Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara
Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…
Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara
Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…
Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.
To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…
Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.
To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…
Staudacher, Heidi M; Irving, Peter M; Lomer, Miranda C E; Whelan, Kevin
High-quality placebo-controlled evidence for food, nutrient or dietary advice interventions is vital for verifying the role of diet in optimising health or for the management of disease. This could be argued to be especially important where the benefits of dietary intervention are coupled with potential risks such as compromising nutrient intake, particularly in the case of exclusion diets. The objective of the present paper is to explore the challenges associated with clinical trials in dietary research, review the types of controls used and present the advantages and disadvantages of each, including issues regarding placebos and blinding. Placebo-controlled trials in nutrient interventions are relatively straightforward, as in general placebos can be easily produced. However, the challenges associated with conducting placebo-controlled food interventions and dietary advice interventions are protean, and this has led to a paucity of placebo-controlled food and dietary advice trials compared with drug trials. This review appraises the types of controls used in dietary intervention trials and provides recommendations and nine essential criteria for the design and development of sham diets for use in studies evaluating the effect of dietary advice, along with practical guidance regarding their evaluation. The rationale for these criteria predominantly relate to avoiding altering the outcome of interest in those delivered the sham intervention in these types of studies, while not compromising blinding.
Chaibi, Aleksander; Knackstedt, Heidi; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn
Cervicogenic headache is a disabling headache where pharmacological management have limited effect. Thus, non-pharmacological management is warranted. Our objective was therefore to investigate the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy versus placebo (sham manipulation) and control (continued usual but non-manual management) for cervicogenic headache in a prospective 3-armed single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial of 17 months' duration. Nineteen participants were equally randomized into the three groups, and 12 participants completed the randomized controlled trial. Headache frequency improved at all time points in the chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy and the placebo group. Headache index improved in the chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy group at all time points, while it improved at 6 and 12 months' follow-up in the placebo group. The control group remained unchanged during the whole study period. Adverse events were few, mild and transient. Blinding was concealed throughout the RCT. Thus, our results suggest that manual-therapy might be a safe treatment option for participants with cervicogenic headache, but data need to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial with sufficient sample size and statistical power. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01687881, 11 September 2012.
Cole, Graham D; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Mielewczik, Michael; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Francis, Darrel P
To compare the frequency of discrepancies in retracted reports of clinical trials with those in adjacent unretracted reports in the same journal. Blinded case-control study. Journals in PubMed. 50 manuscripts, classified on PubMed as retracted clinical trials, paired with 50 adjacent unretracted manuscripts from the same journals. Reports were randomly selected from PubMed in December 2012, with no restriction on publication date. Controls were the preceding unretracted clinical trial published in the same journal. All traces of retraction were removed. Three scientists, blinded to the retraction status of individual reports, reviewed all 100 trial reports for discrepancies. Discrepancies were pooled and cross checked before being counted into prespecified categories. Only then was the retraction status unblinded for analysis. Total number of discrepancies (defined as mathematically or logically contradictory statements) in each clinical trial report. Of 479 discrepancies found in the 100 trial reports, 348 were in the 50 retracted reports and 131 in the 50 unretracted reports. On average, individual retracted reports had a greater number of discrepancies than unretracted reports (median 4 (interquartile range 2-8.75) v 0 (0-5); P<0.001). Papers with a discrepancy were significantly more likely to be retracted than those without a discrepancy (odds ratio 5.7 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 14.5); P<0.001). In particular, three types of discrepancy arose significantly more frequently in retracted than unretracted reports: factual discrepancies (P=0.002), arithmetical errors (P=0.01), and missed P values (P=0.02). Results from a retrospective analysis indicated that citations and journal impact factor were unlikely to affect the result. Discrepancies in published trial reports should no longer be assumed to be unimportant. Scientists, blinded to retraction status and with no specialist skill in the field, identify significantly more discrepancies in retracted than
Nowbar, Alexandra N; Mielewczik, Michael; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Francis, Darrel P
Objectives To compare the frequency of discrepancies in retracted reports of clinical trials with those in adjacent unretracted reports in the same journal. Design Blinded case-control study. Setting Journals in PubMed. Population 50 manuscripts, classified on PubMed as retracted clinical trials, paired with 50 adjacent unretracted manuscripts from the same journals. Reports were randomly selected from PubMed in December 2012, with no restriction on publication date. Controls were the preceding unretracted clinical trial published in the same journal. All traces of retraction were removed. Three scientists, blinded to the retraction status of individual reports, reviewed all 100 trial reports for discrepancies. Discrepancies were pooled and cross checked before being counted into prespecified categories. Only then was the retraction status unblinded for analysis. Main outcome measure Total number of discrepancies (defined as mathematically or logically contradictory statements) in each clinical trial report. Results Of 479 discrepancies found in the 100 trial reports, 348 were in the 50 retracted reports and 131 in the 50 unretracted reports. On average, individual retracted reports had a greater number of discrepancies than unretracted reports (median 4 (interquartile range 2-8.75) v 0 (0-5); P<0.001). Papers with a discrepancy were significantly more likely to be retracted than those without a discrepancy (odds ratio 5.7 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 14.5); P<0.001). In particular, three types of discrepancy arose significantly more frequently in retracted than unretracted reports: factual discrepancies (P=0.002), arithmetical errors (P=0.01), and missed P values (P=0.02). Results from a retrospective analysis indicated that citations and journal impact factor were unlikely to affect the result. Conclusions Discrepancies in published trial reports should no longer be assumed to be unimportant. Scientists, blinded to retraction status and with no specialist
Gould, A Lawrence
Conventional practice monitors accumulating information about drug safety in terms of the numbers of adverse events reported from trials in a drug development program. Estimates of between-treatment adverse event risk differences can be obtained readily from unblinded trials with adjustment for differences among trials using conventional statistical methods. Recent regulatory guidelines require monitoring the cumulative frequency of adverse event reports to identify possible between-treatment adverse event risk differences without unblinding ongoing trials. Conventional statistical methods for assessing between-treatment adverse event risks cannot be applied when the trials are blinded. However, CUSUM charts can be used to monitor the accumulation of adverse event occurrences. CUSUM charts for monitoring adverse event occurrence in a Bayesian paradigm are based on assumptions about the process generating the adverse event counts in a trial as expressed by informative prior distributions. This article describes the construction of control charts for monitoring adverse event occurrence based on statistical models for the processes, characterizes their statistical properties, and describes how to construct useful prior distributions. Application of the approach to two adverse events of interest in a real trial gave nearly identical results for binomial and Poisson observed event count likelihoods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Juel-Jensen, B. E.; MacCallum, F. O.; Mackenzie, A. M. R.; Pike, M. C.
The antiviral effect of 5% idoxuridine in dimethyl sulphoxide intermittently applied and of 40% idoxuridine in dimethyl sulphoxide continuously applied for four days to the lesions in patients with zoster of recent onset was studied in two double-blind controlled trials. Most, but not all, of the patients receiving intermittent active treatment had pain for a short period only. The effect of continuous treatment was striking: pain had disappeared within nine days in all the patients and healing was accelerated. The results were statistically significant. PMID:4925077
Dauphinais, Deborah; Knable, Michael; Rosenthal, Joshua; Polanski, Mark; Rosenthal, Norman
Objective This is the first multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide for the treatment of bipolar depression. Experimental design One hundred two patients with bipolar disorder, type I or II in the depressed phase of illness were randomized to either adjunctive zonisamide or placebo. The study consisted of three phases, a 7 to 30 day screening and stabilization phase, 6 weeks of blinded treatment and a 1 to 3 week discontinuation phase. MADRS score was the primary outcome variable. Secondary outcome measures included the YMRS, CGI-S, CGI-I, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), and an a priori analysis of response and remission. Metabolic parameters including weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also evaluated. Side effects were measured using the SAFTEE. Principal observations There were no statistically significant differences in response between subjects treated with adjunctive zonisamide vs. placebo controls for the primary or secondary outcome measures. There were also no differences between the groups with regard to response rate or remission rate. Conclusions In contrast to preliminary open label studies that suggested a role for zonisamide in bipolar depression, we could not confirm these results in a large double blind controlled study. PMID:27738356
McKee, Justin B; Elston, John; Evangelou, Nikos; Gerry, Stephen; Fugger, Lars; Kennard, Christopher; Kong, Yazhuo; Palace, Jacqueline; Craner, Matthew
Introduction Neurodegeneration is a widely accepted contributor to the development of long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). While current therapies in MS predominantly target inflammation and reduce relapse rate they have been less effective at preventing long-term disability. The identification and evaluation of effective neuroprotective therapies within a trial paradigm are key unmet needs. Emerging evidence supports amiloride, a licenced diuretic, as a neuroprotective agent in MS through acid sensing ion channel blockade. Optic neuritis (ON) is a common manifestation of MS with correlates of inflammation and neurodegeneration measurable within the visual pathways. Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) will utilise a multimodal approach to assess the neuroprotective efficacy of amiloride in acute ON. Methods and analysis 46 patients will be recruited within 28 days from onset of ON visual symptoms and randomised on a 1:1 basis to placebo or amiloride 10 mg daily. Double-blinded treatment groups will be balanced for age, sex and visual loss severity by a random-deterministic minimisation algorithm. The primary objective is to demonstrate that amiloride is neuroprotective in ON as assessed by scanning laser polarimetry of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness at 6 months in the affected eye compared to the unaffected eye at baseline. RNFL in combination with further retinal measures will also be assessed by optical coherence tomography. Secondary outcome measures on brain MRI will include cortical volume, diffusion-weighted imaging, resting state functional MRI, MR spectroscopy and magnetisation transfer ratio. In addition, high and low contrast visual acuity, visual fields, colour vision and electrophysiology will be assessed alongside quality of life measures. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was given by the south central Oxford B research ethics committee (REC reference: 13/SC/0022). The findings
Vitiello, Benedetto; Davis, Mark; Greenhill, Laurence L; Pine, Daniel S
Few of the increasing number of pediatric clinical trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in children have been evaluated for level of blindness of investigators, children, and parents. The success of the masking procedures used in a double-blind, pediatric trial of fluvoxamine in children was examined. Clinical evaluators, parents, and children were asked to guess individual treatment assignment at the end of an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial of fluvoxamine conducted in 128 outpatients (6-17 years of age) with anxiety disorders. The relationship between treatment attribution and improvement status or presence of adverse events was examined. The rate of correct guesses was significantly greater than chance among clinical evaluators (78%), parents (81%), and children (67%) (for all, p < 0.001). Attribution to fluvoxamine was associated with presence of clinical improvement, and attribution to placebo with lack of improvement (p < 0.001) in both the fluvoxamine and placebo group. There was no association between presence of adverse events and direction of the guess. Accuracy of the guess did not improve with time. The tendency to attribute improvement to active treatment and lack of improvement to placebo was consistent across investigators, parents, and children and was applied regardless of actual treatment received by the patient. Adverse events did not influence treatment attribution.
Gilliaux, Maxime; Renders, Anne; Dispa, Delphine; Holvoet, Dominique; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Detrembleur, Christine; Lejeune, Thierry M; Stoquart, Gaëtan
Several pilot studies have evoked interest in robot-assisted therapy (RAT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). To assess the effectiveness of RAT in children with CP through a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Sixteen children with CP were randomized into 2 groups. Eight children performed 5 conventional therapy sessions per week over 8 weeks (control group). Eight children completed 3 conventional therapy sessions and 2 robot-assisted sessions per week over 8 weeks (robotic group). For both groups, each therapy session lasted 45 minutes. Throughout each RAT session, the patient attempted to reach several targets consecutively with the REAPlan. The REAPlan is a distal effector robot that allows for displacements of the upper limb in the horizontal plane. A blinded assessment was performed before and after the intervention with respect to the International Classification of Functioning framework: body structure and function (upper limb kinematics, Box and Block test, Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, strength, and spasticity), activities (Abilhand-Kids, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory), and participation (Life Habits). During each RAT session, patients performed 744 movements on average with the REAPlan. Among the variables assessed, the smoothness of movement (P < .01) and manual dexterity assessed by the Box and Block test (P = .04) improved significantly more in the robotic group than in the control group. This single-blind randomized controlled trial provides the first evidence that RAT is effective in children with CP. Future studies should investigate the long-term effects of this therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.
Welter, Marie-Laure; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Thobois, Stéphane; Bataille, Benoit; Guenot, Marc; Worbe, Yulia; Hartmann, Andreas; Czernecki, Virginie; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jerome; du Montcel, Sophie Tezenas; Agid, Yves; Vidailhet, Marie; Cornu, Philippe; Tanguy, Audrey; Ansquer, Solène; Jaafari, Nematollah; Poulet, Emmanuel; Serra, Giulia; Burbaud, Pierre; Cuny, Emmanuel; Aouizerate, Bruno; Pollak, Pierre; Chabardes, Stephan; Polosan, Mircea; Borg, Michel; Fontaine, Denys; Giordana, Bruno; Raoul, Sylvie; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Sauvaget, Anne; Jalenques, Isabelle; Karachi, Carine; Mallet, Luc
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed to treat patients with severe Tourette's syndrome, and open-label trials and two small double-blind trials have tested DBS of the posterior and the anterior internal globus pallidus (aGPi). We aimed to specifically assess the efficacy of aGPi DBS for severe Tourette's syndrome. In this randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18-60 years with severe and medically refractory Tourette's syndrome from eight hospitals specialised in movement disorders in France. Enrolled patients received surgery to implant bilateral electrodes for aGPi DBS; 3 months later they were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio with a block size of eight; computer-generated pairwise randomisation according to order of enrolment) to receive either active or sham stimulation for the subsequent 3 months in a double-blind fashion. All patients then received open-label active stimulation for the subsequent 6 months. Patients and clinicians assessing outcomes were masked to treatment allocation; an unmasked clinician was responsible for stimulation parameter programming, with intensity set below the side-effect threshold. The primary endpoint was difference in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score between the beginning and end of the 3 month double-blind period, as assessed with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test in all randomly allocated patients who received active or sham stimulation during the double-blind period. We assessed safety in all patients who were enrolled and received surgery for aGPi DBS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00478842. Between Dec 6, 2007, and Dec 13, 2012, we enrolled 19 patients. We randomly assigned 17 (89%) patients, with 16 completing blinded assessments (seven [44%] in the active stimulation group and nine [56%] in the sham stimulation group). We noted no significant difference in YGTSS score change between the beginning and the end of the 3 month double-blind period
Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Atwal, Tegpal; Bi, Yan; Chari, Suresh T; Clemens, Magdalen A; Enders, Felicity T
In acute pancreatitis (AP) tumor necrosis factor-α mediates multi-organ failure; in animal models its blockade with pentoxifylline ameliorates AP. The efficacy of pentoxifylline in predicted severe AP (pSAP) was tested in a double-blinded, randomized, control trial. Twenty-eight patients with pSAP were randomized within 72 hours of diagnosis to pentoxifylline or placebo. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The pentoxifylline group had fewer intensive care unit admissions and shorter intensive care unit and hospital stays of longer than 4 days (all P < .05). Patients receiving pentoxifylline had no adverse effects. Pentoxifylline within 72 hours of pSAP is safe; a larger study of pentoxifylline in AP is needed to confirm efficacy. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01292005. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barnes, Thomas R E; Leeson, Verity C; Paton, Carol; Costelloe, Céire; Simon, Judit; Kiss, Noemi; Osborn, David; Killaspy, Helen; Craig, Tom K J; Lewis, Shôn; Keown, Patrick; Ismail, Shajahan; Crawford, Mike; Baldwin, David; Lewis, Glyn; Geddes, John; Kumar, Manoj; Pathak, Rudresh; Taylor, Simon
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent deficiencies in emotional responsiveness, motivation, socialisation, speech and movement. When persistent, they are held to account for much of the poor functional outcomes associated with schizophrenia. There are currently no approved pharmacological treatments. While the available evidence suggests that a combination of antipsychotic and antidepressant medication may be effective in treating negative symptoms, it is too limited to allow any firm conclusions. To establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of augmentation of antipsychotic medication with the antidepressant citalopram for the management of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. A multicentre, double-blind, individually randomised, placebo-controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Adult psychiatric services, treating people with schizophrenia. Inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, on continuing, stable antipsychotic medication, with persistent negative symptoms at a criterion level of severity. Eligible participants were randomised 1 : 1 to treatment with either placebo (one capsule) or 20 mg of citalopram per day for 48 weeks, with the clinical option at 4 weeks to increase the daily dosage to 40 mg of citalopram or two placebo capsules for the remainder of the study. The primary outcomes were quality of life measured at 12 and 48 weeks assessed using the Heinrich's Quality of Life Scale, and negative symptoms at 12 weeks measured on the negative symptom subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. No therapeutic benefit in terms of improvement in quality of life or negative symptoms was detected for citalopram over 12 weeks or at 48 weeks, but secondary analysis suggested modest improvement in the negative symptom domain, avolition/amotivation, at 12 weeks (mean difference -1.3, 95% confidence interval -2.5 to -0.09). There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatment arms over 48-week
Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C.; Macklin, Eric A.; Evins, A. Eden; Fan, Xiaoduo; Cather, Cori; Walsh, Jared P.; Goff, Donald C.
Background Patients with schizophrenia often suffer from cognitive deficits and negative symptoms that are poorly responsive to antipsychotics including clozapine. Clozapine-induced sedation can worsen cognition and impair social and occupational functioning. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of modafinil for negative symptoms, cognition, and wakefulness/fatigue in DSM-IV–diagnosed schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine. Method A double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dosed 8-week pilot trial was conducted between September 2003 and September 2007, adding modafinil up to 300 mg/d to stabilized schizophrenia outpatients receiving clozapine. Psychopathology, cognition, and wakefulness/fatigue were assessed with standard rating scales. Results Thirty-five patients were randomly assigned to treatment with study drug and included in the analysis. Modafinil did not reduce negative symptoms or wakefulness/fatigue or improve cognition compared to placebo. Modafinil was well tolerated and did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions Results of this pilot trial do not support routine use of modafinil to treat negative symptoms, cognitive deficits, or wakefulness/fatigue in patients on clozapine. However, given our limited power to detect a treatment effect and the clear possibility of a type II error, larger trials are needed to resolve or refute a potential therapeutic effect of uncertain magnitude. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00573417 PMID:19689921
Denby, Christine; Groves, David G; Eleuteri, Antonio; Tsang, Hoo Kee; Leach, Austin; Hammond, Clare; Bridson, John D; Fisher, Michael; Elt, Matthew; Laflin, Robert; Fisher, Anthony C
Temporary sympathectomy by injection of bupivacaine at the site of the left stellate ganglion is used in the management of refractory angina at several UK centres. Although patients frequently report significant reduction in symptoms, efficacy has not been established by double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial (RCT). To investigate the efficacy of the procedure for the first time by a double-blind RCT. Consecutive patients referred to the authors' National Health Service (NHS) angina centre who were candidates for temporary sympathectomy were invited to participate in a trial. A total of 65 patients were randomised to receive either bupivacaine or saline injections. Identical syringes were prepared remotely, blinding patients and staff from randomisation. Cardiac autonomic function was measured 3 hours pre- and post-injection using new heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. Angina episodes were recorded contemporaneously by patients in study diaries in the 7-day periods pre- and post-injection. In 51 patients suitable for analysis, no significant differences between the active and placebo groups were found in patient-recorded frequency or intensity of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. However, across both groups combined, a significant difference was found in the frequency of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. The reduction in frequency of angina episodes produced by this procedure may not be due to drug pharmacology. It may be a placebo response or due to the mechanical effects of the injection of fluid. There is a need for further work using a larger patient cohort considering both mechanical and psychological factors.
Denby, Christine; Eleuteri, Antonio; Tsang, Hoo kee; Leach, Austin; Hammond, Clare; Bridson, John D; Fisher, Michael; Elt, Matthew; Laflin, Robert; Fisher, Anthony C
Background: Temporary sympathectomy by injection of bupivacaine at the site of the left stellate ganglion is used in the management of refractory angina at several UK centres. Although patients frequently report significant reduction in symptoms, efficacy has not been established by double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial (RCT). Objective: To investigate the efficacy of the procedure for the first time by a double-blind RCT. Methods: Consecutive patients referred to the authors’ National Health Service (NHS) angina centre who were candidates for temporary sympathectomy were invited to participate in a trial. A total of 65 patients were randomised to receive either bupivacaine or saline injections. Identical syringes were prepared remotely, blinding patients and staff from randomisation. Cardiac autonomic function was measured 3 hours pre- and post-injection using new heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. Angina episodes were recorded contemporaneously by patients in study diaries in the 7-day periods pre- and post-injection. Results: In 51 patients suitable for analysis, no significant differences between the active and placebo groups were found in patient-recorded frequency or intensity of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. However, across both groups combined, a significant difference was found in the frequency of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. Conclusion: The reduction in frequency of angina episodes produced by this procedure may not be due to drug pharmacology. It may be a placebo response or due to the mechanical effects of the injection of fluid. There is a need for further work using a larger patient cohort considering both mechanical and psychological factors. PMID:26516570
Gökşen, Nurgül; Çaliş, Mustafa; Doğan, Serap; Çaliş, Havva T; Özgöçmen, Salih
Therapeutic nuclear magnetic resonance therapy (MRT) works based on the electromagnetic fields. To investigate efficacy of MRT in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, university hospital. Patients who had mild to moderate knee OA at a single knee joint and between 30-75-years-old were randomized by blinded chip cards (1:1). The treatment group received ten sessions of one hour daily MRT, controls received placebo MRT. All patients underwent clinical examination at baseline, after 2 weeks, and 12 weeks. Imaging included blindly assessed ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) of the knee. Ninety-seven patients completed the study. Both groups improved significantly but the average change from baseline in outcome parameters was similar in MRT group (on VAS-pain,-2.6; WOMAC-pain, -2.09; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.81; WOMAC-physical, -1.96) compared to placebo after two weeks (VAS-pain,-1.6; WOMAC-pain, -1.91; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.27; WOMAC-physical, -1.54). Also changes were quite similar at the 12th week after the treatment. SF-36 components at 12th week improved but changes were not significant. Imaging arm also failed to show significant differences between groups in terms of cartilage thickness on US and MR scores. No adverse events were recorded. MRT is safe, but not superior to placebo in terms of improvement in clinical or imaging parameters after a 10-day course of treatment in mild to moderate knee OA. The present study does not promote use of a 10-day course of MRT in mild to moderate knee OA.
Hopkins, R; Bird, H A; Jones, H; Hill, J; Surrall, K E; Astbury, C; Miller, A; Wright, V
Etretinate (Tigason) and ibuprofen have been compared in a double-blind controlled trial in psoriatic arthritis to see if we could confirm a specific action for this vitamin A derivative suggested from earlier uncontrolled studies. Eleven out of 20 patients completed 24 weeks of therapy with etretinate (up to 0.5 mg/kg/day) whereas only 1/20 patients completed 24 weeks of therapy with ibuprofen alone. Etretinate improved skin lesions, and this may have encouraged patients to persist with it. Improvement of statistical significance was seen for articular index in both groups. In addition significant improvement in ESR, haemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and histidine occurred in the etretinate group. The main side effects of etretinate (which may preclude its use at a higher dose in this condition) included cracked and dried lips and sore mouth. PMID:3883917
Vickers, A J; Fisher, P; Smith, C; Wyllie, S E; Lewith, G T
OBJECTIVE: To pilot a model for determining whether a homoeopathic medicine is superior to placebo for delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Physiotherapy department of a homoeopathic hospital. SUBJECTS: Sixty eight healthy volunteers (average age 30; 41% men) undertook a 10 minute period of bench stepping carrying a small weight and were randomised to a homoeopathic medicine or placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean muscle soreness in the five day period after the exercise test, symptom free days, maximum soreness score, days to no soreness, days on medication. RESULTS: The difference between group means was 0.17 in favour of placebo with 95% confidence intervals +/- 0.50. Similar results were found for other outcome measures. CONCLUSION: The study did not find benefit of the homoeopathic remedy in DOMS. Bench stepping may not be an appropriate model to evaluate the effects of a treatment on DOMS because of wide variation between subject soreness scores. PMID:9429007
Leuschner, M; Leuschner, U; Lazarovici, D; Kurtz, W; Hellstern, A
In a controlled prospective double blind trial patients with cholesterol gall bladder stones are treated with ursodeoxy-cholic acid (group A: UDCA 11.1 mg/kg per day; n = 16) and Ursomenth respectively (group B: a mixture of UDCA/menthol: 4.75 mg/kg per day each; n = 17). With same stone number and size (10-12 mm) there is a complete dissolution rate in group A of 38%, and of 53% in group B within 15-16.9 months. The response rate (complete + partial dissolution) amounted to 75% and 76% respectively. In group A there is one case of stone calcification, in group B none. Both preparations are free of unwanted effects. This suggests that the cyclic monoterpene menthol enhances the effect of UDCA and is of comparable effect to a mixture of six different terpenes used in former times. PMID:3286383
Little, A; Levy, R; Chuaqui-Kidd, P; Hand, D
The first long-term double-blind placebo controlled trial of high dose lecithin in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type is reported. Fifty one subjects were given 20-25 g/day of purified soya lecithin (containing 90% phosphatidyl plus lysophosphatidyl choline) for six months and followed up for at least a further six months. Plasma choline levels were monitored throughout the treatment period. There were no differences between the placebo group and the lecithin group but there was an improvement in a subgroup of relatively poor compliers. These were older and had intermediate levels of plasma choline. It is suggested that the effects of lecithin are complex but that there may be a "therapeutic window" for the effects of lecithin in the condition and that this may be more evident in older patients. PMID:3897460
Shibre, Teshome; Alem, Atalay; Abdulahi, Abdulreshid; Araya, Mesfin; Beyero, Teferra; Medhin, Girmay; Deyassa, Negusse; Negash, Alemayehu; Nigatu, Alemayehu; Kebede, Derege; Fekadu, Abebaw
Various infectious agents, such as Toxoplasma gondii, have been hypothesized to be potentially relevant etiological factors in the onset of some cases of schizophrenia. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment trial in an attempt to explore the hypothesis that the symptoms of schizophrenia may be related to infection of the central nervous system with toxoplasma gondii. Systematically selected patients with ongoing and at least moderately severe schizophrenia from Butajira, in rural Ethiopia, were randomly allocated to trimethoprim or placebo, which were added on to participants' regular antipsychotic treatments. Trial treatments were given for 6 months. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess outcome. Ninety-one patients were included in the study, with 80 cases (87.9%) positive for T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody. Seventy-nine subjects (87.0%) completed the trial. The mean age of subjects was 35.3 (SD = 8.0) years, with a mean duration of illness of 13.2 (SD = 6.7) years. Both treatment groups showed significant reduction in the overall PANSS score with no significant between-group difference. In this sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia, trimethoprim used as adjuvant treatment is not superior to placebo. However, it is not possible to draw firm conclusion regarding the etiological role of toxoplasmosis on schizophrenia based on this study because the timing and the postulated mechanisms through which toxoplasmosis produces schizophrenia are variable.
Miceli, Giovanni; Marino, Natale; Sciortino, Davide; Bagnato, Gian Filippo
Objectives. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness of a wearable pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) device in the management of pain in knee OA patients. Methods. In this randomized [with equal randomization (1:1)], double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients with radiographic evidence of knee OA and persistent pain higher than 40 mm on the visual analog scale (VAS) were recruited. The trial consisted of 12 h daily treatment for 1 month in 60 knee OA patients. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in pain intensity, assessed through VAS and WOMAC scores. Secondary outcomes included quality of life assessment through the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form version 2 (SF-36 v2), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and changes in intake of NSAIDs/analgesics. Results. Sixty-six patients were included, and 60 completed the study. After 1 month, PEMF induced a significant reduction in VAS pain and WOMAC scores compared with placebo. Additionally, pain tolerance, as expressed by PPT changes, and physical health improved in PEMF-treated patients. A mean treatment effect of −0.73 (95% CI − 1.24 to − 0.19) was seen in VAS score, while the effect size was −0.34 (95% CI − 0.85 to 0.17) for WOMAC score. Twenty-six per cent of patients in the PEMF group stopped NSAID/analgesic therapy. No adverse events were detected. Conclusion. These results suggest that PEMF therapy is effective for pain management in knee OA patients and also affects pain threshold and physical functioning. Future larger studies, including head-to-head studies comparing PEMF therapy with standard pharmacological approaches in OA, are warranted. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01877278 PMID:26705327
Hersi, Ahmad; Giannoccaro, J. Peter; Howarth, Andrew; Exner, Derek; Weeks, Sarah; Eitel, Ingo; Herman, R. Cameron; Duff, Henry; Ritchie, Debbie; Mcrae, Maureen; Sheldon, Robert
Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), characterized by a thickened, fibrotic myocardium, remains the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young adults. Based on animal and clinical data, we hypothesized that atorvastatin would induce left ventricular (LV) mass regression. Methods: Statin Induced Regression of Cardiomyopathy Trial (SIRCAT) was a randomized, placebo-controlled study. The primary endpoint was change in LV mass measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 12 months after treatment with once-daily atorvastatin 80 mg or placebo. A key secondary endpoint was diastolic dysfunction measured echocardiographically by transmitral flow velocities. SIRCAT is registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00317967). Results: Of 222 screened patients, 22 were randomized evenly to atorvastatin and placebo. The mean age was 47 ± 10 years, and 15 (68%) were male. All subjects completed the protocol. At baseline, LV masses were 197 ± 76 g and 205 ± 82 g in the placebo and atorvastatin groups, respectively. After 12 months treatment, the LV masses in the placebo and atorvastatin groups were 196 ± 80 versus 206 ± 92 g (P = 0.80), respectively. Echocardiographic indices were not different in the two groups at baseline. After 12 months, diastolic dysfunction as assessed using transmitral flow velocities E/E', A/A', and peak systolic mitral velocity showed no benefit from atorvastatin. Conclusions: In patients with HCM, atorvastatin did not cause LV mass regression or improvements in LV diastolic function. PMID:28400935
Verzì, Anna Elisa; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe
Affordable (USD ∼30) handheld USB digital microscopes, or videomicroscopes (VMs), that provide ×10-200 magnification are available on the web for nonmedical uses such as in botany, entomology, microelectronics or, recently, for hair/scalp evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability of low-cost VMs versus standard, medically marketed videodermatoscopes (VDs) in trichoscopy. Twenty-five patients affected by different types of hair loss were enrolled in a controlled, blinded noninferiority trial. All patients underwent examination by two low-cost VMs as well as by standard VD in order to evaluate any variability in the detection of common trichoscopic features. At the end of the study, the two low-cost VMs enabled a correct identification of all hair shaft alterations; as regards follicular and/or perifollicular examination, black dots were easily recognized by both equipments, but other follicular features, such as yellow dots, white dots and perifollicular scales, were not always adequately visualized because of low color quality and/or reduced brightness and/or resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests that the potential accuracy of low-cost VMs in the evaluation of hair loss may have some pitfalls. Therefore, a low-cost VM should not be routinely used for reliable scalp trichoscopy, unless supported by individual controlled noninferiority trials.
Background A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the naturally derived topical oil, "Neuragen PN®" for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Methods Sixty participants with plantar cutaneous (foot sole) pain due to all cause peripheral neuropathy were recruited from the community. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments (Neuragen PN® or placebo) per week in a crossover design. The primary outcome measure was acute spontaneous pain level as reported on a visual analog scale. Results There was an overall pain reduction for both treatments from pre to post application. As compared to the placebo, Neuragen PN® led to significantly (p < .05) greater pain reduction. Fifty six of sixty subjects (93.3%) receiving Neuragen PN® reported pain reduction within 30 minutes. This reduction within 30 minutes occurred in only twenty one of sixty (35.0%) subjects receiving the placebo. In a break out analysis of the diabetic only subgroup, 94% of subjects in the Neuragen PN® group achieved pain reduction within 30 minutes vs 11.0% of the placebo group. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions This randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial with crossover design revealed that the naturally derived oil, Neuragen PN®, provided significant relief from neuropathic pain in an all cause neuropathy group. Participants with diabetes within this group experienced similar pain relief. Trial registration ISRCTN registered: ISRCTN13226601 PMID:20487567
Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona
Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…
Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona
Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…
Lennard-Jones, J. E.; Baron, J. H.; Connell, A. M.; Jones, F. Avery
A double blind trial of prednisolone suppositories in out-patients with idiopathic proctitis is reported. Significant improvement was noted. When prednisolone suppositories were given after the patient had already used suppositories of base alone for three weeks the active treatment was no longer so effective. PMID:13929632
Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Pandy, Marcus G; Schache, Anthony G; Hinman, Rana S
Background The patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA) and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and physical function than a physiotherapy education intervention in people with symptomatic and radiographic PFJ OA. Methods 90 people with PFJ OA (PFJ-specific history, signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of PFJ OA) will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated into one of two treatments. A randomised controlled trial adhering to CONSORT guidelines will evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks, as well as a home exercise program 4 times/week) compared to a physiotherapist-delivered OA education control treatment (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks). Physiotherapy treatment will consist of (i) quadriceps muscle retraining; (ii) quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening; (iii) patellar taping; (iv) manual PFJ and soft tissue mobilisation; and (v) OA education. Resistance and dosage of exercises will be tailored to the participant's functional level and clinical state. Primary outcomes will be evaluated by a blinded examiner at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months using validated and reliable pain, physical function and perceived global effect scales. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed regression models, including respective baseline scores as a covariate, subjects as a random effect, treatment condition as a fixed factor and the covariate by treatment interaction. Conclusion This RCT is targeting PFJ OA, an important sub-group of knee OA patients, with a specifically designed conservative intervention. The project's outcome will influence PFJ OA rehabilitation, with the potential to reduce
Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Des Portes, Vincent; Hagerman, Randi; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Charles, Perrine; Visootsak, Jeannie; Brinkman, Marc; Rerat, Karin; Koumaras, Barbara; Zhu, Liansheng; Barth, Gottfried Maria; Jaecklin, Thomas; Apostol, George; von Raison, Florian
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, is typically caused by transcriptional silencing of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Work in animal models has described altered synaptic plasticity, a result of the up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling, as a putative downstream effect. Post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2 trial suggested that the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant improved behavioral symptoms in FXS patients with completely methylated FMR1 genes. We present the results of two phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of mavoglurant in FXS, designed to confirm this result in adults (n = 175, aged 18 to 45 years) and adolescents (n = 139, aged 12 to 17 years). In both trials, participants were stratified by methylation status and randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily) or placebo over 12 weeks. Neither of the studies achieved the primary efficacy end point of improvement on behavioral symptoms measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition using the FXS-specific algorithm (ABC-C(FX)) after 12 weeks of treatment with mavoglurant. The safety and tolerability profile of mavoglurant was as previously described, with few adverse events. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, we could not confirm the mGluR theory of FXS nor the ability of the methylation state of the FMR1 promoter to predict mavoglurant efficacy. Preclinical results suggest that future clinical trials might profitably explore initiating treatment in a younger population with longer treatment duration and longer placebo run-ins and identifying new markers to better assess behavioral and cognitive benefits. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Ajori, Ladan; Nazari, Leila; Eliaspour, Dariush
This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate whether use of acupuncture could initiate labor at term and thus reduce post-term induction. Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 80 women at 38 weeks of gestation or greater were randomized to acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups. Acupuncture points LI4, SP6 and BL67 were needled bilaterally. The primary outcome was initiation of labor. The time from acupuncture to delivery, mode of delivery, fetal and maternal outcome and Apgar scores were recorded. The trial is registered at irct.ir, number IRCT201111218151N1. Eighty women were randomized and 75 women completed the study procedure. Age, BMI, parity and gestational age were similar in both groups. Spontaneous labor was initiated in 94.7 % of acupuncture group and 89.2 % of sham acupuncture group (p = 0.430). There were no statistically significant difference between groups for time from enrollment to delivery (p = 0.06). According to this study, it seems that acupuncture was not effective in labor initiation compared to sham acupuncture.
Ciliberto, Heather; Ciliberto, Michael; Briend, Andreé; Ashorn, Per; Bier, Dennis; Manary, Mark
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in preventing kwashiorkor in a population of Malawian children at high risk of developing kwashiorkor. Design Prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial randomised by household. Setting 8 villages in rural southern Malawi. Participants 2372 children in 2156 households aged 1-4 years were enrolled; 2332 completed the trial. Intervention Daily supplementation with an antioxidant powder containing riboflavin, vitamin E, selenium, and N-acetylcysteine in a dose that provided about three times the recommended dietary allowance of each nutrient or placebo for 20 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the incidence of oedema. Secondary outcomes were the rates of change for weight and length and the number of days of infectious symptoms. Results 62 children developed kwashiorkor (defined by the presence of oedema); 39/1184 (3.3%) were in the antioxidant group and 23/1188 (1.9%) were in the placebo group (relative risk 1.70, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 2.42). The two groups did not differ in rates of weight or height gain. Children who received antioxidant supplementation did not experience less fever, cough, or diarrhoea. Conclusions Antioxidant supplementation at the dose provided did not prevent the onset of kwashiorkor. This finding does not support the hypothesis that depletion of vitamin E, selenium, cysteine, or riboflavin has a role in the development of kwashiorkor. PMID:15851401
Riche, Daniel M.; Riche, Krista D.; Blackshear, Chad T.; McEwen, Corey L.; Sherman, Justin J.; Wofford, Marion R.; Griswold, Michael E.
Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6–8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (−7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (−7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (−0.62 kg/m2; P = 0.012). Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227. PMID:25057276
Riche, Daniel M; Riche, Krista D; Blackshear, Chad T; McEwen, Corey L; Sherman, Justin J; Wofford, Marion R; Griswold, Michael E
Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6-8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (-7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (-7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (-0.62 kg/m(2); P = 0.012). Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227.
Irvine, Jamie; Chong, Su L; Amirjani, Nasim; Chan, K Ming
Several studies have suggested that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is effective in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In a double-blind randomized controlled trial of LLLT, 15 CTS patients, 34 to 67 years of age, were randomly assigned to either the control group (n = 8) or treatment group (n =7). Both groups were treated three times per week for 5 weeks. Those in the treatment group received 860 nm galium/aluminum/arsenide laser at a dosage of 6 J/cm2 over the carpal tunnel, whereas those in the control group were treated with sham laser. The primary outcome measure was the Levine Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire, and the secondary outcome measures were electrophysiological data and the Purdue pegboard test. All patients completed the study without adverse effects. There was a significant symptomatic improvement in both the control (P = 0.034) and treatment (P =0.043) groups. However, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measures between the two groups. Thus, LLLT is no more effective in the reduction of symptoms of CTS than is sham treatment.
Dantas, Diego De Sousa; De Assis, Sanderson José Costa; Baroni, Marina Pegoraro; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Cacho, Roberta De Oliveira; Pereira, Silvana Alves
[Purpose] To estimate the effect of Klapp method on idiopathic scoliosis in school students. [Subjects and Methods] A single-blind randomized clinical trial with 22 students randomly divided into intervention group (n=12) and inactive control group (n=10). Exercise protocol consisted of Klapp method, 20 sessions, three times a week for intervention group, and inactivity for control group. Dorsal muscle strength was measured by dynamometer; body asymmetries and gibbosity angles were measured by biophotogrammetry. Data were obtained by Generalized Estimated Equation, with 5% significance level. Clinical impact for dependent variables was estimated by "d" Cohen. [Results] There was no change in intragroup analysis and intergroup for all postural symmetry variables. However, it was detected intergroup difference in extensor muscle strength and intergroup difference with marginal significance of gibbosity angles. Regarding extensor muscle strength, intervention group produced average improvement of 7.0 kgf compared to control group. Gibbosity angles progressed less in intervention group, with 5.71° average delay compared to control group. [Conclusion] Klapp method was effective for gibbosity stabilization and it improves spine extensor muscle strength.
Hossain, S.; Biswas, R.; Kabir, I.; Sarker, S.; Dibley, M.; Fuchs, G.; Mahalanabis, D.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a single large oral dose of vitamin A in treating acute shigellosis in children in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Randomised double blind controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 83 children aged 1-7 years with bacteriologically proved shigellosis but no clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency; 42 were randomised to treatment with vitamin A and 41 formed a control group. INTERVENTION: Children were given a single oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A plus 25 IU vitamin E or a control preparation of 25 IU vitamin E. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical cure on study day 5 and bacteriological cure. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the subjects in the two treatment groups were similar. Significantly more children in the vitamin A group than in the control group achieved clinical cure (19/42 (45%) v 8/14 (20%); chi 2 = 5.14, 1 df, P = 0.02; risk ratio = 0.68 (95% confidence interval; 0.50 to 0.93)). When cure was determined bacteriologically, the groups had similar rates (16/42 (38%) v 16/41 (39%); chi 2 = 0.02, 1 df, P = 0.89; risk ratio = 0.98 (0.70 to 1.39)). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin A reduces the severity of acute shigellosis in children living in areas where vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem. PMID:9492664
Dantas, Diego De Sousa; De Assis, Sanderson José Costa; Baroni, Marina Pegoraro; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Cacho, Roberta De Oliveira; Pereira, Silvana Alves
[Purpose] To estimate the effect of Klapp method on idiopathic scoliosis in school students. [Subjects and Methods] A single-blind randomized clinical trial with 22 students randomly divided into intervention group (n=12) and inactive control group (n=10). Exercise protocol consisted of Klapp method, 20 sessions, three times a week for intervention group, and inactivity for control group. Dorsal muscle strength was measured by dynamometer; body asymmetries and gibbosity angles were measured by biophotogrammetry. Data were obtained by Generalized Estimated Equation, with 5% significance level. Clinical impact for dependent variables was estimated by “d” Cohen. [Results] There was no change in intragroup analysis and intergroup for all postural symmetry variables. However, it was detected intergroup difference in extensor muscle strength and intergroup difference with marginal significance of gibbosity angles. Regarding extensor muscle strength, intervention group produced average improvement of 7.0 kgf compared to control group. Gibbosity angles progressed less in intervention group, with 5.71° average delay compared to control group. [Conclusion] Klapp method was effective for gibbosity stabilization and it improves spine extensor muscle strength. PMID:28210027
Enander, Jesper; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian
To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Academic medical centre. 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥ 20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥ 30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference -7.1 points, 95% confidence interval -9.8 to -4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference -4.5 points, -7.5 to -1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self reported satisfaction was high. CBT can be delivered safely via the internet to patients with body
Kappos, Ludwig; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Freedman, Mark S; Boyko, Alexey; Radü, Ernst Wilhelm; Mikol, Daniel D; Lamarine, Marc; Hyvert, Yann; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Plitz, Thomas; van Beek, Johan
Depletion of B lymphocytes is associated with suppression of inflammatory activity in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of atacicept, a recombinant fusion protein that suppresses B-cell function and antibody production. In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, 36-week, phase 2 trial (ATAMS) in Australia, Canada, Europe, and the USA, patients aged 18-60 years with relapsing multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned via an interactive voice response system in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, stratified by geographical region, to receive weekly subcutaneous injections with atacicept (25, 75, or 150 mg) or placebo. Both patients and study personnel were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the change in mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions on T1-weighted MRI per patient per scan between weeks 12 and 36. Efficacy endpoints were analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Patients who completed week 36 were eligible to participate in a long-term extension study (ATAMS EXT), consisting of a double-blind phase followed by an open-label phase, for a total study time of up to 5 years. The study was terminated early after the independent data and safety monitoring board noted an increased annualised relapse rate with atacicept. The protocol was subsequently amended to include a 60-week safety follow-up, to allow treatment with approved multiple sclerosis drugs, and to change the primary endpoint to gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions per scan during the entire double-blind period of ATAMS. Both the trial and the extension are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00642902 (ATAMS) and NCT00853762 (ATAMS EXT). Between April 23, 2008, and early study termination on Sept 11, 2009, 255 patients were randomly assigned: 63 to placebo, 63 to atacicept 25 mg, 64 to 75 mg, and 65 to 150 mg. 90 (35%) patients completed the week 36 treatment visit, 26 (10%) discontinued before study termination (including one who dropped out before
Hinman, Rana S; Crossley, Kay M; McConnell, Jenny; Bennell, Kim L
To test the hypotheses that therapeutic taping of the knee improves pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and that benefits remain after stopping treatment. Randomised single blind controlled trial with three intervention arms (therapeutic tape, control tape, and no tape) of three weeks' duration and three week follow up. Outcome assessment was performed in a university based laboratory. Taping interventions were applied by eight physiotherapists in metropolitan private practice. 87 patients with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis as defined by the American College of Rheumatology. Primary outcome measure was pain as measured by visual analogue scale and participant perceived rating of change. Secondary measures of pain and disability included the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, knee pain scale, and the SF-36. The therapeutic tape group reported a greater reduction in pain on all primary outcomes than either of the other two groups. A significant association was evident between intervention and change in pain at three weeks (P=0.000), with 73% (21/29) of the therapeutic tape group reporting improvement compared with 49% (14/29) of the control tape group and 10% (3/29) of the no tape group. Significantly greater improvement in pain and disability was observed on most secondary outcomes in the therapeutic tape group compared with the no tape group. Benefits of therapeutic tape were maintained three weeks after stopping treatment. Therapeutic knee taping is an efficacious treatment for the management of pain and disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis.
Chan, Mun Che; Cheung, Kin; Leung, Polly
The use of tap water as a wound-cleansing agent is becoming more common in clinical practice, especially in community settings. The aim of this study was to test whether there are differences in wound infection and wound healing rates when wounds are cleansed with tap water or sterile normal saline. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Subjects were recruited from the community nursing service of a local hospital in Hong Kong. The target sample included subjects who were aged 18 years or more, and receiving chronic or acute wound care treatment. Subjects were randomly assigned to wound cleansing with tap water (experimental group) or sterile normal saline (control group). Wound assessment was conducted at each home visit, and an assessment of wound size was conducted once a week. The main outcome measures, occurrence of a wound infection and wound healing, were assessed over a period of 6 weeks. Twenty-two subjects (11 subjects in each group) with 30 wounds participated in the study; 16 wounds were managed with tap water cleansing and 14 were randomly allocated to management with the sterile normal saline group. Analysis revealed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the proportions of wound infection and wound healing. Study findings indicate that tap water is a safe alternative to sterile normal saline for wound cleansing in a community setting.
Dale, J J; Ruckley, C V; Harper, D R; Gibson, B; Nelson, E A; Prescott, R J
Objective To determine whether pentoxifylline 400 mg (Trental 400) taken orally three times daily, in addition to ambulatory compression bandages and dressings, improves the healing rate of pure venous ulcers. Design Randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial, parallel group study of factorial design, permitting the simultaneous evaluation of alternative pharmaceutical, bandaging, and dressings materials. Setting Leg ulcer clinics of a teaching and a district general hospital in southern Scotland. Participants 200 patients with confirmed venous ulcers and in whom other major causal factors were excluded. Interventions Pentoxifylline 400 mg three times daily or placebo. Main outcome measure Complete healing (full epithelialisation) of all ulcers on the trial leg. Results Complete healing occurred in 65 of the 101 (64%) patients receiving pentoxifylline and 52 of the 99 (53%) patients receiving placebo. Conclusions The difference in the healing rates between patients taking pentoxifylline and those taking placebo did not reach statistical significance. Key messagesLeg ulcers cost the NHS around £400 million per annum50%-75% of venous leg ulcers can be succesfully treated with dressings and compression bandages but take many months to healA drug that reduced the healing time of venous ulcers would be useful, although no agent has been proved to be effective to dateTrials with pentoxifylline, a vasoactive drug used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, as an adjunct to the treatment of venous ulcers have been inconclusiveAt the 5% level, pentoxifylline had a non-significant effect on healing rates of pure venous ulcers PMID:10506039
Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John J; Brooks, Daniel J; Pavlicova, Martina; Cheng, Wendy; Nunes, Edward V
Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial. After a 1-week placebo lead-in phase, participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20mg twice a day or placebo. Doses were maintained until the end of week 8 and then tapered off over 2 weeks. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline follow back method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 2 weeks of abstinence at the end of the maintenance phase (dronabinol: 17.7%; placebo: 15.6%). Although both groups showed a reduction in marijuana use over time, there were no differences between the groups. Treatment retention was significantly higher at the end of the maintenance phase on dronabinol (77%), compared to placebo (61%) (P=.02), and withdrawal symptoms were significantly lower on dronabinol than placebo (P=.02). This is the first trial using an agonist substitution strategy for treatment of cannabis dependence. Dronabinol showed promise, it was well-tolerated, and improved treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms. Future trials might test higher doses, combinations of dronabinol with other medications with complementary mechanisms, or with more potent behavioral interventions.
Bennell, K L; Hinman, R S; Metcalf, B R; Buchbinder, R; McConnell, J; McColl, G; Green, S; Crossley, K M
To determine whether a multimodal physiotherapy programme including taping, exercises, and massage is effective for knee osteoarthritis, and if benefits can be maintained with self management. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial; 140 community volunteers with knee osteoarthritis participated and 119 completed the trial. Physiotherapy and placebo interventions were applied by 10 physiotherapists in private practices for 12 weeks. Physiotherapy included exercise, massage, taping, and mobilisation, followed by 12 weeks of self management. Placebo was sham ultrasound and light application of a non-therapeutic gel, followed by no treatment. Primary outcomes were pain measured by visual analogue scale and patient global change. Secondary measures included WOMAC, knee pain scale, SF-36, assessment of quality of life index, quadriceps strength, and balance test. Using an intention to treat analysis, physiotherapy and placebo groups showed similar pain reductions at 12 weeks: -2.2 cm (95% CI, -2.6 to -1.7) and -2.0 cm (-2.5 to -1.5), respectively. At 24 weeks, pain remained reduced from baseline in both groups: -2.1 (-2.6 to -1.6) and -1.6 (-2.2 to -1.0), respectively. Global improvement was reported by 70% of physiotherapy participants (51/73) at 12 weeks and by 59% (43/73) at 24 weeks. Similarly, global improvement was reported by 72% of placebo participants (48/67) at 12 weeks and by 49% (33/67) at 24 weeks (all p>0.05). The physiotherapy programme tested in this trial was no more effective than regular contact with a therapist at reducing pain and disability.
Bennell, K; Hinman, R; Metcalf, B; Buchbinder, R; McConnell, J; McColl, G; Green, S; Crossley, K
Objective: To determine whether a multimodal physiotherapy programme including taping, exercises, and massage is effective for knee osteoarthritis, and if benefits can be maintained with self management. Methods: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial; 140 community volunteers with knee osteoarthritis participated and 119 completed the trial. Physiotherapy and placebo interventions were applied by 10 physiotherapists in private practices for 12 weeks. Physiotherapy included exercise, massage, taping, and mobilisation, followed by 12 weeks of self management. Placebo was sham ultrasound and light application of a non-therapeutic gel, followed by no treatment. Primary outcomes were pain measured by visual analogue scale and patient global change. Secondary measures included WOMAC, knee pain scale, SF-36, assessment of quality of life index, quadriceps strength, and balance test. Results: Using an intention to treat analysis, physiotherapy and placebo groups showed similar pain reductions at 12 weeks: –2.2 cm (95% CI, –2.6 to –1.7) and –2.0 cm (–2.5 to –1.5), respectively. At 24 weeks, pain remained reduced from baseline in both groups: –2.1 (–2.6 to –1.6) and –1.6 (–2.2 to –1.0), respectively. Global improvement was reported by 70% of physiotherapy participants (51/73) at 12 weeks and by 59% (43/73) at 24 weeks. Similarly, global improvement was reported by 72% of placebo participants (48/67) at 12 weeks and by 49% (33/67) at 24 weeks (all p>0.05). Conclusions: The physiotherapy programme tested in this trial was no more effective than regular contact with a therapist at reducing pain and disability. PMID:15897310
Serra, Héctor Alejandro; Alves, Oscar; Rizzo, Leonardo Francisco Luis; Devoto, Flavio Marcelo; Ascierto, Héctor
Aims To conduct a randomized placebo controlled double-blind crossover trial in order to evaluate a loratadine-pseudoephedrine combination (L+PS) in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Methods Forty children (15 males; 25 females), aged 3–15 years, were included in this study. They were randomized to receive L+PS (0.2 mg kg−1 body weight–2.4 mg kg−1 body weight respectively) or placebo (PLA) for 14 days. After 7 days of washout, patients were shifted to the other treatment for a further 14 days. Nasal symptoms (sneezing/itching, congestion, nasal dripping) and signs (turbinal swelling, retronasal drainage), rated on a scale ranging from: 1. absent to 5. very intense, and their sum or mean total symptom score (MTSS) were used as efficacy measurement. Results Significant relief was observed; post-treatment MTSS difference and its percent change were respectively; L+PS = −4.29; 95% CI: −3.64 and −4.94 (27.8%), and PLA = −1.63; 95% CI: −0.95 and −2.31 (10.7%) (P < 0.001 baseline vs endpoint and between treatments). Furthermore, L+PS and PLA significantly modified symptoms, but only L+PS significantly modified signs. No clinical changes were observed during the trial; only one patient showed slight transient insomnia when receiving L+PS. Conclusions It is concluded that L+PS is useful and well tolerated in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. However, elements such as placebo effect must be taken into account for planning future trials. PMID:9491827
Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John J.; Brooks, Daniel J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Cheng, Wendy; Nunes, Edward
Cannabis dependence is a substantial public health problem. Behavioral treatments have shown promise, but there are no effective medications for cannabis dependence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, in treating cannabis dependence. 156 cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial. After a 1-week placebo lead-in phase, participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20 mg twice a day or placebo. Doses were maintained until the end of week 8 and then tapered off over 2 weeks. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline followback method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 2 weeks of abstinence at the end of the maintenance phase (dronabinol: 17.7%; placebo: 15.6%). Although both groups showed a reduction in marijuana use over time, there were no differences between the groups. Treatment retention was significantly higher at the end of the maintenance phase on dronabinol (77%), compared to placebo (61%) (P = .02), and withdrawal symptoms were significantly lower on dronabinol than placebo (P= .02). This is the first trial using an agonist substitution strategy for treatment of cannabis dependence. Dronabinol showed promise, it was well-tolerated, and improved treatment retention and withdrawal symptoms. Future trials might test higher doses, combinations of dronabinol with other medications with complementary mechanisms, or with more potent behavioral interventions. PMID:21310551
Koshak, Abdulrahman; Wei, Li; Koshak, Emad; Wali, Siraj; Alamoudi, Omer; Demerdash, Abdulrahman; Qutub, Majdy; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Heinrich, Michael
Poor compliance with conventional asthma medications remains a major problem in achieving asthma control. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) is used traditionally for many inflammatory conditions such as asthma. We aimed to investigate the benefits of NSO supplementation on clinical and inflammatory parameters of asthma. NSO capsules 500 mg twice daily for 4 weeks were used as a supplementary treatment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in asthmatics (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02407262). The primary outcome was Asthma Control Test score. The secondary outcomes were pulmonary function test, blood eosinophils and total serum Immunoglobulin E. Between 1 June and 30 December 2015, 80 asthmatics were enrolled, with 40 patients in each treatment and placebo groups. After 4 weeks, ten patients had withdrawn from each group. Compared with placebo, NSO group showed a significant improvement in mean Asthma Control Test score 21.1 (standard deviation = 2.6) versus 19.6 (standard deviation = 3.7) (p = 0.044) and a significant reduction in blood eosinophils by -50 (-155 to -1) versus 15 (-60 to 87) cells/μL (p = 0.013). NSO improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second as percentage of predicted value by 4 (-1.25 to 8.75) versus 1 (-2 to 5) but non-significant (p = 0.170). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that NSO supplementation improves asthma control with a trend in pulmonary function improvement. This was associated with a remarkable normalization of blood eosinophlia. Future studies should follow asthmatics for longer periods in a multicentre trial. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Walk, Jona; Reuling, Isaie J; Behet, Marije C; Meerstein-Kessel, Lisette; Graumans, Wouter; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Siebelink-Stoter, Rianne; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Janssen, Thorsten; Teelen, Karina; de Wilt, Johannes H W; de Mast, Quirijn; van der Ven, André J; Diez Benavente, Ernest; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G; Huynen, Martijn A; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Bijker, Else M; Scholzen, Anja; Sauerwein, Robert W
A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 39 healthy participants of NF54-CPS immunization by bites of 45 NF54-infected (n = 24 volunteers) or uninfected mosquitoes (placebo; n = 15 volunteers) against a controlled human malaria infection with the homologous NF54 or the genetically distinct NF135.C10 and NF166.C8 clones. Cellular and humoral immune assays were performed as well as genetic characterization of the parasite clones. NF54-CPS immunization induced complete protection in 5/5 volunteers against NF54 challenge infection at 14 weeks post-immunization, but sterilely protected only 2/10 and 1/9 volunteers against NF135.C10 and NF166.C8 challenge infection, respectively. Post-immunization plasma showed a significantly lower capacity to block heterologous parasite development in primary human hepatocytes compared to NF54. Whole genome sequencing showed that NF135.C10 and NF166.C8 have amino acid changes in multiple antigens targeted by CPS-induced antibodies. Volunteers protected against heterologous challenge were among the stronger immune responders to in vitro parasite stimulation. Although highly protective against homologous parasites, NF54-CPS-induced immunity is less effective against heterologous parasite clones both in vivo and in vitro. Our data indicate that whole sporozoite-based vaccine approaches require more potent immune responses for heterologous protection. This trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov, under identifier NCT02098590 .
Rossignol, Daniel A; Rossignol, Lanier W; Smith, Scott; Schneider, Cindy; Logerquist, Sally; Usman, Anju; Neubrander, Jim; Madren, Eric M; Hintz, Gregg; Grushkin, Barry; Mumper, Elizabeth A
Background Several uncontrolled studies of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism have reported clinical improvements; however, this treatment has not been evaluated to date with a controlled study. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism. Methods 62 children with autism recruited from 6 centers, ages 2–7 years (mean 4.92 ± 1.21), were randomly assigned to 40 hourly treatments of either hyperbaric treatment at 1.3 atmosphere (atm) and 24% oxygen ("treatment group", n = 33) or slightly pressurized room air at 1.03 atm and 21% oxygen ("control group", n = 29). Outcome measures included Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Results After 40 sessions, mean physician CGI scores significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls in overall functioning (p = 0.0008), receptive language (p < 0.0001), social interaction (p = 0.0473), and eye contact (p = 0.0102); 9/30 children (30%) in the treatment group were rated as "very much improved" or "much improved" compared to 2/26 (8%) of controls (p = 0.0471); 24/30 (80%) in the treatment group improved compared to 10/26 (38%) of controls (p = 0.0024). Mean parental CGI scores significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls in overall functioning (p = 0.0336), receptive language (p = 0.0168), and eye contact (p = 0.0322). On the ABC, significant improvements were observed in the treatment group in total score, irritability, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and speech (p < 0.03 for each), but not in the control group. In the treatment group compared to the control group, mean changes on the ABC total score and subscales were similar except a greater number of children improved in irritability (p = 0.0311). On the ATEC, sensory/cognitive awareness significantly improved (p = 0.0367) in the treatment group
Rehman, Hina; Begum, Wajeeha; Anjum, Farzana; Tabasum, Humyra; Zahid, Shabnam
The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the efficacy of Rheum emodi in the management of primary dysmenorrhoea. A randomized, single-blind, standard controlled trial compared efficacy of R. emodi against mefenamic acid on diagnosed subjects of primary dysmenorrhoea for three consecutive cycles. Experimental group (n=30) received capsules of R. emodi powder two times a day, two days before the expected date of menstruation, and continued first three days of menstruation, while control group (n=15) participants received mefenamic acid capsules three times a day on the same protocol. The primary outcome measures were reduced in severity and duration of pain, assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) and verbal multidimensional scoring system (VMSS), and secondary outcome measures were overall improvement of dysmenorrhoea and improved in quality of life (QOL). Statistical analysis was done by repeated measures analysis of variance and Chi-square/Fisher Exact test. The menstrual pain was significantly decreased in both groups after three-cycle intervention. Significant changes were observed in VAS (p<0.001) and VMSS (p<0.001) in the experimental group. There is a significant (p<0.001) reduction in duration of pain in both the groups. Associated symptoms and QOL were markedly improved after treatment (p<0.001). It has been clear from the above result that R. emodi is an effective herb in alleviating symptoms of primary dysmenorrhoea. It can serve as an alternative treatment without any apparent side effects. These results deserve further investigations.
Franke, Andreas G; Gränsmark, Patrik; Agricola, Alexandra; Schühle, Kai; Rommel, Thilo; Sebastian, Alexandra; Balló, Harald E; Gorbulev, Stanislav; Gerdes, Christer; Frank, Björn; Ruckes, Christian; Tüscher, Oliver; Lieb, Klaus
Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects. This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. In a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 39 male chess players received 2×200mg modafinil, 2×20mg methylphenidate, and 2×200mg caffeine or placebo in a 4×4 crossover design. They played twenty 15-minute games during two sessions against a chess program (Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength) and completed several neuropsychological tests. Marked substance effects were observed since all three substances significantly increased average reflection time per game compared to placebo resulting in a significantly increased number of games lost on time with all three treatments. Treatment effects on chess performance were not seen if all games (n=3059) were analysed. Only when controlling for game duration as well as when excluding those games lost on time, both modafinil and methylphenidate enhanced chess performance as demonstrated by significantly higher scores in the remaining 2876 games compared to placebo. In conjunction with results from neuropsychological testing we conclude that modifying effects of stimulants on complex cognitive tasks may in particular result from more reflective decision making processes. When not under time pressure, such effects may result in enhanced performance. Yet, under time constraints more reflective decision making may not improve or even have detrimental effects on complex task performance.
Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Monavarsadegh, Gholamhosein; Ahmadipour, Mohammadjavad; Motieilangroodi, Mazyar; Motamed, Niloofar; Saberifard, Jamshid; Eghbali, Seyyedsajjad; Adibi, Hooman; Maneshi, Hesam; Malekizadeh, Hasan
Sinusitis is a common disease with harmful effects on the health and finances of patients and the economy of the community. It is easily treated in most of its acute stages but is associated with some management difficulties as it goes toward chronicity. Therefore, we tried to improve the treatment of subacute sinusitis by using acetylcysteine, which is a safe mucolytic and antioxidant agent. Thirty-nine adult patients with subacute sinusitis proved by computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. They received oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and normal saline nasal drops for 10 days and oral pseudoephedrine for 7 days. In addition, the patients received acetylcysteine (600 mg orally, once daily) in the intervention group or placebo in the control group for 10 days. A paranasal CT scan was taken at baseline and 30 days after patients finished the treatment and was evaluated quantitatively by Lund-Mackay (LM) score. Symptoms and some aspects of quality of life also were assessed at baseline and 14 days after initiation and 30 days after termination of the treatment via the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire. The groups showed no significant difference in LM score after treatment. A positive correlation was observed between the LM and SNOT-20 scores. We concluded that adding oral acetylcysteine to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, pseudoephedrine, and intranasal normal saline has no benefit for the treatment of subacute sinusitis.
Ceccato, Enrico; Vigato, Giovanna; Bonetto, Chiara; Bevilacqua, Albina; Pizziolo, Paolo; Crociani, Susanna; Zanfretta, Emanuele; Pollini, Lorenza; Caneva, Paolo Alberto; Baldin, Lorella; Frongillo, Cristina; Signorini, Andrea; Demoro, Sara; Barchi, Elisabetta
The Sound Training for Attention and Memory in Dementia (STAM-Dem) is a manualized music-based protocol designed to be used in the rehabilitation of cognitive functions in elderly patients with dementia (PWD). This was a multicenter, single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial that involved 51 PWD. The objective was to test the STAM-Dem efficacy. Patients in the experimental group followed the STAM-Dem for 2 weekly sessions of 45 minutes for 12 weeks (in addition to standard care). Those in the control group continued with the normal "standard care" provided. In the experimental group, the instruments immediate prose memory test (MPI), deferred prose memory test (MPD), attentional matrices, activities of daily living, Music Therapy Activity Scale (SVAM) and Geriatric Music Therapy Profile (GMP) increase significantly from pre to post-test (P < .05). The protocol is feasible and data suggest that there was an effect on attentino (matrices) and prose memory skills (MPI and MPD). The effect size reveals a general improvement in the results of the experimental group.
Sousa, Angela M; Rosado, Giovanna M C; Neto, Jose de S; Guimarães, Gabriel M N; Ashmawi, Hazem A
The aim of this study is to compare the analgesic effect of intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate to ketorolac during laparoscopic surgeries. Double-blind randomized controlled trial. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Sixty women submitted to laparoscopic gynecologic oncology surgeries. Intravenous ketorolac 30 mg in bolus followed by saline infusion (group K), intravenous magnesium sulfate 20 mg/kg in bolus followed by magnesium 2 mg kg(-1) h(-1) (group M) or intravenous saline solution 20 mL in bolus followed by saline infusion during the entire procedure (group S). Postoperative pain, nausea, vomiting, sedation, opioid consumption, time to first dose of analgesic. Magnesium sulfate reduced opioid consumption compared with placebo in the postoperative, but not in the intraoperative, period. Nausea, not vomiting, was reduced in ketorolac but not in the magnesium group. Pain intensity was higher in placebo than in the other 2 groups during all periods of observation. In the first 60 minutes, pain intensity was lower in the magnesium than in the ketorolac or the placebo group. Intraoperative magnesium sulfate improves postoperative pain control, acting as an opioid-sparing adjuvant, and is similar to ketorolac 30 mg administered in the beginning of surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Pandy, Marcus G; Schache, Anthony G; Hinman, Rana S
The patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA) and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and physical function than a physiotherapy education intervention in people with symptomatic and radiographic PFJ OA. 90 people with PFJ OA (PFJ-specific history, signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of PFJ OA) will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated into one of two treatments. A randomised controlled trial adhering to CONSORT guidelines will evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks, as well as a home exercise program 4 times/week) compared to a physiotherapist-delivered OA education control treatment (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks). Physiotherapy treatment will consist of (i) quadriceps muscle retraining; (ii) quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening; (iii) patellar taping; (iv) manual PFJ and soft tissue mobilisation; and (v) OA education. Resistance and dosage of exercises will be tailored to the participant's functional level and clinical state. Primary outcomes will be evaluated by a blinded examiner at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months using validated and reliable pain, physical function and perceived global effect scales. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed regression models, including respective baseline scores as a covariate, subjects as a random effect, treatment condition as a fixed factor and the covariate by treatment interaction. This RCT is targeting PFJ OA, an important sub-group of knee OA patients, with a specifically designed conservative intervention. The project's outcome will influence PFJ OA rehabilitation, with the potential to reduce the personal and societal
Benjamin, Jane L; Hedin, Charlotte R H; Koutsoumpas, Andreas; Ng, Siew C; McCarthy, Neil E; Hart, Ailsa L; Kamm, Michael A; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Knight, Stella C; Forbes, Alastair; Stagg, Andrew J; Whelan, Kevin; Lindsay, James O
The commensal intestinal microbiota drive the inflammation associated with Crohn's disease. However, bacteria such as bifidobacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii appear to be immunoregulatory. In healthy subjects the intestinal microbiota are influenced by prebiotic carbohydrates such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Preliminary data suggest that FOS increase faecal bifidobacteria, induce immunoregulatory dendritic cell (DC) responses and reduce disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. To assess the impact of FOS in patients with active Crohn's disease using an adequately powered randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with predefined clinical, microbiological and immunological end points. Patients with active Crohn's disease were randomised to 15 g/day FOS or non-prebiotic placebo for 4 weeks. The primary end point was clinical response at week 4 (fall in Crohn's Disease Activity Index of ≥ 70 points) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. 103 patients were randomised to receive FOS (n = 54) or placebo (n = 49). More patients receiving FOS (14 (26%) vs 4 (8%); p = 0.018) withdrew before the 4-week end point. There was no significant difference in the number of patients achieving a clinical response between the FOS and placebo groups in the ITT analysis (12 (22%) vs 19 (39%), p = 0.067). Patients receiving FOS had reduced proportions of interleukin (IL)-6-positive lamina propria DC and increased DC staining of IL-10 (p < 0.05) but no change in IL-12p40 production. There were no significant differences in the faecal concentration of bifidobacteria and F prausnitzii between the groups at baseline or after the 4-week intervention. An adequately powered placebo-controlled trial of FOS showed no clinical benefit in patients with active Crohn's disease, despite impacting on DC function. ISRCTN50422530.
Ji, Linong; Tong, Xiaolin; Wang, Hongyuan; Tian, Haoming; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Lili; Li, Qifu; Wang, Yizhong; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Min; Yang, Hongjie; Gao, Yanbin; Li, Yan; Li, Quanmin; Guo, Xiaohui; Yang, Gangyi; Zhang, Zhongai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Ning, Guang; Chen, Yingli; Paul, Sanjoy
Background Treatment of diabetes mellitus with Traditional Chinese Medicine has a long history. The aim of this study is to establish the safety and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine combined with glibenclamide to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods In a controlled, double blind, multicentre non-inferiority trial, 800 patients with unsatisfactory glycemic control (fasting glucose 7–13 mmol/L and HbA1c 7–11%) were randomly assigned to receive Xiaoke Pill, a compound of Chinese herbs combined with glibenclamide, or Glibenclamide in two study groups – drug naive group, and patients previously treated with metformin monotherapy (metformin group). Outcome measures at 48 weeks were the incidence and rate of hypoglycemia, mean difference in HbA1c, and proportion of patients with HbA1c<6.5%. Findings In drug naïve group, the total hypoglycemia rate and the mild hypoglycemic episode in the Xiaoke Pill arm were 38% (p = 0.024) and 41% (p = 0.002) less compared to Glibenclamide arm; in Metformin group, the average annual rate of hypoglycemia was 62% lower in Xiaoke Pill arm (p = 0.003). Respective mean changes in HbA1c from baseline were −0.70% and −0.66% for Xiaoke Pill and Glibenclamide, with a between-group difference (95% CI) of −0.04% (−0.20, 0.12) in the drug naïve group, and those in metformin group were −0.45% and −0.59%, 0.14% (−0.12, 0.39) respectively. The respective proportions of patients with a HbA1c level <6.5% were 26.6% and 23.4% in the drug naïve group and 20.1% and 18.9% in the metformin group. Interpretation In patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycaemic control, treatment with Xiaoke Pill led to significant reduction in risk of hypoglycemia and similar improvements in glycemic control after 48 weeks compared to Glibenclamide. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR-TRC-08000074 PMID:23460810
Wong, Shiu Man; Hui, Andrew C F; Tong, Po-Yee; Poon, Dawn W F; Yu, Evelyn; Wong, Lawrence K S
Lateral epicondylitis is a common condition for which botulinum toxin has been reported to have a therapeutic role in uncontrolled studies. To determine if an injection of botulinum toxin is more effective than placebo for reducing pain in adults with lateral epicondylitis. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from September 2002 to December 2004. Outpatient clinics at a university hospital and a district hospital in Hong Kong. 60 patients with lateral epicondylitis. The primary outcome was change in subjective pain as measured by a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain ever) at 4 weeks and 12 weeks. All patients completed post-treatment follow-up. A single injection of 60 units of botulinum toxin type A or normal saline placebo. Mean VAS scores for the botulinum group at baseline and at 4 weeks were 65.5 mm and 25.3 mm, respectively; respective scores for the placebo group were 66.2 mm and 50.5 mm (between-group difference of changes, 24.4 mm [95% CI, 13.0 to 35.8 mm]; P < 0.001). At week 12, mean VAS scores were 23.5 mm for the botulinum group and 43.5 mm for the placebo group (between-group difference of changes, 19.3 mm [CI, 5.6 to 32.9 mm]; P = 0.006). Grip strength was not statistically significantly different between groups at any time. Mild paresis of the fingers occurred in 4 patients in the botulinum group at 4 weeks. One patient's symptoms persisted until week 12, whereas none of the patients receiving placebo had the same complaint. At 4 weeks, 10 patients in the botulinum group and 6 patients in the placebo group experienced weak finger extension on the same side as the injection site. The trial was small, and most participants were women. The blinding protocol may have been ineffective because the 4 participants who experienced paresis of the fingers could have correctly assumed that they received an active treatment. Botulinum toxin injection may improve pain over a 3-month period in
Dilek, Banu; Gözüm, Mehtap; Şahin, Ebru; Baydar, Meltem; Ergör, Gül; El, Ozlem; Bircan, Çigdem; Gülbahar, Selmin
To evaluate the efficacy of paraffin bath therapy on pain, function, and muscle strength in patients with hand osteoarthritis. Prospective single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Department of physical medicine and rehabilitation in a university hospital. Patients with bilateral hand osteoarthritis (N=56). Patients were randomized into 2 groups with a random number table by using block randomization with 4 patients in a block. Group 1 (n=29) had paraffin bath therapy (5 times per week, for 3-week duration) for both hands. Group 2 (n=27) was the control group. All patients were informed about joint-protection techniques, and paracetamol intake was recorded. The primary outcome measures were pain (at last 48h) at rest and during activities of daily living (ADL), assessed with a visual analog scale (0-10cm) at 12 weeks. The secondary outcome measures were the Australian Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN) and the Dreiser Functional Index (DFI), used for subjective functional evaluation, loss of range of motion (ROM), grip and pinch strength, painful and tender joint counts, and paracetamol intake. A researcher blind to group allocation recorded the measures for both hands at baseline, 3 weeks, and 12 weeks at the hospital setting. At baseline, there were no significant differences between groups in any of the parameters (P>.05). After treatment, the paraffin group exhibited significant improvement in pain at rest and during ADL, ROM of the right hand, and pain and stiffness dimensions of the AUSCAN (P<.05). There was no significant improvement in functional dimension of the AUSCAN and the DFI (P>.05). The control group showed a significant deterioration in right hand grip and bilateral lateral pinch and right chuck pinch strength (P<.05), but there was no significant change in the other outcome measures. When the 2 groups were compared, pain at rest, both at 3 and 12 weeks, and the number of painful and tender joints at 12 weeks significantly decreased in
Wills, Anne-Marie; Hubbard, Jane; Macklin, Eric A.; Glass, Jonathan; Tandan, Rup; Simpson, Ericka P; Brooks, Benjamin; Gelinas, Deborah; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Hanes, Gregory P.; Ladha, Shafeeq S.; Heiman-Patterson, Terry; Katz, Jonathan; Lou, Jau-Shin; Mahoney, Katy; Grasso, Daniela; Lawson, Robert; Yu, Hong; Cudkowicz, Merit
Background Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease with few therapeutic options. Mild obesity is associated with greater survival in ALS patients and calorie-dense diets increase survival in an ALS mouse model. We therefore hypothesized that hypercaloric diets might lead to weight gain and slow ALS disease progression. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial, we enrolled adults with ALS without a history of diabetes, significant liver or cardiovascular disease, who were already receiving percutaneous enteral nutrition. We randomly assigned participants to one of three dietary interventions: replacement calories using an isocaloric diet (controls) vs. a high-carbohydrate hypercaloric diet (HC/HC), vs. a high-fat hypercaloric diet (HF/HC). Participants received the intervention diets for four months and were followed for five months. The primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. Secondary outcomes included measures of disease progression, survival, and metabolism. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00983983. Findings A total of 24 participants were enrolled of whom 20 initiated study diet (six control, eight HC/HC, six HF/HC). Baseline demographics were similar among the three study arms. The HC/HC diet was better tolerated with fewer serious adverse events than the control diet (zero vs. nine, p<0·001) and fewer dose discontinuations due to adverse events (0% vs. 50%). There were no deaths in the HC/HC arm vs. three deaths (43%) in the control arm (logrank p = 0·03). The HF/HC arm was not statistically different from the controls in adverse events, tolerability, deaths or disease progression. Interpretation Our results suggest that hypercaloric enteral nutrition is safe and tolerable in ALS and support the study of nutritional interventions at earlier stages of the disease. Funding The Muscular Dystrophy Association with additional support from the National
Reilly, Christopher W; McEwen, James A; Leveille, Lise; Perdios, Angeliki; Mulpuri, Kishore
Tourniquet cuff pressures in pediatric patients are commonly set at standard pressures. Recent evidence on adult subjects has shown that safer and more effective cuff pressures can be achieved by measuring limb occlusion pressure (LOP) and using a wide contour cuff. There is little evidence validating these techniques in children. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate if a difference in tourniquet cuff pressure can be achieved in a pediatric population using a wide contour cuff in conjunction with measured LOP when compared with a standard cuff and pressure. Subjects aged 10 to 17 years that underwent anterior cruciate ligament repair were included and randomized into either the control group or the experimental LOP group using variable block randomization. The tourniquet cuff was inflated to 300 mm Hg in the control group or to the recommended tourniquet pressure based on LOP measurement in the LOP group. The surgeon was blinded to cuff selection, application, and pressure throughout the surgical procedure. Immediately after the surgical procedure, the surgeon rated the quality of the bloodless field on a visual analog scale. This study was powered as an effectiveness trial, and intention to treat analysis was used. After a planned interim analysis at midpoint, complete data were recorded for 11 (control group) and 10 (LOP group) patients. The quality of the surgical field was not different between the groups (P = 0.053). There was a statistically significant difference in the mean cuff pressure between the control (300 mm Hg) and the LOP (151 mm Hg) groups (P < 0.001). We ran the same analysis comparing the LOP data with the hypothetical control data of 250 mm Hg, and our results remained statistically significant (P < 0.001). The use of an automatic LOP measurement with the use of wide contour cuffs can significantly reduce mean tourniquet cuff pressures in pediatric patients compared with the typical practice of 300 or 250 mm Hg without
McGarry, Andrew; McDermott, Michael; Kieburtz, Karl; de Blieck, Elisabeth A; Beal, Flint; Marder, Karen; Ross, Christopher; Shoulson, Ira; Gilbert, Peter; Mallonee, William M; Guttman, Mark; Wojcieszek, Joanne; Kumar, Rajeev; LeDoux, Mark S; Jenkins, Mary; Rosas, H Diana; Nance, Martha; Biglan, Kevin; Como, Peter; Dubinsky, Richard M; Shannon, Kathleen M; O'Suilleabhain, Padraig; Chou, Kelvin; Walker, Francis; Martin, Wayne; Wheelock, Vicki L; McCusker, Elizabeth; Jankovic, Joseph; Singer, Carlos; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Scott, Burton; Suchowersky, Oksana; Factor, Stewart A; Higgins, Donald S; Molho, Eric; Revilla, Fredy; Caviness, John N; Friedman, Joseph H; Perlmutter, Joel S; Feigin, Andrew; Anderson, Karen; Rodriguez, Ramon; McFarland, Nikolaus R; Margolis, Russell L; Farbman, Eric S; Raymond, Lynn A; Suski, Valerie; Kostyk, Sandra; Colcher, Amy; Seeberger, Lauren; Epping, Eric; Esmail, Sherali; Diaz, Nancy; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Diamond, Alan; Frank, Samuel; Hanna, Philip; Hermanowicz, Neal; Dure, Leon S; Cudkowicz, Merit
To test the hypothesis that chronic treatment of early-stage Huntington disease (HD) with high-dose coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) will slow the progressive functional decline of HD. We performed a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with early-stage HD (n = 609) were enrolled at 48 sites in the United States, Canada, and Australia from 2008 to 2012. Patients were randomized to receive either CoQ 2,400 mg/d or matching placebo, then followed for 60 months. The primary outcome variable was the change from baseline to month 60 in Total Functional Capacity score (for patients who survived) combined with time to death (for patients who died) analyzed using a joint-rank analysis approach. An interim analysis for futility revealed a conditional power of <5% for the primary analysis, prompting premature conclusion in July 2014. No statistically significant differences were seen between treatment groups for the primary or secondary outcome measures. CoQ was generally safe and well-tolerated throughout the study. These data do not justify use of CoQ as a treatment to slow functional decline in HD. NCT00608881. This article provides Class I evidence that CoQ does not slow the progressive functional decline of patients with HD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Perrin, Nina E S S; Jaremko, Georg A; Berg, Ulla B
Our objective was to study the effects of candesartan on diabetic glomerulopathy in young normoalbuminuric and normotensive patients with type 1 diabetes in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In 13 patients aged 24 years at baseline, we evaluated blood pressure, kidney biopsies and kidney function tests at baseline and after 5 years of treatment. Kidney biopsies were examined with light and electron microscopy, glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow determined with inulin and para-aminohippuric acid clearances. Two patients in the placebo group needed antihypertensive treatment because they developed microalbuminuria and/or hypertension, but no patient in the candesartan group did. A significant reduction in mesangial matrix volume and mesangial volume occurred in the candesartan group, although changes in morphological parameters were similar between groups. Office blood pressure was significantly lower in the candesartan group at follow-up than in the placebo group. Deterioration in morphological parameters observed in earlier studies of our patients did not become worse during treatment with candesartan or placebo. The effects of candesartan, with reduction in morphological parameters and lowering of blood pressure, might influence future treatment of glomerulopathy in type 1 diabetes patients.
Raghuthaman, G.; Venkateswaran, R.
Background Hyperprolactinaemia is a troublesome side-effect of treatment with antipsychotics. Aims This double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed at examining the effect of adjunctive treatment with 10 mg aripiprazole on prolactin levels and sexual side-effects in patients with schizophrenia symptomatically maintained on risperidone. Method Thirty patients taking risperidone were enrolled into the trial (CTRI/2012/11/003114). Aripiprazole was administered at a fixed daily dose of 10 mg/day for 8 weeks. Serum prolactin was measured at baseline and at 8 weeks. Hyperprolactinaemia-related problems, psychopathology and side-effects were evaluated every 2 weeks. Results Prolactin levels decreased by 58% in the aripiprazole group compared with an increase by 22% in the placebo group. Prolactin levels normalised in 46% of patients in the aripiprazole group (number needed to treat, NNT=2). Aripiprazole improved erectile dysfunction in five out of six patients. There were no significant differences in change in psychopathology or side-effects between groups. Conclusions Adjunctive aripiprazole reduced prolactin levels in those treated with risperidone, with no effect on psychopathology and extrapyramidal symptoms. This is a potential treatment for hyperprolactinaemia observed during treatment with second-generation antipsychotics. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703744
Motta, Ana Carolina Fragoso; Domaneschi, Carina; Komesu, Marilena Chinali; Souza, Cacilda da Silva; Aoki, Valéria; Migliari, Dante Antonio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 0.05% clobetasol propionate ointment administered in trays to 22 patients with desquamative gingivitis in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. Patients received container number 1 and were instructed to apply the ointment 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and to reduce the application to once a day in the third week. Next, the patients were then instructed to discontinue the treatment for 2 weeks, and were then given container 2, used in the same way and for the same length of time as container 1. Regarding signs, 17 patients presented some improvement, while 5 experienced worsening with clobetasol propionate. With the placebo, 14 patients presented some improvement, and 8 patients presented worsening. For symptoms, there was complete improvement in 2 patients, partial improvement in 12, no response in 7, and worsening in 1 with clobetasol propionate. With the placebo, there was partial improvement in 8 patients, no response in 12 and worsening in 2. No statistically significant difference was found between clobetasol and placebo (p>0.05). Within the period designed to treat the gingival lesions of the patients, clobetasol propionate did not significantly outperform the placebo.
Sperber, S J; Hendley, J O; Hayden, F G; Riker, D K; Sorrentino, J V; Gwaltney, J M
To determine whether naproxen, a propionic acid inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, alters the course of experimental rhinovirus colds. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Rhinovirus challenge model in volunteers cloistered in individual hotel rooms. Eighty-seven healthy young adults with serum neutralizing antibody titers of less than or equal to 1:2 to the challenge virus; 79 were evaluable. Thirty-nine participants received naproxen (loading dose, 400 mg or 500 mg followed by 200 mg or 500 mg three times daily for 5 days). Forty participants received placebo. Treatment was started 6 hours after viral challenge. Daily measurement of viral titers, symptoms, nasal mucus production, and nasal tissue use; incidence of infection and illness; and measurement of homotypic serum neutralizing antibody responses. Viral titers and serum homotypic antibody responses were similar in the naproxen and placebo groups. Significant reductions in headache, malaise, myalgia, and cough occurred in the naproxen group. A 29% reduction was noted in the total (5-day) symptom score in the naproxen group (95% CI, 16% to 42%). Naproxen treatment did not alter virus shedding or serum neutralizing antibody responses in participants with experimental rhinovirus colds, but it had a beneficial effect on the symptoms of headache, malaise, myalgia, and cough. Prostaglandins may be among the inflammatory mediators that play a role in the pathogenesis of rhinovirus colds.
Dosal, Jacquelyn Coloe; Stewart, Paul W.; Lin, Ja-An; Williams, Christianna S.; Morrell, Dean S
Background/Objective To study the effects and safety of cantharidin in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Methods We conducted a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical cantharidin for treatment of pediatric molluscum contagiosum in an academic ambulatory care center. Twenty-nine children aged 5–10 with the diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum were enrolled to receive treatment with cantharidin or placebo. The main outcome measure was complete clearance of molluscum lesions. Results In contrast to previous retrospective observational studies, the performance of cantharidin treatment over 2 months was not substantially better than the performance of placebo. Limitations The scope of follow-up was limited to 5 visits over 2 months of treatment. In hindsight, we can hypothesize that a longer follow up period may have captured a greater effect of cantharidin. Conclusion We conclude that during a 2 month period, the magnitude of the cantharidin treatment effects in the target population are, at best, not large. This study provided objective unbiased estimates of the magnitude of cantharidin treatment effects and provided important prospective safety data. Our subjects experienced minimal side effects when treated with cantharidin. PMID:22897595
Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Postier, Andrea C; Foster, Laurie Pane; Lander, Timothy A; Tibesar, Robert J; Lu, Yi; Sidman, James D
Tonsillectomy is one of the most common pediatric surgical procedures performed in the United States. The postoperative period can be particularly painful, and there is currently no consensus on an optimal analgesic regimen. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of the single drug tramadol versus codeine/acetaminophen post-tonsillectomy. Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Large, Midwestern US pediatric hospital. Eighty-four children aged 4-15 years who underwent a tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy) procedure were randomized and 74 were included in the analysis. Group 1 received liquid codeine/acetaminophen for 10 days post-tonsillectomy (5 days scheduled, followed by 5 days as-needed). Group 2 received liquid tramadol for 10 days post-tonsillectomy (5 days scheduled, followed by 5 days as-needed). Efficacy and side effects were evaluated using a 10-day take-home diary that was completed by parents. Children in both study arms reported adequate post-tonsillectomy pain management without significant differences between groups in pain scores. Oversedation was significantly higher on the day of surgery in the codeine/acetaminophen group, and itching was experienced by significantly more children in the tramadol group during the postoperative period. As part of multimodal analgesia, scheduled plus as-needed tramadol may be considered for children in the postoperative setting due to its analgesic properties, low potential for side effects, and good safety profile.
Madkour, A A; Madina, E M; el-Azzouni, O E; Amer, M A; el-Walili, T M; Abbass, T
Dioctahedral smectite (DS) a natural adsorbent clay capable of adsorbing viruses, bacteria, and other intestinal irritants in vitro, is claimed to possess beneficial "antidiarrheal" properties. This study tested the effect of DS on the duration of diarrhea and the frequency and amount of liquid stools. Ninety well-nourished boys, aged 3-24 months, with acute watery diarrhea and mild, moderate, or severe dehydration were included in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After initial rehydration, they received DS or placebo (1.5 g freshly dissolved in 50 ml of water, four times daily for 3 days) along with oral rehydration solution (ORS) and adequate feeding. The clinical characteristics of both groups were comparable on admission. Patients in the smectite group had a significantly shorter duration of diarrhea (mean +/- SD, 54 +/- 16 vs. 73 +/- 13 h) and significantly fewer stools (2.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3 +/- 0.7 on second day; 1.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.7 on third day; and 11.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 13.8 +/- 3 overall). The amount of liquid stools was not significantly reduced. Weight gain at 24, 48, and 72 h and on recovery was significantly higher in the smectite group despite the comparable fluid and food intake in both groups. These results suggest a beneficial effect of DS in shortening the duration of diarrhea and reducing the frequency of liquid stools in children rehydrated with ORS.
Taylor, W R; Richie, T L; Fryauff, D J; Picarima, H; Ohrt, C; Tang, D; Braitman, D; Murphy, G S; Widjaja, H; Tjitra, E; Ganjar, A; Jones, T R; Basri, H; Berman, J
New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.
Hellard, M E; Sinclair, M I; Forbes, A B; Fairley, C K
A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was carried out in in Melbourne, Australia, to determine the contribution of drinking water to gastroenteritis. Melbourne is one of the few major cities in the world that draws drinking water from a protected forest catchment with minimal water treatment (chlorination only). Six hundred families were randomly allocated to receive either real or sham water treatment units (WTUs) installed in their kitchen. Real units were designed to remove viruses, bacteria, and protozoa. Study participants completed a weekly health diary reporting gastrointestinal symptoms during the 68-week observation period. There were 2,669 cases of highly credible gastroenteritis (HCG) during the study (0.80 cases/person/year). The ratio of HCG episode rates for the real WTU group compared to the sham WTU group was 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.15, p = 0.85). We collected 795 fecal specimens from participants with gastroenteritis, and pathogens were not more significantly common in the sham WTU group. We found no evidence of waterborne disease in Melbourne. The application of this methodology to other water supplies will provide a better understanding of the relationship between human health and water quality. PMID:11564611
Lancee, Jaap; Yasiney, Samya L.; Brendel, Ruben S.; Boffo, Marilisa; Clarke, Patrick J. F.; Salemink, Elske
Background Attentional bias toward sleep-related information is believed to play a key role in insomnia. If attentional bias is indeed of importance, changing this bias should then in turn have effects on insomnia complaints. In this double-blind placebo controlled randomized trial we investigated the efficacy of attentional bias modification training in the treatment of insomnia. Method We administered baseline, post-test, and one-week follow-up measurements of insomnia severity, sleep-related worry, depression, and anxiety. Participants meeting DSM-5 criteria for insomnia were randomized into an attentional bias training group (n = 67) or a placebo training group (n = 70). Both groups received eight training sessions over the course of two weeks. All participants kept a sleep diary for four consecutive weeks (one week before until one week after the training sessions). Results There was no additional benefit for the attentional bias training over the placebo training on sleep-related indices/outcome measures. Conclusions The absence of the effect may be explained by the fact that there was neither attentional bias at baseline nor any reduction in the bias after the training. Either way, this study gives no support for attentional bias modification training as a stand-alone intervention for ameliorating insomnia complaints. PMID:28423038
Ondo, W; Fayle, R; Atassi, F; Jankovic, J
Background: Excessive daytime somnolence (EDS) commonly complicates Parkinson's disease (PD). The aetiology of EDS is probably multifactorial but is probably exacerbated by dopaminergic medications. Modafinil is a wake-promoting agent approved for use in narcolepsy, but it is often used to treat a variety of somnolent conditions. Method: A double blind, placebo controlled parallel design trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of modafinil (200–400 mg/day) for the treatment of EDS in PD. The primary efficacy measure was the Epworth Sleepiness (ES) scale score. Secondary efficacy points included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Fatigue Severity Scale, the Hamilton Depression Scale, and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Results: Of a total of 40 subjects (29 men, mean (SD) age 64.8 (11.3) years), randomised to modafinil or placebo, 37 completed the study. Modafinil failed to significantly improve ES scores compared with placebo (2.7 v 1.5 points improvement, respectively, p = 0.28). MSLT failed to improve with modafinil relative to placebo (–0.16 v –0.70, respectively, p = 0.14). UPDRS, global impressions, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Hamilton Depression Scale scores were unchanged. Adverse events were minimal. Conclusion: Modafinil failed to significantly improve EDS in PD compared with placebo. The drug did not alter motor symptoms in PD and was well tolerated. PMID:16291885
Hauser, Goran; Salkic, Nermin; Vukelic, Karina; JajacKnez, Alenka; Stimac, Davor
The primary objective in the study is determination of efficacy of probiotic preparation as a supportive therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori.The study was multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, and double-blind. The subjects first filled out a specially designed questionnaire to assess the severity of the 10 symptoms, which can be related to eradication therapy to be monitored during the trial. Each subject then received 28 capsules of probiotic preparation or matching placebo capsules, which they were supposed to take over the following 14 days, twice a day, at least 2 hours prior to or after the antibiotic therapy administration.A total of 804 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 650 (80.85%) were included in the analysis. The results show a significantly larger share of cured subjects in the probiotic arm versus the placebo arm (87.38% vs 72.55%; P < 0.001). Additionally, presence and intensity of epigastric pain, bloating, flatulence, taste disturbance, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, rash, and diarrhea were monitored over the study period. At 15 days postinclusion, probiotic treatment was found superior to placebo in 7 of 10 mentioned symptoms. Average intensity for symptoms potentially related to antibiotic therapy was significantly higher in the placebo group, 0.76 vs 0.55 (P < 0.001).Adding probiotics to the standard triple therapy for H pylori eradication significantly contributes to treatment efficacy and distinctly decreases the adverse effects of therapy and the symptoms of the underlying disease.
Bell, K.L.; Galasko, D.; Galvin, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.; van Dyck, C.H.; Aisen, P.S.
Background: Lowering cholesterol is associated with reduced CNS amyloid deposition and increased dietary cholesterol increases amyloid accumulation in animal studies. Epidemiologic data suggest that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and a single-site trial suggested possible benefit in cognition with statin treatment in AD, supporting the hypothesis that statin therapy is useful in the treatment of AD. Objective: To determine if the lipid-lowering agent simvastatin slows the progression of symptoms in AD. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin was conducted in individuals with mild to moderate AD and normal lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin, 20 mg/day, for 6 weeks then 40 mg per day for the remainder of 18 months or identical placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes measured clinical global change, cognition, function, and behavior. Results: A total of 406 individuals were randomized: 204 to simvastatin and 202 to placebo. Simvastatin lowered lipid levels but had no effect on change in ADAS-Cog score or the secondary outcome measures. There was no evidence of increased adverse events with simvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Simvastatin had no benefit on the progression of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate AD despite significant lowering of cholesterol. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that simvastatin 40 mg/day does not slow decline on the ADAS-Cog. PMID:21795660
We examined the effects of 3 dosages of pridopidine, a dopamine-stabilizing compound, on motor function and other features of Huntington's disease, with additional evaluation of its safety and tolerability. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in outpatient neurology clinics at 27 sites in the United States and Canada. Two hundred twenty-seven subjects enrolled from October 24, 2009, to May 10, 2010. The intervention was pridopidine, either 20 (n=56), 45 (n=55), or 90 (n=58) mg daily for 12 weeks or matching placebo (n=58). The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline to week 12 in the Modified Motor Score, a subset of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score. Measures of safety and tolerability included adverse events and trial completion on the assigned dosage. After 12 weeks, the treatment effect (relative to placebo, where negative values indicate improvement) of pridopidine 90 mg/day on the Modified Motor Score was -1.2 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.5 to 0.1 points; P = .08). The effect on the Total Motor Score was -2.8 points (95% CI, -5.4 to -0.1 points; nominal P = .04). No significant effects were seen in secondary outcome measures with any of the active dosages. Pridopidine was generally well tolerated. Although the primary analysis did not demonstrate a statistically significant treatment effect, the overall results suggest that pridopidine may improve motor function in Huntington's disease. The 90 mg/day dosage appears worthy of further study. Pridopidine was well tolerated.
Muresanu, Dafin F; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Hoemberg, Volker; Bajenaru, Ovidiu; Popescu, Cristian Dinu; Vester, Johannes C; Rahlfs, Volker W; Doppler, Edith; Meier, Dieter; Moessler, Herbert; Guekht, Alla
The aim of this trial was to investigate whether stroke patients who receive Cerebrolysin show improved motor function in the upper extremities at day 90 compared with patients who receive a placebo. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study. Patients were treated with Cerebrolysin (30 mL/d) or a placebo (saline) once daily for 21 days, beginning at 24 to 72 hours after stroke onset. The patients also participated in a standardized rehabilitation program for 21 days that was initiated within 72 hours after stroke onset. The primary end point was the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90. The nonparametric effect size on the Action Research Arm Test score on day 90 indicated a large superiority of Cerebrolysin compared with the placebo (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.79; P<0.0001). The multivariate effect size on global status, as assessed using 12 different outcome scales, indicated a small-to-medium superiority of Cerebrolysin (Mann-Whitney estimator, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.65; P<0.0001). The rate of premature discontinuation was <5% (3.8%). Cerebrolysin was safe and well tolerated. Cerebrolysin had a beneficial effect on function and global outcome in early rehabilitation patients after stroke. Its safety was comparable with that of the placebo, suggesting a favorable benefit/risk ratio. Because this study was exploratory and had a relatively small sample size, the results should be confirmed in a large-scale, randomized clinical trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Unique identifier: 2007-000870-21. © 2015 The Authors.
Levin, Frances R; Mariani, John J; Pavlicova, Martina; Brooks, Daniel; Glass, Andrew; Mahony, Amy; Nunes, Edward V; Bisaga, Adam; Dakwar, Elias; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Sullivan, Maria A; Choi, Jean C
Cannabis use disorder is associated with substantial morbidity and, after alcohol, is the most common drug bringing adolescents and adults into treatment. At present, there are no FDA-approved medications for cannabis use disorder. Combined pharmacologic interventions might be particularly useful in mitigating withdrawal symptoms and promoting abstinence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dronabinol, a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a naturally occurring pharmacologically active component of marijuana, and lofexidine, an alpha-2 agonist, in treating cannabis dependence. One hundred fifty six cannabis-dependent adults were enrolled and following a 1-week placebo lead-in phase 122 were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 11-week trial. Participants were randomized to receive dronabinol 20mg three times a day and lofexidine 0.6 mg three times a day or placebo. Medications were maintained until the end of week eight, were then tapered over two weeks and patients were monitored off medications during the last study week. All participants received weekly motivational enhancement and relapse prevention therapy. Marijuana use was assessed using the timeline follow-back method. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the proportion of participants who achieved 3 weeks of abstinence during the maintenance phase of the trial (27.9% for the medication group and 29.5% for the placebo group), although both groups showed a reduction over time. Based on this treatment study, the combined intervention did not show promise as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Ebert, Fanny; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Simons, Julia; Pieper, Laura
Mastitis is one of the most common diseases in dairy production, and homeopathic remedies have been used increasingly in recent years to treat it. Clinical trials evaluating homeopathy have often been criticized for their inadequate scientific approach. The objective of this triple-blind, randomized controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in bovine clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a conventionally managed dairy farm between June 2013 and May 2014. Dairy cows with acute mastitis were randomly allocated to homeopathy (n = 70) or placebo (n = 92), for a total of 162 animals. The homeopathic treatment was selected based on clinical symptoms but most commonly consisted of a combination of nosodes with Streptococcinum, Staphylococcinum, Pyrogenium, and Escherichia coli at a potency of 200c. Treatment was administered to cows in the homeopathy group at least once per day for an average of 5 d. The cows in the placebo group were treated similarly, using a placebo preparation instead (lactose globules without active ingredients). If necessary, we also used allopathic drugs (e.g., antibiotics, udder creams, and anti-inflammatory drugs) in both groups. We recorded data relating to the clinical signs of mastitis, treatment, time to recovery, milk yield, somatic cell count at first milk recording after mastitis, and culling. We observed cows for up to 200 d after clinical recovery. Base-level data did not differ between the homeopathy and placebo groups. Mastitis lasted for an average of 6 d in both groups. We observed no significant differences in time to recovery, somatic cell count, risk of clinical cure within 14 d after disease occurrence, mastitis recurrence risk, or culling risk. The results indicated no additional effect of homeopathic treatment compared with placebo. The advantages or disadvantages of homeopathy should be carefully assessed for individual farms.
El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Said, Reem Nabil; Mosallam, Dalia Sayed; Barakat, Nahla Abdel Moniem; Sabry, Mohamed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatment for children diarrhea. Although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, researches were often limited to certain strains. AIM: To test Bifidobacterium lactis on morbidity of acute diarrhea in children less than 2 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 children (1 - 23 months) admitted with acute diarrhea to the Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University and were randomly assigned to receive in addition to usual treatment of diarrhea according to WHO guidelines; one of two treatments either milk formula non-supplemented (n = 25) or supplemented (n = 25) with Bifidobacterium lactis 14.5 × 106 CFU/100 ml daily for one week. Primary outcomes were frequency and duration of diarrhea and hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were duration of fever and vomiting episodes. Safety and tolerance were also recorded. RESULTS: On admission, patients’ characteristics of both groups (50 cases) were similar. For children who received the probiotics for one week; mean duration of diarrhoea was shorter than in controls (3.12 ± 0.92 vs. 4.10 ± 0.94 days) (P = 0.02), number of motions per day was less than in controls (3.96 ± 0.62 vs. 4.46 ± 0.85) (P = 0.04) and discharge from hospital <2 days was more frequent than in controls (72% vs. 44%) (P = 0.048). There was no effect on fever (P = 0.63) or vomiting (P = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics in supplemented milk formula decreased significantly frequency, duration of diarrhea, and hospital stay than usual treatment alone in children with acute diarrhea. Additional researches on other uncommon local probiotic species should be encouraged. PMID:27275258
Ranucci, Marco; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina; Crapelli, Giulia Beatrice; Rahe-Meyer, Niels; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Frigiola, Alessandro
Background Postoperative bleeding after heart operations is still a common finding, leading to allogeneic blood products transfusion. Fibrinogen and coagulation factors deficiency are possible determinants of bleeding. The experimental hypothesis of this study is that a first-line fibrinogen supplementation avoids the need for fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and reduces the need for any kind of transfusions. Methods and Results This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. One-hundred sixteen patients undergoing heart surgery with an expected cardiopulmonary bypass duration >90 minutes were admitted to the study. Patients in the treatment arm received fibrinogen concentrate after protamine administration; patients in the control arm received saline solution. In case of ongoing bleeding, patients in the treatment arm could receive prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) and those in the control arm saline solution. The primary endpoint was avoidance of any allogeneic blood product. Patients in the treatment arm had a significantly lower rate of any allogeneic blood products transfusion (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.84, P=0.015). The total amount of packed red cells and FFP units transfused was significantly lower in the treatment arm. Postoperative bleeding was significantly (P=0.042) less in the treatment arm (median, 300 mL; interquartile range, 200 to 400 mL) than in the control arm (median, 355 mL; interquartile range, 250 to 600 mL). Conclusions Fibrinogen concentrate limits postoperative bleeding after complex heart surgery, leading to a significant reduction in allogeneic blood products transfusions. No safety issues were raised. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01471730. PMID:26037084
Rossignol, Daniel A; Rossignol, Lanier W; Smith, Scott; Schneider, Cindy; Logerquist, Sally; Usman, Anju; Neubrander, Jim; Madren, Eric M; Hintz, Gregg; Grushkin, Barry; Mumper, Elizabeth A
Several uncontrolled studies of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism have reported clinical improvements; however, this treatment has not been evaluated to date with a controlled study. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism. 62 children with autism recruited from 6 centers, ages 2-7 years (mean 4.92 +/- 1.21), were randomly assigned to 40 hourly treatments of either hyperbaric treatment at 1.3 atmosphere (atm) and 24% oxygen ("treatment group", n = 33) or slightly pressurized room air at 1.03 atm and 21% oxygen ("control group", n = 29). Outcome measures included Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). After 40 sessions, mean physician CGI scores significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls in overall functioning (p = 0.0008), receptive language (p < 0.0001), social interaction (p = 0.0473), and eye contact (p = 0.0102); 9/30 children (30%) in the treatment group were rated as "very much improved" or "much improved" compared to 2/26 (8%) of controls (p = 0.0471); 24/30 (80%) in the treatment group improved compared to 10/26 (38%) of controls (p = 0.0024). Mean parental CGI scores significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls in overall functioning (p = 0.0336), receptive language (p = 0.0168), and eye contact (p = 0.0322). On the ABC, significant improvements were observed in the treatment group in total score, irritability, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and speech (p < 0.03 for each), but not in the control group. In the treatment group compared to the control group, mean changes on the ABC total score and subscales were similar except a greater number of children improved in irritability (p = 0.0311). On the ATEC, sensory/cognitive awareness significantly improved (p = 0.0367) in the treatment group compared to the control group
Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Ball, Angel L.; Vannest, Jennifer; Dietz, Aimee R.; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Martin, Amber N.; Hart, Kimberly; Lindsell, Christopher J.
Background Few studies have documented the possibility of treatment-induced improvements in language functions 12 months or longer after stroke. The purpose of the current study was to provide a preliminary estimate of efficacy of constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) when compared to no-intervention in patients with chronic (>1 year) post-stroke aphasia in order to provide the data needed to design an appropriately powered trial. Material/Methods This was a randomized, controlled, single-blinded, pilot trial. We identified 32 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia. Of these, 27 were offered participation, and 24 were randomized (CONSORT diagram): 14 to CIAT and to 10 to no-intervention. CIAT groups received up to 4 hours/day of intervention for 10 consecutive business days (40 hours of therapy). Outcomes were assessed within 1 week of intervention and at 1 and 12 weeks after intervention and included several linguistic measures and a measure of overall subjective communication abilities (mini-Communicative Abilities Log (mini-CAL)). To maintain blinding, clinicians treating patients (CIAT group) did not communicate with other team members and the testing team members were blinded to treatment group assignment. Results Overall, the results of this pilot trial support the results of previous observational studies that CIAT may lead to improvements in linguistic abilities. At 12 weeks, the treatment group reported better subjective communication abilities (mini-CAL) than the no-intervention group (p=0.019). Other measures trended towards better performance in the CIAT group. Conclusions In this randomized, controlled, and blinded pilot study, intensive language therapy (CIAT) led to an improvement in subjective language abilities. The effects demonstrated allow the design of a definitive trial of CIAT in patients with a variety of post-stroke aphasia types. In addition, our experiences have identified important considerations for designing subsequent trial(s
Shang, Xiao-Ke; Lu, Rong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Chang-Dong; Xiao, Shu-Na; Liu, Mei; Wang, Bin; Dong, Nian-Guo
Fontan surgery is a widely used palliative procedure that significantly improves the survival period of patients with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). However, it does not decrease postoperative complication rate. Previous studies suggested that elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and vascular resistance lead to decreased exercise tolerance and myocardial dysfunction. Therapy with endothelial receptor antagonists (Bosentan) has been demonstrated to improve the patients' prognosis. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was performed to explore the efficacy of Bosentan in treating patients who underwent the Fontan procedure. Eligible participants were randomly divided into Bosentan group and control group. Liver function was tested at a local hospital and the results were reported to the phone inspector every month. If the results suggested abnormal liver function, treatment would be adjusted or terminated. All the participants finished the follow-up study, with no patients lost to follow-up. Unblinding after 2-year follow-up, no mortality was observed in either group. However, secondary end-points were found to be significantly different in the comparable groups. The cardiac function and 6-min walking distance in the Bosentan group were significantly superior to those in the control group (P=0.018 and P=0.027). Bosentan could improve New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional status and improve the results of the 6-min walking test (6MWT) in Fontan patients post-surgery, and no other benefits were observed. Furthermore, a primary meta-analysis study systematically reviewed all the similar clinical trails worldwide and concluded an overall NYHA class improvement in Fontan patients who received Bosentan treatments.
Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Zirak, Mohammad; Hemmati Maslakpak, Masomeh; Parizad, Naser
Diabetes is one of the biggest problems in healthcare systems and kills many people every year. Diabetes management is impossible when only utilizing medication. So, patients must be educated to manage their diabetes. This study aims to assess the effect of education by telephone and short message service on empowering patients with type 2 diabetes (primary outcome). A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Urmia diabetes association in Iran. Sixty six participants with definitive diagnosis of type 2 diabetes entered into the study. Patients with secondary health problems were excluded. Patients were selected by simple random sampling then allocated into intervention (n=33) and control (n=33) groups. The intervention group received an educational text message daily and instructive phone calls three days a week for three months along with usual care. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES) with confirmed validity and reliability was used for collecting data. Data was analyzed using SPSS V6.1. Independent t-test, paired t-test and chi-square were used to analyze the data. The empowerment of the intervention group compared with the control group significantly improved after three months of distance education (p<0.00, EF=1. 16). The study findings show that the distance education has a significant effect on empowering patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, using distance education along with other diabetes management intervention is highly effective and should be part of the care in diabetes treatment. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erlacher, Wolfgang; Tiefenbrunner, Heide; Kästenbauer, Thomas; Schwarz, Sylvia; Fitzgerald, Robert D
CobraPLUS and Cookgas air-Q are supraglottic airways expected to allow safe ventilation as well as reliable blind intubation. In a prospective, controlled trial, we hypothesised that quality of ventilation and success rate of blind endotracheal intubation of these new devices would be superior to the Fastrach intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA). When blind intubation failed the quality of fibrescope-guided intubation was investigated. To allow identification of those patients in whom blind intubation would be difficult, we investigated the predictive value of currently used predictors for ease of endotracheal intubation. One hundred and eighty adult patients with documented BMI, Mallampati score, Cormack-Lehane classification, interincisor gap and thyromental distance were randomised into three groups according to the device used. Ventilation conditions were rated as excellent, good or difficult. When blind intubation failed, fibrescope-guided intubation conditions were rated as well. Statistical analysis was performed by a χ-test. The quality of ventilation was excellent for all devices. Three patients in the CobraPLUS group and two patients in the ILMA and the Cookgas groups needed a slight reposition. Blind intubation through the CPLA was successful in 47%, through the Cookgas in 57%, whereas the Fastrach group had a success rate of 95%. Fibreoptic intubation was possible in all but one patient. None of the registered scores and measures allowed prediction of difficult blind intubation. All devices appeared to be safe airways. The Fastrach ILMA proved to be a reliable facilitator for blind intubation. CobraPLUS and Cookgas air-Q allowed an easy fibrescopic intubation. Failed blind intubations could not be predicted by the used parameters.
Ji, Linong; Tong, Xiaolin; Wang, Hongyuan; Tian, Haoming; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Lili; Li, Qifu; Wang, Yizhong; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Min; Yang, Hongjie; Gao, Yanbin; Li, Yan; Li, Quanmin; Guo, Xiaohui; Yang, Gangyi; Zhang, Zhongai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Ning, Guang; Chen, Yingli; Paul, Sanjoy
Treatment of diabetes mellitus with Traditional Chinese Medicine has a long history. The aim of this study is to establish the safety and efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine combined with glibenclamide to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. In a controlled, double blind, multicentre non-inferiority trial, 800 patients with unsatisfactory glycemic control (fasting glucose 7-13 mmol/L and HbA1c 7-11%) were randomly assigned to receive Xiaoke Pill, a compound of Chinese herbs combined with glibenclamide, or Glibenclamide in two study groups - drug naive group, and patients previously treated with metformin monotherapy (metformin group). Outcome measures at 48 weeks were the incidence and rate of hypoglycemia, mean difference in HbA1c, and proportion of patients with HbA1c<6.5%. In drug naïve group, the total hypoglycemia rate and the mild hypoglycemic episode in the Xiaoke Pill arm were 38% (p = 0.024) and 41% (p = 0.002) less compared to Glibenclamide arm; in Metformin group, the average annual rate of hypoglycemia was 62% lower in Xiaoke Pill arm (p = 0.003). Respective mean changes in HbA1c from baseline were -0.70% and -0.66% for Xiaoke Pill and Glibenclamide, with a between-group difference (95% CI) of -0.04% (-0.20, 0.12) in the drug naïve group, and those in metformin group were -0.45% and -0.59%, 0.14% (-0.12, 0.39) respectively. The respective proportions of patients with a HbA1c level <6.5% were 26.6% and 23.4% in the drug naïve group and 20.1% and 18.9% in the metformin group. In patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycaemic control, treatment with Xiaoke Pill led to significant reduction in risk of hypoglycemia and similar improvements in glycemic control after 48 weeks compared to Glibenclamide. Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR-TRC-08000074.
Djavadkhani, Yasaman; Marshall, Nathaniel S; D'Rozario, Angela L; Crawford, Megan R; Yee, Brendon J; Grunstein, Ronald R; Phillips, Craig L
Performing rigorously designed clinical trials in device-based treatments is challenging. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective device-based treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea. We performed a randomised crossover trial of CPAP versus placebo therapy and did not disclose the presence of placebo. We assessed rates of staff unblinding, the likelihood of patient unblinding and obtained patient perceptions on lack of full disclosure. All patients (n=30) underwent a semi-structured exit interview. Prior to full disclosure patients were asked questions to ascertain whether they suspected one therapy was ineffective. The use of placebo was then disclosed and additional questions were administered to indicate the likelihood of unblinding had full disclosure occurred during consent. Staff unblinding was determined by means of a questionnaire that was completed after each patient encounter. While the lack of full disclosure prevented patient unblinding during the trial, patients revealed a clear preference for active CPAP. After disclosing the presence of placebo, 73% (n=22) felt they would have been unblinded had they known at the start of the trial. Only one patient described unease about the lack of full disclosure. Staff thought they were unblinded in 6% (n=16/282) of encounters. They correctly identified the treatment device in 69% of cases (n=11/16, p<0.001). Successful patient blinding was achieved, however this was probably reliant on the lack of full disclosure. Staff unblinding occurred and highlights the difficulty with investigator blinding in device-based trials. Ethical challenges in this type of study are likely to compromise research feasibility. This clinical trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at http://www.anzctr.org.au (ACTRN 12605000066684). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Koppitz, Martin; Eschenburg, Charlotte; Salzmann, Emilia; Rosewich, Martin; Schubert, Ralf; Zielen, Stefan
Objective Mucoactive drugs should increase the ability to expectorate sputum and, ideally, have anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucolytic activity of Tyloxapol compared to saline (0.9%) in COPD. Design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover, clinical trial was carried out. Patients were randomly assigned to either inhale 5 ml Tyloxapol 1% or saline 0.9% solution three times daily for 3 weeks and vice versa for another 3 weeks. 28 patients (18 male, 10 female, 47 to 73 years old, median age 63.50) were screened, 21 were treated and 19 patients completed the study per protocol. Results A comparison of the two treatment phases showed that the primary endpoint sputum weight was statistically significant higher when patients inhaled Tyloxapol (mean 4.03 g, 95% CI: 2.34–5.73 g at week 3) compared to saline (mean 2.63 g, 95% CI: 1.73–3.53 g at week 3). The p-value at three weeks of treatment was 0.041 between treatment arms. Sputum cells decreased during the Tyloxapol treatment after 3 weeks, indicating that Tyloxapol might have some anti-neutrophilic properties. Lung function parameters (FVC, FEV1, RV, and RV/TLC) remained stable during the study, and no treatment effect was shown. Interestingly, there was a mean increase in all inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) during the saline treatment from day 1 to week 3, whereas during the Tyloxapol treatment, all cytokines decreased. Due to the small sample size and the large individual variation in sputum cytokines, these differences were not significant. However, analyses confirmed that Tyloxapol has significant anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. Despite the high number of inhalations (more than 1000), only 27 adverse events (20 during the Tyloxapol and seven during saline) were recorded. Eleven patients experienced AEs under Tyloxapol and six under saline treatment, which indicates that inhalation of saline or Tyloxapol is a very safe procedure
Allen, Sharon S; Allen, Alicia M; Lunos, Scott; Tosun, Nicole
Pregnancy is a strong motivator to quit smoking, yet postpartum relapse rates are high. Growing evidence suggests a role of sex hormones in drug abuse behavior and given the precipitous drop in sex hormones at delivery, they may play a role in postpartum relapse. This pilot study evaluates the feasibility and potential role of exogenous progesterone in postpartum smoking relapse. This 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial randomized 46 abstinent postpartum women to active progesterone (PRO; 200mg twice a day) versus placebo (PBO) for 4 weeks. Participants were followed for relapse for 12 weeks. Main study outcomes include abstinence (point prevalence), feasibility (compliance per number of clinic visits attended, pill counts and Electronic Data Capture [EDC] completed) and self-reported acceptability. Safety was also measured by depressive symptom scores, adverse events, and breastfeeding. Overall retention rate was 87% at week 12. At week 4, abstinence rates were 75% in the PRO group and 68.2% in the PBO group (p = .75). Medication adherence was 68% and clinic visit attendance was 80%, with no differences by randomization. Depressive symptom scores, adverse events, and breastfeeding did not vary by randomization. Although the study was not powered to evaluate abstinence rates, we did observe a higher prevalence of abstinence at week 4 in the PRO group. Further, exogenous progesterone was well tolerated and did not adversely affect depressive symptoms or breastfeeding. Thus, the results of this pilot study indicate further investigation into progesterone as a postpartum relapse prevention strategy is warranted. This innovative pilot trial determined the feasibility of delivering exogenous progesterone as a potential prevention of postpartum smoking relapse. We observed high retention and moderate adherence rates, as well as high acceptability among participants. Further, though not statistically significant, more women in the treatment
Whitlock, Richard P; Devereaux, P J; Teoh, Kevin H; Lamy, Andre; Vincent, Jessica; Pogue, Janice; Paparella, Domenico; Sessler, Daniel I; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Villar, Juan Carlos; Zuo, Yunxia; Avezum, Álvaro; Quantz, Mackenzie; Tagarakis, Georgios I; Shah, Pallav J; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Zheng, Hong; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim
Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388. Patients were recruited between June 21, 2007, and Dec 19, 2013. Complete 30-day data was available for all 7507 patients randomly assigned to methylprednisolone (n=3755) and to placebo (n=3752). Methylprednisolone, compared
Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. Design A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Interventions Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. Results BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference −7.1 points, 95% confidence interval −9.8 to −4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference −4.5 points, −7.5 to −1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self
Joksić, Gordana; Spasojević-Tišma, Vera; Antić, Ruza; Nilsson, Robert; Rutqvist, Lars E
Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enrolled 319 healthy smokers aged 20-65 years at two occupational health centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Most of them (81%) expressed an interest to quit rather than just reduce their smoking. Study products were used ad libitum throughout the 48-week study period. The main study objective during the first 24 weeks was smoking reduction. The primary end-point was defined as a biologically verified reduction of ≥ 50% in the average number of smoked cigarettes per day during week 21-24 compared to baseline. During week 25-48 participants were actively instructed to stop smoking completely. Outcome measures of biologically verified, complete smoking cessation included 1-week point prevalence rates at clinical visits after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, as well as 4-, 12- and 24-week continued cessation rates at the week 36 and 48 visits. At the week 24 visit, the proportion of participants who achieved the protocol definition of a ≥ 50% smoking reduction was similar in the two treatment groups. However, the proportion that reported more extreme reductions (≥ 75%) was statistically significantly higher in the snus group than in the placebo group (p < 0.01). The results for biologically verified complete cessation suggested that participants in the snus group were more likely to quit smoking completely than the controls; the odds ratio (snus versus placebo) for the protocol estimates of cessation varied between 1.9 to 3.4, but these ratios were of borderline significance with p-values ranging from 0.04-0.10. Snus
Slater, Rebeccah; Hartley, Caroline; Moultrie, Fiona; Adams, Eleri; Juszczak, Ed; Rogers, Richard; Norman, Jane E; Patel, Chetan; Stanbury, Kayleigh; Hoskin, Amy; Green, Gabrielle
Infant pain has both immediate and long-term negative consequences, yet in clinical practice it is often undertreated. To date, few pain-relieving drugs have been tested in infants. Morphine is a potent analgesic that provides effective pain relief in adults, but there is inconclusive evidence for its effectiveness in infants. The purpose of this study is to establish whether oral morphine provides effective analgesia for procedural pain in infants. A blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized, phase II, clinical trial will be undertaken to determine whether morphine sulphate administered orally prior to clinically-required retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and heel lancing provides effective analgesia. 156 infants between 34 and 42 weeks’ gestational age who require a clinical heel lance and ROP screening on the same test occasion will be included in the trial. Infants will be randomised to receive either a single dose of morphine sulphate (100 μg/kg) or placebo. Each infant will be monitored for 48 hours and safety data will be collected during the 24 hours following drug administration. The primary outcome will be the Premature Infant Pain Profile–revised (PIPP-R) score during the 30 second periods after ROP screening. The co-primary outcome will be the magnitude of nociceptive-specific brain activity evoked by a clinically-required heel lance. Infant clinical stability will be assessed by comparing the number of episodes of bradycardia, tachycardia, desaturation and apnoea, and changes in respiratory support requirements in the 24-hour periods before and after the clinical intervention. In addition, drug safety will be assessed by considering the occurrence of apnoeic and hypotensive episodes requiring intervention in the 24-hour period following drug administration. This study has been published as an Accepted Protocol Summary by The Lancet. PMID:28066825
ABBASKHANIAN, Ali; EHTESHAMI, Sara; SAJJADI, Sadegh; REZAI, Mohammad Sadegh
Objective Breath holding spells (BHS) are common paroxysmal non-epileptic events in the pediatric population which are very stressfull despite their harmless nature. There has been no specific treatment found for the spells yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of piracetam (2-oxo-l-pyrrolidine) on these children. Materials & Methods In this randomized double blind clinical trial study, 150 children with severe BHS referred to our pediatric outpatient service were enrolled from August 2011 to July 2012. The patients were randomized into two equal groups. One received 40mg/kg/day piracetam and the other group received placebo, twice daily. Patients were followed monthly for three months. The number of attacks/month before and after treatment were documented. Results Of the enrolled patients, 86 were boys. The mean age of the patients was 17 months (range, 6 to 24 months). In the piracetam group, 1 month after treatment an 81% response to treatment was found. In the placebo group, none of the patients had complete remission and 7% of the cases had partial remission. Overall, control of breath-holding spells was observed in 91% of the patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 16% in the group taking placebo at the end of the study. There was no significant difference detected between the groups regarding the prevalence of drug side effects. Conclusion A significant difference was detected between piracetam and placebo in prevention and controlling BHS. Piracetam (40mg/kg/day) had a good effect on our patients. PMID:24665274
Hainque, Elodie; Caillet, Samantha; Leroy, Sandrine; Flamand-Roze, Constance; Adanyeguh, Isaac; Charbonnier-Beaupel, Fanny; Retail, Maryvonne; Le Toullec, Benjamin; Atencio, Mariana; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Brochard, Vanessa; Habarou, Florence; Ottolenghi, Chris; Cormier, Florence; Méneret, Aurélie; Ruiz, Marta; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Roubergue, Anne; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Vidailhet, Marie; Mochel, Fanny; Roze, Emmanuel
Based on the hypothesis of a brain energy deficit, we investigated the safety and efficacy of triheptanoin on paroxysmal episodes in patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood due to ATP1A3 mutations. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of triheptanoin, at a target dose corresponding to 30% of daily calorie intake, in ten patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood due to ATP1A3 mutations. Each treatment period consisted of a 12-week fixed-dose phase, separated by a 4-week washout period. The primary outcome was the total number of paroxysmal events. Secondary outcomes included the number of paroxysmal motor-epileptic events; a composite score taking into account the number, severity and duration of paroxysmal events; interictal neurological manifestations; the clinical global impression-improvement scale (CGI-I); and safety parameters. The paired non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used to analyze treatment effects. In an intention-to-treat analysis, triheptanoin failed to reduce the total number of paroxysmal events (p = 0.646), including motor-epileptic events (p = 0.585), or the composite score (p = 0.059). CGI-I score did not differ between triheptanoin and placebo periods. Triheptanoin was well tolerated. Triheptanoin does not prevent paroxysmal events in Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. We show the feasibility of a randomized placebo-controlled trial in this setting. The study has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT002408354 ) the 03/24/2015.
Hantsoo, Liisa; Ward-O’Brien, Deborah; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Price, Lawrence H.; Epperson, C. Neill
Rationale Postpartum depression (PMD) occurs in roughly 10% of postpartum women and negatively impacts the mother and her offspring, but there are few placebo-controlled studies of antidepressant treatment in this population. Objectives To compare the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline to placebo for treating PMD. Methods This was a single-center, 6-week, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sertraline with a one-week placebo lead-in. Participants (n=38) were women with depression onset within 3 months of delivery; a subset (n=27) met strict DSM-IV criteria for PMD (onset within 4 weeks of delivery). Participants were prescribed sertraline 50 mg or placebo daily, to a maximum of 200 mg/day. Primary outcome variables were the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scores, which were used to determine rates of response and remission. Results Sertraline produced a significantly greater response rate (59%) than placebo (26%) and a more than 2-fold increased remission rate (53% vs. 21%). Mixed models did not reveal significant group by time effects, although in the subset of women who met DSM-IV criteria, there was a statistically significant group by time effect for the HAM-D, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and CGI. Conclusions Women with PMD are more likely to have a remission of their depression with sertraline treatment, a finding that is more pronounced in women who have onset of depression within 4 weeks of childbirth. These data support the continued use of 4 weeks for the DSM-5 postpartum onset specifier for major depressive disorder. PMID:24173623
Rezaei, Vala; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Sahraian, Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that forms part of a spectrum of related disorders referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study assessed the effects of topiramate plus risperidone in the treatment of autistic disorder. Forty children between the ages of 4 and 12 years with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism who were outpatients from a specialty clinic for children were recruited. The children presented with a chief complaint of severely disruptive symptoms related to autistic disorder. Patients were randomly allocated to topiramate+risperidone (Group A) or placebo+risperidone (Group B) for an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 2 mg/day for children between 10 and 40 kg and 3 mg/day for children weighting above 40 kg. The dose of topiramate was titrated up to 200 mg/day depending on weight (100 mg/day for <30 kg and 200 mg/day for >30 kg). Patients were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after starting medication. Measure of outcome was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Rating Scale. Difference between the two protocols was significant as the group that received topiramate had a greater reduction in ABC-C subscale scores for irritability, stereotypic behavior and hyperactivity/noncompliance. The results suggest that the combination of topiramate with risperidone may be superior to risperidone monotherapy for children with autistic disorder. However the results need to be further confirmed by a larger randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Russo, Francesca Yoshie; Nguyen, Yann; De Seta, Daniele; Bouccara, Didier; Sterkers, Olivier; Ferrary, Evelyne; Bernardeschi, Daniele
To evaluate the efficacy of portable Meniett low-pressure pulse generator (Medtronic Xomed, Jacksonville, FL) in Meniere disease. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial carried out in 17 academic medical centers. One hundred twenty-nine adults presenting Meniere disease (American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria) not controlled by conventional medical treatment were included. The protocol included three phases: 1) placement of a transtympanic tube and evaluation of its effect (if resolution of symptoms, the patient was excluded); 2) randomization: 6-weeks treatment with Meniett (Medtronic Xomed) or placebo device; 3) removal of the device and 6-week follow-up period. The evaluation criteria were the number of vertigo episodes (at least 20 minutes with a 12-hour free interval) and the impact on daily life as assessed by self-questionnaires. Ninety-seven patients passed to the second phase of the study: 49 and 48 patients received the Meniett (Medtronic Xomed) or the placebo device, respectively. In the placebo group, the number of vertigo episodes decreased from 4.3 ± 0.6 (mean ± standard error of the mean) during the first phase to 2.6 ± 0.5 after 6 weeks of treatment, and to 1.8 ± 0.8 after the removal of the device. Similar results were observed in the Meniett device (Medtronic Xomed) group: 3.2 ± 0.4 episodes during the first phase, 2.5 ± after 6 weeks of Meniett device (Medtronic Xomed) treatment, and 1.5 ± 0.2 after the third phase. An improvement of symptoms was evidenced in all patients, with no difference between the Meniett (Medtronic Xomed) and the placebo device groups. The decrease in the number of vertigo episodes could be explained by an effect of the medical care. 1b. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:470-475, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Whorwell, P. J.; Whorwell, G. M.; Bamforth, J.; Colin Jones, D.; Down, P.; Edwards, A.; Gent, A. E.; Golding, P.; Gough, K. R.; Hellier, M. D.; Isaacson, P.; Loehry, C. A.; Milton-Thompson, G. J.; Smith, C. L.; Waldram, R. P.; Wright, R.
A double-blind controlled trial of the effect of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in preventing relapse in ulcerative colitis has been completed in 100 subjects. In patients already taking sulphasalazine, SCG did not prove to be of any additional benefit. However, in patients not on any other maintenance therapy, the relapse rate was 40% for SCG as compared with 75% for placebo. A large study of the effect of SCG in patients intolerant of sulphasalazine is indicated. PMID:6118859
Ley, Chit Moy; Ni, Qing; Liao, Xing; Gao, Huai-Lin; Robinson, Nicola
To assess whether the dietary supplement (bromelain) has the potential to reduce plasma fibrinogen and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with diabetes. This randomized placebo controlled, double blind, parallel design, efficacy study was carried out in China and investigated the effect of 12 weeks of bromelain (1,050 mg/day) on plasma fibrinogen. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) recruited 68 Chinese diabetic patients [32 males and 36 females; Han origin, mean age of 61.26 years (standard deviation (SD), 12.62 years)] with at least one CVD risk factor. Patients were randomized into either bromelain or placebo group. While bromelain group received bromelain capsule, the placebo group received placebo capsule which consisted inert ingredient and has no treatment effect. Subjects were required to take 1,050 mg (3×350 mg) of either bromelain or starch-filled placebo capsules, two to be taken (2×350 mg) after breakfast and another (350 mg) after dinner, daily for 12 weeks. Plasma fibrinogen, CVD risk factors and anthropometric indicators were determined at baseline and at 12 weeks. The change in the fibrinogen level in the bromelain group at the end of the study showed a mean reduction of 0.13 g/L (standard deviation (SD) 0.86g/L) compared with the mean reduction of 0.36 g/L (SD 0.96 g/L) for the placebo group. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in fibrinogen between the placebo and bromelain groups (mean difference=0.23g/L (SD 0.22 g/L), =0.291). Similarly, the difference in mean change in other CVD risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure), blood glucose, C-reactive protein and anthropometric measures between the bromelain and placebo groups was also not statistically significant. Statistical differences in fibrinogen between bromelain and placebo groups before the trial despite randomization may have influenced the results of this study. This RCT failed to show a beneficial effect in reducing fibrinogen
Ochoa, Theresa J.; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Baiocchi, Nelly; Pecho, Iris; Campos, Miguel; Prada, Ana; Valdiviezo, Gladys; Lluque, Angela; Lai, Dejian; Cleary, Thomas G.
Objective To determine the effect of bovine lactoferrin on prevention of diarrhea in children. Study design We conducted a community-based randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial comparing supplementation with bovine lactoferrin versus placebo. Previously weaned children were enrolled at 12–18 months and followed for 6 months with daily home visits for data collection and supplement administration. Anthropometric measures were done monthly. Results 555 children were randomized: 277 to lactoferrin and 278 to placebo; 65 dropped out; 147,894 doses were administered (92% compliance). Overall there were 91,446 child-days of observation and 1,235 diarrhea episodes lasting 6,219 days. The main pathogens isolated during diarrheal episodes were norovirus (35.0%), enteropathogenic E. coli (11.4%), Campylobacter (10.6%), enteroaggregative E. coli (8.4%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (6.9%) and Shigella (6.6%). The diarrhea incidence was not different between groups: 5.4 vs. 5.2 episodes/child/year for lactoferrin and placebo, respectively (p=0.375). However, the diarrhea longitudinal prevalence was lower in the lactoferrin group (6.6% vs. 7.0%, p=0.017) as well as the median duration of episodes (4.8 vs. 5.3 days, p=0.046), proportion of episodes with moderate or severe dehydration (1.0% vs. 2.6%, p=0.045) and liquid stools load (95.0 vs. 98.6) liquid stools/child/year, p<0.001). There were no adverse events related to the intervention. Conclusions Although there was no decrease in diarrhea incidence, longitudinal prevalence and severity were decreased with lactoferrin. PMID:22939927
Turner, R Scott; Thomas, Ronald G; Craft, Suzanne; van Dyck, Christopher H; Mintzer, Jacobo; Reynolds, Brigid A; Brewer, James B; Rissman, Robert A; Raman, Rema; Aisen, Paul S
A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood-brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Speed, C A; Nichols, D; Richards, C; Humphreys, H; Wies, J T; Burnet, S; Hazleman, B L
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an increasingly popular therapeutic approach to the treatment of a number of soft tissue complaints. Whilst benefit has been demonstrated in calcific tendinitis, evidence is lacking for benefit in the management of non-calcific rotator cuff disorders. To perform a double-blind placebo controlled trial of moderate dose ESWT in chronic lateral epicondylitis. Adults with lateral epicondylitis were randomised to receive either active treatment (1500 pulses ESWT at 0.12 mJ/ mm2) or sham therapy, monthly for three months. All were assessed before each treatment and one month after completion of therapy. Outcome measures consisted of visual analogue scores for pain in the day and at night. Seventy-five subjects participated and there were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. The mean duration of symptoms was 15.9 and 12 months in the ESWT and sham groups, respectively. Both groups showed significant improvements from two months. No significant difference existed between the groups with respect to the degrees of change in pain scores over the study period. In the ESWT group the mean (SD, range) pain score was 73.4 (14.5, 38-99) at baseline and 47.9 (31.4, 3-100) at three months. In the sham group the mean (SD, range) pain score was 67.2 (21.7, 12-100) at baseline and 51.5 (32.5, 3-100) at three months. At three months, 50% improvement from baseline was noted in 35% of the ESWT group and 34% of the sham group with respect to pain. There appears to be a significant placebo effect of moderate dose ESWT in subjects with lateral epicondylitis but there is no evidence of added benefit of treatment when compared to sham therapy.
Guerra, Paula VP; Lima, Luiza N; Souza, Tassia C; Mazochi, Vanessa; Penna, Francisco J; Silva, Andreia M; Nicoli, Jacques R; Guimarães, Elizabet V
AIM: To evaluate the treatment of pediatric functional chronic intestinal constipation (FCIC) with a probiotic goat yogurt. METHODS: A crossover double-blind formula-controlled trial was carried out on 59 students (age range: 5-15 years) of a public school in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, presenting a FCIC diagnostic, according to Roma III criteria. The students were randomized in two groups to receive a goat yogurt supplemented with 109 colony forming unit/mL Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) (probiotic) daily or only the yogurt for a period of 5 wk (formula). Afterwards, the groups were intercrossed for another 5 wk. Defecation frequency, stool consistency and abdominal and defecation pain were assessed. RESULTS: Both treatment groups demonstrated improvement in defecation frequency compared to baseline. However, the group treated with probiotic showed most significant improvement in the first phase of the study. An inversion was observed after crossing over, resulting in a reduction in stool frequency when this group was treated by formula. Probiotic and formula improved stool consistency in the first phase of treatment, but the improvement obtained with probiotic was significantly higher (P = 0.03). In the second phase of treatment, the group initially treated with probiotic showed worseningstool consistency when using formula. However, the difference was not significant. A significant improvement in abdominal pain and defecation pain was observed with both probiotic and formula in the first phase of treatment, but again the improvement was more significant for the group treated with B. longum during phase I (P < 0.05). When all data of the crossover study were analyzed, significant differences were observed between probiotic yogurt and yogurt only for defecation frequency (P = 0.012), defecation pain (P = 0.046) and abdominal pain (P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: An improvement in defecation frequency and abdominal pain was observed using both supplemented and non
DuPont, Herbert L; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Okhuysen, Pablo C; Ericsson, Charles D; de la Cabada, Francisco Javier; Ke, Shi; DuPont, Margaret W; Martinez-Sandoval, Francisco
Travelers' diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. To evaluate nonabsorbable rifaximin for prevention of travelers' diarrhea. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Guadalajara, Mexico. U.S. students. On arrival in Guadalajara, Mexico, 210 U.S. adults received rifaximin (200 mg/d, 200 mg twice daily, or 200 mg 3 times daily) or placebo for 2 weeks. Participants were followed daily for 3 weeks for enteric disease and symptoms and daily for 5 weeks for drug side effects. Changes in intestinal coliform flora were studied. Travelers' diarrhea developed in 14.74% of participants taking rifaximin and 53.70% of those taking placebo (rate ratio, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.17 to 0.43]). Rifaximin provided 72% and 77% protection against travelers' diarrhea and antibiotic-treated travelers' diarrhea, respectively (P < 0.001 for both), and all rifaximin doses were superior to placebo. In the groups that did not report travelers' diarrhea, rifaximin significantly reduced the occurrence of mild diarrhea (P = 0.02) and moderate and severe intestinal problems (P = 0.009 for pain or cramps; P = 0.02 for excessive gas). Rates of adverse events were comparable in the rifaximin and placebo groups. Minimal changes in coliform flora were found during rifaximin therapy. Rifaximin safely prevented travelers' diarrhea in Mexico, where most cases are caused by diarrhea-producing Escherichia coli. A study is needed in Asia to determine whether rifaximin can prevent diarrhea caused by invasive bacterial pathogens. Rifaximin prevents travelers' diarrhea with minimal changes in fecal flora, and more liberal chemoprophylaxis against this disease should be considered. Future studies should evaluate whether rifaximin is effective in preventing postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.
Ingalls, Nichole K; Horton, Zachary A; Bettendorf, Matthew; Frye, Ira; Rodriguez, Carlos
The lidocaine patch 5% was developed to treat postherpetic neuralgia. Anecdotal experience at our institution suggests the lidocaine patch 5% decreases narcotic usage in patients with traumatic rib fractures. This trial was developed to define the patch's efficacy. Patients with rib fractures admitted to the trauma service at our Level I trauma center were enrolled and randomized in a 1 to 1 double-blind manner to receive a lidocaine patch 5% or placebo patch. Fifty-eight patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled from January 2007 to August 2008. Demographic and clinical information were recorded. The primary outcomes variable was total narcotic use, analyzed using the 1-tailed Mann-Whitney test. The secondary outcomes variables included non-narcotic pain medication, average pain score, pulmonary complications, and length of stay. Significance was defined based on a 1-sided test for the primary outcome and 2-sided tests for other comparisons, at p < 0.05. Thirty-three patients received the lidocaine patch 5% and 25 received the placebo patch. There were no significant differences in age, number of rib fractures, gender, trauma mechanism, preinjury lung disease, smoking history, percent of current smokers, and need for placement of chest tube between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups. There was no difference between the lidocaine patch 5% and placebo groups, respectively, with regard to total IV narcotic usage: median, 0.23 units versus 0.26 units; total oral narcotics: median, 4 units versus 7 units; pain score: 5.6 +/- 0.4 versus 6.0 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM); length of stay: 7.8 +/- 1.1 versus 6.2 +/- 0.7; or percentage of patients with pulmonary complications: 72.7% versus 72.0%. The lidocaine patch 5% does not significantly improve pain control in polytrauma patients with traumatic rib fractures.
Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Mingming
To investigate the clinical effects and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) refractory to first-line anticholinergic treatment. Women diagnosed with OAB who were refractory to first-line anticholinergic treatment were referred for EA therapy. 50 women enrolled in this single-blind randomised controlled trial and were randomised 1:1 to EA or sham EA (SEA). The EA and SEA groups were treated with 30 sessions (5 sessions a week for 6 weeks), and each session lasted 30 min. OAB symptom scores (OABSS), King's Health Questionnaire scores (KHQ) and urodynamic parameters were used to assess treatment effects. Safety was also evaluated. 45 women completed all aspects of the study (23 in the EA group and 22 in the SEA group). The OABSS and KHQ showed statistically significant improvements in the EA group compared with the SEA group after 6 weeks of treatment (p<0.05). There were no statistical differences in the maximum ﬂow rate and postvoid residual (p>0.05), but there were statistical improvements in the first sensation of bladder filling, first urge to void and maximum cystometric capacity (p<0.05) in the EA group compared with the SEA group. No serious adverse events occurred in either group. EA appears to be an effective, safe and minimally invasive treatment for women with OAB. Further studies with longer follow-up are needed to evaluate whether it could be a therapeutic option for OAB refractory to treatment with anticholinergics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Clement, A; Tamalet, A; Leroux, E; Ravilly, S; Fauroux, B; Jais, J‐P
Background Macrolides display immunomodulatory effects that may be beneficial in chronic inflammatory pulmonary diseases. The aim of the study was to document whether long term use of azithromycin may be associated with respiratory benefits in young patients with cystic fibrosis. Methods A multicentre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted from October 2001 to June 2003. The criteria for enrolment were age older than 6 years and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of 40% or more. The active group received either 250 mg or 500 mg (body weight < or ⩾40 kg) of oral azithromycin three times a week for 12 months. The primary end point was change in FEV1. Results Eighty two patients of mean (SD) age 11.0 (3.3) years and mean (SD) FEV1 85 (22)% predicted were randomised: 40 in the azithromycin group and 42 in the placebo group. Nineteen patients were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The relative change in FEV1 at month 12 did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of pulmonary exacerbations (count ratio 0.50 (95% CI 0.32 to 0.79), p<0.005), the time elapsed before the first pulmonary exacerbation (hazard ratio 0.37 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.63), p<0.0001), and the number of additional courses of oral antibiotics were significantly reduced in the azithromycin group regardless of the infectious status (count ratio 0.55 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.85), p<0.01). No severe adverse events were reported. Conclusion Long term use of low dose azithromycin in young patients with cystic fibrosis has a beneficial effect on lung disease expression, even before infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:16809416
Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Burle, Léa Menezes Couceiro; Valença, Marcelo Moraes
Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg infused over one hour in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p=0.50). Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p=0.50); in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p=0.37) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24hours after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p=0.50) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24hours, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients can not be ruled out. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Burle, Léa Menezes Couceiro; Valença, Marcelo Moraes
Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3mg/kg infused over 1h in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was. Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p=0.50). Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p=0.50); in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p=0.37) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24h after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p=0.50) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24h, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Einfeld, Stewart L; Smith, Ellie; McGregor, Iain S; Steinbeck, Kate; Taffe, John; Rice, Lauren J; Horstead, Siân K; Rogers, Naomi; Hodge, M Antoinette; Guastella, Adam J
Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have a significant reduction in the number of oxytocin-producing neurons (42%) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. A number of animal studies and observations of humans show that lesions in this region can produce PWS-like symptoms. Given the evidence for potential oxytocin deficiency, we tested the effects of a course of intranasal oxytocin on PWS symptoms. Thirty individuals with PWS aged 12-30 years participated in an 18-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants received 8 weeks of oxytocin and 8 weeks of placebo with a minimum 2-week washout period. The first 11 participants received the following oxytocin doses: 24 IU (twice daily) B.I.D for participants 16 years and over and 18 IU B.I.D for participants 13-15 years. The dose was increased for the remaining 18 participants to 40 IU B.I.D for participants 16 years and over and 32 IU B.I.D for 13-15 years. Measures used to assess changes were standardized well-accepted measures, including the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Monitor, Parent, Teacher, and Adult; The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale; The Dykens Hyperphagia questionnaire; Reading The Mind in the Eyes Test; Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Movie Stills. Oxytocin had little impact on any measure. The only significant difference found between the baseline, oxytocin, and placebo measures was an increase in temper outbursts (P = 0.023) with higher dose oxytocin. The lack of effect of oxytocin nasal spray may reflect the importance of endogenous release of oxytocin in response to exogenous oxytocin.
Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.
Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649
Rastegarpanah, Mansoor; Malekzadeh, Reza; Vahedi, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Maryam; Elahi, Elham; Chaharmahali, Meghedi; Safarnavadeh, Tahereh; Abdollahi, Mohammad
To evaluate the clinical efficacy of silymarin in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. A randomized double blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 80 UC patients whose disease had been documented and were in remission state between September 2009 and October 2010. Patients were assigned to silymarin group (42 cases) and placebo group (38 cases) using a random number table. Either silymarin (140 mg) or placebo (lactose mono-hydrate, corn starch magnesium stearate) tablets were given once daily for 6 months along with their standard therapy. The efficacies were assessed by disease activity index (DAI), frequency difference of the disease flare-up, and paraclinical data. Ten patients (4 in the silymarin group due to nausea and 6 in the placebo group due to disease flare-up and abdominal pain) discontinued the study. An improvement in hemoglobin level (11.8±1.6 g/dL vs. 13.4±1.2 g/dL,P<0.05) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (23.7±11.5 mm/h vs.10.8±3.2 mm/h,P<0.05) was observed in the silymarin group but not in the placebo group. DAI significantly decreased in the silymarin group and reached from 11.3±3.5 to 10.7±2.8 (P<0.05). Thirty-five out of 38 patients in the silymarin group were in complete remission with no flare-up after 6 months as compared to 21 out of 32 patients in the placebo group (P=0.5000). Silymarin as a natural supplement may be used in UC patients to maintain remission.
Thomas, Ronald G.; Craft, Suzanne; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Reynolds, Brigid A.; Brewer, James B.; Rissman, Robert A.; Raman, Rema; Aisen, Paul S.
Objective: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Methods: Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Results: Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Conclusions: Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood–brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. PMID:26362286
Sit, Dorothy K; McGowan, James; Wiltrout, Christopher; Diler, Rasim Somer; Dills, John Jesse; Luther, James; Yang, Amy; Ciolino, Jody D; Seltman, Howard; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Terman, Michael; Wisner, Katherine L
Patients with bipolar disorder have recurrent major depression, residual mood symptoms, and limited treatment options. Building on promising pilot data, the authors conducted a 6-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of adjunctive bright light therapy at midday for bipolar depression. The aims were to determine remission rate, depression symptom level, and rate of mood polarity switch, as well as to explore sleep quality. The study enrolled depressed adults with bipolar I or II disorder who were receiving stable dosages of antimanic medication (excluding patients with hypomania or mania, mixed symptoms, or rapid cycling). Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either 7,000-lux bright white light or 50-lux dim red placebo light (N=23 for each group). Symptoms were assessed weekly with the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Scale With Atypical Depression Supplement (SIGH-ADS), the Mania Rating Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Remission was defined as having a SIGH-ADS score of 8 or less. At baseline, both groups had moderate depression and no hypomanic or manic symptoms. Compared with the placebo light group, the group treated with bright white light experienced a significantly higher remission rate (68.2% compared with 22.2%; adjusted odds ratio=12.6) at weeks 4-6 and significantly lower depression scores (9.2 [SD=6.6] compared with 14.9 [SD=9.2]; adjusted β=-5.91) at the endpoint visit. No mood polarity switches were observed. Sleep quality improved in both groups and did not differ significantly between them. The data from this study provide robust evidence that supports the efficacy of midday bright light therapy for bipolar depression.
Kreinin, Anatoly; Miodownik, Chanoch; Mirkin, Vitaly; Gaiduk, Yulia; Yankovsky, Yan; Bersudsky, Yuly; Lerner, Paul P; Bergman, Joseph; Lerner, Vladimir
Hypersalivation is a frequent, disturbing, and uncomfortable adverse effect of clozapine therapy that frequently leads to noncompliance. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of metoclopramide (dopamine D2 antagonist, antiemetic medication) as an option for management of hypersalivation associated with clozapine (HAC). A 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in university-based research clinics from January 2012 to May 2014, on 58 inpatients treated with clozapine who were experiencing hypersalivation. The subjects were randomly divided into placebo and metoclopramide groups. The starting dose was 10 mg/d. Participants who did not respond were up-titrated 10 mg/d weekly to a total of 30 mg/d during the third week. The number of placebo capsules was increased accordingly up to 3 capsules per day. Primary outcome was the change from baseline to the end of study in the severity of hypersalivation as measured with the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale and the Drooling Severity Scale. Secondary outcomes included Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale and adverse effect scales. Significant improvement on the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale was demonstrated in the metoclopramide group from the end of the second week (P < 0.004), and on the Drooling Severity Scale (P < 0.02) in the third week. Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale scores revealed major improvement. Twenty subjects (66.7%) treated with metoclopramide reported significant decline or total disappearance of HAC in comparison to 8 patients (28.6%) who received placebo (P = 0.031). No adverse effects to metoclopramide were reported. Metoclopramide was found to be safe and effective for the treatment of HAC.
Boyce, Alison M.; Kelly, Marilyn H.; Brillante, Beth A.; Kushner, Harvey; Wientroub, Shlomo; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G.
Context: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare skeletal disorder, resulting in deformity, fracture, functional impairment, and pain. Bisphosphonates have been advocated as a potential treatment. Objective: To determine the efficacy of alendronate for treatment of FD. Design: Two-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Clinical research center. Patients: Forty subjects with polyostotic FD (24 adults, 16 children). Subjects were randomized and stratified by age. Interventions: Study drug was administered over a 24 month period in 6 month cycles (6 months on, 6 months off). Alendronate dosing was stratified: 40 mg daily for subjects >50 kg, 20 mg for 30–50 kg, 10 mg for 20–30 kg. Main Outcome Measures: Primary endpoints were bone turnover markers, including serum osteocalcin, and urinary NTX-telopeptides. Secondary endpoints included areal bone mineral density (aBMD), pain, skeletal disease burden score, and functional parameters including the 9-min walk test and manual muscle testing. Results: Clinical data was collected on 35 subjects who completed the study. There was a decline in NTX-telopeptides in the alendronate group (P = .006), but no significant difference in osteocalcin between groups. The alendronate group had an increase in areal BMD in normal bone at the lumbar spine (P = .006), and in predetermined regions of FD (P < .001). There were no significant differences in pain scores, skeletal disease burden scores, or functional parameters between the groups. Conclusions: Alendronate treatment led to a reduction in the bone resorption marker NTX-telopeptides, and improvement in aBMD, but no significant effect on serum osteocalcin, pain, or functional parameters. PMID:25033066
Guerra, Paula V P; Lima, Luiza N; Souza, Tassia C; Mazochi, Vanessa; Penna, Francisco J; Silva, Andreia M; Nicoli, Jacques R; Guimarães, Elizabet V
To evaluate the treatment of pediatric functional chronic intestinal constipation (FCIC) with a probiotic goat yogurt. A crossover double-blind formula-controlled trial was carried out on 59 students (age range: 5-15 years) of a public school in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, presenting a FCIC diagnostic, according to Roma III criteria. The students were randomized in two groups to receive a goat yogurt supplemented with 10(9) colony forming unit/mL Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) (probiotic) daily or only the yogurt for a period of 5 wk (formula). Afterwards, the groups were intercrossed for another 5 wk. Defecation frequency, stool consistency and abdominal and defecation pain were assessed. Both treatment groups demonstrated improvement in defecation frequency compared to baseline. However, the group treated with probiotic showed most significant improvement in the first phase of the study. An inversion was observed after crossing over, resulting in a reduction in stool frequency when this group was treated by formula. Probiotic and formula improved stool consistency in the first phase of treatment, but the improvement obtained with probiotic was significantly higher (P = 0.03). In the second phase of treatment, the group initially treated with probiotic showed worsening stool consistency when using formula. However, the difference was not significant. A significant improvement in abdominal pain and defecation pain was observed with both probiotic and formula in the first phase of treatment, but again the improvement was more significant for the group treated with B. longum during phase I (P < 0.05). When all data of the crossover study were analyzed, significant differences were observed between probiotic yogurt and yogurt only for defecation frequency (P = 0.012), defecation pain (P = 0.046) and abdominal pain (P = 0.015). An improvement in defecation frequency and abdominal pain was observed using both supplemented and non-supplemented yogurt, but an
Stein, Michael D.; Kurth, Megan E.; Sharkey, Katherine M; Anderson, Bradley J.; Corso, Richard P; Millman, Richard P
BACKGROUND To test whether trazodone, one of the most commonly prescribed medications for treatment of insomnia, improves subjective and/or objective sleep among methadone-maintained persons with sleep complaints, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with six month follow-up. METHODS From eight methadone maintenance programs in the northeastern United States, we recruited 137 persons receiving methadone for at least one month who reported a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score of six or higher. Two-night home polysomnography (PSG) was completed at baseline and one month later, with morning surveys and urine drug toxicologies. Interviews assessed sleep over the past 30 days at baseline and 1-, 3-, and 6- month follow-ups. RESULTS Participants averaged 38 years of age, were 47% male, and had a mean PSQI total score of 12.9 (± 3.1). At baseline, intervention groups did not significantly differ on 10 PSG-derived objective sleep measures and 11 self-reported measures. Over 88% (n = 121) of participants completed the PSG at 1-month. Without adjusting p-values for multiple comparisons, only 1 of 21 sleep measure comparisons was statistically significant (p<.05). The effect of trazodone on mean PSQI scores during the six-month follow-up was not statistically significant (p = .10). Trazodone neither significantly increased nor decreased illicit drug use relative to placebo. CONCLUSIONS Trazodone did not improve subjective or objective sleep in methadone-maintained persons with sleep disturbance. Other pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments should be investigated for this population with high rates of insomnia. PMID:21798674
Friedmann, Peter D.; Rose, Jennifer S.; Swift, Robert; Stout, Robert L.; Millman, Richard P.; Stein, Michael D.
BACKGROUND Trazodone is commonly prescribed off-label for sleep disturbance in alcohol dependent patients, but its safety and efficacy for this indication is unknown. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-control trial of low dose trazodone (50−150 mg. at bedtime) for 12 weeks among 173 alcohol detoxification patients who reported current sleep disturbance on a validated measure of sleep quality or during prior periods of abstinence. Primary outcomes were the proportion of days abstinent and drinks per drinking day over six-months; sleep quality was also assessed. RESULTS Urn randomization balanced baseline features among the 88 subjects who received trazodone and 85 who received placebo. The trazodone group experienced less improvement in the proportion of days abstinent during administration of study medication (mean change between baseline and 3 months, −.12; 95% CI, −.15 to −.09), and an increase in the number of drinks per drinking day on cessation of the study medication (mean change between baseline and 6 months, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1 to 7.1). Trazodone was associated with improved sleep quality during its administration (mean change on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index between baseline and 3 months, −3.02; 95% CI, −3.38 to −2.67), but after it was stopped sleep quality equalized with placebo. CONCLUSIONS Trazodone, despite a short-term benefit on sleep quality, might impede improvements in alcohol consumption in the post-detoxification period and lead to increased drinking when stopped. Until further studies have established benefits and safety, routine initiation of trazodone for sleep disturbance cannot be recommended with confidence during the period after detoxification from alcoholism. PMID:18616688
Butler, J; Harriss, D R; Sinclair, M; Westaby, S
BACKGROUND--Arrhythmias are a common cause of morbidity after cardiac surgery. This study assessed the efficacy of prophylactic amiodarone in reducing the incidence of atrial fibrillation or flutter and ventricular arrhythmias after coronary artery surgery. METHODS--A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. 60 patients received a 24 hour intravenous infusion of amiodarone (15 mg/kg started after removal of the aortic cross clamp) followed by 200 mg orally three times daily for 5 days, and 60 patients received placebo. RESULTS--6 patients (10%) in the amiodarone group and 14 (23%) in the placebo group needed treatment for arrhythmias (95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the difference between groups was 0 to 26%, p = 0.05). The incidence of supraventricular tachycardia detected clinically and requiring treatment was lower in the amiodarone group (8% amiodarone v 20% placebo, 95% CI 0 to 24%, p = 0.07). The incidence detected by 24 hour Holter monitoring was similar (17% amiodarone v 20% placebo). Untreated arrhythmias in the amiodarone group were either clinically benign and undetected (n = 3) or the ventricular response rate was slow (n = 2). Age > 60 years was a positive risk factor for the development of supraventricular tachycardia in the amiodarone group but not in the placebo group. Fewer patients had episodes of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation recorded on Holter monitoring in the amiodarone group (15% amiodarone v 33% placebo, 95% CI 3 to 33%, p = 0.02). Bradycardia (78% amiodarone v 48% placebo, 95% CI 14% to 46%, p < 0.005) and pauses (7% amiodarone v 0% placebo) occurred in more amiodarone treated patients. Bradycardia warranted discontinuation of treatment in one patient treated with amiodarone. CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of clinically significant tachycardia was reduced by amiodarone. The ventricular response rate was slowed in supraventricular tachycardia, but the induction of bradycardia may preclude the routine use of amiodarone
Kim, Hye-Mi; Cho, Seung-Yeon; Sohn, Il-Suk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Ko, Chang-Nam; Cho, Ki-Ho
Abstract Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension. Design The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Subjects were randomly divided into an active acupuncture group and a sham acupuncture group. Each patient received real or sham acupuncture treatment twice a week for 8 weeks. Acupuncture needles were inserted at bilateral ST 36 plus PC 6; placebo points. Subjects Thirty-three (33) patients with essential hypertension were the subjects. Outcome measures Twenty-four (24)-hour ambulatory BP was assessed before and after treatment. Results After the treatment period, there was a significant increase in nocturnal diastolic BP dipping compared to that at baseline (10.20±7.56 mm Hg versus 5.21±10.19 mm Hg, p=0.038) in the active acupuncture group but not in the sham acupuncture group. The nocturnal diastolic BP dipping response to active acupuncture treatment was significantly different from the response seen with the sham acupuncture treatment (p=0.041). The number of dippers also increased from 4 to 8 in the active acupuncture group. Average systolic and diastolic BP was not changed significantly except for nighttime diastolic BP (90.32±11.47 mm Hg to 87.83±9.16 mm Hg, p=0.041). Conclusions It is suggested that acupuncture treatment could be useful for improving the circadian rhythm of BP in patients with hypertension. PMID:22906144
Nichol, Alistair; French, Craig; Little, Lorraine; Haddad, Samir; Presneill, Jeffrey; Arabi, Yaseen; Bailey, Michael; Cooper, D James; Duranteau, Jacques; Huet, Olivier; Mak, Anne; McArthur, Colin; Pettilä, Ville; Skrifvars, Markus; Vallance, Shirley; Varma, Dinesh; Wills, Judy; Bellomo, Rinaldo
Erythropoietin might have neurocytoprotective effects. In this trial, we studied its effect on neurological recovery, mortality, and venous thrombotic events in patients with traumatic brain injury. Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken in 29 centres (all university-affiliated teaching hospitals) in seven countries (Australia, New Zealand, France, Germany, Finland, Ireland, and Saudi Arabia). Within 24 h of brain injury, 606 patients were randomly assigned by a concealed web-based computer-generated randomisation schedule to erythropoietin (40,000 units subcutaneously) or placebo (0·9% sodium chloride subcutaneously) once per week for a maximum of three doses. Randomisation was stratified by severity of traumatic brain injury (moderate vs severe) and participating site. With the exception of designated site pharmacists, the site dosing nurses at all sites, and the pharmacists at the central pharmacy in France, all study personnel, patients, and patients' relatives were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome, assessed at 6 months by modified intention-to-treat analysis, was improvement in the patients' neurological status, summarised as a reduction in the proportion of patients with an Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) of 1-4 (death, vegetative state, and severe disability). Two equally spaced preplanned interim analyses were done (after 202 and 404 participants were enrolled). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00987454. Between May 3, 2010, and Nov 1, 2014, 606 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to erythropoietin (n=308) or placebo (n=298). Ten of these patients (six in the erythropoietin group and four in the placebo group) were lost to follow up at 6 months; therefore, data for the primary outcome analysis was available for 596 patients (302 in the erythropoietin group and 294 in the placebo group). Compared with placebo, erythropoietin did
Chang, Chun-Shin; Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting
Background Most patients with facial scarring would value even a slight improvement in scar quality. Botulinum toxin A is widely used to alleviate facial dynamic rhytides but is also believed to improve scar quality by reducing wound tension during healing. The main objective was to assess the effect of Botulinum toxin on scars resultant from standardized upper lip wounds. Methods In this double-blinded, randomized, vehicle-controlled, prospective clinical trial, 60 consecutive consenting adults undergoing cleft lip scar revision (CLSR) surgery between July 2010 and March 2012 were randomized to receive botulinum toxin A (n = 30) or vehicle (normal saline; n = 30) injections into the subjacent orbicularis oris muscle immediately after wound closure. Scars were independently assessed at 6-months follow-up in blinded fashion using: Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and photographic plus ultrasound measurements of scar widths. Results 58 patients completed the trial. All scar assessment modalities revealed statistically significantly better scars in the experimental than the vehicle-control group. Conclusion Quality of surgical upper lip scars, which are oriented perpendicular to the direction of pull of the underlying orbicularis oris muscle, is significantly improved by its temporary paralysis during wound healing. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429402 PMID:25541942
Olanow, C Warren; Schapira, Anthony H V; LeWitt, Peter A; Kieburtz, Karl; Sauer, Dirk; Olivieri, Gianfranco; Pohlmann, Harald; Hubble, Jean
There is an important unmet medical need in Parkinson's disease for a neuroprotective treatment that slows or stops disease progression. TCH346 is a potent anti-apoptotic drug that protects against loss of dopaminergic neurons in laboratory models. Our aim was to assess TCH346 as a neuroprotective drug in patients with Parkinson's disease. Patients presenting at 45 international movement disorder clinics with early untreated Parkinson's disease were assessed as part of this parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. 301 eligible patients were randomly assigned 12-18 months' treatment with TCH346 at a daily dose of 0.5 mg (n=78), 2.5 mg (n=79), or 10 mg (n=73), or placebo (n=71), followed by a 4 week washout period. The primary outcome measure was time to development of a disability requiring dopaminergic treatment. Secondary outcome measures were the annual rate of change in the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and the PDQ-39, a measure of quality of life. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. This study is pending registration with . 255 patients completed the study. TCH346 did not differ from placebo for any of the study outcomes. Treatment was needed in 26 (34%) patients in the TCH346 0.5 mg group, 30 (38%) in the TCH346 2.5 mg group, 24 (33%) in the TCH346 10 mg group, and 23 (32%) in the placebo group. There were no significant differences between groups. There were no differences between groups in the annual change in the UPDRS or PDQ-39 either. Few patients withdrew because of adverse events and none was judged to be related to the study intervention. TCH346 did not show evidence of a neuroprotective effect. The discrepancy between the preclinical promise of TCH346 and the clinical outcome could have arisen because of the use of laboratory models that do not accurately reflect the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, the doses of study drug used, insensitive clinical endpoints, and the patient population selected for study.
Mennini, Maurizio; Tolone, Carlo; Frassanito, Antonella; Midulla, Fabio; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Aloi, Marina
Oral rehydration therapy is the recommended treatment for acute childhood gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of gelatin tannate plus oral rehydration compared with oral rehydration alone. We conducted a multicenter, parallel, randomized, controlled, single-blind, prospective, open-label trial. A central randomization center used computer generated tables to allocate treatments. The study was performed in two medical centers in Italy. Sixty patients 3-72 months of age with acute gastroenteritis were recruited (median age 18 months; age range 3-66 months): 29 received an oral rehydration solution (ORS) and 31 an ORS plus gelatin tannate (ORS + G). The primary outcome was the number of bowel movements 48 and 72 h after initiating treatment. Secondary outcomes were: duration of diarrhea, stool characteristics and adverse events. No patient was lost at follow-up. No significant difference in the number of bowel movements after 48 h was reported (2.7 ± 1.3 ORS + G; 3.2 ± 0.8 ORS; p = 0.06), although the ORS + G group showed a significant improvement in stool consistency (3.7 ± 1.0 vs. 4.3 ± 0.8; p = 0.005). At 72 h, a significant reduction in bowel movements was reported in the ORS + G group compared with the ORS group (1.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.7; p = 0.01). Mean duration of diarrhea was significantly lower in the ORS + G group than in the ORS only group (76.8 ± 19.2 vs. 108 ± 24.0 h; p < 0.0001). No adverse events were reported. Gelatin tannate added to oral rehydration in children with acute diarrhea was associated with a significant decrease in bowel movements at 72 h, with an early improvement in the stool consistency and shorter disease duration. NCT02644200-Gelatin Tannate as Treatment for Acute Childhood Gastroenteritis ( https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ).
Armah, Charlotte N; Dainty, Jack R; Hart, Dave J; Teucher, Birgit; Goldson, Andrew J; Broadley, Martin R; Motley, Amy K; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J
Background: Dietary recommendations for selenium differ between countries, mainly because of uncertainties over the definition of optimal selenium status. Objective: The objective was to examine the dose-response relations for different forms of selenium. Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention was carried out in 119 healthy men and women aged 50–64 y living in the United Kingdom. Daily placebo or selenium-enriched yeast tablets containing 50, 100, or 200 μg Se (≈60% selenomethionine), selenium-enriched onion meals (≈66% γ-glutamyl-methylselenocysteine, providing the equivalent of 50 μg Se/d), or unenriched onion meals were consumed for 12 wk. Changes in platelet glutathione peroxidase activity and in plasma selenium and selenoprotein P concentrations were measured. Results: The mean baseline plasma selenium concentration for all subjects was 95.7 ± 11.5 ng/mL, which increased significantly by 10 wk to steady state concentrations of 118.3 ± 13.1, 152.0 ± 24.3, and 177.4 ± 26.3 ng/mL in those who consumed 50, 100, or 200 μg Se-yeast/d, respectively. Platelet glutathione peroxidase activity did not change significantly in response to either dose or form of selenium. Selenoprotein P increased significantly in all selenium intervention groups from an overall baseline mean of 4.99 ± 0.80 μg/mL to 6.17 ± 0.85, 6.73 ± 1.01, 6.59 ± 0.64, and 5.72 ± 0.75 μg/mL in those who consumed 50, 100, or 200 μg Se-yeast/d and 50 μg Se-enriched onions/d, respectively. Conclusions: Plasma selenoprotein P is a useful biomarker of status in populations with relatively low selenium intakes because it responds to different dietary forms of selenium. To optimize the plasma selenoprotein P concentration in this study, 50 μg Se/d was required in addition to the habitual intake of ≈55 μg/d. In the context of established relations between plasma selenium and risk of cancer and mortality, and recognizing the important functions of
Montaner, J S; Gill, J; Singer, J; Raboud, J; Arseneau, R; McLean, B D; Schechter, M T; Ruedy, J
We assessed the safety and surrogate markers' effect of acemannan as an adjunctive to antiretroviral therapy among patients with advanced HIV disease receiving zidovudine (ZDV) or didanosine (ddI) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of acemannan (400 mg orally four times daily). Eligible patients of either sex had CD4 counts of 50-300/microl twice within 1 month of study entry and had received 26 months of antiretroviral treatment (ZDV or ddI) at a stable dose for the month before entry. CD4 counts were made every 4 weeks for 48 weeks. P24 antigen was measured at entry and every 12 weeks thereafter. Sequential quantitative lymphocyte cultures for HIV and ZDV pharmacokinetics were performed in a subset of patients. Sixty-three patients were randomized. All were males (mean age 39 years). The mean baseline CD4 counts were 165 and 147/microl in the placebo and acemannan groups, respectively; 90 percent of the patients were receiving ZDV at entry. Six patients in the acemannan group and five in the placebo group developed AIDS-defining illnesses. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups at 48 weeks with regard to the absolute change or rate of decline at CD4 count. Among ZDV-treated patients, the median rates of CD4 change (ACD4) in the initial 16 weeks were - 121 and - 120 cells per year in the placebo and acemannan groups, respectively ( p = 0.45), ACD4 from week 16 to 48 was 0 and - 61 cells per year in the acemannan and placebo groups (p = .11), respectively. There was no statistical difference between groups with regard to adverse events, p24 antigen, quantitative virology, or pharmacokinetics. Twenty-four patients, 11 receiving placebo and 13 receiving acemannan, discontinued study therapy prematurely, none due to serious adverse reactions. Our results demonstrate that acemannan at an oral daily dose of 1600 mg does not prevent the decline in CD4 count characteristic of progressive HIV disease. Acemannan showed no
Background The results of preclinical studies suggest that baclofen may be useful in the treatment of stroke patients with persistent hiccups. This study was aimed to assess the possible efficacy of baclofen for the treatment of persistent hiccups after stroke. Methods In total, 30 stroke patients with persistent hiccups were randomly assigned to receive baclofen (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Participants in the baclofen group received 10 mg baclofen 3 times daily for 5 days. Participants assigned to the placebo group received 10 mg placebo 3 times daily for 5 days. The primary outcome measure was cessation of hiccups. Secondary outcome measures included efficacy in the two groups and adverse events. Results All 30 patients completed the study. The number of patients in whom the hiccups completely stopped was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 7.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–25.62; P = 0.003). Furthermore, efficacy was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (P < 0.01). No serious adverse events were documented in either group. One case each of mild transient drowsiness and dizziness was present in the baclofen group. Conclusions Baclofen was more effective than a placebo for the treatment of persistent hiccups in stroke patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Register: ChiCTR-TRC-13004554 PMID:25052238
McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R
Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908
dos Santos, Gisele Munhoes; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; de Medeiros, Italo Roberto Torres; Oiticcica, Jeanne; da Silva, Eleonora Csipai; Penteado, Silvio
Hearing aids with an integrated sound generator have been used to enhance the treatment of tinnitus. The main aim of this study was to verify whether the combined use of amplification and sound generator is more effective than conventional amplification alone in reducing tinnitus annoyance by means of the use of a new hearing aid with an integrated sound generator. A total of 49 patients underwent a blind randomized clinical trial. Tinnitus annoyance was measured by Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and numerical scales, and psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus were also performed. The sound generator was set at the lowest intensity capable of providing relief from tinnitus. Results showed that 62.5% of the patients presented a reduction in tinnitus annoyance in the combined fitting group and in the group with amplification alone, 78% showed a reduction. This difference between the groups was not statistically significant. © The Author(s) 2014.
Boerner, Ewa; Podbielska, Halina
For the evaluation of the therapy effects the double-blind clinical trial followed by statistical analysis was performed. After statistical calculations it was stated that laser therapy with IR radiation has a significant influence on the decrease of the level of pain in the examined group of patients suffering from various locomotive diseases. The level of pain of patients undergoing laser therapy was statistically lower than the level of pain of patients undergoing placebo therapy. It means that laser therapy had statistically significant influence on the decrease of the level of pain. The same tests were performed for evaluation of movement range. Although placebo therapy contributes to the increase of the range of movement, the statistically significant influence was stated in case of the therapeutic group treated by laser.
Background Each year, worldwide about 530,000 women die from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Of the deaths 99% are in low and middle income countries. Obstetric haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality, most occurring in the postpartum period. Systemic antifibrinolytic agents are widely used in surgery to prevent clot breakdown (fibrinolysis) in order to reduce surgical blood loss. At present there is little reliable evidence from randomised trials on the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. Methods The Trial aims to determine the effect of early administration of tranexamic acid on mortality, hysterectomy and other morbidities (surgical interventions, blood transfusion, risk of non-fatal vascular events) in women with clinically diagnosed postpartum haemorrhage. The use of health services and safety, especially thromboembolic effect, on breastfed babies will also be assessed. The trial will be a large, pragmatic, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial among 15,000 women with a clinical diagnosis of postpartum haemorrhage. All legally adult women with clinically diagnosed postpartum haemorrhage following vaginal delivery of a baby or caesarean section will potentially be eligible. The fundamental eligibility criterion is the responsible clinician's 'uncertainty' as to whether or not to use an antifibrinolytic agent in a particular woman with postpartum haemorrhage. Treatment will entail a dose of tranexamic acid (1 gram by intravenous injection) or placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%) will be given as soon as possible after randomisation. A second dose may be given if after 30 minutes bleeding continues, or if it stops and restarts within 24 hours after the first dose. The main analyses will be on an 'intention to treat' basis, irrespective of whether the allocated treatment was received or not. Subgroup analyses for the primary outcome will be based on type of delivery; administration or not
Pearlstein, Teri B.; Bellew, Kevin M.; Endicott, Jean; Steiner, Meir
Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine controlled release (CR) (12.5 mg/day or 25 mg/day) versus placebo in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Method: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted over 3 menstrual cycles in women aged 18–45 years with confirmed DSM-IV PMDD in 47 outpatient centers across the United States and Canada from November 1999 to January 2002. The primary efficacy measure was the visual analog scale (VAS)-Mood, which is the mean of 4 core symptoms: irritability, tension, depressed mood, and affective lability. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in favor of paroxetine CR 25 mg versus placebo on the VAS-Mood (adjusted mean difference = −12.58 mm, 95% CI = −18.40 to −6.76; p < .001) and for paroxetine CR 12.5 mg versus placebo (adjusted mean difference = −7.51 mm, 95% CI = −13.40 to −1.62; p = .013). Paroxetine CR was generally well tolerated. Conclusion: Paroxetine CR doses of 12.5 mg/day and 25 mg/day are effective in treating PMDD and are well tolerated. PMID:15841196
Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara
Background/Objectives Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of 2 vs. 3 treatments/week. Method Unmedicated 6-12 year-olds with DSM-IV ADHD were randomized to active NF vs. sham NF and to 2X vs. 3X/week treatment frequency. Frequency switch was allowed after treatment 24. Results In two school years 39 participants were recruited; 34 (87%) completed all 40 treatments. Child/parent guesses about assigned treatment were no better than chance. At treatment 24, 38% chose 2X/wk; 62% chose 3X/wk. Both active NF and sham yielded large pre-post improvement on parent ratings, but NF no more than sham. Conclusions Blinding appears to work and sham does not prevent recruitment/retention. Treatment frequency of 3X/wk seems preferred over 2X/wk and was as effective. A large double-blind RCT is feasible and necessary to test specific NF effectiveness. PMID:22617866
Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Ball, Angel L; Vannest, Jennifer; Dietz, Aimee R; Allendorfer, Jane B; Martin, Amber N; Hart, Kimberly; Lindsell, Christopher J
To provide a preliminary estimate of efficacy of constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) when compared to no-intervention in patients with chronic (>1 year) post-stroke aphasia in order to plan an appropriately powered randomized controlled trial (RCT). We conducted a pilot single-blinded RCT. 24 patients were randomized: 14 to CIAT and 10 to no-intervention. CIAT groups received up to 4 hours/day of intervention for 10 consecutive business days (40 hours or therapy). Outcomes were assessed within 1 week of intervention and at 1 and 12 weeks after intervention and included several linguistic measures and a measure of overall subjective communication abilities (mini-Communicative Abilities Log (mini-CAL)). Clinicians treating patients (CIAT group) did not communicate with other team members to maintain blinding and the testing team members were blinded to treatment group assignment. Overall, the results of this pilot RCT support the results of previous observational studies that CIAT may lead to improvements in linguistic abilities. At 12 weeks, the treatment group reported better subjective communication abilities (mini-CAL) than the no-intervention group (p=0.019). Other measures trended towards better performance in the CIAT group. In this pilot RCT intensive language therapy led to an improvement in subjective language abilities. The effects demonstrated allow the design of a definitive trial of CIAT in patients with a variety of post-stroke aphasia types. In addition, our experiences have identified important considerations for designing subsequent trial(s) of CIAT or other interventions for post-stroke aphasia.
Schneider, Franciane; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami
To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27) and experimental (24). There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120) that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402). Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b.
Brochet, Bruno; Deloire, Mathilde S. A.; Perez, Paul; Loock, Timothé; Baschet, Louise; Debouverie, Marc; Pittion, Sophie; Ouallet, Jean-Christophe; Clavelou, Pierre; de Sèze, Jérôme; Collongues, Nicolas; Vermersch, Patrick; Zéphir, Hélène; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Labauge, Pierre; Lebrun, Christine; Cohen, Mikael; Ruet, Aurélie
Background Therapeutic options are limited in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Open-label studies suggested efficacy of monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CPM) without induction for delaying progression but no randomized trial was conducted so far. Objective To compare CPM to methylprednisolone (MP) in SPMS. Methods Randomized, double-blind clinical trial on two parallel groups. Patient with SPMS, with a documented worsening of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score during the last year and an EDSS score between 4·0 and 6·5 were recruited and received one intravenous infusion of treatment (CPM: 750 mg /m2 body surface area—MP: 1g) every four weeks for one year, and every eight weeks for the second year. The primary endpoint was the time to EDSS deterioration, when confirmed sixteen weeks later, analyzed using a Cox model. Results Due to recruitment difficulties, the study was terminated prematurely after 138 patients were included (CPM, n = 72; MP, n = 66). In the CPM group, 33 patients stopped treatment prematurely, mainly due to tolerability, compared with 22 in the MP group. Primary endpoint: the hazard ratio for EDSS deterioration in the CPM in comparison with the MP group was 0.61 [95% CI: 0·31–1·22](p = 0·16). According to the secondary multistate model analysis, patients in the CPM group were 2.2 times more likely ([1·14–4.29]; p = 0.02) to discontinue treatment than those in the MP group and 2.7 times less likely (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.17–0.84; p = 0.02) to experience disability progression when they did not stop treatment prematurely. Safety profile was as expected. Conclusion Although the primary end-point was negative, secondary analysis suggested that CPM decreases the risk of progression in SPMS, but its use may be limited by low tolerability. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00241254 PMID:28045953
Jarrett, R B; Schaffer, M; McIntire, D; Witt-Browder, A; Kraft, D; Risser, R C
Patients with atypical depression are more likely to respond to monoamine oxidase inhibitors than to tricyclic antidepressants. They are frequently offered psychotherapy in the absence of controlled tests. There are no prospective, randomized, controlled trials, to our knowledge, of psychotherapy for atypical depression or of cognitive therapy compared with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Since there is only 1 placebo-controlled trial of cognitive therapy, this trial fills a gap in the literature on psychotherapy for depression. Outpatients with DSM-III-R major depressive disorder and atypical features (N = 108) were treated in a 10-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing acute-phase cognitive therapy or clinical management plus either phenelzine sulfate or placebo. Atypical features were defined as reactive mood plus at least 2 additional symptoms: hypersomnia, hyperphagia, leaden paralysis, or lifetime sensitivity to rejection. With the use of an intention-to-treat strategy, the response rates (21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score, < or =9) were significantly greater after cognitive therapy (58%) and phenelzine (58%) than after pill placebo (28%). Phenelzine and cognitive therapy also reduced symptoms significantly more than placebo according to contrasts after a repeated-measures analysis of covariance and random regression with the use of the blind evaluator's final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score. The scores between cognitive therapy and phenelzine did not differ significantly. Supplemental analyses of other symptom severity measures confirm the finding. Cognitive therapy may offer an effective alternative to standard acute-phase treatment with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor for outpatients with major depressive disorder and atypical features.
Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945
Lima, XT; Alora-Palli, Maria Beatrice; Beck, Susan
Background: Ingestion of multiple antioxidants may result in synergistic increases in skin protection. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, controlled study, the authors evaluated the effect of an antioxidant combination product in women with mild-to-moderate photoaging over 20 weeks. Changes on Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity levels and Minimal Erythema Dose were measured throughout the study. Results: Both Minimal Erythema Dose and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity levels increased in women receiving the antioxidant combination product, with the difference from baseline being statistically significant as early as Week 4. Similar findings were observed in women who received the control product, which had modest antioxidant activity. The comparisons between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Oral ingestion of a combination of antioxidants can lead to improvement on objective measurements, such as Minimal Erythema Dose and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity levels, when compared to baseline values. PMID:22708005
Dauphinais, Deborah; Knable, Michael; Rosenthal, Joshua; Polanski, Mark; Rosenthal, Norman
Objective This is the first multicenter, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide for the treatment of bipolar mania or mixed state. Experimental design One hundred four patients with Bipolar Disorder, Type I, II or NOS, in a manic, hypomanic or mixed state of illness were randomized to either adjunctive zonisamide or placebo. The study consisted of three phases: a 7 to 30 day screening and stabilization phase, 6 weeks of blinded treatment and a 1 to 3 week discontinuation phase. The primary outcome variable for manic and hypomanic patients was the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) both the YMRS and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) served as primary outcome variables for patients in mixed states. Secondary outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) and an a priori analysis of response and remission. Metabolic parameters including weight, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also analyzed. Side effects were measured using the SAFTEE. Principal observations There were no statistically significant differences for any of the primary or secondary outcome measures between zonisamide and placebo-treated patients. Conclusions In contrast to previous studies that suggested efficacy of adjunctive zonisamide in bipolar mania or mixed state, these results were not confirmed in this double blind controlled study. PMID:22506436
Background Incisional hernia is the most frequently seen long term complication after laparotomy causing much morbidity and even mortality. The overall incidence remains 11-20%, despite studies attempting to optimize closing techniques. Two patient groups, patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and obese patients, have a risk for incisional hernia after laparotomy of more than 30%. These patients might benefit from mesh augmented midline closure as a means to reduce incisional hernia incidence. Methods/design The PRImary Mesh Closure of Abdominal Midline Wound (PRIMA) trial is a double-blinded international multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing running slowly absorbable suture closure with the same closure augmented with a sublay or onlay mesh. Primary endpoint will be incisional hernia incidence 2 years postoperatively. Secondary outcomes will be postoperative complications, pain, quality of life and cost effectiveness. A total of 460 patients will be included in three arms of the study and randomized between running suture closure, onlay mesh closure or sublay mesh closure. Follow-up will be at 1, 3, 12 and 24 months with ultrasound imaging performed at 6 and 24 months to objectify the presence of incisional hernia. Patients, investigators and radiologists will be blinded throughout the whole follow up. Disccusion The use of prosthetic mesh has proven effective and safe in incisional hernia surgery however its use in a prophylactic manner has yet to be properly investigated. The PRIMA trial will provide level 1b evidence whether mesh augmented midline abdominal closure reduces incisional hernia incidence in high risk groups. Trial registration Clinical trial.gov NCT00761475. PMID:24499111
Butchart, Joseph; Brook, Laura; Hopkins, Vivienne; Teeling, Jessica; Püntener, Ursula; Culliford, David; Sharples, Richard; Sharif, Saif; McFarlane, Brady; Raybould, Rachel; Thomas, Rhodri; Passmore, Peter; Perry, V Hugh; Holmes, Clive
To determine whether the tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor etanercept is well tolerated and obtain preliminary data on its safety in Alzheimer disease dementia. In a double-blind study, patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease dementia were randomized (1:1) to subcutaneous etanercept (50 mg) once weekly or identical placebo over a 24-week period. Tolerability and safety of this medication was recorded including secondary outcomes of cognition, global function, behavior, and systemic cytokine levels at baseline, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and following a 4-week washout period. This trial is registered with EudraCT (2009-013400-31) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01068353). Forty-one participants (mean age 72.4 years; 61% men) were randomized to etanercept (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21). Etanercept was well tolerated; 90% of participants (18/20) completed the study compared with 71% (15/21) in the placebo group. Although infections were more common in the etanercept group, there were no serious adverse events or new safety concerns. While there were some interesting trends that favored etanercept, there were no statistically significant changes in cognition, behavior, or global function. This study showed that subcutaneous etanercept (50 mg/wk) was well tolerated in this small group of patients with Alzheimer disease dementia, but a larger more heterogeneous group needs to be tested before recommending its use for broader groups of patients. This study shows Class I evidence that weekly subcutaneous etanercept is well tolerated in Alzheimer disease dementia. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Roohi-Azizi, Mahtab; Arabzadeh, Somaye; Amidfar, Meysam; Salimi, Samrand; Zarindast, Mohammad Reza; Talaei, Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
Residual symptoms of major depressive disorder are a source of long-term morbidity. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate this morbidity and enhance patient quality of life. Citicoline has been used for vascular accidents and has been effective in cognitive rehabilitation. It has been used successfully to reduce craving in patients with substance abuse disorder and for mood management of bipolar disorder. Here, we test citicoline effectiveness as an adjuvant therapy in major depression. A double-blind randomized trial was designed on 50 patients with major depressive disorder who were under treatment with citalopram. Patients were allocated to 2 groups and received citicoline (100 mg twice a day) or placebo as an adjuvant treatment for 6 weeks. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Significantly greater improvement was observed in the HDRS scores of the citicoline group compared with the placebo group from baseline to weeks 2, 4, and 6 (Ps = 0.030, 0.032, and 0.021, respectively). Repeated-measures general linear model demonstrated a significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HDRS score (F2.10,101.22 = 3.12, P = 0.04). Remission rate was significantly higher in the citicoline group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.045). Citicoline was an effective adjuvant to citalopram in the therapy of major depressive disorder.
Das, Anupam; Sil, Amrita; Das, Nilay Kanti; Roy, Kunal; Das, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata
Background: Pityriasis rosea (PR) is an acute inflammatory dermatosis. The association of human herpes virus 6 and 7 suggests the utility of use of antiviral agents in this disease. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acyclovir in the treatment of PR. Methods: An observer-blind, randomized (1:1), parallel group, add-on trial was conducted on 24 adult patients with PR. Subjects of both Group A and B received the standard of care in the form of cetirizine 10 mg OD and calamine. Group A in addition received acyclovir 400 mg tablets thrice daily for 7 days. Both groups were followed up for four consecutive weeks for assessment of effectiveness and adverse events. Results: Group A complained of significantly fewer new lesions than Group B (P = 0.046). A complete response was obtained in all patients of Group A and 83% patients of Group B at the end of the follow up period. There was significant reduction in both lesional score and pruritus at second week follow-up in Group A and third week follow-up in Group B (P < 0.05). Minor adverse effects were observed in both treatment arms. Conclusion: Acyclovir offered rapid resolution of clinical severity of PR from second week onwards without significantly increased adverse events as compared to supportive therapy alone. PMID:26009712
Das, Anupam; Sil, Amrita; Das, Nilay Kanti; Roy, Kunal; Das, Amal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata
Pityriasis rosea (PR) is an acute inflammatory dermatosis. The association of human herpes virus 6 and 7 suggests the utility of use of antiviral agents in this disease. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acyclovir in the treatment of PR. An observer-blind, randomized (1:1), parallel group, add-on trial was conducted on 24 adult patients with PR. Subjects of both Group A and B received the standard of care in the form of cetirizine 10 mg OD and calamine. Group A in addition received acyclovir 400 mg tablets thrice daily for 7 days. Both groups were followed up for four consecutive weeks for assessment of effectiveness and adverse events. Group A complained of significantly fewer new lesions than Group B (P = 0.046). A complete response was obtained in all patients of Group A and 83% patients of Group B at the end of the follow up period. There was significant reduction in both lesional score and pruritus at second week follow-up in Group A and third week follow-up in Group B (P < 0.05). Minor adverse effects were observed in both treatment arms. Acyclovir offered rapid resolution of clinical severity of PR from second week onwards without significantly increased adverse events as compared to supportive therapy alone.
McNulty, C A; Gearty, J C; Crump, B; Davis, M; Donovan, I A; Melikian, V; Lister, D M; Wise, R
An investigator blind trial was performed comparing bismuth salicylate, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and placebo in the treatment of Campylobacter pyloridis associated gastritis in patients without peptic ulceration. Fifty patients fulfilled the study criteria. There was a strong correlation between the presence of C pyloridis and histologically confirmed gastritis. Clearance of organisms led to improvement of the gastritis. C pyloridis was cleared from 15 patients; of these, 13 had gastritis initially, which resolved in 12. Conversely, gastritis resolved in only four of 32 patients not cleared of organisms (p less than 0.0001). There was significantly greater improvement in endoscopic appearances in the patients cleared of C pyloridis compared with those whose infection persisted (p less than 0.001). In the three treatment groups organisms were cleared from 14 of 18 patients receiving the locally active bismuth salicylate, only one of 15 patients receiving erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and none of 17 patients taking placebo. These findings suggest that the ideal antimicrobial for the successful eradication of C pyloridis associated gastritis should be locally active, stable at low pH, and should penetrate gastric mucus. The resolution of gastritis and improvement in endoscopic appearances associated with clearance of C pyloridis support the view that these organisms may play a part in this condition. Images FIG 2 PMID:3092967
Kron, Frederick W; Fetters, Michael D; Scerbo, Mark W; White, Casey B; Lypson, Monica L; Padilla, Miguel A; Gliva-McConvey, Gayle A; Belfore, Lee A; West, Temple; Wallace, Amelia M; Guetterman, Timothy C; Schleicher, Lauren S; Kennedy, Rebecca A; Mangrulkar, Rajesh S; Cleary, James F; Marsella, Stacy C; Becker, Daniel M
To assess advanced communication skills among second-year medical students exposed either to a computer simulation (MPathic-VR) featuring virtual humans, or to a multimedia computer-based learning module, and to understand each group's experiences and learning preferences. A single-blinded, mixed methods, randomized, multisite trial compared MPathic-VR (N=210) to computer-based learning (N=211). Primary outcomes: communication scores during repeat interactions with MPathic-VR's intercultural and interprofessional communication scenarios and scores on a subsequent advanced communication skills objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes. student attitude surveys and qualitative assessments of their experiences with MPathic-VR or computer-based learning. MPathic-VR-trained students improved their intercultural and interprofessional communication performance between their first and second interactions with each scenario. They also achieved significantly higher composite scores on the OSCE than computer-based learning-trained students. Attitudes and experiences were more positive among students trained with MPathic-VR, who valued its providing immediate feedback, teaching nonverbal communication skills, and preparing them for emotion-charged patient encounters. MPathic-VR was effective in training advanced communication skills and in enabling knowledge transfer into a more realistic clinical situation. MPathic-VR's virtual human simulation offers an effective and engaging means of advanced communication training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Palsson, Olafur S; Ringel, Yehuda; Whitehead, William E
Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbal medicines for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but no data exists about its effectiveness. Double blind randomized controlled trial. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Forty-five IBS patients were randomly assigned to three groups: placebo, 1g of ginger, and 2g of ginger daily for 28 days. The IBS severity scale (IBS-SS) was administered, as well as adequate relief of symptoms scale. A responder was defined as having at least 25% reduction in IBS-SS post-treatment. There were 57.1% responders to placebo, 46.7% to 1g and 33.3% to 2g of ginger. Adequate relief was reported by 53.3% on placebo and 53.3% in both ginger groups combined. Side effects were mild and reported by 35.7% in the placebo and 16.7% in the ginger groups. This double blind randomized controlled pilot study suggests ginger is well tolerated but did not perform better than placebo. Larger trials are needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young, Daniel K W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Ng, Petrus Y N
Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59%) of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48) to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18), which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05), while the control group's participants did not show any significant change. This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants.
Newell, K W; Dueñas Lehmann, A; LeBlanc, D R; Garces Osorio, N
With a view to determining the effectiveness of a method for the control of tetanus neonatorum which would be independent of medical examination or care, a double-blind field trial covering 1618 women was conducted between 1961 and 1966 in a rural area of Colombia with an estimated existing tetanus neonatorum death rate of 11.6 per 100 births. The study group was given 1-3 injections of 1 ml of an aluminium-phosphate-adsorbed tetanus toxoid more than 6 weeks apart, and the control group a similar number of injections of an influenza-virus vaccine.There was no statistically significant difference between those in the two groups given one injection. Those in the control group given 2 or 3 injections had a tetanus neonatorum death rate of 7.8 deaths per 100 births, and the corresponding subjects in the study group had none. This difference is unlikely to have occurred by chance.
Wang, Xue-Qiang; Pi, Yan-Lin; Chen, Pei-Jie; Chen, Bin-Lin; Liang, Lei-Chao; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Juan
Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708.
Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A
One in ten people aged between 55 to 74 years have a significant hearing impairment in their better hearing ear (as defined by audiometric hearing thresholds). However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the challenges faced by older listeners cannot be explained by the audiogram alone. The ability for people with hearing loss to use cognition to support speech perception allows for compensation of the degraded auditory input. This in turn offers promise for new cognitive-based rehabilitative interventions. Working memory is known to be highly associated with language comprehension and recent evidence has shown significant generalization of learning from trained working memory tasks to improvements in sentence-repetition skills of children with severe to profound hearing loss. This evidence offers support for further investigation into the potential benefits of working memory training to improve speech perception abilities in other hearing impaired populations. This is a double-blind randomized active controlled trial aiming to assess whether a program of working memory training results in improvements in untrained measures of cognition, speech perception and self-reported hearing abilities in adult hearing aid users aged (50 to 74 years) with mild-to-moderate hearing loss hearing aid users, compared with an active control group who receive a placebo version of the working memory training program. The present study aims to generate high-quality preliminary evidence for the efficacy of working memory training for adult hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss who are existing hearing aid users. This trial addresses a number of gaps in the published literature assessing training interventions for people with hearing loss, and in the general literature surrounding working memory training, such as the inclusion of an active control group, participant and tester blinding, and increased transparency in reporting. ClinicalTrials
Ballou, Sarah; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Hirsch, William; Nee, Judy; Iturrino, Johanna; Hall, Kathryn T; Kelley, John M; Cheng, Vivian; Kirsch, Irving; Jacobson, Eric; Conboy, Lisa; Lembo, Anthony; Davis, Roger B
Placebo medications, by definition, are composed of inactive ingredients that have no physiological effect on symptoms. Nonetheless, administration of placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and in clinical settings has been demonstrated to have significant impact on many physical and psychological complaints. Until recently, conventional wisdom has suggested that patients must believe that placebo pills actually contain (or, at least, might possibly contain) active medication in order to elicit a response to placebo. However, several recent RCTs, including patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic low back pain, and episodic migraine, have demonstrated that individuals receiving open-label placebo (OLP) can still experience symptomatic improvement and benefit from honestly described placebo treatment. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary trial design (n = 280) that attempts to replicate and expand upon an earlier IBS OLP study. The current study will compare OLP to double-blind placebo (DBP) administration which is made possible by including a nested, double-blind RCT comparing DBP and peppermint oil. The study also examines possible genetic and psychological predictors of OLP and seeks to better understand participants' experiences with OLP and DBP through a series of extensive interviews with a randomly selected subgroup. OLP treatment is a novel strategy for ethically harnessing placebo effects. It has potential to re-frame theories of placebo and to influence how physicians can optimize watch-and-wait strategies for common, subjective symptoms. The current study aims to dramatically expand what we know about OLP by comparing, for the first time, OLP and DBP administration. Adopting a unique, multidisciplinary approach, the study also explores genetic, psychological and experiential dimensions of OLP. The paper ends with an extensive discussion of the "culture" of the trial as well as potential mechanisms of OLP and
Sun, Mei-Yuan; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Cheng, Yung-Yen; Hung, Hung-Chang; Li, Tsai-Chung; Yen, Sch-May; Huang, I-Shin
Chronic neck myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common disorder seen in clinics. There is no gold standard method to treat myofascial pain. We investigated the effects of acupuncture on patients with chronic neck MPS by a single-blind randomized controlled trial. A total of 35 patients were randomly allocated to an acupuncture group (AG) or a sham acupuncture group (SG). Each subject received acupuncture treatment twice per week for three consecutive weeks. The primary outcome measure was quality of life as assessed with Short Form-36, and secondary outcome measures were neck range of motion (ROM), motion-related pain, and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), as determined by a blinded investigator. The clinical assessments were made before treatment (BT) and after six acupuncture treatments (AT), as well as four weeks (F1) and 12 weeks (F2) after the end of the treatment. A total of 34 patients completed the trial. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in the ROM, motion-related pain, and SF-MPQ scores between AG and SG at AT, F1 and F2 (all p > 0.05). However, AG has greater improvement in physical functioning and role emotional of Short Form-36 quality of life at F2. The results indicate that acupuncture may be used to improve the quality of life in patients with chronic neck MPS.
Cademartiri, Filippo; Garot, Jerome; Tendera, Michal; Zamorano, Jose Luis
Low heart rates (HRs) are preferable for coronary CT angiography (CTA). We evaluated the use of an intravenous bolus of ivabradine, a selective sinus node inhibitor, to lower HR before coronary CTA in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. A total of 370 patients scheduled for CTA, with sinus rhythm ≥70 beats/min but ineligible for intravenous beta-blockers, were randomized to an intravenous bolus of 10 mg (HR, 70-79 beats/min) or 15 mg (HR ≥80 beats/min) ivabradine or placebo. Primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving HR ≤65 beats/min at the initiation of coronary CTA (Ta). Baseline HR was 79 ± 8.5 beats/min. At Ta, HR ≤65 beats/min was achieved in 55% of the ivabradine group vs. 23% for placebo (P < .0001) and in 68% vs. 16% 1-hour after bolus administration (P < .0001). Contrast-enhanced coronary CTA was performed in 87% of the ivabradine group vs. 65% for placebo (P < .0001). Mean HR at Ta was 67 ± 10 beats/min for ivabradine vs. 75 ± 10 beats/min for placebo (P < .0001). Procedural convenience was scored better with ivabradine ("good" or "very good" in 79% vs 63% for placebo; P = .0005). The effective radiation dose of contrast-enhanced CTA was 13 ± 7 mSv for ivabradine vs. 16 ± 7 mSv for placebo (P < .05). Ivabradine was well tolerated. An intravenous bolus of ivabradine achieves rapid, safe, and sustained HR lowering during coronary CTA, increasing procedural convenience and reducing radiation exposure vs placebo. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peura, David A; Traxler, Barry; Kocun, Christopher; Lind, Tore
To determine the efficacy of a 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg for the treatment of frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications without consulting a health care provider. Adults with frequent heartburn ≥ 2 days per week in the past 4 weeks were randomly assigned to 14-day double-blind treatment with esomeprazole 20 mg once daily or placebo in 2 identical multicenter studies (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01370525, NCT01370538). The primary efficacy outcome was percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days across 14 days. Secondary efficacy outcomes included heartburn resolution, defined as heartburn ≤ 2 days over 14 days, and percentages of subjects reporting ≤ 1 day with heartburn in the first and final weeks of treatment. Subjects recorded data in daily self-assessment diaries. The percentage of heartburn-free 24-hour days over 14 days was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in subjects receiving esomeprazole 20 mg compared with placebo in study 1 (N = 331; 46.13% vs. 33.07%, respectively) and study 2 (N = 320; 48.00% vs 32.75%, respectively). Significantly more subjects treated with esomeprazole 20 mg had heartburn resolution over 14 days and in the first and final weeks compared with placebo. Within the first 4 days, the proportion of subjects with heartburn-free days was significantly greater with esomeprazole 20 mg versus placebo. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with a safety pattern consistent with the known profile for esomeprazole. A 14-day regimen of esomeprazole 20 mg once daily was effective for treating frequent heartburn in subjects who are likely to self-treat with over-the-counter medications.
Boxer, Adam L.; Lang, Anthony E.; Grossman, Murray; Knopman, David S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Schneider, Lon S.; Doody, Rachelle S.; Lees, Andrew; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Williams, David R.; Corvol, Jean-Cristophe; Ludolph, Albert; Burn, David; Lorenzl, Stefan; Litvan, Irene; Roberson, Erik D.; Höglinger, Günter U.; Koestler, Mary; Jack, Clifford R.; Van Deerlin, Viviana; Randolph, Christopher; Lobach, Iryna V.; Heuer, Hilary W.; Gozes, Illana; Parker, Lesley; Whitaker, Steve; Hirman, Joe; Stewart, Alistair J.; Gold, Michael; Morimoto, Bruce H.
Summary Background Davunetide (AL-108, NAP) is an eightamino acid peptide that promotes microtubule stability and decreases tau phosphorylation in pre-clinical studies. Since PSP is tightly linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be an effective treatment for PSP.The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of davunetide in PSP. Methods A phase 2/3 double-blind, parallel group, clinical trial of davunetide 30 mg or placebo (randomized 1:1) administered intranasally twice daily for 52 weeks was conducted at 48centers. Participants met modifiedNNIPPS criteria for possible or probable PSP. Co-primary endpointswere the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England ADL(SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. Data from all individuals who received at least one dose of medication and had a post-baseline efficacy assessment were compared using a rank-based method.Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and the change in regional brain volumeon MRI. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110720. Findings 360 participants were screened, 313 were randomized and 243 (77.6%) completed the study. There were no group differences in PSPRS (mean difference: 0.49 [95% CI: −1.5, 2.5], p = 0.72) or SEADL (1% [−2, 4%], p = 0.76) change from baseline (CFB) and mean 52 week CFB PSPRS scores were similar between the davunetide (11.3 [9.8,12.8]) and placebo groups (10.9 [9.1, 13.0]). There wereno differences in any of the secondary or exploratory endpoints. There were 11deaths in the davunetide group and tenin the placebo group. There were more nasal adverse events in the davunetide group. Interpretation Davunetide is well tolerated but is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of disease modifying therapy are feasible in PSP and should be pursued with other promising tau-directed therapies. Funding Allon Therapeutics PMID:24873720
Roth, Thomas; Nir, Tali; Zisapel, Nava
Introduction Melatonin, secreted by the pineal gland during the night phase, is a regulator of the biological clock and sleep tendency. Totally blind subjects frequently report severe, periodic sleep problems, with 50%–75% of cases displaying non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (N24HSWD) due to inability to synchronize with the environmental day–night cycle. Melatonin immediate-release preparations are reportedly effective in N24HSWD. Here, we studied the efficacy and safety of prolonged-release melatonin (PRM), a registered drug for insomnia, for sleep disorders in totally blind subjects living in normal social environments. The primary endpoint was demonstration of clinically meaningful effects on sleep duration (upper confidence interval [CI] limit >20 minutes whether significant or not) to allow early decision-making on further drug development in this indication. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registry – NCT00972075. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-principle study, 13 totally blind subjects had 2 weeks’ placebo run-in, 6 weeks’ randomized (1:1) PRM (Circadin®) or placebo nightly, and 2 weeks’ placebo run-out. Outcome measures included daily voice recorded sleep diary, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5), and safety. Results Mean nightly sleep duration improved by 43 minutes in the PRM and 16 minutes in the placebo group (mean difference: 27 minutes, 95% CI: −14.4 to 69 minutes; P=0.18; effect size: 0.82) meeting the primary endpoint. Mean sleep latency decreased by 29 minutes with PRM over placebo (P=0.13; effect size: 0.92) and nap duration decreased in the PRM but not placebo group. The variability in sleep onset/offset and latency tended to decrease during PRM but not placebo treatment. The potentially beneficial effects of PRM persisted during the 2 weeks of discontinuation period, consistent with clock stabilizing effects. PRM was well-tolerated, adverse
Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif
The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14–65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood. PMID:26870678
Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif
The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14-65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood.
Whitley, Julie Anne; Rich, Bonnie L
To explore the hypothesis that nontouch therapy such as therapeutic touch (TT) reduces stress to a clinically important degree and is safe to use in preterm infants. A pilot randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Two groups of 10 infants were enrolled and randomly assigned to treatment or nontreatment groups. Gestational age was less than 29 weeks. Demographic descriptions of the 2 groups were statistically similar. The observer and staff were blinded to assignment; the TT practitioner was blinded to observed measurements. Each infant received either TT or no therapeutic touch (NTT) for 5 minutes on 3 consecutive days at the same time of day, behind a curtain. Heart period variability (HPV) was measured 5 minutes before, during, and after the treatment phase. Examination of the parameters of oxygen saturation and episodes of apnea demonstrated no increase in adverse events in TT group compared with NTT group. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance on HPV revealed differences in the interaction of group assignment with low-frequency, high-frequency, and low-to-high- frequency ratio interaction (F2,143 = 8.076, P = .000) and for group, day, and low-frequency, high-frequency, and low-to-high-frequency ratio (F2,288 = 3.146, P = .015), and in the posttreatment time period (F1,16 = 6.259, P = .024), reflective of greater parasympathetic activity in TT group. In this pilot trial, HPV showed an increase for the TT group compared with the NTT group. The study reveals no adverse effects of TT in preterm infants.
Steinemann, Daniel C; Raptis, Dimitri A; Lurje, Georg; Oberkofler, Christian E; Wyss, Roland; Zehnder, Adrian; Lesurtel, Mickael; Vonlanthen, René; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Breitenstein, Stefan
Emerging attempts have been made to reduce operative trauma and improve cosmetic results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a trend towards minimizing the number of incisions such as natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC). Many retrospective case series propose excellent cosmesis and reduced pain in SPLC. As the latter has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial, patient's satisfaction on cosmesis is still controversially debated. The SPOCC trial is a prospective, multi-center, double blinded, randomized controlled study comparing SPLC with 4-port conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (4PLC) in elective surgery. The hypothesis and primary objective is that patients undergoing SPLC will have a better outcome in cosmesis and body image 12 weeks after surgery. This primary endpoint is assessed using a validated 8-item multiple choice type questionnaire on cosmesis and body image. The secondary endpoint has three entities: the quality of life 12 weeks after surgery assessed by the validated Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, postoperative pain assessed by a visual analogue scale and the use of analgesics. Operative time, surgeon's experience with SPLC and 4PLC, use of additional ports, conversion to 4PLC or open cholecystectomy, length of stay, costs, time of work as well as intra- and postoperative complications are further aspects of the secondary endpoint. Patients are randomly assigned either to SPLC or to 4PLC. Patients as well as treating physicians, nurses and assessors are blinded until the 7th postoperative day. Sample size calculation performed by estimating a difference of cosmesis of 20% (alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.90, drop out rate of 10%) resulted in a number of 55 randomized patients per arm. The SPOCC-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study to assess cosmesis and body image after SPLC. (clinicaltrial.gov): NCT 01278472.
Nader, T A; Smith, D E; Dillbeck, M C; Schanbacher, V; Dillbeck, S L; Gallois, P; Beall-Rougerie, S; Schneider, R H; Nidich, S I; Kaplan, G P; Belok, S
To explore ancient Vedic medical techniques, one hundred and seventy-six subjects with arthritis participated in a controlled study through the non-pharmacologic approach known as the Maharishi Vedic Vibration Technology (MVVT). Using a double-blinded and randomized experimental design, the findings showed significant reductions of pain and stiffness, and improvement in range of motion in the study sample. One hundred percent relief of symptoms was the most commonly reported category of improvement due to treatment. For the group as a whole, differences in mean response of treatment and control conditions with respect to relief of pain, limitation of motion, and reduction in stiffness were highly significant: t values ranged from a low of 5.609 in stiffness to a high of 20.950 in pain, p = 0.000009 to <10-49 respectively. Analysis by sub-categories of peripheral arthritis, painful conditions of the spine, and rheumatoid arthritis likewise produced significant results. Mechanisms of action were proposed, drawing on Maharishi Vedic Science, developments in quantum field theory, and specifically the theories of chaos and self-organizing systems as they relate to physiological functioning. The instantaneous relief of pain and improvement in function in such a high proportion of subjects with chronic arthritis is unparalleled in modern medical science
Colford, John M; Rees, Judy R; Wade, Timothy J; Khalakdina, Asheena; Hilton, Joan F; Ergas, Isaac J; Burns, Susan; Benker, Anne; Ma, Catherine; Bowen, Cliff; Mills, Daniel C; Vugia, Duc J; Juranek, Dennis D; Levy, Deborah A
We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded home drinking water intervention trial to determine if a large study could be undertaken while successfully blinding participants. Households were randomized 50:50 to use externally identical active or sham treatment devices. We measured the effectiveness of blinding of participants by using a published blinding index in which values >0.5 indicate successful blinding. The principal health outcome measured was "highly credible gastrointestinal illness" (HCGI). Participants (n=236) from 77 households were successfully blinded to their treatment assignment. At the end of the study, the blinding index was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.78). There were 103 episodes of HCGI during 10,790 person-days at risk in the sham group and 82 episodes during 11,380 person-days at risk in the active treatment group. The incidence rate ratio of disease (adjusted for the clustered sampling) was 1.32 (95% CI 0.75, 2.33) and the attributable risk was 0.24 (95% CI -0.33, 0.57). These data confirm that participants can be successfully blinded to treatment group assignment during a randomized trial of an in-home drinking water intervention.
Rees, Judy R.; Wade, Timothy J.; Khalakdina, Asheena; Hilton, Joan F.; Ergas, Isaac J.; Burns, Susan; Benker, Anne; Ma, Catherine; Bowen, Cliff; Mills, Daniel C.; Vugia, Duc J.; Juranek, Dennis D.; Levy, Deborah A.
We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded home drinking water intervention trial to determine if a large study could be undertaken while successfully blinding participants. Households were randomized 50:50 to use externally identical active or sham treatment devices. We measured the effectiveness of blinding of participants by using a published blinding index in which values >0.5 indicate successful blinding. The principal health outcome measured was “highly credible gastrointestinal illness” (HCGI). Participants (n=236) from 77 households were successfully blinded to their treatment assignment. At the end of the study, the blinding index was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.78). There were 103 episodes of HCGI during 10,790 person-days at risk in the sham group and 82 episodes during 11,380 person-days at risk in the active treatment group. The incidence rate ratio of disease (adjusted for the clustered sampling) was 1.32 (95% CI 0.75, 2.33) and the attributable risk was 0.24 (95% CI -0.33, 0.57). These data confirm that participants can be successfully blinded to treatment group assignment during a randomized trial of an in-home drinking water intervention. PMID:11749745
Dingemann, J; Plewig, B; Baumann, I; Plinkert, P K; Sertel, S
Postoperative swallowing pain is one of the most unpleasant after-effects of tonsillectomy. During recent years, the demand for alternatives to drug-based pain therapy has continued to grow, although the topic has received little research attention until now. A total of 46 patients were randomized into verum acupuncture, control acupuncture, and drug-based treatment groups. All patients received nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs (NSAIDs). One hour after drug intake, the verum group also received acupuncture according to classical acupuncture rules (S34, S44 and PC5). The control group had acupuncture needles placed at nonspecific acupuncture points in the midaxillary line. Acupuncture was performed by a blinded acupuncturist, who had learnt exclusively these techniques in the run up to the study. Patients were asked to evaluate their pain before, and at intervals of 20 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h after drug intake/acupuncture treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS). The analgesic effect of acupuncture was significant up to 3 hours in the verum group (p < 0.05). The analgesic effect in the control acupuncture group was significant for up to 1 h after acupuncture (p < 0.05). With reference to the time point before acupuncture, the differences between both acupuncture groups and the drug group were significant (p < 0.01) over the whole time. Acupuncture is an effective complement to NSAIDs in the treatment of posttonsillectomy pain. Particularly patients with allergies, drug intolerance, or reduced response to the commonly administered drugs may benefit from acupuncture.
Dingemann, J; Plewig, B; Baumann, I; Plinkert, P K; Sertel, S
Postoperative swallowing pain is one of the most unpleasant after-effects of tonsillectomy. During recent years, the demand for alternatives to drug-based pain therapy has continued to grow, although the topic has received little research attention until now. A total of 46 patients were randomized into verum acupuncture, control acupuncture, and drug-based treatment groups. All patients received nonsteroidal antirheumatic drugs (NSAIDs). One hour after drug intake, the verum group also received acupuncture according to classical acupuncture rules (S34, S44 and PC5). The control group had acupuncture needles placed at nonspecific acupuncture points in the midaxillary line. Acupuncture was performed by a blinded acupuncturist, who had learnt exclusively these techniques in the run up to the study. Patients were asked to evaluate their pain before, and at intervals of 20 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h after drug intake/acupuncture treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS). The analgesic effect of acupuncture was significant up to 3 hours in the verum group (p < 0.05). The analgesic effect in the control acupuncture group was significant for up to 1 h after acupuncture (p < 0.05). With reference to the time point before acupuncture, the differences between both acupuncture groups and the drug group were significant (p < 0.01) over the whole time. Acupuncture is an effective complement to NSAIDs in the treatment of posttonsillectomy pain. Particularly patients with allergies, drug intolerance, or reduced response to the commonly administered drugs may benefit from acupuncture.
Weissenbacher, S; Merkl, J; Hildebrandt, B; Wollenberg, A; Braeutigam, M; Ring, J; Hofmann, H
Rosacea remains difficult to treat, despite many therapeutic options. To investigate the effect of pimecrolimus cream 1% (Elidel; Novartis Pharma, Nuremberg, Germany) in the treatment of papulopustular rosacea. Forty patients with rosacea (25 men and 15 women, mean age 58 years) were enrolled in a randomized, vehicle-controlled, double-blind study. For 4-8 weeks, patients applied pimecrolimus cream or vehicle twice daily to the involved areas on the face. Rosacea severity score, subjective severity assessment and quality of life assessment were obtained, along with photographic documentation. Both treatment groups of 20 patients showed an improvement after 4 weeks. The differences were not significant (P > 0 x 05) with regard to mean absolute values, mean percentage changes from baseline, or mean absolute values as differences from baseline for the total score or scores of the different clinical signs (erythema, papulation, scaling and pustules). In the subjective severity score and the quality of life assessment, there was also no significant difference between pimecrolimus and the vehicle (P > 0 x 05). Treatment of rosacea for 4-8 weeks with the topical calcineurin inhibitor pimecrolimus cream 1% was not more efficacious than treatment with the vehicle cream.
Meaume, S; Dompmartin, A; Lok, C; Lazareth, I; Sigal, M; Truchetet, F; Sauvadet, A; Bohbot, S
We recently showed the superiority of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) modulating dressing (foam impregnated with NOSF, nano-oligosaccharide factor) compared with a lipidocolloid matrix (TLC) control dressing in median wound area reduction (WAR). Here we report the results from the same study assessing the performance and safety of TLC-NOSF in the local management of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) or mixed leg ulcers and determining its impact on the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A superiority randomised double-blind controlled trial was conducted on patients presenting with a non-infected leg ulcer (VLUs or mixed leg ulcers) of predominantly venous origin (ABPI >0.8), with a surface area ranging from 5 to 50cm(2) and a duration of 6 to 36 months. Patients were randomly allocated to either the TLC-NOSF matrix foam (UrgoStart) dressing group or to the neutral TLC foam dressing group (UrgoTul Absorb). All received appropriate compression therapy and the wounds were assessed blindly (clinical examination, wound area tracing and photographic record) every 2 weeks for a period of 8 weeks, or until complete closure. A secondary endpoint, described here, was the patient's HRQoL, documented by the patient, through the EuroQol 5D tool (EQ-5D) questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS). In total, 187 patients were randomised to either the TLC-NOSF group (n=94) or the control dressing group (n=93). The two groups were well balanced at baseline with regard to wound and patient characteristics. In the HRQoL questionnaire (EQ-5D), the pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression dimensions were significantly improved in the TLC-NOSF group versus the control one (pain/discomfort: 1.53±0.53 versus 1.74±0.65; p=0.022, and anxiety/depression: 1.35±0.53 versus 1.54±0.60, p=0.037). The VAS score was better in the test group compared with the control group (72.1±17.5 versus 67.3±18.7, respectively), without reaching significance (p=0.072). Acceptability and tolerance
Issaka-Tinorgah, A; Magnussen, P; Bloch, P; Yakubu, A
The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 micrograms/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent guinea-worms. There was no significant difference in the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded that ivermectin has no effect on prepatent guinea-worms nor does it disturb their migration pattern. No adverse reaction to treatment was seen. It appears that ivermectin can be used safely as mass chemotherapy against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where guinea-worm is also endemic.
Grenyer, Brin F S; Crowe, Trevor; Meyer, Barbara; Owen, Alice J; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth M; Caputi, Peter; Howe, Peter R C
Dietary deficiencies in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from fish are associated with depression and some fish oils may have therapeutic benefits. We aimed to determine whether taking tuna fish oil confers any additional benefit to conventional outpatient treatment for major depression. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled four-month trial comparing tuna fish oil versus placebo was conducted on 83 outpatients with major depression. Despite large reductions in depression there were no significant differences at any assessment time point between patients receiving fish oil compared to placebo. Red blood cell incorporation of fatty acids indicated good compliance with oil supplementation, although this sample was not initially deficient in omega-3s. This particular dose and type of fish oil conferred no additional benefit to conventional treatment of depression in this sample. Future studies could target participants with pre-existing omega-3 deficiency and appraise alternate enriched types and higher doses of omega-3 supplementation.
Chan, M K; Wong, W T; Cheng, I K
A double-blind controlled trial of norfloxacin versus cotrimoxazole in the treatment of urinary tract infections was conducted. Eighty-eight patients were recruited but data from 80 patients were analysed. Norfloxacin cured 93 per cent of the infections while the cure rate achieved by cotrimoxazole was only 70 per cent (p = 0.03, Fisher's exact test). The difference was attributable to a higher incidence of resistance to cotrimoxazole among the bacterial isolates. Escheria coli was the commonest pathogen and together with klebsiella accounted for 78 per cent of all isolates. Fifteen per cent of E coli and 15 per cent of klebsiella isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole while all were sensitive to norfloxacin. Side effects were minimal and consisted mainly of nausea and non-specific dizziness.
Su, Kuan-Pin; Huang, Shih-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Shen, Winston W
Patients with depression have been extensively reported to be associated with the abnormality of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including significantly low eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in cell tissue contents (red blood cell membrane, plasma, etc.) and dietary intake. However, more evidence is needed to support its relation. In this study, we conducted an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comparing omega-3 PUFAs (6.6 g/day) [corrected] with placebo, on the top of the usual treatment, in 28 patients with major depressive disorder. Patients in the omega-3 PUFA group had a significantly decreased score on the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression than those in the placebo group (P < 0.001). From the preliminary findings in this study, omega-3 PUFAs could improve the short-term course of illness and were well tolerated in patients with major depressive disorder.
Handen, Benjamin L; Melmed, Raun D; Hansen, Robin L; Aman, Michael G; Burnham, David L; Bruss, Jon B; McDougle, Christopher J
Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI symptoms. Endpoint analysis revealed no significant differences across treatment groups on a modified global improvement scale (validated in irritable bowel syndrome studies), number of daily bowel movements, days of constipation, or severity of problem behaviors. IGOH was well-tolerated; there were no serious adverse events. This study demonstrates the importance of conducting rigorous trials in children with autism and casts doubt on one GI mechanism presumed to exert etiological and/or symptomatic effects in this population.
van Beers, Loes W A H; van Oldenrijk, Jakob; Scholtes, Vanessa A B; Geerdink, Carel H; Niers, Bob B A M; Runne, Wouter; Bhandari, Mohit; Poolman, Rudolf W
Introduction Answering the demands of an increasingly young and active patient population, recent developments in total hip arthroplasty (THA) have shifted towards minimising tissue damage. The Collum Femoris Preserving (CFP) stem was developed to preserve the trochanteric region of the femur, which potentially preserves the insertion of the gluteus musculature. This might accelerate early postoperative rehabilitation and improve functional outcome. Currently the functional results of the CFP stem have not been compared with conventional straight stems in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). The primary purpose of this trial is to compare the functional result of CFP stem THA with conventional uncemented straight stem THA, measured by the Dutch Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) at 3-month follow-up. Methods A prospective blinded multicentre RCT will be performed. We aim to recruit 150 patients. The patients will be randomly allocated to a THA with a straight or a curved stem. All patients, research assistants, clinical assessors and investigators will be blinded for the type of prosthesis for 5 years. Clinical assessments and roentgenograms will be taken preoperative, at 6 weeks after surgery, at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years after surgery. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) will be obtained at the same follow-up moments. In addition, the PROMs will also be sent to the patients at 3 and 6 months after surgery. The HOOS at 3-month follow-up will be our primary outcome. Ethics and dissemination This trial will be performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. A local ethics committee has approved this trial. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participating patients. All serious adverse events will be reported to the ethics committee. Results Results will be submitted for publication to an orthopaedics related journal. Trial registration number NTR1560. PMID:27009147
Background Computerized cognitive bias modification for social anxiety disorder has in several well conducted trials shown great promise with as many as 72% no longer fulfilling diagnostic criteria after a 4 week training program. To test if the same program can be transferred from a clinical setting to an internet delivered home based treatment the authors conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Methods After a diagnostic interview 79 participants were randomized to one of two attention training programs using a probe detection task. In the active condition the participant was trained to direct attention away from threat, whereas in the placebo condition the probe appeared with equal frequency in the position of the threatening and neutral faces. Results Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, including all randomized participants. Immediate and 4-month follow-up results revealed a significant time effect on all measured dimensions (social anxiety scales, general anxiety and depression levels, quality of life). However, there were no time x group interactions. The lack of differences in the two groups was also mirrored by the infinitesimal between group effect size both at post test and at 4-month follow-up. Conclusion We conclude that computerized attention bias modification may need to be altered before dissemination for the Internet. Trial registration ISRCTN01715124 PMID:22731889
Ghaleiha, Ali; Asadabadi, Mahtab; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Shahei, Maryam; Tabrizi, Mina; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes significant impairment in socialization and communication. It is also associated with ritualistic and stereotypical behaviour. Recent studies propose both hyper-and hypoglutamatergic ideologies for autism. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of memantine plus risperidone in the treatment of children with autism. Children with autism were randomly allocated to risperidone plus memantine or placebo plus risperidone for a 10-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 3 mg/d and memantine was titrated to 20 mg/d. Children were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wk of starting medication protocol. The primary outcome measure was the irritability subscale of Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C). Difference between the two treatment arms was significant as the group that received memantine had greater reduction in ABC-C subscale scores for irritability, stereotypic behaviour and hyperactivity. Eight side-effects were observed over the trial, out of the 25 side-effects that the checklist included. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side-effects was not significant. The present study suggests that memantine may be a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for autism and it was generally well tolerated. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT1138901151556N10; www.irct.ir).
Seritan, Andreea L; Nguyen, Danh V; Mu, Yi; Tassone, Flora; Bourgeois, James A; Schneider, Andrea; Cogswell, Jennifer B; Cook, Kylee R; Leehey, Maureen A; Grigsby, Jim; Olichney, John M; Adams, Patrick E; Legg, Wendi; Zhang, Lin; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi J
Memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Anecdotal reports have suggested that memantine may improve neurologic and cognitive symptoms of individuals with the neurodegenerative disease fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS); however, its efficacy and safety in this population have not been assessed in a controlled trial. Individuals with FXTAS aged 34-80 years were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year trial between September 2007 and August 2012. Inclusion required definite, probable, or possible FXTAS in clinical stages 1-5 according to previously published criteria. Primary outcome measures were the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS) score and CATSYS intention tremor severity. Ninety-four participants were randomized from 205 screened; of those, 43 and 45 started treatment with memantine (titrated to 10 mg twice daily) and placebo, respectively. Thirty-four participants receiving memantine and 36 receiving placebo completed the 1-year endpoint assessment (n = 70). Intention-to-treat analysis showed no improvement with respect to intention tremor severity (mean [SD] values with memantine vs placebo: 1.05 [0.73] vs 1.89 [2.19], P = .047) or BDS score (16.12 [5.43] vs 15.72 [3.93], P = .727) at follow-up. Post hoc analyses of participants with early FXTAS (stage ≤ 3), those with late FXTAS (stage > 3), and those in different age groups (≤ 65 years and > 65 years) also indicated no significant improvement. More frequent mild adverse events were observed in the placebo group, while more frequent moderate adverse events occurred in the memantine group (P = .007). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of memantine for individuals with FXTAS showed no benefit compared to placebo with respect to the selected outcome measures. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT
Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Bandla, Hari P R; Gozal, David
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in children and is usually treated by adenotonsillectomy. Nonsurgical therapies for OSA consist primarily of antiinflammatory approaches and have gained popularity, but their efficacy remains to be critically examined. To determine the effect of montelukast on pediatric OSA. A prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial of polysomnographically diagnosed OSA in children ages 2-10 years who were treated with either oral montelukast (4 or 5 mg daily) or placebo for 16 weeks. Adherence to the medication was ascertained using automated timed pill dispensers along with weekly telephonic reminders. Ninety-two children diagnosed with OSA were approached, and 64 (69.6%) agreed to participate. Of these, 57 (89.0%) completed the 16-week trial, 28 in the montelukast group and 29 in the placebo group. Age, sex, and percentage of obesity were similar in the two groups, as were initial apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) scores. Overall, intention-to-treat analyses revealed that beneficial effects occurred in 20 children receiving montelukast (71.4%), whereas only 2 (6.9%) of the children receiving placebo showed reductions in AHI score (P < 0.001). Indeed, AHI decreased from 9.2 ± 4.1/hour total sleep time (TST) to 4.2 ± 2.8/hour TST (P < 0.0001) in montelukast-treated children, whereas in children receiving placebo, the AHI did not change (from 8.2 ± 5.0/h TST before to 8.7 ± 4.9/h TST at completion of the trial). When compared with placebo, montelukast for 16 weeks effectively reduced the severity of obstructive sleep apnea in children 2-10 years of age. These results support a therapeutic role for leukotriene modifiers in pediatric OSA provided that long-term trials confirm current findings. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00599534).
Bivard, Andrew; Lillicrap, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Pagram, Heather; Nilsson, Michael; Parsons, Mark; Levi, Christopher R
This study aimed to assess the efficacy of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent in alleviating post-stroke fatigue ≥3 months after stroke. We hypothesized that 200 mg of modafinil daily for 6 weeks would result in reduced symptoms of fatigue compared with placebo. This single-center phase 2 trial used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The key inclusion criterion was a multidimensional fatigue inventory score of ≥60. Patients were randomized to either modafinil or placebo for 6 weeks of therapy, then after a 1 week washout period swapped treatment arms for a second 6 weeks of therapy. The primary outcome was the multidimensional fatigue inventory; secondary outcomes included the Montreal cognitive assessment, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) scale. The multidimensional fatigue inventory is a self-administered questionnaire with a range of 0 to 100. Treatment efficacy was assessed using linear regression by estimating within-person, baseline-adjusted differences in mean outcomes after therapy. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12615000350527). A total of 232 stroke survivors were screened and 36 were randomized. Participants receiving modafinil reported a significant decrease in fatigue (multidimensional fatigue inventory, -7.38; 95% CI, -21.76 to -2.99; P<0.001) and improved quality of life (SSQoL, 11.81; 95% CI, 2.31 to 21.31; P=0.0148) compared with placebo. Montreal cognitive assessment and DASS were not significantly improved with modafinil therapy during the study period (P>0.05). Stroke survivors with nonresolving fatigue reported reduced fatigue and improved quality of life after taking 200 mg daily treatment with modafinil. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=368268. Unique identifier: ACTRN12615000350527. © 2017 The Authors.
Verspyck, Eric; de Vienne, Claire; Muszynski, Charles; Bubenheim, Michael; Chanavaz-Lacheray, Isabella; Dreyfus, Michel; Deruelle, Philippe; Benichou, Jacques
Objective To assess the impact of maintenance nifedipine therapy on pregnancy duration in women with preterm placenta previa bleeding. Methods PPADAL was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between 05/2008 and 05/2012 in five French hospitals. The trial included 109 women, aged ≥ 18 years, with at least one episode of placenta previa bleeding, intact membranes and no other pregnancy complication, at gestational age 24 to 34 weeks and after 48 hours of complete acute tocolysis. Women were randomly allocated to receive either 20 mg of slow-release nifedipine three times daily (n = 54) or placebo (n = 55) until 36 + 6 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome for the trial was length of pregnancy measured in days after enrolment. Main secondary outcomes were rates of recurrent bleeding, cesarean delivery due to hemorrhage, blood transfusion, maternal side effects, gestational age at delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes (perinatal death, chronic lung disease, neonatal sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage > grade 2, perventricular leukomalacia > grade 1, or necrotizing enterocolitis). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results Mean (SD) prolongation of pregnancy was not different between the nifedipine (n = 54) and the placebo (n = 55) group; 42.5 days ± 23.8 versus 44.2 days ± 24.5, p = 0.70. Cesarean due to hemorrhage performed before 37 weeks occurred more frequently in the nifedipine group in comparison with the placebo group (RR, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.72). Adverse perinatal outcomes were comparable between groups; 3.8% for nifedipine versus 5.5% for placebo (relative risk, 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.10–2.61). No maternal mortality or perinatal death occurred. Conclusion Maintenance oral nifedipine neither prolongs duration of pregnancy nor improves maternal or perinatal outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00620724 PMID:28333939
Philip, Pierre; Chaufton, Cyril; Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Coste, Olivier; Léger, Damien; Moore, Nicholas; Sagaspe, Patricia
Study Objective: Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are at high risk for driving accidents, and physicians are concerned by the effect of alerting drugs on driving skills of sleepy patients. No study has up to now investigated the effect of modafinil (a reference drug to treat EDS in patients with hypersomnia) on on-road driving performance of patients suffering from central hypersomnia. The objective is to evaluate in patients with central hypersomnia the effect of a wake-promoting drug on real driving performance and to assess the relationship between objective sleepiness and driving performance. Design and Participants: Randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted among 13 patients with narcolepsy and 14 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive modafinil (400 mg) or placebo for 5 days prior to the driving test. Each condition was separated by at least 3 weeks of washout. Measurements: Mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings, Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle and mean sleep latency in the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test were assessed. Results: Modafinil reduced the mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings and Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle compared to placebo (F(1,25) = 4.88, P < 0.05 and F(1,25) = 3.87, P = 0.06 tendency). Mean sleep latency at the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test significantly correlated with the mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings (r = -0.41, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Modafinil improves driving performance in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test is a suitable clinical tool to assess fitness to drive in this population. Citation: Philip P; Chaufton C; Taillard J; Capelli A; Coste O; Léger D; Moore N; Sagaspe P. Modafinil improves real driving performance in patients with hypersomnia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. SLEEP
Canonica, G W; Tarantini, F; Compalati, E; Penagos, M
The objective of the study is to assess the efficacy of the nonsedating antihistamine, desloratadine, in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CINAHL databases was undertaken from January, 1966 to May, 2006. Double-blind, randomized, controlled studies of desloratadine in the treatment of AR in adult patients were carried out. The measured outcomes included the total symptoms score, the total nasal symptoms score, nasal airflow, and inflammatory markers (nasal eosinophils, nasal interleukin-4). The analysis included the calculation of standardized mean difference (SMD). A total of 57 studies were analyzed, and 13 randomized, double-blind, controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The trials included 3108 subjects who had completed studies involving desloratadine. There was significant heterogeneity among the study results, because of differing study methodologies. Desloratadine was associated with significant reductions in total symptoms scores (SMD -1.63; 95% CI -2.75 to -0.51; P = 0.004) and total nasal symptoms score (SMD -0.66; 95% CI -0.91 to -0.42; P < 0.001), when compared with placebo. Analysis of objective data on nasal blockage demonstrated a significant improvement in nasal airflow with desloratadine, when compared with placebo (SMD 0.32; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.55; P = 0.005). A benefit favoring desloratadine over placebo in terms of nasal eosinophil levels was also noted in the analysis. This meta-analysis confirms the reduction of AR symptoms and improvement in nasal airflow seen in individual studies of desloratadine. Objective improvements in nasal airflow, total symptoms, and total nasal symptoms seen with desloratadine are supported by Ia evidence.
Galgon, Richard E; Strube, Peter; Heier, Jake; Groth, Jeremy; Wang, Sijian; Schroeder, Kristopher M
Propofol injection pain, despite various strategies, remains common and troublesome. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that pretreatment with the combination of intravenous lidocaine and magnesium would have an additive effect on reducing propofol injection pain. After institutional review board (IRB) approval and informed consent, we performed a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to pretreatment with either lidocaine (50 mg), magnesium sulfate (0.25 mg), lidocaine (50 mg) plus magnesium sulfate (0.25 mg), or 0.9 % sodium chloride. Following pretreatment, propofol (50 mg) was administered, and subjects were questioned regarding injection site pain and observed for behavioral signs of pain. Two hundred subjects were enrolled and 158 subjects (39 placebo, 38 lidocaine, 44 magnesium sulfate, and 37 lidocaine plus magnesium sulfate) received their assigned pretreatment intervention. Intergroup baseline characteristics were similar. The proportion of subjects reporting propofol injection pain was highest in those pretreated with magnesium sulfate (57 %), followed by those pretreated with placebo (46 %), lidocaine plus magnesium sulfate (41 %), and then lidocaine (29 %; p = 0.011). When adjusted for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, chronic pain, tobacco use, and selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor use, the pain response scale scores were significantly reduced by lidocaine pretreatment compared to magnesium sulfate and placebo (p = 0.031 and p = 0.0003, respectively). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, the combination of intravenous magnesium sulfate and lidocaine offered no additional benefit for the relief of propofol injection pain compared to intravenous lidocaine alone. An improved, receptor-based understanding of the mechanism of propofol injection pain is still needed.
Amsterdam, Jay D.; Li, Yimei; Soeller, Irene; Rockwell, Kenneth; Mao, Jun James; Shults, Justine
Objective We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and tolerability trial of Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy in patients with mild to moderate Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). We hypothesized that chamomile would be superior to placebo in reducing GAD symptoms with a comparable tolerability profile. Materials & Methods 61 outpatients with mild to moderate GAD were enrolled and 57 were randomized to either double blind chamomile extract (n=28) or placebo (n=29) therapy for 8 weeks. The study was powered to detect a statistically significant and clinically meaningful group difference in change over time in total Hamilton Anxiety Rating (HAM-A) scores. Secondary outcomes included change in the Beck Anxiety Inventory score, Psychological Well Being score, Clinical Global Impression Severity score, and the proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in baseline HAM-A score. Results We observed a significantly greater reduction in mean total HAM-A score during chamomile versus placebo therapy (p=0.047). Although the study was not powered to identify small to moderate differences in secondary outcomes, we observed a positive change in all secondary outcomes in the same direction as the primary outcome measure. One patient in each treatment group discontinued therapy for adverse events. The proportion of patients experiencing 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 adverse events was not significantly different between groups (p=0.417). Conclusion This is the first, controlled clinical trial of chamomile extract for GAD. The results suggest that chamomile may have modest anxiolytic activity in patients with mild to moderate GAD. Future studies are needed to replicate these observations. PMID:19593179
Salinsky, Martin; Storzbach, Daniel; Munoz, Sonia
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can be associated with neurotoxic side effects including cognitive dysfunction, a problem of considerable importance given the usual long-term course of treatment. Pregabalin is a relatively new AED widely used for the treatment of seizures and some types of chronic pain including fibromyalgia. We measured the cognitive effects of 12 weeks of pregabalin in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were randomized in a double-blind parallel study to receive pregabalin or placebo (1:1). Pregabalin was titrated over 8 weeks to 600 mg/d. At baseline, and after 12 weeks of treatment, all subjects underwent cognitive testing. Test-retest changes in all cognitive and subjective measures were Z scored against test-retest regressions previously developed from 90 healthy volunteers. Z scores from the placebo and pregabalin groups were compared using Wilcoxon tests. Thirty subjects completed the study (94%). Three of 6 target cognitive measures (Digit Symbol, Stroop, Controlled Oral Word Association) revealed significant test-retest differences between the pregabalin and placebo groups, all showing negative effects with pregabalin (p < 0.05). These cognitive effects were paralleled by complaints on the Portland Neurotoxicity Scale, a subjective measure of neurotoxicity (p < 0.01). At conventional doses and titration, pregabalin induced mild negative cognitive effects and neurotoxicity complaints in healthy volunteers. These effects are one factor to be considered in the selection and monitoring of chronic AED therapy. Class of Evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that pregabalin 300 mg BID negatively impacts cognition on some tasks in healthy volunteers.
Likar, R; Molnar, M; Pipam, W; Koppert, W; Quantschnigg, B; Disselhoff, B; Sittl, R
The aim of this study was to determine whether 3 days of TENS therapy postoperatively after shoulder operations would result in better pain relief and/or reduced analgesic intake when compared to placebo. The study was carried out randomized, double-blind and placebo controlled. Thirty patients were randomized to two groups. The verum group received TENS SM1AKS 80 Hz 6 mA and the placebo group received TENS SM1AKS 80 Hz 0 mA. The pain was assessed pre-operatively using the Hamburg Pain Adjective List. Premedication and Anaesthesia were standardized. TENS was applied to the patients immediately postoperatively for 8 hours and then on the following days 5 times daily for 45 minutes. The effectiveness was evaluated postoperatively using a visual analogue scale (rest, activity), the Hamburg Pain Adjective List and postoperative analgesic consumption. The visual analogue scale at rest and on activity showed no significant difference between the groups. Postoperative analgesic consumption of morphine hydrochloride in the first 24 hours was at time 8 hours postoperative significantly and at all other time points markedly less in the verum group compared to the placebo group. The sensory secondary scale score of the "Hamburg Pain Adjective List" was significantly lower postoperatively compared to preoperatively in the verum group. We were able to show in this study that TENS applied postoperatively after shoulder surgery clearly reduced analgesic consumption in the first 72 hours. Furthermore there was a significant difference in the pain scores using the "Hamburg Pain Adjective List" in favour of the verum group. TENS applied postoperatively is a effective, simple modality with few side-effects.
MacKenzie, Todd; Comi, Richard; Sluss, Patrick; Keisari, Ronit; Manwar, Simone; Kim, Janice; Larson, Robin; Baron, John A
In short-term studies, caffeine has been shown to increase insulin levels, reduce insulin sensitivity, and increase cortisol levels. However, epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term consumption of beverages containing caffeine such as coffee and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a paucity of randomized studies addressing the metabolic and hormonal effects of consuming caffeine over periods of more than 1 day. We evaluated the effect of oral intake of 200 mg of caffeine taken twice a day for 7 days on glucose metabolism, as well as on serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione, and on nighttime salivary melatonin. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 7 days and washouts of 5 days comparing caffeine with placebo capsules was conducted. Participants were 16 healthy adults aged 18 to 22 years with a history of caffeine consumption. Blood samples from each subject were assayed for glucose, insulin, serum cortisol, DHEA, and androstenedione on the eighth day of each period after an overnight fast. Nighttime salivary melatonin was also measured. Insulin levels were significantly higher (by 1.80 microU/mL; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-3.28) after caffeine intake than after placebo. The homeostasis model assessment index of insulin sensitivity was reduced by 35% (95% confidence interval, 7%-62%) by caffeine. There were no differences in glucose, DHEA, androstenedione, and melatonin between treatment periods. This study provides evidence that daily caffeine intake reduces insulin sensitivity; the effect persists for at least a week and is evident up to 12 hours after administration.
Slader, C A; Reddel, H K; Spencer, L M; Belousova, E G; Armour, C L; Bosnic‐Anticevich, S Z; Thien, F C K; Jenkins, C R
Background Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting β2 agonist use and improve quality of life (QoL) in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non‐specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. Methods After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos. During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week 12. Results Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or 28. The QoL score remained unchanged (0.7 at baseline v 0.5 at week 28, p = 0.11 both groups combined), as did lung function and airway responsiveness. However, across both groups, reliever use decreased by 86% (p<0.0001) and ICS dose was reduced by 50% (p<0.0001; p>0.10 between groups). Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Conclusion Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non‐specific upper body exercises. PMID:16517572
Nossier, Samia A; Naeim, Noha E; El-Sayed, Nawal A; Abu Zeid, Azza A
The present randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to evaluate the effect of two regimens of Zn supplementation on pregnancy outcomes in Alexandria, Egypt. Healthy pregnant women aged 20–45 years and having low serum Zn level below the estimated median for the gestational age were eligible to participate in the trial. Of 1055 pregnant women assessed for the eligibility of low serum Zn level, 675 were eligible. These women were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: the Zn alone group (n 225) received a daily dose of 30 mg ZnSO4, the combined group (n 227) received 30 mg ZnSO4 plus multivitamins (B1, B6, D3, C and E) and the control group (n 223) received placebo (270 mg lactose). They were followed up from the time of recruitment till 1 week after delivery. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birth weight between the three groups (mean 2929.12 (SD 330.28), 2922.22 (SD 324.05) and 2938.48 (SD 317.39) g for the placebo, Zn and Zn plus multivitamin groups, respectively, P = 0.88). Both the single and the combined Zn supplements were almost equally effective in reducing second- and third-stage complications (relative risk (RR) 0.43, 95% CI 0.31, 0.60 for the Zn group and RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.40, 0.73 for the combined group). Stillbirth and preterm delivery were significantly lower among the two supplemented groups than the placebo group (P = 0.001). Early neonatal morbidity was also significantly lower in the supplemented groups (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15, 0.35 for the Zn group and RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.16, 0.37 for the combined group). Collectively, Zn supplementation was effective in reducing pregnancy complications and early neonatal infection among the Zn-deficient women of the present trial.
White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.
Background Binge eating disorder (BED) is defined by recurrent binge eating (eating unusually large quantities of food during which a subjective loss of control is experienced), marked distress about the binge eating, and the absence of inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors. BED is strongly associated with excess weight and many available psychological and pharmacological approaches fail to produce much weight loss. The objective of this study was to perform a randomized placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the short-term efficacy of bupropion for the treatment of BED in overweight and obese women. Methods Sixty-one overweight and obese (Mean BMI=35.8) women with BED were randomly assigned to receive bupropion (300 mg/d) or placebo for 8 weeks. Participants were enrolled from November 2006 to December 2010. No dietary or lifestyle intervention was given. Primary outcome measures were binge-eating frequency and percent BMI loss. Secondary outcome measures were dimensional measures of eating disorder psychopathology, food craving, and depression levels. Results Eighty-nine percent of randomized participants completed the trial without differential dropout between bupropion and placebo. Mixed effects analyses revealed significant time effects for all outcomes but that bupropion and placebo did not differ significantly on any outcome measure except for weight loss. Participants taking bupropion lost significantly more weight (1.8% BMI loss versus 0.6% BMI loss; F=10.57, p=002). Conclusions Bupropion was well tolerated and produced significantly greater – albeit quite modest – short-term weight loss in overweight and obese women with BED. Bupropion did not improve binge eating, food craving, or associated eating disorder features or depression relative to placebo. Our findings do not support bupropion as a stand-alone treatment for BED. The preliminary findings regarding short-term weight losses suggest the need for larger and longer-term trials to evaluate
Background Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition of unknown etiology. MCS is characterized by recurrent nonspecific symptoms from multiple organ systems in response to chemical exposures in concentrations that are normally tolerated by the majority of the population. The symptoms may have severe impact on patients’ lives, but an evidence-based treatment for the condition is nonexisting. The pathophysiology is unclarified, but several indicators point towards abnormal processing of sensory signals in the central nervous system. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) offer a promising new treatment for refractory depression and can be targeted at the brain, thereby activating biochemical cell processes. Methods/Design In a parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, the effects of PEMF in MCS patients will be assessed using the Re5 Independent System. Based on sample size estimation, 40 participants will be randomized to either PEMF therapy or placebo. The allocation sequence will be generated by computer. All involved parties (that is, participants, investigators, the research nurse, and the statistician) will be blinded to group allocation. The participants will receive PEMF therapy or placebo applied transcranially 30 minutes twice a day for 7 days a week over 6 consecutive weeks. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, once weekly during treatment, post treatment, and at 2.5-month and 4.5-month follow-up according to a predefined timetable. The primary outcome will be a measurement of the impact of MCS on everyday life. The secondary outcomes will be measurements of MCS symptoms, psychological distress (stress, anxiety or depressive symptoms), capsaicin-induced secondary punctate hyperalgesia, immunological markers in serum, and quality of life. Discussion This trial will assess the effects of PEMF therapy for MCS. Currently, there is no treatment with a
Zhao, Yi Chen; Kennedy, Gregor; Yukawa, Kumiko; Pyman, Brian; O'Leary, Stephen
A significant benefit of virtual reality (VR) simulation is the ability to provide self-direct learning for trainees. This study aims to determine whether there are any differences in performance of cadaver temporal bone dissections between novices who received traditional teaching methods and those who received unsupervised self-directed learning in a VR temporal bone simulator. Randomized blinded control trial. Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital. Twenty novice trainees. After receiving an hour lecture, participants were randomized into 2 groups to receive an additional 2 hours of training via traditional teaching methods or self-directed learning using a VR simulator with automated guidance. The simulation environment presented participants with structured training tasks, which were accompanied by real-time computer-generated feedback as well as real operative videos and photos. After the training, trainees were asked to perform a cortical mastoidectomy on a cadaveric temporal bone. The dissection was videotaped and assessed by 3 otologists blinded to participants' teaching group. The overall performance scores of the simulator-based training group were significantly higher than those of the traditional training group (67% vs 29%; P < .001), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93, indicating excellent interrater reliability. Using other assessments of performance, such as injury size, the VR simulator-based training group also performed better than the traditional group. This study indicates that self-directed learning on VR simulators can be used to improve performance on cadaver dissection in novice trainees compared with traditional teaching methods alone.
Olguin-García, María Guadalupe; Jurado-Santa Cruz, Fermín; Peralta-Pedrero, María Luisa; Morales-Sánchez, Martha Alejandra
Abstract Background: Recalcitrant facial flat warts are caused by human papillomavirus and may persist for years despite treatment. Isotretinoin has demonstrated benefits in the treatment of recalcitrant, genital and common warts, but placebo-controlled trials have not been performed. To determine whether isotretinoin is safe and effective for recalcitrant facial flat warts. Isotretinoin 30 mg/day or placebo was administered to 16 and 15 patients, respectively, in double-blind, randomized fashion for 12 weeks. Cutaneous lesions were assessed and adverse events including serologic and ophthalmologic changes were recorded. It is considered that warts were recalcitrant if the patient was treated for at least 3 years with at least three of the following options: retinoids, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen. Each patient in the istotretinoin group showed complete clearance of all flat warts, while none of the patients in the placebo group showed any improvement (p=0.0001). The most frequent adverse event was cheilitis. There were no statistically significant changes in the laboratory findings. The study design does not permit complete blinding of the dermatologist who can easily recognize the adverse effects of isotretinoin. The clinical findings, however, were so dramatic that this would not have impacted the findings. Another limitation of the study is a lack of follow-up to assess for recurrence after the drug was discontinued. Isotretinoin is an effective treatment for recalcitrant flat facial warts with a well-known, manageable safety profile.
Carda, Stefano; Invernizzi, Marco; Baricich, Alessio; Comi, Cristoforo; Croquelois, Alexandre; Cisari, Carlo
The use of robots for gait training in Parkinson disease (PD) is growing, but no evidence points to an advantage over the standard treadmill. In this randomized, single-blind controlled trial, participants aged <75 years with early-stage PD (Hoehn-Yahr <3) were randomly allocated to 2 groups: either 30 minutes of gait training on a treadmill or in the Lokomat for 3 d/wk for 4 weeks. Patients were evaluated by a physical therapist blinded to allocation before and at the end of treatment and then at the 3- and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the 6-minute walk test. Of 334 screened patients, the authors randomly allocated 30 to receive gait training with treadmill or the Lokomat. At baseline, the 2 groups did not differ. At the 6-month follow-up, both groups had improved significantly in the primary outcome measure (treadmill: mean = 490.95 m, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 448.56-533.34, P = .0006; Lokomat: 458.6 m, 95% CI = 417.23-499.96, P = .01), but no significant differences were found between the 2 groups (P = .53). Robotic gait training with the Lokomat is not superior to treadmill training in improving gait performance in patients with PD. Both approaches are safe, with results maintained for up to 6 months.
Berry, Janet; Griffiths, Mervyn; Westcott, Carolyn
This study investigated if a maternally reported, immediate improvement in breastfeeding following division of tongue-tie is due to a placebo effect. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK, in 2003-2004. Sixty breastfed babies 5-115 days old (mean, 32 days; median, 23 days) were randomized to division (Group A) or non-division (Group B). The mother and a trained observer were blinded and assessed breastfeeding before the intervention. Fifty-seven babies were analyzed because blinding failed in three of the babies in Group A. Following the intervention, the mother's and observer's views were noted, and then those infants allocated to non-division had their tongue-tie divided. Seventy-eight percent (21 of 27) of mothers in Group A reported an immediate improvement in feeding following the intervention, compared with 47% (14 of 30) in Group B (two-tailed χ(2) p<0.02; 95% confidence interval, 6-51%). At 1-day follow-up, 90% (54 of 60) reported improved feeding following division. At 3-month follow-up, 92% (54 of 59) still reported improved feeding, with 51% (30 of 59) continuing to breastfeed. There is a real, immediate improvement in breastfeeding, detectable by the mother, which is sustained and does not appear to be due to a placebo effect.
Amrutesh, Sunita; Malini, J; Tandur, Prakash S; Patki, Pralhad S
Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal dental cream in comparison to fluoride dental cream. Objectives Clinical evaluation of a novel herbal dental cream in plaque formation: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods One hundred and two patients with established dental plaque were randomly assigned to either herbal dental group or fluoride dental group for six weeks in a double-blind design. Improvement in plaque index, oral hygiene status, bleeding index, and gingival index was evaluated in these patients along with microbiological study. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in plaque index, gingival index, oral hygiene index, and microbial growth in both groups. Difference between the groups was not significant. There was no significant change in bleeding index. No adverse events were reported and both the dental creams were well tolerated. Conclusion The finding of this preliminary study indicates that herbal dental cream is as safe and effective as fluoride dental cream, but not superior to it. PMID:27186096
Berlin, Heather A; Koran, Lorrin M; Jenike, Michael A; Shapira, Nathan A; Chaplin, William; Pallanti, Stefano; Hollander, Eric
From 40% to 60% of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients fail to tolerate or respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Preclinical and neuroimaging studies have shown abnormally high glutamatergic concentrations in OCD patients and an association between decreased caudate glutamatergic concentrations and reduced OCD symptom severity after SSRI treatment. Topiramate inhibits glutamatergic conduction. Thirty-six adult patients with DSM-IV-defined OCD were randomly assigned to topiramate (n = 18) and placebo (n = 18) groups in this 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups trial. Subjects were taking the maximum SSRI dose they could tolerate for at least 12 weeks and their current dose for at least 6 weeks, which was maintained throughout the study. Primary outcome measures were changes in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) total score and compulsions and obsessions subscores. Patients were recruited and followed up between April 1, 2003, and April 13, 2006. Using mixed regression models (time [weeks] × treatment), we found a significant treatment effect on the YBOCS compulsions (P = .014) subscale, but not the obsessions (P = .99) subscale or the total score (P = .11). Over the 12-week trial, the topiramate group (mean endpoint dose = 177.8 ± 134.2 mg/d; range, 50-400 mg/d) showed an average linear decrease of 5.38 points on the compulsions subscale compared to 0.6 points in the placebo group. Thirteen topiramate and 14 placebo subjects completed the study. Topiramate was not well tolerated in this trial: 28% (5/18) of the subjects discontinued the drug for adverse effects, and 39% (7/18) had a dose reduction for this reason. The results of this first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate augmentation for treatment-resistant OCD suggest that topiramate may be beneficial for compulsions, but not obsessions. Modifications in glutamatergic function may be responsible, at least in part, for the
Fox, Chris; Crugel, Monica; Maidment, Ian; Auestad, Bjorn Henrik; Coulton, Simon; Treloar, Adrian; Ballard, Clive; Boustani, Malaz; Katona, Cornelius; Livingston, Gill
Background Agitation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is common and associated with poor patient life-quality and carer distress. The best evidence-based pharmacological treatments are antipsychotics which have limited benefits with increased morbidity and mortality. There are no memantine trials in clinically significant agitation but post-hoc analyses in other populations found reduced agitation. We tested the primary hypothesis, memantine is superior to placebo for clinically significant agitation, in patients with moderate-to-severe AD. Methods and Findings We recruited 153 participants with AD and clinically significant agitation from care-homes or hospitals for a double-blind randomised-controlled trial and 149 people started the trial of memantine versus placebo. The primary outcome was 6 weeks mixed model autoregressive analysis of Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Secondary outcomes were: 12 weeks CMAI; 6 and 12 weeks Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI), Clinical Global Impression Change (CGI-C), Standardised Mini Mental State Examination, Severe Impairment Battery. Using a mixed effects model we found no significant differences in the primary outcome, 6 weeks CMAI, between memantine and placebo (memantine lower −3.0; −8.3 to 2.2, p = 0.26); or 12 weeks CMAI; or CGI-C or adverse events at 6 or 12 weeks. NPI mean difference favoured memantine at weeks 6 (−6.9; −12.2 to −1.6; p = 0.012) and 12 (−9.6; −15.0 to −4.3 p = 0.0005). Memantine was significantly better than placebo for cognition. The main study limitation is that it still remains to be determined whether memantine has a role in milder agitation in AD. Conclusions Memantine did not improve significant agitation in people with in moderate-to-severe AD. Future studies are urgently needed to test other pharmacological candidates in this group and memantine for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00371059 Trial Registration International
Ghaemian, Ali; Nouraei, S Mahmoud; Abdollahian, Fatemeh; Naghshvar, Farshad; Giussani, Dino A; Nouraei, S A Reza
To assess the impact of pre-procedural remote ischemic preconditioning on the incidence of myocardial complications following percutaneous coronary intervention. Ischemic preconditioning of a remote vascular territory improves the subsequent ischemic tolerance of distant organs. The Myocardial Event Reduction with Ischemic Preconditioning Therapy (MERIT) trial recruited 80 consecutive patients undergoing elective angioplasty with drug-eluting stents to receive two 5-min lower limb tourniquet occlusions or an un-inflated tourniquet (controls) 1 h before the procedure. The primary outcome was troponin T level at 24 h. Secondary outcomes were intra-procedural chest pain and ST-segment deviation. 6 patients in the control group and 2 in the ischemic preconditioning group had pre-procedural raised troponin T (p = 0.23). This increased to 16 (40%) in the control group and 5 (12.5%) in the study group at 24 h (p = 0.01). Fewer patients in the study group experienced intra-procedural chest pain (1 vs. 7, p = 0.056). Mean ST-segment deviation time was 13 ± 35 s in the study group and 58 ± 118 s in the control group (p = 0.02). At a mean follow-up of 11 months, the major adverse cardiac event rate did not differ significantly between the groups. These data suggest that ischemic preconditioning reduces the absolute risk of post-procedure cardiomyocyte necrosis by 27.5%, and reduces intra-procedural chest pain and ST-segment deviation in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. We suggest its routine use in percutaneous coronary intervention, although the long-term prognostic impact in this patient group warrants further investigation.
Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Bel; Ip, Isaac; Chui, Kenny; Young, Daniel; Ho, Florence
Many family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) are unable to participate in community center-based caregiver support services because of logistical constraints. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers of PWD in alleviating caregiver burden and enhancing caregiving self-efficacy. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 38 family caregivers of PWD were randomly allocated into an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received psychoeducation from a registered social worker over the phone for 12 sessions. Caregivers in the control group were given a DVD containing educational information about dementia caregiving. Outcomes of the intervention were measured by the Chinese versions of the Zarit Burden Interview and the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-efficacy. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences between the intervention and control groups. The level of burden of caregivers in the intervention group reduced significantly compared with caregivers in the control group. Caregivers in the intervention group also reported significantly more gain in self-efficacy in obtaining respite than the control group. A structured telephone intervention can benefit dementia caregivers in terms of self-efficacy and caregiving burden. The limitations of the research and recommendations for intervention are discussed.
Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Bel; Ip, Isaac; Chui, Kenny; Young, Daniel; Ho, Florence
Purpose Many family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) are unable to participate in community center-based caregiver support services because of logistical constraints. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers of PWD in alleviating caregiver burden and enhancing caregiving self-efficacy. Subjects and methods In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 38 family caregivers of PWD were randomly allocated into an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received psychoeducation from a registered social worker over the phone for 12 sessions. Caregivers in the control group were given a DVD containing educational information about dementia caregiving. Outcomes of the intervention were measured by the Chinese versions of the Zarit Burden Interview and the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-efficacy. Mann–Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences between the intervention and control groups. Results The level of burden of caregivers in the intervention group reduced significantly compared with caregivers in the control group. Caregivers in the intervention group also reported significantly more gain in self-efficacy in obtaining respite than the control group. Conclusion A structured telephone intervention can benefit dementia caregivers in terms of self-efficacy and caregiving burden. The limitations of the research and recommendations for intervention are discussed. PMID:24072965
Toma, Ahmed K; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Stapleton, Simon; Kitchen, Neil D; Watkins, Laurence D
There is no level I evidence to indicate whether placement of a shunt is effective in the management of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH), because no trial has as yet compared the placement of a shunt versus no shunt in a randomized controlled manner. We started recruiting patients into a prospective double-blind randomized controlled study aiming to provide class I evidence supporting or refuting the role of surgical management in INPH. Inclusion criterion was the diagnosis of probable INPH plus objective improvement of walking speed following 72 h of extended lumbar drainage. Patients with concomitant Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia were excluded. All patients included in the trial were to have a shunt placed with proGAV(®) adjustable valve. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups: group A was to have the shunt immediately adjusted to function, and group B was to have the shunt valve adjusted to the highest setting for 3 months then adjusted to function. Assessment of gait, cognitive function, and urinary symptoms were done before shunt insertion and at 3 months. Primary end point was to be an improvement in gait. Secondary end points were improvement in mental function or urinary function and incidence of complications. Final results are expected mid 2011.
Mao, Jun J; Li, Qing S.; Soeller, Irene; Xie, Sharon X; Amsterdam, Jay D.
Background Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea), a botanical of both western and traditional Chinese medicine, has been used as a folk remedy for improving stamina and reducing stress. However, few controlled clinical trials have examined the safety and efficacy of R. rosea for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study seeks to evaluate the safety and efficacy of R. rosea in a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study design. Methods / Design Subjects with MDD not receiving antidepressant therapy will be randomized to either R. rosea extract 340–1,360 mg daily; sertraline 50–200 mg daily, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be change over time in the mean 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating score. Secondary outcome measures will include safety and quality of life ratings. Statistical procedures will include mixed-effects models to assess efficacy for primary and secondary outcomes. Discussion This study will provide valuable preliminary information on the safety and efficacy data of R. rosea versus conventional antidepressant therapy of MDD. It will also inform additional hypotheses and study design of future, fully powered, phase III clinical trials with R. rosea to determine its safety and efficacy in MDD. PMID:25610752
Dale, Gregory J; Phillips, Stephanie; Falk, Gregory L
This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation) at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286) or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487). Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients). Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested.
Dale, Gregory J; Phillips, Stephanie; Falk, Gregory L
This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation) at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286) or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487). Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients). Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. PMID:27980437
Lee, Namhun; Lee, Suk-Hoon; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Yoo, Hwa Seung
Ginseng saponin is known to have biological activities in maintaining homeostasis and enhancing vital energy. Enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE) was designed to increase the content of its active constituents and to intensify biological activity. The present study investigated the anti-fatigue effects of EMGE in healthy adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fifty-two healthy subjects met the diagnostic criteria and were randomly allocated into one of two groups: EMGE (2,000 mg/day) or placebo. EMGE or placebo were administered to each group for 4 weeks. Fatigue scores using the Visual Analogue Fatigue Scale (VAFS) and Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (RPFS) were considered as the primary outcome measure. Life-quality scores were investigated using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The safety and adverse effects of EMGE were also assessed. A repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference in the VAFS scores VAFS between the treatment and placebo groups after 4 weeks. The treatment group's score decreased more than that of the placebo group. There was no difference in the RPFS and SF-36 scores between the two groups. There were no fatal adverse effects. EMGE treatment for 4 weeks decreased fatigue severity in a healthy population. Adverse effects were rare, and EMGE was generally well tolerated. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of EMGE are justified in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism of EMGE in combating fatigue.
Background Preliminary research shows ginger may be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting but significant limitations need to be addressed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made. Methods/Design In a double–blinded randomised-controlled trial, chemotherapy-naïve patients will be randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of a standardised ginger extract or placebo per day. The study medication will be administrated as an adjuvant treatment to standard anti-emetic therapy and will be divided into four capsules per day, to be consumed approximately every 4 hours (300 mg per capsule administered q.i.d) for five days during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. Acute, delayed, and anticipatory symptoms of nausea and vomiting will be assessed over this time frame using a valid and reliable questionnaire, with nausea symptoms being the primary outcome. Quality of life, nutritional status, adverse effects, patient adherence, cancer-related fatigue, and CINV-specific prognostic factors will also be assessed. Discussion Previous trials in this area have noted limitations. These include the inconsistent use of standardized ginger formulations and valid questionnaires, lack of control for anticipatory nausea and prognostic factors that may influence individual CINV response, and the use of suboptimal dosing regimens. This trial is the first to address these issues by incorporating multiple unique additions to the study design including controlling for CINV-specific prognostic factors by recruiting only chemotherapy-naïve patients, implementing a dosing schedule consistent with the pharmacokinetics of oral ginger supplements, and independently analysing ginger supplements before and after recruitment to ensure potency. Our trial will also be the first to assess the effect of ginger supplementation on cancer-related fatigue and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms
Alijaniha, Fatemeh; Naseri, Mohsen; Afsharypuor, Suleiman; Fallahi, Faramarz; Noorbala, Ahmadali; Mosaddegh, Mahmood; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Sadrai, Sima
In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), Melissa officinalis L. is commonly regarded as an effective therapy for heart palpitations. Heart palpitation is a common complaint that is often benign and associated with a marked distress that makes the condition difficult to treat. Herbal medicines provide an alternative to conventional drugs for treating various kinds of diseases. This study was done as a double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dried extract of M. officinalis on adults suffering from benign palpitations. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned as outpatients to a 14 day treatment with 500 mg twice a day of lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves (or placebo). Participants in the tests, physicians and researchers were blind to group assignments. Both primary and secondary outcomes were patient-reported. Primary outcomes were obtained from two measures: mean frequency of palpitation episodes per week, derived from patients׳ diaries, and mean intensity of palpitation estimated through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in a self-report questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms (somatization, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression) were evaluated as secondary outcomes by General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), before and after intervention. Fifty-five volunteers out of 71 recruited study subjects completed the trial. Results showed that 14-day of treatment with lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves reduced frequency of palpitation episodes and significantly reduced the number of anxious patients in comparison to the placebo (P=0.0001, P=0.004 resp.). Also, M. officinalis extract showed no indication of any serious side effects. Lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves may be a proper and safe herbal drug for the treatment of benign palpitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sachinis, Nikolaos Platon; Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Papagiannopoulos, Sotirios; Ditsios, Konstantinos; Christodoulou, Anastasios; Papadopoulos, Pericles
It has been indicated that rotator cuff tears, especially large or massive ones, can cause suprascapular neuropathy. When such a diagnosis has been established, it is still unknown whether an arthroscopic release of the superior transverse scapular ligament during cuff repair can change the course of this neuropathy. This is a single-center, double-blinded randomized controlled trial for which 42 patients with large or massive repairable rotator cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy will be recruited and followed up at 6 and 12 months. Nerve function will be measured by nerve conduction and electromyography studies preoperatively and at the selected follow-up periods. Patients will be randomly divided into equally numbered groups, the first one being the control group. Patients of this group will undergo arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff without combined arthroscopic release of the superior transverse scapular ligament; in the second group the ligament will be released. The primary objective is to test the null hypothesis that arthroscopic repair of large/massive rotator cuff tears in patients with combined suprascapular neuropathy provides equivalent outcomes to one-stage arthroscopic cuff repair where the superior suprascapular ligament is additionally released. The secondary objective is to search for a relation between rotator cuff tear size and degree of suprascapular nerve recovery. The tertiary objective is to demonstrate any relation between rotator cuff muscle fatty infiltration grade and degree of suprascapular nerve function. Patients, clinicians during follow-up clinics and the neurologist will be blinded to the type of surgery performed. To the best of our knowledge, we are unaware of any prospective, randomized double-blinded studies with similar objectives. So far, the evidence suggests a positive correlation between massive rotator cuff tears and suprascapular neuropathy. However, there is mixed evidence suggesting that neuropathy can be
Chaibi, A; Benth, J Š; Tuchin, P J; Russell, M B
To investigate the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs. This was a prospective three-armed, single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 17 months duration including 104 migraineurs with at least one migraine attack per month. The RCT was conducted at Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Active treatment consisted of CSMT, whereas placebo was a sham push manoeuvre of the lateral edge of the scapula and/or the gluteal region. The control group continued their usual pharmacological management. The RCT consisted of a 1-month run-in, 3 months intervention and outcome measures at the end of the intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up. The primary end-point was the number of migraine days per month, whereas secondary end-points were migraine duration, migraine intensity and headache index, and medicine consumption. Migraine days were significantly reduced within all three groups from baseline to post-treatment (P < 0.001). The effect continued in the CSMT and placebo group at all follow-up time points, whereas the control group returned to baseline. The reduction in migraine days was not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.025 for interaction). Migraine duration and headache index were reduced significantly more in the CSMT than the control group towards the end of follow-up (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04 for interaction, respectively). Adverse events were few, mild and transient. Blinding was strongly sustained throughout the RCT. It is possible to conduct a manual-therapy RCT with concealed placebo. The effect of CSMT observed in our study is probably due to a placebo response. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.
Chaibi, Aleksander; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn
Introduction Migraine affects 15% of the population, and has substantial health and socioeconomic costs. Pharmacological management is first-line treatment. However, acute and/or prophylactic medicine might not be tolerated due to side effects or contraindications. Thus, we aim to assess the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs in a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial (RCT). Method and analysis According to the power calculations, 90 participants are needed in the RCT. Participants will be randomised into one of three groups: CSMT, placebo (sham manipulation) and control (usual non-manual management). The RCT consists of three stages: 1 month run-in, 3 months intervention and follow-up analyses at the end of the intervention and 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary end point is migraine frequency, while migraine duration, migraine intensity, headache index (frequency x duration x intensity) and medicine consumption are secondary end points. Primary analysis will assess a change in migraine frequency from baseline to the end of the intervention and follow-up, where the groups CSMT and placebo and CSMT and control will be compared. Owing to two group comparisons, p values below 0.025 will be considered statistically significant. For all secondary end points and analyses, a p value below 0.05 will be used. The results will be presented with the corresponding p values and 95% CIs. Ethics and dissemination The RCT will follow the clinical trial guidelines from the International Headache Society. The Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services have approved the project. Procedure will be conducted according to the declaration of Helsinki. The results will be published at scientific meetings and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT01741714. PMID:26586317
Shapiro, Shane A; Kazmerchak, Shari E; Heckman, Michael G; Zubair, Abba C; O'Connor, Mary I
Bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) is increasingly used as a regenerative therapy for musculoskeletal pathological conditions despite limited evidence-based support. BMAC will prove feasible, safe, and efficacious for the treatment of pain due to mild to moderate degenerative joint disease of the knee. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. In this prospective, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 25 patients with bilateral knee pain from bilateral osteoarthritis were randomized to receive BMAC into one knee and saline placebo into the other. Fifty-two milliliters of bone marrow was aspirated from the iliac crests and concentrated in an automated centrifuge. The resulting BMAC was combined with platelet-poor plasma for an injection into the arthritic knee and was compared with a saline injection into the contralateral knee, thereby utilizing each patient as his or her own control. Safety outcomes, pain relief, and function as measured by Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) measures and the visual analog scale (VAS) score were tracked initially at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the procedure. There were no serious adverse events from the BMAC procedure. OARSI Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain and VAS pain scores in both knees decreased significantly from baseline at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months ( P ≤ .019 for all). Pain relief, although dramatic, did not differ significantly between treated knees ( P > .09 for all). Early results show that BMAC is safe to use and is a reliable and viable cellular product. Study patients experienced a similar relief of pain in both BMAC- and saline-treated arthritic knees. Further study is required to determine the mechanisms of action, duration of efficacy, optimal frequency of treatments, and regenerative potential. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov record 12-004459.
Cosmo, Camila; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; de Araújo, Arão Nogueira; do Rosário, Raphael Silva; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Montoya, Pedro; de Sena, Eduardo Pondé
Background Current standardized treatments for cognitive impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder remain limited and their efficacy restricted. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for enhancing cognitive performance in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the effects of tDCS in reducing cognitive impairment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not yet been investigated. Methods A parallel, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of tDCS on the modulation of inhibitory control in adults with ADHD. Thirty patients were randomly allocated to each group and performed a go/no-go task before and after a single session of either anodal stimulation (1 mA) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or sham stimulation. Results A nonparametric two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test revealed no significant differences between the two groups of individuals with ADHD (tDCS vs. sham) in regard to behavioral performance in the go/no go tasks. Furthermore, the effect sizes of group differences after treatment for the primary outcome measures—correct responses, impulsivity and omission errors—were small. No adverse events resulting from stimulation were reported. Conclusion According to these findings, there is no evidence in support of the use of anodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as an approach for improving inhibitory control in ADHD patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical study to assess the cognitive effects of tDCS in individuals with ADHD. Further research is needed to assess the clinical efficacy of tDCS in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01968512 PMID:26267861
Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Luedtke, Connie A.; King, Susan M.; Cha, Stephen S.; Elkin, Peter L.; Bruce, Barbara K.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Bergeson, Jody R.; Eickhoff, Andrea L.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Sood, Amit; Bauer, Brent A.
Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein) shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02) and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001). The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16). With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004) and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05). The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83). Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control) shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated. PMID:18990724
Llena, Carmen; Oteo, Carlos; Oteo, Jesús; Amengual, José; Forner, Leopoldo
To assess the efficacy of a bleaching enzyme-based toothpaste. A randomized clinical trial was carried out, comprising 48 participants with teeth exhibiting color A3 or higher according to the Vita Classical guide. One-half of the sample received the bleaching enzyme-based toothpaste (White Kin(®)), while the other received placebo toothpaste. Both products were supplied in identical containers and had the same composition except for the active components. The teeth color was measured with a spectrophotometer. The patients were instructed to brush their teeth three times a day during 3 min with the assigned product, during 12 weeks. The color measurements were repeated after 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks of treatment. Color variation was based on the CIE L*a*b* coordinates, ΔE and the EW index. The relationship of these variables at different observation times were performed using a generalized estimating equations model, which evaluated the effect of treatment, time and interaction. The patients using the bleaching enzyme-based toothpaste showed an increase in lightness (80.14 -treatment- versus 79.25 -control group-) and a reduction in component b*. ΔE was found higher in the treatment group (p=0.064), close to statistical significance. The bleaching enzyme-based toothpaste could be potentially efficient in the modification in tooth color progressing from the third to ninth week of treatment, tending to stabilize after the ninth week. A very low carbamide peroxide concentration, with the incorporation of lactoperoxidase, tooth paste, tends to offer clinically satisfactory results, in terms of modifications in tooth color, nevertheless no significant differences were founded when compared to the control group, with an oral hygiene controlled along the study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haghdoost, Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Sepehr; Montazer, Majid; Poorshahverdi, Parinaz; Ramouz, Ali; Fakour, Sanam
A decreased rate of successful helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection treatment has revealed serious demand for more effective regimens to eradicate infection. Therefore, probiotics have recently been considered to increase the rate of antibiotic regimens efficacy in H. pylori infections. In current randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the effect of double strain probiotic combination with standard triple therapy (STT), in the eradication rate of H. pylori infection. In current randomized placebo-control study, all patients (176 subjects) underwent the STT for 10 days. However, the study group received triple therapy for the eradication of H. pylori with supplement of Lactobacillus probiotic for 4 weeks and placebo was administered to control group, as well. Adverse effects of the antibiotic regimen were recorded for all patients. Six weeks after the cessation of probiotic intake, all patients underwent H. Pylori with fecal antigen of test, followed by a recurrence evaluation six months later. There was no significant difference in demographic data and presenting symptoms between the study groups. The eradication rate of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in probiotic group (78.4%), compared to that of placebo group (64.8%) (P=0.033). In addition, adverse events were significantly less prevalent in patients that received probiotic (P=0.047). Nonetheless, there was no significant difference in terms of infection recurrence during a 6-month follow-up (P=0.07). Double strain probiotic in combination with STT increased the eradication rate of H. pylori infection, while the adverse events due to antibiotic therapy decreased.
Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID
Singla, Himanshi; Alexander, Mohan
Local anesthesia has been a boon for dentistry to allay the most common fear of pain among dental patients. Several techniques to achieve anesthesia for posterior maxillae have been advocated albeit with minor differences. We compared two techniques of posterior superior alveolar nerve block (PSANB), the one claimed to be "most accurate" to the one "most commonly used." This study was conducted to assess and compare the efficacy as well as complications of "the straight needle technique" to that of "the bent needle technique" for PSANB. We conducted a prospective, randomised, double blind study on 120 patients divided into two groups, using a 26-gauge, 38 mm long needle with 2 ml of 2 % lignocaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 adrenaline solution. Objective symptoms were evaluated by a single investigator. Cold test using ice was used to evaluate the status of pulpal anesthesia. Data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Out of the 120 blocks, 19 blocks failed. Statistical analysis found straight needle technique to be more successful than the bent needle technique (p = 0.002). Both the techniques were equally effective for the first molar region on both right and left side (p = 0.66 on right side and p = 0.20 on left side). However, in the second and third molar region technique A was more effective than B (p = 0.01) on right side only. On Left side, both techniques were equally effective (p = 0.08). Sensitivity of the cold test was 82 % which is quite high but the specificity was 68 % which seems to be falling in the above average range only. Positive predictive value of 75 and negative predictive value of 76 was observed. We did not encounter any complications in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled clinical study on PSANB techniques. This study suggests that the PSANB using the straight needle technique as advocated by Malamed  can be routinely and safely used to achieve anesthesia in
Kampman, Kyle M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Spratt, Kelly; Wierzbicki, Michael R.; Dackis, Charles; O'Brien, Charles P.
Background Modafinil is a medication approved for narcolepsy and shift work sleep disorder. It has both dopaminergic and glutamatergic activity that could be useful for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Modafinil has reduced cocaine subjective effects and cocaine self-administration in human laboratory trials and has reduced cocaine use in cocaine dependent patients in some clinical trials. Methods This was an 8-week, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial involving 94 cocaine dependent subjects. Subjects received 300 mg of modafinil or identical placebo daily along with weekly individual therapy. The primary outcome measure was cocaine use measured by self-report, and confirmed by twice weekly urine benzoylecgonine tests (UBT). Additional outcome measures included cocaine craving measured by the Brief Substance Craving Scale and global improvement measured by the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). Results The odds ratio (OR) in favor of abstinence for modafinil vs. placebo was 2.54 (p=. 03) and modafinil-treated subjects were significantly more likely than placebo-treated subjects to be abstinent from cocaine during the last 3 weeks of the trial, 23% vs. 9%, χ2 = 3.9, p <.05. Modafinil treated subjects were more likely to report very low levels of cocaine craving intensity and duration on the Brief Substance Craving Scale (OR = 2.04 p =.03 and OR 1.06 p = .03 respectively). Modafinil–treated subjects were also more likely than placebo-treated subjects to rate themselves as “very much improved” on the CGI (OR = 2.69, p= .03). Conclusion Modafinil may be an efficacious treatment for cocaine dependence. PMID:26320827
Suh, Sang-Yeon; Choi, Youn Seon; Oh, Sang Cheul; Kim, Young Sung; Cho, Kyunghee; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Ju Hyun; Seo, Ah-Ram; Ahn, Hong-Yup
Opioid therapy often shows insufficient efficacy and substantial adverse events in patients with advanced cancer. To assess the efficacy of caffeine infusion as an adjuvant analgesic to opioid therapy in patients with advanced cancer. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in the palliative care wards of two teaching hospitals in South Korea. A total of 20 of 41 participants were assigned to the caffeine group and 21 to the placebo group. The participants received caffeine (200mg) or normal saline intravenously once a day for two days. The primary outcome was pain, which was measured using a 10-point rating scale. Other outcomes included drowsiness, confusion, nausea, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and sadness. Three participants (two in the caffeine group and one in the placebo group) dropped out after the first intervention because of insomnia; thus, 38 participants completed the trial. Pain score was significantly lower in the caffeine group than in the placebo group after the second trial (P=0.038). The mean reduction in pain intensity in the caffeine group was 0.833 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.601-1.066), whereas that in the placebo group was 0.350 (95% CI 0.168-0.532). Considering an improvement higher than 30% from baseline as the threshold value, drowsiness improved significantly in the caffeine group after the first trial (P=0.041). Adverse event rate did not differ between the two groups. Caffeine infusion significantly reduced pain and drowsiness, but the reduction did not reach clinical significance in patients with advanced cancer undergoing opioid therapy. Further investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Treatment of shigellosis in rabbits with butyrate reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether butyrate can be used as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of shigellosis in patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group designed clinical trial was conducted. Eighty adult patients with shigellosis were randomized to either the Intervention group (butyrate, n = 40) or the Placebo group (normal saline, n = 40). The Intervention group was given an enema containing sodium butyrate (80 mM), twice daily for 3 days, while the Placebo group received the same dose of normal saline. The primary endpoint of the trial was to assess the efficacy of butyrate in improving clinical, endoscopic and histological features of shigellosis. The secondary endpoint was to study the effect of butyrate on the induction of antimicrobial peptides in the rectum. Clinical outcomes were assessed and concentrations of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, human beta defensin1 [HBD-1] and human beta defensin 3 [HBD-3]) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and interleukin-8 [IL-8]) were measured in the stool. Sigmoidoscopic and histopathological analyses, and immunostaining of LL-37 in the rectal mucosa were performed in a subgroup of patients. Results Compared with placebo, butyrate therapy led to the early reduction of macrophages, pus cells, IL-8 and IL-1β in the stool and improvement in rectal histopathology. Butyrate treatment induced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia. Stool concentration of LL-37 remained significantly higher in the Intervention group on days 4 and 7. Conclusion Adjunct therapy with butyrate during shigellosis led to early reduction of inflammation and enhanced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia with prolonged release of LL-37 in the stool. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials
Verspyck, Eric; de Vienne, Claire; Muszynski, Charles; Bubenheim, Michael; Chanavaz-Lacheray, Isabella; Dreyfus, Michel; Deruelle, Philippe; Benichou, Jacques
To assess the impact of maintenance nifedipine therapy on pregnancy duration in women with preterm placenta previa bleeding. PPADAL was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between 05/2008 and 05/2012 in five French hospitals. The trial included 109 women, aged ≥ 18 years, with at least one episode of placenta previa bleeding, intact membranes and no other pregnancy complication, at gestational age 24 to 34 weeks and after 48 hours of complete acute tocolysis. Women were randomly allocated to receive either 20 mg of slow-release nifedipine three times daily (n = 54) or placebo (n = 55) until 36 + 6 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome for the trial was length of pregnancy measured in days after enrolment. Main secondary outcomes were rates of recurrent bleeding, cesarean delivery due to hemorrhage, blood transfusion, maternal side effects, gestational age at delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes (perinatal death, chronic lung disease, neonatal sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage > grade 2, perventricular leukomalacia > grade 1, or necrotizing enterocolitis). Analysis was by intention to treat. Mean (SD) prolongation of pregnancy was not different between the nifedipine (n = 54) and the placebo (n = 55) group; 42.5 days ± 23.8 versus 44.2 days ± 24.5, p = 0.70. Cesarean due to hemorrhage performed before 37 weeks occurred more frequently in the nifedipine group in comparison with the placebo group (RR, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.72). Adverse perinatal outcomes were comparable between groups; 3.8% for nifedipine versus 5.5% for placebo (relative risk, 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.10-2.61). No maternal mortality or perinatal death occurred. Maintenance oral nifedipine neither prolongs duration of pregnancy nor improves maternal or perinatal outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00620724.
Miles, S Wayne; Sheridan, Janie; Russell, Bruce; Kydd, Rob; Wheeler, Amanda; Walters, Carina; Gamble, Greg; Hardley, Peta; Jensen, Maree; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Tuomola, Pekka; Föhr, Jaana; Kuikanmäki, Outi; Vorma, Helena; Salokangas, Raimo; Mikkonen, Antti; Kallio, Mika; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Tiihonen, Jari
To assess the efficacy of methylphenidate as a substitution therapy for amphetamine/methamphetamine dependence in Finland and New Zealand. Parallel-group, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Out-patient care. Amphetamine-/methamphetamine-dependent, aged 16-65 years. The primary outcome measure was presence/absence of amphetamine/methamphetamine in urine samples collected twice weekly. Secondary measures included treatment adherence, alterations in craving scores and self-reported use. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat (ITT). The study drug, methylphenidate (as Concerta(®) ), was up-titrated over 2 weeks to a maximum dose of 54 mg daily and continued for a further 20 weeks. Doses were given under daily supervision at the clinics. Seventy-nine participants were randomized (40 methylphenidate; 39 placebo); 76 received allocated treatment and 27 completed the trial. ITT analysis (n = 78) showed no statistically significant difference in the percentage of positive urines between the methylphenidate and placebo arms (odds ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.08). However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the active and placebo arms in retention, the placebo arm displaying a significantly lower retention from 6 weeks that persisted until the end of the trial. The trial failed to replicate earlier findings suggesting that methylphenidate was superior to placebo. The low retention rate confounded the ability to draw firm conclusions about efficacy. The higher retention rate was observed in the methylphenidate arm. Any replication of this work would need to consider alternatives to the rigid clinic attendance criteria, and consider an increased dose. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Rayamajhi, Ajit; Nightingale, Sam; Bhatta, Nisha Keshary; Singh, Rupa; Ledger, Elizabeth; Bista, Krishna Prasad; Lewthwaite, Penny; Mahaseth, Chandeshwar; Turtle, Lance; Robinson, Jaimie Sue; Galbraith, Sareen Elizabeth; Wnek, Malgorzata; Johnson, Barbara Wilmot; Faragher, Brian
Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus found across Asia that is closely related to West Nile virus. There is no known antiviral treatment for any flavivirus. Results from in vitro studies and animal models suggest intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) containing virus-specific neutralizing antibody may be effective in improving outcome in viral encephalitis. IVIG’s anti-inflammatory properties may also be beneficial. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a pilot feasibility randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of IVIG containing anti-JEV neutralizing antibody (ImmunoRel, 400mg/kg/day for 5 days) in children with suspected JE at two sites in Nepal; we also examined the effect on serum neutralizing antibody titre and cytokine profiles. 22 children were recruited, 13 of whom had confirmed JE; 11 received IVIG and 11 placebo, with no protocol violations. One child (IVIG group) died during treatment and two (placebo) subsequently following hospital discharge. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between treatment groups at discharge or follow up. Passive transfer of anti-JEV antibody was seen in JEV negative children. JEV positive children treated with IVIG had JEV-specific neutralizing antibody titres approximately 16 times higher than those treated with placebo (p=0.2), which was more than could be explained by passive transfer alone. IL-4 and IL-6 were higher in the IVIG group. Conclusions/Significance A trial of IVIG for JE in Nepal is feasible. IVIG may augment the development of neutralizing antibodies in JEV positive patients. IVIG appears an appealing option for JE treatment that warrants further study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01856205 PMID:25886645
de Ridder, Inger R; den Hertog, Heleen M; van Gemert, H Maarten A; Schreuder, A H C M L Tobien; Ruitenberg, Annemieke; Maasland, E Lisette; Saxena, Ritu; van Tuijl, Jordie H; Jansen, Ben P W; Van den Berg-Vos, Renske M; Vermeij, Frederique; Koudstaal, Peter J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; van der Worp, H Bart; Dippel, Diederik W J
Subfebrile body temperature and fever in the first days after stroke are strongly associated with unfavorable outcome. A subgroup analysis of a previous trial suggested that early treatment with paracetamol may improve functional outcome in patients with acute stroke and a body temperature of ≥36.5°C. In the present trial, we aimed to confirm this finding. PAIS 2 (Paracetamol [Acetaminophen] in Stroke 2) was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. We aimed to include 1500 patients with acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage within 12 hours of symptom onset. Patients were treated with paracetamol in a daily dose of 6 g or matching placebo for 3 consecutive days. The primary outcome was functional outcome at 3 months, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale and analyzed with multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Because of slow recruitment and lack of funding, the study was stopped prematurely. Between December 2011 and October 2015, we included 256 patients, of whom 136 (53%) were allocated to paracetamol. In this small sample, paracetamol had no effect on functional outcome (adjusted common odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-1.79). There was no difference in the number of serious adverse events (paracetamol n=35 [26%] versus placebo n=28 [24%]). Treatment with high-dose paracetamol seemed to be safe. The effect of high-dose paracetamol on functional outcome remains uncertain. Therefore, a large trial of early treatment with high-dose paracetamol is still needed. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR2365. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Background Axonal sensory peripheral neuropathy is the major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel.Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on neurological disorders from their effects on neurons cells and inhibition of the formation of proinflammatory cytokines involved in peripheral neuropathy. Methods This study was a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing incidence and severity of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN). Eligible patients with breast cancer randomly assigned to take omega-3 fatty acid pearls, 640 mg t.i.d during chemotherapy with paclitaxel and one month after the end of the treatment or placebo. Clinical and electrophysiological studies were performed before the onset of chemotherapy and one month after cessation of therapy to evaluate PIPN based on "reduced Total Neuropathy Score". Results Twenty one patients (70%) of the group taking omega-3 fatty acid supplement (n = 30) did not develop PN while it was 40.7%( 11 patients) in the placebo group(n = 27). A significant difference was seen in PN incidence (OR = 0.3, .95% CI = (0.10-0.88), p = 0.029). There was a non-significant trend for differences of PIPN severity between the two study groups but the frequencies of PN in all scoring categories were higher in the placebo group (0.95% CI = (−2.06 -0.02), p = 0.054). Conclusions Omega-3 fatty acids may be an efficient neuroprotective agent for prophylaxis against PIPN. Patients with breast cancer have a longer disease free survival rate with the aid of therapeutical agents. Finding a way to solve the disabling effects of PIPN would significantly improve the patients’ quality of life. Trial registration This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01049295) PMID:22894640
Sköldenberg, Olof; Rysinska, Agata; Eisler, Thomas; Salemyr, Mats; Bodén, Henrik; Muren, Olle
Wear-induced osteolysis is the main factor in reducing the longevity of total hip arthroplasty (THA). The transmembrane Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B (RANK) and its corresponding ligand RANKL is an important regulator of osteoclast activity and bone resorption and is associated with osteolysis around implant. Inhibiting RANKL with denosumab is effective in vivo in preventing osteoporosis-related fractures. In vitro, osteoclasts can be blocked in animal models of osteolysis. We hypothesize that denosumab is effective in reducing wear-induced osteolysis around uncemented acetabular implants in THA. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be conducted. We will include 110 patients, 40-85 years of age, with a known osteolytic lesion around an uncemented acetabular component ≥7 years after the primary operation. The patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to subcutaneous injections of 60 mg denosumab or placebo for a total of 6 doses with start on day one and every 6 months with last treatment at 30 months. The primary endpoint will be the change in volume of the osteolytic lesion at 3 years measured with three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Secondary endpoints include functional outcome scores, change in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, serological markers of bone turnover and adverse events. In vitro results of both bisphosphonates and RANKL inhibitors have been promising, showing reduced osteolysis with treatment. This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical trial testing the efficacy of denosumab in reducing wear-induced osteolysis. The study is an academic, phase II trial from an independent center and is designed to demonstrate efficacy in reducing volume of osteolytic lesions around a total hip arthroplasty. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02299817) 2014-11-20.
Yarmolovsky, Jessica; Szwarc, Tamar; Schwartz, Miguel; Tirosh, Emanuel; Geva, Ronny
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to involve an executive inhibitory control (IC) deficit, yet it is not clear if this is a general deficit affecting both cold and hot EC, and if methylphenidate (MPH) affects both systems in treated children. We explored this by using a Stroop-like task in children with ADHD as compared to controls, containing different types of emotional stimuli (six levels), and we investigated the role of intervention with MPH on IC as compared to placebo. Children with ADHD and controls (N = 40; 7-13 years old) were tested with a hot and cold Stroop-like task. This was followed by a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of the effect of MPH on these skills. Children with ADHD showed a specific difficulty inhibiting their responses, particularly to hot, angry and frustration-inducing stimuli. Further, treatment with MPH was effective in reducing errors toward frustration-inducing stimuli as compared to placebo (p < .05, η (2) = .347), particularly with repeated exposure to the stimuli. Results indicate that children with ADHD experience executive control difficulties, particularly in hot negative emotional contexts. These emotion regulation difficulties are amenable to stimulant intervention.
Garbutt, James C; Kampov-Polevoy, Alexei B; Gallop, Robert; Kalka-Juhl, Linda; Flannery, Barbara A.
Background Recent clinical trials and case-reports indicate that baclofen, a GABAB agonist, may have efficacy for alcohol dependence. Baclofen has been shown to enhance abstinence, to reduce drinking quantity, to reduce craving, and to reduce anxiety in alcohol dependent individuals in two placebo-controlled trials in Italy. However, the clinical trial data with baclofen is limited. The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy and tolerability of baclofen in alcohol dependence in the United States. Methods The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study comparing 30 mg per day of baclofen to placebo over 12 weeks of treatment and utilizing eight sessions of BRENDA, a low-intensity psychosocial intervention. 121 subjects were screened to yield 80 randomized subjects (44 male) with randomization balanced for gender. Percent heavy drinking days was the primary outcome measure with other drinking outcomes, anxiety levels, and craving as secondary outcomes. Tolerability was examined. Results 76% of subjects completed the study. No difference by drug condition was seen in % heavy drinking days where on-average rates were 25.5% (± 23.6%) for placebo and 25.9% (± 23.2%) for baclofen during treatment (t(73)=0.59, p=0.56). Similarly, no differences were seen by drug condition in % days abstinent, time to first drink, or time to relapse to heavy drinking. Baclofen was associated with a significant reduction in state anxiety (F(1,73)=5.39, p=0.02). Baclofen was well tolerated with only two individuals stopping baclofen because of adverse events. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Baclofen, a GABAB agonist, represents a possible new pharmacotherapeutic approach to alcohol dependence. Despite encouraging preclinical data and prior positive clinical trials with baclofen in Italy, the current trial did not find evidence that baclofen is superior to placebo in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Additional clinical trial work is
Johnson, Mats; Fransson, Gunnar; Östlund, Sven; Areskoug, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher
Background: Previous research has shown positive effects of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children with inattention and reading difficulties. We aimed to investigate if Omega 3/6 improved reading ability in mainstream schoolchildren. Methods: We performed a 3-month parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by 3-month active…
Johnson, Mats; Fransson, Gunnar; Östlund, Sven; Areskoug, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher
Background: Previous research has shown positive effects of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children with inattention and reading difficulties. We aimed to investigate if Omega 3/6 improved reading ability in mainstream schoolchildren. Methods: We performed a 3-month parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by 3-month active…
Wagner, Karen Dineen; Jonas, Jeffrey; Findling, Robert L.; Ventura, Daniel; Saikali, Khalil
Objective: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant indicated for use in adults. This trial examined the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in pediatric depression. Method: Patients (6-17 years old) with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive 8 weeks of double-blind flexibly dosed treatment with…
Wagner, Karen Dineen; Jonas, Jeffrey; Findling, Robert L.; Ventura, Daniel; Saikali, Khalil
Objective: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant indicated for use in adults. This trial examined the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in pediatric depression. Method: Patients (6-17 years old) with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive 8 weeks of double-blind flexibly dosed treatment with…
Choi, Woo-Jong; Hwang, Seung-Jun; Song, Jun-Gol; Leem, Jeong-Gil; Kang, Yong-Up; Park, Pyong-Hwan; Shin, Jin-Woo
Chronic osteoarthritis (OA) pain of the knee is often not effectively managed with current non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments. Radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy is a therapeutic alternative for chronic pain. We investigated whether RF neurotomy applied to articular nerve branches (genicular nerves) was effective in relieving chronic OA knee joint pain. The study involved 38 elderly patients with (a) severe knee OA pain lasting more than 3 months, (b) positive response to a diagnostic genicular nerve block and (c) no response to conservative treatments. Patients were randomly assigned to receive percutaneous RF genicular neurotomy under fluoroscopic guidance (RF group; n=19) or the same procedure without effective neurotomy (control group; n=19). Visual analogue scale (VAS), Oxford knee scores, and global perceived effect on a 7-point scale were measured at baseline and at 1, 4, and 12weeks post-procedure. VAS scores showed that the RF group had less knee joint pain at 4 (p<0.001) and 12 (p<0.001) weeks compared with the control group. Oxford knee scores showed similar findings (p<0.001). In the RF group, 10/17 (59%), 11/17 (65%) and 10/17 (59%) achieved at least 50% knee pain relief at 1, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively. No patient reported a post-procedure adverse event during the follow-up period. RF neurotomy of genicular nerves leads to significant pain reduction and functional improvement in a subset of elderly chronic knee OA pain, and thus may be an effective treatment in such cases. Further trials with larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kypri, Kypros; McCambridge, Jim; Vater, Tina; Bowe, Steven J; Saunders, John B; Cunningham, John A; Horton, Nicholas J
Like many indigenous peoples, New Zealand Māori bear a heavy burden of alcohol-related harm relative to their non-indigenous compatriots, and disparities are greatest among young adults. We tested the effectiveness of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) for reducing hazardous drinking among Māori university students. Parallel, double-blind, multi-site, randomized controlled trial. Seven of New Zealand's eight universities. In April 2010, we sent e-mail invitations to all 6697 17-24-year-old Māori students to complete a brief web questionnaire including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C, a screening tool for hazardous and harmful drinking. Those screening positive were computer randomized to: <10 minutes of web-based alcohol assessment and personalized feedback (intervention) or screening alone (control). We conducted a fully automated 5-month follow-up assessment with observers and participants blinded to study hypotheses, design and intervention delivery. Pre-determined primary outcomes were: (i) frequency of drinking, (ii) amount consumed per typical drinking occasion, (iii) overall volume of alcohol consumed and (iv) academic problems. Of the participants, 1789 were hazardous or harmful drinkers (AUDIT-C ≥ 4) and were randomized: 850 to control, 939 to intervention. Follow-up assessments were completed by 682 controls (80%) and 733 intervention group members (78%). Relative to controls, participants receiving intervention drank less often [RR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82-0.97], less per drinking occasion (RR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.84-1.00), less overall (RR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69-0.89) and had fewer academic problems (RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95). Web-based screening and brief intervention reduced hazardous and harmful drinking among non-help-seeking Māori students in a large-scale pragmatic trial. The study has wider implications for behavioural intervention in the important but
Kypri, Kypros; McCambridge, Jim; Vater, Tina; Bowe, Steven J; Saunders, John B; Cunningham, John A; Horton, Nicholas J
Aims Like many indigenous peoples, New Zealand Māori bear a heavy burden of alcohol-related harm relative to their non-indigenous compatriots, and disparities are greatest among young adults. We tested the effectiveness of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) for reducing hazardous drinking among Māori university students. Design Parallel, double-blind, multi-site, randomized controlled trial. Setting Seven of New Zealand's eight universities. Participants In April 2010, we sent e-mail invitations to all 6697 17–24-year-old Māori students to complete a brief web questionnaire including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C, a screening tool for hazardous and harmful drinking. Those screening positive were computer randomized to: <10 minutes of web-based alcohol assessment and personalized feedback (intervention) or screening alone (control). Measurements We conducted a fully automated 5-month follow-up assessment with observers and participants blinded to study hypotheses, design and intervention delivery. Pre-determined primary outcomes were: (i) frequency of drinking, (ii) amount consumed per typical drinking occasion, (iii) overall volume of alcohol consumed and (iv) academic problems. Findings Of the participants, 1789 were hazardous or harmful drinkers (AUDIT-C ≥ 4) and were randomized: 850 to control, 939 to intervention. Follow-up assessments were completed by 682 controls (80%) and 733 intervention group members (78%). Relative to controls, participants receiving intervention drank less often [RR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82–0.97], less per drinking occasion (RR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.84–1.00), less overall (RR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69–0.89) and had fewer academic problems (RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69–0.95). Conclusions Web-based screening and brief intervention reduced hazardous and harmful drinking among non-help-seeking Māori students in a large-scale pragmatic trial. The study has wider
Morrone, Michelangelo; Miccinilli, Sandra; Bravi, Marco; Paolucci, Teresa; Melgari, Jean M; Salomone, Gaetano; Picelli, Alessandro; Spadini, Ennio; Ranavolo, Alberto; Saraceni, Vincenzo M; DI Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Sterzi, Silvia
Recent studies aimed to evaluate the potential effects of perceptive rehabilitation in Parkinson Disease reporting promising preliminary results for postural balance and pain symptoms. To date, no randomized controlled trial was carried out to compare the effects of perceptive rehabilitation and conventional treatment in patients with Parkinson Disease. To evaluate whether a perceptive rehabilitation treatment could be more effective than a conventional physical therapy program in improving postural control and gait pattern in patients with Parkinson Disease. Single blind, randomized controlled trial. Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of a University Hospital. Twenty outpatients affected by idiopathic Parkinson Disease at Hoehn and Yahr stage ≤3. Recruited patients were divided into two groups: the first one underwent individual treatment with Surfaces for Perceptive Rehabilitation (Su-Per), consisting of rigid wood surfaces supporting deformable latex cones of various dimensions, and the second one received conventional group physical therapy treatment. Each patient underwent a training program consisting of ten, 45-minute sessions, three days a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Each subject was evaluated before treatment, immediately after treatment and at one month of follow-up, by an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system for gait and posture analysis, and by a computerized platform for stabilometric assessment. Kyphosis angle decreased after ten sessions of perceptive rehabilitation, thus showing a substantial difference with respect to the control group. No significant differences were found as for gait parameters (cadence, gait speed and stride length) within Su-Per group and between groups. Parameters of static and dynamic evaluation on stabilometric platform failed to demonstrate any statistically relevant difference both within-groups and between-groups. Perceptive training may help patients affected by Parkinson Disease into restoring
Dettenkofer, M; Wilson, C; Gratwohl, A; Schmoor, C; Bertz, H; Frei, R; Heim, D; Luft, D; Schulz, S; Widmer, A F
To compare the efficacy of two commercially available, alcohol-based antiseptic solutions for preparation and care of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion sites, with and without octenidine dihydrochloride, a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was undertaken in the haematology units and in one surgical unit of two university hospitals. Adult patients with a non-tunnelled CVC were randomly assigned to two different skin disinfection regimens at the insertion site: 0.1% octenidine with 30% 1-propanol and 45% 2-propanol, and as control 74% ethanol with 10% 2-propanol. Endpoints were (i) skin colonization at the insertion site; (ii) positive culture from the catheter tip (> or = 15 CFU); and (iii) occurrence of CVC-associated bloodstream infection (defined according to criteria set by the CDC). Four hundred patients with inserted CVC were enrolled from May 2002 through April 2005. Both groups were similar in respect of patient characteristics and co-morbidities. Skin colonization at the CVC insertion site during the first 10 days was significantly reduced by octenidine treatment (relative difference octenidine vs. control: 0.21; 95%CI: 0.11-0.39, p <0.0001). Positive culture of the catheter tip was significantly less frequent in the octenidine group (7.9%) than in the control group (17.8%): OR = 0.39 (95%CI: 0.20-0.80, p 0.009). Patients treated with octenidine had a non-significant reduction in catheter-associated bloodstream infections (4.1% vs. 8.3%; OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.18-1.08, p 0.081). Side effects were similar in both groups. This randomized controlled trial supports the results of two observational studies demonstrating octenidine in alcoholic solution to be a better option than alcohol alone for the prevention of CVC-associated infections.
Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G
The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional
Borgi, Lea; McMullan, Ciaran; Wohlhueter, Ann; Curhan, Gary C; Fisher, Naomi D; Forman, John P
Higher levels of serum uric acid are independently associated with endothelial dysfunction, a mechanism for incident hypertension. Overweight/obese individuals are more prone to endothelial dysfunction than their lean counterparts. However, the effect of lowering serum uric acid on endothelial dysfunction in these individuals has not been examined thoroughly. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nonhypertensive, overweight, or obese individuals with higher serum uric acid (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) and serum uric acid ≥5.0 mg/dL), we assigned subjects to probenecid (500-1000 mg/d), allopurinol (300-600 mg/d), or matching placebo. The primary outcome was endothelium-dependent vasodilation measured by brachial artery ultrasound at baseline and 8 weeks. By the end of the trial, 47, 49, and 53 participants had been allocated to receive probenecid, allopurinol, and placebo, respectively. Mean serum uric acid levels significantly decreased in the probenecid (from 6.1 to 3.5 mg/dL) and allopurinol groups (from 6.1 to 2.9 mg/dL) but not in the placebo group (6.1 to 5.6 mg/dL). None of the interventions produced any significant change in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (probenecid, 7.4±5.1% at baseline and 8.3±5.1% at 8 weeks; allopurinol, 7.6±6.0% at baseline and 6.2±4.8% at 8 weeks; and placebo, 6.5±3.8% at baseline and 7.1±4.9% at 8 weeks). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, uric acid lowering did not affect endothelial function in overweight or obese nonhypertensive individuals. These data do not support the hypothesis that uric acid is causally related to endothelial dysfunction, a potential mechanism for development of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Mirsadraee, Majid; Khashkhashi Moghaddam, Sara; Saeedi, Parisa; Ghaffari, Sakineh
Borago officinalis and its derivatives are used in folk medicine to treat asthma because of its special effect on allergic disorders. It suppresses the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and delivers gamma-linolenic acid. The objective of this clinical trial was to determine the effect of Borago officinalis on clinical and physiological findings in moderate persistent asthma. This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted on patients aged 15-90 years with moderate asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 60-79% of predicted who presented to a sub-specialty clinic of pulmonary medicine. We randomly allocated subjects to receive either Borago extract (5 mL three times a day) or a matched placebo for one month. The primary outcome was the asthma control test (ACT) score and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) test. Secondary outcomes included clinical findings, spirometry, and sputum cytology including inflammatory cells. Thirty-eight subjects with a mean age of 46.8±15.3 years and mean duration of asthma of 71±103 months were enrolled in our study. Cough, dyspnea, wheezing, nocturnal symptoms, and airway hyper-responsiveness reduced significantly in the Borago group after the treatment and ACT scores improved significantly (10.8±5.26 before and 15.4±5.12 after the trial). Flare up of asthma and emergency department visits in the Borago group also decreased significantly (3.6±2.33 to 2±1.86 flare ups per month and 0.62±0.9 to 0.05±0.23 for emergency department visits per month). Physiological parameters including spirometry, FENO, and sputum cytology including eosinophil and neutrophil did not change significantly. Borago improved the clinical findings of asthma, but it was not able to suppress the inflammation involved in asthma.
Khashkhashi Moghaddam, Sara; Saeedi, Parisa; Ghaffari, Sakineh
Background: Borago officinalis and its derivatives are used in folk medicine to treat asthma because of its special effect on allergic disorders. It suppresses the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and delivers gamma-linolenic acid. The objective of this clinical trial was to determine the effect of Borago officinalis on clinical and physiological findings in moderate persistent asthma. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted on patients aged 15–90 years with moderate asthma and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 60–79% of predicted who presented to a sub-specialty clinic of pulmonary medicine. We randomly allocated subjects to receive either Borago extract (5 mL three times a day) or a matched placebo for one month. The primary outcome was the asthma control test (ACT) score and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) test. Secondary outcomes included clinical findings, spirometry, and sputum cytology including inflammatory cells. Results: Thirty-eight subjects with a mean age of 46.8±15.3 years and mean duration of asthma of 71±103 months were enrolled in our study. Cough, dyspnea, wheezing, nocturnal symptoms, and airway hyper-responsiveness reduced significantly in the Borago group after the treatment and ACT scores improved significantly (10.8±5.26 before and 15.4±5.12 after the trial). Flare up of asthma and emergency department visits in the Borago group also decreased significantly (3.6±2.33 to 2±1.86 flare ups per month and 0.62±0.9 to 0.05±0.23 for emergency department visits per month). Physiological parameters including spirometry, FENO, and sputum cytology including eosinophil and neutrophil did not change significantly. Conclusion: Borago improved the clinical findings of asthma, but it was not able to suppress the inflammation involved in asthma. PMID:28210282
Lin, Hsin-Fu; Tung, Kang; Chou, Chun-Chung; Lin, Ching-Che; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Tanaka, Hirofumi
Muscle damage induced by unaccustomed or eccentric exercise results in delayed onset vascular stiffening. We tested the hypothesis that a 7-day supplementation of panax ginseng and salvia miltiorrhiza prior to an acute eccentric exercise could attenuate arterial stiffening. By using a double-blind study placebo-controlled randomized design, subjects were randomly assigned to either the Chinese herb (N = 12) or the placebo group (N = 11) and performed a downhill running (eccentric exercise) trial and a control (seated rest) trial. Muscle soreness increased 1-2 days after exercise similarly in both groups, whereas the herb group demonstrated a faster recovery on active range of motion. Plasma creatine kinase concentration increased significantly at 24 h in both groups but the magnitude of increase was attenuated in the herb group. Arterial stiffness as measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity increased significantly at 24 h in the placebo group but such increase was absent in the herb group. Flow-mediated dilation did not change in either group. Plasma concentrations of CRP and IL-6 increased in the placebo group but no such increases were observed in the herb group. Changes in arterial stiffness induced by eccentric exercise were associated with the corresponding changes in IL-6 (r = 0.46, P < 0.05). A short-term Chinese herb supplementation of panax ginseng and salvia miltiorrhiza ameliorated the delayed onset vascular stiffening induced by acute downhill running exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02007304. Registered Dec. 5, 2013).
Smith, Eric G.; Deligiannidis, Kristina M.; Ulbricht, Christine M.; Landolin, Chelsea S.; Patel, Jayendra K.; Rothschild, Anthony J.
Objective Intravenous NMDA antagonists have shown promising results in rapidly ameliorating depression symptoms, but placebo-controlled trials of oral NMDA antagonists as monotherapy have not observed efficacy. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (NCT00344682) of the NMDA antagonist memantine as an augmentation treatment for patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder. Method 31 participants with partial or nonresponse to their current antidepressant were randomized (from 2006–2011) to add memantine (flexible dose 5–20 mg/day, with all memantine group participants reaching the dose of 20 mg/day) (n= 15) or placebo (n= 16) to their existing treatment for 8 weeks. The primary outcome, change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Score (MADRS), was evaluated with repeated measures mixed effects models using last-observation-carried-forward methods. Secondary outcomes included other depression and anxiety rating scales, suicidal and delusional ideation, and other adverse effects. Results Participants receiving memantine did not show a statistically or clinically significant change in MADRS scores compared to placebo, either over the entire study (β=0.133, favoring placebo, p=0.74) or at study completion (week 8 MADRS score change: −7.13 +/−6.61 (memantine); −7.25 +/−11.14 (placebo), p=0.97). A minimal-to-small effect size (comparing change to baseline variability) was observed (d=0.19), favoring placebo. Similarly, no substantial effect sizes favoring memantine, nor statistically significant between-group differences, were observed on secondary efficacy or safety outcomes. Conclusions This trial did not detect significant statistical or effect size differences between memantine and placebo augmentation among nonresponders or poor responders to conventional antidepressants. While the small number of participants is a limitation, this study suggests memantine lacks substantial efficacy as an augmentation treatment against
Ruangsin, Sakchai; Laohawiriyakamol, Supparerk; Sunpaweravong, Somkiat; Mahattanobon, Somrit
A prophylactic antibiotic is recommended in open cholecystectomy surgeries, but in laparoscopic cholecystectomies such prophylaxis is controversial. Recent reviews have not found conclusive evidence that routine prophylaxis, especially in low risk patients, is effective. This clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of cefazolin in reducing surgical site infection SSI in laparoscopic cholecystectomies in a sample not screened for high or low risk patients. A randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted in a single university hospital. Scheduled cholecystectomy patients without selection for patient risk factors were randomized into two groups. Pre-operatively, group A patients received a placebo of 10 ml isotonic sodium chloride, and group B patients received 1 g of cefazolin as a prophylactic antibiotic. All patients underwent a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and were followed up for at least 30 days. Two hundred ninety-nine patients were randomized (149 in group A and 150 in group B). SSI occurred in seven patients (2.34 %), five (1.67 %) in the placebo group, and two (0.67 %) in the prophylactic antibiotic group. The difference was not statistically significant (p value = 0.512), and no specific risk factors for post-operative infection were identified. A single dose of preoperative prophylactic cefazolin has no significant benefit in reducing the incidence of SSI in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Whether or not to use a prophylactic depends on the individual patient, and the consideration of the attending surgeon.
Paoloni, J A; Murrell, G A C; Burch, R M; Ang, R Y
This study aimed to determine whether a new glyceryl trinitrate patch preparation is effective in treating chronic lateral epicondylosis. Randomised double-blind controlled clinical trial. Private practice 154 adult patients with chronic lateral epicondylosis were recruited, with 136 patients completing the trial. 8 weeks of glyceryl trinitrate patch application (dosages of 72 mg/24 h, 1.44 mg/24 h, and 3.6 mg/24 h), or placebo patch application. Subjective global assessment of change in elbow symptoms, patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation, visual analogue pain at rest, visual analogue pain with activity, visual analogue pain intensity, grip strength, and strength testing using the Orthopaedic Research Institute-Tennis Elbow Testing System. At 8 weeks there was a significant decrease in elbow pain with activity in the glyceryl trinitrate 0.72 mg/24 h group compared with placebo (p = 0.04). There were no other significant differences. Continuous 1.25 mg/24 h topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment, when combined with daily exercise rehabilitation, has previously demonstrated efficacy in treating chronic lateral epicondylosis. There was significantly decreased elbow pain with activity at 8 weeks in the glyceryl trinitrate 0.72 mg/24 h group (p = 0.04). This short-term dose-ranging study did not demonstrate a treatment effect of a new topical glyceryl trinitrate patch in dosages of 1.44 mg/24 h or 3.6 mg/24 h, which conflicts with previous studies on topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment. NCT00447928.
Ligsay, Andrew; Van Dijck, Anke; Nguyen, Danh V; Lozano, Reymundo; Chen, Yanjun; Bickel, Erika S; Hessl, David; Schneider, Andrea; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Tassone, Flora; Ceulemans, Berten; Kooy, R Frank; Hagerman, Randi J
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system deficits are integral to the pathophysiologic development of fragile X syndrome (FXS). Ganaxolone, a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, is hypothesized to improve symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and attention deficits in children with FXS. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of ganaxolone in children with FXS, aged 6-17 years. Sixty-one participants were assessed for eligibility, and 59 were randomized to the study. Fifty-five participants completed at least the first arm and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis; 51 participants completed both treatment arms. There were no statistically significant improvements observed on the primary outcome measure (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement), the key secondary outcome measure (Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale-R), or any other secondary outcome measures in the overall study population. However, post-hoc analyses revealed positive trends in areas of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity in participants with higher baseline anxiety and low full-scale IQ scores. No serious adverse events (AEs) occurred, although there was a significant increase in the frequency and severity of AEs related to ganaxolone compared to placebo. While ganaxolone was found to be safe, there were no significant improvements in the outcome measures in the overall study population. However, ganaxolone in subgroups of children with FXS, including those with higher anxiety or lower cognitive abilities, might have beneficial effects. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01725152.
Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Chanfrau, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar; Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Rodríguez-Díaz, Julio Cesar; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Gotay, Dennis Almaguer; Almaguer Mederos, Luis E; Laffita Mesa, José M; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene; Triana, Consuelo González; Pupo, Noemí Rodríguez; Batista, Idania Hidalgo; López-Hernandez, Orestes D; Polanco, Iverlis Díaz; Novas, Arelis Jayme
Cuban patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) have reduced concentrations of zinc in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To assess the effect and safety of zinc supplementation, 36 Cuban SCA2 patients were randomly assigned to receive daily either 50 mg ZnSO(4) or placebo, together with neurorehabilitation therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial during 6 months. Outcome measures included the changes of zinc levels in CSF and serum, ataxia score, oxidative stress and saccadic eye movements. At the end of the study, the Zinc-treated group showed: (i) a significant increase of the Zn levels in the CSF, (ii) mild decrease in the ataxia scale subscores for gait, posture, stance and dysdiadochocinesia (iii) reduction of lipid's oxidative damage, and (iv) reduction of saccadic latency when compared with the placebo group. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Zn supplementation, combined with neurorehabilitation for SCA2 patients and therefore it may encourage further studies on the clinical effect of zinc supplementation in SCA2 based in the conduction of future clinical trials with higher number of subjects.
Ren, Yulan; Li, Dehua; Lv, Junling; Leng, Junyan; Zhang, Linglin; Zhang, Jie; Fan, Hailong; Liang, Fanrong
Background. Chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP) is a major syndrome of ischemic heart disease (IHD). CSAP manifests as chest pain or discomfort and affects patients' quality of life. Acupoint application (AP) has been reported to be effective for managing the symptoms of CSAP, but the evidence is not convincing. Therefore, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of AP in the treatment of CSAP. Methods and Analysis. Two hundred participants with CSAP will be randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 ratio into 4 groups. All participants will receive 12 sessions of treatment in 4 weeks and the same basic treatment procedure. The participants will be visited and assessed for 12 weeks, including a 4-week screening, a 4-week treatment phase, and a 4-week follow-up phase. The primary outcome is the change in the total frequency of self-reported angina attack at 4th week compared with the baseline. The secondary outcomes include the intensity of angina pain, consumption of nitroglycerin or Suxiao Jiuxin pills, CCS angina classification, SAQ, SAS and SDS score. Ethics. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Sichuan Regional Ethics Review Committee on TCM (number 2013kl-001). This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02029118. PMID:25250055
Beckwée, David; Bautmans, Ivan; Lefeber, Nina; Lievens, Pierre; Scheerlinck, Thierry; Vaes, Peter
Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) has proven to be effective for postsurgical pain relief. However, there is a lack of well-constructed clinical trials investigating the effect of TENS after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In addition, previous investigations reported that low- and high-frequency TENSs produced analgesic tolerance after 4 or 5 days of treatment. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of burst TENS on pain during hospitalization after TKA and to investigate whether burst TENS produces analgesic tolerance after 4 or 5 days of treatment. This stratified, triple blind, randomized controlled trial was approved by the University Hospital Brussels. Sixty-eight subjects were screened for eligibility before surgery; 54 were found eligible and 53 were included in the analyses. Patients were allocated to either a burst TENS or sham burst TENS group. TENS was applied daily during continuous passive mobilization. Knee pain intensity, knee range of motion, and analgesic consumption were assessed daily. Patients received burst TENS (N = 25) or sham burst TENS (N = 28). No significant differences in knee pain intensity were found between the groups (p > 0.05). Within the TENS and the sham TENS groups, the difference in knee pain before and after treatment did not evolve over time (p > 0.05). This study found no effects of burst TENS compared with sham burst TENS on pain during hospitalization after TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Thompson, John W; Bower, Susanne; Tyrer, Stephen P
A double blind randomised controlled clinical trial on the effect of transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia (TSE) on low back pain was carried out in 58 patients attending a Pain Management Unit. Four TSE instruments, two active and two sham, were used and each patient was assigned randomly to one of these. Low back pain was rated by each patient using a visual analogue scale (VAS) immediately before and immediately after a single 20 min treatment of TSE and also daily for the week prior to, and the week following, the treatment. No significant difference in mean pain score was detected between the active and sham treated groups immediately after treatment or during the subsequent week. The Hospital, Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were completed by each patient and there was a positive correlation between the scores achieved on these scales and the mean pain scores in both the active and sham treated groups. A post-trial problem was the discovery that the specification of the two active TSE machines differed from the manufacturer's specification. Thus, the output frequencies were either more (+10%) or less (-17%) while the maximum output voltages were both less (-40% and -20%), respectively. However, additional statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the results obtained with the two active machines.
Turner, Alastair; Shann, Frank; Delzoppo, Carmel; Henning, Robert; Slater, Anthony; Beca, John; Erickson, Simon; Butt, Warwick
To determine whether aminophylline reduced the duration of respiratory support in children admitted to intensive care with bronchiolitis. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Paediatric intensive care units in teaching hospitals. Forty-five children with severe bronchiolitis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an infusion of aminophylline (23) or placebo (22). The primary outcome measure was the number of hours of respiratory support required in the 120 hours after randomisation; respiratory support was defined as either nasal continuous positive airways pressure or mechanical ventilation. The trial was stopped early due to poor recruitment. Respiratory support was required for a median of only 1.5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 0.4-3.5 days) in the aminophylline group compared with 1.9 days (IQR, 0.3-3.5) days in the placebo group. However, more patients in the placebo group were receiving respiratory support at the time of randomisation and, after adjustment for this, there was no suggestion of a beneficial effect of aminophylline among the small number of patients studied (P=0.54, exact log-rank test stratified by respiratory support at the time of randomisation and censored at the time of death in one child in the aminophylline group). Not enough children were recruited for the study to test the hypothesis that aminophylline reduces the need for respiratory support in severe bronchiolitis. Consequently, the role of aminophylline in the management of severe bronchiolitis remains unknown.
Fong, Timothy; Kalechstein, Ari; Bernhard, Bo; Rosenthal, Richard; Rugle, Lori
Emerging evidence suggests that dopaminergic and serotonergic functioning are altered in pathological gamblers; yet, there are no FDA-approved medications for pathological gambling and there have only been a limited number of clinical trials that have been conducted. Olanzapine was identified as a candidate medication for pathological gamblers because it modifies both dopaminergic and serotonergic function. Moreover, preliminary studies have shown that olanzapine effectively reduces impulsivity in other psychiatric disorders, a pharmacological target of interest for pathological gamblers. In this study, 21 pathological gamblers, whose primary gambling activity was video poker, were enrolled in a seven-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outcome measures included self-reported urges for gambling, frequency of gambling behavior, and self-reported mood and anxiety levels. The results revealed that all study participants reported reduced levels of gambling urges, gambling behavior, and mood and anxiety symptoms. Olanzapine administration was not associated with an incremental effect versus placebo. While these findings suggest that olanzapine is not an efficacious treatment for video poker pathological gamblers, olanzapine may still be an effective treatment for a specific subset of pathological gamblers, including those with a co-occurring psychiatric disorder.
Lindley, Steven E; Carlson, Eve B; Hill, Kimberly
Topiramate, a novel anticonvulsant, has been reported to rapidly reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an open-label trial. The present study was designed as a test of topiramate's efficacy as adjunctive therapy in a 7-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty male veterans with PTSD in a residential treatment program were randomized to flexible-dose topiramate or placebo augmentation. The primary outcome measures were PTSD symptom severity and global symptom improvement. Baseline Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores were 62.1 +/- 13.9 for placebo and 61.0 +/- 22.2 for topiramate. There was a high dropout rate from the study (55% topiramate; 25% placebo), with 40% of topiramate and 10% of placebo dropping because of adverse events (AEs). No significant treatment effects of topiramate versus placebo were observed for the primary treatment outcomes. Subjects reporting central nervous system-related AEs and with higher baseline severity of depression were more likely to discontinue because of AEs. Primary outcome measures failed to demonstrate a significant effect for topiramate over placebo; however, high dropout rate in the treatment group prohibits definitive conclusions about the efficacy of topiramate in this population.
Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A
Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377.
Carlbring, Per; Apelstrand, Maria; Sehlin, Helena; Amir, Nader; Rousseau, Andreas; Hofmann, Stefan G; Andersson, Gerhard
Computerized cognitive bias modification for social anxiety disorder has in several well conducted trials shown great promise with as many as 72% no longer fulfilling diagnostic criteria after a 4 week training program. To test if the same program can be transferred from a clinical setting to an internet delivered home based treatment the authors conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. After a diagnostic interview 79 participants were randomized to one of two attention training programs using a probe detection task. In the active condition the participant was trained to direct attention away from threat, whereas in the placebo condition the probe appeared with equal frequency in the position of the threatening and neutral faces. Results were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, including all randomized participants. Immediate and 4-month follow-up results revealed a significant time effect on all measured dimensions (social anxiety scales, general anxiety and depression levels, quality of life). However, there were no time x group interactions. The lack of differences in the two groups was also mirrored by the infinitesimal between group effect size both at post test and at 4-month follow-up. We conclude that computerized attention bias modification may need to be altered before dissemination for the Internet. ISRCTN01715124.
Shin, Jae-Young; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jaeuk U; Lee, Yu Jung; Kang, Jae Hui; Heo, Hyun; Choi, Hyo-Joon; Lee, Jun-Hwan
Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n = 28) or the sham laser acupuncture group (n = 28). Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version) were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.
Usanakornkul, Arnik; Burusapat, Chairat
Keloids are abnormal overgrowth of collagen fibers, and the first-line treatment includes intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA), which is associated with pain. To study the benefit of applying topical anesthetics or a 1:1 mixture of 1% lidocaine and TA at the TA injection site to alleviate pain during keloid treatment. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Four TA injection methods were tested: control, lidocaine, topical, and combined. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess needle-stick and injection pain. Data on pain duration after injection were also collected. Forty patients were enrolled (mean age, 37.1 years). The VAS scores of needle-stick pain in the control, lidocaine, topical, and combined groups were 4.18 ± 2.12, 3.82 ± 2.48, 2.03 ± 2.02, and 2.20 ± 1.99, respectively. Pain statistically decreased in the topical and combined groups. Intralesional injection pain (VAS) scores in the control, lidocaine, topical, and combined groups were similar as follows: 4.97 ± 2.50, 4.97 ± 2.79, 4.10 ± 2.80, and 4.43 ± 2.68, respectively. Application of topical anesthetics significantly relieved needle-stick pain, especially at sternum and auricular keloids; administration of a lidocaine mixture did not alleviate pain during injection.
Gustavsen, Ingebjørg; Hjelmeland, Knut; Bernard, Jean-Paul; Mørland, Jørg
To investigate individual traffic-relevant impairment related to measured blood zopiclone and ethanol concentrations. Also, we aimed to study possible development of acute tolerance. A randomized controlled four-way cross-over double-blind trial. Study drugs were zopiclone 5 or 10 mg, 50 g ethanol or placebo. Laboratory study with computerized tests: Connor's Continuous Performance test, Choice Reaction Time and Stockings of Cambridge. Altogether, the tests consisted of 15 test components, representing three levels of behaviour (automotive, control, executive planning), relevant to traffic safety. Sixteen healthy male volunteers. Each study day, 10 blood samples were collected from each volunteer. Fifteen psychomotor test components were registered at baseline and a further three times after intake. Impairment was defined as any individual deterioration in performance compared to individual baseline performance. Blood drug concentrations up to 74 µg/l zopiclone and 0.100% ethanol were measured. We found a clear positive concentration-effect relationship for zopiclone and ethanol for both automotive and control behaviours, and a modest relationship for executive planning behaviour. Significant impairment started to be observed at concentrations above 16 µg/l zopiclone (automotive and control behaviour) and above 0.026% ethanol (automotive behaviour). Acute tolerance was found for both drugs. The hypnotic, zopiclone, can impair psychomotor performance at blood concentrations as low as 16 µg/l. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Chan, Aileen W K; Lee, Albert; Suen, Lorna K P; Tam, Wilson W S
To evaluate the effectiveness of a Tai chi Qigong (TCQ) program in enhancing respiratory functions and activity tolerance in clients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Five general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. In total, 206 COPD clients were randomly assigned into one of the three groups, namely, TCQ, exercise, and control group. Subjects in the TCQ group received a TCQ program consisting of two 60-min sessions each week for three months. Subjects in the exercise group were taught to practice breathing techniques combined with walking as an exercise. Subjects in the control group were instructed to maintain their usual activities. Data collection was performed at baseline and at the 6-week and 3-month marks. Lung functions, 6-min walk test, and COPD exacerbation rate. Results of repeated measures of analysis of covariance demonstrated that there were significant interaction effects between time and group in forced vital capacity (p=.002, η(2)=.06), forced expiratory volume in 1s (p<.001, η(2)=.02), walking distance (p<.001), and exacerbation rate (p=.006, η(2)=.06) at 3 months. Improvements were noted in the TCQ group. No changes were observed in the exercise group, while a decline in lung functions was noticed in the control group. Tai chi Qigong was able to improve respiratory functions and activity tolerance level in COPD clients. The breathing and walking exercise helped maintain lung functions and slow down disease progression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loughran, S; Spinou, E; Clement, W A; Cathcart, R; Kubba, H; Geddes, N K
The aim of the study was to determine if petroleum jelly was an effective treatment for paediatric epistaxis. A single-blind, prospective, randomized controlled trial was undertaken in an otolaryngology outpatient clinic of a paediatric hospital from March 2001 to March 2002. A total of 105 children referred with recurrent epistaxis were randomized into the study, 52 into the treatment arm and 53 into the control arm. Children in the treatment arm applied Vaseline twice a day bilaterally for 4 weeks and were monitored for any bleeds for the next 4 weeks. Children in the control arm were simply given an 8-week appointment and the number of bleeds were monitored for the 4 weeks prior to their appointment. The outcome measure was the proportion of children in each group without nosebleeds in the preceding 4 weeks. Both groups were equally distributed in age, duration of symptoms and duration of each bleed. Fourteen of 51 (27.5%) patients of the treatment arm and 18 of 53 (34%) of the control arm did not bleed in the 4 weeks before review (chi-square test, P = 0.472). It can be concluded that Vaseline alone confers no benefit over simple observation in recurrent childhood epistaxis.
Mobini Bidgoli, Maryam; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Farokhian, Alireza
Introduction: Anxiety is among the most common problems experienced by coronary angiography (CA) candidates. Different modalities are used to manage anxiety. This study sought to examine the effects of a pranayama exercise on CA candidates’ anxiety. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 2015 on 80 eligible patients. The patients were randomly allocated to a control and an experimental group. Before undergoing angiography, patients in the experimental group performed sukha pranayama exercises. They were trained to breathe slowly and rhythmically at a rate of ten breathing per minute for five consecutive minutes. Patients in the control group only received routine preangiography care. Data collection tools were a demographic questionnaire and the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. The level of patients’ anxiety in both groups was measured before, half an hour after, and one hour after the intervention. The data were analyzed through doing the independent-sample t and the chi-square tests. Results: Before the intervention, the mean of anxiety score in the experimental group was 53.37, which significantly decreased to 40.75 after the intervention (P = 0.0001). In the control group, the mean of anxiety score decreased from 54.27 to 51.4. This decrease was not statistically significant. Moreover, between-group comparisons revealed significant differences between the groups regarding between-measurement mean differences of anxiety score (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Sukha pranayama is effective in alleviating CA candidates’ anxiety. PMID:28210473
Lizano-Díez, Xavier; Ginés-Cespedosa, Alberto; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Pérez-Prieto, Daniel; González-Lucena, Gemma; Gamba, Carlo; de Zabala, Santiago; Solano-López, Alberto; Rigol-Ramón, Pau
The effectiveness of corticosteroid injection for the treatment of Morton's neuroma is unclear. In addition, most of the studies related to it are case-control or retrospective case series. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness between corticosteroid injection associated with local anesthetic and local anesthetic alone (placebo control group) for the treatment of Morton's neuroma. Forty-one patients with a diagnosis of Morton's neuroma were randomized to receive 3 injections of either a corticosteroid plus a local anesthetic or a local anesthetic alone. The patients and the researcher who collected data were blinded to the treatment groups. The visual analog scale for pain and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Score (metatarsophalangeal/interphalangeal score) were obtained at baseline, after each injection, and at 3 and 6 months after the last injection. There were no significant between-group differences in terms of pain and function improvement at 3 and 6 months after treatment completion in comparison with baseline values. At the end of the study, 17 (48.5%) patients requested surgical excision of the neuroma: 7 (44%) in the experimental group and 10 (53%) in the control group ( P = 1.0). The injection of a corticosteroid plus a local anesthetic was not superior to a local anesthetic alone in terms of pain and function improvement in patients with Morton's neuroma. Level I, randomized controlled trial.
Marx, Wolfgang; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Ried, Karin; Vitetta, Luis; McKavanagh, Daniel; Thomson, Damien; Sali, Avni; Isenring, Liz
Preliminary research shows ginger may be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting but significant limitations need to be addressed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made. In a double-blinded randomised-controlled trial, chemotherapy-naïve patients will be randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of a standardised ginger extract or placebo per day. The study medication will be administrated as an adjuvant treatment to standard anti-emetic therapy and will be divided into four capsules per day, to be consumed approximately every 4 hours (300 mg per capsule administered q.i.d) for five days during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. Acute, delayed, and anticipatory symptoms of nausea and vomiting will be assessed over this time frame using a valid and reliable questionnaire, with nausea symptoms being the primary outcome. Quality of life, nutritional status, adverse effects, patient adherence, cancer-related fatigue, and CINV-specific prognostic factors will also be assessed. Previous trials in this area have noted limitations. These include the inconsistent use of standardized ginger formulations and valid questionnaires, lack of control for anticipatory nausea and prognostic factors that may influence individual CINV response, and the use of suboptimal dosing regimens. This trial is the first to address these issues by incorporating multiple unique additions to the study design including controlling for CINV-specific prognostic factors by recruiting only chemotherapy-naïve patients, implementing a dosing schedule consistent with the pharmacokinetics of oral ginger supplements, and independently analysing ginger supplements before and after recruitment to ensure potency. Our trial will also be the first to assess the effect of ginger supplementation on cancer-related fatigue and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms experienced by oncology patients; this
Borges, Natália A; Carmo, Flávia L; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; de Brito, Jessyca S; Dolenga, Carla J; Ferreira, Dennis C; Nakao, Lia S; Rosado, Alexandre; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota profile and inflammatory markers in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD). This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-six HD patients were assigned to receive 1 of 2 treatments: probiotic (n = 23; Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterialongum, 90 billion colony-forming units per day) or placebo (n = 23) daily for 3 months. Blood and feces were collected at baseline and after intervention. The inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were analyzed by immunoenzymatic assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Uremic toxins plasma levels (indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, and indole-3-acetic acid) were obtained by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Routine laboratory parameters were measured by standard techniques. Fecal pH was measured by the colorimetric method, and the gut microbiota profile was assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Sixteen patients remained in the probiotic group (11 men, 53.6 ± 11.0 year old, 25.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) and 17 in the placebo group (10 men, 50.3 ± 8.5 year old, 25.2 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)). After probiotic supplementation there was a significant increase in serum urea (from 149.6 ± 34.2 mg/dL to 172.6 ± 45.0 mg/dL, P = .02), potassium (from 4.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L to 4.8 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .02), and indoxyl sulfate (from 31.2 ± 15.9 to 36.5 ± 15.0 mg/dL, P = .02). The fecal pH was reduced from 7.2 ± 0.8 to 6.5 ± 0.5 (P = .01). These parameters did not change significantly in placebo group. Changes in the percentage delta (Δ) between groups were exhibited with no statistical differences observed. The inflammatory markers and gut profile were not altered by supplementation. Aprobiotic supplementation failed to reduce uremic toxins and
Phillips, Susan P; Hamberg, Katarina
Although observational data show social characteristics such as gender or socio-economic status to be strong predictors of health, their impact is seldom investigated in randomised controlled studies (RCTs). Using a random sample of recent RCTs from high-impact journals, we examined how the most often recorded social characteristic, sex/gender, is considered in design, analysis, and interpretation. Of 712 RCTs published from September 2008 to 31 December 2013 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Canadian Medical Association Journal, or New England Journal of Medicine, we randomly selected 57 to analyse funding, methods, number of centres, documentation of social circumstances, inclusion/exclusion criteria, proportions of women/men, and reporting about sex/gender in analyses and discussion. Participants' sex was recorded in most studies (52/57). Thirty-nine percent included men and women approximately equally. Overrepresentation of men in 43% of studies without explicit exclusions for women suggested interference in selection processes. The minority of studies that did analyse sex/gender differences (22%) did not discuss or reflect upon these, or dismissed significant findings. Two studies reinforced traditional beliefs about women's roles, finding no impact of breastfeeding on infant health but nevertheless reporting possible benefits. Questionable methods such as changing protocols mid-study, having undefined exclusion criteria, allowing local researchers to remove participants from studies, and suggesting possible benefit where none was found were evident, particularly in industry-funded research. Social characteristics like sex/gender remain hidden from analyses and interpretation in RCTs, with loss of information and embedding of error all along the path from design to interpretation, and therefore, to uptake in clinical practice. Our results suggest that to broaden external validity, in particular, more refined trial designs and
Phillips, Susan P; Hamberg, Katarina
Background Although observational data show social characteristics such as gender or socio-economic status to be strong predictors of health, their impact is seldom investigated in randomised controlled studies (RCTs). Objective & design Using a random sample of recent RCTs from high-impact journals, we examined how the most often recorded social characteristic, sex/gender, is considered in design, analysis, and interpretation. Of 712 RCTs published from September 2008 to 31 December 2013 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Canadian Medical Association Journal, or New England Journal of Medicine, we randomly selected 57 to analyse funding, methods, number of centres, documentation of social circumstances, inclusion/exclusion criteria, proportions of women/men, and reporting about sex/gender in analyses and discussion. Results Participants’ sex was recorded in most studies (52/57). Thirty-nine percent included men and women approximately equally. Overrepresentation of men in 43% of studies without explicit exclusions for women suggested interference in selection processes. The minority of studies that did analyse sex/gender differences (22%) did not discuss or reflect upon these, or dismissed significant findings. Two studies reinforced traditional beliefs about women's roles, finding no impact of breastfeeding on infant health but nevertheless reporting possible benefits. Questionable methods such as changing protocols mid-study, having undefined exclusion criteria, allowing local researchers to remove participants from studies, and suggesting possible benefit where none was found were evident, particularly in industry-funded research. Conclusions Social characteristics like sex/gender remain hidden from analyses and interpretation in RCTs, with loss of information and embedding of error all along the path from design to interpretation, and therefore, to uptake in clinical practice. Our results suggest that to broaden external
Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Iwata, Nakao
There is uncertainty about the efficacy and tolerability of blonanserin in schizophrenia. PubMed, the Cochrane Library databases, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were searched up to September 2012. A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized, controlled trials comparing blonanserin with other antipsychotics were conducted. The risk ratio (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), numbers-needed-to-harm (NNH), and weighted mean difference (WMD) were calculated. Four studies (total n = 1080) were identified (vs. risperidone studies [n = 508], vs. haloperidol studies [n = 572]). Comparing blonanserin with other pooled antipsychotics, there were no significant differences in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (p = 0.75), PANSS positive (p = 0.41), PANSS negative (p = 0.09), and PANSS general psychopathology subscale scores (p = 0.96), and response rate (p = 0.72). However, blonanserin showed greater efficacy in PANSS negative subscale scores compared with haloperidol (WMD = -1.29, CI = -2.29 to -0.30, p = 0.01, I(2) = 0%). No significant differences were found in discontinuation rates between blonanserin and other pooled antipsychotics (due to any cause: p = 0.29, inefficacy: p = 0.32, adverse events: p = 0.56). Blonanserin had a 0.31 lower risk of hyperprolactinemia than the other pooled antipsychotics (CI = 0.20-0.49, NNH = not significant). While dizziness (RR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.93, NNH = not significant) and akathisia (RR = 0.54, CI = 0.32-0.90, NNH = 7) occurred significantly less often with blonanserin than with haloperidol, blonanserin had a 1.62 higher risk of akathisia than risperidone (CI = 1.18-2.22, NNH = 8) [corrected]. Our results suggest that although blonanserin has a more beneficial effect on negative symptoms than haloperidol, there was a significant difference in the adverse events profile between blonanserin and other antipsychotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taverner, Murray; Loughnan, Terence
Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal problem and accounts for 5% of general practitioner consultations. Although many treatments are described, there is no consensus on optimal treatment and up to 40% of patients still have pain 12 months after initially seeking help for pain. Previously, the effect of transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment (TCPRFT) was evaluated in a retrospective audit that showed good pain relief for a mean 395 days and justified this randomized sham controlled trial. In this study, 51 patients entered into a randomized double-blinded, placebo controlled study of TCPRFT. Patients were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks by a blinded observer and compared with baseline. We observed sustained reductions in pain at night, pain with activity, and functional improvement at 4 and 12 weeks with active but not sham TCPRFT. The 25 subjects who received active treatment showed statistically significant reductions of 24/100 in pain at night and 20/100 of pain with activity at 4 weeks and 18/100 and 19/100, respectively, at 12 weeks from baseline. Statistically significant lower Brief Pain Inventory pain and function scores (4 and 12 weeks), improved pain self-efficacy (4 weeks), Oxford Shoulder scores (12 weeks), and internal rotation (12 weeks) were seen. Pain at both rest and shoulder elevation were not improved by active treatment. No complications were seen. This study of a simple, low risk, outpatient treatment confirms the findings of our earlier study of TCPRFT for knee pain and shoulder pain audit that transcutaneous pulsed radiofrequency treatment may help some people with painful shoulders.
de Waal, Y C M; Raghoebar, G M; Meijer, H J A; Winkel, E G; van Winkelhoff, A J
The objective of this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic, and microbiological effects of implant surface decontamination with a 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) solution in comparison with a 0.12% chlorhexidine + 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) solution during resective surgical peri-implantitis treatment. Forty-four patients (108 implants) with peri-implantitis were treated with resective surgical treatment consisting of bone re-contouring, surface debridement and chemical decontamination, and apically repositioned flap. Patients were randomly allocated to decontamination with a 2% CHX solution (test group) or 0.12% CHX + 0.05% CPC (control group). Clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded before treatment (baseline), and at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Microbiological parameters were recorded during surgery. Multilevel analysis showed no significant differences in bleeding, suppuration, probing pocket depth, and radiographic bone loss between control and test group over three follow-up measurements (3, 6, and 12 months) from baseline. Both decontamination procedures resulted in significant reductions in anaerobic bacterial counts on the implant surface, but no significant difference was noted between control and test group (mean log 3.37 ± 2.34 vs. 3.65 ± 2.87, P = 0.99). The use of a 2% CHX solution for implant surface decontamination during resective peri-implantitis therapy does not lead to improved clinical, radiographic, or microbiological results compared with a 0.12% CHX + 0.05% CPC solution. Overall, the additional use of CHX reduces anaerobic bacterial load on the implant surface better than mechanical debridement alone, but does not seem to enhance clinical treatment outcomes (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01852253). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Steib, Simon; Klamroth, Sarah; Gaßner, Heiko; Pasluosta, Cristian; Eskofier, Björn; Winkler, Jürgen; Klucken, Jochen; Pfeifer, Klaus
Gait and balance dysfunction are major symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Treadmill training improves gait characteristics in this population but does not reflect the dynamic nature of controlling balance during ambulation in everyday life contexts. To evaluate whether postural perturbations during treadmill walking lead to superior effects on gait and balance performance compared with standard treadmill training. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 43 PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage 1-3.5) were assigned to either an 8-week perturbed treadmill intervention (n = 21) or a control group (n = 22) training on the identical treadmill without perturbations. Patients were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at 3 months' follow-up. Primary endpoints were overground gait speed and balance (Mini-BESTest). Secondary outcomes included fast gait speed, walking capacity (2-Minute Walk Test), dynamic balance (Timed Up-and-Go), static balance (postural sway), and balance confidence (Activities-Specific Balance Confidence [ABC] scale). There were no significant between-group differences in change over time for the primary outcomes. At postintervention, both groups demonstrated similar improvements in overground gait speed ( P = .009), and no changes in the Mini-BESTest ( P = .641). A significant group-by-time interaction ( P = .048) existed for the Timed Up-and-Go, with improved performance only in the perturbation group. In addition, the perturbation but not the control group significantly increased walking capacity ( P = .038). Intervention effects were not sustained at follow-up. Our primary findings suggest no superior effect of perturbation training on gait and balance in PD patients. However, some favorable trends existed for secondary gait and dynamic balance parameters, which should be investigated in future trials.
Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Přemysl; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Radaelli, Franco; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Liggi, Mauro; Amato, Arnaldo; Paggi, Silvia; Smajstrla, Vit; Urban, Ondřej; Erriu, Matteo; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W
Background and study aims Single-center studies, which were retrospective and/or involved unblinded colonoscopists, have suggested that water exchange, but not water immersion, compared with air insufflation significantly increases the adenoma detection rate (ADR), particularly in the proximal and right colon. Head-to-head comparison of the three techniques with ADR as primary outcome and blinded colonoscopists has not been reported to date. In a randomized controlled trial with blinded colonoscopists, we aimed to evaluate the impact of the three insertion techniques on ADR. Patients and methods A total of 1224 patients aged 50 - 70 years (672 males) and undergoing screening colonoscopy were randomized 1:1:1 to water exchange, water immersion, or air insufflation. Split-dose bowel preparation was adopted to optimize colon cleansing. After the cecum had been reached, a second colonoscopist who was blinded to the insertion technique performed the withdrawal. The primary outcome was overall ADR according to the three insertion techniques (water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation). Secondary outcomes were other pertinent overall and right colon procedure-related measures. Results Baseline characteristics of the three groups were comparable. Compared with air insufflation, water exchange achieved a significantly higher overall ADR (49.3 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 44.3 % - 54.2 % vs. 40.4 % 95 %CI 35.6 % - 45.3 %; P = 0.03); water exchange showed comparable overall ADR vs. water immersion (43.4 %, 95 %CI 38.5 % - 48.3 %; P = 0.28). In the right colon, water exchange achieved a higher ADR than air insufflation (24.0 %, 95 %CI 20.0 % - 28.5 % vs. 16.9 %, 95 %CI 13.4 % - 20.9 %; P = 0.04) and a higher advanced ADR (6.1 %, 95 %CI 4.0 % - 9.0 % vs. 2.5 %, 95 %CI 1.2 % - 4.6 %; P = 0.03). Compared with air insufflation, the mean number of adenomas
MacDonald, Thomas M; Williams, Bryan; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Mackenzie, Isla S; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian; Brown, Morris J
Introduction Previous studies have suggested that more intensive initial therapy for hypertension results in better long-term blood pressure (BP) control. We test this hypothesis comparing initial monotherapy with dual therapy in the management of essential hypertension. Methods and analysis The study is a prospective, multicentre, double-blind, active-controlled trial in patients with essential hypertension. Around 50% of patients studied will be newly diagnosed and the others will be known hypertensives who previously received only monotherapy. The trial is divided into three phases as follows: Phase 1 (Week 0–Week 16): Randomised, parallel-group, masked assignation to either combination or monotherapy. Phase 2 (Week 17–Week 32): Open-label combination therapy. Phase 3 (Week 33–Week 52): Open-label combination therapy plus open-label add-on (if BP is above 140/90 mm Hg). Hierarchical primary end points are: a comparison of home BP (home systolic blood pressure (HSBP)) averaged over the duration of phase 1 and 2 in the combination versus monotherapy arms. If combination is superior in this analysis, then the averaged mean HSBP between initial monotherapy and initial combination therapy at the end of phase 2 will be compared. Secondary end points include: BP control at 1 year; the role of age, baseline renin, sodium status, plasma volume, haemodynamic compensation and peripheral resistance on BP control; validation of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence/British Hypertension Society joint guideline algorithm; safety and tolerability of combination therapy; and the impact of combination versus monotherapy on left ventricular mass and aortic pulse wave velocity. A sample size of 536 (268 in each group) will have 90% power to detect a difference in means of 4 mm Hg. Ethics and dissemination PATHWAY 1 was approved by UK ethics (REC Reference 09/H0308/132). Trial results will be published and all participating subjects will be informed of the
Moini, Ashraf; Ebrahimi, Tabandeh; Shirzad, Nooshin; Hosseini, Reihaneh; Radfar, Mania; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Jafari-Adli, Shahrzad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hemmatabadi, Mahboobeh
Dysmenorrhea is common among women of reproductive age. This study aim was to investigate the effect of vitamin D (vit D) supplementation in treatment of primary dysmenorrhea with vit D deficiency. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 women with primary dysmenorrhea and vit D deficiency referred to our clinic at Arash Women's Hospital from September 2013 to December 2014. Eligible women were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups (30 in each group). Individuals in the treatment group received 50 000 IU oral vit D and the control group received placebo weekly for eight weeks. After two months of treatment, there was a significant difference in serum vit D concentration between the two groups (p < 0.001). Pain severity decreased significantly in treatment group after eight weeks of treatment. There was a significant difference in pain intensity between the two groups after eight weeks of treatment and one month after the end of treatment (p < 0.001 for both). A weekly high dose (50 000 IU) oral vit D supplementation for eight weeks in patients with primary dysmenorrhea and vit D deficiency could improve pain intensity.
% versus ↓12%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.081). Patterns of change in SF-36, systemic inflammation biomarkers, and the 6-minute walk test did not differ significantly between groups during the 8-week study Conclusions Results from this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled community trial support the use of the Instaflex™ dietary supplement in alleviating joint pain severity in middle-aged and older adults, with mitigation of difficulty performing daily activities most apparent in subjects with knee pain. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01956500 PMID:24274358
Haïk, Stéphane; Marcon, Gabriella; Mallet, Alain; Tettamanti, Mauro; Welaratne, Arlette; Giaccone, Giorgio; Azimi, Shohreh; Pietrini, Vladimiro; Fabreguettes, Jean-Roch; Imperiale, Daniele; Cesaro, Pierre; Buffa, Carlo; Aucan, Christophe; Lucca, Ugo; Peckeu, Laurène; Suardi, Silvia; Tranchant, Christine; Zerr, Inga; Houillier, Caroline; Redaelli, Veronica; Vespignani, Hervé; Campanella, Angela; Sellal, François; Krasnianski, Anna; Seilhean, Danielle; Heinemann, Uta; Sedel, Frédéric; Canovi, Mara; Gobbi, Marco; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Salmona, Mario; Forloni, Gianluigi; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Tagliavini, Fabrizio
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal, untreatable prion encephalopathy. Previous studies showed that doxycycline is effective in in-vitro and in-vivo models of disease, and patients with CJD who received compassionate treatment with doxycycline showed increased survival time compared with historical series. We therefore did a randomised, double-blind study of doxycycline versus placebo in CJD. We recruited patients older than 18 years old who had a diagnosis of definite or probable sporadic CJD or genetic forms of the disease via Italian reference centres and the French national referral system. Patients were randomly assigned (ratio 1:1) to receive oral doxycycline (100 mg daily) or placebo under double-blind conditions from the day of randomisation to death. Centralised randomisation was done independently of enrolment or evaluation of patients using a minimisation method in Italy and a simple randomisation in France. Participants, caregivers, and clinicians were masked to group assignment. The primary efficacy variable was the survival time from randomisation. Interim analyses were planned to detect a significant effect of treatment as early as possible. This trial is registered with EudraCT, 2006-001858-27 for the Italian study and 2007-005553-34 for the French study. From April 12, 2007, to Aug 19, 2010, in Italy, and from Jan 30, 2009, to Jan 10, 2012, in France, 121 patients with CJD were enrolled in the study, 62 of whom were randomly assigned to the treatment group and 59 to the placebo group. The first interim analysis showed absence of superiority of doxycycline compared with placebo, and the trial was stopped for futility. Efficacy analyses did not show significant differences between patients treated with doxycycline and placebo with regard to survival times (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.7, p=0.50). Serious adverse events were judged not to be related to treatment, whereas a relation was deemed probable or possible for five non-serious adverse events
Ball, Greg; Silverman, Michael H
Ongoing safety monitoring of clinical trials of investigational treatments must operate at levels that range from the minute and detailed - namely, mathematical treatment of trial data - to the philosophical and societal - namely, ethical concerns for individuals and populations. Between those two poles lies a realm of environmental and pragmatic considerations that reflect the goals, biases, risk-tolerance, and constraints of study sponsors and organizers. These factors, while more difficult to quantify or, at times, to justify, also have a meaningful impact on the approach to safety monitoring and the resulting actions and outcomes. This paper considers the influence and interaction of two such factors, study design and statistical framework, on continuous safety monitoring procedures. Group sequential designs have been generally preferred for clinical trials over continuous sequential designs because of practical considerations. The group means and greater time for deliberation when using a group sequential procedure, as opposed to a continuous sequential procedure, can improve the quality of the analyses with minimal loss in sensitivity. However, undertaking any sequential analysis within a frequentist framework provokes considerable theoretical and practical difficulties. Continuous monitoring with a likelihood based method, on the other hand, has the advantages that all available information, including new data, can be used; sample sizes need not be fixed; and decisions can be made at any time without statistical penalty, irrespective of trial design. Such responsive statistical rules are needed to provide guidance to the human beings charged with trial monitoring.
König, Daniel; Zdzieblik, Denise; Holz, Anja; Theis, Stephan; Gollhofer, Albert
(1) OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of isomaltulose (Palatinose™, PSE) vs. maltodextrin (MDX) ingestion on substrate utilization during endurance exercise and subsequent time trial performance; (2) METHODS: 20 male athletes performed two experimental trials with ingestion of either 75 g PSE or MDX 45 min before the start of exercise. The exercise protocol consisted of 90 min cycling (60% VO₂max) followed by a time trial; (3) RESULTS: Time trial finishing time (-2.7%, 90% CI: ±3.0%, 89% likely beneficial; p = 0.147) and power output during the final 5 min (+4.6%, 90% CI: ±4.0%, 93% likely beneficial; p = 0.053) were improved with PSE compared with MDX. The blood glucose profile differed between trials (p = 0.013) with PSE resulting in lower glycemia during rest (95%-99% likelihood) and higher blood glucose concentrations during exercise (63%-86% likelihood). In comparison to MDX, fat oxidation was higher (88%-99% likelihood; p = 0.005) and carbohydrate oxidation was lower following PSE intake (85%-96% likelihood; p = 0.002). (4) CONCLUSION: PSE maintained a more stable blood glucose profile and higher fat oxidation during exercise which resulted in improved cycling performance compared with MDX. These results could be explained by the slower availability and the low-glycemic properties of Palatinose™ allowing a greater reliance on fat oxidation and sparing of glycogen during the initial endurance exercise.
König, Daniel; Zdzieblik, Denise; Holz, Anja; Theis, Stephan; Gollhofer, Albert
(1) Objective: To compare the effects of isomaltulose (Palatinose™, PSE) vs. maltodextrin (MDX) ingestion on substrate utilization during endurance exercise and subsequent time trial performance; (2) Methods: 20 male athletes performed two experimental trials with ingestion of either 75 g PSE or MDX 45 min before the start of exercise. The exercise protocol consisted of 90 min cycling (60% VO2max) followed by a time trial; (3) Results: Time trial finishing time (−2.7%, 90% CI: ±3.0%, 89% likely beneficial; p = 0.147) and power output during the final 5 min (+4.6%, 90% CI: ±4.0%, 93% likely beneficial; p = 0.053) were improved with PSE compared with MDX. The blood glucose profile differed between trials (p = 0.013) with PSE resulting in lower glycemia during rest (95%–99% likelihood) and higher blood glucose concentrations during exercise (63%–86% likelihood). In comparison to MDX, fat oxidation was higher (88%–99% likelihood; p = 0.005) and carbohydrate oxidation was lower following PSE intake (85%–96% likelihood; p = 0.002). (4) Conclusion: PSE maintained a more stable blood glucose profile and higher fat oxidation during exercise which resulted in improved cycling performance compared with MDX. These results could be explained by the slower availability and the low-glycemic properties of Palatinose™ allowing a greater reliance on fat oxidation and sparing of glycogen during the initial endurance exercise. PMID:27347996
Mowla, Arash; Dastgheib, Seyed Ali; Razeghian Jahromi, Leila
Selecting the most effective treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sertraline with duloxetine on major depression signs and symptoms. The trial was a 6-week, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Sixty-three patients with diagnosis of MDD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were randomly assigned to receive either duloxetine (31 patients) or sertraline (32 patients). The mean dosage of duloxetine was 55 mg/day (range 40-60 mg/day) and the mean dosage of sertraline was 146 mg/day (range 50-200 mg/day). Subjects were assessed at baseline, and at the end of week 6. Depression severity and symptoms were assessed by 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Of 63 patients who were randomized to treatment, 54 patients including 28 in the sertraline group and 26 in the duloxetine group completed the trial. The HAM-D total score for both groups was significantly reduced at the end of the trial period without significant difference from each other (p = 0.463). Of the symptoms studied, psychomotor retardation, general somatic symptoms and sexual problems improved more in the duloxetine group. On the other hand, agitation, anxiety symptoms and hypochondriasis ameliorated better in the sertraline group. There was no difference between the two groups regarding the other symptoms. Our study shows that the antidepressant mechanism of action has influence on its effects on different signs and symptoms. Clinician awareness of an antidepressant's special effects can help in selecting appropriate medicine.
Kuan, Jew-Win; Su, Anselm-Ting; Wong, Shu-Ping; Sim, Xavier Yoon-Han; Toh, See-Guan; Ong, Tee-Chuan; Rajasuriarr, Jay-Suria; Lim, Su-Hong; Guan, Yong-Khee; Liew, Hong-Keng; Liew, Pek-Kuen; Tan, Jerome Tsen-Chuen; Kori, Ahlam-Naila; Cheng, Yuin-Yin; Tan, Sen-Mui; Chang, Kian-Meng
There are few randomized trials comparing filgrastim and pegfilgrastim in peripheral blood stem cell mobilization (PBSCM). None of the trials studied the effects of the timing of pegfilgrastim administration on the outcomes of mobilization. We conducted a randomized triple blind control trial comparing the outcomes of filgrastim 5 µg/kg daily from day 3 onwards, 'early' pegfilgrastim 6 mg on day 3 and 'delayed' pegfilgrastim 6 mg on day 7 in cyclophosphamide PBSCM in patients with no previous history of mobilization. Peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cell count was checked on day 8 and day 11 onward. Apheresis was started when PB CD34+ ≥ 10/µl from day 11 onward. The primary outcome was the successful mobilization rate, defined as cumulative collection of ≥ 2 × 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells in three or less apheresis. The secondary outcomes were the day of neutrophil and platelet engraftment post transplantation. There were 156 patients randomized and 134 patients' data analyzed. Pegfilgrastim 6 mg day 7 produced highest percentage of successful mobilization, 34 out of 48 (70.8%) analyzed patients, followed by daily filgrastim, 28 out of 44 (63.6%) and day 3 pegfilgrastim, 20 out of 42 (47.6%) (p = 0.075). Pegfilgrastim day 7 and daily filgrastim reported 1.48 (p = 0.014) and 1.49 (p = 0.013) times higher successful mobilization rate respectively as compared to pegfilgrastim day 3 after adjusting for disease, gender and exposure to myelotoxic agent. Multiple myeloma patients were three times more likely to achieve successful mobilization as compared to acute leukemia or lymphoma patients. Pegfilgrastim avoided the overshoot of white cells compared to filgrastim. There was no difference in the duration of both white cells and platelet recovery post transplantation between the three interventional arms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Jonghe, Annemarieke; van Munster, Barbara C.; Goslings, J. Carel; Kloen, Peter; van Rees, Carolien; Wolvius, Reinder; van Velde, Romuald; Levi, Marcel; de Haan, Rob J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.
Background: Disturbance of the sleep–wake cycle is a characteristic of delirium. In addition, changes in melatonin rhythm influence the circadian rhythm and are associated with delirium. We compared the effect of melatonin and placebo on the incidence and duration of delirium. Methods: We performed this multicentre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial between November 2008 and May 2012 in 1 academic and 2 nonacademic hospitals. Patients aged 65 years or older who were scheduled for acute hip surgery were eligible for inclusion. Patients received melatonin 3 mg or placebo in the evening for 5 consecutive days, starting within 24 hours after admission. The primary outcome was incidence of delirium within 8 days of admission. We also monitored the duration of delirium. Results: A total of 452 patients were randomly assigned to the 2 study groups. We subsequently excluded 74 patients for whom the primary end point could not be measured or who had delirium before the second day of the study. After these postrandomization exclusions, data for 378 patients were included in the main analysis. The overall mean age was 84 years, 238 (63.0%) of the patients lived at home before admission, and 210 (55.6%) had cognitive impairment. We observed no effect of melatonin on the incidence of delirium: 55/186 (29.6%) in the melatonin group v. 49/192 (25.5%) in the placebo group; difference 4.1 (95% confidence interval −0.05 to 13.1) percentage points. There were no between-group differences in mortality or in cognitive or functional outcomes at 3-month follow-up. Interpretation: In this older population with hip fracture, treatment with melatonin did not reduce the incidence of delirium. Trial registration: Netherlands Trial Registry, NTR1576: MAPLE (Melatonin Against PLacebo in Elderly patients) study; www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1576 PMID:25183726
Nowak, Albina; Boesch, Lukas; Andres, Erik; Battegay, Edouard; Hornemann, Thorsten; Schmid, Christoph; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Suter, Paolo M; Krayenbuehl, Pierre-Alexandre
Vitamin D deficiency is frequent and has been associated with fatigue in uncontrolled trials. This is the first double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of per os vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in treating fatigue among otherwise healthy persons with low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. We enrolled 120 individuals (mean age 29 ± 6 years, 53% women) presenting with fatigue and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D < 20 μg/L). Participants were randomized to a single oral dose of 100,000 units of vitamin D or placebo. The primary endpoint was intra-individual change in the fatigue assessment scale (FAS) at 4 weeks after treatment. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 6 years, 53% were women. Mean FAS decreased significantly more in the vitamin D group (-3.3 ± 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] for change -14.1 to 4.1) compared with placebo (-0.8 ± 5.3; 95% CI for change -9.0 to 8.7); (P = 0.01). Amelioration of fatigue was reported more frequently in vitamin D than in placebo group (42 [72%] vs. 31 [50%]; P = 0.01; odds ratio [OR] 2.63, 95% CI for OR 1.23-5.62). Among all participants, improvement in fatigue score correlated with the rise in 25(OH)D level (R = -0.22, P = 0.02). Vitamin D treatment significantly improved fatigue in otherwise healthy persons with vitamin D deficiency.This study was registered at the www.ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol ID NCT02022475.
Background Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) is widely used to prevent acute mountain sickness in the Himalayan areas and in Tibet, but no scientific studies have previously examined its effectiveness. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to investigate its efficacy in acute mountain sickness prevention. Methods Healthy adult volunteers were randomized to 2 treatment sequences, receiving either 800 mg R. crenulata extract or placebo daily for 7 days before ascent and 2 days during mountaineering, before crossing over to the alternate treatment after a 3-month wash-out period. Participants ascended rapidly from 250 m to 3421 m on two separate occasions: December 2010 and April 2011. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of acute mountain sickness, as defined by a Lake Louise score ≥ 3, with headache and at least one of the symptoms of nausea or vomiting, fatigue, dizziness, or difficulty sleeping. Results One hundred and two participants completed the trial. There were no demographic differences between individuals taking Rhodiola-placebo and those taking placebo-Rhodiola. No significant differences in the incidence of acute mountain sickness were found between R. crenulata extract and placebo groups (all 60.8%; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–1.52). The incidence of severe acute mountain sickness in Rhodiola extract vs. placebo groups was 35.3% vs. 29.4% (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.90–2.25). Conclusions R. crenulata extract was not effective in reducing the incidence or severity of acute mountain sickness as compared to placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01536288. PMID:24176010
Cheng, Steven C.; Young, Daniel O.; Huang, Yihung; Delmez, James A.; Coyne, Daniel W.
Background and objectives: Niacinamide inhibits intestinal sodium/phosphorus transporters and reduces serum phosphorus in open-label studies. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed for assessment of the safety and efficacy of niacinamide. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Hemodialysis patients with phosphorus levels ≥5.0 mg/dl were randomly assigned to 8 wk of niacinamide or placebo, titrated from 500 to 1500 mg/d. After a 2-wk washout period, patients switched to 8 wk of the alternative therapy. Vitamin D analogs and calcimimetics were held constant; phosphorus binders were not changed unless safety criteria were met. Results: Thirty-three patients successfully completed the trial. Serum phosphorus fell significantly from 6.26 to 5.47 mg/dl with niacinamide but not with placebo (5.85 to 5.98 mg/dl). A concurrent fall in calcium-phosphorus product was seen with niacinamide, whereas serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, uric acid, platelet, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol levels remained stable in both arms. Serum HDL levels rose with niacinamide (50 to 61 mg/dl but not with placebo. Adverse effects were similar between both groups. Among patients who were ≥80% compliant, results were similar, although the decrease in serum phosphorus with niacinamide was more pronounced (6.45 to 5.28 mg/dl) and the increase in HDL approached significance (49 to 58 mg/dl). Conclusions: In hemodialysis patients, niacinamide effectively reduces serum phosphorus when co-administered with binders and results in a potentially advantageous increase in HDL cholesterol. Further study in larger randomized trials and other chronic kidney disease populations is indicated. PMID:18385391
Cheng, Steven C; Young, Daniel O; Huang, Yihung; Delmez, James A; Coyne, Daniel W
Niacinamide inhibits intestinal sodium/phosphorus transporters and reduces serum phosphorus in open-label studies. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed for assessment of the safety and efficacy of niacinamide. Hemodialysis patients with phosphorus levels > or =5.0 mg/dl were randomly assigned to 8 wk of niacinamide or placebo, titrated from 500 to 1500 mg/d. After a 2-wk washout period, patients switched to 8 wk of the alternative therapy. Vitamin D analogs and calcimimetics were held constant; phosphorus binders were not changed unless safety criteria were met. Thirty-three patients successfully completed the trial. Serum phosphorus fell significantly from 6.26 to 5.47 mg/dl with niacinamide but not with placebo (5.85 to 5.98 mg/dl). A concurrent fall in calcium-phosphorus product was seen with niacinamide, whereas serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone, uric acid, platelet, triglyceride, LDL, and total cholesterol levels remained stable in both arms. Serum HDL levels rose with niacinamide (50 to 61 mg/dl but not with placebo. Adverse effects were similar between both groups. Among patients who were > or =80% compliant, results were similar, although the decrease in serum phosphorus with niacinamide was more pronounced (6.45 to 5.28 mg/dl) and the increase in HDL approached significance (49 to 58 mg/dl). In hemodialysis patients, niacinamide effectively reduces serum phosphorus when co-administered with binders and results in a potentially advantageous increase in HDL cholesterol. Further study in larger randomized trials and other chronic kidney disease populations is indicated.
Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Jimmy; Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary
To examine effects of different antipsychotic discontinuation strategies on clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia undergoing a switch to clozapine. This pilot, 8-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted from May 1999 to July 2004. Outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and eligible for a switch to clozapine were included. Participants were randomly assigned to the immediate discontinuation (prior antipsychotics were discontinued at baseline) or gradual discontinuation (prior antipsychotics were reduced by 25% each week) group. For each group, clozapine was gradually increased to 300 mg/d at day 12, with this dose maintained for 3 weeks and thereafter adjusted as needed. Clinical outcome measures included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), UKU Side Effect Rating Scale, and extrapyramidal symptoms scales. Thirty-three patients were enrolled; 15 and 18 patients were assigned to the immediate and gradual discontinuation groups, respectively. While significant improvements were observed in BPRS total scores after the switch to clozapine in both groups (P values < .001), no significant differences were found on any clinical outcome measures between the groups; however, additional analyses revealed a significant interaction between group and time for the UKU Psychic Side Effects subscale scores (P = .038). This preliminary study demonstrated no statistically significant differences in efficacy or tolerability between immediate and gradual antipsychotic discontinuation strategies when switching to clozapine in patients with schizophrenia; however, due to the small sample size, larger-scale trials are needed to confirm these results. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02640300.
Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Mardani, Roya; Hamidi, Seiran; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz
To date, no medication has been approved as an effective treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Topiramate has attracted considerable attention as a treatment for the dependence on alcohol and stimulants. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of topiramate for methamphetamine dependence. This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. In the present investigation, 62 methamphetamine-dependent adults were enrolled and randomized into two groups, and received topiramate or a placebo for 10 weeks in escalating doses from 50 mg/day to the target maintenance dose of 200 mg/day. Addiction severity index (ASI) and craving scores were registered every week. The Beck questionnaire was also given to each participant at baseline and every 2 weeks during the treatment. Urine samples were collected at baseline and every 2 weeks during the treatment. Fifty-seven patients completed 10 weeks of the trial. There was no significant difference between both groups in the mean percentage of prescribed capsules taken by the participants. At week six, the topiramate group showed a significantly lower proportion of methamphetamine-positive urine tests in comparison with the placebo group (P = 0.01). In addition, there were significantly lower scores in the topiramate group in comparison with the placebo group in two domains of ASI: drug use severity (P < 0.001) and drug need (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the craving score (duration) significantly declined in the topiramate patients compared to those receiving the placebo. In conclusion, the results of this trial suggest that topiramate may be beneficial for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.
Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Brainin, Michael; Bornstein, Natan M; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hong, Zhen
Cerebrolysin showed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties in various preclinical models of ischemia and small clinical trials. The aim of this large double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was to test its efficacy and safety in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke were randomized within 12 hours of symptoms onset to active treatment (30 mL Cerebrolysin daily) or placebo (saline solution) given as intravenous infusion for 10 days in addition to aspirin (100 mg daily). The patients were followed up to 90 days. The primary end point was the result of a combined global directional test of modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Adverse events were documented to assess safety. A total of 1070 patients were enrolled in this study. Five hundred twenty-nine patients were assigned to Cerebrolysin and 541 to placebo. The confirmatory end point showed no significant difference between the treatment groups. When stratified by severity however, a post hoc analysis of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale showed a trend in favor of Cerebrolysin in patients with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale >12 (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale: OR, 1.27; CI lower bound, 0.97; modified Rankin Scale: OR, 1.27; CI lower bound, 0.90). In this subgroup, the cumulative mortality by 90 days was 20.2% in the placebo and 10.5% in the Cerebrolysin group (hazard ratio, 1.9661; CI lower bound, 1.0013). In this study, the confirmatory end point showed neutral results between the treatment groups. However, a favorable outcome trend was seen in the severely affected patients with ischemic stroke treated with Cerebrolysin. This observation should be confirmed by a further clinical trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00868283.
Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Lahiji, Mohammad Niakan; Hassani, Valiollah; Mozari, Shakiba
The present study was carried out to examine this hypothesis that administration of selenium can prevent the development of injuries by brain trauma and thus can modulate patients' functional recovery and also improve posttraumatic outcome. This double-blinded controlled trial was carried out on 113 patients who were hospitalized following traumatic brain injury (TBI) with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4-12 that were randomly assigned to receive selenium within 8 h after injury plus standard treatment group or routine standard treatment alone as the control. The primary endpoint was to assess patients' functional recovery at 2 months after the injury based on extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score (GOS-E). Secondary outcomes included the changes in Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score (FOUR) score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score, side effects of selenium, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and length of hospital stay. There was no difference in the length of ICU and hospital stay, the trend of the change in FOUR and SOFA scores within 15 days of first interventions, and the mean APACHE III score on the 1(st) and 15(th) days between the two groups. Mortality was 15.8% in selenium group and 19.6% in control group with no between-group difference. No difference was revealed between the two groups in appropriate outcome according to GOS-E score at 60 ± 10 days and also 30 ± 5 days according to the severity of TBI. This human trial study could not demonstrate beneficial effects of intravenous infusion of selenium in the improvement of outcomes in patients with acute TBI.
Quillinan, N P; McIntosh, D; Vernes, J; Haq, S; Denton, C P
Objective The primary objective of the study was to explore safety and tolerability of hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO) in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary objectives included assessment of potential efficacy and biological activity and exploration of candidate biomarkers. Methods This was a double-blind parallel group randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. After informed consent 20 patients with established diffuse cutaneous SSc of greater than 3 years duration not receiving immunosuppressive therapy were randomised to receive either active (n=10) or placebo formulation (n=10) by subcutaneous twice weekly injection over 26 weeks. Clinical assessments were evaluated over 26 weeks. Results There were no safety concerns during this study. Frequency of adverse events was not different between active and placebo groups. Mean modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) fell by 1.4±4.7 units with active treatment but increased by 2.1±6.4 units on placebo when baseline values were compared with 26 weeks and responder analysis showed clinically meaningful improvement in mRSS at 26 weeks in 5 (50%) of actively treated patients compared with 1 (10%) in the control group (p=0.062). PIIINP (µg/L) showed a comparatively larger increase in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, (p=0.0118). Conclusions These results confirm tolerability and safety of this novel biological agent in established diffuse SSc. The value of a placebo treated control group in small clinical trials evaluating skin disease in SSc is confirmed. Potential improvement in mRSS and changes in PIIINP in cases receiving active therapy suggest that this intervention may be of clinical benefit and warrants further evaluation. PMID:24067785
Quillinan, N P; McIntosh, D; Vernes, J; Haq, S; Denton, C P
The primary objective of the study was to explore safety and tolerability of hyperimmune caprine serum (AIMSPRO) in established diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary objectives included assessment of potential efficacy and biological activity and exploration of candidate biomarkers. This was a double-blind parallel group randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. After informed consent 20 patients with established diffuse cutaneous SSc of greater than 3 years duration not receiving immunosuppressive therapy were randomised to receive either active (n=10) or placebo formulation (n=10) by subcutaneous twice weekly injection over 26 weeks. Clinical assessments were evaluated over 26 weeks. There were no safety concerns during this study. Frequency of adverse events was not different between active and placebo groups. Mean modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) fell by 1.4±4.7 units with active treatment but increased by 2.1±6.4 units on placebo when baseline values were compared with 26 weeks and responder analysis showed clinically meaningful improvement in mRSS at 26 weeks in 5 (50%) of actively treated patients compared with 1 (10%) in the control group (p=0.062). PIIINP (µg/L) showed a comparatively larger increase in the treatment group compared with the placebo group, (p=0.0118). These results confirm tolerability and safety of this novel biological agent in established diffuse SSc. The value of a placebo treated control group in small clinical trials evaluating skin disease in SSc is confirmed. Potential improvement in mRSS and changes in PIIINP in cases receiving active therapy suggest that this intervention may be of clinical benefit and warrants further evaluation.
Seyyedrasooli, Alehe; Parvan, Kobra; Valizadeh, Leila; Rahmani, Azad; Zare, Maryam; Izadi, Tayyebeh
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic and non-communicable disorders worldwide and the mortality rates caused by the complications associated with the disease, such as diabetic foot ulcer, is increasing dramatically. Patient education is considered as an essential part of controlling DM. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of individual and group training methods on self-efficacy in foot care among the patients with DM. Methods In this single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 150 patients with type 1 and 2 DM. The final participants were randomly assigned into two intervention groups (collective and individual training group) and a control group. Data were collected using foot-care self-efficacy questionnaire (Corrbet, 2003). A research assistant collected the data by interviewing the participants using the questionnaire once before and once one month after the intervention. The participants of the intervention groups attended a training program consisting of three sessions per week for one week. Statistical descriptive tests such as mean and standard deviation (SD) percentage were used to describe the features of the data inferential statistics test such as Chi-square, independent t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis co-variance (ANOVA, ANCOVA) tests were also used as appropriate. The significance level was set at <0.05. Results The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the three groups regarding the mean of self-efficacy scores before foot-care training intervention (P=0.39). But, comparison of the scores before and after the intervention showed that both group and individual training interventions increased the patients’ self-efficacy (P≤0/05). Conclusion It can be concluded that both group and individual training approaches could increase foot care self-efficacy in the patients with DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201203086918N6. PMID
Cheechareoan, Sukrom; Pathanawiriyasirikul, Thanate; Manmee, Charuwan; Janpol, Kanya
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a standard treatment option for muscle strain; however, side effects persist. This clinical trial was designed to compare the efficacy of Plai cream compared to placebos in adult patients with muscle strain. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 140 participants aged over 18 years with muscle strain were randomized to receive either Plai cream (n = 70 patients, treatment group) or placebos (n = 70 patients, control group) . Outcome assessments included the visual analog scale (VAS), quality of life (QoL), the amount of remaining cream, and the number of acetaminophen tablets used. After 2 weeks, the mean pain scores following treatment with both Plai cream and placebos in patients with muscle strain decreased from baseline to the end of the study at week 2. However, no significant difference for VA S score was found. The QoL of the two groups showed improvements in QoL as witnessed by increased mean QoL scores from baseline to week 2; however, these differences were not statistically significant. In general, mean QoL scores above 50 indicate good quality of life. The amount of Plai cream used reduced from baseline to week 2, but no significant difference in the amount of cream remaining was found between the two groups at each visit. Similarly, the number of acetaminophen tablets used was not statistically different between the treatment and control groups. There was no difference in pain reduction in the 2-week period between patients with muscle strain using Plai cream and those given placebos, but Plai cream tended to reduce pain in the long term. No side effects were found from Plai cream, so this non-invasive treatment may be offered to patients.
Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Lahiji, Mohammad Niakan; Hassani, Valiollah; Mozari, Shakiba
Aim: The present study was carried out to examine this hypothesis that administration of selenium can prevent the development of injuries by brain trauma and thus can modulate patients’ functional recovery and also improve posttraumatic outcome. Materials and Methods: This double-blinded controlled trial was carried out on 113 patients who were hospitalized following traumatic brain injury (TBI) with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4–12 that were randomly assigned to receive selenium within 8 h after injury plus standard treatment group or routine standard treatment alone as the control. The primary endpoint was to assess patients’ functional recovery at 2 months after the injury based on extended Glasgow Outcome Scale score (GOS-E). Secondary outcomes included the changes in Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score (FOUR) score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) III score, side effects of selenium, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and length of hospital stay. Results: There was no difference in the length of ICU and hospital stay, the trend of the change in FOUR and SOFA scores within 15 days of first interventions, and the mean APACHE III score on the 1st and 15th days between the two groups. Mortality was 15.8% in selenium group and 19.6% in control group with no between-group difference. No difference was revealed between the two groups in appropriate outcome according to GOS-E score at 60 ± 10 days and also 30 ± 5 days according to the severity of TBI. Conclusion: This human trial study could not demonstrate beneficial effects of intravenous infusion of selenium in the improvement of outcomes in patients with acute TBI. PMID:28250601
TURNER, Abigail Norris; REESE, Patricia CARR; FIELDS, Karen S.; ANDERSON, Julie; ERVIN, Melissa; DAVIS, John A.; FICHOROVA, Raina N.; ROBERTS, Mysheika Williams; KLEBANOFF, Mark A.; JACKSON, Rebecca D.
Objective Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with increased prevalence of the reproductive tract condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on BV recurrence. Study design This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled 118 women with symptomatic BV from an urban STD clinic (clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01450462). All participants received 500mg oral metronidazole twice daily for seven days. Intervention participants (n=59) also received nine doses of 50,000 international units of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) over 24 weeks; control women (n=59) received matching placebo. Recurrent BV was assessed via Nugent scoring after 4, 12 and 24 weeks. We assessed the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat approach, fitting Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate recurrent BV over the follow-up period. Results Most participants (74%) were black, with a median age of 26 years. Median presupplementation serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was similar across randomization arms: 16.6 ng/mL in the vitamin D arm and 15.8 ng/mL in the control arm. At trial completion, median 25(OH)D among women receiving vitamin D was 30.5 ng/mL, vs 17.8 ng/mL in control women; 16% of women receiving vitamin D and 57% receiving placebo remained vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL). BV prevalence among women randomized to vitamin D was very similar to those randomized to placebo at the 4- and 12-week visits, but by the 24-week visit, BV prevalence was 65% among women in the vitamin D arm and 48% among control women. BV recurrence was not reduced by vitamin D supplementation (intention-to-treat hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.81). Among women experiencing recurrent BV, median time to recurrence was 13.7 weeks in the vitamin D arm and 14.3 weeks in the control arm. Conclusions Women receiving vitamin D experienced significant increases in serum 25
Turner, Abigail Norris; Carr Reese, Patricia; Fields, Karen S; Anderson, Julie; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A; Fichorova, Raina N; Roberts, Mysheika Williams; Klebanoff, Mark A; Jackson, Rebecca D
Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with increased prevalence of the reproductive tract condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on BV recurrence. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled 118 women with symptomatic BV from an urban sexually transmitted disease clinic (clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01450462). All participants received 500 mg of oral metronidazole twice daily for 7 days. Intervention participants (n = 59) also received 9 doses of 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) over 24 weeks; control women (n = 59) received matching placebo. Recurrent BV was assessed via Nugent scoring after 4, 12, and 24 weeks. We assessed the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat approach, fitting Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate recurrent BV over the follow-up period. Most participants (74%) were black, with a median age of 26 years. Median presupplementation serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was similar across randomization arms: 16.6 ng/mL in the vitamin D arm and 15.8 ng/mL in the control arm. At trial completion, median 25(OH)D among women receiving vitamin D was 30.5 ng/mL, vs 17.8 ng/mL in control women; 16% of women receiving vitamin D and 57% receiving placebo remained vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL). BV prevalence among women randomized to vitamin D was very similar to those randomized to placebo at the 4- and 12-week visits, but by the 24-week visit, BV prevalence was 65% among women in the vitamin D arm and 48% among control women. BV recurrence was not reduced by vitamin D supplementation (intention-to-treat hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.81). Among women experiencing recurrent BV, median time to recurrence was 13.7 weeks in the vitamin D arm and 14.3 weeks in the control arm. Women receiving vitamin D experienced significant increases in serum 25(OH)D, but this increase was not
Boutron, Isabelle; Guittet, Lydia; Estellat, Candice; Moher, David; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Ravaud, Philippe
Background Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on “creative” (nonstandard) methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. Methods and Findings We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment), or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography), or adjudications of clinical events. Conclusions This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials. PMID:17311468
Background The vulnerability of newborn babies' skin creates the potential for a number of skin problems. Despite this, there remains a dearth of good quality evidence to inform practice. Published studies comparing water with a skin-cleansing product have not provided adequate data to inform an adequately powered trial. Nor have they distinguished between babies with and without a predisposition to atopic eczema. We conducted a pilot study as a prequel to designing an optimum trial to investigate whether bathing with a specific cleansing product is superior to bathing with water alone. The aims were to produce baseline data which would inform decisions for the main trial design (i.e. population, primary outcome, sample size calculation) and to optimize the robustness of trial processes within the study setting. Methods 100 healthy, full term neonates aged <24 hours were randomly assigned to bathing with water and cotton wool (W) or with a cleaning product (CP). A minimum of bathing 3 times per week was advocated. Groups were stratified according to family history of atopic eczema. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration and skin surface pH were measured within 24 hours of birth and at 4 and 8 weeks post birth. Measurements were taken on the thigh, forearm and abdomen. Women also completed questionnaires and diaries to record bathing practices and medical treatments. Results Forty nine babies were randomized to cleansing product, 51 to water. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the average TEWL measurement at each time point were: whole sample at baseline: 10.8 g/m2/h to 11.7 g/m2/h; CP group 4 weeks: 10.9 g/m2/h to 13.3 g/m2/h; 8 weeks: 11.4 g/m2/h to 12.9 g/m2/h; W group 4 weeks:10.9 g/m2/h to 12.2 g/m2/h; 8 weeks: 11.4 g/m2/h to 12.9 g/m2/h. Conclusion This pilot study provided valuable baseline data and important information on trial processes. The decision to proceed with a superiority trial, for example, was inconsistent with our data
Patron, R; López-Helguera, I; Sebastián, F; Pesantez-Pacheco, J-L; Pérez-Villalobos, N; Vicente González Martín, J; Fargas, O; Astiz, S
A controlled field trial was conducted to assess the potential influence of practitioner inexperience during early pregnancy diagnosis with ultrasound (PD-US) on the risk of pregnancy loss. A veterinarian with more than 10 years' experience in PD-US (Vet-A) and a veterinarian with fewer than 12 months' experience at the start of the study (Vet-B) visited the same dairy farm once a week for 33 and 26 weeks, respectively. The two veterinarians did not interact with each other at any time during the study, nor did they know that their data would later be used in this study. Using the same farm scanner, they performed PD-US at 28-34 day after breeding, together diagnosing 915 pregnancies. All cows were re-checked at 49-56 day after artificial insemination, and cows no longer pregnant were recorded as having suffered pregnancy loss. Although Vet-A and Vet-B diagnosed a similar proportion of pregnancies (58.44 ± 16% vs 56.96 ± 18%, p > .05), the rate of pregnancy loss was significantly higher among cows diagnosed by Vet-B (10.41 ± 11.2% vs 4.87 ± 9.0, p = .029). In addition, among cows diagnosed by Vet-B, the rate of pregnancy loss was significantly higher among cows diagnosed, while he had fewer than 12 months' PD-US experience (11.17 ± 12.14%) than among cows that he diagnosed later (7.14 ± 11.01%, p = .038); in fact, this latter loss rate was comparable to that among cows diagnosed by Vet-A during the same period (3.51 ± 9.83%, p = .620). These results suggest that inexperience with PD-US during the late embryonic period can increase risk of early pregnancy loss, supporting the need for proper training. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Hölzel, Lars P; Ries, Zivile; Kriston, Levente; Dirmaier, Jörg; Zill, Jördis M; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Niebling, Wilhelm; Bermejo, Isaac; Härter, Martin
Objectives To evaluate the usefulness of culture-sensitive patient information material compared with standard translated material. Design Multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. Setting 37 primary care practices. Participants 435 adult primary care patients with a migration background with unipolar depressive disorder or non-specific chronic low back pain were randomised. Patients who were unable to read in the language of their respective migration background were excluded. Sufficient data were obtained from 203 women and 106 men. The largest group was of Russian origin (202 patients), followed by those of Turkish (52), Polish (30) and Italian (25) origin. Interventions Intervention group: provision of culture-sensitive adapted material. Control group: provision of standard translated material. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: patient-rated usefulness (USE) assessed immediately after patients received the material. Secondary outcomes: patient-rated usefulness after 8 weeks and 6 months, symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), back pain (Back Pain Core Set) and quality of life (WHO-5) assessed at all time points. Results Usefulness was found to be significantly higher (t=1.708, one-sided p=0.04) in the intervention group (USE-score=65.08, SE=1.43), compared with the control group (61.43, SE=1.63), immediately after patients received the material, in the intention-to-treat analysis, with a mean difference of 3.65 (one-sided 95% lower confidence limit=0.13). No significant differences were found for usefulness at follow-up (p=0.16, p=0.71). No significant effect was found for symptom severity in depression (p=0.95, p=0.66, p=0.58), back pain (p=0.40, p=0.45, p=0.32) or quality of life (p=0.76, p=0.86, p=0.21), either immediately after receiving the material, or at follow-up (8 weeks; 6 months). Patients with a lower level of dominant society immersion benefited substantially and significantly more from the intervention than patients with a high
Ball, Greg; Piller, Linda B
If the primary objective of a trial is to learn about the ability of a new treatment to help future patients without sacrificing the safe and effective treatment of the current patients, then a Bayesian design with frequent assessments of the accumulating data should be considered. Unfortunately, Bayesian analyses typically do not have standard approaches, and because of the subjectivity of prior probabilities and the possibility for introducing bias, statisticians have developed other methods for statistical inference that only depend on deductive probabilities. However, these frequentist probabilities are just theories about how certain relative frequencies will develop over time. They have no real meaning in a single experiment. Designed to work well in the long run, p-values become hard to explain for individual experiments. Fortunately, the controversy surrounding Bayes' theorem comes, not from the representation of evidence, but from the use of probabilities to measure belief. A prior distribution is not necessary. The likelihood function contains all of the information in a trial relevant for making inferences about the parameters. Monitoring clinical trials is a dynamic process which requires flexibility to respond to unforeseen developments. Likelihood ratios allow the data to speak for themselves, without regard for the probability of observing weak or misleading evidence, and decisions to stop, or continue, a trial can be made at any time, with all of the available information. A likelihood based method is needed.
Wyatt, Emma L; Borland, Meredith L; Doyle, Sarah K; Geelhoed, Gary C
To determine if the addition of ipratropium bromide (IB) by metered-dose inhaler in moderate acute asthma in children affects hospital admission rates when compared with inhaled salbutamol and oral prednisolone alone. A prospective, single-blinded, randomised, controlled, equivalence trial in a tertiary paediatric emergency department. Patients aged 2-15 years with acute, moderate asthma were randomised to two groups, one receiving salbutamol, prednisolone and IB, the other receiving only salbutamol and prednisolone. The managing doctor was blinded to treatment. Admission rates were compared, and less than 15% difference was accepted as statistically equivalent. Recruitment ran from June 2007 until January 2011. Three hundred forty-seven subjects were analysed. The admission rate in the IB group was 70.1% (122/174) compared with 64.2% (111/173) in the non-IB group. The absolute difference of +5.9% (95% confidence interval -4.0% to 15.8%) is not statistically equivalent but does not show a statistically significant decrease in admission rates when IB was given. Adverse effects were more prevalent in the IB group, at 13.2% (23/174), compared with 4.6% (8/173) in the non-IB group, a relative risk of 2.86 (95% confidence interval 1.31-6.21). In children with acute asthma of moderate severity who are treated with adequate doses of salbutamol and prednisolone, the addition of IB is not significantly associated with a reduction in admission rates. There is a significantly higher rate of adverse effects if IB is given. IB should be reserved for children with severe asthma exacerbations. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Vogel, Thomas; Verreault, René; Gourdeau, Marie; Morin, Michèle; Grenier-Gosselin, Lise; Rochette, Louis
Background The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy in older patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this randomized controlled double-blind noninferiority trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of 3-day and 7-day courses of oral ciprofloxacin for uncomplicated symptomatic UTI in older women. Methods A total of 183 women at least 65 years of age with acute uncomplicated UTI were recruited from ambulatory clinics and hospital acute care units. Patients with pyelonephritis, contraindications to fluoroquinolones, recent use of antibiotics, urinary tract abnormalities and diabetes mellitus were excluded. Women were randomly assigned to receive either ciprofloxacin 250 mg twice daily orally for 3 days followed by placebo for 4 days (the 3-day group, 93 patients) or ciprofloxacin 250 mg twice daily orally for 7 days (the 7-day group, 90 patients). Bacterial eradication, clinical improvement and occurrence of adverse events were determined 2 days after completion of treatment, and occurrence of reinfection or relapse were determined 6 weeks after completion of treatment. Bacterial eradication and relapse were determined by urine culture. Double-blind procedures were maintained throughout data collection. Results The proportion of patients with bacterial eradication at 2 days after treatment was 98% (91/93) in the 3-day group and 93% (83/89) in the 7-day group (p = 0.16). The frequency of adverse events, including drowsiness, headache, nausea or vomiting, and loss of appetite, was significantly lower in the 3-day group. Interpretation These results suggest that a 3-day course of antibiotic therapy is not inferior to a 7-day course for treatment of uncomplicated symptomatic UTI in older women, and that the shorter course is better tolerated. PMID:14970093
Chiaverini, Christine; Roger, Coralie; Fontas, Eric; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Bourdon-Lanoy, Eva; Labrèze, Christine; Mazereeuw, Juliette; Vabres, Pierre; Bodemer, Christine; Lacour, Jean-Philippe
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a rare genodermatosis with severe blistering. No curative treatment is available. Scientific data indicated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea extract, might improve the phenotype of RDEB patients. In a multicentre, randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we evaluated a 4-month oral EGCG treatment regimen in 17 RDEB patients. We found that EGCG treatment was not more effective than placebo in modified intention to treat and per protocol analysis (n = 16; p = 0.78 and n = 10; p = 1 respectively). Tolerance was good. Specific organizational and technical difficulties of controlled randomized double-blind trials in EB patients are discussed. US National Institutes of Health Clinical Trial Register ( NCT00951964 ).
Bowden, Deborah; Goddard, Lorna; Gruzelier, John
This is a constructive replication of a previous trial conducted by Bowden et al. (2010), where students who had received Reiki demonstrated greater health and mood benefits than those who received no Reiki. The current study examined impact on anxiety/depression. 40 university students—half with high depression and/or anxiety and half with low depression and/or anxiety—were randomly assigned to receive Reiki or to a non-Reiki control group. Participants experienced six 30-minute sessions over a period of two to eight weeks, where they were blind to whether noncontact Reiki was administered as their attention was absorbed in a guided relaxation. The efficacy of the intervention was assessed pre-post intervention and at five-week follow-up by self-report measures of mood, illness symptoms, and sleep. The participants with high anxiety and/or depression who received Reiki showed a progressive improvement in overall mood, which was significantly better at five-week follow-up, while no change was seen in the controls. While the Reiki group did not demonstrate the comparatively greater reduction in symptoms of illness seen in our earlier study, the findings of both studies suggest that Reiki may benefit mood. PMID:21584234
Albrecht, Piotr; Kotowska, Maria; Szajewska, Hania
To determine the effectiveness of sequential therapy compared with standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children. In 107 children with H pylori infection confirmed with 2 of 3 tests ((13)C-urea breath test, histopathology, rapid urease test), we conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing a sequential treatment (amoxicillin and omeprazole for 5 days followed by clarithromycin, tinidazole, and omeprazole for 5 days) to a 7-day standard triple eradication regimen (amoxicillin and clarithromycin plus omeprazole) followed by placebo for 3 days. In the experimental group (n=52) compared with the control group (n=51), there was a significant difference in the H pylori eradication rate at 6 to 8 weeks after the completion of treatment (primary outcome), as confirmed with negative results on (13)C-urea breath test (45/52 or 86.5% versus 35/51 or 68.6%; relative risk, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.02-1.60). Groups did not differ in any of the secondary outcomes (ie, adverse effects, the need for discontinuation of the H pylori therapy, compliance with therapy). In children with H pylori infection, sequential eradication therapy compared with standard triple therapy resulted in a higher eradication rate, although the difference was of borderline statistical significance. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Cyrus, Ali; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Frohar, Faryar; Safi, Fatemeh
Background: Nephrolithiasis in children is associated with a high rate of complications and recurrence. Objectives: Since some evidences reported that zinc has an important place amongst inhibitors of crystallization and crystal growth, we decided to assess the effectiveness of oral zinc sulfate as adjuvant treatment in children with nephrolithiasis. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 102 children in the age range 1 month to 11 years with first nephrolithiasis were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups (intervention and control groups). Intervention group received conservative measures for stones and 1 mg/kg/day (maximum 20 mg/day) oral zinc sulfate syrup for 3 months. Control group received placebo in addition to conservative measures, also for 3 months. Patients were followed up by ultrasonography for 9 months, in 5 steps (at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 9th month after treatment) assessing size and number of stones in the kidneys. Results: Only at the end of the first month, the average number (intervention: 1.15 ± 3.78, control: 1.3 ± 2.84) (P = 0.001) and size (cm) (intervention: 0.51 ± 1.76, control: 0.62 ± 1.39) (P = 0.001) of stones was significantly lower in the intervention group, and in other points there was no significant therapeutic efficacy in oral zinc adjuvant treatment compared to conservative treatment alone. Also, during the 9-month follow-up, the number and size of stones in both groups decreased significantly (both: P < 0.0001) in a way that the decrease in the intervention group showed no difference with the control group. Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment with zinc is not more effective than consecutive treatment in children with nephrolithiasis. However, further studies are recommended due to the lack of clinical evidence in this field. PMID:26635934
Background This study sought to examine the effect of targeted physical therapy with and without cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM), on the walking ability of people with MS who exhibited a dysfunctional gait. We hypothesized that subjects who received electrical stimulation would have greater improvement than those who had a control device after a 14-week intervention. Gait disturbance is a common problem for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Current management may include exercise, pharmacology, functional electrical stimulation, compensatory strategies, use of assistive devices, and implanted electrical devices. We have developed an effective rehabilitative strategy using neuromodulation of the cranial nerves via electrical stimulation of the tongue to enhance the plasticity of the brain. Methods The study is a within-subject blinded randomized control design. Twenty chronic MS subjects with an identified gait disturbance were assigned to either an active or control group. Both groups completed a 14-week intervention program using a standardized combination of exercise and a device that provided electrical stimulation to the tongue. Those in the active group received electrical stimulation on the tongue that they could perceive. Those in the control group used a device that did not provide a physiologically significant stimulus and was not perceivable. Subjects were assessed with the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). Results The DGI scores improved for both groups. There were significant between-group differences, with the active group showing statistically greater improvement than the control group mean. Conclusion People with MS demonstrated improved gait with CN-NINM training in a pilot randomized controlled trial. This study suggests that tongue-based neurostimulation may amplify the benefits of exercise for improving gait in people with chronic MS. PMID:24885412
Wu, Yung-Tsan; Ke, Ming-Jen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chih-Ya; Lin, Ching-Yueh; Li, Tsung-Ying; Shih, Feng-Mei; Chen, Liang-Cheng
Three recent studies demonstrated the positive effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for treating carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, none have entirely proved the effects of ESWT on CTS because all studies had a small sample size and lacked a placebo-controlled design. Moreover, radial ESWT (rESWT) has not been used to treat CTS. We conducted a prospective randomized, controlled, double-blinded study to assess the effect of rESWT for treating CTS. Thirty-four enrolled patients (40 wrists) were randomized into intervention and control groups (20 wrists in each). Participants in the intervention group underwent three sessions of rESWT with nightly splinting, whereas those in the control group underwent sham rESWT with nightly splinting. The primary outcome was visual analog scale (VAS), whereas the secondary outcomes included the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ), cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, sensory nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve, and finger pinch strength. Evaluations were performed before treatment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the third rESWT session. A significantly greater improvement in the VAS, BCTQ scores, and CSA of the median nerve was noted in the intervention group throughout the study as compared to the control group (except for BCTQ severity at week 12 and CSA at weeks 1 and 4) (p < 0.05). This is the first study to assess rESWT in a randomized placebo-controlled trial and demonstrate that rESWT is a safe and effective method for relieving pain and disability in patients with CTS. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:977-984, 2016.
Curtin, Catherine M; Kenney, Debbie; Suarez, Paola; Hentz, Vincent R; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Mackey, Sean; Carroll, Ian R
Minocycline is a microglial cell inhibitor and decreases pain behaviors in animal models. Minocycline might represent an intervention for reducing postoperative pain. This trial tested whether perioperative administration of minocycline reduced time to pain resolution (TPR) after standardized hand surgeries with known prolonged pain profiles: carpal tunnel release (CTR) and trigger finger release (TFR). This double-blinded randomized controlled trial included patients undergoing CTR or TFR under local anesthesia. Before surgery, participants recorded psychological and pain measures. Participants received oral minocycline, 200 mg, or placebo 2 hours prior to procedure, and then 100 mg of minocycline or placebo 2 times a day for 5 days. After surgery, participants were called daily assessing their pain. The primary end point of TPR was when participants had 3 consecutive days of 0 postsurgical pain. Futility analysis and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed. A total of 131 participants were randomized and 56 placebo and 58 controls were analyzed. Median TPR for CTR was 3 weeks, with 15% having pain more than 6 weeks. Median TPR for TFR was 2 weeks with 18% having pain more than 6 weeks. The overall median TPR for the placebo group was 2 weeks (10% pain > 6 weeks) versus 2.5 weeks (17% pain > 6 weeks) for the minocycline group. Futility analysis found that the likelihood of a true underlying clinically meaningful reduction in TPR owing to minocycline was only 3.5%. Survival analysis found minocycline did not reduce TPR. However, subgroup analysis of those with elevated posttraumatic distress scores found the minocycline group had longer TPR. Oral administration of minocycline did not reduce TPR after minor hand surgery. There was evidence that minocycline might increase length of pain in those with increased posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Therapeutic I. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Voss, Tiffini; Lipton, Richard B; Dodick, David W; Dupre, Nicole; Ge, Joy Yang; Bachman, Robert; Assaid, Christopher; Aurora, Sheena K; Michelson, David
The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ubrogepant (MK-1602), a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist (CGRP-RA), for the acute treatment of migraine. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 834 participants to treat one migraine attack with ubrogepant 1 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. The co-primary endpoints were pain freedom and headache response at two hours. The first primary hypothesis tested the dose-response trend for two-hour pain freedom using a logistic regression model. Subsequent hypotheses tested the effects of each dose on the co-primary endpoints, using a closed sequential testing procedure to control for multiplicity. A total of 527 participants received ubrogepant and 113 received placebo. A positive response trend in the proportion of participants achieving two-hour pain freedom was demonstrated (p < 0.001). Ubrogepant 100 mg was significantly superior to placebo for two-hour pain freedom (25.5% vs 8.9%) but not for two-hour headache response. Per the prespecified multiplicity strategy, this nonsignificant result precluded further formal hypothesis testing, although the 50 mg and 25 mg doses demonstrated nominal significance over placebo for two-hour pain freedom (unadjusted p < 0.05). Overall, adverse events were similar between ubrogepant and placebo. This trial supports ubrogepant's efficacy and provides further evidence that CGRP-RAs are viable options for the acute treatment of migraine. © International Headache Society 2016.
Václavík, Jan; Sedlák, Richard; Jarkovský, Jiří; Kociánová, Eva; Táborský, Miloš
This study was designed to assess the effect of the addition of low-dose spironolactone on blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant arterial hypertension. Patients with office systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mm Hg despite treatment with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. One hundred sixty-one patients in outpatient internal medicine departments of 6 hospitals in the Czech Republic were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg of spironolactone (N = 81) or a placebo (N = 80) once daily as an add-on to their antihypertensive medication, using simple randomization. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00524615. A nalyses were done with 150 patients who finished the follow-up (74 in the spironolactone and 76 in the placebo group). At 8 weeks, BP values were decreased more by spironolactone, with differences in mean fall of SBP of -9.8, -13.0, -10.5, and -9.9 mm Hg (P < 0.001 for all) in daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and in the office. The respective DBP differences were -3.2, -6.4, -3.5, and -3.0 mm Hg (P = 0.013, P < 0.001, P = 0.005, and P = 0.003). Adverse events in both groups were comparable. The office SBP goal <14 mm Hg at 8 weeks was reached in 73% of patients using spironolactone and 41% using placebo (P = 0.001). Spironolactone in patients with resistant arterial hypertension leads to a significant decrease of both SBP and DBP and markedly improves BP control.
Gillingham, Melanie B; Heitner, Stephen B; Martin, Julie; Rose, Sarah; Goldstein, Amy; El-Gharbawy, Areeg Hassan; Deward, Stephanie; Lasarev, Michael R; Pollaro, Jim; DeLany, James P; Burchill, Luke J; Goodpaster, Bret; Shoemaker, James; Matern, Dietrich; Harding, Cary O; Vockley, Jerry
Observational reports suggest that supplementation that increases citric acid cycle intermediates via anaplerosis may have therapeutic advantages over traditional medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (LC-FAODs) but controlled trials have not been reported. The goal of our study was to compare the effects of triheptanoin (C7), an anaplerotic seven-carbon fatty acid triglyceride, to trioctanoin (C8), an eight-carbon fatty acid triglyceride, in patients with LC-FAODs. A double blinded, randomized controlled trial of 32 subjects with LC-FAODs (carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2, very long-chain acylCoA dehydrogenase, trifunctional protein or long-chain 3-hydroxy acylCoA dehydrogenase deficiencies) who were randomly assigned a diet containing 20% of their total daily energy from either C7 or C8 for 4 months was conducted. Primary outcomes included changes in total energy expenditure (TEE), cardiac function by echocardiogram, exercise tolerance, and phosphocreatine recovery following acute exercise. Secondary outcomes included body composition, blood biomarkers, and adverse events, including incidence of rhabdomyolysis. Patients in the C7 group increased left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction by 7.4% (p = 0.046) while experiencing a 20% (p = 0.041) decrease in LV wall mass on their resting echocardiogram. They also required a lower heart rate for the same amount of work during a moderate-intensity exercise stress test when compared to patients taking C8. There was no difference in TEE, phosphocreatine recovery, body composition, incidence of rhabdomyolysis, or any secondary outcome measures between the groups. C7 improved LV ejection fraction and reduced LV mass at rest, as well as lowering heart rate during exercise among patients with LC-FAODs. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01379625.
Huang, Jeannie; Meixner, Linda; Fernandez, Susan; McCutchan, J. Allen
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of intravenous zoledronate for the treatment of HIV-associated osteopenia and osteoporosis. Design A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, 12 month trial of 5 mg intravenous zoledronate dose to treat 30 HIV-infected men and women with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Methods Following zoledronate or placebo infusions, participants were followed for 12 months on daily calcium and vitamin D supplements. Lumbar spine and hip bone density was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Biomarkers of bone metabolism were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Student’s t-test and repeated measure analyses were used to evaluate bone density and bone marker changes over time. Results In the 30 HIV-infected men (27) and women (3) in the trial, median T-scores at entry were -1.7 for the lumbar spine and -1.4 for the hip. Median CD4 count was 461 cells/μL, 93% had HIV-RNA viral loads <400 copies/mL, and 97% were taking antiretroviral medications. Bone density measured either absolutely or as sex-adjusted T-scores significantly improved in zoledronate recipients as compared to minimal changes in those receiving placebo. Bone resorption markers significantly decreased over the study period in the zoledronate recipients as compared to placebo controls. No acute infusion reactions were detected, but one patient developed uveitis, a recognized complication of zoledronate, which responded to therapy. Conclusions In this small study, annual zoledronate appears to be a safe and effective therapy for HIV-associated bone loss. PMID:19050386
Background Natural rubber latex allergy is a common and unsolved health problem. Since the avoidance of exposure is very difficult, immunotherapy is strongly recommended, but before its use in patients, it is essential to prove the efficacy and safety of extracts. The aim of the present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of latex sublingual immunotherapy in adult patients undergoing permanent latex avoidance. Methods Twenty-eight adult latex-allergic patients (5 males and 23 females), with mean age of 39 years (range 24-57) were randomized to receive a commercial latex-sublingual immunotherapy or placebo during one year, followed by another year of open, active therapy. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and at the end of first and second year of follow-up: skin prick test, gloves-use score, conjunctival challenge test, total and specific IgE, basophil activation test, and adverse reactions monitoring. Results No significant difference in any of the efficacy in vivo variables was observed between active and placebo groups at the end of the placebo-controlled phase, nor when each group was compared with their baseline values at the end of the two year-study. An improvement in the average percentage of basophils activated was observed. During the induction phase, 4 reactions in the active group and 5 in the placebo group were recorded. During the maintenance phase, two patients dropped out due to pruritus and to acute dermatitis respectively. Conclusion Further studies are needed to evaluate latex-sublingual immunotherapy, since efficacy could not be demonstrated in adult patients with avoidance of the allergen. Trial registration number ACTRN12611000543987 PMID:21827704
Voskuijl, W; de Lorijn, F; Verwijs, W; Hogeman, P; Heijmans, J; Mäkel, W; Taminiau, J; Benninga, M
Background: Recently, polyethylene glycol (PEG 3350) has been suggested as a good alternative laxative to lactulose as a treatment option in paediatric constipation. However, no large randomised controlled trials exist evaluating the efficacy of either laxative. Aims: To compare PEG 3350 (Transipeg: polyethylene glycol with electrolytes) with lactulose in paediatric constipation and evaluate clinical efficacy/side effects. Patients: One hundred patients (aged 6 months–15 years) with paediatric constipation were included in an eight week double blinded, randomised, controlled trial. Methods: After faecal disimpaction, patients <6 years of age received PEG 3350 (2.95 g/sachet) or lactulose (6 g/sachet) while children ⩾6 years started with 2 sachets/day. Primary outcome measures were: defecation and encopresis frequency/week and successful treatment after eight weeks. Success was defined as a defecation frequency ⩾3/week and encopresis ⩽1 every two weeks. Secondary outcome measures were side effects after eight weeks of treatment. Results: A total of 91 patients (49 male) completed the study. A significant increase in defecation frequency (PEG 3350: 3 pre v 7 post treatment/week; lactulose: 3 pre v 6 post/week) and a significant decrease in encopresis frequency (PEG 3350: 10 pre v 3 post/week; lactulose: 8 pre v 3 post/week) was found in both groups (NS). However, success was significantly higher in the PEG group (56%) compared with the lactulose group (29%). PEG 3350 patients reported less abdominal pain, straining, and pain at defecation than children using lactulose. However, bad taste was reported significantly more often in the PEG group. Conclusions: PEG 3350 (0.26 (0.11) g/kg), compared with lactulose (0.66 (0.32) g/kg), provided a higher success rate with fewer side effects. PEG 3350 should be the laxative of first choice in childhood constipation. PMID:15479678
Banerjee, Sube; Hellier, Jennifer; Dewey, Michael; Romeo, Renee; Ballard, Clive; Baldwin, Robert; Bentham, Peter; Fox, Chris; Holmes, Clive; Katona, Cornelius; Knapp, Martin; Lawton, Claire; Lindesay, James; Livingston, Gill; McCrae, Niall; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Murray, Joanna; Nurock, Shirley; Orrell, Martin; O'Brien, John; Poppe, Michaela; Thomas, Alan; Walwyn, Rebecca; Wilson, Kenneth; Burns, Alistair
Depression is common in dementia but the evidence base for appropriate drug treatment is sparse and equivocal. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of two of the most commonly prescribed drugs, sertraline and mirtazapine, compared with placebo. We undertook the parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Health Technology Assessment Study of the Use of Antidepressants for Depression in Dementia (HTA-SADD) trial in participants from old-age psychiatry services in nine centres in England. Participants were eligible if they had probable or possible Alzheimer's disease, depression (lasting ≥4 weeks), and a Cornell scale for depression in dementia (CSDD) score of 8 or more. Participants were ineligible if they were clinically critical (eg, suicide risk), contraindicated to study drugs, on antidepressants, in another trial, or had no carer. The clinical trials unit at King's College London (UK) randomly allocated participants with a computer-generated block randomisation sequence, stratified by centre, with varying block sizes, in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive sertraline (target dose 150 mg per day), mirtazapine (45 mg), or placebo (control group), all with standard care. The primary outcome was reduction in depression (CSDD score) at 13 weeks (outcomes to 39 weeks were also assessed), assessed with a mixed linear-regression model adjusted for baseline CSDD, time, and treatment centre. This study is registered, number ISRCTN88882979 and EudraCT 2006-000105-38. Decreases in depression scores at 13 weeks did not differ between 111 controls and 107 participants allocated to receive sertraline (mean difference 1·17, 95% CI -0·23 to 2·58; p=0·10) or mirtazapine (0·01, -1·37 to 1·38; p=0·99), or between participants in the mirtazapine and sertraline groups (1·16, -0·25 to 2·57; p=0·11); these findings persisted to 39 weeks. Fewer controls had adverse reactions (29 of 111 [26%]) than did participants in the sertraline group (46 of 107, 43%; p=0·010) or
Donoghue, Kim; Rose, Abigail; Coulton, Simon; Milward, Joanna; Reed, Kylie; Drummond, Colin; Little, Hilary
Increased levels of cortisol during acute alcohol withdrawal have been linked to cognitive deficits and depression. Preclinical research found that the glucocorticoid Type II receptor antagonist, mifepristone, prevented some of the neurotoxic effects of withdrawal and memory loss. Clinical trials have shown mifepristone effective in the treatment of depression. This study aims to examine the extent to which the glucocorticoid Type II receptor antagonist, mifepristone, when given to alcohol dependent males during the acute phase of alcohol withdrawal, will protect against the subsequent memory loss and depressive symptoms during abstinence from alcohol. The study is a Phase 4 therapeutic use, "Proof of Concept" trial. The trial is a double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial of mifepristone versus inactive placebo. The trial aims to recruit 120 participants referred for an inpatient alcohol detoxification from community alcohol teams, who meet the inclusion criteria; 1) Male, 2) Aged 18-60 inclusive, 3) alcohol dependent for 5 or more years. A screening appointment will take place prior to admission to inpatient alcohol treatment units to ensure that the individual is suitable for inclusion in the trial in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. On admission participants are randomised to receive 600 mg a day of mifepristone (200 mg morning, afternoon and evening) for 7 days and 400 mg for the subsequent 7 days (200 mg morning and evening) or the equivalent number of placebo tablets for 14 days. Participants will remain in the trial for 4 weeks (at least 2 weeks as an inpatient) and will be followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months post randomisation. Primary outcome measures are cognitive function at week 3 and 4 after cessation of drinking and symptoms of depression over the 4 weeks after cession of drinking, measured using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated battery and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Secondary outcome measures
Zhang, Tong; Yang, Yu-Fei; He, Bin; Yi, Dan-Hui; Hao, Jie; Zhang, Da
To verify the efficacy and safety of Quxie Capsule () in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty patients with mCRC were randomized into two groups at a 1:1 ratio by sealed envelope. The treatment group received conventional therapy combined with Quxie Capsule for 3 months. The control group was treated with conventional therapy combined with placebo for 3 months. Main outcome measures were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Subgroup analysis was performed according to age, right or left-sided disease, and second-line therapy to determine the differences in PFS and OS between the two groups. Patients were followed up every 3 months until Dec 31st 2016. The median OS was 23 months in the treatment group [95% confidence interval (CI): 15-not calculated] vs. 14 months in the control group (95% CI: 11-22, P=0.060). The OS of the treatment group tended to be longer than that of the control group (P>0.05). In the subgroups of patients <65 years old, left-sided colon, and 2nd-line therapy, the treatment group showed a significant survival benefit compared with the control group (P=0.006, 0.038, 0.013, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups in PFS (P>0.05). Safety analysis showed no severe hematological toxicity or liver and renal function injury in the treatment group. Quxie Capsule showed good safety and efficacy, and could prolong the OS of patients with mCRC. (Registration No. ChiCTR-IOR-16009733).
Tabbers, Merit M; Chmielewska, Ania; Roseboom, Maaike G; Crastes, Nolwenn; Perrin, Catherine; Reitsma, Johannes B; Norbruis, Obbe; Szajewska, Hania; Benninga, Marc A
Constipation is a frustrating symptom affecting 3% of children worldwide. A fermented dairy product containing Bifidobacterium lactis strain DN-173 010 was effective in increasing stool frequency in constipated women. Our aim was to assess the effects of this product in constipated children. In this prospective randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 159 constipated children (defecation frequency < 3 times per week) were randomly allocated to receive either a fermented dairy product that contains B lactis DN-173 010 (n = 79) or a control product (n = 80) twice a day for 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in stool frequency from baseline to after 3 weeks of product consumption. Analyses were by intention to treat. Eleven children did not return to any follow-up visit (5 in the probiotic group, 6 in the control group) and were therefore excluded from the final analysis. Thus, 74 children in each group were analyzed. The change in stool frequency from baseline to after 3 weeks of product consumption increased in both groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (2.9 ± 3.2 in probiotic group versus 2.6 ± 2.6 in control group, P = .35). There were no serious adverse events. In constipated children, the fermented dairy product containing B lactis strain DN-173 010 did increase stool frequency, but this increase was comparable in the control group. There is currently not sufficient evidence to recommend fermented dairy products containing B lactis strain DN-173 010 in this category of patients. Future studies should focus on whether a longer period of probiotic products is more effective in children who have a short history of constipation.
Mehrzad, Valiollah; Afshar, Rohollah; Akbari, Mojtaba
Background: Cachexia can occur as part of many end-stage or chronic diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Pentoxifylline in patients with cancer cachexia. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 70 patients with advanced malignancy who loss of >5% of ideal or preillness body weight in the previous 2 months. Patients were assessed in two groups: case group, under treatment, using Pentoxifylline (400 mg) three times a day, for 2 months, and in the control group, patients received placebo. Age, sex, weight change, change in arm circumference and quality of life were assessed at baseline, week-4 and week-8. Results: The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 17.3 years and 47% were female. Weight and arm circumference decreased during follow-up in both groups, but these differences between case and controls were not statistically significant. Quality of life (QOL) score in the case group improved after 4 weeks then decreased at the end of treatment but in the control group QOL score decreased during 2 month treatment. In week-4 patients in the case group significantly reported higher score of QOL compare to patients in the control group (P = 0.029). Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that Pentoxifylline in the treatment of cancer cachexia did not have any effect in weight gain and arm circumference in cachectic patients. But in short-term (1 month) treatment, QOL was improved in these patients. And after 2 month treatment this was not effective compared to placebo. PMID:27135029
Carraro, G E; Russi, E W; Buechi, S; Bloch, Konrad E
The respiratory effects of benzodiazepines have been controversial. This investigation aimed to study the effects of oral alprazolam on ventilation. In a randomised, double-blind cross-over protocol, 20 healthy men ingested 1 mg of alprazolam or placebo in random order, 1 week apart. Ventilation was unobtrusively monitored by inductance plethysmography along with end-tidal PCO(2) and pulse oximetry 60-160 min after drug intake. Subjects were encouraged to keep their eyes open. Mean +/- SD minute ventilation 120 min after alprazolam and placebo was similar (6.21 +/- 0.71 vs 6.41 +/- 1.12 L/min, P = NS). End-tidal PCO(2) and oxygen saturation did also not differ between treatments. However, coefficients of variation of minute ventilation after alprazolam exceeded those after placebo (43 +/- 23% vs 31 +/- 13%, P < 0.05). More encouragements to keep the eyes open were required after alprazolam than after placebo (5.2 +/- 5.7 vs 1.3 +/- 2.3 calls, P < 0.05). In a multiple regression analysis, higher coefficients of variation of minute ventilation after alprazolam were related to a greater number of calls. Oral alprazolam in a mildly sedative dose has no clinically relevant effect on ventilation in healthy, awake men. The increased variability of ventilation on alprazolam seems related to vigilance fluctuations rather than to a direct drug effect on ventilation.
Ellis, David E.
Background: Treatments for cosmetically unpleasing periocular and lateral temporal veins are limited. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the application of topical lidocaine before the cosmetic treatment of periorbital and lateral temporal veins with a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (ND:YAG) laser will result in a significant reduction in subjective pain compared with placebo as assessed using a visual analogue scale. Methods: Twenty patients who required bilateral treatment of facial veins were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 30% lidocaine gel applied topically over the veins, a split-body design. Both the investigator and the patient were blinded to the treatment. An ND:YAG laser was used to treat the veins. Patients completed a visual analogue scale to assess the pain on each side of the face. Data were analyzed using nonparametric data testing. Results: There was a 64.0% reduction in pain on the treatment side compared with the placebo side (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in patient-assessed subjective efficacy between sides (P = 0.2). Complications were minimal and mild. Conclusions: Patients undergoing periorbital and temporal vein ablation using ND:YAG laser should be offered topical lidocaine as the pain levels are moderate. The use of topical 30% lidocaine results in a significant reduction in pain levels. PMID:25289352
Heinzerling, Keith G.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Kim, Soeun; Cederblom, Lisa; Moe, Ardis; Ling, Walter; Steven, Shoptaw
Objective To compare modafinil to placebo for reducing methamphetamine (MA) use, improving retention, and reducing depressive symptoms and MA cravings. Rates of adverse events and cigarette smoking with modafinil versus placebo were also compared. Methods Following a 2-week, non-medication lead-in period, 71 treatment-seeking MA dependent participants were randomly assigned to modafinil (400 mg once daily; N= 34) or placebo (once daily; N= 37) for 12-weeks under double-blind conditions. Participants attended clinic thrice weekly to provide urine samples analyzed for MA-metabolite, to complete research assessments, and to receive contingency management and weekly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) sessions. Results There were no statistically significant effects for modafinil on MA use, retention, depressive symptoms, or MA cravings in pre-planned analyses. Outcomes for retention and MA use favored modafinil in a post hoc analysis among participants with low CBT attendance and among participants with baseline high frequency of MA use (MA use on >18 of past 30 days), but did not reach statistical significance in these small subgroups. Modafinil was safe and well tolerated and did not increase cigarette smoking. Conclusions Modafinil was no more effective than placebo at 400 mg daily in a general sample of MA users. A post hoc analysis showing a trend favoring modafinil among subgroups with baseline high frequency MA use and low CBT attendance suggests that further evaluation of modafinil in MA users is warranted. PMID:20092966
Watson, REB; Ogden, S; Cotterell, LF; Bowden, JJ; Bastrilles, JY; Long, SP; Griffiths, CEM
Background Very few over-the-counter cosmetic ‘anti-ageing’ products have been subjected to a rigorous double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial of efficacy. Previously we have shown that application of a cosmetic ‘anti-ageing’ product to photoaged skin under occlusion for 12 days can stimulate the deposition of fibrillin-1. This observation infers potential to repair and perhaps clinically improve photoaged skin. Objective We examined another similar over-the-counter cosmetic ‘anti-ageing’ product using both the patch test assay and a 6-month double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a further 6-month open phase to assess clinical efficacy in photoaged skin. Methods For the patch test, a commercially available test product and its vehicle were applied occluded for 12 days to photoaged forearm skin (n=10) prior to biopsy and immunohistochemical assessment of fibrillin-1; all-trans retinoic acid (RA) was used as a positive control. Sixty photoaged subjects were recruited to the RCT (test product, n = 30 vs. vehicle, n = 30; once daily for 6 months, face and hands) with clinical assessments performed at recruitment and following 1, 3 and 6 months of use. Twenty-eight volunteers had skin biopsies (dorsal wrist) at baseline and at 6 months treatment for immunohistochemical assessment of fibrillin-1 (test product, n=15; vehicle, n=13). All volunteers received the test product for a further 6 months. Final clinical assessments were performed at the end of this open period. Results In the 12-day patch test assay, we observed significant immunohistological deposition of fibrillin-1 in skin treated with the test product and RA compared with the untreated baseline (P=0·005 and 0·015, respectively). In the clinical RCT, at 6 months, the test product produced statistically significant improvement in facial wrinkles as compared to baseline assessment (P = 0·013), whereas vehicle-treated skin was not significantly improved (P = 0·11). After 12 months
Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT) and progressive resistance training (PRT) on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART). Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo) in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs). Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (fMRS). Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the immediate and long term
Nurmikko, Turo J; Serpell, Mick G; Hoggart, Barbara; Toomey, Peter J; Morlion, Bart J; Haines, Derek
Cannabinoids are known to have analgesic properties. We evaluated the effect of oro-mucosal sativex, (THC: CBD), an endocannabinoid system modulator, on pain and allodynia, in 125 patients with neuropathic pain of peripheral origin in a five-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial. Patients remained on their existing stable analgesia. A self-titrating regimen was used to optimise drug administration. Sixty-three patients were randomised to receive sativex and 62 placebo. The mean reduction in pain intensity scores (primary outcome measure) was greater in patients receiving sativex than placebo (mean adjusted scores -1.48 points vs. -0.52 points on a 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (p=0.004; 95% CI: -1.59, -0.32). Improvements in Neuropathic Pain Scale composite score (p=0.007), sleep NRS (p=0.001), dynamic allodynia (p=0.042), punctate allodynia (p=0.021), Pain Disability Index (p=0.003) and Patient's Global Impression of Change (p<0.001) were similarly greater on sativex vs. placebo. Sedative and gastrointestinal side effects were reported more commonly by patients on active medication. Of all participants, 18% on sativex and 3% on placebo withdrew during the study. An open-label extension study showed that the initial pain relief was maintained without dose escalation or toxicity for 52 weeks.
Areeruk, Wilasinee; Phupong, Vorapong
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral dydrogesterone on the recurrent uterine contraction in preterm labor. The secondary aims were to evaluate latency period, gestational age at delivery, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal outcomes, compliance and side effects. A randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial was conducted. Forty-eight pregnant women at 24-34 weeks gestation with preterm labor were either randomized to study group receiving tocolytic treatment combined with oral dydrogesterone (20 mg daily) or to placebo group receiving tocolytic treatment combined with oral placebo. Recurrent rates of uterine contraction were comparable between groups (87.5% vs 91.7%, p = 0.64). Latency periods were not different between dydrogesterone and placebo group (32.7 ± 20.2 days vs 38.2 ± 24.2 days, p = 0.39). There were also no differences in gestational age at delivery, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal outcomes, compliance and side effects. Adjuvant treatment with oral dydrogesterone 20 mg/day could not decrease the rates of recurrent uterine contraction and prolong latency period in preterm labor management when compared to placebo.
Wallace, Mark S; Charapata, Steven G; Fisher, Robert; Byas-Smith, Michael; Staats, Peter S; Mayo, Martha; McGuire, Dawn; Ellis, David
Objective. The safety and efficacy of intrathecal (IT) ziconotide was studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Materials and Methods. Patients (169 ziconotide, 86 placebo) with severe chronic nonmalignant pain unresponsive to conventional therapy and a visual analog scale of pain intensity (VASPI score) ≥ 50 mm were treated over a 6-day period in an inpatient hospital setting. Initial starting dose was 0.4 µg/hour and was titrated to analgesia or intolerance (maximum dose 7.0 µg/hour). The starting and maximum doses were reduced to 0.1 µg/hour and 2.4 µg/hour, respectively, due to adverse events (AEs). Results. The mean percent reduction in VASPI score from baseline was 31.2% and 6.0% for ziconotide- and placebo-treated patients, respectively (p ≤ 0.001). During the initial titration phase, a significantly greater percentage of patients in the ziconotide group compared to the placebo group reported AEs, including abnormal gait, amblyopia, dizziness, nausea, nystagmus, pain, urinary retention, and vomiting. Conclusion. Ziconotide provided significant analgesia in patients for whom conventional therapy failed. However, there was a considerable incidence of ziconotide-associated AEs due to the rapid titration and high doses administered.
Eichenseer, M; Johansen, C; Mueller, R S
Antihistaminic drugs are commonly used as symptomatic therapy of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Unfortunately, their clinical benefit is largely unsubstantiated. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, the influence of dimetinden and of a combination of chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine on pruritus and lesions was evaluated in 19 dogs. They were treated with either product or a placebo orally for 14 days, each time followed by a 14-day washout period. Before and after each period, the dogs were examined and the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI) determined by a clinician, and the pruritus and general condition by the owner. Dimetinden improved the pruritus significantly (P=0.014) but not the CADESI (P=0.087), the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine improved the CADESI (P=0.049) and pruritus (P=0.05) significantly. Ten of 17 dogs improved by more than 25 per cent in pruritus with the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine, 12 of 18 with dimetindenmaleate and only 2 of 19 with placebo. Antihistamines can help to reduce pruritus in atopic dogs, but in most cases, the improvement is limited and additional treatment may be needed.
Gustavsen, Ingebjørg; Hjelmeland, Knut; Bernard, Jean Paul; Mørland, Jørg
The sleep medicine zopiclone (eszopiclone) is commonly used in most Western countries. The focus on legislation for possible traffic-impairing nonalcohol drugs have caused a need for comparing traffic relevant behavior after intake of commonly used psychoactive drugs to blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). We aimed to compare psychomotor effects at 3 levels of behavior at different blood zopiclone concentrations to effects seen at different BACs. We performed a randomized double-blinded trial on 16 healthy volunteers who received either 10 or 5 mg zopiclone, 50 g ethanol or placebo in a crossover design. The volunteers performed computerized tests at baseline, 1, 3.5, and 6.5 hours after intake, accompanied by blood sampling. Impairment was found at all 3 behavior levels. For zopiclone, impairment was most pronounced at behavior level 1 (automotive behavior); a mean blood zopiclone concentration at 39 μg/L achieved 1 hour after intake of 10 mg zopiclone was accompanied by more impairment than BAC 0.074 %. At behavior levels 2 (control behavior) and 3 (executive planning), the psychomotor impairment accompanying approximately 39 μg/L zopiclone seemed comparable to a BAC of approximately 0.074%. No test components were impaired at 6.5 hours after intake.
Chen, C-Y Oliver; Rasmussen, Helen; Kamil, Alison; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B
Orange pomace (OP), a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial with 34 overweight men who consumed either a 255 g placebo (PLA), a low (35% OP (LOP)), or a high (77% (HOP)) dose OP beverage with breakfast. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and 8 h. Lunch was consumed after the 5.5-h blood draw. OP delayed the time (Tmax1) to the maximum concentration (Cmax1) of serum glucose during the 2-h period post breakfast by ≥36% from 33 (PLA) to 45 (HOP) and 47 (LOP) min (p = 0.055 and 0.013, respectively). OP decreased post-breakfast insulin Cmax1 by ≥10% and LOP delayed the Tmax1 by 14 min, compared to PLA at 46 min (p ≤ 0.05). HOP reduced the first 2-h insulin area under concentration time curve (AUC) by 23% compared to PLA. Thus, OP diminishes postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and the second meal in overweight men.
Shanmugam, Elangovan; Doss, C.R. Madhu Prabhu; George, Melvin; Jena, Amrita; Rajaram, Muthukumar; Ramaraj, Balaji; Anjaneyan, Karthik; Kanagesh, B.
Objectives To assess the efficacy of tolvaptan in acute heart failure with hyponatremia using a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study design. Background Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor 2 antagonist. There are no published clinical trials on the utility of tolvaptan in acute heart failure with hyponatremia in the Indian population. Methods After screening and informed consent, 51 HF patients with hyponatremia were randomized using computer-generated randomization sequence to receive placebo or 15 mg of tolvaptan for 5 days along with conventional medical therapy. The patient's perception of dyspnea using Likert score and the plasma sodium was measured at baseline and for the next 4 days. Results There was a mean improvement in sodium concentration by 5 mEq/L (p = 0.001) in patients receiving tolvaptan, whereas no significant improvement was seen in the placebo group (p = 0.33). Significant improvement in Likert score was observed in both the groups (p = 0.001), even though there was no difference between both the groups. Dry mouth and thirst were the most commonly occurring adverse effects observed in both the groups. There were no significant hemodynamic changes with tolvaptan therapy. Conclusion Tolvaptan at a dose of 15 mg is effective in reversing hyponatremia in acute heart failure and may be a suitable option in these patients. PMID:27056648
Fujiwara, Takashi; Nishida, Naoya; Nota, Jumpei; Kitani, Takashi; Aoishi, Kunihide; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sugahara, Takuya; Hato, Naohito
Chlorophyll c2 extracted from Sargassum horneri improved allergic symptoms in an animal model of allergic rhinitis. In the present study, we explored the efficacy of chlorophyll c2 in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. This was a single-center, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Sixty-six patients aged 20-43 years, each with a 2-year history of seasonal allergic rhinitis, were randomly assigned to receive either a single daily dose (0.7 mg) of chlorophyll c2 or placebo for 12 weeks. The use of medications including H1-antihistamines and topical nasal steroids was recorded by rescue medication scores (RMSs) noted after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. Disease-specific quality of life was measured using the Japan Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JRQLQ) both before and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. The RMS at 8 weeks was significantly better in the chlorophyll c2 than the placebo group (mean RMS difference = -3.09; 95 % confidence interval = -5.96 to -0.22); the mean RMS at 4 weeks was only slightly better in the chlorophyll c2 group. The JRQLQ scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. Chlorophyll c2 would have a potential to be an alternative treatment for allergic rhinitis.
Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel E F; Davies, John C; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Cotton, Jo C
Case-based e-learning may allow effective teaching of veterinary radiology in the field of equine orthopedics. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new case-based e-learning tool, compared with a standard structured tutorial, in altering students' knowledge and skills about interpretation of radiographs of the digit in the horse. It was also designed to assess students' attitudes toward the two educational interventions. A randomized, single-blinded, controlled trial of 96 fourth-year undergraduate veterinary students, involving an educational intervention of either structured tutorial or case-based e-learning, was performed. A multiple-choice examination based on six learning outcomes was carried out in each group after the session, followed by an evaluation of students' attitudes toward their session on a seven-point scale. Text blanks were available to students to allow them to comment on the educational interventions and on their learning outcomes. Students also rated, on a Likert scale from 1 to 7, their performance for each specific learning outcome and their general ability to use a systematic approach in interpreting radiographs. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, the t-test, and the equivalence test. There was no significant difference in student achievement on course tests. The results of the survey suggest positive student attitudes toward the e-learning tool and illustrate the difference between objective ratings and subjective assessments by students in testing a new educational intervention.
Huguenin, L; Brukner, P; McCrory, P; Smith, P; Wajswelner, H; Bennell, K
Objectives: To use a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial to establish the effect on straight leg raise, hip internal rotation, and muscle pain of dry needling treatment to the gluteal muscles in athletes with posterior thigh pain referred from gluteal trigger points. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed normal hamstring musculature in most subjects. Straight leg raise and hip internal rotation remained unchanged in both groups at all times. Visual analogue scale assessment of hamstring pain and tightness and gluteal tightness after running showed improvements immediately after the intervention in both groups (p = 0.001), which were maintained at 24 and 72 hours. The magnitude of this improvement was the same for therapeutic and placebo interventions. Resting muscle pain and tightness were unaffected. Conclusions: Neither dry needling nor placebo needling of the gluteal muscles resulted in any change in straight leg raise or hip internal rotation. Both interventions resulted in subjective improvement in activity related muscle pain and tightness. Despite being commonly used clinical tests in this situation, straight leg raise and hip internal rotation are not likely to help the therapist assess response to treatment. Patient reports of response to such treatment are better indicators of its success. The mechanisms by which these responses occur and the reasons for the success of the placebo needling treatment are areas for further investigation. PMID:15665203
Garssen, M P J; Schmitz, P I M; Merkies, I S J; Jacobs, B C; van der Meché, F G A; van Doorn, P A
Objective Fatigue is a major complaint in patients with immune mediated polyneuropathies. Despite apparently good physical recovery after Guillain‐Barré syndrome (GBS), many patients remain restricted in daily and social activities, and have a decreased quality of life. In this trial, the effect of amantadine on severe fatigue related to GBS was studied. Methods During the pre‐treatment phase, all patients were monitored for 2 weeks. Only patients with severe fatigue, defined as a mean fatigue score of ⩾5.0 on the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), were randomised for this double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Primary outcome measure was improvement of at least 1 point on the FSS. Secondary outcome measures were impact of fatigue, anxiety and depression, handicap, and quality of life. Results In total, 80 patients with GBS were randomised, of whom 74 were included for analysis. Fatigue appeared to be reduced already during the pre‐treatment phase (p = 0.05), probably due to increased attention provided to the patients. No significant differences in any of the primary and secondary outcome measures were found. Conclusions Amantadine was not superior to placebo. Because fatigue remains a serious complaint, other studies evaluating new treatment options are strongly recommended. PMID:16361594
Roy, Michael J; Kraus, Patricia L; Seegers, Cynthia A; Young, Sylvia Y N; Kamens, Deborah R; Law, Wendy A; Cherstniakova, Svetlana A; Chang, David N; Cooper, Jamie A; Sato, Paul A; Matulich, William; Krantz, David S; Cantilena, Louis R; Deuster, Patricia A
To determine whether short-term human exposure to pyridostigmine bromide, diethyltoluamide, and permethrin, at rest or under stress, adversely affects short-term physical or neurocognitive performance. A multicenter, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial exposing 64 volunteers to permethrin-impregnated uniforms, diethyltoluamide-containing skin cream, oral pyridostigmine, and corresponding placebos was performed. Each participant had 4 separate sessions, ensuring exposure to all treatments and placebos under both stress and rest conditions in random order. Outcomes Included physical performance (handgrip strength and duration, stair climbing, and pull-ups [males] or push-ups [females]), neurocognitive performance (computerized tests), and self-reported adverse effects. Permethrin was undetectable in the serum of all participants; pyridostigmine levels were higher Immediately after stress (41.6 ng/mL; 95% confidence Interval, 35.1-48.1 ng/mL) than rest (23.0 ng/mL; 95% confidence Interval, 19.2-26.9 ng/mL), whereas diethyltoluamide levels did not significantly differ by stress condition. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased significantly with stress compared with rest but did not vary with treatment vs placebo. Physical and neurocognitive outcome measures and self-reported adverse effects did not significantly differ by exposure group. Combined, correct use of pyridostigmine, diethyltoluamide, and permethrin is well tolerated and without evidence of short-term physical or neurocognitive impairment.
Hanling, Steven R; Hickey, Anita; Lesnik, Ivan; Hackworth, Robert Jeremy; Stedje-Larsen, Eric; Drastal, Carol Anne; McLay, Robert N
In this study, we aimed to determine if stellate ganglion block (SGB) could reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in comparison with sham therapy in military service members. In a randomized trial in which both participants and assessors were blind, participants with PTSD received either an SGB or a sham procedure. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were measured using the CAPS (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and self-report measures of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and pain. Subjects underwent assessment before the procedure and at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the procedure. Patients receiving sham injections were allowed to cross over to the treatment group, and participants who maintained criteria for PTSD were allowed to receive a second SGB treatment. Posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression scores all showed improvement across time, but there was no statistically or clinically relevant difference in outcomes between the active and control groups. Individuals who crossed over from sham treatment to SGB similarly showed no greater improvement with the SGB treatment. Improvement in CAPS was greater with a second SGB treatment than after the first treatment. Although previous case series have suggested that SGB offers an effective intervention for PTSD, this study did not demonstrate any appreciable difference between SGB and sham treatment on psychological or pain outcomes. Future studies should examine if differences in treatment methods or patient population could allow individuals with PTSD to benefit from SGB, but current evidence does not support widespread or indiscriminant clinical use of the procedure for PTSD.
Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Arshi, Saba; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Fallahpour, Morteza; Mortazavi, Negar
The effect of aspirin desensitization (AD) on immunologic profile of patients with AERD has been poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of AD on clinical and immunological markers of patients with AERD. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial comprised 34 adult patients (67.6% female) with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin-intolerant asthma. The active group underwent AD over a 2-day period with increasing doses of aspirin (60, 125, 325, and 625 mg), followed by receiving aspirin 625 mg twice daily for 6 months. Symptom scores and medication needs of patients with AERD who have undergone AD were significantly lower compared to the placebo group after 6 months (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.6 ± 3.8 and 9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively, all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between two groups neither at baseline nor at the end of study.
Shahbazi, Foroud; Sadighi, Sanambar; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Shahi, Farhad; Mirzania, Mehrzad; Abdollahi, Alireza; Ghahremani, Mohammad-Hossein
Despite several introduced preventive modalities, cisplatin nephrotoxicity remains a clinical problem. Some in vitro and in vivo studies have addressed the protective effects of silymarin against cisplatin nephrotoxicity. This study evaluated the effects of silymarin administration on cisplatin nephrotoxicity as the first human study. During this pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effect of oral silymarin 420 mg daily in three divided doses starting 24-48 h before the initiation of cisplatin infusion and continuing to the end of three 21-day cisplatin-containing chemotherapy courses on cisplatin-induced renal electrolytes wasting and kidney function were assessed. Cisplatin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred in 8% of the patients. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin to urine creatinine ratio (NGAL/Cr) and urinary magnesium and potassium wasting increased significantly after cisplatin infusion in both groups. Significant positive correlation was found between cumulative dose of cisplatin and urine NGAL/Cr after three courses of cisplatin infusion. Incidence of AKI and the magnitude of urinary magnesium and potassium wasting did not differ between silymarin and placebo groups. No adverse reaction was reported by silymarin administration. Prophylactic administration of conventional form of silymarin tablets could not prevent cisplatin-induced urine electrolyte wasting or renal function impairment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sil, Amrita; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar; Chaudhuri, Anita; Das, Nilay Kanti; Hazra, Avijit; Bagchi, Chiranjib; Islam, Chowdhury Nazrul
Chronic urticaria (CU) is characterized by frequent appearance of wheals for ≥ 6 weeks. This study was undertaken to compare effectiveness and safety of olopatadine, a newer antihistamine with additional anti-inflammatory properties, in treating CU in comparison to the established second-generation antihistamine levocetirizine. A single center, assessor-blind, randomized (1:1), active-controlled, parallel group, Phase IV trial (CTRI/2011/08/001965) was conducted with 120 adult CU patients of either sex. Subjects received either olopatadine (5 mg b.i.d.) or levocetirizine (5 mg/day) for 9 weeks, continuously for first 4 weeks and then on demand basis for last 5 weeks. Primary outcome measures were urticaria activity score (UAS) and urticaria total severity score (TSS). Routine hematological and biochemical tests and treatment-emergent adverse events were monitored for safety. Data from 54 subjects on olopatadine and 51 on levocetirizine were analyzed for effectiveness. UAS and TSS values declined significantly with both drugs over the treatment period but the reduction was greater with olopatadine. Adverse event profiles were comparable with sedation being the commonest complaint. Olopatadine is a safe and more effective alternative to levocetirizine in the treatment of CU.
Chen, C.-Y. Oliver; Rasmussen, Helen; Kamil, Alison; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.
Orange pomace (OP), a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial with 34 overweight men who consumed either a 255 g placebo (PLA), a low (35% OP (LOP)), or a high (77% (HOP)) dose OP beverage with breakfast. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and 8 h. Lunch was consumed after the 5.5-h blood draw. OP delayed the time (Tmax1) to the maximum concentration (Cmax1) of serum glucose during the 2-h period post breakfast by ≥36% from 33 (PLA) to 45 (HOP) and 47 (LOP) min (p = 0.055 and 0.013, respectively). OP decreased post-breakfast insulin Cmax1 by ≥10% and LOP delayed the Tmax1 by 14 min, compared to PLA at 46 min (p ≤ 0.05). HOP reduced the first 2-h insulin area under concentration time curve (AUC) by 23% compared to PLA. Thus, OP diminishes postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and the second meal in overweight men. PMID:28208806
Eichenseer, M.; Johansen, C.; Mueller, R. S.
Antihistaminic drugs are commonly used as symptomatic therapy of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Unfortunately, their clinical benefit is largely unsubstantiated. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, the influence of dimetinden and of a combination of chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine on pruritus and lesions was evaluated in 19 dogs. They were treated with either product or a placebo orally for 14 days, each time followed by a 14-day washout period. Before and after each period, the dogs were examined and the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI) determined by a clinician, and the pruritus and general condition by the owner. Dimetinden improved the pruritus significantly (P=0.014) but not the CADESI (P=0.087), the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine improved the CADESI (P=0.049) and pruritus (P=0.05) significantly. Ten of 17 dogs improved by more than 25 per cent in pruritus with the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine, 12 of 18 with dimetindenmaleate and only 2 of 19 with placebo. Antihistamines can help to reduce pruritus in atopic dogs, but in most cases, the improvement is limited and additional treatment may be needed. PMID:24114734
Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezaee, Zahra; Dehbozorgi, Sara; Berk, Michael; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
While statins target many of the pathways to neuroprogression in schizophrenia, the safety and efficacy of statins for treating schizophrenia has never been examined. This is an 8-week randomized double blind controlled clinical trial examining the efficacy and safety of adjunctive lovastatin (20 mg/day) treatment or placebo for people with schizophrenia. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were not different. Endpoint changes in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscale scores did not differ between the two groups. However there was a significant difference between the doses of risperidone used in the two groups. The mean dose in the lovastatin and placebo groups were 4.8(1.8) and 3.4(1.4) mg/day, respectively (P<.03). No serious adverse events were reported. Slowness of movements, muscle rigidity, increased appetite, and decreased energy were the most common adverse effects, and these rates did not differ between the two groups. This study failed to demonstrate a benefit of lovastatin on symptoms of schizophrenia. This combination was well tolerated. However, a higher dosage of risperidone was used for treating the disorder in those taking concomitant lovastatin compared to placebo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Posadzki, Paul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Onakpoya, Igho; Lee, Hye Won; Ko, Byong Seob; Ernst, Edzard
Dietary supplements are popular among patients with prostate cancer (PC). The objective of this systematic review was to critically examine double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of non-herbal dietary supplements and vitamins (NHDS) for evidence that prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were reduced in PC patients. Five databases were searched from their inception through December 2012 to identify studies that met our inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane tool. Eight RCTs met the eligibility criteria and were of high methodological quality. The following supplements were tested: isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein), minerals (Se) or vitamins (vitamin D) or a combination of antioxidants, bioflavonoids, carotenoids, lycopenes, minerals (Se, Zn, Cu, and Mg), phytoestrogens, phytosterols, vitamins (B2, B6, B9, B12, C, and E), and other substances (CoQ10 and n-acetyl-l cysteine). Five RCTs reported no significant effects compared with placebo. Two RCTs reported that a combination of antioxidants, isoflavones, lycopenes, minerals, plant oestrogens and vitamins significantly decreased PSA levels compared with placebo. One RCT did not report differences in PSA levels between the groups. In conclusion, the hypothesis that dietary supplements are effective treatments for PC patients is not supported by sound clinical evidence. There are promising data for only two specific remedies, which contained a mixture of ingredients, but even for these supplements, additional high quality evidence is necessary before firm recommendations would be justified.
Morgan, Catherine; Novak, Iona; Dale, Russell C; Guzzetta, Andrea; Badawi, Nadia
Cerebral palsy (CP) is caused by a lesion in the developing infant brain. Recent neuroplasticity literature suggests that intensive, task-specific intervention ought to commence early, during the critical period of neural development. To determine whether "GAME" (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment), a motor learning, environmental enrichment intervention, is effective for improving motor skills in infants at high risk of CP. Single blind randomised controlled trial of GAME versus standard care. Primary outcome was motor skills on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Secondary outcomes included Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III) and Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66). Outcome assessors were masked to group allocation and data analyzed with multiple regression. All n=30 infants enrolled received the assigned intervention until 16 weeks post enrolment. At 12 months of age, n=26 completed assessments. Significant between group differences were found in raw scores on the PDMS-2 in favour of GAME (B=20.71, 95%CI 1.66-39.76, p=0. 03) and at 12 months on the total motor quotient (B=8.29, 95%CI 0.13-16.45,p =0.05). Significant between group differences favored GAME participants at 12 months on the cognitive scale of the BSID-III and satisfaction scores on the COPM. GAME intervention resulted in advanced motor and cognitive outcomes when compared with standard care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coulibaly, Oumar; Thera, Mahamadou A; Koné, Abdoulaye K; Siaka, Goïta; Traoré, Pierre; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Brunel, Jean-Michel; Gaudart, Jean; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Ranque, Stéphane
Novel treatments against for tinea capitis are needed, and the natural aminosterol squalamine is a potential topical antidermatophyte drug candidate. This phase II randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial aimed at testing the efficacy and safety of a three-week squalamine ointment regimen for the treatment of tinea capitis. Males aged 6-15 years presenting with tinea capitis were treated with either topical squalamine ointment or placebo for 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was complete clinical cure. The secondary endpoints were the occurrence of local and/or systemic adverse events, mycological cure, and partial clinical response. Prospective follow-up of clinical adverse events was performed daily. Five patients were treated with 1% squalamine ointment and 15 with placebo. No complete cure was observed. No clinical or biological adverse event was recorded. A significantly (p = 0.03) better hair-growth score, indicating a partial clinical improvement of the tinea capitis lesion, was observed in the patients treated with squalamine compared to those treated with placebo. This three-week squalamine ointment regimen was well tolerated and showed an encouraging partial clinical activity for the treatment of tinea capitis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of topical squalamine alone against tinea corporis or in combination with a systemic antidermatophyte drug against tinea capitis.
Hale, Braden R; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Fryauff, David J; Koram, Kwadwo A; Adjuik, Martin; Oduro, Abraham R; Prescott, W Roy; Baird, J Kevin; Nkrumah, Francis; Ritchie, Thomas L; Franke, Eileen D; Binka, Fred N; Horton, John; Hoffman, Stephen L
Tafenoquine is a promising new 8-aminoquinoline drug that may be useful for malaria prophylaxis in nonpregnant persons with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) function. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprophylaxis trial was conducted with adult residents of northern Ghana to determine the minimum effective weekly dose of tafenoquine for the prevention of infection by Plasmodium falciparum. The primary end point was a positive malaria blood smear result during the 13 weeks of study drug coverage. Relative to the placebo, all 4 tafenoquine dosages demonstrated significant protection against P. falciparum infection: for 25 mg/week, protective efficacy was 32% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-43%); for 50 mg/week, 84% (95% CI, 75%-91%); for 100 mg/week, 87% (95% CI, 78%-93%); and for 200 mg/week, 86% (95% CI, 76%-92%). The mefloquine dosage of 250 mg/week also demonstrated significant protection against P. falciparum infection (protective efficacy, 86%; 95% CI, 72%-93%). There was little difference between study groups in the adverse events reported, and there was no evidence of a relationship between tafenoquine dosage and reports of physical complaints or the occurrence of abnormal laboratory parameters. Tafenoquine dosages of 50, 100, and 200 mg/week were safe, well tolerated, and effective against P. falciparum infection in this study population.
Talbot, Nick P; Smith, Thomas G; Privat, Catherine; Nickol, Annabel H; Rivera-Ch, Maria; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common and disabling condition that occurs in healthy individuals ascending to high altitude. Based on the ability of iron to influence cellular oxygen sensing pathways, we hypothesized that iron supplementation would protect against AMS. To examine this hypothesis, 24 healthy sea-level residents were randomized to receive either intravenous iron(III)-hydroxide sucrose (200 mg) or saline placebo, before ascending rapidly to Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4340 m). The Lake Louise scoring system was used to assess incidence and severity of AMS at sea level and on the first full day at altitude. No significant difference in absolute AMS score was detected between the two groups either at baseline or at high altitude. However, the mean increase in AMS score was 65% smaller in the iron group than in the saline group (p<0.05), and the change in AMS score correlated negatively with the change in ferritin (R=-0.43; p<0.05). Hematocrit and arterial oxygen saturation were unaffected by iron. In conclusion, this preliminary randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial suggests that intravenous iron supplementation may protect against the symptoms of AMS in healthy volunteers.
Harandi, A. A.; Abolfazli, R.; Hatemian, A.; Ghragozlee, K.; Ghaffar-Pour, M.; Karimi, M.; Shahbegi, S.; Pakdaman, H.; Tabasi, M.; Tabatabae, A. L.; Nourian, A.
Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid) as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 3 month) ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients) or placebo (50 patients), 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P > .05). Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P < .001). Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases. PMID:21776364
Melka, A; Tekle-Haimanot, R; Lambien, F
The efficacy and safety of oral Tolperisone HCL was evaluated in double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial in 72 patients with neurolathyrism in stages I, II, and III of the disease at Kolla Duba Health Centre of Dembia District of North Gondar between January and April 1995. Taken orally daily for 12 weeks, tolperisone HCL (Mydocalm) in a dose of 150 milligrams (mgs) twice daily significantly improved subjective complaints such as muscle cramps, heaviness of the legs, startle attacks, flexor spasms and repeated falls. An overall subjective improvement was observed in 75% of the patients on tolperisone HCL and 39% of the placebo group (P = 0.002). When objectively assessed spastic muscle tone in the abductors, stiffness of Achilles and spontaneous ankle clonus were significantly reduced in tolperisone HCL group (P values = 0.001, 0.04, and 0.0001, respectively). Walking ability and speed of walking was also significantly improved. The drug is most effective in relieving symptoms of stage I and stage II disease. Some adverse effects like muscle pain, generalized body weakness and dizziness were recorded in patients taking the drug but all were minor and self limited, none requiring discontinuation of treatment. It is concluded that tolperisone is a well tolerated and efficacious drug for symptomatic treatment of neurolathyrism.
O'Duffy, E; Clunie, G; Lui, D; Edwards, J; Ell, P
BACKGROUND—Samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite (Sm-153 PHYP) is a relatively new radiation synovectomy agent developed for the treatment of chronic synovitis. Although it has been shown that the levels of unwanted extra-articular radiation are lower after intra-articular injection of Sm-153 PHYP than yttrium-90 colloid, its clinical efficacy has not been rigorously studied. OBJECTIVES—To establish whether Sm-153 PHYP radiation synovectomy results in a clinically useful benefit sustained at one year. METHODS—In a randomised double blind study, patients received either intra-articular 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide alone or 40 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide combined with Sm-153 PHYP in an outpatient clinic. RESULTS—Sixty patients (28 male, 32 female), median age 51 (18-75) with chronic knee synovitis were studied. Diagnoses included: rheumatoid arthritis (n=29); psoriatic arthritis (n=9); ankylosing spondylitis (n=3); reactive arthritis (n=2); undifferentiated seronegative oligoarthritis (n=13) and miscellaneous inflammatory conditions (n=4). More patients who received Sm-153 PHYP/triamcinolone hexacetonide sustained clinical benefit a year after treatment compared with patients who received corticosteroid alone (12 of 31 (39%) v 6 of 29 (21%), a difference of 18% more patients (95% CI −5% to 41%)) though the difference was not significant (χ2=2.31, 0.2>p>0.1, n=60). Despite the variation in injected activity (median 563 MBq, range 218-840 MBq), there was no obvious relation between low levels of injected activity (<555 MBq) and relapse within 12 months of treatment (χ2 =2.61, 0.2>p>0.1, n=31). CONCLUSIONS—There was no clear beneficial clinical effect of combined Sm-153 PHYP/triamcinolone hexacetonide injection over triamcinolone hexacetonide alone a year after treatment for chronic knee synovitis. PMID:10460188
Russell, Sarah; Jariwala, Arpit; Conlon, Robert; Selfe, James; Richards, Jim; Walton, Michael
There is little evidence for the optimal form of nonoperative treatment in the management of frozen shoulder. This study assesses the efficacy of current physiotherapy strategies. All primary care referrals of frozen shoulder to our physiotherapy department were included during a 12-month period. Of these referrals, 17% met the inclusion criteria for primary idiopathic frozen shoulder. The 75 patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: group exercise class, individual physiotherapy, and home exercises alone. A single independent physiotherapist, who was blinded to the treatment groups, made all assessments. Range of motion, Constant score, Oxford Shoulder Score, Short Form 36, and Hospital Anxiety and Disability Scale (HADS) outcome measures were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. The exercise class group improved from a mean Constant score of 39.8 at baseline to 71.4 at 6 weeks and 88.1 at 1 year. There was a significant improvement in shoulder symptoms on Oxford and Constant scores (P < .001). This improvement was greater than with individual physiotherapy or home exercises alone (P < .001). The improvement in range of motion was significantly greater in both physiotherapy groups over home exercises (P < .001). HADS scores significantly improved during the course of treatment (P < .001). The improvement in HADS anxiety score was significantly greater in both physiotherapy intervention groups than in home exercises alone. A hospital-based exercise class can produce a rapid recovery from a frozen shoulder with a minimum number of visits to the hospital and is more effective than individual physiotherapy or a home exercise program. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cusin, Cristina; Iovieno, Nadia; Iosifescu, Dan V; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, A John; Perlis, Roy H
Multiple treatments for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have demonstrated efficacy, but up to one-third of individuals with MDD do not achieve symptomatic remission despite various interventions. Existing augmentation or combination strategies can have substantial safety concerns that may limit their application. This study investigated the antidepressant efficacy of a flexible dose of the dopamine agonist pramipexole as an adjunct to standard antidepressant treatment in an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in a tertiary-level depression center. We randomized 60 outpatients (aged 18 to 75 years) with treatment-resistant nonpsychotic MDD (diagnosed according to DSM-IV) to either pramipexole (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30). Treatment resistance was defined as continued depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] score ≥ 18) despite treatment with at least 1 prior antidepressant in the current depressive episode. Patients were recruited between September 2005 and April 2008. The primary outcome measure was the MADRS score. The analyses that used a mixed-effects linear regression model indicated a modest but statistically significant benefit for pramipexole (P = .038). The last-observation-carried-forward analyses indicated that 40% and 33% of patients randomized to augmentation with pramipexole achieved response (χ(2) = 1.2, P = .27) and remission (χ(2) = 0.74, P = .61), respectively, compared to 27% and 23% with placebo; however, those differences were not statistically significant. Augmentation with pramipexole was well-tolerated, with no serious adverse effects identified. For patients who have failed to respond to standard antidepressant therapies, pramipexole is a safe and potentially efficacious augmentation strategy. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00231959. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Smith, David; Cheek, Hugh; Denson, Brenda; Pruitt, Christopher M
Intranasal (IN) midazolam is a commonly prescribed medication for pediatric sedation and anxiolysis. One of its most frequently encountered adverse effects is discomfort with administration. While it has been proposed that premedicating with lidocaine reduces this undesirable consequence, this combination has not been thoroughly researched. The objective of our study was to assess whether topical lidocaine lessens the discomfort associated with IN midazolam administration. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial performed in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department. Children 6-12 years of age who were receiving IN midazolam for procedural sedation received either 4% lidocaine or 0.9% saline (placebo) via mucosal atomizer. Subjects were subsequently given IN midazolam in a similar fashion and then rated their discomfort using the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (WBS). The primary endpoint of WBS score was analyzed with a two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test, with p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Seventy-seven patients were enrolled over a consecutive 8-month period. One child was excluded from analysis due to a discrepancy in recording the drug identification number. Study groups were similar in regard to demographic information and indication for sedation. Subjects who received IN lidocaine reported less discomfort with IN midazolam administration (median WBS = 3, interquartile range [IQR] = 0-6) than those who received placebo (median WBS = 8, IQR = 2-9; p = 0.006). Premedication with topical lidocaine reduces the discomfort associated with administration of IN midazolam (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02396537). © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Li, Sheyu; Chen, Xiang; Li, Qianrui; Du, Juan; Liu, Zhimin; Peng, Yongde; Xu, Mian; Li, Qifu; Lei, Minxiang; Wang, Changjiang; Zheng, Shaoxiong; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Yu, Hongling; Shi, Jinyu; Tao, Shibing; Feng, Ping; Tian, Haoming
To assess the efficacy and safety of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with methylcobalamin (MC). This was a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy, positive-controlled, non-inferior phase II clinical trial. Diabetic patients with abnormal nerve conduction test results were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral ALC 500 mg t.i.d. or MC 0.5 mg t.i.d. for 24 weeks. The neuropathy symptom score, neuropathy disability score and neurophysiological parameters were measured during follow up. A total of 232 patients were randomized (ALC n = 117, MC n = 115), 88% of which completed the trial. At week 24, patients from both groups had significant reductions in both neuropathy symptom score and neuropathy disability score with no significant difference between two groups (neuropathy symptom score reduction: ALC vs MC 2.35 ± 2.23, P < 0.0001 vs 2.11 ± 2.48, P < 0.0001, intergroup P = 0.38; neuropathy disability score reduction ALC vs MC 1.66 ± 1.90, P < 0.0001 vs 1.35 ± 1.65, P < 0.0001, intergroup P = 0.23). Neurophysiological parameters were also improved in both groups. No significant difference was found between groups in the development of adverse events. ALC is as effective as MC in improving clinical symptoms and neurophysiological parameters for patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy over a 24-week period with good tolerance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Liebowitz, Michael R; Yeung, Paul P; Entsuah, Richard
This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of desvenlafaxine succinate (desvenlafaxine) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). In this 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult outpatients (aged 18-75 years) with a primary diagnosis of MDD (DSM-IV criteria) were randomly assigned to treatment with desvenlafaxine (100-200 mg/day) or placebo. The primary outcome measure was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D(17)) score at final on-therapy evaluation. The Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I) was the key secondary measure. Other secondary measures included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale, Visual Analog Scale-Pain Intensity (VAS-PI) overall and subcomponent scores, and HAM-D(17) response and remission rates. The study was conducted from June 2003 to May 2004. Of the 247 patients randomly assigned to treatment, 234 comprised the intent-to-treat population. Following titration, mean daily desvenlafaxine doses ranged from 179 to 195 mg/day. At endpoint, there were no significant differences in scores between the desvenlafaxine (N = 120) and placebo (N = 114) groups on the HAM-D(17) or CGI-I. However, the desvenlafaxine group had significantly greater improvement in MADRS scores (p = .047) and in VAS-PI overall pain (p = .008), back pain (p = .006), and arm, leg, or joint pain (p < .001) scores than the placebo group. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (at least 10% and twice the rate of placebo) were nausea, dry mouth, constipation, anorexia, somnolence, and nervousness. Desvenlafaxine was generally safe and well tolerated. In this study, it did not show significantly greater efficacy than placebo on the primary or key secondary efficacy endpoints, but it did demonstrate efficacy on an alternate depression scale and pain measure associated with MDD. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT
Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M. Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J.; Abarca, Juan; Tomicic, Vinko; Aracena, M. Eugenia; Rehbein, Ana Maria; Velásquez, Soledad; Lavin, Victoria; Garrido, Felipe; Godoy, Paula; Martinez, Constanza; Chamorro, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Jorge; Hernandez, Jury; Pino, Marcelo; Villegas, Paola; Zapata, Viviana; León, Marisol; Vega, Ivonne; Otarola, Irisol; Ortega, Carlos; Daube, Elizabeth; Huecha, Doris; Neira, Alda; Ruiz, Ines; Nuñez, M. Antonieta; Monsalve, Luz; Chabouty, Henriette; Riquelme, Lorena; Palma, Samia; Bustos, Raul; Miranda, Ruben; Mardones, Jovita; Hernandez, Nora; Betancur, Yasna; Sanhueza, Ligia; Inostroza, Jaime; Donoso, Solange; Navarrete, Maritza; Acuña, Lily; Manriquez, Paulina; Castillo, Fabiola; Unzueta, Paola; Aguilera, Teresa; Osorio, Carola; Yobanolo, Veronica; Mardones, Jorge; Aranda, Sandra; Carvajal, Soledad; Sandoval, Moisés; Daza, Soraya; Vargas, Felipe; Diaz, Violeta; Riquelme, Mauricio; Muñoz, Miriam; Carriel, Andrea; Lanino, Paola; Hernandez, Susana; Schumacher, Patricia; Yañez, Lia; Marco, Claudia; Ehrenfeld, Mildred; Delgado, Iris; Rios, Susana; Vial, Cecilia; Bedrick, Edward
Background. Andes virus (ANDV)–related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Conclusions. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128180. PMID:23784924
Moon, Heui-Soo; Chu, Min Kyung; Park, Jeong Wook; Oh, Kyungmi; Chung, Jae Myun; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Eung Gyu; Do, Jin Kuk; Jung, Hyong Gi; Kwon, Sun Uck
Frovatriptan is a selective 5-HT(1B/1D) agonist with a long duration of action and a low incidence of side effects. Although several placebo-controlled trials have documented the clinical efficacy and safety of frovatriptan in adults with migraine, this drug has not previously been studied in Asian including Korean patients. In this double-blind multicenter trial, 229 patients with migraine were randomized to receive frovatriptan 2.5 mg or placebo upon the occurrence of a moderate-to-severe migraine. The primary outcome was the 2-hour headache response rate. Frovatriptan significantly increased the 2-hour headache response rate compared with placebo (52.9% vs. 34.0%, p=0.004). The headache response rates at 4, 6, and 12 hours were significantly higher in the frovatriptan group than in the placebo group, as was the pain-free rate at 2 hours (19.0% vs. 5.7%, p=0.004), 4 hours (40.7% vs. 23.0%, p=0.006), and 6 hours (56.1% vs. 34.0%, p=0.002). The median time to a headache response was significantly shorter in the frovatriptan group than in the placebo group (2.00 hours vs. 3.50 hours, p<0.001). The use of rescue medications was more common in the placebo group (p=0.005). Chest tightness associated with triptan was infrequent (2.5%), mild, and transient. These results demonstrate that 2.5-mg frovatriptan is effective and well tolerated in Korean migraineurs for acute treatment of migraine attacks.
Moon, Heui-Soo; Chu, Min Kyung; Park, Jeong Wook; Oh, Kyungmi; Chung, Jae Myun; Cho, Yong Jin; Kim, Eung Gyu; Do, Jin Kuk; Jung, Hyong Gi
Background and Purpose Frovatriptan is a selective 5-HT1B/1D agonist with a long duration of action and a low incidence of side effects. Although several placebo-controlled trials have documented the clinical efficacy and safety of frovatriptan in adults with migraine, this drug has not previously been studied in Asian including Korean patients. Methods In this double-blind multicenter trial, 229 patients with migraine were randomized to receive frovatriptan 2.5 mg or placebo upon the occurrence of a moderate-to-severe migraine. The primary outcome was the 2-hour headache response rate. Results Frovatriptan significantly increased the 2-hour headache response rate compared with placebo (52.9% vs. 34.0%, p=0.004). The headache response rates at 4, 6, and 12 hours were significantly higher in the frovatriptan group than in the placebo group, as was the pain-free rate at 2 hours (19.0% vs. 5.7%, p=0.004), 4 hours (40.7% vs. 23.0%, p=0.006), and 6 hours (56.1% vs. 34.0%, p=0.002). The median time to a headache response was significantly shorter in the frovatriptan group than in the placebo group (2.00 hours vs. 3.50 hours, p<0.001). The use of rescue medications was more common in the placebo group (p=0.005). Chest tightness associated with triptan was infrequent (2.5%), mild, and transient. Conclusions These results demonstrate that 2.5-mg frovatriptan is effective and well tolerated in Korean migraineurs for acute treatment of migraine attacks. PMID:20386640
Klein, David J; Battelino, Tadej; Chatterjee, D J; Jacobsen, Lisbeth V; Hale, Paula M; Arslanian, Silva
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth is increasing. Treatment options beyond metformin and insulin are needed. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of liraglutide once daily in youth (10-17 years old) with T2D were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Youth treated with diet/exercise alone or with metformin and having a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 6.5-11% were randomized to liraglutide (n=14) or placebo (n=7). Starting at 0.3 mg/day, doses were escalated weekly to 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.8 mg/day (or placebo equivalent) for 5 weeks. Nineteen participants completed the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, with mean (SD) values for age of 14.8 (2.2) years, weight of 113.2 (35.6) kg (range, 57-214 kg), diabetes duration of 1.7 (1.4) years, and HbA1c level of 8.1% (1.2%). No serious adverse events (AEs), including severe hypoglycemia, occurred. Transient gastrointestinal AEs were most common at lower liraglutide doses during dose escalation. No significant changes in safety and tolerability parameters occurred. There was no evidence of pancreatitis or lipase elevations above three times the upper normal limit; calcitonin levels remained within the normal range. For liraglutide 1.8 mg, mean half-life was 12 h, and clearance was 1.7 L/h. After 5 weeks, the decline in HbA1c level was greater with liraglutide versus placebo (-0.86 vs. 0.04%, P=0.0007), whereas mean body weight remained stable (-0.50 vs. -0.54 kg, P=0.9703). Liraglutide was well tolerated in youth with T2D, with safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profiles similar to profiles in adults.
Kunz, Dieter; Mahlberg, Richard
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) has been suggested to predict the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Patients with RBD are acting out dream behaviour associated with loss of normal muscle atonia of REM sleep. The aim of the present study was to confirm that exogenous melatonin improves RBD. Eight consecutively recruited males (mean age 54 years) with a polysomnographically (PSG) confirmed diagnosis of RBD were included in a two-part, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Patients received placebo and 3 mg of melatonin daily in a cross-over design, administered between 22:00 h and 23:00 h over a period of 4 weeks. PSG recordings were performed in all patients at baseline, at the end of Part I of the trial and at the end of Part II of the trial. Compared to baseline, melatonin significantly reduced the number of 30-s REM sleep epochs without muscle atonia (39% versus 27%; P = 0.012), and led to a significant improvement in clinical global impression (CGI: 6.1 versus 4.6; P = 0.024). Interestingly, the number of REM sleep epochs without muscle atonia remained lower in patients who took placebo during Part II after having received melatonin in Part I (-16% compared to baseline; P = 0.043). In contrast, patients who took placebo during Part I showed improvements in REM sleep muscle atonia only during Part II (i.e. during melatonin treatment). The data suggest that melatonin might be a second useful agent besides clonazepam in the treatment of RBD.
Sharara, Ala I; Aoun, Elie; Abdul-Baki, Heitham; Mounzer, Rawad; Sidani, Shafik; Elhajj, Ihab
To study the efficacy of rifaximin, a nonabsorbable antibiotic, in relieving chronic functional symptoms of bloating and flatulence. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial consisting of three 10-day phases: baseline (phase 1), treatment with rifaximin 400 mg b.i.d. or placebo (phase 2), and post-treatment period (phase 3). Primary efficacy variable was subjective global symptom relief at the end of each phase. A symptom score was calculated from a symptom diary. Lactulose H2-breath test (LHBT) was performed at baseline and end of study. One hundred and twenty-four patients were enrolled (63 rifaximin and 61 placebo). Baseline characteristics were comparable and none had an abnormal baseline LHBT. Rome II criteria were met in 58.7% and 54.1%, respectively. At the end of phase 2, there was a significant difference in global symptom relief with rifaximin versus placebo (41.3% vs 22.9%, p = 0.03). This improvement was maintained at the end of phase 3 (28.6% vs 11.5%, p = 0.02). Mean cumulative and bloating-specific scores dropped significantly in the rifaximin group (p < 0.05). Among patients with IBS, a favorable response to rifaximin was noted (40.5% vs 18.2%; p = 0.04) persisting by the end of phase 3 (27% vs 9.1%; p = 0.05). H2-breath excretion dropped significantly among rifaximin responders and correlated with improvement in bloating and overall symptom scores (p = 0.01). No adverse events were reported. Rifaximin is a safe and effective treatment for abdominal bloating and flatulence, including in IBS patients. Symptom improvement correlates with reduction in H2-breath excretion. Future trials are needed to examine the efficacy of long-term or cyclic rifaximin in functional colonic disorders.
Williams, Karen; Gerkovich, Mary M.; Gqaleni, Nceba; Syce, James; Bartman, Patricia; Johnson, Quinton; Folk, William R.
Background Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br. is widely used as an over the counter complementary medicine and in traditional medications by HIV seropositive adults living in South Africa; however the plant’s safety has not been objectively studied. An adaptive two-stage randomized double-blind placebo controlled study was used to evaluate the safety of consuming dried S. frutescens by HIV seropositive adults with CD4 T-lymphocyte count of >350 cells/μL. Methods In Stage 1 56 participants were randomized to S. frutescens 400, 800 or 1,200 mg twice daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. In Stage 2 77 additional participants were randomized to either 1,200 mg S. frutescens or placebo. In the final analysis data from Stage 1 and Stage 2 were combined such that 107 participants were analysed (54 in the S. frutescens 1,200 mg arm and 53 in the placebo arm). Results S. frutescens did not change HIV viral load, and CD4 T-lymphocyte count was similar in the two arms at 24 weeks; however, mean and total burden of infection (BOI; defined as days of infection-related events in each participant) was greater in the S. frutescens arm: mean (SD) 5.0 (5.5) vs. 9.0 (12.7) days (p = 0.045), attributed to two tuberculosis cases in subjects taking isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). Conclusion A possible interaction between S. frutescens and IPT needs further evaluation, and may presage antagonistic interactions with other herbs having similar biochemical (antioxidant) properties. No other safety issues relating to consumption of S. frutescens in this cohort were identified. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00549523 PMID:26186450
Falk, Daniel E.; Castle, I-Jen P.; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne; Litten, Raye Z.
Objectives To explore if varenicline (Chantix®) showed more efficacy in treating certain subgroups of patients. In a recent multi-site trial, varenicline was shown to be effective in reducing drinking in alcohol dependent patients, both smokers and nonsmokers. Given the heterogeneity among alcohol dependent patients, secondary analyses were conducted to determine if certain subgroups responded more favorably than others to treatment with varenicline. Methods Data were drawn from a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-site 13-week trial of varenicline in alcohol dependent patients (Litten et al., 2013). Seventeen moderator variables were selected for exploratory testing on the basis of theoretical and scientific interest. Results Of the 17 moderator variables assessed, four were statistically significant, including cigarettes per day reduction, treatment drinking goal, years drinking regularly, and age of patient. Two other variables—the type of adverse events experienced by patients and the severity of alcohol-related consequences—appeared to moderate the varenicline treatment effect at borderline statistical significance. Individuals who reduced the number of cigarettes per day experienced a significant effect from varenicline in reducing drinking, whereas those who did not change or who increased their number of cigarettes observed no beneficial effect. Reviewing the moderators related to severity, varenicline appeared to have greater efficacy than placebo among less severely-dependent patients. Conclusions Varenicline appears to be more efficacious in certain subgroups, particularly in those who reduced their smoking and in the “less severe” patient. Additional studies are warranted to confirm the results of these exploratory analyses. PMID:26083958
Bates, Matthew G D; Thompson, A A Roger; Baillie, J Kenneth; Sutherland, Andrew I; Irving, John B; Hirani, Nikhil; Webb, David J
Exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is a key factor in the development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). Due to its effectiveness as a pulmonary vasodilator, sildenafil has been proposed as a prophylactic agent against HAPE. By conducting a parallel-group double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of chronic sildenafil administration on pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) during acclimatization to high altitude. Sixty-two healthy lowland volunteers (36 male; median age 21 years, range 18 to 31) on the Apex 2 research expedition were flown to La Paz, Bolivia (3650 m), and after 4-5 days acclimatization ascended over 90 min to 5200 m. The treatment group (n=20) received 50 mg sildenafil citrate three times daily. PASP was recorded by echocardiography at sea level and within 6 h, 3 days, and 1 week at 5200 m. AMS was assessed daily using the Lake Louise Consensus symptom score. On intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in PASP at 5200 m between sildenafil and placebo groups. Median AMS score on Day 2 at 5200 m was significantly higher in the sildenafil group (placebo 4.0, sildenafil 6.5; p=0.004) but there was no difference in prevalence of AMS between groups. Sildenafil administration did not affect PASP in healthy lowland subjects at 5200 m but AMS was significantly more severe on Day 2 at 5200 m with sildenafil. Our data do not support routine prophylactic use of sildenafil to reduce PASP at high altitude in healthy subjects with no history of HAPE. TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00627965.
Luangchosiri, Chote; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Chitphuk, Sermsiri; Stitchantrakul, Wasana; Petraksa, Supanna; Sobhonslidsuk, Abhasnee
Hepatitis is a common adverse effect of antituberculosis drugs. Silymarin prevented drug-induced hepatoxicity in animals with anti-oxidative mechanisms but its effect in human has been unknown. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of silymarin for preventing antituberculosis-drug induced liver injury (antiTB-DILI) in patients with tuberculosis. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was performed. Tuberculosis patients were randomly allocated to receive placebo or silymarin. The outcomes of interests were antiTB-DILI and the maximum liver enzymes at week 4. Antioxidative enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione and malondialdehyde assays) were assessed. The risks of antiTB-DILI between the two groups were compared. A number need to treat was estimated. A total of 55 out of 70 expected numbers of patients were enrolled. There were 1/27 (3.7%) and 9/28 (32.1%) patients who developed antiTB-DILI in the silymarin and the placebo groups. Risk reduction was 0.28 (0.10, 0.47), i.e., receiving silymarin was 28% at lower risk for antiTB-DILI than placebo. This led to prevention of 28 patients from being antiTB-DILI among 100 treated patients. Median (IQR) of ALT levels at week 4 in the placebo and the silymarin group were 35.0 (15, 415) IU/L and 31.5 (20, 184) IU/L (p = 0.455). The decline of SOD level at week 4 in the silymarin group was less than the placebo group (p < 0.027). Silymarin reduced the incidence of antiTB-DILI. The benefit of silymarin may be explained from superoxide dismutase restoration. Larger clinical trials are required to confirm the result of our small study [Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier Nct01800487].
Hopper, Sandy M; McCarthy, Michelle; Tancharoen, Chasari; Lee, Katherine J; Davidson, Andrew; Babl, Franz E
We establish the efficacy of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions compared with placebo. This was a randomized placebo-controlled trial of viscous lidocaine versus placebo at a single pediatric emergency department. Study staff, clinicians, nurses, caregivers, and participants were blinded to the group assignment. Children with acute infectious ulcerative mouth conditions (gingivostomatitis, ulcerative pharyngitis, or hand, foot, and mouth disease) and poor oral fluid intake were randomized to receive 0.15 mL/kg of either 2% viscous lidocaine or placebo with identical appearance and flavor. The primary outcome was the amount of fluid ingested in the 60 minutes after administration of the intervention, with a difference in intake of 4 mL/kg considered clinically important. Secondary outcomes were specific milliliter per kilogram fluid targets and incidence of adverse events. One hundred participants were recruited (50 per treatment group), all of whom completed the 60-minute fluid trial period. Oral intake 1 hour after drug administration was similar in both groups: lidocaine median 8.49 mL/kg (interquartile range 4.07, 13.84 mL/kg) versus placebo 9.31 mL/kg (interquartile range 3.06, 15.18 mL/kg); difference in medians 0.82 mL/kg (95% confidence interval -2.52 to 3.26); Mann-Whitney P=.90. Likewise, short-term secondary outcomes were similar between the groups and there were no adverse events in either group. Viscous lidocaine is not superior to a flavored gel placebo in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth ulcers. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lange, Angela K; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Foroughi, Nasim; Baker, Michael K; Shnier, Ronald; Smith, Richard M; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone
Background This article provides the rationale and methodology, of the first randomised controlled trial to our knowledge designed to assess the efficacy of progressive resistance training on cartilage morphology in women with knee osteoarthritis. Development and progression of osteoarthritis is multifactorial, with obesity, quadriceps weakness, joint malalignment, and abnormal mechanical joint forces particularly relevant to this study. Progressive resistance training has been reported to improve pain and disability in osteoarthritic cohorts. However, the disease-modifying potential of progressive resistance training for the articular cartilage degeneration characteristic of osteoarthritis is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effect of high intensity progressive resistance training on articular cartilage degeneration in women with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Our cohort consisted of women over 40 years of age with primary knee osteoarthritis, according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria. Primary outcome was blinded measurement of cartilage morphology via magnetic resonance imaging scan of the tibiofemoral joint. Secondary outcomes included walking endurance, balance, muscle strength, endurance, power, and velocity, body composition, pain, disability, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Participants were randomized into a supervised progressive resistance training or sham-exercise group. The progressive resistance training group trained muscles around the hip and knee at 80% of their peak strength and progressed 3% per session, 3 days per week for 6 months. The sham-exercise group completed all exercises except hip adduction, but without added resistance or progression. Outcomes were repeated at 3 and 6 months, except for the magnetic resonance imaging scan, which was only repeated at 6 months. Discussion Our results will provide an evaluation of the disease-modifying potential of progressive resistance training for osteoarthritis
Whitehorn, James; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Khanh, Lam Phung; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Tran, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Hang, Nguyen Thuy; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Hue Tai, Luong Thi; Cam Huong, Nguyen Thi; Nhon, Vo Thanh; Van Tram, Ta; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P; Wills, Bridget
Dengue endangers billions of people in the tropical world, yet no therapeutic is currently available. In part, the severe manifestations of dengue reflect inflammatory processes affecting the vascular endothelium. In addition to lipid lowering, statins have pleiotropic effects that improve endothelial function, and epidemiological studies suggest that outcomes from a range of acute inflammatory syndromes are improved in patients already on statin therapy. Following satisfactory review of a short pilot phase (40 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 30 cases), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 5 days of 80 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 300 Vietnamese adults with a positive dengue NS1 rapid test presenting within 72 hours of fever onset. The primary outcome was safety. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of disease progression rates, fever clearance times, and measures of plasma viremia and quality of life between the treatment arms. Adverse events occurred with similar frequency in both groups (97/151 [64%] placebo vs 82/149 [55%] lovastatin; P = .13), and were in keeping with the characteristic clinical and laboratory features of acute dengue. We also observed no difference in serious adverse events or any of the secondary outcome measures. We found lovastatin to be safe and well tolerated in adults with dengue. However, although the study was not powered to address efficacy, we found no evidence of a beneficial effect on any of the clinical manifestations or on dengue viremia. Continuing established statin therapy in patients who develop dengue is safe.Chinese Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN03147572. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Modanlou Juibari, Hamed; Eftekharian, Hamid Reza; Arabion, Hamid Reza
The preoperative or intraoperative administration of intravenous magnesium sulfate has been approved as an accepted medication for stabilizing hemodynamic indices during surgeries. Intraoperative blood loss during orthognathic surgery is frequently abundant and sometimes requires blood transfusion. The present trial addressed the efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate on deliberating hypotension and bleeding reduction in patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. This randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial was conducted on 52 consecutive patients who underwent orthognathic surgery. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups receiving intravenous magnesium sulfate 30 mg/kg body weight bolus for 15 minutes immediately before anesthesia induction, followed by 10 mg/kg/hr dissolved in saline via pump infusion (n=26) and the second group received placebo as same bolus volume of normal saline in a 15-minute intravenous infusion which was continued until the end of operation (n=26). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before anesthesia induction at baseline, during surgery, and at the end of the surgery. Intraoperative blood loss was also determined. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures did not differ between the two groups at baseline. Although a downward trend of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures was seen during the operation in both groups, the decrease in blood pressures occurred with greater gradient in the group administered magnesium sulfate. Assessing difference in the trend of the changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures between the two study groups (adjusted for gender, age, mean body mass index, and time of surgery) showed different trends in the changes of blood pressures. No differences were observed in blood loss or blood product requirement between the two groups. The administration of intravenous magnesium sulfate can attenuate both systolic and diastolic blood pressures during
Modanlou Juibari, Hamed; Eftekharian, Hamid Reza; Arabion, Hamid Reza
Statement of the Problem: The preoperative or intraoperative administration of intravenous magnesium sulfate has been approved as an accepted medication for stabilizing hemodynamic indices during surgeries. Purpose: Intraoperative blood loss during orthognathic surgery is frequently abundant and sometimes requires blood transfusion. The present trial addressed the efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate on deliberating hypotension and bleeding reduction in patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Materials and Method: This randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trial was conducted on 52 consecutive patients who underwent orthognathic surgery. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups receiving intravenous magnesium sulfate 30 mg/kg body weight bolus for 15 minutes immediately before anesthesia induction, followed by 10 mg/kg/hr dissolved in saline via pump infusion (n=26) and the second group received placebo as same bolus volume of normal saline in a 15-minute intravenous infusion which was continued until the end of operation (n=26). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before anesthesia induction at baseline, during surgery, and at the end of the surgery. Intraoperative blood loss was also determined. Results: Systolic and diastolic blood pressures did not differ between the two groups at baseline. Although a downward trend of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures was seen during the operation in both groups, the decrease in blood pressures occurred with greater gradient in the group administered magnesium sulfate. Assessing difference in the trend of the changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures between the two study groups (adjusted for gender, age, mean body mass index, and time of surgery) showed different trends in the changes of blood pressures. No differences were observed in blood loss or blood product requirement between the two groups. Conclusion: The administration of intravenous
Tukvadze, Nestan; Sanikidze, Ekaterina; Kipiani, Maia; Hebbar, Gautam; Easley, Kirk A; Shenvi, Neeta; Kempker, Russell R; Frediani, Jennifer K; Mirtskhulava, Veriko; Alvarez, Jessica A; Lomtadze, Nino; Vashakidze, Lamara; Hao, Li; Del Rio, Carlos; Tangpricha, Vin; Blumberg, Henry M; Ziegler, Thomas R
Background: Tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), is a major global health problem. Individuals with tuberculosis disease commonly exhibit vitamin D deficiency, which may adversely affect immunity and the response to therapy. Objective: We determined whether adjunctive high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation improves outcomes in individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis disease. Design: The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, intent-to-treat trial in 199 individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis disease in Tbilisi, Georgia. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive oral vitamin D3 [50,000 IUs (1.25 mg) thrice weekly for 8 wk and 50,000 IU every other week for 8 wk] or a placebo concomitant with standard first-line antituberculosis drugs. The primary outcome was the time for the conversion of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) sputum culture to negative. Results: Baseline characteristics between groups were similar. Most subjects (74%) were vitamin D deficient (plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration <50 nmol/L). With vitamin D3, plasma 25(OH)D concentrations peaked at ∼250 nmol/L by 8 wk and decreased to ∼125 nmol/L at week 16. Adverse events and plasma calcium concentrations were similar between groups. In 192 subjects with culture-confirmed tuberculosis, an adjusted efficacy analysis showed similar median culture-conversion times between vitamin D3 and placebo groups [29 and 27 d, respectively; HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.18; P = 0.33). Eight-week culture-conversion rates were also similar (84.0% and 82.1% for vitamin D3 and placebo, respectively; P = 0.99). Conclusion: A high-dose vitamin D3 regimen safely corrected vitamin D deficiency but did not improve the rate of sputum Mtb clearance over 16 wk in this pulmonary tuberculosis cohort. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov at NCT00918086. PMID:26399865
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in subjects with self-reported occasional constipation. METHODS: Eligible subjects ≥ 17 years of age were randomized to receive either placebo or PEG 3350 17 g once daily in this multicenter, double-blind trial. Evaluations were conducted before (baseline) and after a 7-d treatment period. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects reporting complete resolution of straining and hard or lumpy stools. Secondary efficacy variables assessed the severity of the subjects’ daily bowel movement (BM) symptoms, and preference of laxatives based on diary entries, visual analog scale scores, and questionnaires. RESULTS: Of the 203 subjects enrolled in the study, 11 had major protocol violations. Complete resolution was noted by 36/98 (36.7%) subjects in the PEG 3350 group and 23/94 (24.5%) in the placebo group (P = 0.0595). The number of complete BMs without straining or lumpy stools was similar between both groups. Subjects receiving PEG 3350 experienced significant relief in straining and reduction in hardness of stools over a 7-d period (P < 0.0001). Subjects reported that PEG 3350 had a better effect on their daily lives, provided better control over a BM, better relief from constipation, cramping, and bloating, and was their preferred laxative. Adverse events (AEs) were balanced between the PEG 3350 and the placebo groups. No deaths, serious AEs, or discontinuations due to AEs were reported. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00770432. CONCLUSION: Oral administration of 17 g PEG 3350 once daily for a week is effective, safe, and well tolerated in subjects with occasional constipation. PMID:27158544
Edraki, Mitra; Moravej, Hossian; Rambod, Masoume
Home visit program can be effective in infants' growth and development. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of home visit program on preterm infants' growth and development within 6 months. It was a double-blind clinical trial study. The study was conducted in Hafez, Hazrat-e-Zeinab, and Namazee Hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran from 2010 to 2011. Preterm infants were divided into intervention (n=30) and control groups (n=30) through blocked randomization. The intervention group received home visit training program for 6 months, while the control group only received the hospital's routine care. Then, the infants' growth indexes, including weight, height, and head circumference, and development criteria were compared on the first day of admission in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and then first, second, third, and sixth months. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, independent t-test, and repeated measures ANCOVA. The mean weight of the intervention and control group infants was 7207.3±1129.74 and 6366.7±922.26 gr in the sixth month. Besides, the intervention group infants' mean weight was higher compared to the control group after six months (t=-3.05, P=0.03). Also, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding development indexes, such as following moving objects with the head, keeping the head stable when changing the position from lying to sitting, producing "Agha" sound, and taking objects by hand (P<0.05) during six months of age. The results showed that the home visit program was effective in preterm infants' weight gain and some development indexes at the sixth month. Considering the importance of infants' growth and development, healthcare staff is recommended to incorporate home visit training into their programs, so that steps can be taken towards improvement of preterm infants' health. IRCT2014082013690N3
Song, Jooeun; Paul, Serene S; Caetano, Maria Joana D; Smith, Stuart; Dibble, Leland E; Love, Rachelle; Schoene, Daniel; Menant, Jasmine C; Sherrington, Cathie; Lord, Stephen R; Canning, Colleen G; Allen, Natalie E
To determine whether 12-week home-based exergame step training can improve stepping performance, gait and complementary physical and neuropsychological measures associated with falls in Parkinson's disease. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial. Community (experimental intervention), university laboratory (outcome measures). Sixty community-dwelling people with Parkinson's disease. Home-based step training using videogame technology. The primary outcomes were the choice stepping reaction time test and Functional Gait Assessment. Secondary outcomes included physical and neuropsychological measures associated with falls in Parkinson's disease, number of falls over six months and self-reported mobility and balance. Post intervention, there were no differences between the intervention ( n = 28) and control ( n = 25) groups in the primary or secondary outcomes except for the Timed Up and Go test, where there was a significant difference in favour of the control group ( P = 0.02). Intervention participants reported mobility improvement, whereas control participants reported mobility deterioration-between-group difference on an 11-point scale = 0.9 (95% confidence interval: -1.8 to -0.1, P = 0.03). Interaction effects between intervention and disease severity on physical function measures were observed ( P = 0.01 to P = 0.08) with seemingly positive effects for the low-severity group and potentially negative effects for the high-severity group. Overall, home-based exergame step training was not effective in improving the outcomes assessed. However, the improved physical function in the lower disease severity intervention participants as well as the self-reported improved mobility in the intervention group suggest home-based exergame step training may have benefits for some people with Parkinson's disease.
Sunderland, G T; Belch, J J; Sturrock, R D; Forbes, C D; McKay, A J
The peripheral vasospastic symptoms associated with Raynaud's disease continue to be an unsolved clinical problem. Hexopal (Hexanicotinate inositol) has shown promise in uncontrolled studies and its use in patients with Raynaud's disease may reduce such vasospasm. This study examines the effects of 4 g/day of Hexopal or placebo, during cold weather, in 23 patients with primary Raynaud's disease. The Hexopal group felt subjectively better and had demonstrably shorter and fewer attacks of vasospasm during the trial period. Serum biochemistry and rheology was not significantly different between the two groups. Although the mechanism of action remains unclear Hexopal is safe and is effective in reducing the vasospasm of primary Raynaud's disease during the winter months.
Wynchank, D; Berk, M
The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of fluoxetine treatment of acral lick dermatitis (ALD) in dogs and to investigate ALD as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Sixty-three dogs with ALD were treated with fluoxetine 20 mg daily, or placebo, for 6 weeks. In the fluoxetine group, owners rated both appearance of the lesion (t = 10.2, df = 29, P < 0.0001) and licking behavior (t = 10.2, df = 29, P < 0.0001) as significantly improved by the end of the trial. Veterinarian-rated pre- and post-treatment photographs showed statistically significant improvement in the fluoxetine group (mean = 2.55). There were no significant changes in the placebo group as rated by owners and veterinarians. These results demonstrate the efficacy of fluoxetine in the treatment of ALD and lend further support to ALD as an animal model of OCD.
McDonough, SM; Liddle, SD; Hunter, R; Walsh, DM; Glasgow, P; Gormley, G; Hurley, D; Delitto, A; Park, J; Bradbury, I; Baxter, GD
Background Evidence supports the use of exercise for chronic low back pain (CLBP); however, adherence is often poor due to ongoing pain. Auricular acupuncture is a form of pain relief involving the stimulation of points on the outer ear corresponding with specific body parts. It may be a useful adjunct to exercise in managing CLBP; however, there is only limited evidence to support its use with this patient group. Methods/Design This study was designed to test the feasibility of an assessor-blind randomised controlled trial which assess the effects on clinical outcomes and exercise adherence of adding manual auricular acupuncture to a personalised and supervised exercise programme (PEP) for CLBP. No sample size calculation has been carried out as this study aims to identify CLBP referral rates within the catchment area of the study site. The researchers aim to recruit four cohorts of n = 20 participants to facilitate a power analysis for a future randomised controlled trial. A computer generated random allocation sequence will be prepared centrally and used to allocate participants by cohort to one of the following interventions: 1) six weeks of PEP plus manual auricular acupuncture; 2) six weeks of PEP alone. Both groups will also complete a further six weeks of self-paced exercise with telephone follow-up support. In addition to a baseline and exit questionnaire at the beginning and end of the study, the following outcomes will be collected at baseline, and after 7, 13 and 25 weeks: pain frequency and bothersomeness, back-specific function, objective assessment and recall of physical activity, use of analgesia, perceived self-efficacy, fear avoidance beliefs, and beliefs about the consequences of back pain. Since this is a feasibility study, significance tests will not be presented, and treatment effects will be represented by point estimates and confidence intervals. For each outcome variable, analysis of covariance will be performed on the data, conditioning on
Mozurkewich, Ellen L.; Clinton, Chelsea M.; Chilimigras, Julie L.; Hamilton, Susan E.; Allbaugh, Lucy J.; Berman, Deborah R.; Marcus, Sheila M.; Romero, Vivian C.; Treadwell, Marjorie C.; Keeton, Kristie L.; Vahratian, Anjel M.; Schrader, Ronald M.; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora
OBJECTIVES Maternal deficiency of the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been associated with perinatal depression, but there is evidence that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may be more effective than DHA in treating depressive symptoms. This trial tested the relative effects of EPA- and DHA-rich fish oils on prevention of depressive symptoms among pregnant women at an increased risk of depression. STUDY DES