phase and no use of organic solvent in the extraction procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In Vivo Antiplaque Effect of Three Edible Toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Feijoo, Javier; Limeres, Jacobo; García-Caballero, Lucía; Abeleira, María T.; Diz, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyse the antibacterial and antiplaque activity of three edible toothpastes with the widest worldwide distribution: KidScents™, which contains essential oils; Browning B&B™, with medicinal plants; and Wysong Probiodent™, which contains probiotics. Study Design: The study group was formed of twenty healthy volunteers (dental students) with a good oral health status. Using a balanced randomisation system, all volunteers performed toothbrushing with four products (the three edible toothpastes and water) at intervals of one week. Bacterial vitality in the saliva was analysed by epifluorescence microscopy and plaque regrowth was evaluated using the Turesky-Quigley-Hein plaque index. Results: Bacterial vitality in the saliva was significantly higher after toothbrushing with water (positive control) than with the three toothpastes (P=0.002, P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). The plaque index was significantly higher after using these three toothpastes than after toothbrushing with water (P=0.047, P=0.032 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The three edible toothpastes analysed have some antimicrobial activity but favour plaque regrowth. Key words:Edible toothpaste, dental plaque, oral bacteria. PMID:23986022

  11. Single-laboratory validation of a saponification method for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils by HPLC-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Akdoğan, Abdullah; Buttinger, Gerhard; Wenzl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An analytical method is reported for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and chrysene (CHR)) in edible oils (sesame, maize, sunflower and olive oil) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sample preparation is based on three steps including saponification, liquid-liquid partitioning and, finally, clean-up by solid phase extraction on 2 g of silica. Guidance on single-laboratory validation of the proposed analysis method was taken from the second edition of the Eurachem guide on method validation. The lower level of the working range of the method was determined by the limits of quantification of the individual analytes, and the upper level was equal to 5.0 µg kg(-1). The limits of detection and quantification of the four PAHs ranged from 0.06 to 0.12 µg kg(-1) and from 0.13 to 0.24 µg kg(-1). Recoveries of more than 84.8% were achieved for all four PAHs at two concentration levels (2.5 and 5.0 µg kg(-1)), and expanded relative measurement uncertainties were below 20%. The performance of the validated method was in all aspects compliant with provisions set in European Union legislation for the performance of analytical methods employed in the official control of food. The applicability of the method to routine samples was evaluated based on a limited number of commercial edible oil samples.

  12. Dairy fat blends high in α-linolenic acid are superior to n-3 fatty-acid-enriched palm oil blends for increasing DHA levels in the brains of young rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Qin; Martin, Jean-Charles; Agnani, Genevieve; Pages, Nicole; Leruyet, Pascale; Carayon, Pierre; Delplanque, Bernadette

    2012-12-01

    Achieving an appropriate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status in the neonatal brain is an important goal of neonatal nutrition. We evaluated how different dietary fat matrices improved DHA content in the brains of both male and female rats. Forty rats of each gender were born from dams fed over gestation and lactation with a low α-linolenic acid (ALA) diet (0.4% of fatty acids) and subjected for 6 weeks after weaning to a palm oil blend-based diet (10% by weight) that provided either 1.5% ALA or 1.5% ALA and 0.12% DHA with 0.4% arachidonic acid or to an anhydrous dairy fat blend that provided 1.5% or 2.3% ALA. Fatty acids in the plasma, red blood cells (RBCs) and whole brain were determined by gas chromatography. The 1.5% ALA dairy fat was superior to both the 1.5% ALA palm oil blends for increasing brain DHA (14.4% increase, P<.05), and the 2.3% ALA dairy blend exhibited a further increase that could be ascribed to both an ALA increase and n-6/n-3 ratio decrease. Females had significantly higher brain DHA due to a gender-to-diet interaction, with dairy fats attenuating the gender effect. Brain DHA was predicted with a better accuracy by some plasma and RBC fatty acids when used in combination (R(2) of 0.6) than when used individually (R(2)=0.47 for RBC n-3 docosapentaenoic acid at best). In conclusion, dairy fat blends enriched with ALA appear to be an interesting strategy for achieving optimal DHA levels in the brain of postweaning rats. Human applications are worth considering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  14. Diesel fuel blending components from mixture of waste animal fat and light cycle oil from fluid catalytic cracking.

    PubMed

    Hancsók, Jenő; Sági, Dániel; Valyon, József

    2018-06-11

    Sustainable production of renewable fuels has become an imperative goal but also remains a huge challenge faced by the chemical industry. A variety of low-value, renewable sources of carbon such as wastes and by-products must be evaluated for their potential as feedstock to achieve this goal. Hydrogenation of blends comprising waste animal fat (≤70 wt%) and low-value fluid catalytic cracking light cycle oil (≥30 wt%), with a total aromatic content of 87.2 wt%, was studied on a commercial sulfided NiMo/Al 2 O 3 catalyst. The fuel fraction in the diesel boiling range was separated by fractional distillation from the organic liquid product obtained from the catalytic conversion of the blend of 70 wt% waste animal fat and 30 wt% light cycle oil. Diesel fuel of the best quality was obtained under the following reaction conditions: T = 615-635 K, P = 6 MPa, LHSV = 1.0 h -1 , H 2 /feedstock ratio = 600 Nm 3 /m 3 . The presence of fat in the feedstock was found to promote the conversion of light cycle oil to a paraffinic blending component for diesel fuel. Thus, a value-added alternative fuel with high biocontent can be obtained from low-value refinery stream and waste animal fat. The resultant disposal of waste animal fat, and the use of fuel containing less fossil carbon for combustion helps reduce the emission of pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Base catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable economic and industrial growth requires safe, sustainable resources of energy. Biofuel is becoming increasingly important as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. The use of non-edible vegetable oils for biofuel production is significant because of the increasing demand for edible oils as food. With the recent debate of food versus fuel, some non-edible oils like soapnut and Jatropha (Jatropha curcus. L) are being investigated as possible sources of biofuel. Recent research has focused on the application of heterogeneous catalysis. This review considers catalytic transesterification and the possibility of heterogeneous base catalysts. The process of transesterification, and the effect of parameters, mechanism and kinetics are reviewed. Although chromatography (GC and HPLC) are the analytical methods most often used for biofuel characterization, other techniques and some improvements to analytical methods are discussed.

  16. Ileal and cecal microbial populations in broilers given specific essential oil blends and probiotics in two consecutive grow-outs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Digestive microbial populations (MP) are key components for sustained healthy broiler production. Specific essential oil (EO) blends and probiotics used as feed additives have shown to promote healthy digestive microbials, resulting in improved poultry production. Two consecutive experiments were ...

  17. Measurement of absorption rates of HFC single and blended refrigerants in POE oils

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, M.; Jotshi, C.K.; Goswami, D.Y.

    1999-07-01

    Thermophysical properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures play an important role in refrigeration and air-conditioning system design. Therefore it is important to have a good understanding of the mixture composition in each system component such as the compressor or evaporator. Because the system operation is dynamic the rates of absorption and desorption become significant parameters. In this paper measured absorption rates of alternative refrigerants in polyolester (POE) oils are reported. An effective online mass gain method was designed and constructed to measure the absorption rates and solubility of refrigerants in lubricants. HFC single refrigerants (R-32, R-125, R-134a, and R-143a), and blended refrigerantsmore » (R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A) were tested with POE ISO 68 lubricant under various conditions. The experimental results showed that, at room temperature, R-134a is the most soluble in POE ISO 68 oil among all the refrigerants tested at pressures of 239 kPa (20 psig) to 446 kPa (70 psig). Among the blended refrigerants tested, R-407C was found to be the most soluble at room temperature and pressures of 239 kPa and 446 kPa. Experimental solubility data from this new measurement method were compared with data available in the literature. Good agreement between the two indicates the feasibility of the new method employed in this investigation.« less

  18. Mild pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass blends for the production of bio-oil enriched with crotonic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mild pyrolysis of switchgrass/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) blends that mimic P3HB-producing switchgrass lines was studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with the goal of simultaneously producing crotonic acid and switchgrass-based bio-oil. Factors such as pyrolysis temperature, residenc...

  19. Shelf-life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film.

    PubMed

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristián; Plasencia, Dora; Pastor, Ana; Castro-Mandujano, Olivio; López, Luis; Escalona, Victor H

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating in extending the shelf-life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75% relative humidity. These conditions were used to simulate the storage conditions in supermarkets and represent adverse conditions for testing the effects of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of the coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by changes in weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa and 117.2% ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3 × 10(-12) ± 4.0 × 10(-13) g s(-1) m(-1) Pa(-1). In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher titratable acidity (0.3-0.5 g citric acid 100 g(-1)) and lower pH (3.4-3.6) than control during storage; however, it showed reduced firmness (up to 38%). The use of Q/CH/SO as a coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 days of storage, whereas the control showed an increasing of molds and yeast, between 1.8 and 3.1 log cycles (between 20 and 35 days). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Intraparticle diffusion limitations in the hydrogenation of monounsaturated edible oils and their fatty acid methyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Jonker, G.H.; Veldsink, J.W.; Beenackers, A.A.C.M.

    1998-12-01

    Intraparticle diffusion limitation in the hydrogenation and isomerization of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and edible oils (triacylglycerol, TAG) in porous nickel catalyst was investigated both under reactive and under inert conditions. Under reactive conditions, the diffusion coefficients were determined from the best fits of the model simulations applying the intrinsic reacting kinetics of monounsaturated FAME hydrogenation to experiments under diffusion limited conditions. Due to the absence of reaction (hydrogenation of double bonds), the obtained effective H{sub z} diffusion coefficient (D{sub e}) with the HPLC technique is volume averaged and thereby determined by the larger intercrystalline pores (<30% of themore » total pore volume) only. Moreover, D{sub e} measured under reaction conditions reflected the influence of the micropores, resulting in a 10-fold lower value.« less

  1. Ion mobility spectrometry fingerprints: A rapid detection technology for adulteration of sesame oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Shuai, Qian; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    A simple and rapid detection technology was proposed based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) fingerprints to determine potential adulteration of sesame oil. Oil samples were diluted by n-hexane and analyzed by IMS for 20s. Then, chemometric methods were employed to establish discriminant models for sesame oils and four other edible oils, pure and adulterated sesame oils, and pure and counterfeit sesame oils, respectively. Finally, Random Forests (RF) classification model could correctly classify all five types of edible oils. The detection results indicated that the discriminant models built by recursive support vector machine (R-SVM) method could identify adulterated sesame oil samples (⩾ 10%) with an accuracy value of 94.2%. Therefore, IMS was shown to be an effective method to detect the adulterated sesame oils. Meanwhile, IMS fingerprints work well to detect the counterfeit sesame oils produced by adding sesame oil essence into cheaper edible oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  3. Influence of simulated deep frying on the antioxidant fraction of vegetable oils after enrichment with extracts from olive oil pomace.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Solano, M I; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2011-09-28

    The stability of the antioxidant fraction in edible vegetable oils has been evaluated during a simulated deep frying process at 180 °C. Four edible oils (i.e., extra-virgin olive oil with a 400 μg/mL overall content in naturally existing phenols; high-oleic sunflower oil without natural content of these compounds but enriched either with hydrophilic antioxidants isolated from olive pomace or with an oxidation inhibitor, dimethylsiloxane; and sunflower oil without enrichment) were subjected to deep heating consisting of 20 cycles at 180 °C for 5 min each. An oil aliquot was sampled after each heating cycle to study the influence of heating on the antioxidant fraction composed of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants such as phenols and tocopherols, respectively. The decomposition curves for each group of compounds caused by the influence of deep heating were studied to compare their resistance to oxidation. Thus, the suitability of olive pomace as raw material to obtain these compounds offers an excellent alternative to the use of olive-tree materials different from leaves. The enrichment of refined edible oils with natural antioxidants from olive pomace is a sustainable strategy to take benefits from this residue.

  4. Effect of the Fish Oil Fortified Chitosan Edible Film on Microbiological, Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of Göbek Kashar Cheese during Ripening Time.

    PubMed

    Yangilar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of coated edible films with chitosan solutions enriched with essential oil (EO) on the chemical, microbial and sensory properties of Kashar cheese during ripening time. Generally, no differences were found in total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, streptococci and lactoccocci counts among cheeses but these microorganism counts increased during 60 and 90 d storage especially in C1 (uncoated sample) as compared with coated samples. Antimicrobial effectiveness of the films against moulds was measured on 30, 60, and 90 d of storage. In addition of fish EO into chitosan edible films samples were showed to affect significantly decreased the moulds (p<0.05) as 1.15 Log CFU/g in C4 (with fish oil (1% w/v) fortified chitosan film) on the 90(th) d, while in C1 as 3.89 Log CFU/g on the 90(th) d of ripening. Compared to other cheese samples, C2 (coated with chitosan film) and C4 coated cheese samples revealed higher levels of water-soluble nitrogen and ripening index at the end of storage. C2 coated cheese samples were preferred more by the panellists while C4 coated cheese samples received the lowest scores.

  5. Effect of the Fish Oil Fortified Chitosan Edible Film on Microbiological, Chemical Composition and Sensory Properties of Göbek Kashar Cheese during Ripening Time

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of coated edible films with chitosan solutions enriched with essential oil (EO) on the chemical, microbial and sensory properties of Kashar cheese during ripening time. Generally, no differences were found in total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, streptococci and lactoccocci counts among cheeses but these microorganism counts increased during 60 and 90 d storage especially in C1 (uncoated sample) as compared with coated samples. Antimicrobial effectiveness of the films against moulds was measured on 30, 60, and 90 d of storage. In addition of fish EO into chitosan edible films samples were showed to affect significantly decreased the moulds (p<0.05) as 1.15 Log CFU/g in C4 (with fish oil (1% w/v) fortified chitosan film) on the 90th d, while in C1 as 3.89 Log CFU/g on the 90th d of ripening. Compared to other cheese samples, C2 (coated with chitosan film) and C4 coated cheese samples revealed higher levels of water-soluble nitrogen and ripening index at the end of storage. C2 coated cheese samples were preferred more by the panellists while C4 coated cheese samples received the lowest scores. PMID:27433109

  6. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). Results The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that > 90% of palm biodiesel and > 80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65°C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). Conclusions Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at ~ 80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles. PMID:24812574

  7. Quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible vegetable oils marketed in Shandong of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dafeng; Xin, Chenglong; Li, Wei; Chen, Jindong; Li, Fenghua; Chu, Zunhua; Xiao, Peirui; Shao, Lijun

    2015-09-01

    This work studies on the quantitative analysis and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible vegetable oils in Shandong, China. The concentrations of 15 PAHs in 242 samples were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. The results indicated that the mean concentration of 15 PAHs in oil samples was 54.37 μg kg(-1). Low molecular weight PAH compounds were the predominant contamination. Especially, the carcinogenic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was detected at a mean concentration of 1.28 μg kg(-1), which was lower than the limit of European Union and China. A preliminary evaluation of human health risk assessment for PAHs was accomplished using BaP toxic equivalency factors and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The ILCR values for children, adolescents, adults, and seniors were all larger than 1 × 10(-6), indicating a high potential carcinogenic risk on the dietary exposed populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter.

  9. Effect of Presence and Concentration of Plasticizers, Vegetable Oils, and Surfactants on the Properties of Sodium-Alginate-Based Edible Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Michael; Müller, Kajetan

    2018-01-01

    Achieving high quality of a coated food product is mostly dependent on the characteristics of the food material to be coated, the properties of the components in the coating solution, and the obtained coating material. In the present study, usability and effectiveness of various components as well as their concentrations were assessed to produce an effective coating material. For this purpose, different concentrations of gelling agent (sodium alginate 0–3.5%, w/w), plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol (0–20%, w/w), surfactants (tween 40, tween 80, span 60, span 80, lecithin (0–5%, w/w), and vegetable oils (sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil (0–5%, w/w) were used to prepare edible coating solutions. Formulations were built gradually, and characteristics of coatings were evaluated by analyzing surface tension values and its polar and dispersive components, emulsion droplet size, and optical appearance in microscopic scale. The results obtained showed that 1.25% sodium alginate, 2% glycerol, 0.2% sunflower oil, 1% span 80, and 0.2% tween 40 or tween 80 can be used in formulation to obtain an effective coating for hydrophobic food surfaces. Three formulations were designed, and their stability (emulsion droplet size, optical characteristics, and creaming index) and wettability tests on strawberry showed that they could be successfully used in coating applications. PMID:29509669

  10. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J J; Appa Rao, V; Babu, R Narendra

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  11. Solution for blank and matrix difficulties encountered during phthalate analysis of edible oils by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vavrouš, Adam; Pavloušková, Jana; Ševčík, Václav; Vrbík, Karel; Čabala, Radomír

    2016-07-22

    Worldwide production of phthalates has led to their undesirable presence in the food chain. Particularly edible oils have become an area of growing concern owing to numerous reported occurrences of phthalates. The analytical methods used in this field face difficulties associated mainly with matrix complexity or phthalate contamination which this study has aimed to describe and resolve. The proposed procedure consisting of liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry allowed us to analyze simultaneously 6 individual phthalates and 2 phthalate isomeric mixtures. DSC-18 SPE phase was selected for cleanup owing to the most efficient co-extract removal (assessed using high resolution mass spectrometry). Several sources of phthalate contamination were identified, however, the mobile phase was the most serious. The key improvement was achieved by equipping a contamination trap, a 50-mm reverse phase HPLC column, generating a delay between target and mobile phase peaks of the same compounds. RSDs ranging between 2.4 and 16 % confirm good precision and LOQs between 5.5 and 110μgkg(-1) reflect satisfactory blank management. With up to 19 occurrences in 25 analyzed edible oil samples and levels up to 33mgkg(-1), bis(2-ethylhexyl), diisononyl and diisodecyl phthalates were the most important contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J. J.; Appa Rao, V.; Babu, R. Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Materials and Methods: Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application. PMID:27051203

  13. Melting, crystallization and storage stability of virgin coconut oil and its blends by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt; Sajeevkumar, Vallayil Appukuttan; Sharma, G K

    2017-01-01

    The blends were prepared of virgin coconut oil with refined soyabean oil (VCO-RSOY) and refined safflower oil (VCO-RSAFF). Blending with VCO improved the fatty acid composition which increased the shelf stability of 20:80 VCO-RSOY and VCO-RSAFF up to 12 months in different packaging systems such as low density polyethylene, linear low density polyethylene, metalized polyester pouches, polyethylene teteraphthalate, high density polyethylene (HDPE), Amber HDPE bottle. The specific spectral regions of FTIR proved to be very useful for the determination of adulteration as well as for the study of oxidation process. Band shifts observed at 3008, 1652, 1397, 1097, 912 and 845 cm -1 have been used to differentiate RSAFF from VCO. VCO spectrums did not have these chemical shifts. Further the spectrum of RSOY showed same band shifts as RSAFF except 1652, 1397, 869.6 and 845 cm -1 . Differential Scanning Calorimetry provided useful information regarding the nature of thermodynamic changes related to physical state of vegetable oil. The physical state changes included melting and crystallization events which require the intake and release of energy.

  14. Influence of an organic acid blend and essential oil blend, individually or in combination, on growth performance, carcass parameters, apparent digestibility, intestinal microflora and intestinal morphology of broilers.

    PubMed

    Basmacioğlu-Malayoğlu, H; Ozdemir, P; Bağriyanik, H A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of an organic acid (OA) and essential oil (EO) blends, individually or in combination, on growth performance, carcass parameters, apparent digestibility, intestinal microflora and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 480 one-d-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 4 replicates each (n = 30 birds in each replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control), and basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg OA blend (OAB), 300 mg/kg EO blend (EOB), or with 2 g/kg OA and 300 mg/kg EO blend (OAB-EOB) for 42 d. The dietary supplementation with EO blend or in combination with OA blend increased body weight gain and improved feed efficiency as compared to control. Dietary treatments had no significant effects on feed consumption or relative organ weights of broilers. The OAB diet increased carcass yield compared to the control diet but the lowest carcass yield occurred with the OAB-EOB combination. Birds fed on EOB and OAB-EOB diets had lower ileum Escherichia coli counts than birds fed on the control diet. There was no significant effect of treatments on apparent digestibility at 16-21 d but the EOB and OAB-EOB diets increased apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein during the finisher period (d 37-42) compared to the control diet. Birds fed on the EOB and OAB-EOB diets had greater villus height in the ileum at 21 and 42 d of age and had lower crypt depth in the ileum at 42 d of age than birds given the control diet. In conclusion, beneficial effects of the use of EO blend individually or in combination with the OA blend were observed but the OA blend alone was ineffective. Furthermore, the use of the combination of OA and EO was more effective, in some respects, than their individual use.

  15. [Metabolic engineering of edible plant oils].

    PubMed

    Yue, Ai-Qin; Sun, Xi-Ping; Li, Run-Zhi

    2007-12-01

    Plant seed oil is the major source of many fatty acids for human nutrition, and also one of industrial feedstocks. Recent advances in understanding of the basic biochemistry of seed oil biosynthesis, coupled with cloning of the genes encoding the enzymes involved in fatty acid modification and oil accumulation, have set the stage for the metabolic engineering of oilseed crops that produce "designer" plant seed oils with the improved nutritional values for human being. In this review we provide an overview of seed oil biosynthesis/regulation and highlight the key enzymatic steps that are targets for gene manipulation. The strategies of metabolic engineering of fatty acids in oilseeds, including overexpression or suppression of genes encoding single or multi-step biosynthetic pathways and assembling the complete pathway for the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) are described in detail. The current "bottlenecks" in using common oilseeds as "bioreactors" for commercial production of high-value fatty acids are analyzed. It is also discussed that the future research focuses of oilseed metabolic engineering and the prospects in creating renewable sources and promoting the sustainable development of human society and economy.

  16. Simultaneous determination of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oil by tandem solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Tang, Hua; Chen, Dazhou; Dong, Haifeng; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    An efficient and fast tandem SPE method followed by GC/MS/MS has been developed for the determination and the quantification of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oil. This method includes the monitoring of 15 + 1 PAHs designated as a priority by the European Union in their 2005/108/EC recommendation and 16 PAHs listed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The sample preparation procedures were based on SPE in which PAH-dedicated cartridges with molecularly imprinted polymers and graphitized carbon black were used in series. The novel tandem SPE combination of selective extraction and purification of light and heavy PAHs provided highly purified analytes. Identification and quantification of 24 target PAHs were performed using GC/MS/MS with the isotope dilution approaches using D-labeled and (13)C-labeled PAHs. The advantages of GC/MS/MS as compared to other detection methods include high sensitivity, selectivity, and interpretation ability. The method showed satisfactory linearity (R(2) > 0.998) over the range assayed (0.5-200 μg/kg); the LODs ranged from 0.03 to 0.6 μg/kg, and LOQs from 0.1 to 2.0 μg/kg. The recoveries using this method at three spiked concentration levels (2, 10, and 50 μg/kg) ranged from 56.8 to 117.7%. The RSD was lower than 12.7% in all cases. The proposed analytical method has been successfully applied for the analysis of the 24 PAHs in edible oil.

  17. Optimization of edible coating formulations for improving postharvest quality and shelf life of pear fruit using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nandane, A S; Dave, Rudri K; Rao, T V Ramana

    2017-01-01

    The effect of composite edible films containing soy protein isolate (SPI) in combination with additives like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and olive oil on 'Babughosha' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stored at ambient temperature (28 ± 5 °C and 60 ± 10% RH) was evaluated using Response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 30 edible coating formulations comprising of SPI (2-6%, w/v), olive oil (0.7-1.1%, v/v), HPMC (0.1-0.5%, w/v) and potassium sorbate (0-0.4% w/v) were evaluated for optimizing the most suitable combination. Quality parameters like weight loss%, TSS, pH and titrable acidity of the stored pears were selected as response variables for optimization. The optimization procedure was carried out using RSM. It was observed that the response variables were mainly effected by concentration of SPI and olive oil in the formulation. Edible coating comprising of SPI 5%, HPMC 0.40%, olive oil 1% and potassium sorbate 0.22% was found to be most suitable combination for pear fruit with predicted values of response variables indicated as weight loss% 3.50, pH 3.41, TSS 11.13 and TA% 0.513.

  18. Influence of the reaction conditions on the enzyme catalyzed transesterification of castor oil: A possible step in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Thalles A; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud V

    2017-11-01

    The identification of the influence of the reaction parameters is of paramount importance when defining a process design. In this work, non-edible castor oil was reacted with methanol to produce a possible component for biodiesel blends, using liquid enzymes as the catalyst. Temperature, alcohol-to-oil molar ratio, enzyme and added water contents were the reaction parameters evaluated in the transesterification reactions. The optimal conditions, giving the optimal final FAME yield and FFA content in the methyl ester-phase was identified. At 35°C, 6.0 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 5wt% of enzyme and 5wt% of water contents, 94% of FAME yield and 6.1% of FFA in the final composition were obtained. The investigation was completed with the analysis of the component profiles, showing that at least 8h are necessary to reach a satisfactory FAME yield together with a minor FFA content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glass transitions and physical aging of cassava starch - corn oil blends.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Adriana; Sandoval, Aleida J; Cova, Aura; Müller, Alejandro J

    2014-05-25

    Glass transition temperatures and physical aging of amorphous cassava starch and their blends with corn oil were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Two enthalpic relaxation endotherms, well separated in temperature values, were exhibited by neat amorphous cassava starch with 10.6% moisture content, evidencing two amorphous regions within the starch with different degrees of mobility. The phase segregation of these two amorphous regions was favored by added corn oil at low moisture contents during storage. The presence of amylose-lipid complexes in this matrix, may also affect the molecular dynamics of these two amorphous regions at low moisture contents. Increasing moisture content, leads to a homogeneous amorphous phase, with an aging process characterized by a single enthalpic relaxation peak. In all cases, after deleting the thermal history of the samples only one glass transition temperature was detected (during DSC second heating runs) indicating that a single homogeneous amorphous phase was attained after erasing the effects of physical aging. Trends of the enthalpic relaxation parameters were also different at the two moisture contents considered in this work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    PubMed

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour.

  1. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  2. Forensic identification of spilled biodiesel and its blends with petroleum oil based on fingerprinting information.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Wang, Zhendi; Yang, Chun; Brown, Carl; Landriault, Mike

    2013-06-01

    A case study is presented for the forensic identification of several spilled biodiesels and its blends with petroleum oil using integrated forensic oil fingerprinting techniques. The integrated fingerprinting techniques combined SPE with GC/MS for obtaining individual petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and their alkylated derivatives and biomarkers), and biodiesel hydrocarbons (fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols). HPLC equipped with evaporative scattering laser detector was also used for identifying the compounds that conventional GC/MS could not finish. The three environmental samples (E1, E2, and E3) and one suspected source sample (S2) were dominant with vegetable oil with high acid values and low concentration of fatty acid methyl ester. The suspected source sample S2 was responsible for the three spilled samples although E1 was slightly contaminated by petroleum oil with light hydrocarbons. The suspected source sample S1 exhibited with the high content of glycerol, low content of glycerides, and high polarity, indicating its difference from the other samples. These samples may be the separated byproducts in producing biodiesel. Canola oil source is the most possible feedstock for the three environmental samples and the suspected source sample S2. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Promising features of Moringa oleifera oil: recent updates and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-12-08

    Lipids are the concentrated source of energy, fat soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids, carriers of flavours and many bio-active compounds with important role in maintaining physiological functions of biological body. Moringa oleifera is native to Himalaya and widely grown in many Asian and African countries with seed oil content range from 35-40%. Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) has light yellow colour with mild nutty flavour and fatty acids composition suggests that MOO is highly suitable for both edible and non-edible applications. MOO is extremely resistant to autoxidation which can be used as an antioxidant for the long term stabilization of commercial edible oils. Thermal stability of MOO is greater than soybean, sunflower, canola and cottonseed oils. High oleic contents of MOO are believed to have the capability of increasing beneficial HDL cholesterol and decreased the serum cholesterol and triglycerides. MOO applications have also been explored in cosmetics, folk medicines and skin care formulations. Overall, this review focuses on commercial production status, food applications, antioxidant characteristics, health benefits, thermal stability, fractionation, cholesterol contents, medicinal, nutraceutical action, toxicological evaluation, biodiesel production, personal care formulations and future perspectives of the MOO for the stake holders to process and utilize MOO as a new source of edible oil for industrial purpose.

  4. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts.

    PubMed

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G; Carter, Chris G; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend.

  5. Preliminary Validation of a High Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and -Linolenic Acid (ALA) Dietary Oil Blend: Tissue Fatty Acid Composition and Liver Proteome Response in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    PubMed Central

    Nuez-Ortín, Waldo G.; Carter, Chris G.; Wilson, Richard; Cooke, Ira; Nichols, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend. PMID:27556399

  6. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W; Hill, Russell T

    2017-06-23

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera : Chlamydomonas , Poterioochromonas , Scenedesmus , Desmodesmus , Chlorella , Bracteacoccus , Monoraphidium , Selenastrum , Acutodesmus , Mychonastes , Ankistrodesmus , Kirchneriella , Raphidocelis , Dictyosphaerium , Coelastrella , Schizochlamydella , Oocystidium , Nannochloris , Auxenochlorella , Chlorosarcinopsis , Stichococcus , Picochlorum , Prasinoderma , Chlorococcum , and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana , but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the

  7. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W.; Hill, Russell T.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera: Chlamydomonas, Poterioochromonas, Scenedesmus, Desmodesmus, Chlorella, Bracteacoccus, Monoraphidium, Selenastrum, Acutodesmus, Mychonastes, Ankistrodesmus, Kirchneriella, Raphidocelis, Dictyosphaerium, Coelastrella, Schizochlamydella, Oocystidium, Nannochloris, Auxenochlorella, Chlorosarcinopsis, Stichococcus, Picochlorum, Prasinoderma, Chlorococcum, and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana, but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the fatty acids in these strains

  8. [Dietary exposure assessment of aflatoxin of foodstuff and edible oil from Shenzhen residents].

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Qiu, Fen; Jiang, Lixin; Yang, Mei

    2014-07-01

    To assess the dietary exposure aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins of foodstuff and edible oil in Shenzhen residents. Aflatoxins in the samples were determined by the immuno-affinity column clean-up plus UPLC. The aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins dietary exposure were calculated by the level of aflatoxins contamination in the food and consumption of dietary. The average diary aflatoxin B1 dietary exposure of the man of the 2 to 6, 7 to 14, 15 to 50 and > 50 age group in Shenzhen were 0.320, 0.385, 0.401 and 0.398 ng/(kg BW x d), the results of the woman were 0.282, 0.222, 0.367 and 0.470 ng/(kg BW x d) respectively. The total average daily dietary aflatoxin B1 exposure of the man were 0.012, 0.015, 0.016 and 0.016 ng/(kg BW x d) about each age group. The results of the woman were 78.4, 167, 113 and 103 ng/(kg BW d). According to the the average levels of consumption and the high levels of consumption, the risk of AFB, of the man were 0.012,0.015, 0.016, 0. 016 and 3.0, 8.2, 4.1, 4.4 cancer patient per one hundred thousand, respectively. The results of the woman were 0.010, 0.009, 0.014, 0.018 and 2.9, 6.7, 4.4, 4.0 cancer patient per one hundred thousand, respectively. 7 to 14 age group compared with adults age group face higher exposure levels. The rice and peanut oil are most primary aflatoxin dietary exposure sources in Shenzhen.

  9. Adulteration of diesel/biodiesel blends by vegetable oil as determined by Fourier transform (FT) near infrared spectrometry and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flavia C C; Brandão, Christian R R; Ramalho, Hugo F; da Costa, Leonardo A F; Suarez, Paulo A Z; Rubim, Joel C

    2007-03-28

    In this work it has been shown that the routine ASTM methods (ASTM 4052, ASTM D 445, ASTM D 4737, ASTM D 93, and ASTM D 86) recommended by the ANP (the Brazilian National Agency for Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels) to determine the quality of diesel/biodiesel blends are not suitable to prevent the adulteration of B2 or B5 blends with vegetable oils. Considering the previous and actual problems with fuel adulterations in Brazil, we have investigated the application of vibrational spectroscopy (Fourier transform (FT) near infrared spectrometry and FT-Raman) to identify adulterations of B2 and B5 blends with vegetable oils. Partial least square regression (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and artificial neural network (ANN) calibration models were designed and their relative performances were evaluated by external validation using the F-test. The PCR, PLS, and ANN calibration models based on the Fourier transform (FT) near infrared spectrometry and FT-Raman spectroscopy were designed using 120 samples. Other 62 samples were used in the validation and external validation, for a total of 182 samples. The results have shown that among the designed calibration models, the ANN/FT-Raman presented the best accuracy (0.028%, w/w) for samples used in the external validation.

  10. Edible/Inedible Experiments Archive

    Science.gov Websites

    hand at experimental science! Some experiments may be eaten before, during or after the experiment, and . Astronomy Collecting Micrometeorites. (non-edible) Observing Sunspots. (non-edible) Biological Sciences Taking a pulse. (non-edible) Blood pressures. (non-edible) Coloring plant transpiration. (inedible

  11. Oil from hydrocracking as a raw material for the production of white oils

    SciTech Connect

    Potanina, V.A.; Dremova, T.I.; Ponomareva, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This article investigates the feasibility of using distillate oil from hydrocracking for white oil production. A process technology has been developed in the USSR for the manufacture of high-quality oils by hydrocracking a heavy distillate feed in high-pressure equipment. The neutral and hydrocracked oil sample and a blend of these stocks were subjected to treatment with oleum, neutralization with 65% ethyl alcohol, and contact finishing to obtain white oils. The physicochemical properties of the white oils are given. It is determined that the hydrocracked oil can be used as the raw material in manufacturing perfume oil meeting the standard GOSTmore » 4225-76, and that the blends can be used to obtain pharmaceutical white oil meeting the standard GOST 3164-78.« less

  12. Reversed-phase single drop microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the quantification of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oil samples.

    PubMed

    Farajmand, Bahman; Esteki, Mahnaz; Koohpour, Elham; Salmani, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    The reversed-phase mode of single drop microextraction has been used as a preparation method for the extraction of some phenolic antioxidants from edible oil samples. Butylated hydroxyl anisole, tert-butylhydroquinone and butylated hydroxytoluene were employed as target compounds for this study. High-performance liquid chromatography followed by fluorescence detection was applied for final determination of target compounds. The most interesting feature of this study is the application of a disposable insulin syringe with some modification for microextraction procedure that efficiently improved the volume and stability of the solvent microdrop. Different parameters such as the type and volume of solvent, sample stirring rate, extraction temperature, and time were investigated and optimized. Analytical performances of the method were evaluated under optimized conditions. Under the optimal conditions, relative standard deviations were between 4.4 and 10.2%. Linear dynamic ranges were 20-10 000 to 2-1000 μg/g (depending on the analytes). Detection limits were 5-670 ng/g. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used for quantification of the antioxidants in some edible oil samples prepared from market. Relative recoveries were achieved from 88 to 111%. The proposed method had a simplicity of operation, low cost, and successful application for real samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Multispecies Adulteration Detection of Camellia Oil by Chemical Markers.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xinjing; Mao, Jin; Zhang, Liangxiao; Xie, Huali; Chen, Lin; Yu, Li; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiupin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2018-01-25

    Adulteration of edible oils has attracted attention from more researchers and consumers in recent years. Complex multispecies adulteration is a commonly used strategy to mask the traditional adulteration detection methods. Most of the researchers were only concerned about single targeted adulterants, however, it was difficult to identify complex multispecies adulteration or untargeted adulterants. To detect adulteration of edible oil, identification of characteristic markers of adulterants was proposed to be an effective method, which could provide a solution for multispecies adulteration detection. In this study, a simple method of multispecies adulteration detection for camellia oil (adulterated with soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil) was developed by quantifying chemical markers including four isoflavones, trans-resveratrol and sinapic acid, which used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with solid phase extraction (SPE). In commercial camellia oil, only two of them were detected of daidzin with the average content of 0.06 ng/g while other markers were absent. The developed method was highly sensitive as the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.02 ng/mL to 0.16 ng/mL and the mean recoveries ranged from 79.7% to 113.5%, indicating that this method was reliable to detect potential characteristic markers in edible oils. Six target compounds for pure camellia oils, soybean oils, peanut oils and rapeseed oils had been analyzed to get the results. The validation results indicated that this simple and rapid method was successfully employed to determine multispecies adulteration of camellia oil adulterated with soybean, peanut and rapeseed oils.

  14. Effect of novel bioactive edible coatings based on jujube gum and nettle oil-loaded nanoemulsions on the shelf-life of Beluga sturgeon fillets.

    PubMed

    Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Mohammadnabi, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Effect of jujube gum (JG; 4, 8 and 12% wt)-based nanoemulsions (NEs) containing nettle essential oil (NEO; 2, 3.5 and 5% wt) as new edible coatings was investigated to preserve Beluga sturgeon fillets (BSFs) during 15 day-refrigerated storage at 4°C. Physical (weight loss, cooking loss, color and texture), chemical (pH, FFA, PV, TBARS and TVB-N), microbiological (total and psychrotrophic bacterial counts), and sensorial characteristics of BSFs were kinetically analyzed. Preliminary studies showed that the NEs formulated with NEO lower than 5% at all JG concentrations were able to form stable coating solutions owing to the highest short-term stability (>90%) and entrapment efficiency (94.4-98.3%). Edible NE coating formulated with 12% JG and 3.5% NEO as a novel antimicrobial and antioxidant biomaterial exhibited the lowest weight and cooking losses, pH changes, textural and color deterioration, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in BSFs refrigerated over a period of 15days (P<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical characterization of crystalline networks formed by binary blends of waxes in soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Jana, Sarbojeet; Martini, Silvana

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the physical properties of 2.5% (wt. basis) binary wax in soybean oil (SBO) system. Differential scanning calorimetry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance, rheology, and polarized light microscopy were used to measure melting profiles, solid fat content, viscoelastic parameters, and crystal morphology, respectively. Binary blends were prepared using beeswax (BW), rice bran wax (RBW), and sunflower wax (SFW) in 0, 20, 50, 80 and 100% proportions. Melting behavior of binary waxes was significantly affected by the type and proportion of wax used. Melting T on and T p for RBW/SFW and RBW/BW blends were significantly higher than those observed for SFW/BW. Enthalpy values suggest that different molecules present in the wax affect intermolecular interactions in the binary blends by either inducing (SFW/BW) or delaying (RBW/BW) crystallization. Iso-solid diagrams show that there is certainly a softening effect when different proportions of RBW/BW and SFW/BW are used, while a solid solution is formed in RBW/SFW systems. Viscoelastic parameters (G', G″) results show that RBW has the highest G' value (3.1×10 4 ±1×10 3 Pa) followed by SFW (2.7×10 4 ±0.2×10 4 Pa) and BW having the lowest (90.7±74.4Pa). Higher G' values in all proportions of RBW/SFW binary system in SBO indicate significantly more solid-like behavior than any other combinations. However, blending of two different waxes does not necessary result in a linear increase in elastic properties and in some cases no changes in elasticity is observed as the amount of the high melting wax is added to the low melting one. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  17. Comparative analysis of emission characteristics and noise test of an I.C. engine using different biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Alamgir; Rahman, Fariha; Mamun, Maliha; Naznin, Sadia; Rashid, Adib Bin

    2017-12-01

    Biodiesel is a captivating renewable resource providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compressionignition engines. A comparative study is conducted to evaluate the effects of using biodiesel on exhaust emissions. Exhaust smokiness, noise and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as carbon di oxides, carbon monoxide and oxygen are measured. It is observed that methanol-biodiesel blends (mustard oil, palm oil) cause reduction of emissions remarkably. Most of the harmful pollutants in the exhaust are reduced significantly with the use of methanol blended fuels. Reduction in CO emission is more with mustard oil blend compared to palm oil blend. Comparatively clean smoke is observed with biodiesel than diesel. It is also observed that, there is a decrease of noise while performing with biodiesel blends which is around 78 dB whereas noise caused by diesel is 80 dB. Biodiesel, more importantly mustard oil is a clean burning fuel that does not contribute to the net increase of carbon dioxide.

  18. Alginate edible films containing microencapsulated lemongrass oil or citral: effect of encapsulating agent and storage time on physical and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Moyano, Jessica K; Bustos, Rubén O; Herrera, María Lidia; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2017-08-01

    Active edible films have been proposed as an alternative to extend shelf life of fresh foods. Most essential oils have antimicrobial properties; however, storage conditions could reduce their activity. To avoid this effect the essential oil (EO) can be microencapsulated prior to film casting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of encapsulating agent (EA), type of EO and storage time on physical properties and antimicrobial activity of alginate-based films against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Trehalose (TH), Capsul ® (CAP) and Tween 20 (Tw20) were used as EA. Lemongrass essential oil (LMO) and citral were used as active agents. The results showed that the type of EA affected the stability of the film forming-emulsions as well as the changes in opacity and colour of the films during storage but not the antimicrobial activity of them. Both microencapsulated EOs showed a prolonged release from the alginate films during the 28 days of storage. Trehalose was selected to encapsulate both active compounds because the films made with this microencapsulated EA showed the greatest physical stability and the lowest color variation among all the films studied.

  19. Ultrasound assisted two-stage biodiesel synthesis from non-edible Schleichera triguga oil using heterogeneous catalyst: Kinetics and thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarve, Antaram N; Varma, Mahesh N; Sonawane, Shriram S

    2016-03-01

    Present work deals with the ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from low cost, substantial acid value kusum (Schleichera triguga) oil using a two-step method of esterification in presence of acid (H2SO4) catalyst followed by transesterification using a basic heterogeneous barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) catalyst. The initial acid value of kusum oil was reduced from 21.65 to 0.84 mg of KOH/g of oil, by acid catalyzed esterification with 4:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration 1% (v/v), ultrasonic irradiation time 20 min at 40 °C. Then, Ba(OH)2 concentration of 3% (w/w), methanol to oil molar ratio of 9:1, ultrasonic irradiation time of 80 min, and temperature of 50 °C was found to be the optimum conditions for transesterification step and triglyceride conversion of 96.8% (wt) was achieved. This paper also examined the kinetics as well as the evaluation of thermodynamic parameters for both esterification and transesterification reactions. The lower value of activation energy and higher values of kinetic constants indicated a fast rate of reaction, which could be attributed to the physical effect of emulsification, in which the microturbulence generated due to radial motion of bubbles, creates an intimate mixing of the immiscible reactants causing the increase in the interfacial area, giving faster reaction kinetics. The positive values of Gibbs-free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and negative value of entropy (ΔS) revealed that both the esterification and transesterification were non-spontaneous, endothermic and endergonic reactions. Therefore, the present work has not only established the escalation obtained due to ultrasonication but also exemplified the two-step approach for synthesis of biodiesel from non-edible kusum oil based on the use of heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification step. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FOURTH FLOOR OF OIL HOUSE (NOTICE CAST IRON SUPPORT POSTS AND OIL PRESS IN THE CENTER) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Oil House, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  1. [Mutagenic evaluation of the urine of rats treated with oils implicated in the toxic oil syndrome using bacterial tests].

    PubMed

    Barrueco, C; Sladek, F; Canga, C; Valcarce, E; de la Peña, E; Alia, M; Laborda, E

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of the urine of pregnant rats treated with toxic oil syndrome-related rape seed oil or with edible oil was evaluated by means of the Ames and Green tests. It was found that the urine of the pregnant rats treated with "Jen" oil, that was related to the toxic oil syndrome, was mutagenic.

  2. Blend-modification of soy protein/lauric acid edible films using polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongyang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Jie; Jin, Zhengyu

    2014-05-15

    Different types of polysaccharides (propyleneglycol alginate (PGA), pectin, carrageenan and aloe polysaccharide) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI)/lauric acid (La) films using a co-drying process or by direct addition to form biodegradable composite films with modified water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties. The WVP of SPI/La/polysaccharide films decreased when polysaccharides were added using the co-drying process, regardless of the type of polysaccharide. The tensile strength of SPI/La film was increased by the addition of polysaccharides, and the percentage elongation at break was increased by incorporating PGA using the co-drying process. Regarding oxygen-barrier performance, no notable differences were observed between the SPI/La and SPI/La/polysaccharide films. The most significant improvement was observed by blending PGA, with the co-dried preparation exhibiting better properties than the direct-addition preparation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the microstructures of the films are the basis for the differences in the barrier and mechanical properties of the modified blends of SPI, polysaccharides and La. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodiesel production from non-edible Silybum marianum oil using heterogeneous solid base catalyst under ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Takase, Mohammed; Chen, Yao; Liu, Hongyang; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate modified TiO2 doped with C4H4O6HK as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of non-edible, Silybum marianum oil to biodiesel using methanol under ultrasonication. Upon screening the catalytic performance of modified TiO2 doped with different K-compounds, 0.7 C4H4O6HK doped on TiO2 was selected. The preparation of the catalyst was done using incipient wetness impregnation method. Having doped modified TiO2 with C4H4O6HK, followed by impregnation, drying and calcination at 600 °C for 6 h, the catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, BET, TGA, UV and the Hammett indicators. The yield of the biodiesel was proportional to the catalyst basicity. The catalyst had granular and porous structures with high basicity and superior performance. Combined conditions of 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 5 wt.% catalyst amount, 60 °C reaction temperature and 30 min reaction time was enough for maximum yield of 90.1%. The catalyst maintained sustained activity after five cycles of use. The oxidative stability which was the main problem of the biodiesel was improved from 2.0 h to 3.2h after 30 days using ascorbic acid as antioxidant. The other properties including the flash point, cetane number and the cold flow ones were however, comparable to international standards. The study indicated that Ti-0.7-600-6 is an efficient, economical and environmentally, friendly catalyst under ultrasonication for producing biodiesel from S. marianum oil with a substantial yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Blocking and Blending: Different Assembly Models of Cyclodextrin and Sodium Caseinate at the Oil/Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Neng; Liu, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Lianfu

    2015-08-25

    The stability of cyclodextrin (CD)-based emulsions is attributed to the formation of a solid film of oil-CD complexes at the oil/water interface. However, competitive interactions between CDs and other components at the interface still need to be understood. Here we develop two different routes that allow the incorporation of a model protein (sodium caseinate, SC) into emulsions based on β-CD. One route is the components adsorbed simultaneously from a mixed solution to the oil/water interface (route I), and the other is SC was added to a previously established CD-stabilized interface (route II). The adsorption mechanism of β-CD modified by SC at the oil/water interface is investigated by rheological and optical methods. Strong sensitivity of the rheological behavior to the routes is indicated by both steady-state and small-deformation oscillatory experiments. Possible β-CD/SC interaction models at the interface are proposed. In route I, the protein, due to its higher affinity for the interface, adsorbs strongly at the interface with blocking of the adsorption of β-CD and formation of oil-CD complexes. In route II, the protein penetrates and blends into the preadsorbed layer of oil-CD complexes already formed at the interface. The revelation of interfacial assembly is expected to help better understand CD-based emulsions in natural systems and improve their designs in engineering applications.

  5. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed, deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon; Jindapetch, Naret; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO), the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil, has become of great interest as a renewable energy source. It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits. In the present work, the degummed, deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long-term usage. The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler. The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10, 2.5 and 1 microm, while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 microm. Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 microm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings), especially pyrene. The mass median diameter, PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content, but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased. In addition, Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaP(eq)) for all particle size ranges. As the palm oil was increased, the BaP(eq) decreased gradually. Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  6. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  7. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson III, George R.; Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meetingmore » the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  8. Analysis of total oil and fatty acids composition by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in edible nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya

    2014-10-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important tool in quantifying water and oil present in various food materials. It is rapid and nondestructive, easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals that would render them non-edible. Earlier, the samples had to be ground into powder form before making any measurements. With the development of new soft ware packages, NIR techniques could now be used in the analysis of intact grain and nuts. While most of the commercial instruments presently available work well with small grain size materials such as wheat and corn, the method present here is suitable for large kernel size products such as shelled or in-shell peanuts. Absorbance spectra were collected from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a NIR instrument. Average values of total oil contents (TOC) of peanut samples were determined by standard extraction methods, and fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Partial least square (PLS) analysis was performed on the calibration set of absorption spectra, and models were developed for prediction of total oil and fatty acids. The best model was selected based on the coefficient of determination (R2), Standard error of prediction (SEP) and residual percent deviation (RPD) values. Peanut samples analyzed showed RPD values greater than 5.0 for both absorbance and reflectance models and thus could be used for quality control and analysis. Ability to rapidly and nondestructively measure the TOC, and analyze the fatty acid composition, will be immensely useful in peanut varietal improvement as well as in the grading process of grain and nuts.

  9. Safety evaluation of a medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol oil produced from medium-chain triacylglycerols and edible vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Matulka, R A; Noguchi, O; Nosaka, N

    2006-09-01

    To reduce the incorporation of dietary lipids into adipose tissue, modified fats and oils have been developed, such as medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). Typical dietary lipids from vegetable oils, termed long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT), are degraded by salivary, intestinal and pancreatic lipases into two fatty acids and a monoacyl glycerol; whereas, MCT are degraded by the same enzymes into three fatty acids and the simple glycerol backbone. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are readily absorbed from the small intestine directly into the bloodstream and transported to the liver for hepatic metabolism, while long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) are incorporated into chylomicrons and enter the lymphatic system. MCFA are readily broken down to carbon dioxide and two-carbon fragments, while LCFA are re-esterified to triacylglycerols and either metabolized for energy or stored in adipose tissue. Therefore, consumption of MCT decreases the incorporation of fatty acids into adipose tissue. However, MCT have technological disadvantages precluding their use in many food applications. A possible resolution is the manufacture and use of a triacylglycerol containing both LCT and MCT, termed medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT). This manuscript describes studies performed for the safety evaluation of a MLCT oil enzymatically produced from MCT and edible vegetable oil (containing LCT), by a transesterification process. The approximate fatty acid composition of this MLCT consists of caprylic acid (9.7%), capric acid (3.3%), palmitic acid (3.8%), stearic acid (1.7%), oleic acid (51.2%), linoleic acid (18.4%), linolenic acid (9.0%), and other fatty acids (2.9%). The approximate percentages of long (L) and medium (M) fatty acids in the triacylglyerols are as follows: L, L, L (55.1%), L, L, M (35.2%), L, M, M (9.1%), and M, M, M (0.6%). The studies included: (1) acute study in rats (LD50>5000 mg/kg); (2) 6 week repeat-dose safety study via dietary administration to rats (NOAEL

  10. "Those edibles hit hard": Exploration of Twitter data on cannabis edibles in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Francois R; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Martins, Silvia S; Boyer, Edward W; Carlson, Robert G

    2016-07-01

    Several states in the U.S. have legalized cannabis for recreational or medical uses. In this context, cannabis edibles have drawn considerable attention after adverse effects were reported. This paper investigates Twitter users' perceptions concerning edibles and evaluates the association edibles-related tweeting activity and local cannabis legislation. Tweets were collected between May 1 and July 31, 2015, using Twitter API and filtered through the eDrugTrends/Twitris platform. A random sample of geolocated tweets was manually coded to evaluate Twitter users' perceptions regarding edibles. Raw state proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles were ajusted relative to the total number of Twitter users per state. Differences in adjusted proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles between states with different cannabis legislation status were assesed via a permutation test. We collected 100,182 tweets mentioning cannabis edibles with 26.9% (n=26,975) containing state-level geolocation. Adjusted percentages of geolocated Twitter users posting about edibles were significantly greater in states that allow recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The differences were statistically significant. Overall, cannabis edibles were generally positively perceived among Twitter users despite some negative tweets expressing the unreliability of edible consumption linked to variability in effect intensity and duration. Our findings suggest that Twitter data analysis is an important tool for epidemiological monitoring of emerging drug use practices and trends. Results tend to indicate greater tweeting activity about cannabis edibles in states where medical THC and/or recreational use are legal. Although the majority of tweets conveyed positive attitudes about cannabis edibles, analysis of experiences expressed in negative tweets confirms the potential adverse effects of edibles and calls for educating edibles-naïve users, improving edibles labeling, and testing their THC

  11. Comparative evaluation of physicochemical properties of jatropha curcas seed oil for coolant-lubricant application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Muhamad Nasir; Sharif, Safian; Rahim, Erween Abd.; Abdullah, Rozaini

    2017-09-01

    Increased attention to environmental issues due to industrial activities has forced the authorities raise awareness and implement regulations to reduce the use of mineral oil. Some vegetable oils unexplored or less explored, particularly the non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) and others. Physicochemical properties of JCO is compared with others edible oils, synthetic ester and fatty alcohol to obtain a viable alternative in metal cutting fluids. The oil was found to show the suitability of properties for coolant-lubricant applications in term of its physicochemical properties and better in flash point and viscosity value.

  12. Differential regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in two Chlorella species in response to nitrate treatments and the potential of binary blending microalgae oils for biodiesel application.

    PubMed

    Cha, Thye San; Chen, Jian Woon; Goh, Eng Giap; Aziz, Ahmad; Loh, Saw Hong

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different nitrate concentrations in culture medium on oil content and fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1) and Chlorella sorokiniana (KS-MB2). Results showed that both species produced significant higher (p<0.05) oil content at nitrate ranging from 0.18 to 0.66 mM with C. vulgaris produced 10.20-11.34% dw, while C. sorokiniana produced 15.44-17.32% dw. The major fatty acids detected include C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3. It is interesting to note that both species displayed differentially regulated fatty acid accumulation patterns in response to nitrate treatments at early stationary growth phase. Their potential use for biodiesel application could be enhanced by exploring the concept of binary blending of the two microalgae oils using developed mathematical equations to calculate the oil mass blending ratio and simultaneously estimated the weight percentage (wt.%) of desirable fatty acid compositions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop; Pant, Kamal K; Anwar, Khalid; Pandey, R M; Kardam, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Heating/frying and reuse of edible fats/oils induces chemical changes such as formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating/frying on formation of TFAs in fats/oils. Using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector, TFA was estimated in six commonly used fat/oils in India (refined soybean oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, clarified butter, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), before and after subjecting them to heating/frying at 180°C and 220°C. All six fats/oils subjected to heating/frying demonstrated an increase in TFAs (p<0.001), saturated fatty acids (p<0.001) and decrease in cis-unsaturated fatty acids (p<0.001). The absolute increase in TFA content of edible oils (after subjecting to heating/reheating) ranged between 2.30±0.89g/100g and 4.5±1.43g/100g; amongst edible fats it ranged between 2.60±0.38g/100g and 5.96±1.94g/100g. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (heating and frying; p=0.892). Considering the undesirable health effects of TFA, appropriate guidelines for heating/re-frying of edible fats/oils by Asian Indians should be devised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multilevel evaluation of 'China Healthy Lifestyles for All', a nationwide initiative to promote lower intakes of salt and edible oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Seo, Dong-Chul; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kong, Lingzhi; Zhao, Wenhua; Li, Nicole; Li, Yuan; Yu, Shicheng; Feng, Guoshuang; Ren, Duofu; Lv, Yuebin; Wang, Jinglei; Shi, Xiaoming; Liang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Chunming

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of 'China Healthy Lifestyle for All' on levels of knowledge, taste and intentions to modify future consumption of salt and edible oil. Between May and August 2012, a face-to-face survey carried out in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China, achieved a 98.1% response. Intention-To-Treat analysis via multilevel logistic regression was used to examine differences in outcomes between 31,396 non-institutionalised individuals aged > 18 years from 31 'intervention' (i.e. participating) and 26 'control' (i.e. non-participating) counties respectively. Adjusting for socioeconomic confounders, participants in 'intervention' counties were more likely to know the limit of salt (Odds Ratio 3.14, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.98, 4.96) and oil consumption (3.67, 95% CI 2.31, 5.82), and were more intent to modify their consumption (salt 1.98, 95% CI 1.41, 2.76; oil OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.41, 2.81) and to report a change in taste (salt 1.90, 95% CI 1.31, 2.75; oil 2.07, 95% CI 1.38, 3.10). 'Intervention' effects were consistent regardless of income or education, but women and older participants benefited disproportionately. Outcomes were 2.8 and 4.7 times more likely among those with better recall. Place-based health promotion interventions have an important role to play in addressing non-communicable disease in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The performance and emissions of diesel engines with biodiesel of sunan pecan seed and diesel oil blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariani, F.; Sitorus, T. B.; Ginting, E.

    2017-12-01

    An observation was performed to evaluate the performance of direct injection stationary diesel engine which used a blends of biodiesel of Sunan pecan seed. The experiments were done with diesel oil, B5, B10, B15 and B20 in the engine speed variety. Results showed that the values of torque, power and thermal efficiency tend to decrease when the engine is using B5, B10, B15 and B20, compared to diesel oil. It also shown that the specific fuel consumption is increased when using B5, B10, B15 and B20. From the results of experiments and calculations, the maximum power of 3.08 kW, minimum specific fuel consumption of 189.93 g/kWh and maximum thermal efficiency of 45.53% when engine using diesel oil. However, exhaust gases were measured include opacity, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon when the engine using biodiesel B5, B10, B15 and B20 decreased.

  16. Edible packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  17. Experiment on the Effects of Storage Duration of Biodiesel produced from Crude Palm Oil, Waste Cooking oil and Jatropha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanihar, Nadiarulah; Khalid, Amir; Mustaffa, Norrizal; Jaat, Norrizam; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel based on vegetable oil is an alternative that had various advantage in term of sustainability and environmental attractive compare to others conventional diesel. Biodiesel is product of any fat or oil that derived from any organic sources through a refinery process called transesterification process. This research investigates the effects of storage duration and variant ambient condition on the biodiesel properties and characteristics. In this study, there are three types of blending which is 5vol% blends ( 5vol% plant oil 95vol% diesel), 10vol% blending (10vol% plant oil and 90vol% diesel) and 15vol% blending (15vol% plant oil and 85vol% diesel) each called CPO5 (crude palm oil 5vol%), CPO10 (crude palm oil 10vol%),CPO15 (crude palm oil 15vol%), JO5 (jatropha oil 5vol%), JO10 (jatropha oil 10vol%),and JO15 (jatropha oil 15vol%) respectively. Biodiesel samples were stored at indoor condition and outdoor condition for a 3 months period. The fuel properties such as acid value, viscosity, density, water content and flash point are observed with the laboratory instrument. Flash point value and water content increased under both of indoor and outdoor condition and a steady data for viscosity and density. However, acid value at indoor condition nearly constant but increased dramatically for outdoor condition over the time.

  18. Assessment of the physical, mechanical, and moisture-retention properties of pullulan-based ternary co-blended films.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongyang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Jie; Jin, Zhengyu

    2014-11-04

    Multi-component substances made through direct blending or blending with co-drying can form films on the surfaces of intermediate moisture foods (IMFs), which help retain moisture and protect food texture and flavor. An IMF film system based on pullulan, with glycerol serving as the plasticizer, was studied using alginate and four different types of polysaccharides (propyleneglycol alginate, pectin, carrageenan, and aloe polysaccharide) as the blend-modified substances. The physical, mechanical, color, transparency, and moisture-retention properties of the co-blended films with the polysaccharides were assessed. A new formula was established for the average moisture retention property, water barrier, tensile strength, elongation at break, and oxygen barrier property of the ternary co-blended films using the Design Expert software. The new model established for moisture content measurement used an indirect method of film formation on food surfaces by humectants, which should expedite model validation and allow a better comprehension of moisture transfer through edible films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential application of corn starch edible films with spice essential oils for the shelf life extension of red meat.

    PubMed

    Radha Krishnan, K; Babuskin, S; Rakhavan, K R; Tharavin, R; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of corn starch (CS) edible films with spice oils on the stability of raw beef during refrigerated storage. The antimicrobial properties of corn starch films containing 0-4·0% (w/v) ratios of clove (CL) and cinnamon (CI) essential oils (EOs) were tested against seven meat spoilage organisms by zone inhibition test. Effects of CS films containing 3% CL or CI or a mixture of CL + CI were also tested in raw beef stored at 4°C. Meat samples were analysed for pH, microbial counts, colour values and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values for a period of 15 days. CS films with CL + CI resulted in a significant reduction in microbial populations in the meat samples and also improved meat colour stability at the end of storage period. The incorporation of spice EOs in CS films may provide antimicrobial and antioxidant activities that could improve the stability of raw meat. Results from this study may be applied in meat industries as an additional barrier to control microbial spoilage as well as lipid oxidation in meat products. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Toxicity of Cold Lake Blend and Western Canadian Select dilbits to standard aquatic test species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dilbits are blends of bitumen and natural gas condensates or crude oils with only limited toxicity data. Two dilbits, Cold Lake Blend and Western Canadian Select, were tested as either unweathered or weathered oils for acute and chronic toxicity to standard freshwater and estuari...

  1. Determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils and fats by online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection - Evaluation of automated removal strategies for biogenic olefins.

    PubMed

    Nestola, Marco; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-07-07

    The determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in foodstuffs gained in importance over the last years as carcinogenicity cannot be excluded for certain MOAH. The existence of olefins in foodstuffs, such as edible oils and fats, can be problematic for the determination of MOAH by LC-GC-FID. Removal of these interfering substances by HPLC based on polarity differences is not possible. During gas chromatographic separation heavily overloaded peaks are observed rendering the detection of small mineral oil contaminations almost impossible. Therefore, removal of these olefins is necessary before subjection of the sample to LC-GC-FID. Epoxidation of olefins to increase their polarity proved to be a valuable tool in the past. Precision and trueness of the results as shown in a collaborative trial, however, are relying on exact reaction conditions. Additionally, it is known that certain MOAH are oxidized during epoxidation and therefore get lost. In the scope of this work, hydroboration, bromohydrin reaction, and epoxidation were examined for their potential for derivatization of unsaturated hydrocarbons with increased robustness and higher recovery of MOAH. Epoxidation by meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) delivered the best removal of olefins. Factors influencing this reaction were enlightened. Adaption of the reaction conditions and time-controlled automation increased the recovery of polycyclic MOAH. Good precision (RSD r <1.5%) and recovery (95-102%) for MOAH were also observed for sunflower and olive oils spiked with a lubricating mineral oil (at 24.5mg/kg of MOAH). The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing collaborative trial samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal and UV stability of β-carotene dissolved in peppermint oil microemulsified by sunflower lecithin and Tween 20 blend.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Microemulsions are suitable for simultaneous delivery of flavour oils and lipophilic bioactive compounds in transparent beverages. In the present study, the feasibility of delivering β-carotene in microemulsions formulated with peppermint oil and a blend of Tween® 20 and various amounts of sunflower lecithin was investigated. The poorly water- and oil-soluble β-carotene was dissolved in the transparent microemulsions that had particles smaller than 10nm and were stable during ambient storage for 65 d. The inclusion of β-carotene did not change the flow-behaviour and Newtonian viscosity. The degradation of β-carotene in microemulsions during ambient storage, ultraviolet radiation, and thermal treatments at 60 and 80 °C followed first order kinetics and was greatly suppressed when compared to the solution control. The antioxidant potential of peppermint oil and a greater content of lecithin in microemulsions enabled the better protection of β-carotene. The studied microemulsions may find various applications in manufacturing transparent beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. “Those edibles hit hard”: Exploration of Twitter data on cannabis edibles in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Lamy, Francois R.; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Martins, Silvia S.; Boyer, Edward W.; Carlson, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Several states in the U.S. have legalized cannabis for recreational or medical uses. In this context, cannabis edibles have drawn considerable attention after adverse effects were reported. This paper investigates Twitter users’ perceptions concerning edibles and evaluates the association edibles-related tweeting activity and local cannabis legislation. Methods Tweets were collected between May 1 and July 31, 2015, using Twitter API and filtered through the eDrugTrends/Twitris platform. A random sample of geolocated tweets was manually coded to evaluate Twitter users’ perceptions regarding edibles. Raw state proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles were ajusted relative to the total number of Twitter users per state. Differences in adjusted proportions of Twitter users mentioning edibles between states with different cannabis legislation status were assesed via a permutation test. Results We collected 100,182 tweets mentioning cannabis edibles with 26.9% (n=26,975) containing state-level geolocation. Adjusted percentages of geolocated Twitter users posting about edibles were significantly greater in states that allow recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The differences were statistically significant. Overall, cannabis edibles were generally positively perceived among Twitter users despite some negative tweets expressing the unreliability of edible consumption linked to variability in effect intensity and duration. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Twitter data analysis is an important tool for epidemiological monitoring of emerging drug use practices and trends. Results tend to indicate greater tweeting activity about cannabis edibles in states where medical THC and/or recreational use are legal. Although the majority of tweets conveyed positive attitudes about cannabis edibles, analysis of experiences expressed in negative tweets confirms the potential adverse effects of edibles and calls for educating edibles-naïve users, improving

  4. Bio-derived Fuel Blend Dilution of Marine Engine Oil and Imapct on Friction and Wear Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Fenske, George R.

    To reduce the amount of petroleum-derived fuel used in vehicles and vessels powered by internal combustion engines, the addition of bio-derived fuel extenders is a common practice. Ethanol is perhaps the most common bio-derived fuel used for blending, and butanol is being evaluated as a promising alternative. The present study determined the fuel dilution rate of three lubricating oils (E0, E10, and i-B16) in a marine engine operating in on-water conditions with a start-and-stop cycle protocol. The level of fuel dilution increased with the number of cycles for all three fuels. The most dilution was observed with i-B16 fuel, andmore » the least with E10 fuel. In all cases, fuel dilution substantially reduced the oil viscosity. The impacts of fuel dilution and the consequent viscosity reduction on the lubricating capability of the engine oil in terms of friction, wear, and scuffing prevention were evaluated by four different tests protocols. Although the fuel dilution of the engine oil had minimal effect on friction, because the test conditions were under the boundary lubrication regime, significant effects were observed on wear in many cases. Fuel dilution also was observed to reduce the load-carrying capacity of the engine oils in terms of scuffing load reduction.« less

  5. Optimization of an Indirect Enzymatic Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and Glycidyl Esters in Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Kinuko; Abe, Kousuke; Ikuta, Keiich; Egawa, Yoshitsugu; Kitta, Tadashi; Kido, Hirotsugu; Sano, Takashi; Takahashi, Yukinari; Nezu, Toru; Nohara, Hidenori; Miyashita, Takashi; Yada, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Watanabe, Yomi

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel, indirect enzymatic method for the analysis of fatty acid esters of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD), 2-monochloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD), and glycidol (Gly) in edible oils and fats. Using this method, the ester analytes were rapidly cleavaged by Candida rugosa lipase at room temperature for 0.5 h. As a result of the simultaneous hydrolysis and bromination steps, 3-MCPD esters, 2-MCPD esters, and glycidyl esters were converted to free 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and 3-monobromo-1,2-propanediol (3-MBPD), respectively. After the addition of internal standards, the mixtures were washed with hexane, derivatized with phenylboronic acid, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical method was evaluated in preliminary and feasibility studies performed by 13 laboratories. The preliminary study from 4 laboratories showed the reproducibility (RSD R ) of < 10% and recoveries in the range of 102-111% for the spiked 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD in extra virgin olive (EVO) oil, semi-solid palm oil, and solid palm oil. However, the RSDR and recoveries of Gly in the palm oil samples were not satisfactory. The Gly content of refrigerated palm oil samples decreased whereas the samples at room temperature were stable for three months, and this may be due to the depletion of Gly during cold storage. The feasibility studies performed by all 13 laboratories were conducted based on modifications of the shaking conditions for ester cleavage, the conditions of Gly bromination, and the removal of gel formed by residual lipase. Satisfactory RSDR were obtained for EVO oil samples spiked with standard esters (4.4% for 3-MCPD, 11.2% for 2-MCPD, and 6.6% for Gly).

  6. Microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend raises plasma long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels compared to tuna oil with similar increases in ileal contractility in rats.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen S; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Bird, Anthony R; Patch, Craig S; Belobrajdic, Damien P

    2017-03-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be more bioavailable from krill oil compared to fish oil due to their phospholipid structure. We tested whether a microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend (ME-TOKO) provided greater LC n-3 PUFA bioavailability, improved blood lipid profiles and increased intestinal contractility compared to microencapsulated tuna oil (ME-TO). Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets containing ME-TO, ME-TOKO and microencapsulated olive oil (ME-OO) at 0.3 or 2 g/100 g for 4 weeks. Final body and organ weights, feed intake and waste output were similar. ME-TOKO rats had higher plasma total LC n-3 PUFA levels compared to ME-TO, but liver LC n-3 PUFA levels and plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were similar in non-fasted rats. Diets containing 2% ME-TO and ME-TOKO also showed similar increases in ileal contractility. In summary, ME-TO bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA was similar to ME-TOKO.

  7. Energy value of poultry byproduct meal and animal-vegetable oil blend for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Cao, M H; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    The energy values of poultry byproduct meal (PBM) and animal-vegetable oil blend (A-V blend) were determined in 2 experiments with 288 broiler chickens from d 19 to 25 post hatching. The birds were fed a starter diet from d 0 to 19 post hatching. In each experiment, 144 birds were grouped by weight into 8 replicates of cages with 6 birds per cage. There were 3 diets in each experiment consisting of one reference diet (RD) and 2 test diets (TD). The TD contained 2 levels of PBM (Exp. 1) or A-V blend (Exp. 2) that replaced the energy sources in the RD at 50 or 100 g/kg (Exp. 1) or 40 or 80 g/kg (Exp. 2) in such a way that the same ratio were maintained for energy ingredients across experimental diets. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn of PBM and A-V blend were determined by the regression method. Dry matter of PBM and A-V blend were 984 and 999 g/kg; the gross energies were 5,284 and 9,604 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. Addition of PBM to the RD in Exp. 1 linearly decreased (P < 0.05) DM, ileal and total tract of DM, energy and nitrogen digestibilities and utilization. In Exp. 2, addition of A-V blend to the RD linearly increased (P < 0.001) ileal digestibilities and total tract utilization of DM, energy and nitrogen as well as IDE, ME, and MEn. Regressions of PBM-associated IDE, ME, or MEn intake in kcal against PBM intake were: IDE = 3,537x + 4.953, r(2) = 0.97; ME = 3,805x + 1.279, r(2) = 0.97; MEn = 3,278x + 0.164, r(2) = 0.90; and A-V blend as follows: IDE = 10,616x + 7.350, r(2) = 0.96; ME = 10,121x + 0.447, r(2) = 0.99; MEn = 10,124x + 2.425, r(2) = 0.99. These data indicate the respective IDE, ME, MEn values (kcal/kg of DM) of PBM evaluated to be 3,537, 3,805, and 3,278, and A-V blend evaluated to be 10,616, 10,121, and 10,124. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Simultaneous perception of a spoken and a signed language: The brain basis of ASL-English code-blends

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Jill; McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Code-blends (simultaneous words and signs) are a unique characteristic of bimodal bilingual communication. Using fMRI, we investigated code-blend comprehension in hearing native ASL-English bilinguals who made a semantic decision (edible?) about signs, audiovisual words, and semantically equivalent code-blends. English and ASL recruited a similar fronto-temporal network with expected modality differences: stronger activation for English in auditory regions of bilateral superior temporal cortex, and stronger activation for ASL in bilateral occipitotemporal visual regions and left parietal cortex. Code-blend comprehension elicited activity in a combination of these regions, and no cognitive control regions were additionally recruited. Furthermore, code-blends elicited reduced activation relative to ASL presented alone in bilateral prefrontal and visual extrastriate cortices, and relative to English alone in auditory association cortex. Consistent with behavioral facilitation observed during semantic decisions, the findings suggest that redundant semantic content induces more efficient neural processing in language and sensory regions during bimodal language integration. PMID:26177161

  9. Quantification of Triacylglycerol Molecular Species in Edible Fats and Oils by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector Using Correction Factors.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Obi, Junji; Nagai, Toshiharu; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the resolution parameters and correction factors (CFs) of triacylglycerol (TAG) standards were estimated by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to achieve the precise quantification of the TAG composition in edible fats and oils. Forty seven TAG standards comprising capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and/or linolenic acid were analyzed, and the CFs of these TAGs were obtained against tripentadecanoyl glycerol as the internal standard. The capillary column was Ultra ALLOY + -65 (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.10 μm thickness) and the column temperature was programmed to rise from 250°C to 360°C at 4°C/min and then hold for 25 min. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of the TAG standards were > 0.10 mg and > 0.32 mg per 100 mg fat and oil, respectively, except for LnLnLn, and the LOD and LOQ values of LnLnLn were 0.55 mg and 1.84 mg per 100 mg fat and oil, respectively. The CFs of TAG standards decreased with increasing total acyl carbon number and degree of desaturation of TAG molecules. Also, there were no remarkable differences in the CFs between TAG positional isomers such as 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol, 1-stearoyl-2-palmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol, and 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol, which cannot be separated by GC-FID. Furthermore, this method was able to predict the CFs of heterogeneous (AAB- and ABC-type) TAGs from the CFs of homogenous (AAA-, BBB-, and CCC-type) TAGs. In addition, the TAG composition in cocoa butter, palm oil, and canola oil was determined using CFs, and the results were found to be in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Therefore, the GC-FID method using CFs can be successfully used for the quantification of TAG molecular species in natural fats and oils.

  10. Recent innovations in the area of edible films and coatings.

    PubMed

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan; Shahamirian, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    Edible films/coatings have been considered as one of the potential technologies that can be used to increase the storability of foods and to improve the existent packaging technology, helping to ensure the microbial safety and the preservation of food from the influence of external factors. Innovations constantly appear in food packaging, always aiming at creating a more efficient quality preservation system while improving foods' attractiveness and marketability. The utilization of renewable sources for packaging materials, such as hydrocolloids and lipids from biological origin, is one the main trends of the industry. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO2, O2, water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color and nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Nowadays, a great discussion exists about the potential applications of edible films/coatings on food products. The general trend is to find the correct combination between the food product and the edible film/coating, which will ensure the success of the technology.

  11. Sensitized chemiluminescence of 2-phenyl-4,5-di(2-furyl)-1H-imidazole/K₃Fe(CN)₆/propyl gallate system combining with solid-phase extraction for the determination of propyl gallate in edible oil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jing; Han, Lu; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Nan, Jun; Zhang, Yihua

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method has been developed for the determination of propyl gallate (PG). The proposed method was based on the enhancing effect of PG on the CL signal of 2-phenyl-4,5-di(2-furyl)-1H-imidazole (PDFI) and K3Fe(CN)6 reaction in an alkaline solution. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of PG. The linear range of the calibration curve was 0.05-8 μg/mL, and the corresponding detection limit (3σ) was 0.036 μg/mL. The relative standard deviation for determining 1.0 μg/mL PG was 2.8% (n=11). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of PG in edible oil. The edible oil samples were prepared by the solid-phase extraction (SPE) with a C18 column served as the stationary phase. Furthermore, the possible CL mechanism was also discussed briefly based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p < 0.05) and lack of fit was insignificant (p > 0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.

  13. Trout-skin gelatin-based edible films containing phenolic antioxidants: effect on physical properties and oxidative stability of cod-liver oil model food.

    PubMed

    Tammineni, Nageshwar; Unlü, Gülhan; Rasco, Barbara; Powers, Joseph; Sablani, Shyam; Nindo, Caleb

    2012-11-01

    Trout-skin (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gelatin-based films containing antioxidants (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 50 and 250 ppm w/w) and green tea powder (1% and 20% w/w of gelatin) were tested for tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation, and oxygen and water vapor transmission rates, in vitro antioxidant activity using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay and effect on stabilizing cod-liver oil held under mild thermal abuse conditions. Cod-liver oil overlaid with films was stored at 40 °C for 20 d and analyzed for peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Antioxidant activity was retained in films containing green tea powder, but was reduced (P < 0.05) in EGCG films (20 d, 23 °C). Water vapor transmission rate of the films incorporated with antioxidants did not change significantly (P > 0.05), but the oxygen transmission rate for films with 50 ppm EGCG and 20% green tea powder was significant (P < 0.05). Other physical properties varied with antioxidant incorporation. The TBARS and PV of control oil increased from 0.05 ± 0.01 to 4.71 ± 0.30 g MDA/kg oil and from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 178.3 ± 24.5 millieq peroxides/kg oil, respectively, after 20 d. For cod-liver oil covered with control or antioxidant-containing films, TBARS remained below 0.37 g MDA/kg oil and PV below 7 millieq peroxides/kg oil. Incorporation of antioxidants to the films did not reduce oil oxidation (P > 0.05) at the levels tested and this was confirmed by activation energy calculations. The rate of oil oxidation was more dependent upon the inherent oxygen barrier property of the films than the presence of antioxidants. This research has the potential to enhance the utilization of fish skins, a valuable food processing by-product, as edible films with natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life of foods. The film physical properties and barrier to oxygen and water are investigated. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Optimization of Rice bran biodiesel blends on CI engine and investigating its effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaprabakar, J.; Dey, Biraj; Dey, Krishanu; Hareesh, Batchu; Anish, M.

    2017-05-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from various plant oils like soybean, sunflower or rice bran. Here the focus is on converting the rice bran oil into bio-diesel which is produced by transesterifying the rice bran oil with a low molecular weight alcohol (methanol) and a non-conventional catalyst (lipase). Using a lipase based catalyst brings down the cost of bio diesel production significantly by reducing the number of washing cycles and its ability to be reused further. Four different blends of B10, B20, B30, B40 and straight diesel are tested in a single cylinder, fourstroke, vertical air cooled Kirloskar Diesel Engine having ignition timing of 23° before Top Dead Centre (TDC). As compared to straight diesel the Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) value for all the blends are higher. The Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) values for most of the blends are less as compared to diesel. Emissions of CO, CO2 and HC for all the blends decreased quite significantly. As a summary, the blend B20 records better performance as well as emission characteristics as compared to diesel.

  15. Oregano essential oil-pectin edible films as anti-quorum sensing and food antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Maria V.; Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A.; Gutierrez-Pacheco, M. Melissa; Bernal-Mercado, A. Thalia; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Ponce, Alejandra; Moreira, Maria del R.; Roura, Sara I.; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Edible films can be used as carriers for antimicrobial compounds to assure food safety and quality; in addition, pathogenesis of food bacteria is related to a cell to cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Oregano essential oil (OEO) has proved to be useful as food antimicrobial; however, its food applications can be compromised by the volatile character of its active constituents. Therefore, formulation of edible films containing OEO can be an alternative to improve its food usages. QS inhibitory activity of OEO and pectin-OEO films was evaluated using Chromobacterium violaceum as bacterial model. Additionally, antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. OEO was effective to inhibit bacterial growth at MIC of 0.24 mg/mL for all tested bacteria and MBC of 0.24, 0.24, 0.48, and 0.24 mg/mL against E. coli O157:H7, S. Choleraesuis, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-films incorporated with 36.1 and 25.9 mg/mL of OEO showed inhibition diameters of 16.3 and 15.2 mm for E. coli O157:H7; 18.1 and 24.2 mm for S. Choleraesuis; 20.8 and 20.3 mm for S. aureus; 21.3 and 19.3 mm for L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-OEO film (15.7 mg/mL) was effective against E. coli O157:H7 (9.3 mm), S. aureus (9.7 mm), and L. monocytogenes (9.2 mm), but not for S. Choleraesuis. All concentrations of OEO (0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625 and 0.125 mg/mL) and pectin-OEO films (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 mg/mL) showed a significant anti-QS activity expressed as inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum. Additionally, the application of pectin-OEO films was effective reducing total coliforms, yeast, and molds of shrimp and cucumber slices stored at 4°C during 15 d. These results demonstrated the potential of pectin films enriched with OEO as food related microorganisms and QS inhibitors. PMID:25566215

  16. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  17. Use of pilot plant scale continuous fryer to simulate industrial production of potato chips: thermal properties of palm olein blends under continuous frying conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Ismail, Razali

    2014-01-01

    Binary blends of palm olein (PO) with sunflower oil (SFO), canola oil (CNO), and cottonseed oil (CSO) were formulated to assess their stability under continuous frying conditions. The results were then compared with those obtained in PO. The oil blends studied were: (1) 60:40 for PO + SFO; (2) 70:30 for PO + CNO; and (3) 50:50 for PO + CSO. The PO and its blends were used to fry potato chips at 180°C for a total of 56 h of operation. The evolution of analytical parameters such as tocols, induction period, color, p-anisidine value, free fatty acid, smoke point, polar compounds, and polymer compounds were evaluated over the frying time. Blending PO with unsaturated oils was generally proved to keep most qualitative parameters comparable to those demonstrated in PO. Indeed, none of the oils surpassed the legislative limits for used frying. Overall, it was noted that oil containing PO and SFO showed higher resistance toward oxidative and hydrolytic behaviors as compared to the other oil blends. PMID:24804062

  18. Distance-dependent pattern blending can camouflage salient aposematic signals.

    PubMed

    Barnett, James B; Cuthill, Innes C; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E

    2017-07-12

    The effect of viewing distance on the perception of visual texture is well known: spatial frequencies higher than the resolution limit of an observer's visual system will be summed and perceived as a single combined colour. In animal defensive colour patterns, distance-dependent pattern blending may allow aposematic patterns, salient at close range, to match the background to distant observers. Indeed, recent research has indicated that reducing the distance from which a salient signal can be detected can increase survival over camouflage or conspicuous aposematism alone. We investigated whether the spatial frequency of conspicuous and cryptically coloured stripes affects the rate of avian predation. Our results are consistent with pattern blending acting to camouflage salient aposematic signals effectively at a distance. Experiments into the relative rate of avian predation on edible model caterpillars found that increasing spatial frequency (thinner stripes) increased survival. Similarly, visual modelling of avian predators showed that pattern blending increased the similarity between caterpillar and background. These results show how a colour pattern can be tuned to reveal or conceal different information at different distances, and produce tangible survival benefits. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Use of edible films and coatings to extend the shelf life of food products.

    PubMed

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan

    2009-06-01

    The increased consumer demand for high quality, extended shelf life, ready to eat foods has initiated the development of several innovative techniques to keep their natural and fresh appearance as long as possible and at the same time render them safe. Packaging has been an important element in these preservation concepts for providing the appropriate (mechanical and functional) protection to the commodity. Since synthetic packaging materials contribute to the environmental pollution, edible coatings and packages have been proposed to replace or complement conventional packaging. Biodegradable and edible films and coatings are made from naturally occurring polymers and functional ingredients, and formed on the surface of food products. Edible films and coating have long been known to protect perishable food products from deterioration and reduce quality loss. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO(2), O(2), water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and be produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color, nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Patents on edible films and food products are also discussed in this article.

  20. Effect of solid fat content on structure in ice creams containing palm kernel oil and high-oleic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kristine K; Goff, H Douglas

    2010-04-01

    The development of a structural fat network in ice cream as influenced by the solid:liquid fat ratio at the time of freezing/whipping was investigated. The solid fat content was varied with blends of a hard fraction of palm kernel oil (PKO) and high-oleic sunflower oil ranging from 40% to 100% PKO. Fat globule size and adsorbed protein levels in mix and overrun, fat destabilization, meltdown resistance, and air bubble size in ice cream were measured. It was found that blends comprising 60% to 80% solid fat produced the highest rates of fat destabilization that could be described as partial coalescence (as opposed to coalescence), lowest rates of meltdown, and smallest air bubble sizes. Lower levels of solid fat produced fat destabilization that was better characterized as coalescence, leading to loss of structural integrity, whereas higher levels of solid fat led to lower levels of fat network formation and thus also to reduced structural integrity. Blends of highly saturated palm kernel oil and monounsaturated high-oleic sunflower oil were used to modify the solid:liquid ratio of fat blends used for ice cream manufacture. Blends that contained 60% to 80% solid fat at freezing/whipping temperatures produced optimal structures leading to low rates of meltdown. This provides a useful reference for manufacturers to help in the selection of appropriate fat blends for nondairy-fat ice cream.

  1. Raman detection of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with cheaper oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Mills, Jonathan; Kenney, Brianna; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2016-09-01

    Pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mixed with cheaper edible oils and samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785nm Raman system is used to take measurements as Raman probe is placed against glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy, and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements reported here are for integration times of 15s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 5% for all oils used in this study.

  2. Performance, combustion and emission analysis of mustard oil biodiesel and octanol blends in diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, Beemkumar; Pandian, Amith Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesels from the mustard oil promise to be an alternative to the conventional diesel fuel due to their similarity in properties. Higher alcohols are added to neat Mustard oil biodiesel (M100) to vary the properties of biodiesel for improving its combustion, emission and performance characteristics. N-Octanol has the ability to act as an oxygen buffer during combustion which contributes to the catalytic effect and accelerates the combustion process. N-Octanol is dispersed to neat Mustard oil biodiesel in the form of emulsions at different dosage levels of 10, 20 and 30% by volume. Three emulsion fuels prepared for engine testing constitutes of 90% of biodiesel and 10% of n-Octanol (M90O10), 80% of biodiesel and 20% of n-Octanol (M80O20) and 70% of biodiesel and 30% of n-Octanol (M70O30) by volume respectively. AVL 5402 diesel engine is made to run on these fuels to study the effect of n-Octanol on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of the mustard oil biodiesel. Experimental results show that addition of n-octanol has a positive effect on performance, combustion and emission characteristics owing to its inbuilt oxygen content. N-octanol was found to be the better oxidizing catalyst as it was more effective in reducing HC and CO emissions. A significant reduction in NOx emission was found when fuelled with emulsion techniques. The blending of n-octanol to neat Mustard oil biodiesel reduces the energy and fuel consumption and a marginal increase in brake thermal efficiency. Further, n-octanol also reduces the ignition delay and aids the combustion.

  3. Performance, combustion and emission analysis of mustard oil biodiesel and octanol blends in diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, Beemkumar; Pandian, Amith Kishore

    2018-06-01

    Biodiesels from the mustard oil promise to be an alternative to the conventional diesel fuel due to their similarity in properties. Higher alcohols are added to neat Mustard oil biodiesel (M100) to vary the properties of biodiesel for improving its combustion, emission and performance characteristics. N-Octanol has the ability to act as an oxygen buffer during combustion which contributes to the catalytic effect and accelerates the combustion process. N-Octanol is dispersed to neat Mustard oil biodiesel in the form of emulsions at different dosage levels of 10, 20 and 30% by volume. Three emulsion fuels prepared for engine testing constitutes of 90% of biodiesel and 10% of n-Octanol (M90O10), 80% of biodiesel and 20% of n-Octanol (M80O20) and 70% of biodiesel and 30% of n-Octanol (M70O30) by volume respectively. AVL 5402 diesel engine is made to run on these fuels to study the effect of n-Octanol on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of the mustard oil biodiesel. Experimental results show that addition of n-octanol has a positive effect on performance, combustion and emission characteristics owing to its inbuilt oxygen content. N-octanol was found to be the better oxidizing catalyst as it was more effective in reducing HC and CO emissions. A significant reduction in NOx emission was found when fuelled with emulsion techniques. The blending of n-octanol to neat Mustard oil biodiesel reduces the energy and fuel consumption and a marginal increase in brake thermal efficiency. Further, n-octanol also reduces the ignition delay and aids the combustion.

  4. Fatty acid fragmentation of triacylglycerol isolated from crude nyamplung oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparamarta, Hakun Wirawasista; Anggraini, Desy; Istianingsih, Della; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Gunawan, Setiyo

    2017-05-01

    Nyamplung (Calophylluminophyllum) has many benefits ranging from roots, stems, leaves, until seeds. In this seed, C. inophyllum contained significantly high amount of crude oil (70.4%). C. inophyllum oil is known as non edible. Therefore Indonesian people generally only know that seeds can produce oil that can be used for biodiesel. In this work, the fragmentation of fatty acid in triacylglycerols (TAG) was studied. The isolation process was started with separation of non polar lipid fraction (NPLF) from crude C. inophyllum oil via batchwise multistage liquid extraction. TAG was obtained in high purity (99%) and was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). It was found that fatty acids of TAG are palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1c), linoleic acid (C18:2c), and linolenic acid (C18:3c). Moreover, TAG isolated from C. inophyllum oil was promising as edible oil.

  5. Physical and antibacterial properties of edible films formulated with apple skin polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; Friedman, M; McHugh, T H

    2011-03-01

    Fruit and vegetable skins have polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and phenols with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. These flavoring plant essential oil components are generally regarded as safe. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing apple skin polyphenols have the potential to be used commercially to protect food against contamination by pathogenic bacteria. The main objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica of apple skin polyphenols at 0% to 10% (w/w) concentrations in apple puree film-forming solutions formulated into edible films. Commercial apple skin polyphenol powder had a water activity of 0.44 and high total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (995.3 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g and 14.4 mg Trolox/g, respectively). Antimicrobial activities of edible film containing apple skin polyphenols were determined by the overlay method. Apple edible film with apple skin polyphenols was highly effective against L. monocytogenes. The minimum concentration need to inactive L. monocytogenes was 1.5%. However, apple skin polyphenols did not show any antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica even at 10% level. The presence of apple skin polyphenols reduced water vapor permeability of films. Apple skin polyphenols increased elongation of films and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that apple skin polyphenols can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by direct contact.

  6. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metab...

  7. Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with biodiesel from waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C S; Huang, Zuohua

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultra-low sulfur diesel, bi oesel and their blends, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev/min. Blended fuels containing 19.6%, 39.4%, 59.4% and 79.6% by volume of biodiesel, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. Biodiesel used in this study was converted from waste cooking oil. The following results are obtained with an increase of biodiesel in the fuel. The brake specific fuel consumption and the brake thermal efficiency increase. The HC and CO emissions decrease while NO(x) and NO(2) emissions increase. The smoke opacity and particulate mass concentrations reduce significantly at high engine load. In addition, for submicron particles, the geometry mean diameter of the particles becomes smaller while the total number concentration increases. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, generally, the emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. The results indicate that the combination of ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel from waste cooking oil gives similar results to those in the literature using higher sulfur diesel fuels and biodiesel from other sources.

  8. The Edible Schoolyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capra, Fritjof; Comnes, Leslie; Cook, Esther; Hawkins, David; Jackson, Wes; McCullough, Yvette; Waters, Alice

    This document introduces the Edible Schoolyard Project (ESP) in which students create a garden, watch it grow, and develop a bond with nature. Chapters include: (1) "Implications of the Edible Schoolyard Project" (Wes Jackson); (2) "A World of Possibilities" (Alice Waters); (3) "The Garden Experience" (David Hawkins);…

  9. Quantitation of triacylglycerols in edible oils by off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Hu, Na; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-24

    In this investigation, off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using a single column has been applied for the identification and quantification of triacylglycerols in edible oils. A novel mixed-mode phenyl-hexyl chromatographic column was employed in this off-line two-dimensional separation system. The phenyl-hexyl column combined the features of traditional C18 and silver-ion columns, which could provide hydrophobic interactions with triacylglycerols under acetonitrile conditions and can offer π-π interactions with triacylglycerols under methanol conditions. When compared with traditional off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography employing two different chromatographic columns (C18 and silver-ion column) and using elution solvents comprised of two phases (reversed-phase/normal-phase) for triacylglycerols separation, the novel off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography using a single column can be achieved by simply altering the mobile phase between acetonitrile and methanol, which exhibited a much higher selectivity for the separation of triacylglycerols with great efficiency and rapid speed. In addition, an approach based on the use of response factor with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for triacylglycerols quantification. Due to the differences between saturated and unsaturated acyl chains, the use of response factors significantly improves the quantitation of triacylglycerols. This two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system was successfully applied for the profiling of triacylglycerols in soybean oils, peanut oils and lord oils. A total of 68 triacylglycerols including 40 triacylglycerols in soybean oils, 50 triacylglycerols in peanut oils and 44 triacylglycerols in lord oils have been identified and quantified. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data were analyzed

  10. Antimicrobial Activities and Water Vapor Barrier of Starch-Lipid Based Edible Coatings on Fresh Produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The uses of edible antimicrobial films or coatings have been proven to be a novel way of suppressing pathogen contaminations of fresh foods where physical barriers alone aren’t enough. In the present study, we embedded essential oils into a proprietary starch-lipids composite, called Fantesk, to in...

  11. A simple model to predict the biodiesel blend density as simultaneous function of blend percent and temperature.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Narayan; Vaidya, R G

    2016-05-01

    A simple method to estimate the density of biodiesel blend as simultaneous function of temperature and volume percent of biodiesel is proposed. Employing the Kay's mixing rule, we developed a model and investigated theoretically the density of different vegetable oil biodiesel blends as a simultaneous function of temperature and volume percent of biodiesel. Key advantage of the proposed model is that it requires only a single set of density values of components of biodiesel blends at any two different temperatures. We notice that the density of blend linearly decreases with increase in temperature and increases with increase in volume percent of the biodiesel. The lower values of standard estimate of error (SEE = 0.0003-0.0022) and absolute average deviation (AAD = 0.03-0.15 %) obtained using the proposed model indicate the predictive capability. The predicted values found good agreement with the recent available experimental data.

  12. Edible Nanoemulsions as Carriers of Active Ingredients: A Review.

    PubMed

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Rojas-Graü, M Alejandra; McClements, D Julian; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2017-02-28

    There has been growing interest in the use of edible nanoemulsions as delivery systems for lipophilic active substances, such as oil-soluble vitamins, antimicrobials, flavors, and nutraceuticals, because of their unique physicochemical properties. Oil-in-water nanoemulsions consist of oil droplets with diameters typically between approximately 30 and 200 nm that are dispersed within an aqueous medium. The small droplet size usually leads to an improvement in stability, gravitational separation, and aggregation. Moreover, the high droplet surface area associated with the small droplet size often leads to a high reactivity with biological cells and macromolecules. As a result, lipid digestibility and bioactive bioavailability are usually higher in nanoemulsions than conventional emulsions, which is an advantage for the development of bioactive delivery systems. In this review, the most important factors affecting nanoemulsion formation and stability are highlighted, and a critical analysis of the potential benefits of using nanoemulsions in food systems is presented.

  13. Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2003-03-01

    The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.

  14. Effect of concentration of Curcuma longa L. on chitosan-starch based edible coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, N. M.; Jai, J.; Hamzah, F.; Yahya, A.; Pinijsuwan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The ability of chitosan-starch based coating to extend shelf life of strawberry were studied. The main objectives of this paper is to study the effects of different concentrations (20, 15, 10 and 5 µL) of Curcuma longa L. (CUR) essential oil into chitosan-based edible coating on surface tension in order to increase the effectiveness of the coating. CUR or turmeric is one of the commercially planted herbs in Malaysia for its phytochemical benefits. Application of edible coating using dipping technique has been analysed and evaluated for their effectiveness in extending shelf life of fruits. Surface tension was analysed to investigate the adhesion properties. The best CUR concentration was 15 µL with the optimum surface tension was found to be 31.92 dynes/cm.

  15. Trends of non-destructive analytical methods for identification of biodiesel feedstock in diesel-biodiesel blend according to European Commission Directive 2012/0288/EC and detecting diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration: A brief review.

    PubMed

    Mazivila, Sarmento Júnior

    2018-04-01

    Discrimination of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend is challenging due to the great similarity in the spectral profile as well as digital image profile of each type of feedstock employed in biodiesel production. Once the marketed diesel-biodiesel blend is subsidized, in which motivates adulteration in biofuel blend by cheaper supplies with high solubility to obtain profits associated with the subsidies involved in biodiesel production. Non-destructive analytical methods based on qualitative and quantitative analysis for detecting marketed diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration are reviewed. Therefore, at the end is discussed the advantage of the qualitative analysis over quantitative analysis, when the systems require immediate decisions such as to know if the marketed diesel-biodiesel blend is unadulterated or adulterated in order to aid the analyst in selecting the most appropriate green analytical procedure for detecting diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration proceeding in fast way. This critical review provides a brief review on the non-destructive analytical methods reported in scientific literature based on different first-order multivariate calibration models coupled with spectroscopy data and digital image data to identify the type of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend in order to meets the strategies adopted by European Commission Directive 2012/0288/EC as well as to monitoring diesel-biodiesel adulteration. According to that Directive, from 2020 biodiesel produced from first-generation feedstock, that is, oils employed in human food such as sunflower, soybean, rapeseed, palm oil, among other oils should not be subsidized. Therefore, those non-destructive analytical methods here reviewed are helpful for discrimination of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend according to European Commission Directive 2012/0288/EC as well as for detecting diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  16. Controlled release properties of zein-fatty acid blend films for multiple bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Arcan, Iskender; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2014-08-13

    To develop edible films having controlled release properties for multiple bioactive compounds, hydrophobicity and morphology of zein films were modified by blending zein with oleic (C18:1)Δ⁹, linoleic (C18:2)Δ(9,12), or lauric (C₁₂) acids in the presence of lecithin. The blend zein films showed 2-8.5- and 1.6-2.9-fold lower initial release rates for the model active compounds, lysozyme (LYS) and (+)-catechin (CAT), than the zein control films, respectively. The change of fatty acid chain length affected both CAT and LYS release rates while the change of fatty acid double bond number affected only the CAT release rate. The film morphologies suggested that the blend films owe their controlled release properties mainly to the microspheres formed within their matrix and encapsulation of active compounds. The blend films showed antilisterial activity and antioxidant activity up to 81 μmol Trolox/cm². The controlled release of multiple bioactive compounds from a single film showed the possibility of combining application of active and bioactive packaging technologies and improving not only safety and quality but also health benefits of packed food.

  17. Efficacy of essential oils from edible plants as insecticides against the house fly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Sara M; Bertoni, Alberto; Rossi, Yanina; Santander, Rocío; Urzúa, Alejandro

    2009-05-25

    The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC(50)) in 30 min was determined at 26 +/- 1 degrees C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC(50) values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm(3), respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC(50 )= 3.9 mg/dm(3)), followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC(50 )= 4.8 mg/dm(3)) and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC(50 )= 5.5 mg/dm(3)). According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%), linalool (1.43%), and b-myrcene (0.88%) were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07%) of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86%) was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC(50 )= 3.3 mg/dm(3)), while (4R)(+)-limonene, was moderately active (LC(50 )= 6.2 mg/dm(3)). Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP) selected as a positive control, showed an LC(50) of 0.5 mg/dm(3). EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.

  18. Production of ethoxylated fatty acids derived from Jatropha non-edible oil as a nonionic fat-liquoring agent.

    PubMed

    El-Shattory, Y; Abo-Elwafa, Ghada A; Aly, Saadia M; Nashy, El-Shahat H A

    2012-01-01

    Natural fatty derivatives (oleochemicals) have been used as intermediate materials in several industries replacing the harmful and expensive petrochemicals. Fatty ethoxylates are one of these natural fatty derivatives. In the present work Jatropha fatty acids were derived from the non edible Jatropha oil and used as the fat source precursor. The ethoxylation process was carried out on the derived fatty acids using a conventional cheap catalyst (K₂CO₃) in order to obtain economically and naturally valuable non-ionic surfactants. Ethoxylation reaction was proceeded using ethylene oxide gas in the presence of 1 or 2% K₂CO₃ catalyst at 120 and 145°C for 5, 8 and 12 hours. The prepared products were evaluated for their chemical and physical properties as well as its application as non- ionic fat-liquoring agents in leather industry. The obtained results showed that the number of ethylene oxide groups introduced in the fatty acids as well as their EO% increased as the temperature and time of the reaction increased. The highest ethoxylation number was obtained at 145°C for 8 hr. Also, the prepared ethoxylated products were found to be effective fat-liquors with high HLB values giving stable oil in water emulsions. The fat-liquored leather led to an improvement in its mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break. In addition, a significant enhancement in the texture of the treated leather by the prepared fat-liquors as indicated from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images was observed.

  19. Protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis: metabolic studies in children.

    PubMed

    Lopez de Romaãna, G; Graham, G G; Morales, E; Massa, E; MacLean, W C

    1983-04-01

    The nutritional quality of lupins (Lupinus mutabilis) for infants and children was evaluated in two sets of balance studies. In the first the digestibility and protein quality of diets based on lupin flour, with and without methionine supplementation, were compared with those of a control diet consisting of casein, sucrose and vegetable oil. Apparent nitrogen absorption from lupin flour (81.8 and 84.3% of intake) was slightly but significantly less than that during casein control periods (87.2 and 86.8% of intake, P less than 0.05 and less than 0.001). Apparent nitrogen retention from unsupplemented lupin (15.6 +/- 5.8% of intake) was significantly less than that from casein in the corresponding control periods (29.8 +/- 4.9%, P less than 0.001); a small but significant (P less than 0.05) increase in nitrogen retention was observed during the control period following the lupin diet when compared with that preceding it. Methionine supplementation of lupin produced a marked improvement in apparent nitrogen retention (to 22.2 +/- 6.9%, P less than 0.05). In the second set of studies the digestibility of lupin oil was compared with that of a blend of soybean and cottonseed oils (50:50). Excretion of fecal fat (9.8 +/- 3.0% of intake) and fecal energy (6.7 +/- 1.2% of intake) with the diet containing lupin oil were similar to those observed with the control diet. Both the protein quality and oil digestibility of Lupinus mutabilis are very similar to those from soybeans processed in a similar manner. For certain countries the lupin could be a valuable source of protein and edible oil for human consumption.

  20. Use of Marijuana Edibles by Adolescents in California

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Slater, Michael D.; Battle, Robynn S.

    2017-01-01

    We explored how adolescent marijuana edible users differ in regards to marijuana use and related beliefs from marijuana users who do not use edibles. We analyzed California Healthy Kids Survey data collected in one Northern California school district with a racially and ethnically diverse student population. Survey respondents were youth in grades 9 – 12. Overall, 33% of respondents reported having used marijuana in their lifetime, and 50% of lifetime marijuana users reported using marijuana in the past 30 days. Seventy-two percent of lifetime marijuana users and 82% of past month marijuana users reported having used edibles in their lifetime. Comparing marijuana users who have never used edibles to those users who have, we found that edible users reported using marijuana more frequently in their lifetime. Edible users were also more likely to have used marijuana in the past 30 days, more frequently in the past 30 days, more likely on school property and more frequently on school property. Edible users and non-users differed in their perceptions of risk; edible users were less likely to agree that edible use is very risky. Edible users also reported a younger age of first marijuana use and more attempts to stop using marijuana than non-edible users. Multi-level regression analyses indicate that prevalence of edible use among marijuana users was related to perceived risk of edible use. Perceived risk of edible use among marijuana users was higher among marijuana users who do not use edibles, females, and those youth who perceive school rules to be clear. The findings indicate that prevalence of edible use is high among marijuana users, especially frequent users. PMID:28470448

  1. Match of Solubility Parameters Between Oil and Surfactants as a Rational Approach for the Formulation of Microemulsion with a High Dispersed Volume of Copaiba Oil and Low Surfactant Content.

    PubMed

    Xavier-Junior, Francisco Humberto; Huang, Nicolas; Vachon, Jean-Jacques; Rehder, Vera Lucia Garcia; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa; Vauthier, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Aim was to formulate oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion with a high volume ratio of complex natural oil, i.e. copaiba oil and low surfactant content. The strategy of formulation was based on (i) the selection of surfactants based on predictive calculations of chemical compatibility between their hydrophobic moiety and oil components and (ii) matching the HLB of the surfactants with the required HLB of the oil. Solubility parameters of the hydrophobic moiety of the surfactants and of the main components found in the oil were calculated and compared. In turn, required HLB of oils were calculated. Selection of surfactants was achieved matching their solubility parameters with those of oil components. Blends of surfactants were prepared with HLB matching the required HLB of the oils. Oil:water mixtures (15:85 and 25:75) were the titrated with surfactant blends until a microemulsion was formed. Two surfactant blends were identified from the predictive calculation approach. Microemulsions containing up to 19.6% and 13.7% of selected surfactant blends were obtained. O/W microemulsions with a high volume fraction of complex natural oil and a reasonable surfactant concentration were formulated. These microemulsions can be proposed as delivery systems for the oral administration of poorly soluble drugs.

  2. Characterization of an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel and ERBS fuel blends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    Characterization data and comparisons of these data are presented for three individual lots of a research test fuel designated as an Experimental Referee Broadened Specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel. This research fuel, which is a blend of kerosene and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, is a representation of a kerojet fuel with broadened properties. To lower the hydrogen content of the ERBS fuel, a blending stock, composed of xylene bottoms and hydrotreated catalytic gas oil, was developed and employed to produce two different ERBS fuel blends. The ERBS fuel blends and the blending stock were also characterized and the results for the blends are compared to those of the original ERBS fuel. The characterization results indicate that with the exception of the freezing point for ERBS lot 2, which was slightly high, the three lots, produced over a 2 year period, met all general fuel requirements. However, although the properties of the fuels were found to be fairly consistent, there were differences in composition. Similarly, all major requirements for the ERBS fuel blends were met or closely approached, and the properties of the blended fuels were found to generally reflect those expected for the proportions of ERBS fuel and blending stock used in their production.

  3. Investigation on the emission quality, performance and combustion characteristics of the compression ignition engine fueled with environmental friendly corn oil methyl ester - Diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, S; Soorya Prakash, K; Sudhakaran, R; Sathish Kumar, M

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with emission quality of diesel engine based on eco toxicological studies with different methods of environmental standard toxicity tests satisfy the Bharath and European emission norms. Based on the emission norms, Corn Oil Methyl Ester (COME) with diesel is tested in a compression ignition engine and the performance and combustion characteristics are discussed. The corn oil was esterified and the property of corn oil methyl ester was within the limits specified in ASTM D 6751-03. The COME was blended together with diesel in different proportion percentages along with B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100. The emission and performance tests for various blends of COME was carried out using single cylinder, four stroke diesel engine, and compared with the performance obtained with 100% diesel (D100). The results give clear information that COME has low exhaust emissions and increase in performance compared to D100 without any modifications. It gives better performance, which is nearer to the obtained results of D100. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) of B100 at the full load condition is found to be 4% lower than that of (D100). The maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of B100 is found to be 8.5% higher than that of the D100 at full load. Also, the maximum BTE of part load for different blends is varied from 5.9% to 7.45% which is higher than D100. The exhaust gas emissions like Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ), Hydro Carbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NO x ) are found to be 2.3 to 18.8% lower compared to D100 for part as well as full load. The heat release rate of biodiesel and it blends are found to 16% to 35% lower as compared to D100 for part load, where as for full load it is 21% lower than D100. The results showed that the test of emissions norms are well within the limits of Bharath VI and European VI and it leads to less pollution, less effect on green eco system and potential substitute to fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Experimental investigation on the availability, performance, combustion and emission distinctiveness of bael oil/ diesel/ diethyl ether blends powered in a variable compression ratio diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthi, M.; Malayalamurthi, R.

    2018-02-01

    The present work aims at experimental investigation on the combined effect of injection timing (IT) and injection pressure (IP) on the performance and emissions characteristics, and exergy analysis of a compression-ignition (CI) engine powered with bael oil blends. The tests were conducted using ternary blends of bael oil, diethyl ether (DEE) and neat diesel (D) at various engine loads at a constant engine speed (1500 rpm). With B2 (60%D + 30%bael oil+10%DEE) fuel, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the engine is augmented by 3.5%, reduction of 4.7% of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission has been observed at 100% engine load with 250 bar IP. B2 fuel exhibits 7% lower scale of HC emissions compared to that of diesel fuel at 100% engine load in 23 °bTDC IT. The increment in both cooling water and exhaust gas availabilities lead to increasing exergy efficiency with increasing load. The exergy efficiency of about 62.17% has been recorded by B2 fuel at an injection pressure of 230 IP bar with 100% load. On the whole, B2 fuel displays the best performance and combustion characteristics. It also exhibits better characteristics of emissions level in terms of lower HC, smoke opacity and NOx.

  5. Argemone oil, an edible oil adulterant, induces systemic immunosuppression in Balb/c mice in an oral 28 days repeated dose toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Payal; Tewari, Prachi; Kumar, Sachin; Yadav, Sarika; Ayanur, Anjaneya; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2018-05-01

    Consumption of edible oils contaminated with Argemone oil (AO) leads to a clinical condition called "Epidemic dropsy". Earlier studies have reported that metabolism and oxidative stress primarily contributes to AO toxicity, however, the involvement of immune system has not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to systematically assess the effect of AO exposure on the function of immune system in Balb/c mice. The repeated exposure of AO for 28 days caused prominent regression of spleen and thymus; severe inflammatory changes in spleen depicted by the loss of distinct follicles, increased megakaryocyte infiltration, and enhanced expression levels of inflammatory markers (iNOS & COX-2). At the functional level, AO exposure significantly abrogated the mixed lymphocyte reaction and mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative activity of T and B cells, which is reflective of profound lymphocyte dysfunction upon antigen exposure. In concordance with the loss in functional activity of lymphocytes in AO exposed animals, it was found the AO altered the relative percentage of CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD28  +  T cells. Further, there was a marked decrease in the relative distribution of cells with prominent MHC I and CD1d expression in AO exposed splenocytes. Moreover, reduced levels of immune stimulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6), and increased levels of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 were detected in the serum of AO treated mice. Along with T and B cells, AO exposure also affected the phenotype and activation status of macrophages suggesting the inclination towards "alternative activation of macrophages". Altogether, these functional changes in the immune cells are contributing factors in AO induced immunosuppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recycling of waste tyre rubber into oil absorbent.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zhou, M H

    2009-01-01

    The abundant and indiscriminant disposal of waste tyres has caused both health and environmental problems. In this work, we provide a new way to dispose off waste tyres by reusing the waste tyre rubber (WTR) for oil absorptive material production. To investigate this feasibility, a series of absorbents were prepared by graft copolymerization-blending method, using waste tyre rubber and 4-tert-butylstyrene (tBS) as monomers. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) were employed as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. The existence of graft-blends (WTR-g-tBS) was determined by FTIR spectrometry and verified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In addition, the thermal properties of WTR-g-tBS were confirmed by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Oil absorbency of the grafted-blends increased with increases in either feed ratio of WTR to tBS or DVB concentration. This absorbency reached a maximum of 24.0gg(-1) as the feed ratio and DVB concentration were 60/40 and 1wt%, respectively, after which it decreased. At other ratios and concentrations the absorbency decreased. The gel fraction of grafted-blends increased with increasing concentration of DVB. Oil-absorption processes in pure toluene and crude oil diluted with toluene were found to adhere to first-order absorption kinetics. Furthermore, the oil-absorption rate in diluted crude oil was observed to be lower than pure toluene.

  7. Microemulsions based on a sunflower lecithin-Tween 20 blend have high capacity for dissolving peppermint oil and stabilizing coenzyme Q10.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-28

    The objectives of the present study were to improve the capability of microemulsions to dissolve peppermint oil by blending sunflower lecithin with Tween 20 and to study the possibility of codelivering lipophilic bioactive compounds. The oil loading in microemulsions with 20% (w/w) Tween 20 increased from 3% (w/w) to 20% (w/w) upon gradual supplementation of 6% (w/w) lecithin. All microemulsions had particles of <12 nm that did not change over 70 d of storage at 21 °C. They had relatively low Newtonian viscosities and were physically and chemically stable after 50-200-fold dilution in water, resulting from similar hydrophile-lipophile-balance values of the surfactant mixture and peppermint oil. Furthermore, the microemulsions were capable of dissolving coenzyme Q10 and preventing its degradation at UV 302 nm, more significant for the microemulsion with lecithin. Therefore, natural surfactant lecithin can reduce the use of synthetic Tween 20 to dissolve peppermint oil and protect the degradation of dissolved lipophilic bioactive components in transparent products.

  8. 7 CFR 981.7 - Edible kernel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Edible kernel. 981.7 Section 981.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.7 Edible kernel. Edible kernel means a kernel, piece, or particle of almond kernel that is not inedible. [41 FR 26852, June 30, 1976] ...

  9. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  10. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  11. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Nutritional evaluation of structured lipid containing omega 6 fatty acid synthesized from coconut oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-06-01

    Coconut oil is rich in medium chain fatty acids, but deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Structured lipids (SL) enriched with omega 6 PUFA were synthesized from coconut oil triglycerides by employing enzymatic acidolysis with free fatty acids obtained from safflower oil. Rats were fed a diet containing coconut oil, coconut oil-safflower oil blend (1:0.7 w/ w) or structured lipid at 10% levels for a period of 60 days. The SL lowered serum cholesterol levels by 10.3 and 10.5% respectively in comparison with those fed coconut oil and blended oil. Similarly the liver cholesterol levels were also decreased by 35.9 and 26.6% respectively in animals fed structured lipids when compared to those fed on coconut oil or the blended oil. Most of the decrease observed in serum cholesterol levels of animals fed structured lipids was found in LDL fraction. The triglyceride levels in serum showed a decrease by 17.5 and 17.4% while in the liver it was reduced by 45.8 and 23.5% in the structured lipids fed animals as compared to those fed coconut oil or blended oil respectively. Differential scanning calorimetric studies indicated that structured lipids had lower melting points and solid fat content when compared to coconut oil or blended oils. These studies indicated that enrichment of coconut oil triglycerides with omega 6 fatty acids lowers its solid fat content. The omega 6 PUFA enriched structured lipids also exhibited hypolipidemic activity.

  13. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  14. Edible Oil Regulatory Reform Act [P.L. 104-55

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-04

    An Act to require the head of any Federal agency to differentiate between fats, oils, and greases of animal, marine, or vegetable origin, and other oils and greases, in issuing certain regulations and for other purposes.

  15. 40 CFR 279.11 - Used oil specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Used oil specifications. 279.11... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Applicability § 279.11 Used oil specifications. Used oil burned for energy recovery, and any fuel produced from used oil by processing, blending, or other...

  16. 40 CFR 279.11 - Used oil specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Used oil specifications. 279.11... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Applicability § 279.11 Used oil specifications. Used oil burned for energy recovery, and any fuel produced from used oil by processing, blending, or other...

  17. 40 CFR 279.11 - Used oil specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Used oil specifications. 279.11... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Applicability § 279.11 Used oil specifications. Used oil burned for energy recovery, and any fuel produced from used oil by processing, blending, or other...

  18. 40 CFR 279.11 - Used oil specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Used oil specifications. 279.11... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Applicability § 279.11 Used oil specifications. Used oil burned for energy recovery, and any fuel produced from used oil by processing, blending, or other...

  19. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-07-02

    Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO) was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%), hexadecanoic acid (16.57%), (9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%), and (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%). Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone) and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone), but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity (80.45%), superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%), and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Design and characterization of controlled-release edible packaging films prepared with synergistic whey-protein polysaccharide complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yanfeng; Du, Bingjian; Chai, Zhi; Jiao, Tong; Zhang, Chunyue; Ren, Fazheng; Leng, Xiaojing

    2013-06-19

    This paper describes an investigation into the properties of a doubly emulsified film incorporated with protein-polysaccharide microcapsules, which serves as a multifunctional food packaging film prepared using common edible materials in place of petroleum--based plastics. The relationships between the microstructural properties and controlled release features of a series of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) microcapsulated edible films prepared in thermodynamically incompatible conditions were analyzed. The hydrophilic riboflavin (V(B2)) nano-droplets (13-50 nm) dispersed in α-tocopherol (V(E)) oil phase were embedded in whey protein-polysaccharide (WPs) microcapsules with a shell thickness of 20-56 nm. These microcapsules were then integrated in 103 μm thick WPs films. Different polysaccharides, including gum arabic (GA), low-methoxyl pectin (LMP), and κ-carrageenan (KCG), exhibited different in vitro synergistic effects on the ability of both films to effect enteric controlled release of both vitamins. GA, which showed a strong emulsifying ability, also showed better control of V(E) than other polysaccharides, and the highly charged KCG showed better control of V(B2) than GA did.

  1. Postharvest shelf-life extension of pink guavas (Psidium guajava L.) using HPMC-based edible surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Vishwasrao, Chandrahas; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava L. var. 'Lalit' is a perishable fruit with delicate skin which is prone to damage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating made up of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and palm oil on ripening of guava. Coating solution was applied over fruits and coated fruits were stored at 24 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5%RH. Changes in fruit colour, texture softening, respiration rate, weight loss, ascorbic acid content, soluble solids, titrable acidity, chlorophyll content, total reducing sugars, total phenolic content were studied during post-harvest ripening. Fruits coated with 1 % of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and 0.3 % of palm oil showed significant delay in weight loss, fruit firmness as well as colour change (p < 0.05). Coating delayed the enzyme activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase of the fruit. Results suggest that overall quality of coated fruit was maintained by edible coating formulation extending the shelf life of fruit up to 12 days with appreciable retention of all quality parameters tested.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1056 - Boiled linseed oil; exemption from requirement of tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... “boiled linseed oil.” This exemption is limited to use on rice before edible parts form. [46 FR 33270... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boiled linseed oil; exemption from... From Tolerances § 180.1056 Boiled linseed oil; exemption from requirement of tolerance. Boiled linseed...

  3. Development of three stable isotope dilution assays for the quantitation of (E)-2-butenal (crotonaldehyde) in heat-processed edible fats and oils as well as in food.

    PubMed

    Granvogl, Michael

    2014-02-12

    Three stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) were developed for the quantitation of (E)-2-butenal (crotonaldehyde) in heat-processed edible fats and oils as well as in food using synthesized [¹³C₄]-crotonaldehyde as internal standard. First, a direct headspace GC-MS method, followed by two indirect methods on the basis of derivatization with either pentafluorophenylhydrazine (GC-MS) or 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (LC-MS/MS), was developed. All methods are also suitable for the quantitation of acrolein using the standard [¹³C₃]-acrolein. Applying these three methods on five different types of fats and oils varying in their fatty acid compositions revealed significantly varying crotonaldehyde concentrations for the different samples, but nearly identical quantitative data for all methods. Formed amounts of crotonaldehyde were dependent not only on the type of oil, e.g., 0.29-0.32 mg/kg of coconut oil or 33.9-34.4 mg/kg of linseed oil after heat-processing for 24 h at 180 °C, but also on the applied temperature and time. The results indicated that the concentration of formed crotonaldehyde seemed to be correlated with the amount of linolenic acid in the oils. Furthermore, the formation of crotonaldehyde was compared to that of its homologue acrolein, demonstrating that acrolein was always present in higher amounts in heat-processed oils, e.g., 12.3 mg of crotonaldehyde/kg of rapeseed oil in comparison to 23.4 mg of acrolein/kg after 24 h at 180 °C. Finally, crotonaldehyde was also quantitated in fried food, revealing concentrations from 12 to 25 μg/kg for potato chips and from 8 to 19 μg/kg for donuts, depending on the oil used.

  4. Effects of blend of canola oil and palm oil on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids in goats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara; Alimon, Abd Rasak; Karim, Roselina; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sabow, Azad Behnan

    2016-09-01

    The study examined the effects of blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil (BCPO) on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, rumen fermentation and fatty acids (FA) in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly assigned to diets containing 0, 4 and 8% BCPO on a dry matter basis, fed for 100 days and slaughtered. Diet did not affect feed efficiency, growth performance, intake and digestibility of all nutrients except ether extract. Intakes and digestibilities of ether extract, unsaturated fatty acids (FA) and total FA were higher (P < 0.05) while digestibility of C18:0 was lower (P < 0.05) in oil-fed goats than the control goats. Total volatile FA, acetate, butyrate, acetate/propionate ratio and methane decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing BCPO but propionate, NH3 -N and rumen pH did not differ between diets. Ruminal concentration of C18:0, n-3 FA and total FA increased (P < 0.05) while C12:0, C14:0, C15:0 and n-6 FA decreased with increasing BCPO. Analysis of the FA composition of Triceps brachii muscle showed that concentrations of C16:0, C14:0 and C18:2n-6 were lower (P < 0.05) while C18:1n-9, C18:3n-3 and C20:5n-3 were higher in oil-fed goats compared with control goats. Dietary BCPO altered muscle lipids without having detrimental effects on nutrient intake and digestibility and growth performance in goats. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Biopolymer-prebiotic carbohydrate blends and their effects on the retention of bioactive compounds and maintenance of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eric Keven; Zabot, Giovani L; Cazarin, Cinthia B B; Maróstica, Mário R; Meireles, M Angela A

    2016-06-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of inulin (IN), a prebiotic carbohydrate without superficial activity, as an encapsulating matrix of lipophilic bioactive compounds. For achieving the encapsulation, IN was associated with biopolymers that present superficial activity: modified starch (HiCap), whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum acacia (GA). Encapsulation was performed through emulsification assisted by ultrasound followed by freeze-drying (FD) process to dry the emulsions. All blends retained geranylgeraniol. GA-IN blend yielded the highest geranylgeraniol retention (96±2wt.%) and entrapment efficiency (94±3wt.%), whilst WPI-IN blend yielded the highest encapsulation efficiency (88±2wt.%). After encapsulation, composition of geranylgeraniol in the annatto seed oil was maintained (23.0±0.5g/100g of oil). Such findings indicate that the method of encapsulation preserved the active compound. All blends were also effective for maintaining the antioxidant activity of the oil through ORAC and DPPH analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers.

  7. A drop penetration method to measure powder blend wettability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Zhanjie; Muzzio, Fernando; Drazer, German; Callegari, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    Water wettability of pharmaceutical blends affects important quality attributes of final products. We investigate the wetting properties of a pharmaceutical blend lubricated with Magnesium Stearate (MgSt) as a function of the mechanical shear strain applied to the blend. We measure the penetration dynamics of sessile drops deposited on slightly compressed powder beds. We consider a blend composed of 9% Acetaminophen 90% Lactose and 1% MgSt by weight. Comparing the penetration time of water and a reference liquid Polydimethylsiloxane (silicon oil) we obtain an effective cosine of the contact angle with water, based on a recently developed drop penetration method. We repeat the experiments for blends exposed to increasing levels of shear strain and demonstrate a significant decrease in water wettability (decrease in the cosine of the contact angle). The results are consistent with the development of a hydrophobic film coating the powder particles as a result of the increased shear strain. Finally, we show that, as expected dissolution times increase with the level of shear strain. Therefore, the proposed drop penetration method could be used to directly assess the state of lubrication of a pharmaceutical blend and act as a quality control on powder blend attributes before the blend is tableted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diesel Fuel from Used Frying Oil

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2014-01-01

    New conversion technologies of used edible oils and waste animal fats into a biofuel appropriate for use in standard diesel engines have been developed, taking into consideration environmental requirements and improvement in the economics of current trans-esterification technologies. The variation in the properties of substrates made from used rape oil after treatment with mixed adsorbents (active carbon, magnesium silicate) was studied in this work. The obtained results are compared with the quality requirements for the substrates used in Vogel & Noot GmbH technology for transesterification of oils and fats. PMID:24574908

  9. A Comparative Study on the Mechanical, Thermal and Morphological Characterization of Poly(lactic acid)/Epoxidized Palm Oil Blend

    PubMed Central

    Giita Silverajah, V. S.; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Woei, Chieng Buong

    2012-01-01

    In this work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix was melt blended with three different epoxidized palm oil (EPO). The aim of this research was to enhance the flexibility, mechanical and thermal properties of PLA. The blends were prepared at various EPO contents of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% and characterized. The SEM analysis evidenced successful modification on the neat PLA brittle morphology. Tensile tests indicate that the addition of 1 wt% EPO is sufficient to improve the strength and flexibility compared to neat PLA. Additionally, the flexural and impact properties were also enhanced. Further, DSC analysis showed that the addition of EPO results in a decrease in Tg, which implies an increase in the PLA chain mobility. In the presence of 1 wt% EPO, TGA results revealed significant increase in the thermal stability by 27%. Among the three EPOs used, EPO(3) showed the best mechanical and thermal properties compared to the other EPO’s, with an optimum loading of 1 wt%. Conclusively, EPO showed a promising outcome to overcome the brittleness and improve the overall properties of neat PLA, thus can be considered as a potential plasticizer. PMID:22754338

  10. A comparative study on the mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization of poly(lactic acid)/epoxidized Palm Oil blend.

    PubMed

    Giita Silverajah, V S; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Woei, Chieng Buong

    2012-01-01

    In this work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) a fully biodegradable thermoplastic polymer matrix was melt blended with three different epoxidized palm oil (EPO). The aim of this research was to enhance the flexibility, mechanical and thermal properties of PLA. The blends were prepared at various EPO contents of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% and characterized. The SEM analysis evidenced successful modification on the neat PLA brittle morphology. Tensile tests indicate that the addition of 1 wt% EPO is sufficient to improve the strength and flexibility compared to neat PLA. Additionally, the flexural and impact properties were also enhanced. Further, DSC analysis showed that the addition of EPO results in a decrease in T(g), which implies an increase in the PLA chain mobility. In the presence of 1 wt% EPO, TGA results revealed significant increase in the thermal stability by 27%. Among the three EPOs used, EPO(3) showed the best mechanical and thermal properties compared to the other EPO's, with an optimum loading of 1 wt%. Conclusively, EPO showed a promising outcome to overcome the brittleness and improve the overall properties of neat PLA, thus can be considered as a potential plasticizer.

  11. Novel bio-based and biodegradable polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shengzhe

    Most plastic materials, including high performance thermoplastics and thermosets are produced entirely from petroleum-based products. The volatility of the natural oil markets and the increasing cost of petroleum have led to a push to reduce the dependence on petroleum products. Together with an increase in environmental awareness, this has promoted the use of alternative, biorenewable, environmentally-friendly products, such as biomass. The growing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by inexpensive, renewable, natural materials is important for sustainable development into the future and will have a significant impact on the polymer industry and the environment. This thesis involved characterization and development of two series of novel bio-based polymer blends, namely polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/polyamide (PA) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/soy protein. Blends with different concentrations and compatible microstructures were prepared using twin-screw extruder. For PHA/PA blends, the poor mechanical properties of PHA improved significantly with an excellent combination of strength, stiffness and toughness by adding PA. Furthermore, the effect of blending on the viscoelastic properties has been investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear flow experiments as a function of blend composition and angular frequency. The elastic shear modulus (G‧) and complex viscosity of the