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Sample records for blind randomised study

  1. A randomised, double-blinded study comparing giving etoricoxib vs. placebo to female patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Mahagna, H; Amital, D; Amital, H

    2016-02-01

    Current therapeutic approaches to fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) do not provide satisfactory pain control to a high percentage of patients. This unmet need constantly fuels the pursuit for new modalities for pain relief. This randomised, double-blind, controlled study assessed the efficacy and safety of adding etoricoxib vs. placebo to the current therapeutic regimen of female patients with FMS. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, female patients were randomised to receive either 90 mg etoricoxib once daily or placebo for 6 weeks. Several physical and mental parameters were assessed throughout the study. The primary end-point was the response to treatment, defined as ≥ 30% reduction in the average Brief Pain Inventory score. Secondary outcomes were changes in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36 Quality of Life assessment questionnaire and Hamilton rating scales for anxiety and depression. Overall, 73 patients were recruited. Although many outcome measures improved throughout the study, no difference was recorded between the etoricoxib- and placebo-treated groups. The Brief Pain Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, The Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scores did not differ between the two groups. This is the first randomised, double-blind study assessing the effect of adding etoricoxib to pre-existing medications for female patients with FMS. Although being mildly underpowered this study clearly has shown that etoricoxib did not improve pain scores and did not lead to any beneficial mental or physical effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Aspartame sensitivity? A double blind randomised crossover study.

    PubMed

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S; Courts, Fraser L; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W; Atkin, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg)-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics. Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008) and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04), reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies and the public that acute ingestion of

  3. Aspartame Sensitivity? A Double Blind Randomised Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S.; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Courts, Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. Methods This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg)-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics. Results Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008) and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04), reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Conclusion Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies

  4. Extracorporeal shock-wave treatment for tennis elbow. A randomised double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Melikyan, E Y; Shahin, E; Miles, J; Bainbridge, L C

    2003-08-01

    The efficacy of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for tennis elbow was investigated using a single fractionated dosage in a randomised, double-blind study. Outcomes were assessed using the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, measurements of grip strength, levels of pain, analgesic usage and the rate of progression to surgery. Informed consent was obtained before patients were randomised to either the treatment or placebo group. In the final assessment, 74 patients (31 men and 43 women) with a mean age of 43.4 years (35 to 71), were included. None of the outcome measures showed a statistically significant difference between the treatment and control groups (p > 0.05). All patients improved significantly over time, regardless of treatment. Our study showed no evidence that extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for tennis elbow is better than placebo.

  5. Doxycycline in early CJD: a double-blinded randomised phase II and observational study

    PubMed Central

    Varges, Daniela; Manthey, Henrike; Heinemann, Uta; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Krasnianski, Anna; Breithaupt, Maren; Fincke, Fabian; Kramer, Katharina; Friede, Tim; Zerr, Inga

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present study is to study the therapeutic efficiency of doxycycline in a double-blinded randomised phase II study in a cohort of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Methods From the National Reference Center of TSE Surveillance in Germany, patients with probable or definite sCJD were recruited for a double-blinded randomised study with oral doxycycline (EudraCT 2006-003934-14). In addition, we analysed the data from patients with CJD who received compassionate treatment with doxycycline in a separate group. Potential factors which influence survival such as age at onset, gender, codon 129 polymorphism and cognitive functions were evaluated. The primary outcome measure was survival. Results Group 1: in the double-blinded randomised phase II study, 7 patients in the treatment group were compared with 5 controls. Group 2: 55 patients with sCJD treated with oral doxycycline were analysed and compared with 33 controls by a stratified propensity score applied to a Cox proportional hazard analysis. The results of both studies were combined by means of a random-effects meta-analysis. A slight increase in survival time in the doxycycline treatment group was observed (p=0.049, HR=0.63 (95% CI 0.402 to 0.999)). Conclusions On the basis of our studies, a larger trial of doxycycline should be performed in persons in the earliest stages of CJD. Trial registration number EudraCT 2006-003934-14; Results. PMID:27807198

  6. Efficacy of transforaminal versus interspinous corticosteroid injectionin discal radiculalgia - a prospective, randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Cyteval, C; Abiad, L; Picot, M C; Taourel, P; Blotman, F

    2003-10-01

    A prospective, randomised, double-blind study was carried out to compare the respective efficacies of transforaminal and interspinous epidural corticosteroid injections in discal radiculalgia. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males) with discal radicular pain of less than 3 months' duration were consecutively randomised to receive either radio-guided transforaminal or blindly performed interspinous epidural corticosteroid injections. Post-treatment outcome was evaluated clinically at 6 and 30 days, and then at 6 months, but only by mailed questionnaire. At day 6, the between-group difference was significantly in favour of the transforaminal group with respect to Schober's index, finger-to-floor distance, daily activities, and work and leisure activities on the Dallas pain scale. At day 30, pain relief was significantly better in the transforaminal group. At month 6, answers to the mailed questionnaire still showed significantly better results for transforaminal injection concerning pain, daily activities, work and leisure activities and anxiety and depression, with a decline in the Roland-Morris score. In recent discal radiculalgia, the efficacy of radio-guided transforaminal epidural corticosteroid injections was higher than that obtained with blindly-performed interspinous injections.

  7. Professional kinesiology practice for chronic low back pain: single-blind, randomised controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Eardley, S; Brien, S; Little, P; Prescott, P; Lewith, G

    2013-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a highly prevalent condition with no definitive treatment. Professional Kinesiology Practice (PKP) is a little known complementary medicine technique using non-standard muscle testing; no previous effectiveness studies have been performed. This is an exploratory, pragmatic single-blind, 3-arm randomised sham-controlled pilot study with waiting list control (WLC) in private practice UK (2007-2009). 70 participants scoring ≥4 on the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) were randomised to real or sham PKP receiving 1 treatment weekly for 5 weeks or a WLC. WLC's were re-randomised to real or sham after 6 weeks. The main outcome was a change in RMDQ from baseline to end of 5 weeks of real or sham PKP. With an effect size of 0.7 real treatment was significantly different to sham (mean difference RMDQ score = -2.9, p = 0.04, 95% CI -5.8 to -0.1). Compared to WLC, real and sham groups had significant RMDQ improvements (real -9.0, p < 0.01, 95% CI -12.1 to -5.8; effect size 2.1; sham -6.1, p < 0.01, 95% CI -9.1 to -3.1; effect size 1.4). Practitioner empathy (CARE) and patient enablement (PEI) did not predict outcome; holistic health beliefs (CAMBI) did, though. The sham treatment appeared credible; patients did not guess treatment allocation. 3 patients reported minor adverse reactions. Real treatment was significantly different from sham demonstrating a moderate specific effect of PKP; both were better than WLC indicating a substantial non-specific and contextual treatment effect. A larger definitive study would be appropriate with nested qualitative work to help understand the mechanisms involved in PKP.

  8. Randomised double-blind comparative study of dexmedetomidine and tramadol for post-spinal anaesthesia shivering

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Geeta; Gupta, Kanchan; Katyal, Sunil; Kaushal, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Dexmedetomidine (α2 adrenergic agonist) has been used for prevention of post anaesthesia shivering. Its use for the treatment of post-spinal anaesthesia shivering has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy, haemodynamic and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine with those of tramadol, when used for control of post-spinal anaesthesia shivering. Methods: A prospective, randomised, and double-blind study was conducted in 50 American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grade I and II patients of either gender, aged between 18 and 65 years, scheduled for various surgical procedures under spinal anaesthesia. The patients were randomised in two groups of 25 patients each to receive either dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg or tramadol 0.5 mg/kg as a slow intravenous bolus. Grade of shivering, onset of shivering, time for cessation of shivering, recurrence, response rate, and adverse effects were observed at scheduled intervals. Unpaired t-test was used for analysing the data. Results: Time taken for cessation of shivering was significantly less with dexmedetomidine when compared to tramadol. Nausea and vomiting was observed only in tramadol group (28% and; 20% respectively). There was not much difference in the sedation profile of both the drugs. Conclusion: We conclude that although both drugs are effective, the time taken for cessation of shivering is less with dexmedetomidine when compared to tramadol. Moreover, dexmedetomidine has negligible adverse effects, whereas tramadol is associated with significant nausea and vomiting. PMID:25024466

  9. Aripiprazole once-monthly for treatment of schizophrenia: double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority study.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Sanchez, Raymond; Perry, Pamela P; Jin, Na; Peters-Strickland, Timothy; Johnson, Brian R; Baker, Ross A; Eramo, Anna; McQuade, Robert D; Carson, William H; Walling, David; Kane, John M

    2014-08-01

    Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotics are treatment alternatives to oral agents. To assess the efficacy of aripiprazole once-monthly compared with oral aripiprazole for maintenance treatment of schizophrenia. A 38-week, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study; randomisation (2:2:1) to aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg, oral aripiprazole (10-30 mg/day) or aripiprazole once-monthly 50 mg (a dose below the therapeutic threshold for assay sensitivity). ( clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00706654.) A total of 1118 patients were screened, and 662 responders to oral aripiprazole were randomised. Kaplan-Meier estimated impending relapse rates at week 26 were 7.12% for aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg and 7.76% for oral aripiprazole. This difference (-0.64%, 95% CI -5.26 to 3.99) excluded the predefined non-inferiority margin of 11.5%. Treatments were superior to aripiprazole once-monthly 50 mg (21.80%, P < or = 0.001). Aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg was non-inferior to oral aripiprazole, and the reduction in Kaplan-Meier estimated impending relapse rate at week 26 was statistically significant v. aripiprazole once-monthly 50 mg. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  10. Effect of alkalinisation of lignocaine for propofol injection pain: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, U; Begec, Z; Erdogan, M A; Aydogan, M S; Sanli, M; Colak, C

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pretreatment with alkalinised lignocaine reduced the incidence and severity of pain during propofol injection. This prospective, randomised, double-blind study included 300 adult, American Society of Anesthesiologists physcial status I to II patients undergoing elective surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: Group L received 0.05 ml/kg of 1% lignocaine (5 ml normal saline + 5 ml 2% lignocaine), Group A received 0.05 ml/kg alkalinised lignocaine (5 ml 2% lignocaine + 1 ml 8.4% NaHCO3 + 4 ml normal saline), and Group S, the control group, was given the same amount of normal saline (NaCl 0.9%). All drugs were given as a bolus over 20 seconds before propofol administration. A blinded researcher assessed the patient's pain level using a four-point scale. The pain score [median (range)] and the incidence of pain in Group A (6%) was significantly lower than in groups L (41%) and S (88%, P <0.001). In addition, the pain score and the incidence of pain were found to be significantly different between Group L and Group S (P <0.001). The incidence of moderate and severe pain were greater in Group S when compared with groups A and L (P <0.001). Intravenous pretreatment with alkalinised lignocaine appears to be effective in reducing the pain during propofol injection.

  11. Early laryngeal outcome of prolonged intubation using an anatomical tube: a double blind, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Nordang, Leif; Lindholm, Carl-Eric; Larsson, Jan; Linder, Arne

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to study the short-term impact on larynx by a newly designed anatomical tube. A prospective randomised trial of a newly designed anatomical tube versus a standard endotracheal tube in patients operated under general anaesthesia for at least 12 h. Seventy adults were included and randomised to either type of tube. The patients were evaluated by means of fibre-optic laryngoscopy and VAS-rating of symptoms on two occasions in the first post-operative week. The evaluating investigators and the patients were blinded to the type of tube used. 27 cases and 23 controls had complete data for evaluation. Age, gender and intubation times were comparable. Symptoms such as hoarseness, coughing, and pain were rated above 30 % of maximum during at least one of the first post-operative days by 21 and 19 patients, respectively. At the first examination (within 24 h), 38 % of patients in the anatomical tube group stated no hoarseness; compared to 13 % of the controls (p = 0.057). Fibre-optic laryngoscopy showed some kind of pathology in all the patients examined within 24 h of extubation. After 3-6 days, seven patients with the anatomical tube and four patients in the control group showed complete resolution of the lesions, and the changes were limited to redness in the vocal process area in another seven and four, respectively. The differences between the groups did not attain statistical significance. The study shows considerable short-term laryngeal morbidity after prolonged intubation, and the anatomical tube only showed an advantage concerning hoarseness. Further improvement of the endotracheal tubes and intubation routines are still needed.

  12. The value of vaginal packing in pelvic floor surgery: a randomised double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Thiagamoorthy, G; Khalil, A; Cardozo, L; Srikrishna, S; Leslie, G; Robinson, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaginal packing following pelvic floor surgery with regard to post-operative pain, bleeding and infection. This was a double-blind randomised study of women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy and/or pelvic floor repair at a tertiary urogynaecology unit. The primary outcome of day 1 post-operative pain was assessed using the short-form McGill Pain score. Secondary outcomes were haematological and infective morbidity, evaluated using changes in full blood count, and cultures of midstream urine and high vaginal swabs. A transvaginal ultrasound scan to exclude pelvic haematoma was performed at 6 weeks in all women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy with or without a pelvic floor repair. In total, 190 women were recruited: mean age 58.3 years (27-91 years), mean body mass index 27.4 kg/m(2) and median parity 3. Women were randomised into the 'pack' (n = 86) and 'no pack' (n = 87) arms with no demographic differences between the groups. No statistically significant differences in the post-operative pain scores or secondary outcome measures were demonstrated. Incidence of haematoma formation (14.8 % no pack, 7.3 % pack, p = 0.204) was not statistically significant. There were three clinically significant complications in the no pack group and none in the pack group. This is the first study to examine pain in association with post-operative vaginal packing. There is no evidence to suggest that packing increases pain scores or post-operative morbidity. A trend towards increased haematoma and significant complications was seen in the no pack group. As vaginal packing does no harm and may be of some benefit it may be argued that packing should be recommended as routine clinical practice.

  13. [Impact of telmisartan on glomerular filtration in laparoscopic surgery. A double blinded randomised controlled study].

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Reyes, Rodolfo Alejandro; Pacheco-Patiño, Mariel Fernanda; Ponce-Escobedo, Aurora Natalia; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique; Hernandez-Guedea, Marco Antonio

    Laparoscopic surgery has begun to replace a great number of procedures that were previously practiced using open or conventional techniques. This is due to the minimal invasion, small incisions, and short time recovery. However, it has come to knowledge, that the increase in intra-abdominal pressure due to carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery causes cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, and renal alterations. To evaluate the nephroprotective effect of telmisartan, an angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist, on glomerular filtration in laparoscopic surgery. Analytical prospective, randomised, double-blind study was conducted on patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. They were randomised into 2 groups, with the treatment group receiving a single dose of 40mg telmisartan orally 2hours prior to surgery, and the placebo group. There were 20 patients in each group (n=40), with a mean age of 32.65 years in the treatment group. Plasma creatinine did not show any significant change in the different time lapse in which blood samples were taken, but creatinine clearance at the end of surgery (196.415±56.507 vs. 150.1995±75.081; p=0.034), and at 2 h postoperative period (162.105±44.756 vs. 113.235±31.228; p≤0.001) was statistically significant, which supports an increase in renal function in the telmisartan group. The use of telmisartan, an angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist, offers renal protection during laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomised, controlled, double blind, escalating dose study of alicaforsen enema in active ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    van Deventer, S J H; Tami, J A; Wedel, M K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an enema formulation of alicaforsen, an antisense inhibitor of intercellular adhesion molecule, after 1, 3, and 6 months. Methods: This was a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, escalating dose multicentre study in 40 patients with mild to moderately active distal ulcerative colitis (disease activity index (DAI) 4–10). Patients were assigned to four dosing cohorts of 10 patients each (eight active, two placebo). Each patient received 60 ml of alicaforsen enema (0.1, 0.5, 2, or 4 mg/ml or placebo) once daily for 28 consecutive days. Safety and efficacy (DAI and clinical activity index) scores were evaluated up to six months after initiation of dosing. Results: At day 29, alicaforsen enema resulted in dose dependent improvement in DAI (overall p = 0.003). Alicaforsen 4 mg/ml improved DAI by 70% compared with the placebo response of 28% (p = 0.004). Alicaforsen 2 and 4 mg/ml improved DAI status by 72% and 68% compared with a placebo response of 11.5% at month 3 (p = 0.016 and 0.021, respectively). Specifically, DAI improved from 5.6 to 1.6 and from 6.3 to 2.5 in the 2 and 4 mg/ml groups compared with placebo (7.5 to 6.1). None of the patients in the 4 mg/ml group compared with 4/8 placebo patients required additional medical or surgical intervention over baseline during the six month period after starting the enema treatment. The safety profile was favourable. Conclusions: Alicaforsen enema showed promising acute and long term benefit in patients with mild to moderate descending ulcerative colitis. Alicaforsen enemas had a favourable safety profile. These findings require verification in larger randomised controlled clinical trials. PMID:15479686

  15. Vitamin B12 in low back pain: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mauro, G L; Martorana, U; Cataldo, P; Brancato, G; Letizia, G

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this double-blind randomised, placebo-controlled study was to examine the efficacy and safety intramuscular vitamin B12 (Tricortin 1000) in the treatment of low back pain in patients with mechanical or irritative lumbago. 60 patients aged between 18 and 65 years with lumbago or sciatic neuritis of mechanical origin without need for surgical procedures were enrolled. Patients had to present with a proven medical history for back pain (lasting from 6 months to 5 years) and a pain intensity [as evaluated with a Visual Analogic Scale (VAS)] equal or greater than 60 mm. Efficacy primary end-point was evaluated by means of a visual analogic scale (VAS) and a Disability Questionnaire (DQ). Consumption of paracetamol during the study period was the secondary efficacy end-point. Both treatment groups experienced a sharp decrease in pain and disability. However, comparison between groups at the end of the treatment period showed a statistically significant difference in favour of the active treatment both for VAS and DQ (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0002, respectively). Consumption of paracetamol proved significantly higher in the placebo group than in the active treatment (p < 0.0001). The efficacy and safety of parenteral Vitamin B12 in alleviating low back pain and related disability and in decreasing the consumption of paracetamol was confirmed in patients with no signs of nutritional deficiency.

  16. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. Setting A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Participants Chinese women aged 14–25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. Interventions A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Results Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (−0.71, CI −1.37 to −0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Acupuncture point injection of

  17. Heartburn treatment in primary care: randomised, double blind study for 8 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Hatlebakk, Jan G; Hyggen, Arild; Madsen, Per H; Walle, Per O; Schulz, Tom; Mowinckel, Petter; Bernklev, Tomm; Berstad, Arnold

    1999-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects and tolerability of omeprazole and cisapride with that of placebo for control of heartburn in primary care patients. Design Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. Setting 65 primary care practices in Norway. Participants 483 untreated patients with complaints of heartburn ⩾3 days a week, with at most grade 1 reflux oesophagitis. Interventions Omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cisapride 20 mg twice daily, or placebo for 8 weeks. Main outcome measures Adequate control of heartburn, defined as ⩽1 day of the past 7 days with no more than mild heartburn, after 4 weeks of treatment. Results In the all patients treated analysis, adequate control of heartburn was achieved in 71% of patients taking omeprazole, 22% taking cisapride, and 18% taking placebo after 4 weeks of treatment (omeprazole v cisapride and placebo, P<0.0001; cisapride v placebo, non-significant). Results were comparable in patients with or without reflux oesophagitis. In patients treated with omeprazole only, symptom control was achieved significantly more often in patients positive for Helicobacter pylori. Antacid use was 2-3 times greater in patients taking cisapride or placebo than in those taking omeprazole. Relief of non-reflux symptoms did not significantly differ between the three groups. Significantly more patients taking cisapride reported adverse events than those taking omeprazole or placebo. Conclusions Omeprazole 20 mg once daily was highly effective in relieving heartburn whereas cisapride 20 mg twice daily was not significantly more effective than placebo. Key messagesIn primary care patients, heartburn is commonly treated empiricallyMost randomised clinical trials of treatment for heartburn have been conducted in specialist care, and documentation for empirical treatment is limitedOmeprazole was significantly more effective than cisapride or placebo in controlling heartburn and other symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux after 2, 4, and 8 weeks

  18. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-05

    To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Chinese women aged 14-25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (-0.71, CI -1.37 to -0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Acupuncture point injection of vitamin K3 relieves menstrual pain rapidly and is a useful treatment in an urban outpatient clinic. NCT00104546; Results

  19. Treatment of herpes simplex gingivostomatitis with aciclovir in children: a randomised double blind placebo controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Amir, J.; Harel, L.; Smetana, Z.; Varsano, I.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of aciclovir suspension for treating herpetic gingivostomatitis in young children. DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled study. SETTING: Day care unit of a tertiary paediatric hospital. SUBJECTS: 72 children aged 1-6 years with clinical manifestations of gingivostomatitis lasting less than 72 hours; 61 children with cultures positive for herpes simplex virus finished the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of oral lesions, fever, eating and drinking difficulties, and viral shedding. INTERVENTION: Aciclovir suspension 15 mg/kg five times a day for seven days, or placebo. RESULTS: Children receiving aciclovir had oral lesions for a shorter period than children receiving placebo (median 4 v 10 days (difference 6 days, 95% confidence interval 4.0 to 8.0)) and earlier disappearance of the following signs and symptoms: fever (1 v 3 days (2 days, 0.8 to 3.2)); extraoral lesions (lesions around the mouth but outside the oral cavity) (0 v 5.5 days (5.5 days, 1.3 to 4.7)); eating difficulties (4 v 7 days (3 days, 1.31 to 4.69)); and drinking difficulties (3 v 6 days (3 days, 1.1 to 4.9)). Viral shedding was significantly shorter in the group treated with aciclovir (1 v 5 days (4 days, 2.9 to 5.1)). CONCLUSIONS: Oral aciclovir treatment for herpetic gingivostomatitis, started within the first three days of onset, shortens the duration of all clinical manifestations and the infectivity of affected children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the ideal dose and length of treatment. PMID:9224082

  20. Single-blind, placebo controlled randomised clinical study of chitosan for body weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, V R; Satia, M C; Deschamps, A; Maquet, V; Shah, R B; Zinzuwadia, P H; Trivedi, J V

    2016-01-08

    Chitosan is a dietary fibre which acts by reducing fat absorption and thus used as a means for controlling weight. Weight loss clinical trial outcomes, however, have contradictory results regarding its efficacy. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a chitosan from fungal origin in treatment of excess weight in the absence of dietary restrictions. A phase IV, randomised, multicentre, single-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study was conducted by administering chitosan capsules (500 mg, five/day) and indistinguishable placebo capsules as daily supplements to 96 overweight and obese subjects for 90 days. The study participants were divided in 2:1 ratio to receive either chitosan (n = 64) or placebo (n = 32). Efficacy was assessed by measuring body weight, body composition parameters, anthropometric measurements, HbA1C level and lipid profile at day 45 and day 90. Also, short form-36 quality of life (QoL) questionnaire was assessed to evaluate improvement in life-style and dietary habits were recorded for calorie intake. Safety was assessed by evaluating safety parameters and monitoring adverse events. The mean changes in body weight were -1.78 ± 1.37 kg and -3.10 ± 1.95 kg at day 45 and day 90 respectively in chitosan group which were significantly different (p < 0.0001) as compared to placebo. BMI was decreased by10.91 fold compared to placebo after 90 day administration. In concert with this, there was also reduction in body composition and anthropometric parameters together with improvement in QoL score. Chitosan was also able to reduce HbA1C levels (below 6 %) in subjects who had initial higher values. The mean caloric intake shows that there was no change in dietary habits of subjects in both groups. Lipid levels were unaffected and all adverse events were mild in nature and unrelated to study treatment. Chitosan from fungal origin was able to reduce the mean body weight up to 3 kg during the 90 day study

  1. Vaginal progesterone prophylaxis for preterm birth (the OPPTIMUM study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Norman, Jane Elizabeth; Marlow, Neil; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Shennan, Andrew; Bennett, Phillip R; Thornton, Steven; Robson, Stephen C; McConnachie, Alex; Petrou, Stavros; Sebire, Neil J; Lavender, Tina; Whyte, Sonia; Norrie, John

    2016-05-21

    Progesterone administration has been shown to reduce the risk of preterm birth and neonatal morbidity in women at high risk, but there is uncertainty about longer term effects on the child. We did a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of vaginal progesterone, 200 mg daily taken from 22-24 to 34 weeks of gestation, on pregnancy and infant outcomes in women at risk of preterm birth (because of previous spontaneous birth at ≤34 weeks and 0 days of gestation, or a cervical length ≤25 mm, or because of a positive fetal fibronectin test combined with other clinical risk factors for preterm birth [any one of a history in a previous pregnancy of preterm birth, second trimester loss, preterm premature fetal membrane rupture, or a history of a cervical procedure to treat abnormal smears]). The objective of the study was to determine whether vaginal progesterone prophylaxis given to reduce the risk of preterm birth affects neonatal and childhood outcomes. We defined three primary outcomes: fetal death or birth before 34 weeks and 0 days gestation (obstetric), a composite of death, brain injury, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (neonatal), and a standardised cognitive score at 2 years of age (childhood), imputing values for deaths. Randomisation was done through a web portal, with participants, investigators, and others involved in giving the intervention, assessing outcomes, or analysing data masked to treatment allocation until the end of the study. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN14568373. Between Feb 2, 2009, and April 12, 2013, we randomly assigned 1228 women to the placebo group (n=610) and the progesterone group (n=618). In the placebo group, data from 597, 587, and 439 women or babies were available for analysis of obstetric, neonatal, and childhood outcomes, respectively; in the progesterone group the corresponding numbers were 600, 589, and 430. After correction for multiple outcomes

  2. Conductive Education as a Method of Stroke Rehabilitation: A Single Blinded Randomised Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Jutley-Neilson, Jagjeet; Russell, Nicholas C. C.; Sackley, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Conductive Education for stroke survivors has shown promise but randomised evidence is unavailable. This study assessed the feasibility of a definitive randomised controlled trial to evaluate efficacy. Methods. Adult stroke survivors were recruited through local community notices. Those completing the baseline assessment were randomised using an online program and group allocation was independent. Intervention group participants received 10 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of Conductive Education at the National Institute of Conductive Education in Birmingham, UK. The control group participants attended two group meetings. The study evaluated the feasibility of recruitment procedures, delivery of the intervention, retention of participants, and appropriateness of outcome measures and data collection methods. Independent assessments included the Barthel Index, the Stroke Impact Scale, the Timed Up and Go test, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. Eighty-two patients were enrolled; 77 completed the baseline assessment (46 men, mean age 62.1 yrs.) and were randomised. 70 commenced the intervention (n = 37) or an equivalent waiting period (n = 33). 32/37 completed the 10-week training and 32/33 the waiting period. There were no missing items from completed questionnaires and no adverse events. Discussion. Recruitment, intervention, and assessment methods worked well. Transport issues for intervention and assessment appointments require review. Conclusion. A definitive trial is feasible. This trial is registered with ISRCTN84064492. PMID:27418997

  3. Increasing work-place healthiness with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tubelius, Py; Stan, Vlaicu; Zachrisson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background Short term illnesses, usually caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases are disruptive to productivity and there is relatively little focus on preventative measures. This study examined the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri protectis (ATCC55730) on its ability to improve work-place healthiness by reducing short term sick-leave caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. Methods 262 employees at TetraPak in Sweden (day-workers and three-shift-workers) that were healthy at study start were randomised in a double-blind fashion to receive either a daily dose of 108 Colony Forming Units of L. reuteri or placebo for 80 days. The study products were administered with a drinking straw. 181 subjects complied with the study protocol, 94 were randomised to receive L. reuteri and 87 received placebo. Results In the placebo group 26.4% reported sick-leave for the defined causes during the study as compared with 10.6% in the L. reuteri group (p < 0.01). The frequency of sick-days was 0.9% in the placebo group and 0.4% in the L. reuteri group (p < 0.01). Among the 53 shift-workers, 33% in the placebo group reported sick during the study period as compared with none in the L. reuteri group(p < 0.005). PMID:16274475

  4. Probiotics and respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections in Finnish military conscripts - a randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Kalima, K; Lehtoranta, L; He, L; Pitkäniemi, J; Lundell, R; Julkunen, I; Roivainen, M; Närkiö, M; Mäkelä, M J; Siitonen, S; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-09-01

    Military conscripts are susceptible to respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In previous studies probiotics have shown potency to reduce upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim was to study whether probiotic intervention has an impact on seasonal occurrence of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in two different conscript groups. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled study (https://clinicaltrials.gov NCT01651195), a total of 983 healthy adults were enrolled from two intakes of conscripts. Conscripts were randomised to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 (BB12) or a control chewing tablet twice daily for 150 days (recruits) or for 90 days (reserve officer candidates). Clinical examinations were carried out and daily symptom diaries were collected. Outcome measures were the number of days with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and symptom incidence, number and duration of infection episodes, number of antibiotic treatments received and number of days out of service because of the infection. Statistically no significant differences were found between the intervention groups either in the risk of symptom incidence or duration. However, probiotic intervention was associated with reduction of specific respiratory infection symptoms in military recruits, but not in reserve officer candidates. Probiotics did not significantly reduce overall respiratory and gastrointestinal infection morbidity.

  5. A randomised double blind comparative study of low level laser therapy following surgical extraction of lower third molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Fernando, S; Hill, C M; Walker, R

    1993-06-01

    A randomised, double blind comparative study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of low level laser therapy in the reduction of postoperative pain and swelling in patients undergoing the extraction of bilaterally impacted mandibular third molar teeth. Healing of the sockets was also compared after 1 week. A group of 64 patients had one randomly-selected operation side treated with a semi-conductor laser and the other side with an apparently identical but non-operating model. Complete data were obtained from 52 of the 64 patients. The results showed that there was no evidence of a difference in pain and swelling on the third day after operation between laser and placebo sides. There was no difference between the two sides when they were assessed for healing 7 days after surgery.

  6. Xamoterol in severe congestive heart failure: long-term oral treatment, a double-blind randomised study.

    PubMed

    Tangø, M; Lyngborg, K; Mehlsen, J; Svendsen, T L; Trap-Jensen, J

    1992-01-01

    Twelve patients in severe congestive heart failure were given placebo, 100 mg xamoterol (Corwin) twice daily and 200 mg xamoterol twice daily, respectively, in 3 two-week periods in a double-blind randomised study. At the end of each treatment period the patients were evaluated. No differences were found between placebo and xamoterol in the following parameters: New York Heart Association function group index, heart volume, body weight, exercise duration on bicycle and treadmill, heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest. However, during exercise we found significantly lower heart rate and rate-pressure product during xamoterol treatment. This reduction is probably indicating occupation of beta-adrenoreceptors with concomitant reduced oxygen consumption during exercise.

  7. Randomised, double blind, multicentre, placebo controlled study of sulodexide in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Coccheri, Sergio; Scondotto, Gaetano; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Aloisi, Daniele; Palazzini, Ernesto; Zamboni, Villiam

    2002-06-01

    Sulodexide, a highly purified glycosaminoglycan, was investigated for treatment of venous leg ulcers. Patients (n = 235) undergoing local treatment including wound care and compression bandaging, were randomised to receive either sulodexide or matching placebo for three months. Primary study endpoint was complete ulcer healing after 2 months; secondary endpoints were ulcer healing at 3 months and the time-course changes of ulcer areas. The proportion of patients with complete ulcer healing was higher with sulodexide at 2 months (p = 0.018) and 3 months. The "number needed to treat" to obtain one additional patient healed with sulodexide was 7 at 2 months and 5 at 3 months. The changes in ulcer surface area with time were significant for sulodexide only (p = 0.004). Fibrinogen significantly decreased in sulodexide patients (p = 0.006). In conclusion, sulodexide associated with local treatment proved to be effective and well tolerated in the management of venous leg ulcers.

  8. Treatment of optic neuritis with erythropoietin (TONE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial—study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Diem, Ricarda; Molnar, Fanni; Beisse, Flemming; Gross, Nikolai; Drüschler, Katharina; Heinrich, Sven P; Joachimsen, Lutz; Rauer, Sebastian; Pielen, Amelie; Sühs, Kurt-Wolfram; Linker, Ralf Andreas; Huchzermeyer, Cord; Albrecht, Philipp; Hassenstein, Andrea; Aktas, Orhan; Guthoff, Tanja; Tonagel, Felix; Kernstock, Christoph; Hartmann, Kathrin; Kümpfel, Tania; Hein, Katharina; van Oterendorp, Christian; Grotejohann, Birgit; Ihorst, Gabriele; Maurer, Julia; Müller, Matthias; Volkmann, Martin; Wildemann, Brigitte; Platten, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang; Heesen, Christoph; Schiefer, Ulrich; Wolf, Sebastian; Lagrèze, Wolf A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Optic neuritis leads to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. The standard treatment is a methylprednisolone pulse therapy. This treatment slightly shortens the time of recovery but does not prevent neurodegeneration and persistent visual impairment. In a phase II trial performed in preparation of this study, we have shown that erythropoietin protects global retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT-G) in acute optic neuritis; however, the preparatory trial was not powered to show effects on visual function. Methods and analysis Treatment of Optic Neuritis with Erythropoietin (TONE) is a national, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial with two parallel arms. The primary objective is to determine the efficacy of erythropoietin compared to placebo given add-on to methylprednisolone as assessed by measurements of RNFLT-G and low-contrast visual acuity in the affected eye 6 months after randomisation. Inclusion criteria are a first episode of optic neuritis with decreased visual acuity to ≤0.5 (decimal system) and an onset of symptoms within 10 days prior to inclusion. The most important exclusion criteria are history of optic neuritis or multiple sclerosis or any ocular disease (affected or non-affected eye), significant hyperopia, myopia or astigmatism, elevated blood pressure, thrombotic events or malignancy. After randomisation, patients either receive 33 000 international units human recombinant erythropoietin intravenously for 3 consecutive days or placebo (0.9% saline) administered intravenously. With an estimated power of 80%, the calculated sample size is 100 patients. The trial started in September 2014 with a planned recruitment period of 30 months. Ethics and dissemination TONE has been approved by the Central Ethics Commission in Freiburg (194/14) and the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (61-3910-4039831). It complies with the Declaration of Helsinki

  9. Sporadic adenomatous polyp regression with exisulind is effective but toxic: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, dose‐response study

    PubMed Central

    Arber, N; Kuwada, S; Leshno, M; Sjodahl, R; Hultcrantz, R; Rex, D

    2006-01-01

    Background and aim A 12 month, multicentre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, phase 3, dose‐response study was carried out. Exisulind inhibits tumour growth by induction of apoptosis. The aim of our study was to investigate if exisulind induces regression of sporadic colonic adenomas. Patients and methods A 12 month multicentre randomised double blind placebo controlled phase 3 dose response study was carried out. At baseline colonoscopy, left sided polyps (3–10 mm) were tattooed, measured, and left in place. Subjects received exisulind 200 or 400 mg, or placebo daily. Follow up sigmoidoscopy was performed after six months, and removal of any remaining polyps at the 12 month colonoscopy. The primary efficacy variable was change in polyp size from baseline. Results A total of 281 patients were enrolled and randomised; 155 (55%) fulfilled the criteria for the intention to treat (ITT) analysis and 114 (41%) fulfilled the criteria for the efficacy evaluation analysis (patients who underwent the 12 month colonoscopy). The decrease in median polyp size was significantly greater (p = 0.03) in patients who received exisulind 400 mg (−10 mm2) compared with those who received placebo (−4 mm2). Complete or partial response was significantly higher in the exisulind 400 mg group (54.6%) compared with the placebo group (30.2%), and disease progression was significantly lower (6.1% v 27.9%) (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Increased liver enzymes (8.4%) and abdominal pain (14.7%) were also reported at a greater frequency in the exisulind 400 mg group. Conclusion Exisulind caused significant regression of sporadic adenomatous polyps but was associated with more toxicity. This model of polyp regression, short in its term and involving a comparatively small patient sample size, may be the best available tool to assess a therapeutic regimen before launching into large preventive clinical studies. PMID:16150858

  10. Effects of kinesiotaping on foot posture in participants with pronated foot: a quasi-randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Luque-Suarez, Alejandro; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Baron-Lopez, Francisco Javier; Labajos-Manzanares, Maria Teresa; Hush, Julia; Hancock, Mark Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether kinesiotaping improves excessive foot pronation compared with sham kinesiotaping. Quasi-randomised, double-blind study. One primary care centre. One hundred and thirty participants were screened for inclusion. Sixty-eight participants with pronated feet [Foot Posture Index (FPI)≥ 6] were enrolled, and the follow-up rate was 100%. Participants were allocated into one of two groups: an experimental kinesiotaping group (KT1) and a sham taping group (KT2). Measures were collected by a blinded assessor at baseline, and 1 minute, 10 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours after taping. The primary outcome was total FPI score, and the secondary outcome was rear-foot FPI score. There were no significant differences in total FPI score between kinesiotaping and sham taping at any time point. Similarly, there were no significant differences in rear-foot FPI score, apart from at 60-minute follow-up when the difference between groups was significant (P=0.04) but the effect size was very small (0.85 points on the rear-foot FPI score between -6 and +6). Kinesiotaping does not correct foot pronation compared with sham kinesiotaping in people with pronated feet. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. Erythropoietin in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, phase III study

    PubMed Central

    Lauria, Giuseppe; Dalla Bella, Eleonora; Antonini, Giovanni; Borghero, Giuseppe; Capasso, Margherita; Caponnetto, Claudia; Chiò, Adriano; Corbo, Massimo; Eleopra, Roberto; Fazio, Raffaella; Filosto, Massimiliano; Giannini, Fabio; Granieri, Enrico; La Bella, Vincenzo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Mandrioli, Jessica; Mazzini, Letizia; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Mora, Gabriele; Pietrini, Vladimiro; Quatrale, Rocco; Rizzi, Romana; Salvi, Fabrizio; Siciliano, Gabriele; Sorarù, Gianni; Volanti, Paolo; Tramacere, Irene; Filippini, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods Patients with probable laboratory-supported, probable or definite ALS were enrolled by 25 Italian centres and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous rhEPO 40 000 IU or placebo fortnightly as add-on treatment to riluzole 100 mg daily for 12 months. The primary composite outcome was survival, tracheotomy or >23 h non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Secondary outcomes were ALSFRS-R, slow vital capacity (sVC) and quality of life (ALSAQ-40) decline. Tolerability was evaluated analysing adverse events (AEs) causing withdrawal. The randomisation sequence was computer-generated by blocks, stratified by centre, disease severity (ALSFRS-R cut-off score of 33) and onset (spinal or bulbar). The main outcome analysis was performed in all randomised patients and by intention-to-treat for the entire population and patients stratified by severity and onset. The study is registered, EudraCT 2009-016066-91. Results We randomly assigned 208 patients, of whom 5 (1 rhEPO and 4 placebo) withdrew consent and 3 (placebo) became ineligible (retinal thrombosis, respiratory insufficiency, SOD1 mutation) before receiving treatment; 103 receiving rhEPO and 97 placebo were eligible for analysis. At 12 months, the annualised rate of death (rhEPO 0.11, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.20; placebo: 0.08, CI 0.04 to 0.17), tracheotomy or >23 h NIV (rhEPO 0.16, CI 0.10 to 0.27; placebo 0.18, CI 0.11 to 0.30) did not differ between groups, also after stratification by onset and ALSFRS-R at baseline. Withdrawal due to AE was 16.5% in rhEPO and 8.3% in placebo. No differences were found for secondary outcomes. Conclusions RhEPO 40 000 IU fortnightly did not change the course of ALS. PMID:25595151

  12. Dutasteride in men receiving testosterone therapy: a randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Kacker, R; Harisaran, V; Given, L; Miner, M; Rittmaster, R; Morgentaler, A

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the impact of dutasteride on prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume in men receiving testosterone (T) therapy. Twenty-three men on stable dose T therapy were randomised to receive either dutasteride or placebo for 12 months. Serum levels of PSA, T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and responses to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ) questionnaires were determined at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Prostate volume (PV) was measured using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) at baseline and again after 12 months. A total of 22 men (mean age 57.3) completed the study, with 11 men receiving placebo and 11 receiving dutasteride. Men receiving dutasteride had a significant decrease in PSA (-0.46 ± 0.81 ng ml(-1) ; P = 0.04) and in PV (-6.65 ± 11.0%; P = 0.03) from baseline over 12 months. DHT decreased significantly for men on dutasteride compared with men receiving placebo (P = 0.02). When compared with men who received placebo, men who received dutasteride demonstrated nonsignificant trends towards decreased PSA (-0.46 versus 0.21 ng ml(-1) ; P = 0.11), PV (-6.65% versus 3.4%; P = 0.08) and MSHQ scores (-10.2 versus 5.6; P = 0.06). Dutasteride reduces PSA and PV for men on T therapy, but perhaps less so than in men without T therapy.

  13. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  14. Modafinil In Debilitating fatigue After Stroke (MIDAS): study protocol for a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Lillicrap, Thomas; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; Attia, John; Nilsson, Michael; Levi, Christopher R; Parsons, Mark W; Bivard, Andrew

    2016-08-17

    Fatigue is a common symptom in stroke survivors for which there is currently no proven therapy. Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting agent with established benefits in other disease models. We aim to test if modafinil will improve patient's self-reported fatigue scores when compared to placebo and if therapy results in increased quality of life. MIDAS is a phase II, single-centre, prospective, double-blinded, randomised, crossover trial of modafinil for the treatment of persistent fatigue in survivors of ischaemic stroke. The inclusion criteria will require an average score of 12 or more across all domains of the Multi-dimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and the diagnosis of a stroke more than 6 months prior. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to receive either modafinil 200 mg daily or placebo for a period of 6 weeks, after which a crossover will occur where patients who are on modafinil will begin taking placebo and vice versa. The primary outcome will be improvement in fatigue as measured by the MFI-20. Secondary outcomes will include changes in the Fatigue Severity Scale, improved cognition measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, improvement in mood as determined by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and improvement in each patient's stroke-specific quality of life score. All participants will also undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, crossover and study conclusion to measure cerebral blood flow on arterial spin labelling and brain activity on resting state functional MRI. This study will comply with the CONSORT guidelines. The projected sample size requirement is 36 participants in a crossover trial giving a power of 80 % and a type-1 error rate of 0.05. MIDAS seeks to enhance the quality of life in stroke survivors by assisting or resolving stroke-associated fatigue. ACTRN12615000350527 , registered on the 17 April 2015. Protocol version 3, approved 16 June 2015.

  15. Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with frequent respiratory tract infections: a randomised and double-blind intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Peter; Norlin, Anna-Carin; Hansen, Susanne; Rekha, Rokeya Sultana; Agerberth, Birgitta; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Ekström, Lena; Lindh, Jonatan D; Andersson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 are associated with an increased risk of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Clinical trials with vitamin D3 against various infections have been carried out but data are so far not conclusive. Thus, there is a need for additional randomised controlled trials of effects of vitamin D3 on infections. Objective To investigate if supplementation with vitamin D3 could reduce infectious symptoms and antibiotic consumption among patients with antibody deficiency or frequent RTIs. Design A double-blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge. Participants 140 patients with antibody deficiency (selective IgA subclass deficiency, IgG subclass deficiency, common variable immune disorder) and patients with increased susceptibility to RTIs (>4 bacterial RTIs/year) but without immunological diagnosis. Intervention Vitamin D3 (4000 IU) or placebo was given daily for 1 year. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary endpoint was an infectious score based on five parameters: symptoms from respiratory tract, ears and sinuses, malaise and antibiotic consumption. Secondary endpoints were serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, microbiological findings and levels of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, HNP1–3) in nasal fluid. Results The overall infectious score was significantly reduced for patients allocated to the vitamin D group (202 points) compared with the placebo group (249 points; adjusted relative score 0.771, 95% CI 0.604 to 0.985, p=0.04). Limitations A single study centre, small sample size and a selected group of patients. The sample size calculation was performed using p=0.02 as the significance level whereas the primary and secondary endpoints were analysed using the conventional p=0.05 as the significance level. Conclusions Supplementation with vitamin D3 may reduce disease burden in patients with frequent RTIs. PMID:23242238

  16. Randomised double blind controlled study of recurrence of gastric ulcer after treatment for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed Central

    Axon, A. T.; O'Moráin, C. A.; Bardhan, K. D.; Crowe, J. P.; Beattie, A. D.; Thompson, R. P.; Smith, P. M.; Hollanders, F. D.; Baron, J. H.; Lynch, D. A.; Dixon, M. F.; Tompkins, D. S.; Birrell, H.; Gillon, K. R.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection reduces recurrence of benign gastric ulceration. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, controlled study. Patients were randomised in a 1:2 ratio to either omeprazole 40 mg once daily for eight weeks or the same treatment plus amoxycillin 750 mg twice daily for weeks 7 and 8. A 12 month untreated follow up ensued. SETTING: Teaching and district general hospitals between 1991 and 1994. SUBJECTS: 107 patients with benign gastric ulcer associated with H pylori. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Endoscopically confirmed relapse with gastric ulcer (analysed with life table methods), H pylori eradication, and healing of gastric ulcers (Mantel-Haenszel test). RESULTS: 172 patients were enrolled. Malignancy was diagnosed in 19; 24 were not infected with H pylori; four withdrew because of adverse events; and 18 failed to attend for start of treatment, leaving 107 patients eligible for analysis (35 omeprazole alone; 72 omeprazole plus amoxycillin). In the omeprazole/amoxycillin group 93% (67/72; 95% confidence interval 84% to 98%) of gastric ulcers healed and 83% (29/35; 66% to 94%) in the omeprazole group (P = 0.103). Eradication of H pylori was 58% (42/72; 46% to 70%) and 6% (2/35; 1% to 19%) (P < 0.001) and relapse after treatment was 22% (16/72) and 49% (17/35) (life table analysis, P < 0.001), in the two groups, respectively. The recurrence rates were 7% (3/44) after successful H pylori eradication and 48% (30/63) in those who continued to be infected (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Eradication of H pylori reduces relapse with gastric ulcer over one year. Eradication rates achieved with this regimen, however, are too low for it to be recommended for routine use. PMID:9055715

  17. Olopatadine Hydrochloride and Fluticasone Propionate in Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis: A Single Blind Randomised Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vishal; Ahmed, MD Fazal; Shedge, Swapna; Dokania, Vivek; Bagwe, Vikrant; Agarwal, Ketan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of corticosteroids or antihistaminics in treatment of allergic rhinitis is known and practiced since long. The efficacy of topical use of fluticasone propionate and Olopatadine Hydrochloride (HCL) for symptomatic relief of allergic rhinitis has been studied either individually or with other drugs. But very few studies show comparison between these two drugs. Aim To compare the efficacy of topical use of fluticasone propionate and olopatadine hydrochloride for symptomatic relief of allergic rhinitis. Design In this single blind, randomized control study, the efficacy of topical use of olopatadine HCL was compared with fluticasone propionate for relieving symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Materials and Methods The symptomatic cases were randomized in two groups for treatment using either olopatadine HCL or fluticasone propionate respectively. In each group, the Total Symptom Scores (TSS) and individual symptom scores were recorded before and after treatment with the help of symptom evaluation scale. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test, unpaired t-test, Mann Witney U-test, and Wilcoxon signed Rank test were used during analysis. The results of the comparison were noted and analysed. Results During four week study period both TSS and individual symptom score were reduced (p<0.05) in either groups. The TSS decreased by an average of 85.07% for those treated with olopatadine and by 95.55% for those treated with fluticasone. Conclusion Overall fluticasone propionate was superior to olopatadine in relieving symptoms of allergic rhinitis (p<0.005). PMID:28208892

  18. Olopatadine Hydrochloride and Fluticasone Propionate in Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis: A Single Blind Randomised Study.

    PubMed

    Havle, Abhay; Jain, Vishal; Ahmed, Md Fazal; Shedge, Swapna; Dokania, Vivek; Bagwe, Vikrant; Agarwal, Ketan

    2016-12-01

    The use of corticosteroids or antihistaminics in treatment of allergic rhinitis is known and practiced since long. The efficacy of topical use of fluticasone propionate and Olopatadine Hydrochloride (HCL) for symptomatic relief of allergic rhinitis has been studied either individually or with other drugs. But very few studies show comparison between these two drugs. To compare the efficacy of topical use of fluticasone propionate and olopatadine hydrochloride for symptomatic relief of allergic rhinitis. In this single blind, randomized control study, the efficacy of topical use of olopatadine HCL was compared with fluticasone propionate for relieving symptoms of allergic rhinitis. The symptomatic cases were randomized in two groups for treatment using either olopatadine HCL or fluticasone propionate respectively. In each group, the Total Symptom Scores (TSS) and individual symptom scores were recorded before and after treatment with the help of symptom evaluation scale. Chi-square test, unpaired t-test, Mann Witney U-test, and Wilcoxon signed Rank test were used during analysis. The results of the comparison were noted and analysed. During four week study period both TSS and individual symptom score were reduced (p<0.05) in either groups. The TSS decreased by an average of 85.07% for those treated with olopatadine and by 95.55% for those treated with fluticasone. Overall fluticasone propionate was superior to olopatadine in relieving symptoms of allergic rhinitis (p<0.005).

  19. Puncture technique and postural postdural puncture headache. A randomised, double-blind study comparing transverse and parallel puncture.

    PubMed

    Flaatten, H; Thorsen, T; Askeland, B; Finne, M; Rosland, J; Hansen, T; Rønhovde, K; Wisborg, T

    1998-11-01

    This clinical study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of two different orientations of the bevel during dural puncture on development of postural postdural puncture headache (PPDPH). Two hundred and eighteen patients aged 18 to 50 years scheduled for minor non-obstetric surgery using spinal anaesthesia (SA) were included in this randomised, double-blind study. Dural puncture was performed using a 0.42 mm O.D. (27-g) Quincke spinal needle with the orientation of the bevel parallel or transverse relative to the longitudinal axis of the dural cylinder. All patients were blinded with regard to the puncture technique, and so was the anaesthesiologist performing a telephone interview 5 to 7 days postoperatively. The occurrence and duration of headache, backache and other complaints were recorded. Headache was classified as PPDPH or non-PPDPH, and intensity of the headache was registered using a numerical rating scale (NRS) from 0 to 10. Two hundred and twelve patients with a mean age of 35.3 years completed the study, 106 in each group. The two groups were comparable with regard to mean age, sex, local anaesthetics used and surgical procedure performed. Headache occurred in 44 patients postoperatively. PPDPH was diagnosed in 4/106 patients (3.8%) in the parallel group and 24/106 (22.6%) in the transverse group (P < 0.0002). Postoperative backache occurred in 31 and 20 patients (parallel compared to transverse) (NS). Dural puncture with the bevel of the needle transverse to the longitudinal axis of the dural cylinder gave significantly more cases of PPDPH than puncture with the bevel parallel to this axis even when using a 27-g Quincke needle. When using Quincke bevelled needles care must be taken to assure that the orientation of the bevel is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the dural sac.

  20. Single dose cabergoline versus bromocriptine in inhibition of puerperal lactation: randomised, double blind, multicentre study. European Multicentre Study Group for Cabergoline in Lactation Inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of a single dose of 1 mg of cabergoline with that of bromocriptine 2.5 mg twice daily for 14 days in the inhibition of puerperal lactation. DESIGN--Prospective, randomised, double blind, parallel group, multicentre study. SETTING--University of hospital departments of obstetrics and gynaecology in different European countries. SUBJECTS--272 puerperal women not wishing to lactate (136 randomised to each drug). INTERVENTIONS--Women randomised to cabergoline received two 0.5 mg tablets of cabergoline and one placebo tablet within 27 hours after delivery and then placebo twice daily for 14 days. Those randomised to bromocriptine received 2.5 mg of bromocriptine and two placebo tablets within 27 hours and then 2.5 mg of bromocriptine twice daily for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Success of treatment (complete or partial) according to milk secretion, breast engorgement, and breast pain; rebound symptomatology; serum prolactin concentrations; and number of adverse events. RESULTS--Complete success was achieved in 106 of 136 women randomised to cabergoline and in 94 of 136 randomised to bromocriptine and partial success in 21 and 33 women respectively. Rebound breast symptomatology occurred respectively in five and 23 women with complete success up to day 15 (p less than 0.0001). Serum prolactin concentrations dropped considerably with both drugs from day 2 to day 15; a prolactin secretion rebound effect was observed in women treated with bromocriptine. cabergoline and 36 receiving bromocriptine (p = 0.054), occurring most during the first treatment day. CONCLUSION--A single 1 mg dose of cabergoline is at least as effective as bromocriptine 2.5 mg twice daily for 14 days in preventing puerperal lactation. Because of the considerably lower rate of rebound breast activity and adverse events and the simpler administration schedule cabergoline should be the drug of choice for lactation inhibition. PMID:1676318

  1. Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Mikiyuki; Satoh, Akira; Tsuji, Shinji; Shirasawa, Takuji

    2012-09-01

    In this study we tried to confirm the effect of an astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function in 96 subjects by a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects who complained of age-related forgetfulness were recruited. Ninety-six subjects were selected from the initial screen, and ingested a capsule containing astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract, or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Somatometry, haematology, urine screens, and CogHealth and Groton Maze Learning Test were performed before and after every 4 weeks of administration. Changes in cognitive performance and the safety of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract administration were evaluated. CogHealth battery scores improved in the high-dosage group (12 mg astaxanthin/day) after 12 weeks. Groton Maze Learning Test scores improved earlier in the low-dosage (6 mg astaxanthin/day) and high-dosage groups than in the placebo group. The sample size, however, was small to show a significant difference in cognitive function between the astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract and placebo groups. No adverse effect on the subjects was observed throughout this study. In conclusion, the results suggested that astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract improves cognitive function in the healthy aged individuals.

  2. Validation of a simplified sham acupuncture technique for its use in clinical research: a randomised, single blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, Marcelo; Zaffaroni, Ana; Alvarez, Ramón; Clark, Glenn

    2010-03-01

    The validity of a new sham acupuncture technique was tested on acupuncture naïve healthy subjects. The procedure was tested in accupoints LI4 and ST6 in a randomised, single blind and crossover study. The participants were blind to which technique they received. 32 healthy volunteers (15 men, 17 women, aged between 20 and 62 years, mean age 34 years) were recruited at the Universidad de la República, Uruguay. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) real acupuncture or (2) sham acupuncture. After 30 min, the patients were 'needled' again in a crossover design. Main outcome measures A yes/no questionnaire was used to assess the credibility and characteristics of the procedure. For the credibility question (do you think you received real acupuncture?) no statistically significant group differences were evident before or after the crossover. Subjects who answered yes to this question ranged from 14/16 (87.5%) before crossover to 10/16 (62.5%) after crossover for the sham and 12/16 (75%) before crossover to 15/16 (93.8%) after crossover for the real acupuncture. The question that showed a significant difference (only after crossover) was the question, "did you feel the needle penetrating the skin?"; after crossover 12/16 (75%) subjects in the real acupuncture group said yes and 2/16 (12%) subjects in the sham group said yes to this question (p<0.01). These data suggests that this method is credible and constitutes a simple and inexpensive technique for use as a control in clinical research in acupuncture naïve subjects.

  3. Hypnosis for reduction of background pain and pain anxiety in men with burns: A blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jafarizadeh, Hossein; Lotfi, Mojgan; Ajoudani, Fardin; Kiani, Arezou; Alinejad, Vahid

    2017-08-08

    'Background pain' and 'pain anxiety' are among the numerous problems of patients with burns. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions have been used to reduce background pain and pain anxiety. This study compared the effectiveness of hypnosis and 'neutral hypnosis' (as a placebo in the control group) in decreasing the background burn pain and pain anxiety of adult male survivors with burns. This is a blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Sixty men with burns were included in the minimisation method (30 individuals in the intervention group and 30 individuals in the control group). Four hypnotherapy sessions were performed every other day for each participant in the intervention group. Four neutral hypnosis sessions were performed every other day in the control group. Burn pain and pain anxiety of the patients in both groups were measured at the end of the second and fourth sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. There was no significant difference between the groups in the reduction in background pain intensity. There was a significant reduction in background pain quality and pain anxiety in the intervention group during the four hypnosis sessions. After two hypnotherapy sessions, a significant reduction was observed in the level of background pain quality and pain anxiety of participants. Hypnosis is effective in reducing background pain quality and pain anxiety of men with burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 on skin reactivity.

    PubMed

    Gueniche, A; Philippe, D; Bastien, P; Reuteler, G; Blum, S; Castiel-Higounenc, I; Breton, L; Benyacoub, J

    2014-06-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of subjects with reactive skin has considerably increased in industrialised countries. 50% of women and 30% of men report cutaneous discomfort classified under reactive/sensitive skin. Several topical approaches have been proposed, in particular through improvement of galenic forms or protection of epidermal surface. We propose to act differently, deeply from inside the body via an innovative nutritional approach. To this purpose, Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 (ST11) was selected because of its specific beneficial skin properties discovered in in vitro studies, i.e. diminution of neurogenic inflammation and promotion of the recovery of skin barrier function. We designed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study with a two-month supplementation in two female treatment groups (n=32 per group). A capsaicin test was performed to monitor the time course of skin sensitivity. Moreover, transepidermal water loss was assessed to analyse the rate of skin barrier function recovery; dryness of the leg and roughness of the cheeks was investigated by a dermatologist as well as by self-assessment. The results of the present clinical trial show that oral supplementation with the probiotic decreases skin sensitivity and increases the rate of barrier function recovery. Thus, the data provide evidence that daily intake of ST11 could improve reactive skin condition.

  5. Comparative palatability of two veterinary dewormers (Milpro® and Milbemax®): a blinded randomised crossover cat study

    PubMed Central

    Bernachon, N.; McGahie, D.; Corvaisier, D.; Benizeau, E.; Crastes, N.; Chaix, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The combination of milbemycin oxime–praziquantel is widely used against the most common tapeworms and roundworms affecting cats. New veterinary presentations of this combination have recently been approved. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the palatability of two products using this combination, Milpro® and Milbemax®. Methods In all, 20 adult cats and 20 kittens were offered each product according to a randomisation table using a blinded crossover design. Prehension from the bowl, prehension from the hand and total consumption were assessed. Results Both presentations were very well tolerated in adult cats and kittens. Total prehension in adult cats and kittens was 100 and 45 per cent, respectively, for Milpro®, and 95 and 30 per cent, respectively, for Milbemax®. The percentages of adult cats and kittens which swallowed the pill after taking it into their mouth (total spontaneous consumption) were respectively 40 and 45 per cent for Milpro®, and 35 and 20 per cent for Milbemax®. Conclusion In this study, both presentations were highly attractive to cats and their respective coatings successfully covered the unpleasant odour of praziquantel, which usually repels cats. These results indicate that the palatability of Milpro® is at least as good as Milbemax® and both tablets are well accepted by adult cats and kittens. PMID:26392882

  6. Comparative palatability of two veterinary dewormers (Milpro(®) and Milbemax(®)): a blinded randomised crossover cat study.

    PubMed

    Bernachon, N; McGahie, D; Corvaisier, D; Benizeau, E; Crastes, N; Chaix, G

    2014-01-01

    The combination of milbemycin oxime-praziquantel is widely used against the most common tapeworms and roundworms affecting cats. New veterinary presentations of this combination have recently been approved. The objective of this study was to compare the palatability of two products using this combination, Milpro(®) and Milbemax(®). In all, 20 adult cats and 20 kittens were offered each product according to a randomisation table using a blinded crossover design. Prehension from the bowl, prehension from the hand and total consumption were assessed. Both presentations were very well tolerated in adult cats and kittens. Total prehension in adult cats and kittens was 100 and 45 per cent, respectively, for Milpro(®), and 95 and 30 per cent, respectively, for Milbemax(®). The percentages of adult cats and kittens which swallowed the pill after taking it into their mouth (total spontaneous consumption) were respectively 40 and 45 per cent for Milpro(®), and 35 and 20 per cent for Milbemax(®). In this study, both presentations were highly attractive to cats and their respective coatings successfully covered the unpleasant odour of praziquantel, which usually repels cats. These results indicate that the palatability of Milpro(®) is at least as good as Milbemax(®) and both tablets are well accepted by adult cats and kittens.

  7. The efficacy of cyclosporine A in cats with presumed atopic dermatitis: a double blind, randomised prednisolone-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wisselink, Marinus A; Willemse, Ton

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cyclosporine A (CsA) and prednisolone in feline atopic dermatitis (AD) in a randomised, controlled double blind study. Twenty-nine cats with feline AD were randomly allocated to two groups. Eleven cats were treated orally with prednisolone (1mg/kg SID) and 18 were treated with CsA (5mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. At day 0 (D0) and D28, skin lesions were graded by means of the canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI). Skin biopsies and intradermal allergy tests were performed at D0 and blood samples for haematology and serum biochemistry were collected at D0 and D28. During the trial the cat owners were asked to evaluate the intensity of the pruritus once weekly on a linear analog scale and to record side effects. Based on the CADESI there was no significant difference between the two groups in the amount of remission (P=0.0562) or in the number of cats that improved by >25% (P=0.0571). The effect of CsA and prednisolone on pruritus as evaluated by the owners was not significantly different (P=0.41) between the two groups. No serious side effects were observed. The conclusion was that CsA is an effective alternative to prednisolone therapy in cats with presumed atopic dermatitis.

  8. Double-blind controlled randomised study of lactulose and lignin hydrolysed combination in complex therapy of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Perlamutrov, Yuri N.; Olhovskaya, Kira B.; Zakirova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an immune mediated disease with complex pathogenesis characterised by persistency, frequent exacerbations, and inefficacy of existing therapies. Damaged or weakened intestinal microbiocenosis is considered as an important aetiological factor of AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of medical preparation Lactofiltrum (lactulose and sorbent (lignin hydrolysed)) in comparison with placebo in complex with standard therapy of AD. Methods Double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised comparative study of effectiveness and safety of 400 mg lactulose and 120 mg lignin hydrolysed combination as a part of standard combined AD treatment, conducted in parallel groups of patients aged 18–60. Results Comparison of clinical efficacy of Lactofiltrum in combination with the standard treatment has been demonstrated by measuring the following parameters: administration of Lactofiltrum results in 1) distinct clinical improvement in 56.75% of patients, 2) decrease of the mean values of scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index in 71.94% of patients, 3) elimination of itching in 50% of patients, and 4) life quality improvement for 76.41%. In the placebo group, 1) distinct clinical improvement was observed in 20% of patients, 2) decrease in SCORAD index values observed by 56.98%, 3) itching relief in 15.56%, and 4) life quality improvement by 36.38%. Conclusions Clinical improvement and persistent termination of clinical symptoms provide evidence of effectiveness in use of Lactofiltrum combined with the standard treatment of AD. PMID:27341938

  9. Tolerability of Nasal Delivery of Humidified and Warmed Air at Different Temperatures: A Randomised Double-Blind Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Susan; Reddy, Sumeet; Cripps, Terrianne; McKinstry, Steve; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard; Pilcher, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of warmed, humidified air via nasal high flow therapy could potentially reduce replication of temperature-sensitive viruses in the upper respiratory tract. This study investigates whether nasal high flow therapy is well tolerated by healthy adults at 37°C and 41°C. In this randomised, double-blind, controlled crossover pilot trial, nasal high flow therapy was used to deliver humidified air at 35 L/min, at either 37°C or 41°C, for three one-hour sessions of use over one day. The alternative was delivered at least 14 days later. Ten healthy, nonsmoking adults were asked, via questionnaire after each day's use, whether they would use nasal high flow therapy while being unwell with a cold or flu if it was demonstrated to improve symptoms. All participants completed both interventions. Eighty percent responded "yes" to future use of nasal high flow therapy, for both 37°C and 41°C. There was no significant change from baseline in saccharin times following either intervention or in the following morning. Delivering humidified air via nasal high flow therapy at both 37°C and 41°C is well tolerated by healthy adults. This supports investigation into the potential use of nasal high flow therapy as treatment in viral upper respiratory tract infections. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ACTRN12614000183684 (tolerability study of nasal delivery of humidified & warmed air).

  10. Our experience with Solcoseryl Eye-Gel in the treatment of corneal lesions. A randomised double-blind study (with 1 color plate).

    PubMed

    Erbe, W; Herrmann, R; Körner, W F; Rohde-Germann, H; Straub, W

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of Solcoseryl Eye-Gel versus a 2.4% cysteine eye-gel was carried out under controlled conditions (randomised and double-blind) on a total of 61 patients with corneal lesions (52 foreign body injuries, 9 corneal erosions). The results showed a marked superiority of Solcoseryl Eye-Gel with respect to more rapid healing and also with respect to the possible subsequent development of a corneal macula.

  11. Radial shock wave therapy for lateral epicondylitis: a prospective randomised controlled single-blind study.

    PubMed

    Spacca, G; Necozione, S; Cacchio, A

    2005-03-01

    Despite the lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow is a common cause of pain in orthopaedic and sports medicine, the results of the different modalities of conservative treatment are still contradictory. The pourpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) in the treatment of tennis elbow. In a prospective randomized controlled single-blind study, of 75 eligible patients, 62 with tennis elbow were randomly assigned to study group and control group. There were 31 patients in the study group and 31 patients in the control group. Both groups had received a treatment a week for 4 weeks; the study group had received 2000 impulses of RSWT and the control group 20 impulses of RSWT. All patients were evaluated 3 times: before treatment, at the end of treatment and to 6 months follow-up. The evaluation consisted of assessments of pain, pain-free grip strength test, and functional impairment. Statistical analysis of visual analogue scale (VAS), disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire and pain-free grip strength test scores has shown, both after treatment and to the follow-up at 6 months, significant difference comparing study group versus control group (P <0.001). Statistical analysis within the groups, showed always statistically significant values for the study group. Also the control group showed statistically significant differences for some analyzed parameters. Nevertheless such differences resulted to be more statistics that not clinics as it showed the percentage of satisfied patients in the study group (87% post-treatment; 84% follow-up) in comparison with that of the control group (10% post-treatment; 3% follow-up), and the number needed to treat (NNT) that is of 1.15 at post-treatment and of 1.25 to the 6 months follow-up. The use of RSWT allowed a decrease of pain, and functional impairment, and an increase of the pain-free grip strength test, in patients with tennis elbow. The RSWT is safe and

  12. Once-daily rupatadine improves the symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Dubertret, Louis; Zalupca, Lavinia; Cristodoulo, Tania; Benea, Vasile; Medina, Iris; Fantin, Sara; Lahfa, Morad; Pérez, Iñaki; Izquierdo, Iñaki; Arnaiz, Eva

    2007-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, international, dose-ranging study investigated the effect of treatment with rupatadine 5, 10 and 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks on symptoms and interference with daily activities and sleep in 12-65 years-old patients with moderate-to-severe chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Rupatadine 10 and 20 mg significantly reduced pruritus severity by 62.05% and 71.87% respectively, from baseline, over a period of 4 weeks compared to reduction with placebo by 46.59% (p < 0.05). Linear trends were noted for reductions in mean number of wheals and interference with daily activities and sleep with rupatadine 10 and 20 mg over the 4-week treatment period. The two most frequently reported AEs were somnolence (2.90% for placebo, 4.29% for 5 mg-, 5.41% for 10 mg- and 21.43% for 20 mg-rupatadine-treated group) and headache (4.35% for placebo, 2.86% for 5 mg-, 4.05% for 10 mg- and 4.29% for 20 mg-rupatadine-treated group). These findings suggest that rupatadine 10 and 20 mg is a fast-acting, efficacious and safe treatment for the management of patients with moderate-to-severe CIU. Rupatadine decreased pruritus severity, in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  13. The Effects of Hormonal Therapy and Exercise on Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomised Double-Blind Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Honisett, Suzy Y; Tangalakis, Kathy; Wark, John; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Stojanovska, Lily

    2016-11-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and walking were investigated independently and in combination, to determine which treatment provided most effect on bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Using a randomised double-blind pilot study, 10 subjects received HRT (transdermal estradiol, 50 μg/day and oral MPA 5 mg/day) and 12 received placebo for 20 weeks. Following a baseline period of treatment, both groups undertook a graduated walking regimen, which increased in intensity, duration and frequency parameters from weeks 8-20. Measurements of aerobic capacity, female sex hormones, bone formation markers [osteocalcin (OC) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)] and bone resorption markers [deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and pyridinoline (PYR)] were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2) and week 20 (T3). Age, time of postmenopause, weight or body mass index were no different between each groups. The HRT group had significantly higher estradiol levels compared with the placebo group at T2 and T3. FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced following HRT. DPD and PYR were significantly reduced from baseline levels at T2 and T3 with HRT. No significant changes occurred in OC or BAP levels with either HRT or walking. Walking did not change bone turnover markers in either the HRT or placebo group. HRT reduces bone resorption, however, walking alone at the intensity and duration prescribed, or the combination of HRT and walking, provided no additional benefit after menopause. Therefore, HRT, but not walking is an effective treatment in reducing bone turnover in postmenopause women.

  14. [Analgesic efficacy of TENS therapy in patients with gonarthrosis. A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Gschiel, B; Kager, H; Pipam, W; Weichart, K; Likar, R

    2010-09-01

    The goal of the study was to substantiate the influence of TENS on pain development and medication needs of patients with proven gonarthrosis and chronic pain. The study included a 3-week stimulation period and 2-week observation period after the end of stimulation. Patients (at least 20 per group) were assigned to either an active treatment group or placebo group in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. For the active treatment group the TENS therapy device with HAN stimulation (alternating phase of stimulation) was used (TENStem eco).Total length of time: 30 min at least two times a day. The length of therapy was 3 weeks (therapy), followed by an observation period of 2 weeks (follow-up). The total length of the study was 5 weeks, whereby at the beginning and at the end of weeks 1, 3 and 5 the SF-36, WOMAC score and Lysholm score were documented; the pain score was documented daily. There are no significant demographic differences between the groups. In the active treatment group there was clear relief in pain intensity in the morning, midday and evening over the 3-week period of therapy. The Lysholm score in the active treatment group was 53.4 at the beginning, 90 after 1 week, 94.5 after the third week and 91 by the fifth week (significant difference). There were no side effects. TENS therapy with HAN stimulation resulted in pain relief in patients with gonarthrosis during the therapy period with TENS, but the pain relief did not last beyond the end of the TENS therapy. There was an improvement in the Lysholm score and the WOMAC score during the therapy. This improvement remained over the following 2-week period of observation without further TENS therapy. TENS therapy is a simple and effective method to treat gonarthrosis with very few side effects.

  15. Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Ossoukhova, Anastasia; Owen, Lauren; Ibarra, Alvin; Pipingas, Andrew; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Stough, Con

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Over the last decade, Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been shown to improve aspects of human cognitive function. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) has a distinct ginsenoside profile from P. ginseng, promising cognitive enhancing properties in preclinical studies and benefits processes linked to human cognition. Objectives The availability of a highly standardised extract of P. quinquefolius (Cereboost™) led us to evaluate its neurocognitive properties in humans for the first time. Methods This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial (N = 32, healthy young adults) assessed the acute mood, neurocognitive and glycaemic effects of three doses (100, 200 400 mg) of Cereboost™ (P. quinquefolius standardised to 10.65% ginsenosides). Participants' mood, cognitive function and blood glucose were measured 1, 3 and 6 h following administration. Results There was a significant improvement of working memory (WM) performance associated with P. quinquefolius. Corsi block performance was improved by all doses at all testing times. There were differential effects of all doses on other WM tasks which were maintained across the testing day. Choice reaction time accuracy and ‘calmness’ were significantly improved by 100 mg. There were no changes in blood glucose levels. Conclusions This preliminary study has identified robust working memory enhancement following administration of American ginseng. These effects are distinct from those of Asian ginseng and suggest that psychopharmacological properties depend critically on ginsenoside profiles. These results have ramifications for the psychopharmacology of herbal extracts and merit further study using different dosing regimens and in populations where cognition is fragile. PMID:20676609

  16. A randomised, double-blind study of polyethylene glycol 4000 and lactulose in the treatment of constipation in children.

    PubMed

    Treepongkaruna, Suporn; Simakachorn, Nipat; Pienvichit, Paneeya; Varavithya, Wandee; Tongpenyai, Yothi; Garnier, Philippe; Mathiex-Fortunet, Hélène

    2014-06-19

    Chronic constipation is frequent in children. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of PEG 4000 and lactulose for the treatment of chronic constipation in young children. This randomised, double-blind study enrolled 88 young children aged 12 to 36 months, who were randomly assigned to receive lactulose (3.3 g per day) or PEG 4000 (8 g per day) for four weeks. The primary efficacy variable was stool frequency during the fourth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes were the number and frequency of subjective symptoms associated with defecation at each visit. Stool frequency was comparable in the two groups at baseline (lactulose: 0.7 ± 0.5; PEG 4000: 0.5 ± 0.55). Mean stool frequency increased from 0.70 ± 0.50 stools/day at baseline to 0.80 ± 0.41 at Week 4 in the lactulose group and from 0.50 ± 0.55 to 1.10 ± 0.55 stools/day in the PEG 4000 group. A significant difference was observed in the adjusted mean change from baseline, which was 0.15 stools/day in the lactulose group and 0.51 stools/day in the PEG 4000 group, with a least-squares mean difference of 0.36 stools/day [95% CI: 0.16 to 0.56]. With respect to secondary outcome variables, stool consistency and ease of stool passage improved more in the PEG 4000 group (p = 0.001). The incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups, the majority of which were mild. PEG 4000 has superior efficacy to lactulose for the treatment of chronic constipation in young children and is well tolerated. US National Institute of Health Clinical Trials database; study NCT00255372 first registered 17th November 2005.

  17. A randomised, double- blind, cross-over study investigating the prebiotic effect of agave fructans in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, P; Costabile, A; Bustillo, A G R; Gibson, G R

    2015-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over human feeding study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of agave fructans. A total of thirty-eight volunteers completed this trial. The treatment consisted of 3 weeks' supplementation with 5 g/d of prebiotic agave fructan (Predilife) or equivalent placebo (maltodextrin), followed by a 2-week washout period following which subjects were crossed over to alternate the treatment arm for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout. Faecal samples were collected at baseline, on the last day of treatment (days 22 and 58) and washout (days 36 and 72), respectively. Changes in faecal bacterial populations, SCFA and secretory IgA were assessed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, GC and ELISA, respectively. Bowel movements, stool consistencies, abdominal comfort and mood changes were evaluated by a recorded daily questionnaire. In parallel, the effect of agave fructans on different regions of the colon using a three-stage continuous culture simulator was studied. Predilife significantly increased faecal bifidobacteria (log10 9·6 (sd 0·4)) and lactobacilli (log10 7·7 (sd 0·8)) compared with placebo (log10 9·2 (sd 0·4); P = 0·00) (log10 7·4 (sd 0·7); P = 0·000), respectively. No change was observed for other bacterial groups tested, SCFA, secretory IgA, and PGE2 concentrations between the treatment and placebo. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that bacterial communities were randomly dispersed and no significant differences were observed between Predilife and placebo treatments. The in vitro models showed similar increases in bifidobacterial and lactobacilli populations to that observed with the in vivo trial. To conclude, agave fructans are well tolerated in healthy human subjects and increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli numbers in vitro and in vivo but did not influence other products of fermentation.

  18. Modified-release prednisone for polymyalgia rheumatica: a multicentre, randomised, active-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Hopp, Michael; Liebscher, Stefan; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of modified-release (MR) versus immediate-release (IR) prednisone in newly diagnosed glucocorticoid (GC)-naïve patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Methods Patients were randomised to double-blind MR prednisone (taken at approximately 22:00) or IR prednisone (taken in the morning), 15 mg/day for 4 weeks. The primary end point was complete response rate (≥70% reduction in PMR visual analogue scale, duration of morning stiffness and C reactive protein (CRP) (or CRP <2× upper limit of normal (ULN))) at week 4. Non-inferiority was decided if the lower 95% confidence limit (MR vs IR prednisone) was above −15%. 400 patients were planned but only 62 were enrolled due to difficulties in recruiting GC-naïve patients with PMR with CRP ≥2×ULN. Results The percentage of complete responders at week 4 was numerically greater for MR prednisone (53.8%) than for IR prednisone (40.9%). Non-inferiority of MR versus IR prednisone was not proven in the primary analysis on the per protocol population (N=48; treatment difference: 12.22%; 95% CI −15.82% to 40.25%). However, sensitivity analysis on the full analysis population showed an evident trend favouring MR prednisone (N=62; treatment difference: 15.56%; 95% CI −9.16% to 40.28%). Adverse events were generally mild and transient with no unexpected safety observations. Conclusions The study showed a clear trend for favourable short-term efficacy of MR prednisone versus IR prednisone in early treatment of PMR. Further studies are warranted. Trial registration number EudraCT number 2011-002353-57; Results.

  19. Effectiveness of butorphanol as an adjuvant to lidocaine for haematoma or periosteal block: A prospective, randomised, double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Nawaz Ahmed; Rao, Surisetty Sreenivasa; Chiruvella, Sunil; Rao, Manduri Sreenivasa; Reddy, Siddareddigari Velayudha

    2013-01-01

    Background: The peripheral nerve endings carrying pain contains opiod receptors. Blocking these receptors during haematoma block or periosteal block may provide better analgesia. Aim: Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of butorphanol as an adjuvant to lidocaine for haematoma block. Settings and Design: This is a two centre, prospective, individually randomised, two group, parallel, double-blind clinical trial. Methods: In this study, 115 American society of anaesthesiologist grade I and II adult patients scheduled for closed reduction of fractures were randomly allocated into two groups; Group A received 1% lidocaine (2 mg/kg) where as Group B received 1% lidocaine (2 mg/kg) with butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg) during haematoma block. Pain was assessed before, during and after manipulation of fracture by using visual analogue scale (VAS 0-10). Onset time of block, time for first rescue analgesic, 24 hour analgesic requirement and sedation levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with the unpaired t-test with Welch correction assuming unequal variances and Fisher's exact test using Graph pad Prism 5.02 version. Results: Onset time of haematoma block was significantly less in the butorphanol group compared to the lidocaine group (P=0.0003). The mean time for first rescue analgesic was significantly higher and total analgesic requirement was significantly lower in the butorphanol group (P<0.0001). Mean VAS scores were lower and sedation scores were higher in the butorphanol group. Conclusions: Addition of butorphanol to lidocaine quickens onset of haematoma block, provides excellent post manipulation analgesia and decreases 24 hour total analgesic requirement without excessive sedation. PMID:23825814

  20. Effectiveness of butorphanol as an adjuvant to lidocaine for haematoma or periosteal block: A prospective, randomised, double blind study.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Nawaz Ahmed; Rao, Surisetty Sreenivasa; Chiruvella, Sunil; Rao, Manduri Sreenivasa; Reddy, Siddareddigari Velayudha

    2013-03-01

    The peripheral nerve endings carrying pain contains opiod receptors. Blocking these receptors during haematoma block or periosteal block may provide better analgesia. Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of butorphanol as an adjuvant to lidocaine for haematoma block. This is a two centre, prospective, individually randomised, two group, parallel, double-blind clinical trial. In this study, 115 American society of anaesthesiologist grade I and II adult patients scheduled for closed reduction of fractures were randomly allocated into two groups; Group A received 1% lidocaine (2 mg/kg) where as Group B received 1% lidocaine (2 mg/kg) with butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg) during haematoma block. Pain was assessed before, during and after manipulation of fracture by using visual analogue scale (VAS 0-10). Onset time of block, time for first rescue analgesic, 24 hour analgesic requirement and sedation levels were noted. Data analysed with the unpaired t-test with Welch correction assuming unequal variances and Fisher's exact test using Graph pad Prism 5.02 version. Onset time of haematoma block was significantly less in the butorphanol group compared to the lidocaine group (P=0.0003). The mean time for first rescue analgesic was significantly higher and total analgesic requirement was significantly lower in the butorphanol group (P<0.0001). Mean VAS scores were lower and sedation scores were higher in the butorphanol group. Addition of butorphanol to lidocaine quickens onset of haematoma block, provides excellent post manipulation analgesia and decreases 24 hour total analgesic requirement without excessive sedation.

  1. A randomised, double-blind study of polyethylene glycol 4000 and lactulose in the treatment of constipation in children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic constipation is frequent in children. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of PEG 4000 and lactulose for the treatment of chronic constipation in young children. Methods This randomised, double-blind study enrolled 88 young children aged 12 to 36 months, who were randomly assigned to receive lactulose (3.3 g per day) or PEG 4000 (8 g per day) for four weeks. The primary efficacy variable was stool frequency during the fourth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes were the number and frequency of subjective symptoms associated with defecation at each visit. Results Stool frequency was comparable in the two groups at baseline (lactulose: 0.7 ± 0.5; PEG 4000: 0.5 ± 0.55). Mean stool frequency increased from 0.70 ± 0.50 stools/day at baseline to 0.80 ± 0.41 at Week 4 in the lactulose group and from 0.50 ± 0.55 to 1.10 ± 0.55 stools/day in the PEG 4000 group. A significant difference was observed in the adjusted mean change from baseline, which was 0.15 stools/day in the lactulose group and 0.51 stools/day in the PEG 4000 group, with a least-squares mean difference of 0.36 stools/day [95% CI: 0.16 to 0.56]. With respect to secondary outcome variables, stool consistency and ease of stool passage improved more in the PEG 4000 group (p = 0.001). The incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups, the majority of which were mild. Conclusions PEG 4000 has superior efficacy to lactulose for the treatment of chronic constipation in young children and is well tolerated. Trial registration US National Institute of Health Clinical Trials database; study NCT00255372 first registered 17th November 2005. PMID:24943105

  2. Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation and Exercise Performance in COPD: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomised Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Katrina J.; O’Brien, Katie A.; Tanner, Rebecca J.; Polkey, Juliet I.; Minnion, Magdalena; Feelisch, Martin; Polkey, Michael I.; Edwards, Lindsay M.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary nitrate supplementation can enhance exercise performance in healthy people, but it is not clear if it is beneficial in COPD. We investigated the hypotheses that acute nitrate dosing would improve exercise performance and reduce the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise in people with COPD. Methods We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over single dose study. Subjects were randomised to consume either nitrate-rich beetroot juice (containing 12.9mmoles nitrate) or placebo (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice) 3 hours prior to endurance cycle ergometry, performed at 70% of maximal workload assessed by a prior incremental exercise test. After a minimum washout period of 7 days the protocol was repeated with the crossover beverage. Results 21 subjects successfully completed the study (age 68±7years; BMI 25.2±5.5kg/m2; FEV1 percentage predicted 50.1±21.6%; peak VO2 18.0±5.9ml/min/kg). Resting diastolic blood pressure fell significantly with nitrate supplementation compared to placebo (-7±8mmHg nitrate vs. -1±8mmHg placebo; p = 0.008). Median endurance time did not differ significantly; nitrate 5.65 (3.90–10.40) minutes vs. placebo 6.40 (4.01–9.67) minutes (p = 0.50). However, isotime oxygen consumption (VO2) was lower following nitrate supplementation (16.6±6.0ml/min/kg nitrate vs. 17.2±6.0ml/min/kg placebo; p = 0.043), and consequently nitrate supplementation caused a significant lowering of the amplitude of the VO2-percentage isotime curve. Conclusions Acute administration of oral nitrate did not enhance endurance exercise performance; however the observation that beetroot juice caused reduced oxygen consumption at isotime suggests that further investigation of this treatment approach is warranted, perhaps targeting a more hypoxic phenotype. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN66099139 PMID:26698120

  3. Bacterial overgrowth during treatment with omeprazole compared with cimetidine: a prospective randomised double blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Thorens, J; Froehlich, F; Schwizer, W; Saraga, E; Bille, J; Gyr, K; Duroux, P; Nicolet, M; Pignatelli, B; Blum, A L; Gonvers, J J; Fried, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric and duodenal bacterial overgrowth frequently occurs in conditions where diminished acid secretion is present. Omeprazole inhibits acid secretion more effectively than cimetidine and might therefore more frequently cause bacterial overgrowth. AIM: This controlled prospective study compared the incidence of gastric and duodenal bacterial overgrowth in patients treated with omeprazole or cimetidine. METHODS: 47 outpatients with peptic disease were randomly assigned to a four week treatment regimen with omeprazole 20 mg or cimetidine 800 mg daily. Gastric and duodenal juice were obtained during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and plated for anaerobic and aerobic organisms. RESULTS: Bacterial overgrowth (> or = 10(5) cfu/ml) was present in 53% of the patients receiving omeprazole and in 17% receiving cimetidine (p < 0.05). The mean (SEM) number of gastric and duodenal bacterial counts was 6.0 (0.2) and 5.0 (0.2) respectively in the omeprazole group and 4.0 (0.2) and 4.0 (0.1) in the cimetidine group (p < 0.001 and < 0.01; respectively). Faecal type bacteria were found in 30% of the patients with bacterial overgrowth. Basal gastric pH was higher in patients treated with omeprazole compared with cimetidine (4.2 (0.5) versus 2.0 (0.2); p < 0.001) and in patients with bacterial overgrowth compared with those without bacterial overgrowth (5.1 (0.6) versus 2.0 (0.1); p < 0.0001). The nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine values in gastric juice did not increase after treatment with either cimetidine or omeprazole. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12, beta carotene, and albumin were similar before and after treatment with both drugs. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the incidence of gastric and duodenal bacterial overgrowth is considerably higher in patients treated with omeprazole compared with cimetidine. This can be explained by more pronounced inhibition of gastric acid secretion. No patient developed signs of malabsorption or an increase of N

  4. Chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for migraine: a study protocol of a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Migraine affects 15% of the population, and has substantial health and socioeconomic costs. Pharmacological management is first-line treatment. However, acute and/or prophylactic medicine might not be tolerated due to side effects or contraindications. Thus, we aim to assess the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs in a single-blinded placebo-controlled randomised clinical trial (RCT). Method and analysis According to the power calculations, 90 participants are needed in the RCT. Participants will be randomised into one of three groups: CSMT, placebo (sham manipulation) and control (usual non-manual management). The RCT consists of three stages: 1 month run-in, 3 months intervention and follow-up analyses at the end of the intervention and 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary end point is migraine frequency, while migraine duration, migraine intensity, headache index (frequency x duration x intensity) and medicine consumption are secondary end points. Primary analysis will assess a change in migraine frequency from baseline to the end of the intervention and follow-up, where the groups CSMT and placebo and CSMT and control will be compared. Owing to two group comparisons, p values below 0.025 will be considered statistically significant. For all secondary end points and analyses, a p value below 0.05 will be used. The results will be presented with the corresponding p values and 95% CIs. Ethics and dissemination The RCT will follow the clinical trial guidelines from the International Headache Society. The Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services have approved the project. Procedure will be conducted according to the declaration of Helsinki. The results will be published at scientific meetings and in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT01741714. PMID:26586317

  5. Antisense therapy targeting apolipoprotein(a): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Tsimikas, Sotirios; Viney, Nicholas J; Hughes, Steven G; Singleton, Walter; Graham, Mark J; Baker, Brenda F; Burkey, Jennifer L; Yang, Qingqing; Marcovina, Santica M; Geary, Richard S; Crooke, Rosanne M; Witztum, Joseph L

    2015-10-10

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis. No effective therapies to lower plasma Lp(a) concentrations exist. We have assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ISIS-APO(a)Rx, a second-generation antisense drug designed to reduce the synthesis of apolipoprotein(a) (apo[a]) in the liver. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study at the PAREXEL Clinical Pharmacology Research Unit (Harrow, Middlesex, UK), we screened for healthy adults aged 18-65 years, with a body-mass index less than 32·0 kg/m(2), and Lp(a) concentration of 25 nmol/L (100 mg/L) or more. Via a randomisation technique, we randomly assigned participants to receive a single subcutaneous injection of ISIS-APO(a)Rx (50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, or 400 mg) or placebo (3:1) in the single-dose part of the study or to receive six subcutaneous injections of ISIS-APO(a)Rx (100 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg, for a total dose exposure of 600 mg, 1200 mg, or 1800 mg) or placebo (4:1) during a 4 week period in the multi-dose part of the study. Participants, investigators, and study staff were masked to the treatment assignment, except for the pharmacist who prepared the ISIS-APO(a)Rx or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage change from baseline in Lp(a) concentration at 30 days in the single-dose cohorts and at 36 days for the multi-dose cohorts. Safety and tolerability was assessed 1 week after last dose and included determination of the incidence, severity, and dose relation of adverse events and changes in laboratory variables, including lipid panel, routine haematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, coagulation, and complement variables. Other assessments included vital signs, a physical examination, and 12-lead electrocardiograph. This trial is registered with European Clinical Trials Database, number 2012-004909-27. Between Feb 27, 2013, and July 15, 2013, 47 (23%) of 206 screened volunteers were

  6. A double-blind randomised controlled study comparing subacromial injection of tenoxicam or methylprednisolone in patients with subacromial impingement.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, S; Kwong, H T; Upadhyay, P K; Parsons, N; Drew, S J; Griffin, D

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a prospective double-blind randomised controlled trial to compare the efficacy of a single subacromial injection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, tenoxicam, with a single injection of methylprednisolone in patients with subacromial impingement. A total of 58 patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A received 40 mg of methylprednisolone and group B 20 mg of tenoxicam as a subacromial injection along with lignocaine. The Constant-Murley shoulder score was used as the primary outcome measure and the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) as secondary measures. Six weeks after injection the improvement in the Constant-Murley score was significantly greater in the methylprednisolone group (p = 0.003) than in the tenoxicam group. The improvement in the DASH score was greater in the steroid group and the difference was statistically significant and consistent two (p < 0.01), four (p < 0.01) and six weeks (p < 0.020) after the injection. The improvement in the OSS was consistently greater in the steroid group than in the tenoxicam group. Although the difference was statistically significant at two (p < 0.001) and four (p = 0.003) weeks after the injection, it was not at six weeks (p = 0.055). Subacromial injection of tenoxicam does not offer an equivalent outcome to subacromial injection of corticosteroid at six weeks. Corticosteroid is significantly better than tenoxicam for improving shoulder function in tendonitis of the rotator cuff after six weeks.

  7. Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the analgesic efficacy and side effects of the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone with those of the weak opioid dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain. Design Randomised, double blind, crossover trial of 14 weeks’ duration comparing dihydrocodeine and nabilone. Setting Outpatient units of three hospitals in the United Kingdom. Participants 96 patients with chronic neuropathic pain, aged 23-84 years. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was difference between nabilone and dihydrocodeine in pain, as measured by the mean visual analogue score computed over the last 2 weeks of each treatment period. Secondary outcomes were changes in mood, quality of life, sleep, and psychometric function. Side effects were measured by a questionnaire. Intervention Patients received a maximum daily dose of 240 mg dihydrocodeine or 2 mg nabilone at the end of each escalating treatment period of 6 weeks. Treatment periods were separated by a 2 week washout period. Results Mean baseline visual analogue score was 69.6 mm (range 29.4-95.2) on a 0-100 mm scale. 73 patients were included in the available case analysis and 64 patients in the per protocol analysis. The mean score was 6.0 mm longer for nabilone than for dihydrocodeine (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 10.5) in the available case analysis and 5.6 mm (10.3 to 0.8) in the per protocol analysis. Side effects were more frequent with nabilone. Conclusion Dihydrocodeine provided better pain relief than the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone and had slightly fewer side effects, although no major adverse events occurred for either drug. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15330757. PMID:18182416

  8. A single-blind, pilot randomised trial of a weight management intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Harris, Leanne; Melville, Craig; Jones, Nathalie; Pert, Carol; Boyle, Susan; Murray, Heather; Tobin, Janet; Gray, Fiona; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities has consistently been reported to be higher than the general population. Despite the negative impact of obesity on health, there is little evidence of the effectiveness of weight management interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity. Preliminary results from a single-stranded feasibility study of a multi-component weight management intervention specifically designed for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity (TAKE 5) and that satisfied clinical recommendations reported that it was acceptable to adults with intellectual disabilities and their carers. This study aims to determine the feasibility of a full-scale clinical trial of TAKE 5. This study will follow a pilot randomised trial design. Sixty-six obese participants (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2)) will be randomly allocated to the TAKE 5 multi-component weight management intervention or a health education 'active' control intervention (Waist Winners Too (WWToo)). Both interventions will be delivered over a 12-month period. Participants' anthropometric measures (body weight, BMI, waist circumference, percentage body fat); indicators of activity (levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour) and well-being will be measured at three time points: baseline, 6 and 12 months. The researcher collecting outcome measures will be blind to study group allocation. The data from this study will generate pilot data on the acceptability of randomisation, attrition rates and the estimates of patient-centred outcomes of TAKE 5, which will help inform future research and the development of a full-scale randomised clinical trial. ISRCTN52903778.

  9. Letrozole, berberine, or their combination for anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: study design of a double-blind randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Kuang, Hongying; Shen, Wenjuan; Ma, Hongli; Zhang, Yuehui; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hung, Ernest; Ng, Yu; Liu, Jianping; Kuang, Haixue; Hou, Lihui; Wu, Xiaoke

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Letrozole is being used as an alternative to clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) requiring ovulation induction. Berberine, a major active component of Chinese herbal medicine rhizoma coptidis, has been used to improve insulin resistance to facilitate ovulation induction in women with PCOS but there is no study reporting the live birth or its potential as a complementary treatment to letrozole. We aim to determine the efficacy of letrozole with or without berberine in achieving live births among 660 infertile women with PCOS in Mainland China. Methods and analysis This study is a multicentre randomised, double-blind trial. The randomisation scheme is coordinated through the central mechanism and stratified by the participating site. Participants are randomised into one of the three treatment arms: (1) letrozole and berberine, (2) letrozole and berberine placebo, or (3) letrozole placebo and berberine. Berberine is administered three times a day (1.5 g/day) for up to 24 weeks, starting on day 1 after a spontaneous period or a withdrawal bleeding. Either letrozole or letrozole placebo 2.5 mg is given daily from day 3 to day 7 of the first three cycles and the dose is increased to 5 mg/day in the last three cycles, if not pregnant. The primary hypothesis is that the combination of berberine and letrozole results in a significantly higher live birth rate than letrozole or berberine alone. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01116167. PMID:24282248

  10. Acute bronchitis therapy with ivy leaves extracts in a two-arm study. A double-blind, randomised study vs. an other ivy leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Cwientzek, Ute; Ottillinger, Bertram; Arenberger, Petr

    2011-10-15

    Ivy leaves extracts are authorised in medicinal products for the treatment of acute bronchitis. Different studies and the long experience on the market show safety and efficacy of this drug. A double-blind, randomised study was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of ivy leaves soft extract with an other ivy leaves extract. 590 patients with acute bronchitis participated in this study. They were treated with test or comparator for 7 days (±1). The Bronchitis Severity Score (BSS) decreased gradually and to a similar extent from Day 1 to Day 7 in both treatment groups. Starting from values of 6.2-6.3±1.2, the BSS decreased by approximately 4.7-4.9 points until Day 7, so that patients left the study with a mean BSS of 1.4-1.6. The BSS subscales cough, sputum, rhales/rhonchi, chest pain during coughing, and dyspnoea improved to a similar extent in both treatment groups. Overall, 2.7% of patients (per group and overall) experienced an adverse event, all of which were non-serious. Fewer patients younger than ten years had adverse events than would have been expected from their share of the study population (p=0.015; Fisher's exact test). As a conclusion, the test product with ivy leaves soft extract proved to be non-inferior to the comparator ivy leaves extract in improving symptoms of acute bronchitis.

  11. Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) treatment trial: a study protocol of a pilot, multicentre, single-blind, randomised crossover trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Wilson, Edward; Shepstone, Lee; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A number of studies have established that children, adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) have significant problems with anxiety. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for anxiety in a variety of clinical populations. There is a growing interest in exploring the effectiveness of CBT for people with AS who have mental health problems, but currently there are no known clinical trials involving adults with AS or HFA. Studies with children who have AS have reported some success. The current study aims to examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an AS population is likely to be efficacious. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised, single-blind crossover trial. At least 36 individuals will be recruited and randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. During treatment, individuals will receive 3 sessions of individual CBT, followed by 21 sessions of group CBT. Primary outcome measures focus on anxiety. Secondary outcome measures focus on everyday social and psychiatric functioning, additional measures of anxiety and fear, depression, health-related quality of life and treatment cost. Assessments will be administered at pregroup and postgroup and at follow-up by researchers who are blinded to group allocation. The trial aims to find out whether or not psychological treatments for anxiety can be adapted and used to successfully treat the anxiety experienced by people with AS. Furthermore, we aim to determine whether this intervention represents good value for money. Ethics and dissemination The trial received a favourable ethical opinion from a National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee. All participants provided written informed consent. Findings will be shared with all trial participants, and the general public, as well as the scientific community. Trial Registration ISRCTN 30265294 (DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN30265294), UKCRN

  12. MD1003 (high-dose biotin) for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tourbah, Ayman; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Edan, Gilles; Clanet, Michel; Papeix, Caroline; Vukusic, Sandra; De Sèze, Jerome; Debouverie, Marc; Gout, Olivier; Clavelou, Pierre; Defer, Gilles; Laplaud, David-Axel; Moreau, Thibault; Labauge, Pierre; Brochet, Bruno; Sedel, Frédéric; Pelletier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment with MD1003 (high-dose biotin) showed promising results in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a pilot open-label study. Objective: To confirm the efficacy and safety of MD1003 in progressive MS in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods: Patients (n = 154) with a baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 4.5–7 and evidence of disease worsening within the previous 2 years were randomised to 12-month MD1003 (100 mg biotin) or placebo thrice daily, followed by 12-month MD1003 for all patients. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with disability reversal at month 9, confirmed at month 12, defined as an EDSS decrease of ⩾1 point (⩾0.5 for EDSS 6–7) or a ⩾20% decrease in timed 25-foot walk time compared with the best baseline among screening or randomisation visits. Results: A total of 13 (12.6%) MD1003-treated patients achieved the primary endpoint versus none of the placebo-treated patients (p = 0.005). MD1003 treatment also reduced EDSS progression and improved clinical impression of change compared with placebo. Efficacy was maintained over follow-up, and the safety profile of MD1003 was similar to that of placebo. Conclusion: MD1003 achieves sustained reversal of MS-related disability in a subset of patients with progressive MS and is well tolerated. PMID:27589059

  13. Lesion remyelinating activity of GSK239512 versus placebo in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised, single-blind, phase II study.

    PubMed

    Schwartzbach, Caryl J; Grove, Richard A; Brown, Robert; Tompson, Debra; Then Bergh, Florian; Arnold, Douglas L

    2017-02-01

    Histamine H3 receptor blockade may enhance lesion remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). The efficacy (using a magnetic resonance imaging marker of myelination, magnetisation transfer ratio [MTR]), safety and pharmacokinetics of GSK239512, a potent and brain penetrant H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist on lesion remyelination in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) were assessed. This was a phase II, randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind (sponsor-unblinded), international, multicentre study (NCT01772199). Patients aged 18-50 with RRMS, receiving intramuscular interferon-β1a or glatiramer acetate, were randomised 1:1 to once-daily oral GSK239512 or placebo, up-titrated over 4-5 weeks to a maximum tolerable dose up to 80 µg and maintained until Week 48. The co-primary endpoints were mean changes in post-lesion MTR in gadolinium-enhanced (GdE) or Delta-MTR defined lesions from pre-lesion values. Adverse events (AE) and withdrawals were monitored. Of the 131 patients randomised, 114 patients completed the study (GSK239512, n = 51; placebo, n = 63) and 27 (GSK239512) and 28 (placebo) patients contributed lesions to the primary analysis. GSK239512 was associated with positive effect sizes of 0.344 [90% confidence interval (CI) 0.018, 0.671] and 0.243 (90% CI -0.112, 0.598) for adjusted mean changes in the normalised MTR for GdE and Delta-MTR lesions, respectively. The overall incidence of AEs was similar between GSK239512 and placebo during the treatment phase although some AEs including insomnia were more common with GSK239512, particularly during the titration period. A small but positive effect of GSK239512 on remyelination was observed. MTR assessment represents a promising method for detecting lesion remyelination in RRMS.

  14. Study protocol: a phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel arm, stratified, block randomised, placebo-controlled trial investigating the clinical effect and cost-effectiveness of sertraline for the palliative relief of breathlessness in people with chronic breathlessness

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Katherine; Agar, Meera; Davidson, Patricia M; McDonald, Christine; Doogue, Matthew; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breathlessness remains a highly prevalent and distressing symptom for many patients with progressive life-limiting illnesses. Evidence-based interventions for chronic breathlessness are limited, and there is an ongoing need for high-quality research into developing management strategies for optimal palliation of this complex symptom. Previous studies have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline may have a role in reducing breathlessness. This paper presents the protocol for a large, adequately powered randomised study evaluating the use of sertraline for chronic breathlessness in people with progressive life-limiting illnesses. Methods and analysis A total of 240 participants with modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale breathlessness of level 2 or higher will be randomised to receive either sertraline or placebo for 28 days in this multisite, double-blind study. The dose will be titrated up every 3 days to a maximum of 100 mg daily. The primary outcome will be to compare the efficacy of sertraline with placebo in relieving the intensity of worst breathlessness as assessed by a 0–100 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A number of other outcome measures and descriptors of breathlessness as well as caregiver assessments will also be recorded to ensure adequate analysis of participant breathlessness and to allow an economic analysis to be performed. Participants will also be given the option of continuing blinded treatment until either study data collection is complete or net benefit ceases. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used to describe the wealth of data obtained. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained at all participating sites. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and the key findings presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number ACTRN12610000464066. PMID:27899400

  15. A phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study comparing SB4 with etanercept reference product in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Paul; Vencovský, Jiří; Sylwestrzak, Anna; Leszczyński, Piotr; Porawska, Wieslawa; Baranauskaite, Asta; Tseluyko, Vira; Zhdan, Vyacheslav M; Stasiuk, Barbara; Milasiene, Roma; Barrera Rodriguez, Aaron Alejandro; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Ghil, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of SB4 (an etanercept biosimilar) with reference product etanercept (ETN) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Methods This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study with a 24-week primary endpoint. Patients with moderate to severe RA despite MTX treatment were randomised to receive weekly dose of 50 mg of subcutaneous SB4 or ETN. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 24. Other efficacy endpoints as well as safety, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic parameters were also measured. Results 596 patients were randomised to either SB4 (N=299) or ETN (N=297). The ACR20 response rate at week 24 in the per-protocol set was 78.1% for SB4 and 80.3% for ETN. The 95% CI of the adjusted treatment difference was −9.41% to 4.98%, which is completely contained within the predefined equivalence margin of −15% to 15%, indicating therapeutic equivalence between SB4 and ETN. Other efficacy endpoints and pharmacokinetic endpoints were comparable. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable (55.2% vs 58.2%), and the incidence of antidrug antibody development up to week 24 was lower in SB4 compared with ETN (0.7% vs 13.1%). Conclusions SB4 was shown to be equivalent with ETN in terms of efficacy at week 24. SB4 was well tolerated with a lower immunogenicity profile. The safety profile of SB4 was comparable with that of ETN. Trial registration numbers NCT01895309, EudraCT 2012-005026-30. PMID:26150601

  16. Vitamin D3 Supplementation Does Not Improve Sprint Performance in Professional Rugby Players: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Double Blind Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Kirsty A; Ceelen, Ingrid Jm; Skeaff, C Murray; Cameron, Claire M; Perry, Tracy L

    2017-08-03

    Vitamin D insufficiency is common in athletes and may lower physical performance. Many cross-sectional studies associate vitamin D status with physical performance in athletes, however there have been few prospective randomised controlled trials with adequate statistical power to test this relationship, and none in the southern hemisphere. Thus, a prospective double blind, randomised placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted, involving 57 professional rugby union players in New Zealand. Participants were randomised to receive 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol (equivalent to 3,570 IU/day) or placebo once every two weeks over 11-12 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and physical performance were measured at baseline, weeks 5-6 and weeks 11-12. Mean (SD) serum 25(OH)D concentrations for all participants at baseline was 94 (18) nmol/L, with all players above 50 nmol/L. Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared to placebo, with a 32 nmol/L difference between groups at 11-12 weeks (95%CI, 26 to 38; P < 0.001). Performance in five of the six tests, including the primary outcome variable of 30m sprint time, did not differ between the vitamin D supplemented and placebo groups (P > 0.05). Performance on the weighted reverse-grip chin up was significantly higher in players receiving vitamin D compared with placebo, by 5.5 kg (95%CI, 2.0 to 8.9; P = 0.002). Despite significantly improving vitamin D status in these professional rugby union players, vitamin D supplementation had little impact on physical performance outcomes. Thus, it is unlikely that vitamin D supplementation is an ergogenic aid in this group of athletes.

  17. A phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study comparing SB4 with etanercept reference product in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy.

    PubMed

    Emery, Paul; Vencovský, Jiří; Sylwestrzak, Anna; Leszczyński, Piotr; Porawska, Wieslawa; Baranauskaite, Asta; Tseluyko, Vira; Zhdan, Vyacheslav M; Stasiuk, Barbara; Milasiene, Roma; Barrera Rodriguez, Aaron Alejandro; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Ghil, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of SB4 (an etanercept biosimilar) with reference product etanercept (ETN) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study with a 24-week primary endpoint. Patients with moderate to severe RA despite MTX treatment were randomised to receive weekly dose of 50 mg of subcutaneous SB4 or ETN. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 24. Other efficacy endpoints as well as safety, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic parameters were also measured. 596 patients were randomised to either SB4 (N=299) or ETN (N=297). The ACR20 response rate at week 24 in the per-protocol set was 78.1% for SB4 and 80.3% for ETN. The 95% CI of the adjusted treatment difference was -9.41% to 4.98%, which is completely contained within the predefined equivalence margin of -15% to 15%, indicating therapeutic equivalence between SB4 and ETN. Other efficacy endpoints and pharmacokinetic endpoints were comparable. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable (55.2% vs 58.2%), and the incidence of antidrug antibody development up to week 24 was lower in SB4 compared with ETN (0.7% vs 13.1%). SB4 was shown to be equivalent with ETN in terms of efficacy at week 24. SB4 was well tolerated with a lower immunogenicity profile. The safety profile of SB4 was comparable with that of ETN. NCT01895309, EudraCT 2012-005026-30. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Regional diffusion of botulinum toxin in facial muscles: a randomised double-blind study and a consideration for clinical studies with split-face design.

    PubMed

    Punga, Anna Rostedt; Eriksson, Annika; Alimohammadi, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Despite the extensive use of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) in medical and cosmetic treatments, the potential spreading of BoNTA to surrounding tissues remains unknown. A patient with hemifacial paralysis upon blepharospasm treatment with low dose of BoNTA, prompted us to investigate the spreading effect. A randomised, double-blind study was conducted in which 5 healthy women (33-52 years) were treated with different doses of onabotulinum toxin unilaterally in the corrugator muscle. Parameters of efficacy and diffusion (CMAP; EMG and jitter analysis) in both glabellar and frontalis muscles were assessed at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks following BoNTA injection. CMAP of the treated glabellar muscles was reduced to approximately 40% in all dose groups. Additionally, contralateral CMAP reduction was observed in 3 of 5 subjects. These data confirm regional diffusion of BoNTA in facial muscle application, which raises question on the reliability of split-face models in BoNTA studies.

  19. Ciclosporin to Protect Renal function In Cardiac Surgery (CiPRICS): a study protocol for a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Grins, Edgars; Dardashti, Alain; Brondén, Björn; Metzsch, Carsten; Erdling, André; Nozohoor, Shahab; Mokhtari, Arash; Hansson, Magnus J; Elmér, Eskil; Algotsson, Lars; Jovinge, Stefan; Bjursten, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is common and results in increased morbidity and mortality. One possible mechanism for AKI is ischaemia–reperfusion injury caused by the extracorporeal circulation (ECC), resulting in an opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in the kidneys, which can lead to cell injury or cell death. Ciclosporin may block the opening of mPTP if administered before the ischaemia–reperfusion injury. We hypothesised that ciclosporin given before the start of ECC in cardiac surgery can decrease the degree of AKI. Methods and analysis Ciclosporin to Protect Renal function In Cardiac Surgery (CiPRICS) study is an investigator-initiated double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel design, single-centre study performed at a tertiary university hospital. The primary objective is to assess the safety and efficacy of ciclosporin to limit the degree of AKI in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. We aim to evaluate 150 patients with a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15–90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Study patients are randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive study drug 2.5 mg/kg ciclosporin or placebo as an intravenous injection after anaesthesia induction but before start of surgery. The primary end point consists of relative P-cystatin C changes from the preoperative day to postoperative day 3. The primary variable will be tested using an analysis of covariance method. Secondary end points include evaluation of P-creatinine and biomarkers of kidney, heart and brain injury. Ethics and dissemination The trial is conducted in compliance with the current version of the Declaration of Helsinki and the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) Good Clinical Practice guidelines E6 (R1) and was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board, Lund and the Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA). Written and oral informed consent is obtained before enrolment into

  20. Quetiapine augmentation of SRIs in treatment refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study [ISRCTN83050762].

    PubMed

    Carey, Paul D; Vythilingum, Bavanisha; Seedat, Soraya; Muller, Jacqueline E; van Ameringen, Michael; Stein, Dan J

    2005-01-24

    Although serotonin reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of OCD, many patients fail to respond to these agents. Growing evidence from open-label and placebo-controlled trials suggests a role for augmentation of SRIs with atypical antipsychotics in OCD. Quetiapine is generally well tolerated and previous open-label data has produced mixed results in OCD and additional controlled data is needed. We undertook a double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled study of quetiapine augmentation in subjects who had responded inadequately to open-label treatment with an SRI for 12 weeks. Following informed consent and screening, forty-two subjects were randomised to either placebo or quetiapine for six weeks. There was significant improvement from baseline to endpoint on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale in both the quetiapine and placebo groups (quetiapine, n = 20, p < 0.0001; placebo, n = 21, p = 0.001) with 40% (n = 8) of quetiapine and 47.6% (n = 10) of placebo treated subjects being classified as responders. Quetiapine did not demonstrate a significant benefit over placebo at the end of the six-week treatment period (p = .636). Similarly quetiapine failed to separate from placebo in the subgroup of subjects (n = 10) with co-morbid tics. Quetiapine was generally well tolerated. In this study, quetiapine augmentation was no more effective than placebo augmentation of SRIs. A number of limitations in study design make comparisons with previous studies in this area difficult and probably contributed to our negative findings. Future work in this important clinical area should address these limitations.

  1. UVB phototherapy in an outpatient setting or at home: a pragmatic randomised single-blind trial designed to settle the discussion. The PLUTO study

    PubMed Central

    Koek, Mayke BG; Buskens, Erik; Steegmans, Paul HA; van Weelden, Huib; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla AFM; Sigurdsson, Vigfús

    2006-01-01

    Background Home ultraviolet B (UVB) treatment is a much-debated treatment, especially with regard to effectiveness, safety and side effects. However, it is increasingly being prescribed, especially in the Netherlands. Despite ongoing discussions, no randomised research has been performed, and only two studies actually compare two groups of patients. Thus, firm evidence to support or discourage the use of home UVB phototherapy has not yet been obtained. This is the goal of the present study, the PLUTO study (Dutch acronym for "national trial on home UVB phototherapy for psoriasis"). Methods We designed a pragmatic randomised single-blind multi-centre trial. This trial is designed to evaluate the impact of home UVB treatment versus UVB phototherapy in a hospital outpatient clinic as to effectiveness, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. In total 196 patients with psoriasis who were clinically eligible for UVB phototherapy were included. Normally 85% of the patients treated with UVB show a relevant clinical response. With a power of 80% and a 0.05 significance level it will be possible to detect a reduction in effectiveness of 15%. Effectiveness will be determined by calculating differences in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and the Self Administered PASI (SAPASI) scores. Quality of life is measured using several validated generic questionnaires and a disease-specific questionnaire. Other outcome measures include costs, side effects, dosimetry, concomitant use of medication and patient satisfaction. Patients are followed throughout the therapy and for 12 months thereafter. The study is no longer recruiting patients, and is expected to report in 2006. Discussion In the field of home UVB phototherapy this trial is the first randomised parallel group study. As such, this trial addresses the weaknesses encountered in previous studies. The pragmatic design ensures that the results can be well generalised to the target population. Because, in addition to

  2. UVB phototherapy in an outpatient setting or at home: a pragmatic randomised single-blind trial designed to settle the discussion. The PLUTO study.

    PubMed

    Koek, Mayke B G; Buskens, Erik; Steegmans, Paul H A; van Weelden, Huib; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Sigurdsson, Vigfús

    2006-08-01

    Home ultraviolet B (UVB) treatment is a much-debated treatment, especially with regard to effectiveness, safety and side effects. However, it is increasingly being prescribed, especially in the Netherlands. Despite ongoing discussions, no randomised research has been performed, and only two studies actually compare two groups of patients. Thus, firm evidence to support or discourage the use of home UVB phototherapy has not yet been obtained. This is the goal of the present study, the PLUTO study (Dutch acronym for "national trial on home UVB phototherapy for psoriasis"). We designed a pragmatic randomised single-blind multi-centre trial. This trial is designed to evaluate the impact of home UVB treatment versus UVB phototherapy in a hospital outpatient clinic as to effectiveness, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. In total 196 patients with psoriasis who were clinically eligible for UVB phototherapy were included. Normally 85% of the patients treated with UVB show a relevant clinical response. With a power of 80% and a 0.05 significance level it will be possible to detect a reduction in effectiveness of 15%. Effectiveness will be determined by calculating differences in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and the Self Administered PASI (SAPASI) scores. Quality of life is measured using several validated generic questionnaires and a disease-specific questionnaire. Other outcome measures include costs, side effects, dosimetry, concomitant use of medication and patient satisfaction. Patients are followed throughout the therapy and for 12 months thereafter. The study is no longer recruiting patients, and is expected to report in 2006. In the field of home UVB phototherapy this trial is the first randomised parallel group study. As such, this trial addresses the weaknesses encountered in previous studies. The pragmatic design ensures that the results can be well generalised to the target population. Because, in addition to effectiveness, aspects such as

  3. A regime of two intravenous injections of tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomised double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C-H; Lin, P-C; Kuo, F-C; Wang, J-W

    2015-07-01

    Tranexamic acid (TXA), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, reduces blood loss after total knee arthroplasty. However, its effect on minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is not clear. We performed a prospective, randomised double-blind study to evaluate the effect of two intravenous injections of TXA on blood loss in patients undergoing minimally invasive THA. In total, 60 patients (35 women and 25 men with a mean age of 58.1 years; 17 to 84) who underwent unilateral minimally invasive uncemented THA were randomly divided into the study group (30 patients, 20 women and ten men with a mean age of 56.5 years; 17 to 79) that received two intravenous injections 1 g of TXA pre- and post-operatively (TXA group), and a placebo group (30 patients, 15 women and 15 men with a mean age of 59.5 years; 23 to 84). We compared the peri-operative blood loss of the two groups. Actual blood loss was calculated from the maximum reduction in the level of haemoglobin. All patients were followed clinically for the presence of venous thromboembolism. The TXA group had a lower mean intra-operative blood loss of 441 ml (150 to 800) versus 615 ml (50 to 1580) in the placebo (p = 0.044), lower mean post-operative blood loss (285 ml (120 to 570) versus 392 ml (126 to 660) (p = 0.002), lower mean total blood loss (1070 ml (688 to 1478) versus 1337 ml (495 to 2238) (p = 0.004) and lower requirement for transfusion (p = 0.021). No patients in either group had symptoms of venous thromboembolism or wound complications. This prospective, randomised controlled study showed that a regimen of two intravenous injections of 1 g TXA is effective for blood conservation after minimally invasive THA. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  4. A pollen extract (Cernilton) in patients with inflammatory chronic prostatitis-chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a multicentre, randomised, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Schneider, Henning; Ludwig, Martin; Schnitker, Jörg; Brähler, Elmar; Weidner, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) category III prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a prevalent condition for which no standardised treatment exists. To assess the safety and efficacy of a standardised pollen extract in men with inflammatory CP/CPPS. We conducted a multicentre, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study comparing the pollen extract (Cernilton) to placebo in men with CP/CPPS (NIH IIIA) attending urologic centres. Participants were randomised to receive oral capsules of the pollen extract (two capsules q8h) or placebo for 12 wk. The primary endpoint of the study was symptomatic improvement in the pain domain of the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Participants were evaluated using the NIH-CPSI individual domains and total score, the number of leukocytes in post-prostatic massage urine (VB3), the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the sexuality domain of a life satisfaction questionnaire at baseline and after 6 and 12 wk. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 139 men were randomly allocated to the pollen extract (n=70) or placebo (n=69). The individual domains pain (p=0.0086) and quality of life (QoL; p=0.0250) as well as the total NIH-CPSI score (p=0.0126) were significantly improved after 12 wk of treatment with pollen extract compared to placebo. Response, defined as a decrease of the NIH-CPSI total score by at least 25% or at least 6 points, was seen in the pollen extract versus placebo group in 70.6% and 50.0% (p=0.0141), respectively. Adverse events were minor in all patients studied. Compared to placebo, the pollen extract significantly improved total symptoms, pain, and QoL in patients with inflammatory CP/CPPS without severe side-effects.

  5. Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians: the DHRMA study, research into foods from the Indian subcontinent - a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is highly prevalent amongst the South Asian communities in Britain. The reasons for this excess CHD risk are multifactorial, but in part relate to a susceptibility to diabetes mellitus - where the aberrant metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glucose are likely to underpin vascular disease in this population. Dietary intervention is an important and first line approach to manage increased CHD risk. However, there is limited information on the impact of the South Asian diet on CHD risk. Methods/Design The Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians (DHRMA) study is a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial that analyses the efficacy of reduced glycaemic index (GI) staples of the South Asian diet, in relation to cardio-metabolic risk factors that are commonly perturbed amongst South Asian populations - primarily glucose, fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism and central adiposity. Using a 10-week dietary intervention study, 50 healthy South Asians will be randomised to receive either a DHRMA (reduced GI) supply of chapatti (bread), stone ground, high protein wheat flour and white basmati rice (high bran, unpolished) or commercially available (leading brand) versions chapatti wheat flour and basmati rice. Volunteers will be asked to complete a 75g oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and at 10-weeks follow-up, where blood metabolites and hormones, blood pressure and anthropometry will also be assessed in a standardised manner. Discussion It is anticipated that the information collected from this study help develop healthy diet options specific (but not exclusive) for South Asian ethnic communities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02839188 PMID:22136261

  6. The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS): design and research protocol of a double-blind, randomised controlled n--3 LCPUFA intervention trial in term infants.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, S J; D'Vaz, N; Dunstan, J; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2011-09-01

    The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study is a double-blind randomised controlled trial investigating whether the incidence of allergic disease can be reduced and developmental outcomes enhanced through supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Infants at high risk of developing allergic disease will be randomised to receive either fish oil or olive oil supplements until 6 months of age and followed up at six postnatal clinic visits to assess allergy outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Study groups to consist of a treatment group allocated to receive 650 mg of fish oil daily (250-280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and at least 60 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and a placebo group (olive oil) from birth to 6 months of age. Allergy outcomes will be assessed by clinical history, clinical assessments and allergen skin prick tests at the 12, 30 and 60 month visits. Neurodevelopmental assessments to be conducted at 18 months, and language questionnaires at 12, 18 and 30 months. Samples will be collected from mothers antenatally, from infants at birth, and at clinic visits from 6 months onwards for immunological assessments. Fatty acid composition to be measured in erythrocytes and plasma (at birth and after the supplementation period) to assess the effect of the intervention on fatty acid status. Information on medical history, diet and other lifestyle factors at an antenatal clinic visit and postnatal clinic visits will also be collected. This study is designed to examine clinically relevant effects of a novel, non-invasive and potentially low cost approach to reduce the incidence of allergic disease and facilitate neurodevelopment during early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation in early-stage dementia: study protocol for a multi-centre single-blind randomised controlled trial (GREAT)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preliminary evidence suggests that goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation (CR) may be a clinically effective intervention for people with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease, vascular or mixed dementia and their carers. This study aims to establish whether CR is a clinically effective and cost-effective intervention for people with early-stage dementia and their carers. Methods/design In this multi-centre, single-blind randomised controlled trial, 480 people with early-stage dementia, each with a carer, will be randomised to receive either treatment as usual or cognitive rehabilitation (10 therapy sessions over 3 months, followed by 4 maintenance sessions over 6 months). We will compare the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation with that of treatment as usual with regard to improving self-reported and carer-rated goal performance in areas identified as causing concern by people with early-stage dementia; improving quality of life, self-efficacy, mood and cognition of people with early-stage dementia; and reducing stress levels and ameliorating quality of life for carers of participants with early-stage dementia. The incremental cost-effectiveness of goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation compared to treatment as usual will also be examined. Discussion If the study confirms the benefits and cost-effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation, it will be important to examine how the goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation approach can most effectively be integrated into routine health-care provision. Our aim is to provide training and develop materials to support the implementation of this approach following trial completion. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN21027481 PMID:23710796

  8. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Ciclosporin to Prednisolone in the Treatment of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum: Two Randomised, Double Blind, Controlled Pilot Studies in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Saba M; Nigusse, Shimelis D; Alembo, Digafe T; Walker, Stephen L; Nicholls, Peter G; Idriss, Munir H; Yamuah, Lawrence K; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2016-02-01

    Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is a serious complication of leprosy. It is normally treated with high dose steroids, but its recurrent nature leads to prolonged steroid usage and associated side effects. There is little evidence on the efficacy of alternative treatments for ENL, especially for patients who have become steroid resistant or have steroid side effects. These two pilot studies compare the efficacy and side effect profile of ciclosporin plus prednisolone against prednisolone alone in the treatment of patients with either new ENL or chronic and recurrent ENL. Thirteen patients with new ENL and twenty patients with chronic ENL were recruited into two double-blinded randomised controlled trials. Patients were randomised to receive ciclosporin and prednisolone or prednisolone treatment only. Patients with acute ENL had a delay of 16 weeks in the occurrence of ENL flare-up episode, with less severe flare-ups and decreased requirements for additional prednisolone. Patients with chronic ENL on ciclosporin had the first episode of ENL flare-up 4 weeks earlier than those on prednisolone, as well as more severe ENL flare-ups requiring 2.5 times more additional prednisolone. Adverse events attributable to prednisolone were more common that those attributable to ciclosporin. This is the first clinical trial on ENL management set in the African context, and also the first trial in leprosy to use patients' assessment of outcomes. Patients on ciclosporin showed promising results in the management of acute ENL in this small pilot study. But ciclosporin, did not appear to have a significant steroid-sparing effects in patients with chronic ENL, which may have been due to the prolonged use of steroids in these patients in combination with a too rapid decrease of steroids in patients given ciclosporin. Further research is needed to determine whether the promising results of ciclosporin in acute ENL can be reproduced on a larger scale.

  9. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Ciclosporin to Prednisolone in the Treatment of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum: Two Randomised, Double Blind, Controlled Pilot Studies in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Saba M.; Nigusse, Shimelis D.; Alembo, Digafe T.; Walker, Stephen L.; Nicholls, Peter G.; Idriss, Munir H.; Yamuah, Lawrence K.; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is a serious complication of leprosy. It is normally treated with high dose steroids, but its recurrent nature leads to prolonged steroid usage and associated side effects. There is little evidence on the efficacy of alternative treatments for ENL, especially for patients who have become steroid resistant or have steroid side effects. These two pilot studies compare the efficacy and side effect profile of ciclosporin plus prednisolone against prednisolone alone in the treatment of patients with either new ENL or chronic and recurrent ENL. Methods and Results Thirteen patients with new ENL and twenty patients with chronic ENL were recruited into two double-blinded randomised controlled trials. Patients were randomised to receive ciclosporin and prednisolone or prednisolone treatment only. Patients with acute ENL had a delay of 16 weeks in the occurrence of ENL flare-up episode, with less severe flare-ups and decreased requirements for additional prednisolone. Patients with chronic ENL on ciclosporin had the first episode of ENL flare-up 4 weeks earlier than those on prednisolone, as well as more severe ENL flare-ups requiring 2.5 times more additional prednisolone. Adverse events attributable to prednisolone were more common that those attributable to ciclosporin. Conclusions This is the first clinical trial on ENL management set in the African context, and also the first trial in leprosy to use patients’ assessment of outcomes. Patients on ciclosporin showed promising results in the management of acute ENL in this small pilot study. But ciclosporin, did not appear to have a significant steroid–sparing effects in patients with chronic ENL, which may have been due to the prolonged use of steroids in these patients in combination with a too rapid decrease of steroids in patients given ciclosporin. Further research is needed to determine whether the promising results of ciclosporin in acute ENL can be reproduced on a

  10. Efficacy of a microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Spanish iron-deficient women.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2011-06-01

    Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P < 0·05) and became 80 % higher than in the P group after week 16 (P < 0·001), and transferrin decreased in the F group compared with the P group after week 4 (P < 0·001). RDW was higher at weeks 4 and 8 in the F group compared with the P group (P < 0·05). Transferrin saturation increased after week 8, and haematocrit, MCV and Hb increased after week 12, in the F group compared with the P group. Serum Fe did not change. sTfR and ZnPP decreased in the F group at week 16 (P < 0·05). Iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  11. Maternal Deworming Research Study (MADRES) protocol: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial to determine the effectiveness of deworming in the immediate postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Mofid, Layla S; Casapía, Martín; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Fraser, William D; Marquis, Grace S; Vercruysse, Jozef; Allen, Lindsay H; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2015-06-17

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic in 114 countries worldwide, and cause the highest burden of disease among all neglected tropical diseases. The WHO includes women of reproductive age as a high-risk group for infection. The primary consequence of infection in this population is anaemia. During lactation, anaemia may contribute to reduced quality and quantity of milk, decreasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and lowering the age at weaning. To date, no study has investigated the effects of maternal postpartum deworming on infant or maternal health outcomes. A single-centre, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out in Iquitos, Peru, to assess the effectiveness of integrating single-dose 400 mg albendazole into routine maternal postpartum care. A total of 1010 mother-infant pairs will be randomised to either the intervention or control arm, following inhospital delivery and prior to discharge. Participants will be visited in their homes at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months following delivery for outcome ascertainment. The primary outcome is infant mean weight gain between birth and 6 months of age. Secondary outcomes include other infant growth indicators and morbidity, maternal soil-transmitted helminth infection and intensity, anaemia, fatigue, and breastfeeding practices. All statistical analyses will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Research ethics board approval has been obtained from the McGill University Health Centre (Canada), the Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación (Peru) and the Instituto Nacional de Salud (Peru). A data safety and monitoring committee is in place to oversee study progression and evaluate adverse events. The results of the analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international conferences. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01748929. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  12. Maternal Deworming Research Study (MADRES) protocol: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial to determine the effectiveness of deworming in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Mofid, Layla S; Casapía, Martín; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Fraser, William D; Marquis, Grace S; Vercruysse, Jozef; Allen, Lindsay H; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic in 114 countries worldwide, and cause the highest burden of disease among all neglected tropical diseases. The WHO includes women of reproductive age as a high-risk group for infection. The primary consequence of infection in this population is anaemia. During lactation, anaemia may contribute to reduced quality and quantity of milk, decreasing the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and lowering the age at weaning. To date, no study has investigated the effects of maternal postpartum deworming on infant or maternal health outcomes. Methods and analysis A single-centre, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out in Iquitos, Peru, to assess the effectiveness of integrating single-dose 400 mg albendazole into routine maternal postpartum care. A total of 1010 mother-infant pairs will be randomised to either the intervention or control arm, following inhospital delivery and prior to discharge. Participants will be visited in their homes at 1, 6, 12 and 24 months following delivery for outcome ascertainment. The primary outcome is infant mean weight gain between birth and 6 months of age. Secondary outcomes include other infant growth indicators and morbidity, maternal soil-transmitted helminth infection and intensity, anaemia, fatigue, and breastfeeding practices. All statistical analyses will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics board approval has been obtained from the McGill University Health Centre (Canada), the Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación (Peru) and the Instituto Nacional de Salud (Peru). A data safety and monitoring committee is in place to oversee study progression and evaluate adverse events. The results of the analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals, and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01748929. PMID:26084556

  13. Efficacy and safety of the biosimilar ABP 501 compared with adalimumab in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind, phase III equivalence study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stanley; Genovese, Mark C; Choy, Ernest; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Matsumoto, Alan; Pavelka, Karel; Pablos, Jose L; Rizzo, Warren; Hrycaj, Pawel; Zhang, Nan; Shergy, William; Kaur, Primal

    2017-10-01

    ABP 501 is a Food and Drug Administration-approved biosimilar to adalimumab; structural, functional and pharmacokinetic evaluations have shown that the two are highly similar. We report results from a phase III study comparing efficacy, safety and immunogenicity between ABP 501 and adalimumab. In this randomised, double-blind, active comparator-controlled, 26-week equivalence study, patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate were randomised (1:1) to ABP 501 or adalimumab (40 mg) every 2 weeks. Primary endpoint was risk ratio (RR) of ACR20 between groups at week 24. Primary hypothesis that the treatments were equivalent would be confirmed if the 90% CI for RR of ACR20 at week 24 fell between 0.738 and 1.355, demonstrating that ABP 501 is similar to adalimumab. Secondary endpoints included Disease Activity Score 28-joint count-C reactive protein (DAS28-CRP). Safety was assessed via adverse events (AEs) and laboratory evaluations. Antidrug antibodies were assessed to determine immunogenicity. A total of 526 patients were randomised (n=264, ABP 501; n=262 adalimumab) and 494 completed the study. ACR20 response at week 24 was 74.6% (ABP 501) and 72.4% (adalimumab). At week 24, the RR of ACR20 (90% CI) between groups was 1.039 (0.954, 1.133), confirming the primary hypothesis. Changes from baseline in DAS28-CRP, ACR50 and ACR70 were similar. There were no clinically meaningful differences in AEs and laboratory abnormalities. A total of 38.3% (ABP 501) and 38.2% (adalimumab) of patients tested positive for binding antidrug antibodies. Results from this study demonstrate that ABP 501 is similar to adalimumab in clinical efficacy, safety and immunogenicity in patients with moderate to severe RA. NCT01970475; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The effect of oxcarbazepine in peripheral neuropathic pain depends on pain phenotype: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phenotype-stratified study.

    PubMed

    Demant, Dyveke T; Lund, Karen; Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Segerdahl, Märtha; Finnerup, Nanna B; Jensen, Troels S; Sindrup, Søren H

    2014-11-01

    In neuropathic pain it has been suggested that pain phenotype based on putative pain mechanisms may predict response to treatment. This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and phenotype-stratified study with 2 6-week treatment periods of oxcarbazepine (1800-2400mg) and placebo. The primary efficacy measure was change in median pain intensity between baseline and the last week of treatment measured on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and the primary objective was to compare the effect of oxcarbazepine in patients with and without the irritable nociceptor phenotype as defined by hypersensitivity and preserved small nerve fibre function determined by detailed quantitative sensory testing. Ninety-seven patients with peripheral neuropathic pain due to polyneuropathy, surgical or traumatic nerve injury, or postherpetic neuralgia were randomised. The intention-to-treat population comprised 83 patients: 31 with the irritable and 52 with the nonirritable nociceptor phenotype. In the total sample, oxcarbazepine relieved pain of 0.7 points (on a numeric rating scale 0-10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-1.4) more than placebo (P=0.015) and there was a significant interaction between treatment and phenotype of 0.7 (95% CI 0.01-1.4, P=0.047). The number needed to treat to obtain one patient with more than 50% pain relief was 6.9 (95% CI 4.2-22) in the total sample, 3.9 (95% CI 2.3-12) in the irritable, and 13 (95% CI 5.3-∞) in the nonirritable nociceptor phenotype. In conclusion, oxcarbazepine is more efficacious for relief of peripheral neuropathic pain in patients with the irritable vs the nonirritable nociceptor phenotype.

  15. Sifalimumab, an anti-interferon-α monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Khamashta, Munther; Merrill, Joan T; Werth, Victoria P; Furie, Richard; Kalunian, Kenneth; Illei, Gabor G; Drappa, Jorn; Wang, Liangwei; Greth, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The efficacy and safety of sifalimumab were assessed in a phase IIb, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (NCT01283139) of adults with moderate to severe active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods 431 patients were randomised and received monthly intravenous sifalimumab (200 mg, 600 mg or 1200 mg) or placebo in addition to standard-of-care medications. Patients were stratified by disease activity, interferon gene-signature test (high vs low based on the expression of four genes) and geographical region. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients achieving an SLE responder index response at week 52. Results Compared with placebo, a greater percentage of patients who received sifalimumab (all dosages) met the primary end point (placebo: 45.4%; 200 mg: 58.3%; 600 mg: 56.5%; 1200 mg 59.8%). Other improvements were seen in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index score (200 mg and 1200 mg monthly), Physician's Global Assessment (600 mg and 1200 mg monthly), British Isles Lupus Assessment Group-based Composite Lupus Assessment (1200 mg monthly), 4-point reductions in the SLE Disease Activity Index−2000 score and reductions in counts of swollen joints and tender joints. Serious adverse events occurred in 17.6% of patients on placebo and 18.3% of patients on sifalimumab. Herpes zoster infections were more frequent with sifalimumab treatment. Conclusions Sifalimumab is a promising treatment for adults with SLE. Improvement was consistent across various clinical end points, including global and organ-specific measures of disease activity. Trial registration number NCT01283139; Results. PMID:27009916

  16. The effect of umeclidinium added to inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist in patients with symptomatic COPD: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana R; Riley, John H; Church, Alison; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Punekar, Yogesh S; Fahy, William A

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of triple therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), added to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), have been demonstrated. Limited data assessing the efficacy of the LAMA umeclidinium (UMEC) added to ICS/LABA are available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of UMEC added to ICS/LABAs in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients were symptomatic (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale score ⩾2), despite receiving ICS/LABA (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL, branded) 500/50 mcg, budesonide/formoterol (BD/FOR, branded) 200/6 mcg or 400/12 mcg, or other ICS/LABAs) ⩾30 days before the run-in (7±2 days). Patients were randomised 1:1 to once-daily UMEC 62.5 mcg or placebo (PBO), added to twice-daily open-label ICS/LABA for 12 weeks. Primary end point was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Day 85; secondary end point was weighted mean (WM) 0–6 h FEV1 at Day 84; other end points included COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI) score. Adverse events (AEs) were investigated. In the UMEC+ICS/LABA and PBO+ICS/LABA groups, 119 and 117 patients were randomised, respectively. Patients received FP/SAL (40%), BD/FOR (43%) and other ICS/LABAs (17%). UMEC+ICS/LABA resulted in significant improvements in trough FEV1 (Day 85) and in WM 0–6 h FEV1 (Day 84) versus PBO+ICS/LABA (difference: 123 and 148 ml, respectively, both P<0.001). Change from baseline for UMEC+ICS/LABA versus PBO+ICS/LABA was significantly different for CAT score at Day 84 (−1.31, P<0.05), but not for TDI score (0.40, P=0.152). AE incidence was similar with UMEC+ICS/LABA (38%) and PBO+ICS/LABA (42%). UMEC+ICS/LABA improved lung function and CAT score in patients with symptomatic COPD versus PBO+ICS/LABA (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257372). PMID:27334739

  17. Moxibustion versus diclofenac sodium gel for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a study protocol for a double-blinded, double-placebo, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Luo, Ling; Zhu, Lin-Lin; Yin, Hai-Yan; Wu, Qiaofeng; Peng, Jia-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Shun; Lv, Peng; Tang, Yong; Yu, Shu-Guang

    2017-04-12

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common form of arthritis in elderly patients that is characterised by pain and functional limitation. Moxibustion has been employed to relieve chronic pain as an alternative therapy for knee osteoarthritis. However, the evidence of its efficacy is equivocal due to the low methodological quality in most clinical studies. Therefore, we are performing a double-blinded, double-placebo, randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of moxibustion in participants with knee osteoarthritis. This is a multicentre, double-blinded, double-placebo, randomised controlled clinical trial. 144 eligible participants with knee osteoarthritis will be randomly assigned to two different groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the moxibustion group will undergo active moxibustion plus placebo gel, whereas participants in the control group will receive diclofenac sodium gel plus placebo moxibustion. Each participant will receive 12 sessions of active/placebo moxibustion at three acupoints (ST35, ST36 and EX-LE4) as well as 2 months of follow-up. Diclofenac sodium gel or placebo gel at a dose of 4 g per knee will be applied three times per day for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score change at the end of the intervention period from baseline. The secondary outcome measures include changes of other subscales (pain, stiffness and function) of WOMAC, visual analogue scale and patient globalassessment. The safety of moxibustion and diclofenac sodium gel will be assessed at every visit. This trial has been approved by the Sichuan Regional Ethics Review Committee (permission number: 2015KL-014). The results of this study are expected to provide clinical evidence on the efficacy of moxibustion for pain relief and physical function improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed medical journals and presented at

  18. BEMER Therapy Combined with Physiotherapy in Patients with Musculoskeletal Diseases: A Randomised, Controlled Double Blind Follow-Up Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gyulai, Franciska; Rába, Katalin; Baranyai, Ildikó; Berkes, Enikő; Bender, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluates the effect of adjuvant BEMER therapy in patients with knee arthrosis and chronic low back pain in a randomized double blind design. Methods. A total of 50 patients with chronic low back pain and 50 patients with osteoarthritis of knee took part in this study and were randomized into 4 groups. Hospitalized patients received a standardized physiotherapy package for 3 weeks followed by BEMER therapy or placebo. Results. In patients with low back pain, the comparison of the results obtained at the first and second visit showed a significant improvement in resting VAS scores and Fatigue Scale scores. The Oswestry scores and Quality of Life Scale scores showed no change. In patients with knee arthrosis, the comparison of the first and second measurements showed no significant improvement in the abovementioned parameters, while the comparison of the first and third scores revealed a significant improvement in the Fatigue Scale scores and in the vitality test on the Quality of Life Scale. Conclusions. Our study showed that BEMER physical vascular therapy reduced pain and fatigue in the short term in patients with chronic low back pain, while long-term therapy appears to be beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. PMID:26078768

  19. BEMER Therapy Combined with Physiotherapy in Patients with Musculoskeletal Diseases: A Randomised, Controlled Double Blind Follow-Up Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Franciska; Rába, Katalin; Baranyai, Ildikó; Berkes, Enikő; Bender, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluates the effect of adjuvant BEMER therapy in patients with knee arthrosis and chronic low back pain in a randomized double blind design. Methods. A total of 50 patients with chronic low back pain and 50 patients with osteoarthritis of knee took part in this study and were randomized into 4 groups. Hospitalized patients received a standardized physiotherapy package for 3 weeks followed by BEMER therapy or placebo. Results. In patients with low back pain, the comparison of the results obtained at the first and second visit showed a significant improvement in resting VAS scores and Fatigue Scale scores. The Oswestry scores and Quality of Life Scale scores showed no change. In patients with knee arthrosis, the comparison of the first and second measurements showed no significant improvement in the abovementioned parameters, while the comparison of the first and third scores revealed a significant improvement in the Fatigue Scale scores and in the vitality test on the Quality of Life Scale. Conclusions. Our study showed that BEMER physical vascular therapy reduced pain and fatigue in the short term in patients with chronic low back pain, while long-term therapy appears to be beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis of knee.

  20. Liraglutide efficacy and action in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (LEAN): study protocol for a phase II multicentre, double-blinded, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Matthew J; Barton, Darren; Gaunt, Piers; Hull, Diana; Guo, Kathy; Stocken, Deborah; Gough, Stephen C L; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Brown, Rachel M; Hübscher, Stefan G; Newsome, Philip N

    2013-11-04

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is now the commonest cause of chronic liver disease. Despite this, there are no universally accepted pharmacological therapies for NASH. Liraglutide (Victoza), a human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, has been shown to improve weight loss, glycaemic control and liver enzymes in type 2 diabetes. There is currently a lack of prospective-controlled studies investigating the efficacy of GLP-1 analogues in patients with NASH. Liraglutide efficacy and action in NASH (LEAN) is a phase II, multicentre, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial designed to investigate whether a 48-week treatment with 1.8 mg liraglutide will result in improvements in liver histology in patients with NASH. Adult, overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)) patients with biopsy-confirmed NASH were assessed for eligibility at five recruitment centres in the UK. Patients who satisfied the eligibility criteria were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily subcutaneous injections of either 1.8 mg liraglutide or liraglutide-placebo (control). Using A'Hern's single stage phase II methodology (significance level 0.05; power 0.90) and accounting for an estimated 20% withdrawal rate, a minimum of 25 patients were randomised to each treatment group. The primary outcome measure will be centrally assessed using an intention-to-treat analysis of the proportion of evaluable patients achieving an improvement in liver histology between liver biopsies at baseline and after 48 weeks of treatment. Histological improvement will be defined as a combination of the disappearance of active NASH and no worsening in fibrosis. The protocol was approved by the National Research Ethics Service (East Midlands-Northampton committee; 10/H0402/32) and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Recruitment into the LEAN started in August 2010 and ended in May 2013, with 52 patients randomised. The treatment follow-up of LEAN participants is

  1. Double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of esomeprazole to treat early onset pre-eclampsia (PIE Trial): a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Catherine A; Walker, Susan P; Mol, Ben W; Theron, Gerard B; Hall, David R; Hiscock, Richard; Hannan, N; Tong, S

    2015-10-28

    Pre-eclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy, globally responsible for 60 000 maternal deaths per year, and far greater numbers of fetal losses. There is no definitive treatment other than delivery. A drug that can quench the disease process could be useful to treat early onset pre-eclampsia, as it could allow pregnancies to safely continue to a gestation where fetal outcomes are significantly improved. We have generated preclinical data to show esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor used for gastric reflux, has potent biological effects that makes it a worthwhile therapeutic candidate. Esomeprazole potently decreases soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin secretion from placenta and endothelial cells, and has biological actions to mitigate endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. We propose undertaking a phase II, double blind, randomised controlled clinical trial to examine whether administering 40 mg esomeprazole daily may prolong gestation in women with early onset pre-eclampsia. We will recruit 120 women (gestational age of 26+0 to 31+6 weeks) who will be randomised to receive either esomeprazole or an identical placebo. The primary outcome will be the number of days from randomisation to delivery. Secondary outcomes include maternal, fetal and neonatal composite and individual outcomes. Maternal outcomes include maternal death, eclampsia, pulmonary oedema, severe renal impairment, cerebral vascular events and liver haematoma or rupture. Neonatal outcomes include neonatal death within 6 weeks after the due date, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We will examine whether esomeprazole can decrease serum sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin levels and we will record the safety of esomeprazole in these pregnancies. This study has ethical approval (Protocol V.2.4, M14/09/038, Federal Wide assurance Number 00001372, IRB0005239), and is registered with NHREC (ID 3649) and the Pan

  2. Liraglutide efficacy and action in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (LEAN): study protocol for a phase II multicentre, double-blinded, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Matthew J; Barton, Darren; Gaunt, Piers; Hull, Diana; Guo, Kathy; Stocken, Deborah; Gough, Stephen C L; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Brown, Rachel M; Hübscher, Stefan G; Newsome, Philip N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is now the commonest cause of chronic liver disease. Despite this, there are no universally accepted pharmacological therapies for NASH. Liraglutide (Victoza), a human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, has been shown to improve weight loss, glycaemic control and liver enzymes in type 2 diabetes. There is currently a lack of prospective-controlled studies investigating the efficacy of GLP-1 analogues in patients with NASH. Methods and analysis Liraglutide efficacy and action in NASH (LEAN) is a phase II, multicentre, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial designed to investigate whether a 48-week treatment with 1.8 mg liraglutide will result in improvements in liver histology in patients with NASH. Adult, overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) patients with biopsy-confirmed NASH were assessed for eligibility at five recruitment centres in the UK. Patients who satisfied the eligibility criteria were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily subcutaneous injections of either 1.8 mg liraglutide or liraglutide-placebo (control). Using A'Hern's single stage phase II methodology (significance level 0.05; power 0.90) and accounting for an estimated 20% withdrawal rate, a minimum of 25 patients were randomised to each treatment group. The primary outcome measure will be centrally assessed using an intention-to-treat analysis of the proportion of evaluable patients achieving an improvement in liver histology between liver biopsies at baseline and after 48 weeks of treatment. Histological improvement will be defined as a combination of the disappearance of active NASH and no worsening in fibrosis. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was approved by the National Research Ethics Service (East Midlands—Northampton committee; 10/H0402/32) and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Recruitment into the LEAN started in August 2010 and ended in May 2013, with 52

  3. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised phase III study comparing secnidazole and metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Bohbot, Jean-Marc; Vicaut, Eric; Fagnen, Didier; Brauman, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Multiple-dose metronidazole oral therapy is currently the reference treatment for bacterial vaginosis (BV). This double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority study compared the efficacy of secnidazole, another nitroimidazole with pharmacokinetics allowing a single dose regimen, to this standard treatment. A total of 577 patients were randomized to receive metronidazole (500 mg, b.i.d for seven days) or secnidazole (2 g, once). Therapeutic cure at D28 was defined as the resolution of vaginal discharge, positive KOH whiff test, vaginal pH >4.5 and Nugent score >7 on Gram-stained vaginal fluid. According to this primary endpoint, the single-dose secnidazole regimen was shown to be at least as effective as the multiple-dose metronidazole regimen (60.1 % cured women vs 59.5% , 95% confidence interval with a noninferiority margin of 10%: [-0.082; 0.0094]). Safety profiles were comparable in both groups. The secnidazole regimen studied represents an effective, convenient therapeutic alternative that clinicians should consider in routine practice.

  4. Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Randomised Phase III Study Comparing Secnidazole and Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Jean-Marc; Vicaut, Eric; Fagnen, Didier; Brauman, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Multiple-dose metronidazole oral therapy is currently the reference treatment for bacterial vaginosis (BV). This double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority study compared the efficacy of secnidazole, another nitroimidazole with pharmacokinetics allowing a single dose regimen, to this standard treatment. Methods. A total of 577 patients were randomized to receive metronidazole (500 mg, b.i.d for seven days) or secnidazole (2 g, once). Therapeutic cure at D28 was defined as the resolution of vaginal discharge, positive KOH whiff test, vaginal pH >4.5 and Nugent score >7 on Gram-stained vaginal fluid. Results. According to this primary endpoint, the single-dose secnidazole regimen was shown to be at least as effective as the multiple-dose metronidazole regimen (60.1 % cured women vs 59.5% , 95% confidence interval with a noninferiority margin of 10%: [−0.082; 0.0094]). Safety profiles were comparable in both groups. Conclusion. The secnidazole regimen studied represents an effective, convenient therapeutic alternative that clinicians should consider in routine practice. PMID:20885970

  5. Vosaroxin plus cytarabine versus placebo plus cytarabine in patients with first relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (VALOR): a randomised, controlled, double-blind, multinational, phase 3 study

    PubMed Central

    Ravandi, Farhad; Ritchie, Ellen K.; Sayar, Hamid; Lancet, Jeffrey E.; Craig, Michael D.; Vey, Norbert; Strickland, Stephen A.; Schiller, Gary J.; Jabbour, Elias; Erba, Harry P.; Pigneux, Arnaud; Horst, Heinz-August; Recher, Christian; Klimek, Virginia M.; Cortes, Jorge; Roboz, Gail J.; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Thomas, Xavier; Havelange, Violaine; Maertens, Johan; Derigs, Hans-Günter; Heuser, Michael; Damon, Lloyd; Powell, Bayard L.; Gaidano, Gianluca; Carella, Angelo-Michele; Wei, Andrew; Hogge, Donna; Craig, Adam R.; Fox, Judith A.; Ward, Renee; Smith, Jennifer A.; Acton, Gary; Mehta, Cyrus; Stuart, Robert K.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Safe and effective treatments are urgently needed for patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We investigated the efficacy and safety of vosaroxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, plus cytarabine in patients with relapsed/refractory AML. Methods VALOR was a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 101 international sites. Patients were randomised 1:1 to vosaroxin (90 mg/m2 IV days 1,4) plus cytarabine (1 g/m2 IV days 1–5) (vos/cyt) or placebo plus cytarabine (pla/cyt) using a permuted block procedure stratified by disease status, age, and geographic location. All participants were blind to treatment assignment. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and 30- and 60-day mortality. Efficacy analyses were by intention-to-treat; safety analyses included all treated patients. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01191801). Findings Between December 2010 and September 2013, 711 patients were randomised to vos/cyt (n=356) or pla/cyt (n=355). Median OS was 7·5 months with vos/cyt and 6·1 months with pla/cyt (hazard ratio 0·87; unstratified log-rank p=0·061; stratified p=0·0241) and was supported by a sensitivity analysis censoring for subsequent transplant (6·7 and 5·3 months; p=0·0243). Complete remission (CR) rate was higher with vos/cyt vs pla/cyt (30·1% vs 16·3%, p<0·0001). Early mortality rates were equivalent (vos/cyt vs pla/cyt: 30-day, 7·9% vs 6·6%; 60-day, 19·7% vs 19·4%). Treatment-related deaths occurred at any time in 18 patients (5·1%) with vos/cyt and 8 (2·3%) with pla/cyt. Grade ≥3 adverse events more frequent with vos/cyt included febrile neutropenia (167/355 [47%] vs 117/350 [33%]), stomatitis (54 [15%] vs 10 [3%]), hypokalaemia (52 [15%] vs 21 [6%]), sepsis (42 [12%] vs 18 [5%]), and pneumonia (39 [11%] vs 26 [7%]). Interpretation Addition of vosaroxin to cytarabine prolonged survival in patients with relapsed/refractory AML

  6. Dexmedetomidine oromucosal gel for noise-associated acute anxiety and fear in dogs-a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Korpivaara, M; Laapas, K; Huhtinen, M; Schöning, B; Overall, K

    2017-04-08

    The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical-field study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine oromucosal gel at subsedative doses in alleviation of noise-associated acute anxiety and fear in dogs. On New Year's Eve, 182 dogs with a history of acute anxiety and fear associated with fireworks received treatment as needed up to five times: 89 dogs received dexmedetomidine and 93 dogs received placebo. For the primary efficacy variables, dog owners assessed the overall treatment effect as well as signs and extent of anxiety and fear. The overall treatment effect was statistically significant (P<0.0001). An excellent or good treatment effect was reported for a higher proportion of dogs treated with dexmedetomidine (64/89, 72 per cent) than those receiving placebo (34/93, 37 per cent). Additionally, dexmedetomidine-treated dogs expressed significantly (P<0.0314) fewer signs of fear and anxiety despite the noise of fireworks. No local tolerance or clinical safety concerns occurred during the study. This study demonstrated that oromucosal dexmedetomidine at subsedative doses alleviates noise-associated acute anxiety and fear in dogs. British Veterinary Association.

  7. A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Actovegin in Patients with Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairment: ARTEMIDA Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Guekht, Alla; Skoog, Ingmar; Korczyn, Amos D.; Zakharov, Vladimir; Eeg, Martin; Vigonius, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Background No drug treatment to date has shown convincing clinical evidence of restoring cognitive function or preventing further decline after stroke. The ongoing ARTEMIDA study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Actovegin for the symptomatic treatment of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and will explore whether Actovegin has any disease-modifying effect by assessing whether any changes are sustained after treatment. Design ARTEMIDA is a 12-month, multicentre trial in patients (planned a total of 500, now recruited) with cognitive impairment following ischaemic stroke. The study consists of a baseline screening (≤7 days after stroke), after which eligible patients are randomised to Actovegin (2,000 mg/day for up to 20 intravenous infusions followed by 1,200 mg/day orally) or placebo for a 6-month double-blind treatment period. Patients will be followed up for a further 6 months, during which time they will be treated in accordance with standard clinical practice. The primary study endpoint is change from baseline in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, cognitive subscale, extended version. Secondary outcomes include: Montreal Cognitive Assessment; dementia diagnosis (ICD-10); National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; Barthel Index; EQ-5D; Beck Depression Inventory, version II, and safety. Conclusion There is a clear need for effective treatments for PSCI. ARTEMIDA should provide important insights into the use of a novel drug therapy for PSCI. PMID:24516413

  8. A double-blind randomised controlled investigation into the efficacy of Mirococept (APT070) for preventing ischaemia reperfusion injury in the kidney allograft (EMPIRIKAL): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kassimatis, Theodoros; Qasem, Anass; Douiri, Abdel; Ryan, Elizabeth G; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Nichols, Laura L; Greenlaw, Roseanna; Olsburgh, Jonathon; Smith, Richard A; Sacks, Steven H; Drage, Martin

    2017-06-06

    Delayed graft function (DGF) is traditionally defined as the requirement for dialysis during the first week after transplantation. DGF is a common complication of renal transplantation, and it negatively affects short- and long-term graft outcomes. Ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a prime contributor to the development of DGF. It is well established that complement system activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of IRI. Mirococept is a highly effective complement inhibitor that can be administered ex vivo to the donor kidney just before transplantation. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that Mirococept inhibits inflammatory responses that follow IRI. The EMPIRIKAL trial (REC 12/LO/1334) aims to evaluate the efficacy of Mirococept in reducing the incidence of DGF in cadaveric renal transplantation. EMPIRIKAL is a multicentre double-blind randomised case-control trial designed to test the superiority of Mirococept in the prevention of DGF in cadaveric renal allografts, as compared to standard cold perfusion fluid (Soltran®). Patients will be randomised to Mirococept or placebo (Pbo) and will be enrolled in cohorts of N = 80 with a maximum number of 7 cohorts. The first cohort will be randomised to 10 mg of Mirococept or Pbo. After the completion of each cohort, an interim analysis will be carried out in order to evaluate the dose allocation for the next cohort (possible doses: 5-25 mg). Immunosuppression therapy, antibiotic and antiviral prophylaxis will be administered as per local centre protocols. The enrolment will take approximately 24 months, and patients will be followed for 12 months. The primary endpoint is DGF, defined as the requirement for dialysis during the first week after transplantation. Secondary endpoints include duration of DGF, functional DGF, renal function at 12 months, acute rejection episodes at 6 and 12 months, primary non-function and time of hospital stay on first admission and in the first year

  9. Design and conduct of 'Xtreme Alps': a double-blind, randomised controlled study of the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on acclimatisation to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel S; Gilbert-Kawai, Edward T; Meale, Paula M; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Cobb, Alexandra; Khosravi, Maryam; Mitchell, Kay; Grocott, Michael P W; Levett, Denny Z H; Mythen, Michael G; Feelisch, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The study of healthy human volunteers ascending to high altitude provides a robust model of the complex physiological interplay that emulates human adaptation to hypoxaemia in clinical conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) metabolism may play an important role in both adaptation to high altitude and response to hypoxaemia during critical illness at sea level. Circulating nitrate and nitrite concentrations can be augmented by dietary supplementation and this is associated with improved exercise performance and mitochondrial efficiency. We hypothesised that the administration of a dietary substance (beetroot juice) rich in nitrate would improve oxygen efficiency during exercise at high altitude by enhancing tissue microcirculatory blood flow and oxygenation. Furthermore, nitrate supplementation would lead to measurable increases in NO bioactivity throughout the body. This methodological manuscript describes the design and conduct of the 'Xtreme Alps' expedition, a double-blind randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on acclimatisation to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude in healthy human volunteers. The primary outcome measure was the change in oxygen efficiency during exercise at high altitude between participants allocated to receive nitrate supplementation and those receiving a placebo. A number of secondary measures were recorded, including exercise capacity, peripheral and microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation. Results from this study will further elucidate the role of NO in adaption to hypoxaemia and guide clinical trials in critically ill patients. Improved understanding of hypoxaemia in critical illness may provide new therapeutic avenues for interventions that will improve survival in critically ill patients.

  10. Left-hand somatosensory stimulation combined with visual scanning training in rehabilitation for post-stroke hemineglect: a randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Polanowska, Katarzyna; Seniów, Joanna; Paprot, Ewa; Leśniak, Marcin; Członkowska, Anna

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this randomised, double-blind study was to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of left-hand electrical stimulation for patients with post-stroke left visuo-spatial neglect. This approach was hypothesised to enhance activation of the right hemisphere attention system and to improve visual exploration of extrapersonal space. Participants (n = 40) in the study were in a relatively early stage of recovery from their first right hemisphere stroke, and were randomly assigned to the experimental (E) or control (C) group. Group E received conventional visual scanning training combined with electrostimulation of the left hand, while Group C received scanning training with sham stimulation. Their visuo-spatial neglect was assessed twice, prior to the rehabilitation programme and on its completion, using cancellation tests and a letter-reading task. The effect of electrostimulation on hemineglect was assessed following a single administration and after a month-long rehabilitation programme. Although the immediate effect of stimulation was poor, after a month-long rehabilitation period we found significantly greater improvement in Group E patients than in Group C patients. Interestingly, the presence of hemisensory loss did not weaken the observed effect. Therefore, we claim that contralesional hand stimulation combined with visual scanning was a more effective treatment for hemineglect rehabilitation than scanning training alone.

  11. Comparative evaluation of intrathecal morphine and intrathecal dexmedetomidine in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries under spinal anaesthesia: A prospective randomised double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Kurhekar, Pranjali; Kumar, S Madan; Sampath, D

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Inrathecal opioids like morphine added to local anaesthetic agents have been found to be effective in achieving prolonged post-operative analgesia. Intrathecal dexmedetomidine may be devoid of undesirable side effects related to morphine and hence, this study was designed to evaluate analgesic efficacy, haemodynamic stability and adverse effects of both these adjuvants in patients undergoing gynaecological surgeries. Methods: This was a prospective, randomised, double blind study involving 25 patients in each group. Group M received 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 250 μg of morphine while Group D received 15 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 2.5 μg of dexmedetomidine. Characteristics of spinal block, time for first rescue analgesic and total dose of rescue analgesics were noted. Vital parameters and adverse effects were noted perioperatively. Data analysis was done with independent two sample t-test and Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Time for first rescue analgesic (P = 0.056) and total analgesic demand were similar in both groups. Duration of sensory (P = 0.001) and motor (P = 000) block was significantly higher in dexmedetomidine group. Itching was noticed in 36% and nausea in 52% of patients in the morphine group, either of which was not seen in dexmedetomidine group. Conclusion: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine produces prolonged motor and sensory blockade without undesirable side effects but intraoperative hypotension was more frequent in dexmedetomidine group. PMID:27330198

  12. The effects of resveratrol supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Faghihzadeh, Forouzan; Adibi, Payman; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2015-09-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is usually associated with insulin resistance, central obesity, reduced glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. The beneficial effects of resveratrol on metabolic disorders have been shown previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with NAFLD. In this randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial, fifty NAFLD patients were supplemented with either a 500-mg resveratrol capsule or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow an energy-balanced diet and physical activity recommendations. resveratrol supplementation reduced alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatic steatosis significantly more than placebo (P0·05). There were no significant changes in blood pressure, insulin resistance markers and TAG in either group (P>0·05). Our data have shown that 12-week supplementation of 500 mg resveratrol does not have any beneficial effect on anthropometric measurements, insulin resistance markers, lipid profile and blood pressure; however, it reduced ALT and hepatic steatosis in patients with NAFLD.

  13. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A.; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Various different learning methods are available for planning tuition regarding the introduction to surgical hand disinfection. These learning methods should help to organise and deal with this topic. The use of a video film is an alternative to conventional tuition due to the real presentation possibilities of practical demonstration. Objective: This study examines by way of comparison which form of communication is more effective for learning and applying surgical hand disinfection for medical students in their first year of studies: video-based instruction or conventional tuition. Methodology: A total of 50 first-year medical students were randomly allocated either to the “Conventional Instruction” (CI) study group or to the “Video-based Instruction” (VI) study group. The conventional instruction was carried out by an experienced nurse preceptor/nurse educator for the operating theatre who taught the preparatory measures and the actual procedure in a two-minute lesson. The second group watched a two-minute video sequence with identical content. Afterwards, both groups demonstrated practically the knowledge they had acquired at an individual practical test station. The quality (a) of the preparation and (b) of the procedure as well as (c) the quality of the results was assessed by 6 blind experts using a check list. The acceptability of the respective teaching method was also asked about using a questionnaire. Results: The group performance did not differ either in the preparation (t=-78, p<0.44) or in the quality (t=-99, p<0.34). With respect to performance, it was possible to demonstrate a strong treatment effect. In the practical (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) and in the total score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751), the group with video-based instruction achieved a significantly better result. In response to the question as to which of the two learning methods they would prefer, the significant majority (60.4%) of students stated video

  14. Pegylated interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (ADVANCE): a randomised, phase 3, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Calabresi, Peter A; Kieseier, Bernd C; Arnold, Douglas L; Balcer, Laura J; Boyko, Alexey; Pelletier, Jean; Liu, Shifang; Zhu, Ying; Seddighzadeh, Ali; Hung, Serena; Deykin, Aaron

    2014-07-01

    Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (peginterferon) beta-1a is being developed for treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, with less frequent dosing than currently available first-line injectable treatments. We assessed the safety and efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a after 48 weeks of treatment in the placebo-controlled phase of the ADVANCE trial, a study of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We did this 2-year, double-blind, parallel group, phase 3 study, with a placebo-controlled design for the first 48 weeks, at 183 sites in 26 countries. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (age 18-65 years, with Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤5) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via an interactive voice response or web system, and stratified by site, to placebo or subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a 125 μg once every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate at 48 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00906399. We screened 1936 patients and enrolled 1516, of whom 1512 were randomly assigned (500 to placebo, 512 to peginterferon every 2 weeks, 500 to peginterferon every 4 weeks); 1332 (88%) patients completed 48 weeks of treatment. Adjusted annualised relapse rates were 0·397 (95% CI 0·328-0·481) in the placebo group versus 0·256 (0·206-0·318) in the every 2 weeks group and 0·288 (0·234-0·355) in the every 4 weeks group (rate ratio for every 2 weeks group 0·644, 95% CI 0·500-0·831, p=0·0007; rate ratio for the every 4 weeks group 0·725, 95% CI 0·565-0·930, p=0·0114). 417 (83%) patients taking placebo, 481 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 2 weeks, and 472 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 4 weeks reported adverse events including relapses. The most common adverse events associated with peginterferon beta-1a were injection site reactions, influenza-like symptoms, pyrexia, and headache. 76 (15%) patients taking placebo, 55 (11%) patients

  15. Efficacy and safety of ceftriaxone for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results of a multi-stage, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study

    PubMed Central

    Cudkowicz, Merit E; Titus, Sarah; Kearney, Marianne; Yu, Hong; Sherman, Alexander; Schoenfeld, David; Hayden, Douglas; Shui, Amy; Brooks, Benjamin; Conwit, Robin; Felsenstein, Donna; Greenblatt, David J.; Keroack, Myles; Kissel, John T; Miller, Robert; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Simpson, Ericka; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Zinman, Lorne; Shefner, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glutamate excitotoxicity may contribute to the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Studies in ALS animal models show decreased excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) overexpression delays onset and prolongs survival, and that ceftriaxone increases EAAT2 activity in rodent brains. Phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical studies of ceftriaxone for ALS were combined into a three-stage, nonstop study. Methods 514 participants were randomised to ceftriaxone (n=341) or placebo (n=173); 66 participants were enrolled in stages 1 (pharmacokinetics) and 2 (safety) to determine cerebrospinal fluid and blood pharmacokinetics and safety of two dosages: 2 grams and 4 grams/day of ceftriaxone. All participants continued into stage 3 (efficacy) in blinded fashion with participants who began treatment on the discontinued dose analysed in the same group as those on the dose that that was continued. In stage 3, 44 participants previously assigned to 2 or 4 g ceftriaxone in stage 2 received 4 g ceftriaxone; 21 participants assigned to placebo in stage 2 continued on placebo. 448 new participants were randomized in stage 3 to 4 g ceftriaxone or placebo (2:1). Participants, family members and all site staff were blinded to treatment assignment. Computerized randomisation sequence using permuted blocks of 3 was stratified by riluzole use and blocked by site. Participants received 2g ceftriaxone or placebo BID via a central venous catheter (CVC) administered in the home setting by a trained caregiver. To minimize biliary side effects, participants assigned to ceftriaxone also received 300 mg ursodiol BID in a blinded manner; those assigned to placebo received matched placebo capsules BID. The co-primary efficacy outcomes were survival and functional decline, using the slope of scores on the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R). The first participant entered the trial on September 4, 2006 (stage 1); the first stage-3 participant entered on June 4, 2009. The

  16. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT) and progressive resistance training (PRT) on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART). Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo) in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs). Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (fMRS). Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the immediate and long term

  17. Balanced versus chloride-rich solutions for fluid resuscitation in brain-injured patients: a randomised double-blind pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We sought to investigate whether the use of balanced solutions reduces the incidence of hyperchloraemic acidosis without increasing the risk for intracranial hypertension in patients with severe brain injury. Methods We conducted a single-centre, two-arm, randomised, double-blind, pilot controlled trial in Nantes, France. Patients with severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤8) or subarachnoid haemorrhage (World Federation of Neurosurgical Society grade III or higher) who were mechanically ventilated were randomised within the first 12 hours after brain injury to receive either isotonic balanced solutions (crystalloid and hydroxyethyl starch; balanced group) or isotonic sodium chloride solutions (crystalloid and hydroxyethyl starch; saline group) for 48 hours. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis within 48 hours. Results Forty-two patients were included, of whom one patient in each group was excluded (one consent withdrawn and one use of forbidden therapy). Nineteen patients (95%) in the saline group and thirteen (65%) in the balanced group presented with hyperchloraemic acidosis within the first 48 hours (hazard ratio = 0.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.70; P = 0.006). In the saline group, pH (P = .004) and strong ion deficit (P = 0.047) were lower and chloraemia was higher (P = 0.002) than in the balanced group. Intracranial pressure was not different between the study groups (mean difference 4 mmHg [-1;8]; P = 0.088). Seven patients (35%) in the saline group and eight (40%) in the balanced group developed intracranial hypertension (P = 0.744). Three patients (14%) in the saline group and five (25%) in the balanced group died (P = 0.387). Conclusions This study provides evidence that balanced solutions reduce the incidence of hyperchloraemic acidosis in brain-injured patients compared to saline solutions. Even if the study was not powered sufficiently for this endpoint

  18. Central corneal thickness changes in bevel-up versus bevel-down phacoemulsification cataract surgery: study protocol for a randomised, triple-blind, parallel group trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaup, Soujanya; KS, Divyalakshmi; Arunachalam, Cynthia; Varghese, Rejitha Chinnu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Corneal endothelial damage following phacoemulsification is still one of the major concerns of modern day cataract surgery. Although many techniques have been proposed, the risks of posterior capsular rupture and corneal endothelium damage persist. In theory, damage to the corneal endothelium is minimised by delivering the lowest phaco energy only in the direction necessary to emulsify the lens nucleus. Hence, it is believed that the bevel of the needle should be turned towards the nucleus or the nuclear fragment (ie, bevel-down. However, there is a difference of opinion among ophthalmologists with reference to the phaco tip's position (bevel-up vs bevel-down) during phacoemulsification. This subject has not been extensively studied earlier. Methods and analysis This is a prospective, triple-blinded (trial participant, outcome assessor and the data analyst), randomised controlled trial with 2 parallel groups and with an allocation ratio of 1:1. It will be conducted in a tertiary care hospital, Mangaluru, India. The objective is to compare the postoperative central corneal thickness changes between the bevel-up and bevel-down techniques of phacoemulsification. Patients aged >18 years with immature cataract undergoing phacoemulsification will be selected for the study. The important exclusion criteria are the history of previous significant ocular trauma or intraocular surgery, corneal pathology, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, intraocular inflammation, a preoperative fully dilated pupil <6 mm, anterior chamber depth <2.5 mm and nuclear sclerosis grade >4. After randomisation, patients will undergo phacoemulsification surgery either by a bevel-up or bevel-down procedure. With an estimated power of 80%, the calculated sample size is 55 patients in each group. The recruitment will start from April 2016. Ethics and dissemination Yenepoya University Ethics Committee, India has approved the study protocol (YUEC/148/2016 on 18 February 2016). It complies

  19. Efficacy and safety of phospholipid liposomes in the treatment of neuropsychological disorders associated with the menopause: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rachev, E; Nalbansky, B; Kolarov, G; Agrosì, M

    2001-01-01

    A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of phospholipid liposomes (Liposom Forte) administered parenterally in the treatment of anxiety and depression linked to the menopause. A total of 64 females aged 40-60 years were randomised to receive the active drug or placebo intramuscularly; 58 patients completed the study. Treatment lasted 60 consecutive days. One i.m. administration of 2 ml active drug or placebo every other day was carried out. Efficacy was evaluated by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and the Climacteric Index. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed, defined as all patients administered with at least one dose of the study medications with at least one return visit. A highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in HAMA total score in both groups was noted. However, the decline in the HAMA score was significantly greater in patients administered phospholipid liposomes after 40 days (p = 0.006), 60 days of treatment (p < 0.001) and at the last follow-up visit (p < 0.001). Also, there were statistically significant differences between treatment groups after 60 days of therapy for individual items, such as anxious mood (p = 0.006), tension (p = 0.024) and fear (p = 0.009), with significantly less patients experiencing these symptoms in the phospholipid liposomes-treated group. When the Climacteric Index was evaluated, a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the total score in both groups was noted. However, the decline was significantly greater in patients administered phospholipid liposomes after 40 days of treatment (p = 0.017), 60 days of treatment (p = 0.0013) and at the last follow-up visit (p = 0.0012). Significant differences between treatment groups were recorded after 60 days in asthenia (p = 0.05), dizziness (p = 0.024) and restlessness (p = 0.019) in favour of the active treatment. Twelve patients reported at least one adverse event, nine in the phospholipid

  20. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Choopanya, Kachit; Martin, Michael; Suntharasamai, Pravan; Sangkum, Udomsak; Mock, Philip A; Leethochawalit, Manoj; Chiamwongpaet, Sithisat; Kitisin, Praphan; Natrujirote, Pitinan; Kittimunkong, Somyot; Chuachoowong, Rutt; Gvetadze, Roman J; McNicholl, Janet M; Paxton, Lynn A; Curlin, Marcel E; Hendrix, Craig W; Vanichseni, Suphak

    2013-06-15

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis reduces sexual transmission of HIV. We assessed whether daily oral use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir), an antiretroviral, can reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled volunteers from 17 drug-treatment clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. Participants were eligible if they were aged 20-60 years, were HIV-negative, and reported injecting drugs during the previous year. We randomly assigned participants (1:1; blocks of four) to either tenofovir or placebo using a computer-generated randomisation sequence. Participants chose either daily directly observed treatment or monthly visits and could switch at monthly visits. Participants received monthly HIV testing and individualised risk-reduction and adherence counselling, blood safety assessments every 3 months, and were offered condoms and methadone treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was HIV infection, analysed by modified intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00119106. Between June 9, 2005, and July 22, 2010, we enrolled 2413 participants, assigning 1204 to tenofovir and 1209 to placebo. Two participants had HIV at enrolment and 50 became infected during follow-up: 17 in the tenofovir group (an incidence of 0·35 per 100 person-years) and 33 in the placebo group (0·68 per 100 person-years), indicating a 48·9% reduction in HIV incidence (95% CI 9·6-72·2; p=0·01). The occurrence of serious adverse events was much the same between the two groups (p=0·35). Nausea was more common in participants in the tenofovir group than in the placebo group (p=0·002). In this study, daily oral tenofovir reduced the risk of HIV infection in people who inject drugs. Pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir can now be considered for use as part of an HIV prevention package for people who inject drugs. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the

  1. Efficacy of etanercept on rheumatic signs and pulmonary function tests in advanced ankylosing spondylitis: results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study (SPINE)

    PubMed Central

    Dougados, M; Braun, J; Szanto, S; Combe, B; Elbaz, M; Geher, P; Thabut, G; Leblanc, V; Logeart, I

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Patients with advanced ankylosing spondylitis (AS) experience disability because of reduced spinal mobility and pulmonary function impairment. This placebo-controlled study evaluated the effect of etanercept (ETN) in patients with advanced AS. Methods A multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks' duration was performed. Patients had definite (modified New York criteria), active (Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) ≥40), severe (radiological intervertebral bridges) AS refractory to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and were antitumour necrosis factor naive. They were treated with ETN 50 mg once weekly or identical placebo (PBO). Results Of the 95 patients screened, 82 were randomised to receive ETN (n=39) or PBO (n=43). At baseline the disease was active (mean BASDAI 61.0±13.4, C reactive protein (CRP) 20.7±25.5 mg/l) and severe (mean Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI) 5.7±1.3, mSASSS 36.5±20.5); forced pulmonary vital capacity (FVC) was 3.3±0.7 l. Improvement in BASDAI (normalised net incremental area under the curve between baseline and week 12, primary end point) was significantly greater in the ETN group than in the PBO group (−19.8±16.5 vs −11.0±16.4, p=0.019). Moreover, at week 12, ETN gave better results than PBO for the BASDAI (−26.4±19.7 vs −14.4±19.7; p=0.008), total back pain (−29.2±24.0 vs −14.9±24.0; p=0.010), BASFI (−21.7±17.6 vs −10.1±17.6; p=0.004), BASMI (−0.6±0.6 vs −0.2±0.6; p=0.011), CRP level (−15.7±14.2 vs −1.3±14.2; p<0.001) and FVC (+160±280 ml vs −20±280 ml; p=0.006). Conclusions ETN has short-term efficacy for patients with advanced AS, as was previously reported for less advanced disease. The efficacy is observed for the main symptoms (pain) and on markers of inflammation (CRP), as well as disease severity in terms of spinal mobility and pulmonary function. PMID:21317434

  2. Treatment of postoperative pain after total hip arthroplasty: comparison between metamizol and paracetamol as adjunctive to opioid analgesics-prospective, double-blind, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, Zrinka; Bicanic, Goran; Hrabac, Pero; Tripkovic, Branko; Delimar, Domagoj

    2014-05-01

    Metamizole use has been limited because of its risk of agranulocytosis. However, more recent literature seems to support its safety. This prospective, randomised, double-blind study was conducted to compare the analgesic effects of intravenous metamizole or intravenous paracetamol in combination with morphine PCA during the first 24 h following total hip arthroplasty. One hundred ten consecutive patients were selected for study. The two study groups were (A) metamizole, (B) paracetamol. Postoperative pain therapy was provided by Morphine PCA pump. In the first treatment group (A group), all patients received intravenous metamizole 1.5 g every 8 h during the first 24 postoperative hours. In the second treatment group (B group), all patients received intravenous paracetamol 1 g every 8 h during the first 24 postoperative hours. Postoperative pain intensity was measured 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 18, 22 h after the end of surgery by a VAS. Statistically significant differences in VAS pain values favoring metamizole were reported at 6-h (p = 0.038), 8-h (p = 0.036), 14-h (p = 0.011), 18-h (p < 0.001) and 22-h (p = 0.025) post-baseline. Mean cumulative pain values were 17.9 for metamizole and 30.6 for paracetamol. In this study, we have also shown excellent efficacy of paracetamol and metamizole combined with opioids, but metamizole proved to be a better analgesic than paracetamol. It is also necessary to mention the financial aspect considering that intravenous paracetamol is about ten times more expensive than an equivalent analgesic doses of intravenous metamizole.

  3. Randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of VVZ-149 injections for postoperative pain following laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Correll, Darin J; Bao, Xiaodong; Zamor, Natacha; Zeballos, Jose L; Zhang, Yi; Young, Mark J; Ledley, Johanna; Sorace, Jessica; Eng, Kristen; Hamsher, Carlyle P; Maniam, Rajivan; Chin, Jonathan W; Tsui, Becky; Cho, Sunyoung; Lee, Doo H

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In spite of advances in understanding and technology, postoperative pain remains poorly treated for a significant number of patients. In colorectal surgery, the need for developing novel analgesics is especially important. Patients after bowel surgery are assessed for rapid return of bowel function and opioids worsen ileus, nausea and constipation. We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods and analysis Based on sample size calculations for primary outcome, we plan to enrol 120 participants. Adult patients without significant medical comorbidities or ongoing opioid use and who are undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery will be enrolled. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either VVZ-149 with intravenous (IV) hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or the control intervention (IV PCA alone) in the postoperative period. The primary outcome is the Sum of Pain Intensity Difference over 8 hours (SPID-8 postdose). Participants receive VVZ-149 for 8 hours postoperatively to the primary study end point, after which they continue to be assessed for up to 24 hours. We measure opioid consumption, record pain intensity and pain relief, and evaluate the number of rescue doses and requests for opioid. To assess safety, we record sedation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression, laboratory tests and ECG readings after study drug administration. We evaluate for possible confounders of analgesic response, such as anxiety, depression and catastrophising behaviours. The study will also collect blood sample data and evaluate for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval of the study protocol has been obtained from

  4. Local treatment of vaginal infections of varying etiology with dequalinium chloride or povidone iodine. A randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, multicentric clinical study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eiko E; Weissenbacher, Ernst R; Hengst, Peter; Spitzbart, Heinz; Weise, Wolfgang; Wolff, Friedrich; Dreher, Ekkehard; Ernst, Uwe; Della Casa, Vera; Pohlig, Gabriele; Graf, Federico; Kaiser, R Renato

    2002-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, multicentric clinical study compared the efficacy and tolerability of the two vaginal antiseptics, 10 mg dequalinium chloride (CAS 522-51-0, Fluomycin N) and 200 mg povidone iodine (CAS 25655-41-8), in a parallel-group design. A total of 180 patients with vaginal infections of varying etiology participated in this study (bacterial vaginosis, fluor vaginalis, vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis). Patients were randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups and were treated once per day for 6 days. Control examinations took place 5 to 7 days after the end of treatment, and 3 to 4 weeks after the first control examination. The total symptoms score, a summary score for the clinical symptoms, discharge, burning, pruritus, redness of vulva/vagina, was defined as primary efficacy parameter. The treatments at the first control examination were compared in the full analysis set using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test, 2-sided, thereby proving equivalence of both treatments at the 5% level. Both treatments strongly improved the symptoms of vaginal infections both on short-term and long-term follow-up. Descriptive analysis of the secondary parameters, vaginal pH, degree of purity of the vaginal flora, and number of lactobacilli in the wet mounts, supported the comparable efficacy of both therapies to restore the vaginal milieu. Analysis of the diagnostic subgroups indicated that irrespective of the diagnosis, both treatments improved the efficacy criteria as observed for the entire population. The global assessment of the therapeutic efficacy by investigators and patients supported the results of the efficacy analysis with good to very good ratings in 70-90% of the cases. A good tolerability of both preparations was observed in this study with a low number of adverse events in the test group (5.8%).

  5. Cognitive behavioural therapy versus supportive therapy for persistent positive symptoms in psychotic disorders: The POSITIVE Study, a multicenter, prospective, single-blind, randomised controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has a moderate effect on symptom reduction and on general well being of patients suffering from psychosis. However, questions regarding the specific efficacy of CBT, the treatment safety, the cost-effectiveness, and the moderators and mediators of treatment effects are still a major issue. The major objective of this trial is to investigate whether CBT is specifically efficacious in reducing positive symptoms when compared with non-specific supportive therapy (ST) which does not implement CBT-techniques but provides comparable therapeutic attention. Methods/Design The POSITIVE study is a multicenter, prospective, single-blind, parallel group, randomised clinical trial, comparing CBT and ST with respect to the efficacy in reducing positive symptoms in psychotic disorders. CBT as well as ST consist of 20 sessions altogether, 165 participants receiving CBT and 165 participants receiving ST. Major methodological aspects of the study are systematic recruitment, explicit inclusion criteria, reliability checks of assessments with control for rater shift, analysis by intention to treat, data management using remote data entry, measures of quality assurance (e.g. on-site monitoring with source data verification, regular query process), advanced statistical analysis, manualized treatment, checks of adherence and competence of therapists. Research relating the psychotherapy process with outcome, neurobiological research addressing basic questions of delusion formation using fMRI and neuropsychological assessment and treatment research investigating adaptations of CBT for adolescents is combined in this network. Problems of transfer into routine clinical care will be identified and addressed by a project focusing on cost efficiency. Discussion This clinical trial is part of efforts to intensify psychotherapy research in the field of psychosis in Germany, to contribute to the international discussion

  6. Incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after 12 weeks of rofecoxib, naproxen, or placebo: a multicentre, randomised, double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, C J; Laine, L; Simon, T; Quan, H; Shingo, S; Evans, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in patients with osteoarthritis have suggested that the selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor rofecoxib results in less gastrointestinal damage than non-selective non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study compared the incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with rofecoxib or a non-selective NSAID. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, double blind, 12 week study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis were allocated to rofecoxib 50 mg once daily (n=219), naproxen 500 mg twice daily (n=220), or placebo (n=221). Endoscopy was performed at baseline and at six and 12 weeks. Lifetable analysis and log rank tests were used to analyse the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers ≥3 mm. Gastric or duodenal ulcers ≥5 mm and erosions were also evaluated as secondary end points. Tolerability was assessed by adverse events. Results: The cumulative incidence of ulcers ≥3 mm at 12 weeks was significantly higher in patients on naproxen (25.5%) than in patients receiving rofecoxib (6.8%; difference 18.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7%, 25.7%); p<0.001) or placebo (2.9%; difference 22.6% (95% CI 16.1%, 29.1%); p<0.001). The difference between rofecoxib (6.8%) and placebo (2.9%) did not reach statistical significance (p=0.066). Results were similar for ulcers ≥5 mm and for mean changes from baseline in the number of gastroduodenal erosions. The overall incidence of clinical adverse events was similar among treatment groups (61% of patients on placebo, 62% in patients on rofecoxib, and 66% in patients on naproxen). Conclusions: Rofecoxib 50 mg daily (twice the dose recommended for this patient population) resulted in a lower incidence of endoscopically detected gastroduodenal ulcers and erosions than treatment with naproxen 500 mg twice daily. PMID:12740337

  7. Lidocaine patch (5%) is no more potent than placebo in treating chronic back pain when tested in a randomised double blind placebo controlled brain imaging study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The 5% Lidocaine patch is used for treating chronic neuropathic pain conditions such as chronic back pain (CBP), diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome, but is effective in a variable proportion of patients. Our lab has reported that this treatment reduces CBP intensity and associated brain activations when tested in an open labelled preliminary study. Notably, effectiveness of the 5% Lidocaine patch has not been tested against placebo for treating CBP. In this study, effectiveness of the 5% Lidocaine patch was compared with placebo in 30 CBP patients in a randomised double-blind study where 15 patients received 5% Lidocaine patches and the remaining patients received placebo patches. Functional MRI was used to identify brain activity for fluctuations of spontaneous pain, at baseline and at two time points after start of treatment (6 hours and 2 weeks). Results There was no significant difference between the treatment groups in either pain intensity, sensory and affective qualities of pain or in pain related brain activation at any time point. However, 50% patients in both the Lidocaine and placebo arms reported a greater than 50% decrease in pain suggesting a marked placebo effect. When tested against an untreated CBP group at similar time points, the patch treated subjects showed significantly greater decrease in pain compared to the untreated group (n = 15). Conclusions These findings suggest that although the 5% Lidocaine is not better than placebo in its effectiveness for treating pain, the patch itself induces a potent placebo effect in a significant proportion of CBP patients. PMID:22531485

  8. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the role of formoterol in the management of acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Najafizadeh, Katayoon; Sohrab Pour, Hamid; Ghadyanee, Mojtaba; Shiehmorteza, Masoud; Jamali, Masoud; Majdzadeh, Sayeed

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of formoterol delivered by Aerolizer in the emergency department. A single-centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was conducted in patients seeking emergent care for an acute exacerbation of asthma. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group 1 (salbutamol), receiving a total dose of 600 microg salbutamol (200+200+200) delivered by a meter-dose inhaler into a spacer device as two puffs at 20 min intervals; and group 2 (formoterol), receiving formoterol 24 microg (12+12) as two dry powder capsules each containing 12 microg of formoterol via Aerolizer at 20 min intervals. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured at baseline and 5 min after the second and third doses. 60 subjects receiving salbutamol (n = 28) or formoterol (n = 32) completed the study. Age, gender, baseline PEFR, duration of asthma and previous medication were balanced between the two groups. Mean PEFR increased significantly over baseline values in both the salbutamol and formoterol groups (63% in the salbutamol group, p = 0.001, and 55% in the formoterol group, p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the increase in PEFR between the groups (p = 0.99, 95% CI -29.62 to 29.59). The proportion of patients reporting adverse events was similar in the two groups. Formoterol was found to be well tolerated and as effective as salbutamol in the management of acute asthma. Further studies are needed to follow the patients after discharge from the emergency room to compare the long-term effect of formoterol on patients' stability.

  9. Immediate effects after stochastic resonance whole-body vibration on physical performance on frail elderly for skilling-up training: a blind cross-over randomised pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Slavko; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2014-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility outcome recruitment, safety and compliance of the investigation for stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV) training. Another aim was to evaluate the effect size of one SR-WBV intervention session on Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Expanded Timed Get Up-and-Go (ETGUG), isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC) and rate of force development (IRFD) and chair rising (CR). Randomised double-blinded controlled cross-over pilot study. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment, safety and compliance. For secondary outcomes, SPPB, ETGUG, IMVC, IRFD and CR were measured before and 2-min after intervention. Nonparametric Rank-Order Tests of Puri and Sen L Statistics to Ranked Data were proposed. Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests were used to analyse the differences after SR-WBV intervention and sham intervention. Treatment effects between the interventions were compared by a Mann-Whitney U test. Among 24 eligible frail elderly, 12 agreed to participate and 3 drop out. The adherence was 15 of 24 intervention sessions. For secondary outcome, effect sizes (ES) for SR-WBV intervention on SPPB, ETGUG and CR were determined. This pilot study indicate that the training protocol used in this form for frail elderly individuals is feasible but with modification due to the fact that not all defined feasibility outcomes target was met. SR-WBV with 6 Hz, noise level 4 shows benefit improvements on SPPB (ES 0.52), ETGUG (part sit-to-stand movement: ES 0.81; total time: ES 0.85) and CR (ES 0.66). Further research is desired to determine whether a new adapted training protocol is necessary for SR-WBV in the "skilling up" phase in frail elderly individuals.

  10. Comparative effects of A1 versus A2 beta-casein on gastrointestinal measures: a blinded randomised cross-over pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ho, S; Woodford, K; Kukuljan, S; Pal, S

    2014-09-01

    At present, there is debate about the gastrointestinal effects of A1-type beta-casein protein in cows' milk compared with the progenitor A2 type. In vitro and animal studies suggest that digestion of A1 but not A2 beta-casein affects gastrointestinal motility and inflammation through the release of beta-casomorphin-7. We aimed to evaluate differences in gastrointestinal effects in a human adult population between milk containing A1 versus A2 beta-casein. Forty-one females and males were recruited into this double-blinded, randomised 8-week cross-over study. Participants underwent a 2-week dairy washout (rice milk replaced dairy), followed by 2 weeks of milk (750 ml/day) that contained beta-casein of either A1 or A2 type before undergoing a second washout followed by a final 2 weeks of the alternative A1 or A2 type milk. The A1 beta-casein milk led to significantly higher stool consistency values (Bristol Stool Scale) compared with the A2 beta-casein milk. There was also a significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency on the A1 diet (r=0.520, P=0.001), but not the A2 diet (r=-0.13, P=0.43). The difference between these two correlations (0.52 versus -0.13) was highly significant (P<0.001). Furthermore, some individuals may be susceptible to A1 beta-casein, as evidenced by higher faecal calprotectin values and associated intolerance measures. These preliminary results suggest differences in gastrointestinal responses in some adult humans consuming milk containing beta-casein of either the A1 or the A2 beta-casein type, but require confirmation in a larger study of participants with perceived intolerance to ordinary A1 beta-casein-containing milk.

  11. Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled phase III study of an E. coli extract plus 5-fluorouracil versus 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Unger, C; Häring, B; Kruse, A; Thumann, A; Schneider, B; Clemm, C; Weber, B; Clevert, H D; Hockertz, S; Kalousek, M B

    2001-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity (mucositis, diarrhea and leucopenia) of a therapy with 5-fluorouracil (CAS 51-21-8; 5-FU) plus an E. coli extract (LC-Extract, Laves coli extract, Colibiogen inject, cell-free soluble fraction from lysed E. coli, Laves strain) in comparison with 5-FU plus placebo. Secondary endpoints included general toxicity, response rate according to WHO, survival time and quality of life. 164 patients with advanced colorectal cancer were enrolled in this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter phase III study. The treatment consisted of 0.167 ml/kg/d LC-Extract or placebo followed by 500-750 mg/m2/d 5-FU on five consecutive days, repeated every three weeks for up to six treatment cycles. 158 (77 verum, 81 placebo) patients were evaluable for toxicity, 144 (72 verum, 72 placebo) evaluable for response. The therapy with LC-Extract was well tolerated. Adverse events that occurred during the study were mainly judged as 5-FU- or tumor-related. Toxicity from treatment with 600 mg/m2/d 5-FU in both treatment groups was very low. After treatment with 750 mg/m2/d 5-FU patients in the placebo-group experienced a higher CTC toxicity than in the LC-Extract groups. Remission rate and survival time showed a slight trend in favour of LC-Extract. These results suggest a positive benefit-risk ratio of the additional application of LC-Extract to 5-FU in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer especially for administration of high doses of 5-FU.

  12. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy (STOPPIT): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Norman, Jane E; Mackenzie, Fiona; Owen, Philip; Mactier, Helen; Hanretty, Kevin; Cooper, Sarah; Calder, Andrew; Mires, Gary; Danielian, Peter; Sturgiss, Stephen; MacLennan, Graeme; Tydeman, Graham; Thornton, Steven; Martin, Bill; Thornton, James G; Neilson, James P; Norrie, John

    2009-06-13

    Women with twin pregnancy are at high risk for spontaneous preterm delivery. Progesterone seems to be effective in reducing preterm birth in selected high-risk singleton pregnancies, albeit with no significant reduction in perinatal mortality and little evidence of neonatal benefit. We investigated the use of progesterone for prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancy. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 500 women with twin pregnancy were recruited from nine UK National Health Service clinics specialising in the management of twin pregnancy. Women were randomised, by permuted blocks of randomly mixed sizes, either to daily vaginal progesterone gel 90 mg (n=250) or to placebo gel (n=250) for 10 weeks from 24 weeks' gestation. All study personnel and participants were masked to treatment assignment for the duration of the study. The primary outcome was delivery or intrauterine death before 34 weeks' gestation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Additionally we undertook a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data to establish the efficacy of progesterone in prevention of early (<34 weeks' gestation) preterm birth or intrauterine death in women with twin pregnancy. This study is registered, number ISRCTN35782581. Three participants in each group were lost to follow-up, leaving 247 analysed per group. The combined proportion of intrauterine death or delivery before 34 weeks of pregnancy was 24.7% (61/247) in the progesterone group and 19.4% (48/247) in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 1.36, 95% CI 0.89-2.09; p=0.16). The rate of adverse events did not differ between the two groups. The meta-analysis confirmed that progesterone does not prevent early preterm birth in women with twin pregnancy (pooled OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.89-1.51). Progesterone, administered vaginally, does not prevent preterm birth in women with twin pregnancy. Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government Health Directorate.

  13. Placebo controlled, randomised, double blind study of the effects of botulinum A toxin on detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Gallien, P; Reymann, J; Amarenco, G; Nicolas, B; de Seze, M; Bellissant, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of botulinum A toxin in the treatment of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods: This was a multicentre, placebo controlled, randomised, double blind study. Patients with chronic urinary retention were included if they had post-voiding residual urine volume between 100 and 500 ml. They received a single transperineal injection of either botulinum A toxin (100 U Allergan) or placebo in the sphincter and also 5 mg slow release alfuzosin bid over 4 months. Main endpoint was post-voiding residual urine volume assessed 1 month after injection. Follow up duration was 4 months. Statistical analysis was performed using a sequential method, the triangular test. Results: The study was stopped after the fourth analysis (86 patients had been included: placebo: 41, botulinum A toxin: 45). At inclusion, there was no significant difference between groups whichever variable was considered. Mean (standard deviation) post-voiding residual urine volume was 217 (96) and 220 (99) ml in placebo and botulinum A toxin groups, respectively. One month later, post-voiding residual urine volume was 206 (145) and 186 (158) ml (p = 0.45) in placebo and botulinum A toxin groups, respectively. However, compared to placebo, botulinum A toxin significantly increased voiding volume (+54%, p = 0.02) and reduced pre-micturition (–29%, p = 0.02) and maximal (–21%, p = 0.02) detrusor pressures. Other secondary urodynamic endpoints and tolerance were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: In multiple sclerosis patients with detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, a single injection of botulinum A toxin (100 U Allergan) does not decrease post-voiding residual urine volume. PMID:16291892

  14. Randomised, prospective, non-blinded pilot study comparing the effect of intramuscular steroid injections and intralesional steroid injections in the management of tennis elbow

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Hasan; Biro, Izolda; Donnelly, Simon; Greenwood, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is an overuse injury affecting people performing repetitive forearm movements. It is a soft tissue disorder that causes significant disability and pain. The aim of the study was to establish that an intramuscular steroid injection is effective in the short-term pain relief and functional improvement of tennis elbow. The severity of pain at the injection site was monitored to determine whether the intramuscular injection is better tolerated than the intralesional injection. Methods and results 19 patients, who had no treatment for tennis elbow in the preceding 3 months, were recruited from Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, and were randomised to receive either 80 mg of intramuscular Depo-Medrone or 40 mg of intralesional Depo-Medrone injection. Blinding proved difficult as the injection sites differed and placebo arms were not included in the study. A Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire and a 10-point Likert scale were used to assess primary outcome. Six weeks after the treatment, there was a reduction in pain, improvement in function and total PRTEE scores in both intramuscular and intralesional groups (p=0.008) using a 95% CI for mean treatment difference of −26 to +16 points. A statistically significant result (p=0.001) in favour of intramuscular causing less pain at the injection site was noted. Conclusion Non-inferiority of intramuscular to intralesional injections was not confirmed; however, the intramuscular injection proved to be effective in reducing tennis elbow-related symptoms and was found less painful at the site of injection at the time of administration. Trial registration number EUDRACT Number: 2010-022131-11. REC Number: 10/H0718/76 (NRES, Central London REC 1). PMID:28879024

  15. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Ickenroth, Martine H P; Grispen, Janaica E J; de Vries, Nanne K; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Elwyn, Glyn; Ronda, Gaby; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2012-01-04

    Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA) with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149.

  16. A single-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of a web-based decision aid on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes. study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-tests, tests on body materials to detect medical conditions, are widely available to the general public. Self-testing does have advantages as well as disadvantages, and the debate on whether self-testing should be encouraged or rather discouraged is still ongoing. One of the concerns is whether consumers have sufficient knowledge to perform the test and interpret the results. An online decision aid (DA) with information on self-testing in general, and test specific information on cholesterol and diabetes self-testing was developed. The DA aims to provide objective information on these self-tests as well as a decision support tool to weigh the pros and cons of self-testing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the online decision aid on knowledge on self-testing, informed choice, ambivalence and psychosocial determinants. Methods/Design A single blind randomised controlled trial in which the online decision aid 'zelftestwijzer' is compared to short, non-interactive information on self-testing in general. The entire trial will be conducted online. Participants will be selected from an existing Internet panel. Consumers who are considering doing a cholesterol or diabetes self-test in the future will be included. Outcome measures will be assessed directly after participants have viewed either the DA or the control condition. Weblog files will be used to record participants' use of the decision aid. Discussion Self-testing does have important pros and cons, and it is important that consumers base their decision whether they want to do a self-test or not on knowledge and personal values. This study is the first to evaluate the effect of an online decision aid for self-testing. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3149 PMID:22216905

  17. A double-blind, randomised, crossover study of two doses of a single-tablet combination of ibuprofen/paracetamol and placebo for primary dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Ronald; Holbrook, Amanda; Jawad, Martez

    2010-11-01

    Efficacy of pain relief may potentially be enhanced by combining two or more analgesics with different mechanisms of action. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a novel single-tablet combination of ibuprofen and paracetamol compared with placebo in females experiencing moderate-to-severe pain due to primary dysmenorrhoea, a prevalent, recurrent condition characterised by pain at the time of menses. This was a phase II/III, double-blind, randomised, cross-over, single-dose study in 94 women with moderate-to-severe dysmenorrhoea, examining the efficacy and tolerability of one or two tablets of a single-tablet combination of ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg compared with placebo. ISRCTN42521357 Total pain relief over 6 hours post-dose (TOTPAR(0-6h)) was significantly greater following administration of two tablets of the single-tablet combination of ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg compared with placebo (LS means: 2.35, 1.85, respectively; p = 0.0001) and approached significance for one tablet (LS mean: 2.10; p = 0.054). Statistically superior pain relief and reductions in pain intensity were achieved from 2 hours and 90 minutes post-dose, respectively, with the higher dose combination, and from 4 hours with the lower dose combination compared with placebo. Overall effectiveness (sum of pain intensity difference and pain relief score [SPRID] over 6 hours) were statistically superior to placebo for both one and two tablets of the ibuprofen/paracetamol combination (p = 0.0011 and p = 0.03, respectively). Both dose combinations were well-tolerated. Adverse events were minor and their frequency and nature did not differ with either treatment compared with placebo. One or two tablets of a single-tablet combination of ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg is well-tolerated and provides superior analgesic efficacy to placebo in patients with primary dysmenorrhoea.

  18. Efficacy, safety, and tolerance of the non-ergoline dopamine agonist pramipexole in the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, M; Pogarell, O; Oertel, W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Pramipexole, a non-ergot dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, was investigated as an add on drug in advanced parkinsonian patients with motor fluctuations to assess efficacy, safety, and tolerance.
METHODS—Seventy eight patients of either sex with advanced Parkinson's disease and treatment complications such as motor fluctuations were enrolled into a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre study (phase II) and assigned to add on treatment with pramipexole (n=34) versus placebo (n=44) to a previously stabilised antiparkinsonian medication (7 week dose titration interval, 4 week maintenance period). The primary end point of efficacy was the change from baseline in the total score of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) in the on "period" (2 hours after intake of study medication). Safety and tolerability were assessed on the basis of adverse events, vital signs, laboratory measurements, and ECG recordings.
RESULTS—There was a significant improvement of the pramipexole group in UPDRS total scores, subscores part II, III (activities of daily living and motor examination), and IV (complications of therapy). Mean UPDRS total score decreased by 37.3% under pramipexole compared with 12.2% under placebo (p<0.001). Patients under pramipexole reported an overall reduction in "off" periods of 12%—resulting in 1.7 more hours "on" time a day—compared with an increase in "off" periods of 2% under placebo. There were no unexpected safety results. The adverse event profile disclosed a high tolerability. The most important adverse events under pramipexole were fatigue, dyskinesia, and vivid dreams.
CONCLUSION—Pramipexole administration is an efficacious and well tolerated add on therapy in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with an improvement in activities of daily living, motor function, and treatment associated complications.

 PMID:10201413

  19. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of caudal dexmedetomidine versus caudal tramadol with ropivacaine in paediatric infraumbilical surgeries: A prospective, randomised, double-blinded clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Savita; Sharma, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Caudal epidural analgesia is commonly practised regional block technique in children undergoing infraumbilical surgeries but has a short duration of action after single shot local anaesthetic injection. The aim of this study was to compare ropivacaine 0.25% with dexmedetomidine and tramadol in caudal anaesthesia in paediatric infraumbilical surgeries. Methods: In a randomised, prospective, double-blinded study, sixty children (1–8 years) belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists’ physical status I or II scheduled for infraumbilical surgeries were included. They were randomly assigned into two groups: Group ropivacaine with tramadol (RT) (n = 30) received 0.25% ropivacaine 1 mL/kg with 2 mg/kg of tramadol, and Group ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine (RD) (n = 30) received 0.25% ropivacaine 1 mL/kg with dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg. The primary outcome variable was the duration of analgesia, and the secondary outcome variables included motor block, sedation score, time from caudal block to skin incision, emergence time and adverse effects. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 654.20 ± 78.38 min in Group RT, while in Group RD, it was 780.29 ± 71.21 min (P = 0.0001). The difference between the mean sedation score and mean emergence time between the two groups were statistically significant (P = 0.0001 and 0.0411, respectively). No significant difference was observed in the incidence of haemodynamic changes or side effects. Conclusion: Caudal dexmedetomidine with ropivacaine prolongs post-operative analgesia compared to caudal tramadol with ropivacaine. PMID:28655957

  20. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of caudal dexmedetomidine versus caudal tramadol with ropivacaine in paediatric infraumbilical surgeries: A prospective, randomised, double-blinded clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Savita; Sharma, Rashmi

    2017-06-01

    Caudal epidural analgesia is commonly practised regional block technique in children undergoing infraumbilical surgeries but has a short duration of action after single shot local anaesthetic injection. The aim of this study was to compare ropivacaine 0.25% with dexmedetomidine and tramadol in caudal anaesthesia in paediatric infraumbilical surgeries. In a randomised, prospective, double-blinded study, sixty children (1-8 years) belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status I or II scheduled for infraumbilical surgeries were included. They were randomly assigned into two groups: Group ropivacaine with tramadol (RT) (n = 30) received 0.25% ropivacaine 1 mL/kg with 2 mg/kg of tramadol, and Group ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine (RD) (n = 30) received 0.25% ropivacaine 1 mL/kg with dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg. The primary outcome variable was the duration of analgesia, and the secondary outcome variables included motor block, sedation score, time from caudal block to skin incision, emergence time and adverse effects. The mean duration of analgesia was 654.20 ± 78.38 min in Group RT, while in Group RD, it was 780.29 ± 71.21 min (P = 0.0001). The difference between the mean sedation score and mean emergence time between the two groups were statistically significant (P = 0.0001 and 0.0411, respectively). No significant difference was observed in the incidence of haemodynamic changes or side effects. Caudal dexmedetomidine with ropivacaine prolongs post-operative analgesia compared to caudal tramadol with ropivacaine.

  1. Effect of discontinuing morning dose of antihypertensive for renal transplant surgery on haemodynamic and early graft functioning: A prospective, double-blind, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Arya, Virendra Kumar; Sondekoppam, Rakesh V; Arora, Suman; Minz, Mukut; Garg, Rakesh; Gupta, Nishkarsh

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Antihypertensive drugs are continued until the day of renal transplant surgery. These are associated with increased incidence of hypotension and bradycardia. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate perioperative haemodynamic and early graft functioning in renal recipients with discontinuation of antihypertensive drugs on the morning of surgery. Methods: This prospective, randomised, double-blind study recruited 120 patients. Group 1 patients received placebo tablet while Group 2 patients received usual antihypertensive drugs on the day of surgery. Perioperative haemodynamics and time for reinstitution of antihypertensives were the primary outcome measures. The secondary outcome measures were need for inotropic support and graft function. Perioperative haemodynamics were analysed using ANOVA and Student's t-tests with Bonferroni correction. Fischer's exact test was used for analysis. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) declined, which was more in Group 2. Forty-one patients developed significant hypotension; a correlation was found between the maximum observed hypotension and number of antihypertensive medications (P = 0.003). Four cases had slow graft function (one in Group 1 and three in Group 2). Twenty-eight patients in Group 2 required mephentermine boluses to maintain their SBP compared to 13 patients in Group 1 (P < 0.001). Two patients in Group 2 required dopamine to maintain SBP above 90 mmHg after the establishment of reperfusion as compared to none in Group 1. Conclusion: Single dose of long-acting antihypertensive drugs can be omitted on the morning of surgery without any haemodynamic fluctuations and graft function in controlled hypertensive end-stage renal disease renal transplant patients receiving a combined epidural and general anaesthesia. PMID:28250484

  2. Effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin resistance in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Eslamparast, Tannaz; Zamani, Farhad; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Eghtesad, Sareh; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein

    2014-08-14

    To evaluate the effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin resistance and lipid profile in individuals with the metabolic syndrome, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study on thirty-eight subjects with the metabolic syndrome; they were supplemented with either synbiotic capsules containing 200 million of seven strains of friendly bacteria plus fructo-oligosaccharide or placebo capsules twice a day for 28 weeks. Both the synbiotic (G1) and the placebo (G2) groups were advised to follow an energy-balanced diet and physical activity recommendations. Parameters related to the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were measured every 7 weeks during the course of the study. After 28 weeks of treatment, the levels of fasting blood sugar and insulin resistance improved significantly in the G1 group (P< 0·001). Both the G1 and G2 groups exhibited significant reductions in TAG levels ( - 71·22 v. - 10·47 mg/dl ( - 0·80 v. - 0·12 mmol/l) respectively; P< 0·001) and total cholesterol levels ( - 21·93 v. - 14·2 mg/dl ( - 0·57 v. - 0·37 mmol/l) respectively; P= 0·01), as well as increases in HDL levels (+7·7 v. +0·05 mg/dl (+0·20 v. +>0·01 mmol/l) respectively; P< 0·001). The mean differences observed were greater in the G1 group. No significant changes were observed in LDL levels, waist circumference, BMI, metabolic equivalent of task and energy intake between the groups. The present results indicate that synbiotic supplementation increases the efficacy of diet therapy in the management of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.

  3. Tafenoquine plus chloroquine for the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria (DETECTIVE): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, phase 2b dose-selection study.

    PubMed

    Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Lacerda, Marcus V; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Krudsood, Srivicha; Gupta, Sandeep K; Kochar, Sanjay K; Arthur, Preetam; Chuenchom, Nuttagarn; Möhrle, Jörg J; Duparc, Stephan; Ugwuegbulam, Cletus; Kleim, Jörg-Peter; Carter, Nick; Green, Justin A; Kellam, Lynda

    2014-03-22

    Clinical effectiveness of previous regimens to treat Plasmodium vivax infection have been hampered by compliance. We aimed to assess the dose-response, safety, and tolerability of single-dose tafenoquine plus 3-day chloroquine for P vivax malaria radical cure. In this double-blind, randomised, dose-ranging phase 2b study, men and women (aged ≥16 years) with microscopically confirmed P vivax monoinfection (parasite density >100 to <100,000 per μL blood) were enrolled from community health centres and hospitals across seven sites in Brazil, Peru, India, and Thailand. Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity of less than 70% were excluded. Eligible patients received chloroquine (days 1-3) and were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) by a computer-generated randomisation schedule to receive single-dose tafenoquine 50 mg, 100 mg, 300 mg, or 600 mg, primaquine 15 mg for 14 days, or chloroquine alone. Randomisation was stratified by baseline parasite count (≤7500 and >7500 per μL blood). The primary efficacy endpoint was relapse-free efficacy at 6 months from initial dose (ie, clearance of initial infection without subsequent microscopically confirmed infection), analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01376167. Between Sept 19, 2011, and March 25, 2013, 329 patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group (chloroquine plus tafenoquine 50 mg [n=55], 100 mg [n=57], 300 mg [n=57], 600 mg [n=56]; or to chloroquine plus primaquine [n=50]; or chloroquine alone [n=54]). Relapse-free efficacy at 6 months was 57·7% (95% CI 43-70) with tafenoquine 50 mg, 54·1% (40-66) with tafenoquine 100 mg, 89·2% (77-95) with tafenoquine 300 mg, 91·9% (80-97) with tafenoquine 600 mg, 77·3% (63-87) with primaquine, and 37·5% (23-52) with chloroquine alone. Tafenoquine 300 mg and 600 mg had better efficacy than chloroquine alone (treatment differences 51·7% [95% CI 35-69], p<0·0001, with tafenoquine 300 mg and

  4. Pilot study: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of pancrealipase for the treatment of postprandial irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Money, Mary E; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Virgilio, Chris; Talley, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of pancrealipase (PEZ) compared with placebo in the reduction of postprandial irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea (IBS-D). Design An intention to treat, double blind, randomised, crossover trial comparing PEZ to placebo for reduction of postprandial IBS-D. Patients had to recognise at least two different triggering foods, be willing to consume six baseline ‘trigger meals’ and again blinded with PEZ and placebo. Patients then chose which drug they preferred for another 25 meals. Setting Outpatient internal medicine practice clinic. Patients 255 patients were screened; 83 met the criteria, including 5 years of symptoms, recognised ‘food triggers’, no other identifiable cause for the symptoms, either a normal colonoscopy or barium enema while symptomatic and able to discontinue all anticholinergic medications. 69 patients were enrolled, 20 withdrew before randomisation, leaving 49 patients: 14 men, 35 women, mean age 52 years (SD 15.3). Over 60% had experienced symptoms for 11–30 years and 16% for more than 40 years. Interventions After completing six baseline meals, patients were randomised in blocks of four to receive either identical PEZ or a placebo for another six meals, and after a washout period of time received the alternative drug. Main outcome measures The primary analysis was number of patients who chose PEZ over placebo for the extended use. Results Overall, 30/49 (61%) would have chosen PEZ (p=0.078), with first drug preference for PEZ at 0.002. Among the PEZ subgroup, PEZ use compared with placebo, demonstrated improvement in all symptoms (p≤0.001) for cramping, bloating, borborygami, urge to defecate, global pain and decrease stooling with increase in stool firmness. Conclusions PEZ was found in a small group of patients to reduce postprandial IBS-D symptoms and deserves further evaluation. PMID:22095308

  5. A randomised, single-blind technical study comparing the ultrasonic visibility of smooth-surfaced and textured needles in a soft embalmed cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Munirama, S; Joy, J; Columb, M; Habershaw, R; Eisma, R; Corner, G; Cochran, S; McLeod, G

    2015-05-01

    Visibility of the needle tip and shaft is important during ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia in order to prevent nerve trauma. Tip and shaft visibility is reduced when needles are inserted in-plane at wide angles and out-of-plane at narrow angles to the ultrasound probe. Although textured needles are more reflective than smooth needles, we hypothesised that poor visibility of the tip and shaft still remained using the above angle-probe combinations. In a single-blind study, we compared the visibility of a textured Tuohy needle, a textured single-shot needle and a conventional smooth-surfaced Tuohy needle when inserted into the biceps and deltoid muscles of a soft embalmed cadaver. One hundred and forty-four needles were block-randomised to in-plane and out-of-plane insertions at 30°, 45°, 60° and 75° to the ultrasound beam. Two blinded raters assessed needle tip visibility on video recordings of the insertions using a binary scale (0 = not visible, 1 = visible) and shaft visibility using a 5-point Likert scale. The median (IQR [range]) proportions of visible needle tips were 83% (67-83 [50-100]%) for the textured Tuohy, 75% (67-83 [33-83]%) for the textured single-shot needle and 33% (33-46 [0-50]%) for the smooth-surfaced Tuohy (p = 0.0007). Median (IQR [range]) needle shaft visibility was rated as 4.0 (3.5-4.7 [3.0-4.9]) for the textured Tuohy, 4.0 (3.8-4.5 [2.7-4.9]) for the textured single-shot needle and 3.0 (2.4-3.3 [2.3-3.5]) for the smooth-surfaced Tuohy (p = 0.015). Nevertheless, visibility was reduced at wide angles in-plane and narrow angles out-of-plane both for needle tips (p = 0.004) and shafts (p = 0.005). © 2014 Crown copyright. Anaesthesia © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Intra-articular hyaluronan is without clinical effect in knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of 337 patients followed for 1 year.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anette; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Simonsen, Ole; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Eriksen, Christian; Bliddal, Henning; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech; Bødtker, Søren; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Snerum, Lennart Ørtoft; Egund, Niels; Frimer-Larsen, Helle

    2010-06-01

    To examine the long-term efficacy and safety of five intra-articular injections with hyaluronan in knee osteoarthritis. A multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind study of 337 patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for knee osteoarthritis (clinical and laboratory) and with a Lequesne algofunctional index score (LFI) of 10 or greater. Patients received a hyaluronan product (sodium hyaluronate; Hyalgan) (n=167) or saline (n=170) intra-articularly weekly for 5 weeks and were followed up to 1 year. Time to recurrence was the primary efficacy parameter. LFI, pain on walking 50 m based on visual analogue scale (VAS pain 50 m), paracetamol consumption, patients' global assessment, Nottingham health profile, joint effusion and number of responders were secondary efficacy parameters. The efficacy parameters were analysed by intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP). All adverse events (AE) were recorded as safety parameters. Time to recurrence showed no significant treatment effect (ITT analysis, p=0.26). Change from baseline in LFI and VAS pain 50 m for the ITT population showed no treatment effect. Paracetamol consumption, patients' global assessment, responder rates and AE displayed no significant difference between treatment groups, analysed by both ITT and PP. Treatment compliance was 95% in the hyaluronan group and 99% in the placebo group. No safety problems were registered. In patients fulfilling the ACR criteria for osteoarthritis of the knee with moderate to severe disease activity (LFI > or = 10), five intra-articular injections of hyaluronan did not improve pain, function, paracetamol consumption or other efficacy parameters 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the treatment.

  7. A Double-Blind, Randomised Study Comparing the Skin Hydration and Acceptability of Two Emollient Products in Atopic Eczema Patients with Dry Skin.

    PubMed

    Djokic-Gallagher, Jasmina; Rosher, Phil; Oliveira, Gabriela; Walker, Jennine

    2017-07-04

    Healthcare professionals tend to recommend emollients based primarily on patient/consumer preference and cost, with cheaper options assumed to be therapeutically equivalent. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the effects on skin hydration of two emollients prescribed in the UK, Doublebase Dayleve™ gel (DELP) and a cheaper alternative, Zerobase Emollient™ cream (ZBC). This was a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, concurrent bi-lateral (within-patient) comparison in 18 females with atopic eczema and dry skin on their lower legs. DELP gel and ZBC cream were each applied to one lower leg twice daily for 4 days and on the morning only on day 5. The efficacy of both products was assessed by hydration measurements using a Corneometer CM825 probe (Courage-Khazaka Electronic). The measurements were made three times daily on days 1 to 5. The primary efficacy variable was the area under the curve (AUC) of the change from baseline corneometer readings over the 5 days. Skin hydration using DELP gel was significantly higher than using ZBC cream (p < 0.0001). The cumulative increase in skin hydration observed for DELP gel was substantial and long lasting. In contrast, for ZBC cream, there was no significant improvement of the cumulative skin hydration as measured by the AUC (p = 0.22). DELP gel achieved substantial, long-lasting and cumulative skin hydration, whilst ZBC cream achieved no measurable improvement in skin hydration compared to before treatment. Healthcare professionals should be aware that different emollients can perform differently. Dermal Laboratories Ltd. EudraCT number:2014-001026-16.

  8. Twice weekly fluticasone propionate added to emollient maintenance treatment to reduce risk of relapse in atopic dermatitis: randomised, double blind, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Berth-Jones, John; Damstra, Robert J; Golsch, Stefan; Livden, John K; Van Hooteghem, Oliver; Allegra, Fulvio; Parker, Christine A

    2003-06-21

    To explore the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate, cream and ointment, applied twice weekly in addition to maintenance treatment with emollients, in reducing the risk of relapse of chronic recurrent atopic dermatitis. Randomised, double blind, parallel group study of 20 weeks' duration. Dermatology outpatient clinics (6 countries, 39 centres). Adult (aged 12-65) patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis who were experiencing a flare. Participants applied fluticasone propionate (0.05% cream or 0.005% ointment; once or twice daily) regularly for four weeks to stabilise their condition. The patients whose disease was brought under control then continued into a 16 week maintenance phase, applying emollient on a daily basis with a bath oil as needed and either the same formulation of fluticasone propionate or its placebo base (emollient alone) twice weekly to the areas that were usually affected. Time to relapse of atopic dermatitis during maintenance phase. 376 patients entered the stabilisation phase, and 295 continued into the maintenance phase. After 16 weeks in the maintenance phase, the disease remained under control in 133 patients (87 using fluticasone propionate twice weekly, 46 using emollient alone), 135 (40 fluticasone propionate, 95 emollient) had experienced a relapse, and 27 had discontinued. Median time to relapse was six weeks for emollient alone compared with more than 16 weeks for additional fluticasone propionate. Patients who applied fluticasone propionate cream twice weekly were 5.8 times less likely (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 10.8, P < 0.001) and patients using fluticasone propionate ointment 1.9 times less likely (1.2 to 3.2, P=0.010) to have a relapse than patients applying emollient alone. The groups showed no differences in adverse events. After atopic dermatitis had been stabilised the addition of fluticasone propionate twice weekly to maintenance treatment with emollients significantly reduced the risk of relapse.

  9. Twice weekly fluticasone propionate added to emollient maintenance treatment to reduce risk of relapse in atopic dermatitis: randomised, double blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Berth-Jones, John; Damstra, Robert J; Golsch, Stefan; Livden, John K; Van Hooteghem, Oliver; Allegra, Fulvio; Parker, Christine A

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate, cream and ointment, applied twice weekly in addition to maintenance treatment with emollients, in reducing the risk of relapse of chronic recurrent atopic dermatitis. Design Randomised, double blind, parallel group study of 20 weeks' duration. Setting Dermatology outpatient clinics (6 countries, 39 centres). Participants Adult (aged 12-65) patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis who were experiencing a flare. Methods Participants applied fluticasone propionate (0.05% cream or 0.005% ointment; once or twice daily) regularly for four weeks to stabilise their condition. The patients whose disease was brought under control then continued into a 16 week maintenance phase, applying emollient on a daily basis with a bath oil as needed and either the same formulation of fluticasone propionate or its placebo base (emollient alone) twice weekly to the areas that were usually affected. Main outcome measure Time to relapse of atopic dermatitis during maintenance phase. Results 376 patients entered the stabilisation phase, and 295 continued into the maintenance phase. After 16 weeks in the maintenance phase, the disease remained under control in 133 patients (87 using fluticasone propionate twice weekly, 46 using emollient alone), 135 (40 fluticasone propionate, 95 emollient) had experienced a relapse, and 27 had discontinued. Median time to relapse was six weeks for emollient alone compared with more than 16 weeks for additional fluticasone propionate. Patients who applied fluticasone propionate cream twice weekly were 5.8 times less likely (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 10.8, P < 0.001) and patients using fluticasone propionate ointment 1.9 times less likely (1.2 to 3.2, P=0.010) to have a relapse than patients applying emollient alone. The groups showed no differences in adverse events. Conclusion After atopic dermatitis had been stabilised the addition of fluticasone propionate twice weekly

  10. Does dapagliflozin regress left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with type 2 diabetes? A prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexander J M; Lang, Chim; McCrimmon, Rory; Struthers, Allan

    2017-08-23

    Patients with diabetes have a two to fourfold increased risk for development of and death from cardiovascular disease [CVD]. The current oral hypoglycaemic agents result in limited reduction in this cardiovascular risk. Sodium glucose linked co-transporter type 2 [SGLT2] inhibitors are a relatively new class of antidiabetic agent that have been shown to have potential cardiovascular benefits. In support of this, the EMPA-REG trial showed a striking 38% and 35% reduction in cardiovascular mortality and heart failure [HF] hospitalisation respectively. The exact mechanism (s) responsible for these effects remain (s) unclear. One potential mechanism is regression of Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The DAPA-LVH trial is a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled 'proof of concept' single-centre study that has been ongoing since January 2017. It is designed specifically to assess whether the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin regresses left ventricular [LV] mass in patients with diabetes and left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH]. We are utilising cardiac and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to quantify the cardiovascular and systemic effects of dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily against standard care over a 1 year observation period. The primary endpoint is to detect the changes in LV mass. The secondary outcomes are to assess the changes in, LV volumes, blood pressure, weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat. This trial will be able to determine if SGLT2 inhibitor therapy reduces LV mass in patient with diabetes and LVH thereby strengthening their position as oral hypoglycaemic agents with cardioprotective benefits. Clinical Trials.gov: NCT02956811 . Registered November 2016.

  11. Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. HANE Trial Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, T.; Anlauf, M.; Distler, A.; Holzgreve, H.; Michaelis, J.; Wellek, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre trial over 48 weeks with double blind comparison of treatments. SETTING: 48 centres in four countries. PATIENTS: 868 patients with essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mm Hg) INTERVENTIONS: Initial treatment (step 1) consisted of 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n = 215), 25 mg atenolol (n = 215), 10 mg nitrendipine (n = 218), or 5 mg enalapril (n = 220) once daily. If diastolic blood pressure was not reduced to < 90 mm Hg within four weeks, doses were increased to 25 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg, 10 mg, respectively, once daily (step 2) and after two more weeks to twice daily (step 3). The eight week titration phase was followed by an additional 40 weeks for patients who had reached the target diastolic pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure by means of an automatic device with repeated measurements. RESULTS: After eight weeks the response rate for atenolol (63.7%) was significantly higher than for enalapril (50.0%), hydrochlorothiazide (44.7%), or nitrendipine (44.5%). After one year atenolol was still more effective (48.0%) than hydrochlorothiazide (35.4%) and nitrendipine (32.9%), but not significantly better than enalapril (42.7%). The treatment related dropout rate was higher (P < 0.001) in the nitrendipine group (n = 28). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of superiority for antihypertensive effectiveness or tolerability of the "new" classes of antihypertensives (calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). As these drugs are now widely used as treatment of first choice, our results further emphasise the need for studies confirming that they also reduce morbidity and mortality, as has been shown for diuretics and beta blockers. PMID:9251545

  12. Randomised clinical trial: efficacy of Lactobacillus paracasei-enriched artichokes in the treatment of patients with functional constipation--a double-blind, controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Riezzo, G; Orlando, A; D'Attoma, B; Guerra, V; Valerio, F; Lavermicocca, P; De Candia, S; Russo, F

    2012-02-01

    The role of probiotics in the management of constipation is uncertain. To evaluate the effects of probiotic-enriched artichokes on treatment preference, symptom profile and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in constipated subjects when compared with ordinary artichokes. Twenty constipated patients (3M/17F; 38.8 ± 14.4 years) were studied using a double-blind method and a computer-generated randomisation list. Each patient consumed 180 g per day of ordinary artichokes or artichokes enriched with Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 for 15 days (daily dose of 2 × 10(10) CFU). Relief of symptoms was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. The stool consistency and symptom profile of patients were investigated using the Bristol stool form chart and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire (GSRS). SCFA production in faecal samples was evaluated using HPLC. Eighty per cent of patients preferred probiotic-enriched artichokes to ordinary ones (P = 0.011). Satisfactory relief of symptoms was significantly higher (P = 0.0014) during the probiotic-enriched artichoke period. Bristol chart cluster scores were significantly higher (3.3 ± 1.2, 2.9 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 1.2, baseline, ordinary artichokes and probiotic-enriched ones, respectively; P = 0.009) and GSRS constipation was significantly lower (13.9 ± 0.9, 10.2 ± 0.8, 8.3 ± 0.9; P = 0.032) in the probiotic group compared with the baseline. As for SCFA production, propionic acid was significantly higher (2.2 ± 1.4, 2.1 ± 1.53, 1.5 ± 1.2; P = 0.035) in the probiotic group compared with baseline. This trial shows a positive effect on symptoms in constipated patients after intake of probiotic-enriched artichokes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Immune response to a new hepatitis B vaccine in healthcare workers who had not responded to standard vaccine: randomised double blind dose-response study.

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, J. N.; Sabin, C.; Craig, F. M.; Williams, A.; Zuckerman, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a new triple S recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in a cohort of healthy people in whom currently licensed hepatitis B vaccines had persistently not induced an immune response. DESIGN: Single centre, randomised, double blind, dose-response study. SETTING: Research vaccine evaluation centre at a teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 100 healthcare workers aged 18-70 years with a history of failure to seroconvert after at least four doses of a licensed hepatitis B vaccine containing the S component. INTERVENTION: Each subject was randomly allocated two doses of 5, 10, 20, or 40 micrograms of a new hepatitis B vaccine two months apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunogenicity of the four doses. Seroconversion and seroprotection were defined as an antibody tire > 10 IU/l and > 100 IU/l respectively against an international antibody standard. RESULTS: 69 subjects seroconverted after a single dose of the vaccine. After the booster vaccination one other subject seroconverted, bringing the overall seroconversion rate to 70%. Fifteen subjects given 5 micrograms of vaccine, 19 given 10 micrograms, 16 given 20 micrograms, and 20 given 40 micrograms seroconverted. Seroconversion rates in the four antigen dose groups were 60% (15/25), 76% (19/25), 64% (16/25), and 80% (20/25). After the booster dose there was no significant dose-response effect on the overall seroconversion rate, although the small sample size meant that a clinically important dose-response could not be ruled out. CONCLUSION: A single dose of 20 micrograms of the vaccine was as effective as two doses of either 40 micrograms or 20 micrograms of this vaccine formulation in terms of seroconversion, seroprotection, and geometric mean titres. PMID:9040320

  14. Visual cue training to improve walking and turning after stroke: a study protocol for a multi-centre, single blind randomised pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visual information comprises one of the most salient sources of information used to control walking and the dependence on vision to maintain dynamic stability increases following a stroke. We hypothesize, therefore, that rehabilitation efforts incorporating visual cues may be effective in triggering recovery and adaptability of gait following stroke. This feasibility trial aims to estimate probable recruitment rate, effect size, treatment adherence and response to gait training with visual cues in contrast to conventional overground walking practice following stroke. Methods/design A 3-arm, parallel group, multi-centre, single blind, randomised control feasibility trial will compare overground visual cue training (O-VCT), treadmill visual cue training (T-VCT), and usual care (UC). Participants (n = 60) will be randomly assigned to one of three treatments by a central randomisation centre using computer generated tables to allocate treatment groups. The research assessor will remain blind to allocation. Treatment, delivered by physiotherapists, will be twice weekly for 8 weeks at participating outpatient hospital sites for the O-VCT or UC and in a University setting for T-VCT participants. Individuals with gait impairment due to stroke, with restricted community ambulation (gait speed <0.8m/s), residual lower limb paresis and who are able to take part in repetitive walking practice involving visual cues (i.e., no severe visual impairments, able to walk with minimal assistance and no comorbid medical contraindications for walking practice) will be included. The primary outcomes concerning participant enrolment, recruitment, retention, and health and social care resource use data will be recorded over a recruitment period of 18 months. Secondary outcome measures will be undertaken before randomisation (baseline), after the eight-week intervention (outcome), and at three months (follow-up). Outcome measures will include gait speed and step length symmetry

  15. Ferroquine and artesunate in African adults and children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a phase 2, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, dose-ranging, non-inferiority study.

    PubMed

    Held, Jana; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L O; Tinto, Halidou; Bonkian, Léa N; Nahum, Alain; Moulero, Bancole; Sié, Ali; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Siribie, Mohamadou; Otsyula, Nekoye; Otieno, Lucas; Abdallah, Ahmed M; Kimutai, Robert; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle; Kombila, Maryvonne; Koiwai, Kimiko; Cantalloube, Cathy; Din-Bell, Chantal; Djeriou, Elhadj; Waitumbi, John; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ter-Minassian, Daniel; Lell, Bertrand; Kremsner, Peter G

    2015-12-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Ferroquine is a new combination partner for fast-acting ACTs such as artesunate. We aimed to assess different doses of ferroquine in combination with artesunate against uncomplicated P falciparum malaria in a heterogeneous population in Africa. We did a phase 2, multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised, dose-ranging non-inferiority trial at eight African hospitals (two in Gabon, three in Burkina Faso, one in Benin, and two in Kenya). We recruited patients presenting with acute P falciparum monoinfection (1000-200,000 parasites per μL), and a central body temperature of at least 37·5°C or history of fever in the past 24 h. We assessed patients in two sequential cohorts: cohort 1 contained adults (bodyweight >50 kg) and adolescents (aged ≥14 years, >30 kg), and cohort 2 contained children (aged 2-13 years, 15-30 kg). We randomly assigned patients (1:1:1:1) to receive artesunate 4 mg/kg per day plus ferroquine 2 mg/kg, 4 mg/kg, or 6 mg/kg, given double-blind once per day for 3 days, or ferroquine monotherapy 4 mg/kg per day given single-blind (ie, allocation was only masked from the patient) once per day for 3 days. We did 14 patient visits (screening, 3 treatment days and 48 h post-treatment surveillance, a visit on day 7, then one follow-up visit per week until day 63). The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of treatment in terms of PCR-corrected cure rate against a reference value of 90%, with a 10% non-inferiority margin, assessed in patients treated without major protocol deviations for parasitologically confirmed malaria. We assessed safety in all treated patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00988507, and is closed. Between Oct 16, 2009, and Sept 22, 2010, we randomly assigned 326 eligible patients to treatment groups, with last follow-up visit on Dec 1, 2010. 284 patients

  16. Efficacy assessment of a cell-mediated immunity HIV-1 vaccine (the Step Study): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, test-of-concept trial.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Susan P; Mehrotra, Devan V; Duerr, Ann; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Mogg, Robin; Li, David; Gilbert, Peter B; Lama, Javier R; Marmor, Michael; Del Rio, Carlos; McElrath, M Juliana; Casimiro, Danilo R; Gottesdiener, Keith M; Chodakewitz, Jeffrey A; Corey, Lawrence; Robertson, Michael N

    2008-11-29

    Observational data and non-human primate challenge studies suggest that cell-mediated immune responses might provide control of HIV replication. The Step Study directly assessed the efficacy of a cell-mediated immunity vaccine to protect against HIV-1 infection or change in early plasma HIV-1 levels. We undertook a double-blind, phase II, test-of-concept study at 34 sites in North America, the Caribbean, South America, and Australia. We randomly assigned 3000 HIV-1-seronegative participants by computer-generated assignments to receive three injections of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (n=1494) or placebo (n=1506). Randomisation was prestratified by sex, adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) antibody titre at baseline, and study site. Primary objective was a reduction in HIV-1 acquisition rates (tested every 6 months) or a decrease in HIV-1 viral-load setpoint (early plasma HIV-1 RNA measured 3 months after HIV-1 diagnosis). Analyses were per protocol and modified intention to treat. The study was stopped early because it unexpectedly met the prespecified futility boundaries at the first interim analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00095576. In a prespecified interim analysis in participants with baseline Ad5 antibody titre 200 or less, 24 (3%) of 741 vaccine recipients became HIV-1 infected versus 21 (3%) of 762 placebo recipients (hazard ratio [HR] 1.2 [95% CI 0.6-2.2]). All but one infection occurred in men. The corresponding geometric mean plasma HIV-1 RNA was comparable in infected male vaccine and placebo recipients (4.61 vs 4.41 log(10) copies per mL, one tailed p value for potential benefit 0.66). The vaccine elicited interferon-gamma ELISPOT responses in 75% (267) of the 25% random sample of all vaccine recipients (including both low and high Ad5 antibody titres) on whose specimens this testing was done (n=354). In exploratory analyses of all study volunteers, irrespective of baseline Ad5 antibody titre, the HR of HIV-1 infection

  17. Epitope-specific immunotherapy targeting CD4-positive T cells in coeliac disease: two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 studies.

    PubMed

    Goel, Gautam; King, Tim; Daveson, A James; Andrews, Jane M; Krishnarajah, Janakan; Krause, Richard; Brown, Gregor J E; Fogel, Ronald; Barish, Charles F; Epstein, Roger; Kinney, Timothy P; Miner, Philip B; Tye-Din, Jason A; Girardin, Adam; Taavela, Juha; Popp, Alina; Sidney, John; Mäki, Markku; Goldstein, Kaela E; Griffin, Patrick H; Wang, Suyue; Dzuris, John L; Williams, Leslie J; Sette, Alessandro; Xavier, Ramnik J; Sollid, Ludvig M; Jabri, Bana; Anderson, Robert P

    2017-07-01

    A gluten-free diet is the only means to manage coeliac disease, a permanent immune intolerance to gluten. We developed a therapeutic vaccine, Nexvax2, designed to treat coeliac disease. Nexvax2 is an adjuvant-free mix of three peptides that include immunodominant epitopes for gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells. The vaccine is intended to engage and render gluten-specific CD4-positive T cells unresponsive to further antigenic stimulation. We assessed the safety and pharmacodynamics of the vaccine in patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 studies at 12 community sites in Australia, New Zealand, and the USA, in HLA-DQ2·5-positive patients aged 18-70 years who had coeliac disease and were on a gluten-free diet. In the screening period for ascending dose cohorts, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by central randomisation with a simple block method to a double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled oral gluten challenge. Participants with a negative interferon γ release assay to Nexvax2 peptides after the screening oral gluten challenge were discontinued before dosing. For the biopsy cohorts, the screening period included an endoscopy, and participants with duodenal histology who had a Marsh score of greater than 1 were discontinued before dosing. Participants were subsequently randomly assigned to either Nexvax2 or placebo in ascending dose cohorts (2:1) and in biopsy cohorts (1:1) by central randomisation with a simple block method. In the three-dose study, participants received either Nexvax2 60 μg, 90 μg, or 150 μg weekly, or placebo over 15 days; in a fourth biopsy cohort, patients received either Nexvax2 at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) or placebo. In the 16-dose study, participants received Nexvax2 150 μg or 300 μg or placebo twice weekly over 53 days; in a third biopsy cohort, patients also received either Nexvax2 at the MTD or placebo. In the 4-week post

  18. Randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of VVZ-149 injections for postoperative pain following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Correll, Darin J; Bao, Xiaodong; Zamor, Natacha; Zeballos, Jose L; Zhang, Yi; Young, Mark J; Ledley, Johanna; Sorace, Jessica; Eng, Kristen; Hamsher, Carlyle P; Maniam, Rajivan; Chin, Jonathan W; Tsui, Becky; Cho, Sunyoung; Lee, Doo H

    2017-02-17

    In spite of advances in understanding and technology, postoperative pain remains poorly treated for a significant number of patients. In colorectal surgery, the need for developing novel analgesics is especially important. Patients after bowel surgery are assessed for rapid return of bowel function and opioids worsen ileus, nausea and constipation. We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Based on sample size calculations for primary outcome, we plan to enrol 120 participants. Adult patients without significant medical comorbidities or ongoing opioid use and who are undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery will be enrolled. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either VVZ-149 with intravenous (IV) hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or the control intervention (IV PCA alone) in the postoperative period. The primary outcome is the Sum of Pain Intensity Difference over 8 hours (SPID-8 postdose). Participants receive VVZ-149 for 8 hours postoperatively to the primary study end point, after which they continue to be assessed for up to 24 hours. We measure opioid consumption, record pain intensity and pain relief, and evaluate the number of rescue doses and requests for opioid. To assess safety, we record sedation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression, laboratory tests and ECG readings after study drug administration. We evaluate for possible confounders of analgesic response, such as anxiety, depression and catastrophising behaviours. The study will also collect blood sample data and evaluate for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Ethical approval of the study protocol has been obtained from Institutional Review Boards at the participating institutions

  19. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial- study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition. This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. Methods/Designs This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. Discussion This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ

  20. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial--study protocol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyo; Seo, Eun-Sung; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Gang-Tai; You, Young-Kyoung; Lee, Kun-Kook; Jo, Ga-Won; Kim, Nam-Kwen

    2013-11-25

    Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition.This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ health-related quality of life

  1. Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME), may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut. Methods A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19–59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose) versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract. Results Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC) (glucose (mmol / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316), -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022) and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p<0.001) respectively. The difference in the pIAUC (insulin (mIU / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -9.7% (-25.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.234), -23.8% (-39.9%, -7.8%; p = 0.004) and -24.7% (-40.8%, -8.6%; p = 0.003) respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 4 groups in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal cramping, distension or flatulence). Conclusions Mulberry leaf extract significantly reduces total blood glucose rise after ingestion of maltodextrin over 120 minutes. The pattern of effect demonstrates a

  2. Efficacy of immunoglobulin plus prednisolone for prevention of coronary artery abnormalities in severe Kawasaki disease (RAISE study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Saji, Tsutomu; Otani, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Kato, Taichi; Hara, Toshiro; Hamaoka, Kenji; Ogawa, Shunichi; Miura, Masaru; Nomura, Yuichi; Fuse, Shigeto; Ichida, Fukiko; Seki, Mitsuru; Fukazawa, Ryuji; Ogawa, Chitose; Furuno, Kenji; Tokunaga, Hirohide; Takatsuki, Shinichi; Hara, Shinya; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2012-04-28

    Evidence indicates that corticosteroid therapy might be beneficial for the primary treatment of severe Kawasaki disease. We assessed whether addition of prednisolone to intravenous immunoglobulin with aspirin would reduce the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities in patients with severe Kawasaki disease. We did a multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoints trial at 74 hospitals in Japan between Sept 29, 2008, and Dec 2, 2010. Patients with severe Kawasaki disease were randomly assigned by a minimisation method to receive either intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg for 24 h and aspirin 30 mg/kg per day) or intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone (the same intravenous immunoglobulin regimen as the intravenous immunoglobulin group plus prednisolone 2 mg/kg per day given over 15 days after concentrations of C-reactive protein normalised). Patients and treating physicians were unmasked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was incidence of coronary artery abnormalities during the study period. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trials registry, number UMIN000000940. We randomly assigned 125 patients to the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group and 123 to the intravenous immunoglobulin group. Incidence of coronary artery abnormalities was significantly lower in the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group than in the intravenous immunoglobulin group during the study period (four patients [3%] vs 28 patients [23%]; risk difference 0·20, 95% CI 0·12-0·28, p<0·0001). Serious adverse events were similar between both groups: two patients had high total cholesterol and one neutropenia in the intravenous immunoglobulin plus prednisolone group, and one had high total cholesterol and another non-occlusive thrombus in the intravenous immunoglobulin group. Addition of prednisolone to the standard regimen of intravenous

  3. The influence of oxygenated water on the immune status, liver enzymes, and the generation of oxygen radicals: a prospective, randomised, blinded clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Rudolf; Axmann, S; Schoenberg, M H

    2005-06-01

    Oxygenated water with an oxygen concentration of 30-120 mg/l water is believed to improve the immune status, without any toxicological effects. The purpose of this clinical study was to assess the effects of long-term drinking of oxygenated water on the immune status. In this prospective, double-blinded, randomised study 24 volunteers of either sex (age 18-63 years) drank daily 3 times 500 ml either oxygenated (Verum-group: n=12) or normal mineral water (Placebo-group: n=12) for 28 days. On day 1 and day 28 standard laboratory tests, IgG, IgA and IgM, lymphocyte subpopulations and functional analysis of T-cells by flow cytometry, were done. Furthermore, the oxygen radicals were determined by the detection of the ascorbyl radicals. Drinking of normal or oxygenated water had no effect on whole blood count or the liver enzymes. Interestingly the volunteers in the Verum-group showed a significant increase in ascorbyl radicals after drinking oxygenated water for 14 and 21 days. CD4+ and CD4+CD45RA+ lymphocytes as well as lymphocyte activation marker (CD69) and soluble IL-2 receptor increased in both groups, in contrast T-helper2 cells and IgG decreased during the study. The only differences between the two groups were a significant decrease of NK-cells form 13.42%+ or -5.04 to 10.83%+ or -4.82 (P<.002) and an increase of the Th1/Th2-ratio from 2.77%+ or -1.07 to 6.68%+ or -5.33 (P<.03) in the Verum-group. Long-term consumption of oxygenated water has no apparent harmful effect on the liver, blood and the immune system. Moreover it leads to a transient moderate increase of oxygen radicals in the blood. An interesting observation is the increase of the Th1/Th2-ratio in the Verum group, whereas in both groups T-cell activation after mitogen stimulation, the soluble IL-2 receptor, the CD4+ and the naive CD4+CD45RA+ cells increased.

  4. Study of the use of antidepressants for depression in dementia: the HTA-SADD trial--a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sertraline and mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Hellier, J; Romeo, R; Dewey, M; Knapp, M; Ballard, C; Baldwin, R; Bentham, P; Fox, C; Holmes, C; Katona, C; Lawton, C; Lindesay, J; Livingston, G; McCrae, N; Moniz-Cook, E; Murray, J; Nurock, S; Orrell, M; O'Brien, J; Poppe, M; Thomas, A; Walwyn, R; Wilson, K; Burns, A

    2013-02-01

    Depression is common in dementia, causing considerable distress and other negative impacts. Treating it is a clinical priority, but the evidence base is sparse and equivocal. This trial aimed to determine clinical effectiveness of sertraline and mirtazapine in reducing depression 13 weeks post randomisation compared with placebo. Multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness of sertraline and mirtazapine with 13- and 39-week follow-up. Nine English old-age psychiatry services. A pragmatic trial. Eligibility: probable or possible Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression (4+ weeks) and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) score of 8+. clinically too critical (e.g. suicide risk); contraindication to medication; taking antidepressants; in another trial; and having no carer. (1) Sertraline; (2) mirtazapine; and (3) placebo, all with normal care. Target doses: 150 mg of sertraline or 45 mg of mirtazapine daily. CSDD score. Randomisation: Allocated 1 : 1 : 1 through Trials Unit, independently of trial team. Stratified block randomisation by centre, with randomly varying block sizes; computer-generated randomisation. Blinding: Double blind: medication and placebo identical for each antidepressant. Referring clinicians, research workers, participants and pharmacies were blind. Statisticians blind until analyses completed. Numbers randomised: 326 participants randomised (111 placebo, 107 sertraline and 108 mirtazapine). Differences in CSDD at 13 weeks from an adjusted linear-mixed model: mean difference (95% CI) placebo-sertraline 1.17 (-0.23 to 2.78; p = 0.102); placebo-mirtazapine 0.01 (-1.37 to 1.38; p = 0.991); and mirtazapine-sertraline 1.16 (-0.27 to 2.60; p = 0.112). Placebo group had fewer adverse reactions (29/111, 26%) than sertraline (46/107, 43%) or mirtazapine (44/108, 41%; p = 0.017); 39-week mortality equal, five deaths in each group. This is a trial with negative findings but

  5. Subcutaneous interferon alpha 2a combined with cryotherapy vs cryotherapy alone in the treatment of primary anogenital warts: a randomised observer blind placebo controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Handley, J M; Horner, T; Maw, R D; Lawther, H; Dinsmore, W W

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare patient tolerance and treatment efficacy of subcutaneous interferon (IFN) alpha 2a plus cryotherapy versus cryotherapy alone in treatment of primary anogenital (AG) warts. DESIGN--Randomised placebo controlled observer blind study. Statistical analysis was by chi square and Mann Whitney U tests. PATIENTS--60 patients with newly diagnosed AG warts. INTERVENTION--29 and 31 patients were treated with subcutaneous IFN alpha 2a plus cryotherapy or placebo injections plus cryotherapy, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Clinical presence or absence of AG warts. Patients wart-free at 8 weeks were asked to re-attend at 12 weeks; those with persistent warts at 8 weeks were withdrawn from the study. RESULTS--At 8 weeks 60.7% (17/28 patients) of the IFN group and 67.9% (19/28 patients) of the placebo group were clinically wart-free (not significant); corresponding figures at 12 week review were 29.6% (8/27 patients) and 40% (10/25 patients) respectively (not significant). There was no difference in treatment response between males and females. Recurrence of warts at three month review, in patients cleared of warts at 8 weeks, was seen in 50% (8/16) and 37.5% (6/16) of patients in the IFN and placebo groups respectively (not significant). Multiple warts and the presence of perianal/anal canal warts, either alone or concurrent with warts on the genitalia, at first clinic attendance, were adverse prognostic indicators (p less than 0.001, and p = 0.05 respectively). Cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, exophytic or subclinical, was present in 58.3% and 77.2% of females in the IFN and placebo groups respectively, at trial entry. Although these lesions were not directly treated, colposcopic resolution was seen in 12.5% of affected women, in both treatment groups, by the end of the 7 week treatment period. Systemic side effects were significantly more common in the IFN than in the placebo group, 50% versus 10.7% of patients (p less than 0

  6. A multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel-group study of the effectiveness of a pharmacist-acquired medication history in an emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Admission to an emergency department (ED) is a key vulnerable moment when patients are at increased risk of medication discrepancies and medication histories are an effective way of ensuring that fewer errors are made. This study measured whether a pharmacist-acquired medication history in an ED focusing on a patient’s current home medication regimen, and available to be used by a doctor when consulting in the ED, would reduce the number of patients having at least 1 medication discrepancy related to home medication. Methods This multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled parallel-group study was conducted at 3 large teaching hospitals. Two hundred and seventy participants were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 134) or a standard care (n = 136) arm. All consecutive patients >18 years old admitted through the ED were eligible. The intervention consisted of pharmacists conducting a standardised comprehensive medication history interview focusing on a patient’s current home medication regimen, prior to being seen by a doctor. Data recorded on the admission medication order form was available to be used by a doctor during consultation in the ED. The admission medication order form was given to doctors at a later stage in the control arm for them to amend prescriptions. The effect of the intervention was assessed primarily by comparing the number of patients having at least 1 admission medication discrepancy regarding medication being taken at home. Secondary outcomes concerned the characteristics and clinical severity of such medication discrepancies. Results The intervention reduced discrepancies occurring by 33% (p < 0.0001; 0.1055 odds ratio, 0.05-0.24 95% confidence interval), despite recall bias. Regarding total discrepancies, omitting medication occurred most frequently (55.1%) and most discrepancies (42.7%) were judged to have the potential to cause moderate discomfort or clinical deterioration. Conclusions A pharmacist

  7. Effect of dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (SBL88™) on sleep: a non-randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nakakita, Y; Tsuchimoto, N; Takata, Y; Nakamura, T

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 affects sleep rhythms in mice. The present study evaluated the effect of consumption of heat-killed SBC8803 on sleep architecture in humans. A non-randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind, and crossover pilot study was conducted using volunteers who scored at a slightly high level (i.e. ≥6) on the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Male subjects (n=17; age 41-69 y) consumed placebo or SBC8803 capsules (25 mg/day of heat-killed SBC8803) for 10 days. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded using a mobile, one-channel system, providing objective data on sleep. Subjects' sleep journals and administration of the AIS provided subjective data on sleep. Three subjects were excluded from the statistical analysis. Analysis of the remaining 14 volunteers revealed no significant differences between placebo and SBC8803 consumption in either the AIS or the sleep EEG. The sleep journals revealed an improvement in 'waking' for the SBC8803 consumption periods (P=0.047), and there was a marginally significant effect on 'drowsiness during the following day' (P=0.067). Effects on the EEG delta power value (μV(2)/min) were revealed by a stratified analysis based on age, AIS, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Specifically, effects were found among subjects in their 40s who consumed the SBC8803 capsules (P=0.049) and among subjects with a BDI score less than the all-subjects average (13.3) (P=0.045). A marginally significant effect was found among subjects with an AIS score less than the all-subjects average (11.6) (P=0.065). The delta power value of 5 subjects with both BDI and AIS scores less than the average increased significantly (P=0.017). While the number of subjects was limited, a beneficial effect on sleep due to consumption of heat-killed L. brevis SBC8803 was found in subjects with slightly challenged sleep.

  8. Acupuncture for a first episode of acute ischaemic stroke: an observer-blinded randomised controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Hsiung; Hsieh, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Lin, Hung-Chih; Lin, Chun-Liang; Wu, Tai-Yi; Lin, Shu-Hua; Tsao, Szu-Hung; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    To determine the required sample size for, and feasibility of, a RCT examining the effectiveness of early acupuncture for acute ischaemic stroke. Thirty-eight patients aged 40-85 years with a first episode of acute ischaemic stroke presenting within 72 h of stroke onset were randomly assigned to receive manual acupuncture (MA group; n=20) plus standard care or standard care only (control group, n=18). The acupuncture treatment was provided daily for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score between baseline and 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes included changes in the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and the functional independence measure scores between baseline and 4 weeks, and changes in NIHSS, Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale scores at 12 weeks. Thirty-one patients completed the study (dropout rate=18%) and adverse effects were minimal. No significant differences were seen between groups in the improvements in NIHSS scores, although there tended to be a greater reduction in NIHSS score after 1 week in the MA group relative to the control group (p=0.066). The post-stroke motor activity at 4 weeks was associated with a significantly increased FMA score in the acupuncture group compared with the control group (p<0.05), but not supported by intergroup analysis. This pilot study indicates that acupuncture appears to be safe for patients in the acute stage of ischaemic stroke. A subsequent trial with a larger sample size (estimated at n=122) is required to confirm whether early acupuncture intervention contributes to earlier functional improvement and to assess the longer-term clinical efficacy of acupuncture. NCT02210988; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Video-based instructions for surgical hand disinfection as a replacement for conventional tuition? A randomised, blind comparative study.

    PubMed

    Weber, Uwe; Constantinescu, Mihai A; Woermann, Ulrich; Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Für die Unterrichtsgestaltung zur Einführung der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion stehen unterschiedliche Lernmethoden zur Verfügung. Diese Lernmethoden sollen dabei helfen, das Unterrichtsthema zu strukturieren und zu bewältigen. Der Einsatz eines Videofilms ist, durch die realen Darstellungsmöglichkeiten der praktischen Demonstration, eine Alternative zum konventionellen Unterricht. Ziel: Mit der vorliegenden Studie wird vergleichend untersucht, welche Vermittlungsform effektiver für das Erlernen und Anwenden der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion von Medizinstudenten im 1. Studienjahr ist: videobasierte Instruktion oder konventioneller Unterricht.Methodik: Insgesamt wurden 50 Medizinstudierende im 1. Studienjahr per Zufall entweder der Lerngruppe „konventionelle Instruktion“ (KI) oder der Lerngruppe „videobasierte Instruktion“ (VI) zugeordnet. Die konventionelle Instruktion erfolgte durch einen erfahrenen Nurse Preceptors/Nurse Educators für den Operationssaal, der die vorzubereitenden Massnahmen sowie die eigentliche Prozedur im Rahmen einer zweiminütigen Lektion vermittelte. Die zweite Gruppe sah eine Videosequenz von 2 Minuten mit identischen Inhalten. Beide Gruppen demonstrierten ihr akkumuliertes Wissen im Anschluss praktisch an einer einzelnen praktischen Prüfungsstation. Die Güte (a) der Vorbereitung und (b) der Prozedur wurde ebenso wie (c) die Qualität des Ergebnisses von 6 geblendeten Experten anhand einer Checkliste beurteilt. Die Akzeptanz der jeweiligen Vermittlungsform wurde mittels eines Fragebogens erfragt.Ergebnisse: Die Gruppenleistungen unterschieden sich weder in der Vorbereitung (t=-78, p<0.44) noch in der Qualität (t=-99, p<0.34). In Hinblick auf die Performanz konnte ein starker Treatment-Effekt nachgewiesen werden. In der Durchführung (t=-3.33, p<0.002, d=0.943) sowie im Total Score (t=-2.65, p<0.011, d=0.751) erzielte die Gruppe mit videobasierter Instruktion ein signifikant besseres Ergebnis. Auf die Frage

  10. Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo

    PubMed Central

    Koskiniemi, M.; Van Vleymen, B.; Hakamies, L.; Lamusuo, S.; Taalas, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of three daily dosage regimens of oral piracetam in patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy.
METHODS—Twenty patients (12 men, eight women), aged 17-43 years, with classical Unverricht-Lundborg disease were enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of crossover design in which the effects of daily doses of 9.6 g, 16.8 g, and 24 g piracetam, given in two divided doses, were compared with placebo. The crossover design was such that patients received placebo and two of the three dosage regimens of piracetam, each for two weeks, for a total treatment period of six weeks and thus without wash out between each treatment phase. The primary outcome measure was a sum score representing the adjusted total of the ratings of six components of a myoclonus rating scale in which stimulus sensitivity, motor impairment, functional disability, handwriting, and global assessments by investigators and patients were scored. Sequential clinical assessments were made by the same neurologist in the same environment at the same time of day.
RESULTS—Treatment with 24 g/day piracetam produced significant and clinically relevant improvement in the primary outcome measure of mean sum score (p=0.005) and in the means of its subtests of motor impairment (p=0.02), functional disability (p=0.003), and in global assessments by both investigator (p=0.002) and patient (p=0.01). Significant improvement in functional disability was also found with daily doses of 9.6 g and 16.8 g. The dose-effect relation was linear and significant. More patients showed clinically relevant improvement with the highest dosage and, in individual patients, increasing the dose improved response. Piracetam was well tolerated and adverse effects were few, mild, and transient.
CONCLUSIONS—This study provides further evidence that piracetam is an effective and safe medication in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease. In addition

  11. IVIG treatment of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: a randomised double-blinded exploratory study of the effect on brain atrophy, cognition and conversion to dementia.

    PubMed

    Kile, Shawn; Au, William; Parise, Carol; Rose, Kimberley; Donnel, Tammy; Hankins, Andrea; Chan, Matthew; Ghassemi, Azad

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on brain atrophy and cognitive function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). 50 participant 50-84 years of age with amnestic MCI were administered 0.4 g/kg 10% IVIG or 0.9% saline every 2 weeks for a total of 5 infusions (2 g/kg total dose) in a randomised double-blinded design. MRI brain was completed at baseline, 12  and 24 months. Cognitive testing was completed at baseline and every 4 months. Participants were stratified into early and late (LMCI) MCI stages. Average annualised per cent change in ventricular volume was computed as a measure of brain atrophy. There was significantly less brain atrophy (p=0.037, adjusted for MCI status) in the IVIG group (5.87%) when compared with placebo (8.14%) at 12 months; at 24 months, the reduction in brain atrophy no longer reached statistical significance. The LMCI participants who received IVIG performed better on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog; p=0.011) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; p=0.004) at 1 year; these differences were not present after 2 years. There was no difference in conversion to AD dementia between the treatment and control groups after 2 years; however, at 1 year, there were fewer conversions from LMCI to AD dementia in the IVIG group (33.3%) when compared with control group (58.3%). This exploratory study provides limited evidence that a short course of IVIG administered in the MCI stage of AD reduces brain atrophy, prevents cognitive decline in LMCI and delays conversion to AD dementia for at least 1 year; however, this effect of IVIG appears to wane by 2 years. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01300728. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. A double blind, randomised, parallel group study on the efficacy and safety of treating acute lateral ankle sprain with oral hydrolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoffs, G; Struijs, P; de Wit, C; Rahlfs, V; Zwipp, H; van Dijk, C N

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of the triple combination Phlogenzym (rutoside, bromelain, and trypsin) with double combinations, the single substances, and placebo. Design: Multinational, multicentre, double blind, randomised, parallel group design with eight groups structured according to a factorial design. Setting: Orthopaedic surgery and emergency departments in 27 European hospitals. Participants: A total of 721 patients aged 16–53 years presenting with acute unilateral sprain of the lateral ankle joint. Primary efficacy criteria: (a) Pain on walking one or two steps, as defined by the patient on a visual analogue scale. (b) The range of motion, as measured by the investigator and expressed as a sum of flexion and extension. (c) The volume of the injured ankle measured with a volometer. Results: At the primary end point at seven days, the greatest reduction in pain was in the bromelain/trypsin group (73.7%). The Phlogenzym group showed a median reduction of 60.3%, and the placebo group showed a median reduction of 73.3%. The largest increase in range of motion (median) was in the placebo group (60% change from baseline). The Phlogenzym group showed a median increase of 42.9%. The biggest decrease in swelling was in the trypsin group (3.9% change from baseline). The Phlogenzym group showed a –2.30% change from baseline and the placebo group a –2.90% change. In the subgroup analysis of patients who did not use a Caligamed brace, Phlogenzym was superior to placebo for the summarising directional test of the primary efficacy criteria (MW = 0.621; LB-CI 0.496; p = 0.029; one sided Wei-Lachin procedure). The vast majority of doctors and patients rated the tolerability of all treatments tested as very good or at least good. Conclusions: Phlogenzym was not found to be superior to the three two-drug combinations, the three single substances, or placebo for treatment of patients with acute unilateral sprain of the lateral ankle joint. The small

  13. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of two concentrations of azelastine eye drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, G; Mivsek-Music, E; Perrin-Fayolle, M; Obtulowicz, K; Secchi, A

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye drops twice daily administered for 14 days to patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A total of 278 patients were recruited and 226 patients were evaluable for per protocol analysis. The target parameter was the response rate. Four eye symptoms, including the main symptom (itching) were recorded by patients in diaries and eight symptoms were assessed by physicians before and after seven and 14 days of treatment. Severity of symptoms was measured on a four-point scale. The response rates for itching (improvement of at least one score point within the first three days) according to patient assessment were 43% for placebo, 52% for 0.025% and 56% for 0.05% azelastine (NS). However, a more objective assessment of the three main eye symptoms by physicians showed a concentration-dependent improvement in response rate compared with placebo (a decrease of > or = 3 points from a baseline total score of > or = 6), which reached statistical significance for 0.05% azelastine on Day 7 (p < 0.002). In the evaluable patient population, the scores of the three main eye symptoms as well as of all eight recorded eye symptoms, as assessed by the physician, were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the 0.05% azelastine eye drops group in comparison with the placebo group at Day 7. Inefficacy was the cause of withdrawal in five and three patients on 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine, respectively, and in six patients on placebo. Adverse drug effects, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported by 14% (0.025%), 20% (0.05%) and 15% (placebo) of the patients. No serious side-effects occurred. Azelastine eye drops are effective and well tolerated at a concentration of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  14. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). Design and Methods 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. Results SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. Conclusions The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. Trial Registration

  15. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02474628.

  16. A multicentre non-blinded randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of regular early specialist symptom control treatment on quality of life in malignant mesothelioma (RESPECT-MESO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gunatilake, Samal; Brims, Fraser J H; Fogg, Carole; Lawrie, Iain; Maskell, Nick; Forbes, Karen; Rahman, Najib; Morris, Steve; Ogollah, Reuben; Gerry, Stephen; Peake, Mick; Darlison, Liz; Chauhan, Anoop J

    2014-09-19

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an incurable cancer caused by exposure to asbestos. The United Kingdom has the highest death rate from mesothelioma in the world and this figure is increasing. Median survival is 8 to 12 months, and most patients have symptoms at diagnosis. The fittest patients may be offered chemotherapy with palliative intent. For patients not fit for systemic anticancer treatment, best supportive care remains the mainstay of management. A study from the United States examining advanced lung cancer showed that early specialist palliative care input improved patient health related quality of life and depression symptoms 12 weeks after diagnosis. While mesothelioma and advanced lung cancer share many symptoms and have a poor prognosis, oncology and palliative care services in the United Kingdom, and many other countries, vary considerably compared to the United States. The aim of this trial is to assess whether regular early symptom control treatment provided by palliative care specialists can improve health related quality of life in patients newly diagnosed with mesothelioma. This multicentre study is an non-blinded, randomised controlled, parallel group trial. A total of 174 patients with a new diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma will be minimised with a random element in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 4 weekly regular early specialist symptom control care, or standard care. The primary outcome is health related quality of life for patients at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include health related quality of life for patients at 24 weeks, carer health related quality of life at 12 and 24 weeks, patient and carer mood at 12 and 24 weeks, overall survival and analysis of healthcare utilisation and cost. Current practice in the United Kingdom is to involve specialist palliative care towards the final weeks or months of a life-limiting illness. This study aims to investigate whether early, regular specialist care input can result in significant

  17. Efficacy and safety of enzalutamide versus bicalutamide for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (TERRAIN): a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Shore, Neal D; Chowdhury, Simon; Villers, Arnauld; Klotz, Laurence; Siemens, D Robert; Phung, De; van Os, Steve; Hasabou, Nahla; Wang, Fong; Bhattacharya, Suman; Heidenreich, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that has been shown to improve survival in two placebo-controlled phase 3 trials, and is approved for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. The objective of the TERRAIN study was to compare the efficacy and safety of enzalutamide with bicalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. TERRAIN was a double-blind, randomised phase 2 study, that recruited asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic men with prostate cancer progression on androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) from academic, community, and private health-care provision sites across North America and Europe. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive voice response system to receive enzalutamide 160 mg/day or bicalutamide 50 mg/day, both taken orally, in addition to ADT, until disease progression. Patients were stratified by a permutated block method (block size of four), by whether bilateral orchiectomy or receipt of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist or antagonist therapy started before or after the diagnosis of metastases, and by study site. Participants, investigators, and those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, analysed in all randomised patients. Safety outcomes were analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The open-label period of the trial is in progress, wherein patients still on treatment at the end of the double-blind treatment period were offered open-label enzalutamide at the discretion of the patient and study investigator. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01288911. Between March 22, 2011, and July 11, 2013, 375 patients were randomly assigned, 184 to enzalutamide and 191 to bicalutamide. 126 (68%) and 168 (88%) patients, respectively, discontinued their assigned treatment before study end, mainly due to progressive disease. Median follow

  18. Efficacy and safety of suanzaoren decoction for chronic insomnia disorder in adults: study protocol for randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qi-Hui; Wang, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Li; Xu, Meng-Bei; Zhang, Hong-feng; Huang, Li-bo; Lin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Insomnia disorder is defined as a combination of dissatisfaction with sleep quantity or quality and a significant negative impact on daytime functioning. Chronic insomnia disorder refers to clinical symptoms of persistent insomnia at least three nights a week for at least 3 months. Prevalence estimates of insomnia disorder range from 12% to 20% in the adult population, with approximately 50% having a chronic course. The potential side effects of hypnotic medications hinder their clinical application. Thus, traditional Chinese medicine is considered as an alternative option for treating insomnia. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of suanzaoren decoction (SZRD), a classic Chinese herbal prescription, for adult chronic insomnia disorder. Methods/analysis This is a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 150 patients with chronic insomnia disorder are randomised, allocated in a ratio of 1:1:1 to three groups: intervention group, control group and placebo group. The intervention group receives SZRD granule plus zolpidem tartrate (ZT) placebo; the control group receives ZT tablet plus SZRD granule placebo; and the placebo group receives ZT placebo and SZRD granule placebo. The patients receive medicine or placebo for 5 weeks and are followed up at 20 weeks. The primary outcome measures are polysomnography and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Secondary outcome measures are the Insomnia Severity Index, sleep diary and safety assessment. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and after treatment. Trial registration number ChiCTR-IOR-16009198. pre-results. PMID:28377394

  19. Vaginal progesterone as maintenance treatment after an episode of preterm labour (PROMISE) study: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Palacio, M; Cobo, T; Antolín, E; Ramirez, M; Cabrera, F; Mozo de Rosales, F; Bartha, J L; Juan, M; Martí, A; Oros, D; Rodríguez, À; Scazzocchio, E; Olivares, J M; Varea, S; Ríos, J; Gratacós, E

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate whether maintenance treatment with vaginal progesterone after an arrested preterm labour reduces the incidence of preterm delivery. Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Twelve tertiary care centres in Spain. A total of 265 women with singleton pregnancy, preterm labour successfully arrested with tocolytic treatment, and cervical length of <25 mm. Randomisation was stratified by gestational age (from 24.0 to <31.0 weeks of gestation and from 31.0 to <34.0 weeks of gestation) and centre. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1 : 1 ratio, to either daily vaginal capsules of 200 mg progesterone or placebo until delivery or 36.6 weeks of gestation, whichever occurred first. Primary outcome was delivery before 34.0 and 37.0 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes were discharge-to-delivery time, readmissions because of preterm labour, emergency service use, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. From June 2008 through June 2012, 1419 women were screened: 472 met the inclusion criteria and 265 were randomised. The final analysis included 258 women: 126 in the progesterone group and 132 in the placebo group. There were no significant differences between the progesterone and placebo groups in terms of delivery at <34 weeks of gestation [9/126 (7.1%) versus 10/132 (7.6%), P = 0.91] or <37 weeks of gestation [36/126 (28.6%) versus 29/132 (22.0%), P = 0.22]. There were no differences observed between groups when considering the two strata of gestational age at inclusion. A maintenance treatment of 200 mg of daily vaginal progesterone capsules in women discharged home after an episode of arrested preterm labour did not significantly reduce the rate of preterm delivery. Maintenance progesterone in 258 women after arrested PTL showed no benefit. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Selumetinib plus dacarbazine versus placebo plus dacarbazine as first-line treatment for BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma: a phase 2 double-blind randomised study.

    PubMed

    Robert, Caroline; Dummer, Reinhard; Gutzmer, Ralf; Lorigan, Paul; Kim, Kevin B; Nyakas, Marta; Arance, Ana; Liszkay, Gabriella; Schadendorf, Dirk; Cantarini, Mireille; Spencer, Stuart; Middleton, Mark R

    2013-07-01

    Patients with metastatic melanoma, 50% of whose tumours harbour a BRAF mutation, have a poor prognosis. Selumetinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, has shown antitumour activity in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma and in preclinical models when combined with chemotherapy. This study was designed to look for a signal of improved efficacy by comparing the combination of selumetinib and dacarbazine with dacarbazine alone. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 study investigated selumetinib plus dacarbazine versus placebo plus dacarbazine as first-line treatment in patients older than 18 years with histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced BRAF-mutant cutaneous or unknown primary melanoma. Patients were randomly assigned by central interactive voice response system (1:1 ratio, block size four) to take either oral selumetinib (75 mg twice daily in a 21-day cycle) or placebo; all patients received intravenous dacarbazine (1000 mg/m(2) on day 1 of a 21-day cycle). Patients, investigators, and the study team were masked to the treatment assigned. The primary endpoint was overall survival analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00936221. Between July 20, 2009, and April 8, 2010, 91 patients were randomly assigned to receive dacarbazine in combination with selumetinib (n=45) or placebo (n=46). Overall survival did not differ significantly between groups (median 13·9 months, 80% CI 10·2-15·6, in the selumetinib plus dacarbazine group and 10·5 months, 9·6-14·7, in the placebo plus dacarbazine group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·93, 80% CI 0·67-1·28, one-sided p=0·39). However, progression-free survival was significantly improved in the selumetinib plus dacarbazine group versus the placebo plus dacarbazine group (HR 0·63, 80% CI 0·47-0·84, one-sided p=0·021), with a median of 5·6 months (80% CI 4·9-5·9) versus 3·0 months (2·8-4·6), respectively. The most frequent adverse events included nausea (28 [64

  1. Lesinurad in combination with allopurinol: results of a phase 2, randomised, double-blind study in patients with gout with an inadequate response to allopurinol

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Sundy, John S; Miner, Jeffrey N; Cravets, Matthew; Storgard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the efficacy and tolerability of lesinurad, an oral selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in combination with allopurinol versus allopurinol alone in patients with gout and an inadequate response to allopurinol. Methods Patients (N=227) with an inadequate response to allopurinol, defined as serum urate (sUA) ≥6 mg/dL on ≥2 occasions ≥2 weeks apart despite ≥6 weeks of allopurinol, were randomised 2:1 to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment with lesinurad (200, 400 or 600 mg/day) or matching placebo in combination with their prestudy allopurinol dose (200–600 mg/day). Colchicine prophylaxis for gout flares was required. The primary end point was percent reduction from baseline sUA levels at 4 weeks. A pharmacokinetic substudy was also conducted. Safety was assessed throughout. Results Patients (n=208) received ≥1 dose of blinded medication. Lesinurad 200, 400 and 600 mg in combination with allopurinol produced significant mean percent reductions from baseline sUA of 16%, 22% and 30%, respectively, versus a mean 3% increase with placebo (p<0.0001, all doses vs placebo). Similar results were observed in patients with mild or moderate renal insufficiency (estimated creatinine clearance 30 to <90 mL/min). The incidence of ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event was 46%, 48% and 54% with lesinurad 200, 400 and 600 mg, respectively, and 46% with placebo (most frequent, gout flares, arthralgia, headache and nasopharyngitis), with no deaths or serious adverse events. Conclusions Lesinurad achieves clinically relevant and statistically significant reductions in sUA in combination with allopurinol in patients who warrant additional therapy on allopurinol alone. Trial registration number NCT01001338. PMID:26742777

  2. Lesinurad in combination with allopurinol: results of a phase 2, randomised, double-blind study in patients with gout with an inadequate response to allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Sundy, John S; Miner, Jeffrey N; Cravets, Matthew; Storgard, Chris

    2016-06-01

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of lesinurad, an oral selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in combination with allopurinol versus allopurinol alone in patients with gout and an inadequate response to allopurinol. Patients (N=227) with an inadequate response to allopurinol, defined as serum urate (sUA) ≥6 mg/dL on ≥2 occasions ≥2 weeks apart despite ≥6 weeks of allopurinol, were randomised 2:1 to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment with lesinurad (200, 400 or 600 mg/day) or matching placebo in combination with their prestudy allopurinol dose (200-600 mg/day). Colchicine prophylaxis for gout flares was required. The primary end point was percent reduction from baseline sUA levels at 4 weeks. A pharmacokinetic substudy was also conducted. Safety was assessed throughout. Patients (n=208) received ≥1 dose of blinded medication. Lesinurad 200, 400 and 600 mg in combination with allopurinol produced significant mean percent reductions from baseline sUA of 16%, 22% and 30%, respectively, versus a mean 3% increase with placebo (p<0.0001, all doses vs placebo). Similar results were observed in patients with mild or moderate renal insufficiency (estimated creatinine clearance 30 to <90 mL/min). The incidence of ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event was 46%, 48% and 54% with lesinurad 200, 400 and 600 mg, respectively, and 46% with placebo (most frequent, gout flares, arthralgia, headache and nasopharyngitis), with no deaths or serious adverse events. Lesinurad achieves clinically relevant and statistically significant reductions in sUA in combination with allopurinol in patients who warrant additional therapy on allopurinol alone. NCT01001338. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Once-daily indacaterol versus tiotropium for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (INVIGORATE): a randomised, blinded, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Decramer, Marc L; Chapman, Kenneth R; Dahl, Ronald; Frith, Peter; Devouassoux, Gilles; Fritscher, Carlos; Cameron, Ray; Shoaib, Muhammad; Lawrence, David; Young, David; McBryan, Danny

    2013-09-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of indacaterol and tiotropium in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of at least one moderate to severe exacerbation in the previous 12 months. In this multicentre, randomised, blinded, double-dummy, parallel group study, we enrolled patients aged 40 years or older with severe COPD and at least one exacerbation within the previous year. We used a computer-generated sequence to randomly allocate patients (1:1; stratified by baseline inhaled corticosteroid use, with the balance of treatments maintained at country level) to receive either indacaterol (150 μg) or tiotropium (18 μg) once-daily for 52 weeks. Our primary and key secondary objectives were to investigate whether indacaterol was non-inferior to tiotropium for trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at week 12 (primary endpoint), and for rate of exacerbations at week 52 (secondary endpoint). Analysis populations for the primary and key secondary endpoints were per-protocol sets. The safety set included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00845728. Between March 16, 2009, and July 5, 2012, we enrolled and randomly allocated 3444 patients: 1723 to indacaterol and 1721 to tiotropium. At week 12, the estimated least squares mean trough FEV1 difference between the groups was -0.011 L (least squares mean with indacaterol [n=1450] 1.134 L [SE 0.008] vs tiotropium [n=1467] 1.145 L [0.008]; one-sided 97.5% CI lower limit -0.026 L; p<0.0001). The lower limit of the 97.5% CI was above the prespecified non-inferiority margin of -0.055 L, suggesting that indacaterol was non-inferior to tiotropium. Indacaterol did not show non-inferiority in terms of annualised exacerbation rates: 0.79 (indacaterol, n=1529) versus 0.61 (tiotropium, n=1543); ratio 1.29 (one-sided 97.5% CI upper limit 1.44). In the safety set, we recorded no between-group difference in the

  4. Dolutegravir versus raltegravir in antiretroviral-experienced, integrase-inhibitor-naive adults with HIV: week 48 results from the randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority SAILING study.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Pedro; Pozniak, Anton L; Mingrone, Horacio; Shuldyakov, Andrey; Brites, Carlos; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime F; Richmond, Gary; Buendia, Carlos Beltran; Fourie, Jan; Ramgopal, Moti; Hagins, Debbie; Felizarta, Franco; Madruga, Jose; Reuter, Tania; Newman, Tamara; Small, Catherine B; Lombaard, John; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Dorey, David; Underwood, Mark; Griffith, Sandy; Min, Sherene

    2013-08-24

    Dolutegravir (GSK1349572), a once-daily HIV integrase inhibitor, has shown potent antiviral response and a favourable safety profile. We evaluated safety, efficacy, and emergent resistance in antiretroviral-experienced, integrase-inhibitor-naive adults with HIV-1 with at least two-class drug resistance. ING111762 (SAILING) is a 48 week, phase 3, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study that began in October, 2010. Eligible patients had two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA assessments of 400 copies per mL or higher (unless >1000 copies per mL at screening), resistance to two or more classes of antiretroviral drugs, and had one to two fully active drugs for background therapy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to once-daily dolutegravir 50 mg or twice-daily raltegravir 400 mg, with investigator-selected background therapy. Matching placebo was given, and study sites were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL at week 48, evaluated in all participants randomly assigned to treatment groups who received at least one dose of study drug, excluding participants at one site with violations of good clinical practice. Non-inferiority was prespecified with a 12% margin; if non-inferiority was established, then superiority would be tested per a prespecified sequential testing procedure. A key prespecified secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients with treatment-emergent integrase-inhibitor resistance. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01231516. Analysis included 715 patients (354 dolutegravir; 361 raltegravir). At week 48, 251 (71%) patients on dolutegravir had HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL versus 230 (64%) patients on raltegravir (adjusted difference 7·4%, 95% CI 0·7 to 14·2); superiority of dolutegravir versus raltegravir was then concluded (p=0·03). Significantly fewer patients had virological failure with treatment

  5. Efficacy and safety of indacaterol 150 μg once-daily in COPD: a double-blind, randomised, 12-week study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Indacaterol is a novel, once-daily (o.d.) inhaled, long-acting β2-agonist in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This 12-week, double-blind study compared the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of indacaterol to that of placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Methods Efficacy variables included 24-h trough FEV1 (mean of 23 h 10 min and 23 h 45 min post-dose) at Week 12 (primary endpoint) and after Day 1, and the percentage of COPD days with poor control (i.e., worsening symptoms). Safety was assessed by adverse events (AEs), mean serum potassium and blood glucose, QTc (Fridericia), and vital signs. Results Patients were randomised (n = 416, mean age 63 years) to receive either indacaterol 150 μg o.d. (n = 211) or placebo (n = 205) via a single-dose dry-powder inhaler; 87.5% completed the study. Trough FEV1 (LSM ± SEM) at Week 12 was 1.48 ± 0.018 L for indacaterol and 1.35 ± 0.019 L for placebo, a clinically relevant difference of 130 ± 24 mL (p < 0.001). Trough FEV1 after one dose was significantly higher with indacaterol than placebo (p < 0.001). Indacaterol demonstrated significantly higher peak FEV1 than placebo, both on Day 1 and at Week 12, with indacaterol-placebo differences (LSM ± SEM) of 190 ± 28 (p < 0.001) and 160 ± 28 mL (p < 0.001), respectively. Standardised AUC measurements for FEV1 (between 5 min and 4 h, 5 min and 1 h, and 1 and 4 h post-dose) at Week 12 were all significantly greater with indacaterol than placebo (p < 0.001), with LSM (± SEM) differences of 170 ± 24, 180 ± 24, and 170 ± 24 mL, respectively. Indacaterol significantly reduced the percentage of days of poor control versus placebo by 22.5% (p < 0.001) and was also associated with significantly reduced use of rescue medication (p < 0.001). The overall rates of AEs were comparable between the groups (indacaterol 49.3%, placebo 46.8%), with the most common AEs being COPD worsening (indacaterol 8.5%, placebo 12.2%) and cough

  6. Efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in 12- and 24-week treatment of social anxiety disorder: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study.

    PubMed

    Lader, Malcolm; Stender, Karina; Bürger, Vera; Nil, Rico

    2004-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the pharmacological treatment of choice for the treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The efficacy and tolerability of fixed doses of escitalopram were compared to those of placebo in the long-term treatment of generalised SAD, using paroxetine as an active reference. Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of SAD between 18-65 years of age were randomised to 24 weeks of double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 166), 5 mg escitalopram (n = 167), 10 mg escitalopram (n = 167), 20 mg escitalopram (n = 170), or 20 mg paroxetine (n = 169). Based on the primary efficacy parameter, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) total score at Week 12 (LOCF), a significantly superior therapeutic effect compared to placebo was seen for 5 and 20 mg escitalopram and for all doses for the OC analyses. Further improvement in LSAS scores was seen at Week 24 (OC and LOCF), with significant superiority over placebo for all doses of escitalopram, and 20 mg escitalopram was significantly superior to 20 mg paroxetine. Response to treatment (assessed by a Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score < or = 2) was significantly higher for all active treatments than for placebo at Week 12. Clinical relevance was supported by a significant decrease in all the Sheehan disability scores, and the good tolerability of escitalopram treatment. It is concluded that doses of 5-20 mg escitalopram are effective and well tolerated in the short- and long-term treatment of generalised SAD.

  7. Intra-lesional injections of recombinant human epidermal growth factor promote granulation and healing in advanced diabetic foot ulcers: multicenter, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montequín, José I; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen M; Díaz, Odalys González; Savigne, William; Sancho-Soutelo, Natasha; Rivero-Fernández, Fidel; Sánchez-Penton, Pablo; Morejón-Vega, Lourdes; Artaza-Sanz, Heriberto; García-Herrera, Arístides; González-Benavides, Cecilio; Hernández-Cañete, Carlos M; Vázquez-Proenza, Alberto; Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; López-Saura, Pedro A

    2009-12-01

    A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the intra-lesional infiltration of recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) in Wagner's grade 3 or 4 diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Subjects (149) were randomised to receive EGF (75 or 25 microg) or placebo, three times per week for 8 weeks and standard good wound care. The main endpoint was granulation tissue covering > or = 50% of the ulcer at 2 weeks. It was achieved by 19/48 controls versus 44/53 in the 75 microg group [odds ratio (OR): 7.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-18.9] and 34/48 in the 25 microg group (OR: 3.7; 1.6-8.7). Secondary outcome variables such as end-of-treatment complete granulation response (28/48 controls, 46/53 with 75 microg and 34/48 with 25 microg EGF), time-to-complete response (controls: 5 weeks; both EGF dose groups: 3 weeks), and wound closure after follow-up (25/48 controls, 40/53 with 75 microg and 25/48 with 25 microg EGF) were also treatment dependent. Multivariate analyses yielded that they were significantly enhanced by 75 microg EGF treatment and neuropathic versus ischemic ulcers. Most adverse events were mild and no drug-related severe adverse reactions were reported. It was concluded that recombinant human EGF (rhEGF) local injections offer a favourable risk-benefit balance in patients with advanced DFU.

  8. Study design and rationale for a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to assess the efficacy of selumetinib (AZD6244; ARRY-142886) in combination with dacarbazine in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma (SUMIT).

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Richard D; Schwartz, Gary K; Mann, Helen; Smith, Ian; Nathan, Paul D

    2015-06-10

    Uveal melanoma is characterised by mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, resulting in Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway activation. Treatment with selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886), a MEK1/2 inhibitor, results in antitumour effects in uveal melanoma pre-clinical models. A randomised phase II trial demonstrated improved progression-free survival (PFS) and response rate (RR) with selumetinib monotherapy versus chemotherapy with temozolomide or dacarbazine in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. Pre-clinically, selumetinib in combination with alkylating agents enhanced antitumour activity compared with chemotherapy alone. We hypothesise that selumetinib in combination with dacarbazine will result in improved clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma versus dacarbazine alone. SUMIT is a randomised, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study assessing the efficacy and safety of selumetinib in combination with dacarbazine in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma who have not received prior systemic therapy. Primary endpoint is PFS. Secondary endpoints include objective RR, duration of response, change in tumour size at Week 6, overall survival, safety and tolerability. Exploratory endpoints include efficacy in tumours with GNAQ or GNA11 mutations. Eligible patients must have: ≥1 lesion that can be accurately measured at baseline, and is suitable for accurate repeated measurements; ECOG performance status 0-1; life expectancy>12 weeks. Mutation status for GNAQ/GNA11 will be assessed retrospectively. An estimated 128 patients from approximately 50 sites globally will be randomised (3:1) to selumetinib 75 mg twice daily or placebo in combination with dacarbazine 1000 mg/m(2) on Day 1 of every 21-day cycle until objective disease progression, intolerable toxicity or occurrence of another discontinuation criterion. Randomisation will be stratified by the presence/absence of liver metastases. Tumours will be evaluated by RECIST v1.1 every 6 weeks

  9. Study protocol for a multi-institutional, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III trial investigating additive efficacy of duloxetine for neuropathic cancer pain refractory to opioids and gabapentinoids: the DIRECT study.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hiromichi; Ishiki, Hiroto; Iwase, Satoru; Koyama, Atsuko; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Matsuda, Yoshinobu; Miyaji, Tempei; Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro

    2017-08-28

    Management of patients with cancer suffering from neuropathic pain refractory to opioids and gabapentinoids remains an important challenge. Duloxetine is one of the choices after first-line treatment fails. The efficacy of duloxetine has been reported in patients with non-cancer disease and in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, but no randomised clinical trials have examined its effects on neuropathic cancer pain refractory to first-line treatment. The objective of this study is to assess the analgesic efficacy of duloxetine in patients suffering from neuropathic cancer pain refractory to opioids and gabapentinoids. A multi-institutional, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-parallel trial is planned. The inclusion criteria are adult patients with cancer suffering from neuropathic cancer pain refractory to opioids and gabapentinoids, patients with a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) pain score of 4 or higher and patients with a total Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score of less than 20. Patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy are excluded. The study will take place at 14 sites across Japan. Participants will be randomised (1:1 allocation ratio) to a duloxetine intervention group or a placebo control group. Evaluations will be made at baseline (T0 randomisation), day 0 (T1), day 3 (T2) and day 10 (T3). The primary endpoint is defined as the difference in NRS score for pain intensity (average over the previous 24 hours) at T3 between the duloxetine and placebo groups. A sample size of 70 patients will be examined between July 2015 and March 2018. Ethics approval was obtained at all participating sites.The results of this study will be submitted for publication in international peer-reviewed journals and the key findings presented at international scientific conferences. UMIN000017647; Pre-results. 2.2, 26 April 2017. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  10. Homoeopathy for delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, A J; Fisher, P; Smith, C; Wyllie, S E; Lewith, G T

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To pilot a model for determining whether a homoeopathic medicine is superior to placebo for delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Physiotherapy department of a homoeopathic hospital. SUBJECTS: Sixty eight healthy volunteers (average age 30; 41% men) undertook a 10 minute period of bench stepping carrying a small weight and were randomised to a homoeopathic medicine or placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean muscle soreness in the five day period after the exercise test, symptom free days, maximum soreness score, days to no soreness, days on medication. RESULTS: The difference between group means was 0.17 in favour of placebo with 95% confidence intervals +/- 0.50. Similar results were found for other outcome measures. CONCLUSION: The study did not find benefit of the homoeopathic remedy in DOMS. Bench stepping may not be an appropriate model to evaluate the effects of a treatment on DOMS because of wide variation between subject soreness scores. PMID:9429007

  11. Efficacy and safety of oral rehydration solution with reduced osmolarity in adults with cholera: a randomised double-blind clinical trial. CHOICE study group.

    PubMed

    Alam, N H; Majumder, R N; Fuchs, G J

    1999-07-24

    The effects of oral rehydration solution (ORS) with reduced osmolarity on children with acute watery diarrhoea are known, but little is known about the effects of such ORS on adults with cholera. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of an ORS with reduced osmolarity with that of standard WHO ORS in adults with cholera. We undertook a double-blind, controlled clinical trial in adults with severe cholera at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Our primary outcomes were mean stool output in the 24 h after randomisation, proportion of patients who needed unscheduled intravenous therapy, and proportion of patients with biochemical hyponatraemia 24 h after randomisation. 147 patients received ORS with reduced osmolarity and 153 received standard WHO ORS. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of main outcome variables: mean initial 24 h and total stool output (reduced osmolarity vs standard WHO ORS 212 [SE 8] vs 207 [8] and 284 [13] vs 273 [13] g/kg respectively), duration of diarrhoea (46 [1.5] vs 43 [1.5]). The proportion of patients vomiting during the first 24 h and the proportion who received unscheduled intravenous infusion during the first 24 h was similar between groups. More patients on reduced osmolarity ORS than on standard WHO ORS developed hyponatraemia during the first 24 h, defined as serum sodium concentration below 130 mmol/L (29 of 142 vs 16 of 150; odds ratio 2.1 [95% CI 1.1-4.1]). However, all hyponatraemic patients in both groups were symptom-free and the proportion of patients with serum sodium concentration below 125 mmol/L was similar between groups. There was no difference in clinical outcome between cholera patients treated with reduced osmolarity ORS solution and those treated with standard WHO ORS. The risk of increased incidence of symptom-free hyponatraemia in patients with cholera treated with an ORS with reduced osmolarity should be further assessed by meta-analysis. The

  12. The administration of intermittent parathyroid hormone affects functional recovery from pertrochanteric fractured neck of femur: a protocol for a prospective mixed method pilot study with randomisation of treatment allocation and blinded assessment (FRACTT).

    PubMed

    Chesser, Tim; Fox, Rebecca; Harding, Karen; Greenwood, Rosemary; Javaid, Kassim; Barnfield, Steven; Halliday, Ruth; Willett, Keith; Lamb, Sallie

    2014-01-29

    Pertrochanteric hip fractures occur in an elderly population and cause considerable morbidity and loss of functional ability as the fracture heals. Recently, parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is licensed for the treatment of osteoporosis, has been shown to potentially accelerate bone healing in animal and human studies. If its administration could allow a faster functional recovery after pertrochanteric hip fracture, then a patient's hospital stay may be reduced and rehabilitation could be potentially accelerated. PTH can currently only be administered by subcutaneous injection. The acceptability of this intervention is unknown in this elderly population. The aim of this pilot study is to inform the design of a future powered study comparing the functional recovery after pertrochanteric hip fracture in patients undergoing standard care versus those who undergo administration of subcutaneous injection of PTH. The study is an open label, prospective, randomised, comparative pilot study with blinded outcomes assessment to establish feasibility of the trial design. Patients will be randomised to receive a 6-week course of PTH or usual treatment. Functional outcomes will be assessed at 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Blinded assessment will be used to minimise the effect of bias of an open label study design. A nested qualitative study will investigate the patient experience of, and expectations following, hip fracture and the patient important aspects of recovery compared with the outcome measures proposed. Results will be analysed to establish the potential recruitment, compliance and retention rates using 95% CIs, and trial outcomes quoted with SDs and 95% CIs for the effect size. The study has been approved by the South West 2 Research Ethics committee (reference 10/H0206/34). The findings of this study will be disseminated to the medical community via presentations to orthopaedic, orthogeriatric and osteoporosis societies, and their relevant specialist journals. ISRCTN

  13. Temporary sympathectomy in chronic refractory angina: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Denby, Christine; Groves, David G; Eleuteri, Antonio; Tsang, Hoo Kee; Leach, Austin; Hammond, Clare; Bridson, John D; Fisher, Michael; Elt, Matthew; Laflin, Robert; Fisher, Anthony C

    2015-08-01

    Temporary sympathectomy by injection of bupivacaine at the site of the left stellate ganglion is used in the management of refractory angina at several UK centres. Although patients frequently report significant reduction in symptoms, efficacy has not been established by double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial (RCT). To investigate the efficacy of the procedure for the first time by a double-blind RCT. Consecutive patients referred to the authors' National Health Service (NHS) angina centre who were candidates for temporary sympathectomy were invited to participate in a trial. A total of 65 patients were randomised to receive either bupivacaine or saline injections. Identical syringes were prepared remotely, blinding patients and staff from randomisation. Cardiac autonomic function was measured 3 hours pre- and post-injection using new heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. Angina episodes were recorded contemporaneously by patients in study diaries in the 7-day periods pre- and post-injection. In 51 patients suitable for analysis, no significant differences between the active and placebo groups were found in patient-recorded frequency or intensity of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. However, across both groups combined, a significant difference was found in the frequency of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. The reduction in frequency of angina episodes produced by this procedure may not be due to drug pharmacology. It may be a placebo response or due to the mechanical effects of the injection of fluid. There is a need for further work using a larger patient cohort considering both mechanical and psychological factors.

  14. Temporary sympathectomy in chronic refractory angina: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Denby, Christine; Eleuteri, Antonio; Tsang, Hoo kee; Leach, Austin; Hammond, Clare; Bridson, John D; Fisher, Michael; Elt, Matthew; Laflin, Robert; Fisher, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Temporary sympathectomy by injection of bupivacaine at the site of the left stellate ganglion is used in the management of refractory angina at several UK centres. Although patients frequently report significant reduction in symptoms, efficacy has not been established by double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial (RCT). Objective: To investigate the efficacy of the procedure for the first time by a double-blind RCT. Methods: Consecutive patients referred to the authors’ National Health Service (NHS) angina centre who were candidates for temporary sympathectomy were invited to participate in a trial. A total of 65 patients were randomised to receive either bupivacaine or saline injections. Identical syringes were prepared remotely, blinding patients and staff from randomisation. Cardiac autonomic function was measured 3 hours pre- and post-injection using new heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. Angina episodes were recorded contemporaneously by patients in study diaries in the 7-day periods pre- and post-injection. Results: In 51 patients suitable for analysis, no significant differences between the active and placebo groups were found in patient-recorded frequency or intensity of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. However, across both groups combined, a significant difference was found in the frequency of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. Conclusion: The reduction in frequency of angina episodes produced by this procedure may not be due to drug pharmacology. It may be a placebo response or due to the mechanical effects of the injection of fluid. There is a need for further work using a larger patient cohort considering both mechanical and psychological factors. PMID:26516570

  15. Randomised clinical trial: the efficacy and safety of pancreatin enteric-coated minimicrospheres (Creon 40000 MMS) in patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis - a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Thorat, V; Reddy, N; Bhatia, S; Bapaye, A; Rajkumar, J S; Kini, D D; Kalla, M M; Ramesh, H

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) results in maldigestion, leading to abdominal pain, steatorrhoea, malnutrition and weight loss. Aim To assess the efficacy and safety of pancreatin (Creon 40000 MMS) in treating PEI due to chronic pancreatitis (CP). Methods This was a 1-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre study in India. Men and women ≥18 years of age with proven CP and PEI [defined as a coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) ≤80% during run-in phase] were randomised 1:1 to pancreatin or placebo (two capsules orally per main meal, one with snacks). The primary outcome measure was change in CFA from baseline to end of double-blind treatment (analysis of covariance). Results Of 62 patients randomised (34 pancreatin, 28 placebo), 61 completed treatment; one patient in the placebo arm withdrew consent before completion. Patient characteristics were similar in both groups except for the proportion of men (pancreatin 82% vs. placebo 68%). Patients receiving pancreatin had a statistically significant greater improvement in fat absorption from baseline to the end of double-blind treatment compared with those receiving placebo, with a least squares mean change (95% CI) in CFA of 18.5% (15.8–21.2) vs. 4.1% (1.0–7.2), respectively. This resulted in a treatment difference of 14.4% (10.3–18.5); P = 0.001. Patients receiving pancreatin also had a statistically significant greater improvement in nitrogen absorption and greater reductions in mean stool fat, stool frequency and stool weight compared with those receiving placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 12 patients on pancreatin and in seven on placebo; none led to study discontinuation. Conclusions The results provide evidence for the efficacy of pancreatin (Creon 40000 MMS) in patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis, and confirm that this formulation is well tolerated, with a good safety profile, at

  16. Long term cardiovascular effects of oral antidiabetic agents in non-diabetic patients with insulin resistance: double blind, prospective, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Stakos, D A; Schuster, D P; Sparks, E A; Wooley, C F; Osei, K; Boudoulas, H

    2005-05-01

    To study the long term cardiovascular effects of oral antidiabetic agents in non-diabetic patients with insulin resistance. 181 African American subjects with insulin resistance and normal glucose tolerance test were randomised to receive glipizide 5 mg/day (n = 25), metformin 500 mg/day (n = 59), or placebo (n = 97) for 24 months. Insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, lipid profile, left ventricular mass (echocardiography), aortic distensibility (echocardiography, blood pressure), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, carotid to femoral artery, Doppler) were measured at baseline and at 12 and 24 months after randomisation. A significant increase in PWV was observed in both glipizide (mean (SEM) change at 24 months 2.8 (2.7) m/s, p = 0.012) and metformin (2.2 (0.7) m/s, p = 0.01) groups during the follow up period. In contrast, PWV remained unchanged in the placebo group. The increase in PWV in the treatment groups was significant compared with placebo (analysis of variance p < 0.05). Other cardiovascular or metabolic variables did not change significantly compared with placebo during follow up. The observed increase in PWV is consistent with a decrease in the elastic properties of the aorta. The use of oral antidiabetic agents for the prevention of cardiovascular complications in non-diabetic African Americans with insulin resistance needs to be critically evaluated.

  17. Protocol for an investigator-blinded, randomised, 3-month, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy of intraoperative tendon sheath irrigation only with both intraoperative and postoperative irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis

    PubMed Central

    Jokihaara, Jarkko; Kaivorinne, Antti; Havulinna, Jouni; Göransson, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of purulent flexor tenosynovitis of the hand consists of surgical debridement followed by antibiotic treatment. Usually, the debridement is carried out by irrigating the tendon sheath in a proximal to distal direction facilitated by two small incisions. It is unclear whether intraoperative irrigation by itself is adequate for healing or if it should be combined with postoperative irrigation in the ward. The hypothesis of this prospective randomised trial is that intraoperative catheter irrigation alone is as effective as a combination of intraoperative and postoperative intermittent catheter irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis. Methods and analysis In this investigator-blinded, prospective randomised trial, 48 patients suffering from purulent flexor tenosynovitis are randomised in two groups. Intraoperative catheter irrigation of the flexor tendon sheath and antibiotic treatment is identical in both groups, whereas only the patients in one group are subjected to intermittent postoperative catheter irrigation three times a day for 3 days. The primary outcome measure is total active range of movement of the affected finger after 3 months of surgery. The secondary outcome is the need for reoperation. Ethics and dissemination The research ethics committee of Pirkanmaa Hospital District has approved the study protocol. The protocol has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registry (#NCT02320929). All participants will give written informed consent. The study results will elucidate the role of postoperative irrigation, which can be criticised as being labour consuming and unpleasant to the patient. The results of the study will be disseminated as a published article in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number: NCT02320929; pre-results. PMID:26671952

  18. Protocol for an investigator-blinded, randomised, 3-month, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy of intraoperative tendon sheath irrigation only with both intraoperative and postoperative irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Olli V; Jokihaara, Jarkko; Kaivorinne, Antti; Havulinna, Jouni; Göransson, Harry

    2015-12-15

    The management of purulent flexor tenosynovitis of the hand consists of surgical debridement followed by antibiotic treatment. Usually, the debridement is carried out by irrigating the tendon sheath in a proximal to distal direction facilitated by two small incisions. It is unclear whether intraoperative irrigation by itself is adequate for healing or if it should be combined with postoperative irrigation in the ward. The hypothesis of this prospective randomised trial is that intraoperative catheter irrigation alone is as effective as a combination of intraoperative and postoperative intermittent catheter irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis. In this investigator-blinded, prospective randomised trial, 48 patients suffering from purulent flexor tenosynovitis are randomised in two groups. Intraoperative catheter irrigation of the flexor tendon sheath and antibiotic treatment is identical in both groups, whereas only the patients in one group are subjected to intermittent postoperative catheter irrigation three times a day for 3 days. The primary outcome measure is total active range of movement of the affected finger after 3 months of surgery. The secondary outcome is the need for reoperation. The research ethics committee of Pirkanmaa Hospital District has approved the study protocol. The protocol has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registry (#NCT02320929). All participants will give written informed consent. The study results will elucidate the role of postoperative irrigation, which can be criticised as being labour consuming and unpleasant to the patient. The results of the study will be disseminated as a published article in a peer-reviewed journal. NCT02320929; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. The NEtherlands Cervical Kinematics (NECK) Trial. Cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation; a double-blind randomised multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with cervical radicular syndrome due to disc herniation refractory to conservative treatment are offered surgical treatment. Anterior cervical discectomy is the standard procedure, often in combination with interbody fusion. Accelerated adjacent disc degeneration is a known entity on the long term. Recently, cervical disc prostheses are developed to maintain motion and possibly reduce the incidence of adjacent disc degeneration. A comparative cost-effectiveness study focused on adjacent segment degeneration and functional outcome has not been performed yet. We present the design of the NECK trial, a randomised study on cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in patients with cervical disc herniation. Methods/Design Patients (age 18-65 years) presenting with radicular signs due to single level cervical disc herniation lasting more than 8 weeks are included. Patients will be randomised into 3 groups: anterior discectomy only, anterior discectomy with interbody fusion, and anterior discectomy with disc prosthesis. The primary outcome measure is symptomatic adjacent disc degeneration at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Other outcome parameters will be the Neck Disability Index, perceived recovery, arm and neck pain, complications, re-operations, quality of life, job satisfaction, anxiety and depression assessment, medical consumption, absenteeism, and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multicenter trial, in which 3 surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses will be kept blinded of the allocated treatment for 2 years. The follow-up period is 5 years. Discussion Currently, anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of cervical disc herniation. Whether additional interbody fusion or disc prothesis is necessary and cost-effective will be determined by this trial. Trial Registration Netherlands

  20. Migration and head penetration of Vitamin-E diffused cemented polyethylene cup compared to standard cemented cup in total hip arthroplasty: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial (E1 HIP)

    PubMed Central

    Sköldenberg, Olof; Rysinska, Agata; Chammout, Ghazi; Salemyr, Mats; Muren, Olle; Bodén, Henrik; Eisler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In vitro, Vitamin-E-diffused, highly cross-linked polyethylene (PE) has been shown to have superior wear resistance and improved mechanical properties when compared to those of standard highly cross-linked PE liners used in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety of a new cemented acetabular cup with Vitamin-E-doped PE regarding migration, head penetration and clinical results. Methods and analysis In this single-centre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial, we will include 50 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis scheduled for THA and randomise them in a 1:1 ratio to a cemented cup with either argon gas-sterilised PE (control group) or Vitamin-E-diffused PE (vitamin-e group). All patients and the assessor of the primary outcome will be blinded and the same uncemented stem will be used for all participants. The primary end point will be proximal migration of the cup at 2 years after surgery measured with radiostereometry. Secondary end points include proximal migration at other follow-ups, total migration, femoral head penetration, clinical outcome scores and hip-related complications. Patients will be followed up at 3 months and at 1, 2, 5 and 10 years postoperatively. Results Results will be analysed using 95% CIs for the effect size. A regression model will also be used to adjust for stratification factors. Ethics and dissemination The ethical committee at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study. The first results from the study will be disseminated to the medical community via presentations and publications in relevant medical journals when the last patient included has been followed up for 2 years. Trial registration number NCT02254980. PMID:27388352

  1. Comparative investigations on the efficacy of articaine 4% (epinephrine 1:200,000) and articaine 2% (epinephrine 1:200,000) in local infiltration anaesthesia in dentistry--a randomised double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Hintze, A; Paessler, L

    2006-06-01

    A randomised double-blind study investigated 155 patients with tooth extractions in the mandibular and maxillary jaws for a loss of anaesthetic potency when reducing the concentration of the active in articaine solutions. Tests were performed on the preparations of articaine 4% with a 1:200,000 addition of epinephrine (Ultracain D-S) and articaine 2% with a 1:200,000 addition of epinephrine (Ultracain 2%-Suprarenin). Local infiltration anaesthesia was the chosen method of anaesthesia. The most noticeable difference observed between the two injection solutions concerned the duration of anaesthesia, which was significantly shortened under the low-dose solution. The 4% articaine solution did not prove superior in local anaesthetic effect. Articaine 2% with epinephrine 1:200,000, therefore, can be considered a suitable local anaesthetic for tooth extractions.

  2. Rapid effect of single-dose rosiglitazone treatment on endothelial function in healthy men with normal glucose tolerance: data from a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Thomas; Walcher, Daniel; Hetzel, Jürgen; Mielke, Catrin; Rau, Matthias; Rittig, Kilian; Balletshofer, Bernd; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Hombach, Vinzenz; Böger, Rainer H; Koenig, Wolfgang; Marx, Nikolaus

    2010-07-01

    Antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve endothelial function in patients with or without type 2 diabetes. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the time course of a single dose of rosiglitazone on flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMD), metabolic parameters, and its effect on inflammatory markers in non-diabetic men. Forty non-obese, healthy men with normal glucose tolerance were randomised to a single dose of rosiglitazone (8 mg) or placebo, and FMD was assessed at baseline as well as after 6 h and 24 h. Rosiglitazone did not significantly affect blood glucose and insulin levels or lipid parameters after 6 and 24 h compared with placebo. Treatment with rosiglitazone significantly increased FMD after 6 h from 4.3% (3.3; 4.9) to 7.6% (5.6; 9.2) (p<0.0001 vs. baseline) resulting in a highly significant effect compared with placebo (p<0.0001 for difference between groups). After 24 h FMD was still significantly higher in the rosiglitazone group compared with baseline (p=0.001), but the effect was no longer statistically significant versus placebo (p=0.171). Our study shows a very rapid effect of single dose rosiglitazone treatment on endothelial function in non-diabetic healthy men, underscoring the hypothesis that TZDs may exhibit direct effect in the vasculature independent of their metabolic action.

  3. Denosumab versus zoledronic acid for treatment of bone metastases in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Fizazi, Karim; Carducci, Michael; Smith, Matthew; Damião, Ronaldo; Brown, Janet; Karsh, Lawrence; Milecki, Piotr; Shore, Neal; Rader, Michael; Wang, Huei; Jiang, Qi; Tadros, Sylvia; Dansey, Roger; Goessl, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Bone metastases are a major burden in men with advanced prostate cancer. We compared denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, with zoledronic acid for prevention of skeletal-related events in men with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer. Methods In this phase 3 study, men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and no previous exposure to intravenous bisphosphonate were enrolled from 342 centres in 39 countries. An interactive voice response system was used to assign patients (1:1 ratio), according to a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to receive 120 mg subcutaneous denosumab plus intravenous placebo, or 4 mg intravenous zoledronic acid plus subcutaneous placebo, every 4 weeks until the primary analysis cutoff date. Randomisation was stratified by previous skeletal-related event, prostate-specific antigen concentration, and chemotherapy for prostate cancer within 6 weeks before randomisation. Supplemental calcium and vitamin D were strongly recommended. Patients, study staff, and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was time to first on-study skeletal-related event (pathological fracture, radiation therapy, surgery to bone, or spinal cord compression), and was assessed for non-inferiority. The same outcome was further assessed for superiority as a secondary endpoint. Efficacy analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00321620, and has been completed. Findings 1904 patients were randomised, of whom 950 assigned to denosumab and 951 assigned to receive zoledronic acid were eligible for the efficacy analysis. Median duration on study at primary analysis cutoff date was 12·2 months (IQR 5·9–18·5) for patients on denosumab and 11·2 months (IQR 5·6–17·4) for those on zoledronic acid. Median time to first on-study skeletal-related event was 20·7 months (95% CI 18·8–24·9) with denosumab compared with 17·1

  4. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study

    PubMed Central

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. Methods and analysis The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10 269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. Ethics and dissemination TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a

  5. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy study of nalmefene, as-needed use, in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gual, Antoni; He, Yuan; Torup, Lars; van den Brink, Wim; Mann, Karl

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of as-needed use of the opioid system modulator nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption in patients with alcohol dependence. Seven hundred and eighteen patients (placebo=360; nalmefene=358), ≥ 18 years of age, with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence, ≥ 6 heavy drinking days and an average alcohol consumption ≥ WHO medium drinking risk level in the 4 weeks preceding screening, were randomised (1:1) to 24 weeks of as-needed placebo or nalmefene 18 mg/day. The co- primary efficacy analyses showed a significantly superior effect of nalmefene compared to placebo in the change from baseline to month 6 in heavy drinking days (group difference: -1.7 days/month [95% CI -3.1; -0.4]; p=0.012) and a better but not significant effect in reducing total alcohol consumption (group difference: -5.0 g/day last month [95% CI -10.6; 0.7]; p=0.088). A subgroup analysis showed that patients who did not reduce their drinking prior to randomisation benefitted more from nalmefene. Improvements in Clinical Global Impression and reductions in liver enzymes were greater in the nalmefene group than in the placebo group. Adverse events were more common with nalmefene; the incidence of adverse events leading to dropout was similar in both groups. This study provides evidence for the efficacy of nalmefene, which constitutes a new pharmacological treatment paradigm in terms of treatment goal (reduced drinking) and dosing regimen (as-needed), in alcohol dependent patients unable to reduce alcohol consumption on their own. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination treatment with mirabegron and solifenacin in patients with overactive bladder: efficacy and safety results from a randomised, double-blind, dose-ranging, phase 2 study (Symphony).

    PubMed

    Abrams, Paul; Kelleher, Con; Staskin, David; Rechberger, Tomasz; Kay, Richard; Martina, Reynaldo; Newgreen, Donald; Paireddy, Asha; van Maanen, Rob; Ridder, Arwin

    2015-03-01

    Combining the β3-adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron and the antimuscarinic (AM) agent solifenacin may improve efficacy in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) while reducing the AM side effects. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of combinations of solifenacin/mirabegron compared with solifenacin 5mg monotherapy. The secondary objective was to explore the dose-response relationship and the safety/tolerability compared with placebo and monotherapy. A phase 2, factorial design, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo- and monotherapy-controlled trial, conducted at 141 sites in 20 European countries. Male and female patients were aged ≥18 yr with symptoms of OAB for ≥3 mo. A total of 1306 patients (66.4% female) were randomised to 12 wk of treatment in 1 of 12 groups: 6 combination groups (solifenacin 2.5, 5, or 10 mg plus mirabegron 25 or 50 mg), 5 monotherapy groups (solifenacin 2.5, 5, or 10 mg, or mirabegron 25 or 50 mg), or placebo. Change from baseline to end of treatment in mean volume voided per micturition (MVV) (primary end point) and mean numbers of micturitions per 24 h, incontinence episodes per 24 h, and urgency episodes per 24 h were analysed using an analysis of covariance model. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), blood pressure, pulse rate, postvoid residual (PVR) volume, and laboratory and electrocardiography (ECG) parameters. Compared with solifenacin 5 mg monotherapy, all combinations with solifenacin 5 or 10 mg significantly improved MVV, with adjusted differences ranging from 18.0 ml (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.4-30.0) to 26.3 ml (95% CI, 12.0-41.0). Three combination groups significantly reduced micturition frequency compared with solifenacin 5 mg, ranging from -0.80 (95% CI, -1.39 to -0.22) to -0.98 (95% CI, -1.68 to -0.27). Five of six combinations significantly reduced urgency episodes compared with solifenacin 5 mg, ranging from -0.98 (95% CI, -1.78, to -0.18) to -1

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal formula (RCM-106) for atopic dermatitis: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in children

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hsiewe Ying; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C; Chen, Dacan; Da Costa, Cliff; Lenon, George B

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin rash that greatly affects quality of life. The current therapies are inadequate in managing atopic dermatitis and often have associated adverse effects or drug tolerance development. Chinese medicine is expected to have promising prospects in the management of atopic dermatitis and recent studies have shown encouraging results. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a newly formulated Chinese herbal formula, RMIT Chinese Medicine-106 (RCM-106), in the management of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in children aged 6–18 years. Methods The study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-armed clinical trial. Participant, investigator and assessors will remain blinded to the treatment assignment until after the study has been completed. After a 2-week run-in period, 90 participants will be randomised, using block randomised sequences generated by computer, to receive either RCM-106 or matching placebo capsules, twice daily, for a treatment period of 8 weeks and followed up for 4 weeks. Primary outcome measures include the evaluation of disease severity and extent using two validated scoring instruments—Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) and Patient-Oriented Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD). Secondary outcome measures include the evaluation of quality of life using the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI); occurrence of adverse events and total usage of other therapies as recorded in the participants’ daily diary and laboratory studies which include eosinophil count, total IgE, full blood count and liver and kidney function tests. Intention-to-treat analysis will be applied to all data analyses. Ethics and dissemination This trial has received human ethics approval from the Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) of RMIT University (Project number 15/12). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at the

  8. A randomised, double-blind, phase III study comparing SB2, an infliximab biosimilar, to the infliximab reference product Remicade in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Prodanovic, Nenad; Niebrzydowski, Jaroslaw; Staykov, Ivan; Dokoupilova, Eva; Baranauskaite, Asta; Yatsyshyn, Roman; Mekic, Mevludin; Porawska, Wieskawa; Ciferska, Hana; Jedrychowicz-Rosiak, Krystyna; Zielinska, Agnieszka; Choi, Jasmine; Rho, Young Hee; Smolen, Josef S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy, safety, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics (PK) of SB2 to the infliximab reference product (INF) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate therapy. Methods This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, multinational, multicentre parallel group study. Patients with moderate to severe RA despite methotrexate therapy were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either SB2 or INF of 3 mg/kg. The primary end point was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 30. Inclusion of the 95% CI of the ACR20 response difference within a ±15% margin was required for equivalence. Results 584 subjects were randomised into SB2 (N=291; 290 analysed) or INF (N=293). The ACR20 response at week 30 in the per-protocol set was 64.1% in SB2 versus 66.0% in INF. The adjusted rate difference was −1.88% (95% CI −10.26% to 6.51%), which was within the predefined equivalence margin. Other efficacy outcomes such as ACR50/70, disease activity score measured by 28 joints and European League against Rheumatism response were similar between SB2 and INF. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable (57.6% in SB2 vs 58.0% in INF) as well as the incidence of antidrug antibodies (ADA) to infliximab up to week 30 (55.1% in SB2 vs 49.7% in INF). The PK profile was similar between SB2 and INF. Efficacy, safety and PK by ADA subgroup were comparable between SB2 and INF. Conclusions SB2 was equivalent to INF in terms of ACR20 response at week 30. SB2 was well tolerated with a comparable safety profile, immunogenicity and PK to INF. Trial registration number NCT01936181. PMID:26318384

  9. A double-blind placebo-controlled, randomised study comparing gemcitabine and marimastat with gemcitabine and placebo as first line therapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bramhall, S R; Schulz, J; Nemunaitis, J; Brown, P D; Baillet, M; Buckels, J A C

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in the western world and the prognosis for unresectable disease remains poor. Recent advances in conventional chemotherapy and the development of novel ‘molecular’ treatment strategies with different toxicity profiles warrant investigation as combination treatment strategies. This randomised study in pancreatic cancer compares marimastat (orally administered matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor) in combination with gemcitabine to gemcitabine alone. Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer were randomised to receive gemcitabine (1000 mg m−2) in combination with either marimastat or placebo. The primary end-point was survival. Objective tumour response and duration of response, time to treatment failure and disease progression, quality of life and safety were also assessed. There was no significant difference in survival between gemcitabine and marimastat and gemcitabine and placebo (P=0.95 log-rank test). Median survival times were 165.5 and 164 days and 1-year survival was 18% and 17% respectively. There were no significant differences in overall response rates (11 and 16% respectively), progression-free survival (P=0.68 log-rank test) or time to treatment failure (P=0.70 log-rank test) between the treatment arms. The gemcitabine and marimastat combination was well tolerated with only 2.5% of patients withdrawn due to presumed marimastat toxicity. Grade 3 or 4 musculoskeletal toxicities were reported in only 4% of the marimastat treated patients, although 59% of marimastat treated patients reported some musculoskeletal events. The results of this study provide no evidence to support a combination of marimastat with gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. The combination of marimastat with gemcitabine was well tolerated. Further studies of marimastat as a maintenance treatment following a response or stable disease on gemcitabine may be justified

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of flumazenil in the treatment of portal systemic encephalopathy: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled multicentre study.

    PubMed Central

    Gyr, K; Meier, R; Häussler, J; Boulétreau, P; Fleig, W E; Gatta, A; Holstege, A; Pomier-Layrargues, G; Schalm, S W; Groeneweg, M; Scollo-Lavizzari, G; Ventura, E; Zeneroli, M L; Williams, R; Yoo, Y; Amrein, R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Portal systemic encephalopathy (PSE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with hepatic failure. Small scale studies have shown the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil to be effective in ameliorating PSE. AIMS: To determine the efficacy of flumazenil in patients with non-comatous mild to moderate PSE (stages I to III) due to severe chronic liver disease. PATIENTS: 49 male and female adults without symptoms of severe bleeding and sepsis and who screened negative for benzodiazepine in both blood and urine, were included in the study. METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive either three sequential bolus injections of flumazenil (0.4, 0.8, and 1 mg) or placebo at one minute intervals, followed by intravenous infusions of either flumazenil (1 mg/h) or placebo for three hours. Clinical PSE grading and vital signs were assessed hourly during baseline and post-treatment periods and half hourly during treatment. The main outcome measures were improvement in group average PSE score and reduction of two points in individual PSE score (clinically relevant improvement). RESULTS: The mean average improvement in the PSE score in the subjects treated with flumazenil was not statistically significantly different from placebo. However, for patients showing clinically relevant improvement, the difference between flumazenil and placebo was statistically significant (seven of 28 v none of 21; p = 0.015). Flumazenil was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: A subgroup of patients with PSE resulting from chronic liver disease may benefit from the administration of flumazenil. PMID:8977350

  11. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study: the effects of a synbiotic, Lepicol, in adults with chronic, functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Cudmore, Sally; Doolan, Andrea; Lacey, Seán; Shanahan, Fergus

    2017-05-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the safety and effects of Lepicol® (pysllium fibre, inulin and 5 probiotic strains) in adults with chronic, functional constipation during a 4 week intervention. 69 subjects with functional constipation according to Rome III criteria were randomised to receive Lepicol (n = 35) or placebo (n = 34) daily. Both groups had improved frequency of bowel movements, with an increase of 1.082 bowel movements in the Lepicol group over placebo after one week, and 1.079 more than placebo after week 2, but with no significant difference at week 4. Both groups showed significant improvements in quality of life scores at 4 weeks, with the average score being 12.033% better in the Lepicol group, which also had 15.2% improvement in intensity of symptoms and 28.5% increase in satisfaction with quality of life compared to the placebo. Symptoms of constipation improved to a greater degree and there was a significant reduction in laxative use in the Lepicol group.

  12. The Probiotics in Pregnancy Study (PiP Study): rationale and design of a double-blind randomised controlled trial to improve maternal health during pregnancy and prevent infant eczema and allergy.

    PubMed

    Barthow, Christine; Wickens, Kristin; Stanley, Thorsten; Mitchell, Edwin A; Maude, Robyn; Abels, Peter; Purdie, Gordon; Murphy, Rinki; Stone, Peter; Kang, Janice; Hood, Fiona; Rowden, Judy; Barnes, Phillipa; Fitzharris, Penny; Craig, Jeffrey; Slykerman, Rebecca F; Crane, Julian

    2016-06-03

    Worldwide there is increasing interest in the manipulation of human gut microbiota by the use of probiotic supplements to modify or prevent a range of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Probiotic interventions administered during pregnancy and breastfeeding offer a unique opportunity to influence a range of important maternal and infant outcomes. The aim of the Probiotics in Pregnancy Study (PiP Study) is to assess if supplementation by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 administered to women from early pregnancy and while breastfeeding can reduce the rates of infant eczema and atopic sensitisation at 1 year, and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus, bacterial vaginosis and Group B Streptococcal vaginal colonisation before birth, and depression and anxiety postpartum. The PiP Study is a two-centre, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial in Wellington and Auckland, New Zealand. Four hundred pregnant women expecting infants at high risk of allergic disease will be enrolled in the study at 14-16 weeks gestation and randomised to receive either Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (6 × 10(9) colony-forming units per day (cfu/day)) or placebo until delivery and then continuing until 6 months post-partum, if breastfeeding. Primary infant outcomes are the development and severity of eczema and atopic sensitisation in the first year of life. Secondary outcomes are diagnosis of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus, presence of bacterial vaginosis and vaginal carriage of Group B Streptococcus (at 35-37 weeks gestation). Other outcome measures include maternal weight gain, maternal postpartum depression and anxiety, infant birth weight, preterm birth, and rate of caesarean sections. A range of samples including maternal and infant faecal samples, maternal blood samples, cord blood and infant cord tissue samples, breast milk, infant skin swabs and infant buccal swabs will be collected for the investigation of the mechanisms of probiotic action

  13. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating the effects of inorganic nitrate on vascular function, platelet reactivity and restenosis in stable angina: protocol of the NITRATE-OCT study

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Krishnaraj S; Jones, Daniel A; Van-Eijl, T J A; Tsang, Hilda; Warren, Helen; Hamshere, Stephen M; Kapil, Vikas; Jain, Ajay K; Deaner, Andrew; Poulter, Neil; Caulfield, Mark J; Mathur, Anthony; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The mainstay treatment for reducing the symptoms of angina and long-term risk of heart attacks in patients with heart disease is stent implantation in the diseased coronary artery. While this procedure has revolutionised treatment, the incidence of secondary events remains a concern. These repeat events are thought to be due, in part, to continued enhanced platelet reactivity, endothelial dysfunction and ultimately restenosis of the stented artery. In this study, we will investigate whether a once a day inorganic nitrate administration might favourably modulate platelet reactivity and endothelial function leading to a decrease in restenosis. Methods and design NITRATE-OCT is a double-blind, randomised, single-centre, placebo-controlled phase II trial that will enrol 246 patients with stable angina due to have elective percutaneous coronary intervention procedure with stent implantation. Patients will be randomised to receive 6 months of a once a day dose of either nitrate-rich beetroot juice or nitrate-deplete beetroot juice (placebo) starting up to 1 week before their procedure. The primary outcome is reduction of in-stent late loss assessed by quantitative coronary angiography and optical coherence tomography at 6 months. The study is powered to detect a 0.22±0.55 mm reduction in late loss in the treatment group compared with the placebo group. Secondary end points include change from baseline assessment of endothelial function measured using flow-mediated dilation at 6 months, target vessel revascularisation (TVR), restenosis rate (diameter>50%) and in-segment late loss at 6 months, markers of inflammation and platelet reactivity and major adverse cardiac events (ie, myocardial infarction, death, cerebrovascular accident, TVR) at 12 and 24 months. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Local Ethics Committee (15/LO/0555). Trial results will be published according to the CONSORT statement and will be presented at

  14. A comparison of the effect of two doses of oral melatonin with oral midazolam and placebo on pre-operative anxiety, cognition and psychomotor function in children: A randomised double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Kurdi, Madhuri S; Muthukalai, Sindhu Priya

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Melatonin (MT), a naturally occurring pituitary hormone has a sleep promoting effect. There are very few studies on pre-operative oral MT (0.2–0.5 mg/kg) in children. We planned a study to assess the efficacy of oral MT in two doses and compare it with oral midazolam and placebo for pre-operative anxiolysis, sedation, maintenance of cognition and psychomotor skills, parental separation behaviour and venepuncture compliance. Methods: This prospective double-blind randomised study was conducted after ethical committee approval on 100 children aged 5–15 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective surgery at our hospital from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Mentally disordered children were excluded from the study. They were randomised into four groups of 25 each (A, B, C, D) to receive either oral MT 0.5 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg or oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg or placebo 45–60 min, respectively, before induction. The child's anxiety, cognition and psychomotor function before and after pre-medication, behaviour during the parental separation and venepuncture were appropriately scored. Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance for intergroup and Wilcoxon matched pairs tests for intragroup comparisons of data were applied. Results: The four groups were comparable regarding mean age, weight and sex. The anxiety score reductions in the three groups when compared to placebo were statistically significant. Children receiving MT 0.75 mg/kg had maximum anxiolysis and venepuncture compliance (P < 0.05). Cognition was decreased with maximum sedation, successful parental separation and psychomotor impairment in the midazolam group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Oral MT (0.5 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) in children decreases pre-operative anxiety without impairing cognitive and psychomotor functions, the 0.75 mg/kg dose being most effective. PMID:27761038

  15. Comparison of ondansetron and granisetron for antiemetic prophylaxis in maxillofacial surgery patients receiving general anesthesia: a prospective, randomised, and double blind study.

    PubMed

    Savant, Kiran; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay Sinai; Berwal, Vikas; Khandeparker, Purva Vijay; Jain, Hunny

    2016-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of intravenous ondansetron (4 mg, 2 mL) and granisetron (2 mg, 2 mL) for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients during oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures under general anesthesia. A prospective, randomized, and double blind clinical study was carried out with 60 patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Approximately two minutes before induction of general anesthesia, each patient received either 4 mg (2 mL) ondansetron or 2 mg (2 mL) granisetron intravenously in a double blind manner. Balanced anesthetic technique was used for all patients. Patients were assessed for episodes of nausea, retching, vomiting, and the need for rescue antiemetic at intervals of 0-2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Incidence of complete response and adverse effects were assessed at 24 hours postoperatively. Data was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test, unpaired t-test, or the Mann-Whitney U-test as appropriate. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for incidence of PONV or the need for rescue antiemetic. Both study drugs were well tolerated with minimum adverse effects; the most common adverse effect was headache. The overall incidence of complete response in the granisetron group (86.7%) was significantly higher than the ondansetron group (60.0%). Granisetron at an intravenous dose of 2 mg was found to be safe, well tolerated, and more effective by increasing the incidence of complete response compared to 4 mg intravenous ondansetron when used for antiemetic prophylaxis in maxillofacial surgery patients receiving general anesthesia. Benefits of granisetron include high receptor specificity and high potency, which make it a valuable alternative to ondansetron.

  16. Comparison of ondansetron and granisetron for antiemetic prophylaxis in maxillofacial surgery patients receiving general anesthesia: a prospective, randomised, and double blind study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of intravenous ondansetron (4 mg, 2 mL) and granisetron (2 mg, 2 mL) for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients during oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods A prospective, randomized, and double blind clinical study was carried out with 60 patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Approximately two minutes before induction of general anesthesia, each patient received either 4 mg (2 mL) ondansetron or 2 mg (2 mL) granisetron intravenously in a double blind manner. Balanced anesthetic technique was used for all patients. Patients were assessed for episodes of nausea, retching, vomiting, and the need for rescue antiemetic at intervals of 0-2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Incidence of complete response and adverse effects were assessed at 24 hours postoperatively. Data was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test, unpaired t-test, or the Mann-Whitney U-test as appropriate. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for incidence of PONV or the need for rescue antiemetic. Both study drugs were well tolerated with minimum adverse effects; the most common adverse effect was headache. The overall incidence of complete response in the granisetron group (86.7%) was significantly higher than the ondansetron group (60.0%). Conclusion Granisetron at an intravenous dose of 2 mg was found to be safe, well tolerated, and more effective by increasing the incidence of complete response compared to 4 mg intravenous ondansetron when used for antiemetic prophylaxis in maxillofacial surgery patients receiving general anesthesia. Benefits of granisetron include high receptor specificity and high potency, which make it a

  17. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study to demonstrate equivalence in efficacy and safety of CT-P13 compared with innovator infliximab when coadministered with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: the PLANETRA study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Hyun; Hrycaj, Pawel; Miranda, Pedro; Ramiterre, Edgar; Piotrowski, Mariusz; Shevchuk, Sergii; Kovalenko, Volodymyr; Prodanovic, Nenad; Abello-Banfi, Mauricio; Gutierrez-Ureña, Sergio; Morales-Olazabal, Luis; Tee, Michael; Jimenez, Renato; Zamani, Omid; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, HoUng; Park, Won; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of innovator infliximab (INX) and CT-P13, an INX biosimilar, in active rheumatoid arthritis patients with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Methods Phase III randomised, double-blind, multicentre, multinational, parallel-group study. Patients with active disease despite MTX (12.5–25 mg/week) were randomised to receive 3 mg/kg of CT-P13 (n=302) or INX (n=304) with MTX and folic acid. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 30. Therapeutic equivalence of clinical response according to ACR20 criteria was concluded if the 95% CI for the treatment difference was within ±15%. Secondary endpoints included ACR response criteria, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, change in Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Simplified Disease Activity Index, Clinical Disease Activity Index, as well as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters, safety and immunogenicity. Results At week 30, ACR20 responses were 60.9% for CT-P13 and 58.6% for INX (95% CI −6% to 10%) in the intention-to-treat population. The proportions in CT-P13 and INX groups achieving good or moderate EULAR responses (C reactive protein (CRP)) at week 30 were 85.8% and 87.1%, respectively. Low disease activity or remission according to DAS28–CRP, ACR–EULAR remission rates, ACR50/ACR70 responses and all other PK and PD endpoints were highly similar at week 30. Incidence of drug-related adverse events (35.2% vs 35.9%) and detection of antidrug antibodies (48.4% vs 48.2%) were highly similar for CT-P13 and INX, respectively. Conclusions CT-P13 demonstrated equivalent efficacy to INX at week 30, with a comparable PK profile and immunogenicity. CT-P13 was well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable with that of INX. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01217086 PMID:23687260

  18. Study protocol for a double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of continuous subpectoral local anaesthetic infusion for pain and shoulder function following mastectomy: SUB-pectoral Local anaesthetic Infusion following MastEctomy (SUBLIME) study

    PubMed Central

    Langford, R; Brown, I; Vickery, J; Mitchell, K; Pritchard, C; Creanor, S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Over 16 000 mastectomies are performed in England and Wales annually. Acute postoperative pain and nausea are common. The most frequently occurring long-term complications are chronic pain (up to 50%) and reduced shoulder function (reported at 35%). Regional techniques that improve acute postoperative pain relief may reduce the incidence of these complications. This study assesses the effectiveness of a 24-hour continuous local anaesthetic in the subpectoral plane in improving postoperative pain and quality of life in patients undergoing mastectomy. Methods and analysis This is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, two-centre, parallel group trial in women undergoing mastectomy with or without axillary involvement. One hundred and sixty participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 0.25% levobupivacaine or 0.9% saline by subpectoral infusion postoperatively for 24 h. All participants will be provided with an intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) system. Participants will be followed-up for 24 h in hospital and at approximately 14 days and 6 months postoperatively. Joint primary outcome measures are total morphine consumption and total pain score (captured via patient-recorded visual analogue scale (VAS) 4 hourly) during the first 24 h postoperatively. Primary statistical analysis of total pain is based on the area under the curve of pain versus time graph. Secondary outcomes include PCA attempts in first 24 h; VAS pain scores and shoulder function by goniometry at 24 h, 14 days (approximately) and 6 months; Verbal Rating Scale pain scores in first 24 h; Brief Pain Inventory and Oxford Shoulder Score at 6 months; duration of hospital stay; incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting; cost-effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the South West England Research Ethics Committee (12/SW/0149). Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented

  19. ENGOT-ov-6/TRINOVA-2: Randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus trebananib or placebo in women with recurrent partially platinum-sensitive or resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Marth, Christian; Vergote, Ignace; Scambia, Giovanni; Oberaigner, Willi; Clamp, Andrew; Berger, Regina; Kurzeder, Christian; Colombo, Nicoletta; Vuylsteke, Peter; Lorusso, Domenica; Hall, Marcia; Renard, Vincent; Pignata, Sandro; Kristeleit, Rebecca; Altintas, Sevilay; Rustin, Gordon; Wenham, Robert M; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Fong, Peter C; Oza, Amit; Monk, Bradley J; Ma, Haijun; Vogl, Florian D; Bach, Bruce A

    2017-01-01

    Trebananib, a peptide-Fc fusion protein, inhibits angiogenesis by inhibiting binding of angiopoietin-1/2 to the receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study evaluated whether trebananib plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Women with recurrent ovarian cancer (platinum-free interval ≤12 months) were randomised to intravenous PLD 50 mg/m(2) once every 4 weeks plus weekly intravenous trebananib 15 mg/kg or placebo. PFS was the primary end-point; key secondary end-points were objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DOR). Owing to PLD shortages, enrolment was paused for 13 months; the study was subsequently truncated. Two hundred twenty-three patients were enrolled. Median PFS was 7.6 months (95% CI, 7.2-9.0) in the trebananib arm and 7.2 months (95% CI, 4.8-8.2) in the placebo arm, with a hazard ratio of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.68-1.24). However, because the proportional hazards assumption was not fulfilled, the standard Cox model did not provide a reliable estimate of the hazard ratio. ORR in the trebananib arm was 46% versus 21% in the placebo arm (odds ratio, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.78-6.64). Median DOR was improved (trebananib, 7.4 months [95% CI, 5.7-7.6]; placebo, 3.9 months [95% CI, 2.3-6.5]). Adverse events with a greater incidence in the trebananib arm included localised oedema (61% versus 32%), ascites (29% versus 9%) and vomiting (45% versus 33%). Trebananib demonstrated anticancer activity in this phase 3 study, indicated by improved ORR and DOR. Median PFS was not improved. No new safety signals were identified. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01281254. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Efficacy and safety of ofloxacin and its combination with dexamethasone in chronic suppurative otitis media. A randomised, double blind, parallel group, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Panchasara, A; Singh, A; Mandavia, D; Jha, S; Tripathi, C

    2015-02-01

    The role of corticosteroid in patients of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is unknown. In the present study, the efficacy and safety of ofloxacin alone (OA) and the ofloxacin + dexamethasone combination (ODC) is compared by studying clinical cure rates and adverse drug reactions in patients with CSOM. After prior permission from the Institutional Review Board and written informed consent from patients, pre-treatment clinical assessment and bacteriology of the middle ear discharge were done. The middle ear was categorised into active, mucoid or inactive according to the type of discharge. Grades of otorrhoea and size of tympanic membrane perforation were noted. CSOM with organisms sensitive to ofloxacin were treated either with OA or ODC eardrops for a period of 15 days. Post-treatment clinical cure (when grade of otorrhoea become 0) was recorded on the 5(th), 10(th) and 15(th) days and bacteriological assessment was recorded at the last visit. All parameters were analysed using Fisher's exact test. A total 110 patients were randomised. The most common microorganism associated with CSOM was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (45.45 %). Clinical improvement was seen in 84.61% and 86.79% of cases, but bacteriological improvement in only 82.69% and 77.35% of cases treated with OA and ODC, respectively. Shift of middle ear discharge from active to inactive was noted in 71.15% and 64.15% patients by the 10th day in the OA and ODC groups, respectively. As there was no difference in clinical or bacteriological improvement, it may be unnecessary to combine steroids with topical antibiotic preparations for management of CSOM.

  1. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Hagberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. Methods and analysis This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery. The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A–C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. Trial registration number NCT02492191; Pre

  2. Use of mesalazine slow release suppositories 1 g three times per week to maintain remission of ulcerative proctitis: a randomised double blind placebo controlled multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Marteau, P; Crand, J; Foucault, M; Rambaud, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Daily administration of rectal formulations of mesalazine is effective in preventing relapse of ulcerative proctitis. Maintenance of remission with lower doses would be an advantage. 
Aim—The efficacy of mesalazine suppositories (Pentasa) 1 g three times a week v placebo to maintain remission in patients with cryptogenetic proctitis was studied. 
Methods—Ninety five patients with cryptogenetic proctitis were randomised within two weeks of remission to receive for one year or until relapse three suppositories per week of either Pentasa (n=48) or placebo (n=47). In the case of a relapse, the patients received one suppository/day. 
Results—It was found that 25 of 48 subjects v 18 of 47 remained in remission in the mesalazine and placebo groups respectively. The relapse rate was lower in the mesalazine group for the following time intervals: 0-90 days (19% v 38%, p=0.035), 0-180 days (29% v 54%, p=0.017), 0-270 days (38% v 60%, p=0.031), and 0-365 days (48% v 62%, p=0.18). Treatment of relapse with one suppository/day induced remission in 11 of 18 and 2 of 26 patients in the mesalazine and placebo groups respectively (p=0.001). Overall, 61% v 28% patients remained in the protocol and were in remission at one year (p=0.001). Tolerance was good. 
Conclusion—Mesalazine suppositories 1 g three times a week are effective for preventing relapses of cryptogenetic proctitis. Increasing the dose to 1 g/day is effective in a high proportion of subjects who relapsed. 

 Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; mesalazine; 5-aminosalicylic acid; topical treatments; proctitis PMID:9536943

  3. The NIFTY study: a multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of nifedipine maintenance tocolysis in fetal fibronectin-positive women in threatened preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Parry, Emma; Roos, Carolien; Stone, Peter; Hayward, Lynsey; Mol, Ben Willem; McCowan, Lesley

    2014-06-01

    In an unselected group of women with signs of preterm labour, maintenance tocolysis is not effective in the prevention of preterm birth and does not improve neonatal outcome. Among women with signs of preterm labour, those who are fetal fibronectin positive have an increased risk of preterm birth. We investigated whether maintenance tocolysis with nifedipine would delay delivery and improve neonatal outcome in women with threatened preterm labour and a positive fetal fibronectin status. Women with a singleton pregnancy in threatened preterm labour (24(+0) to 33(+6)  weeks) with a positive fetal fibronectin test were randomised to nifedipine or placebo. Study medication was continued until 36 completed weeks' gestation. The primary endpoint was prolongation of pregnancy of seven days. Secondary endpoints were gestational age at delivery and length of NICU admission. Of the 60 participants, 29 received nifedipine and 31 placebo. Prolongation of pregnancy by >7 days occurred in 22/29 (76%) in the nifedipine group and 25/31 (81%) in the placebo group (relative risks, RR 0.94 [0.72-1.2]). Gestational age at delivery was 36.1 ± 5.1 weeks for nifedipine and 36.8 ± 3.6 weeks for placebo (P = 0.027). Length of NICU admission [median (interquartile ranges, IQR)] was 27 (24-41) days and 16 (8-37) days in nifedipine and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.17). In women with threatened preterm labour who are fetal fibronectin positive, maintenance tocolysis with nifedipine does not seem to prolong pregnancy, nor reduce length of NICU admission. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. HYADD 4 versus methylprednisolone acetate in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a single-centre single blind prospective randomised controlled clinical study with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Bernardi, Gabriele; Tudisco, Cosimo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical results and the quality of life in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis randomised to either a new HA (HYADD 4) or corticosteroid (CS). A separate rationale was to evaluate the safety profile of HYADD 4. All the patients presenting for unilateral symptomatic primary knee osteoarthritis were prospectively randomly assigned to receive 2 injections of either HYADD 4 or CS, and were evaluated before the injections and at 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Primary end point was WOMAC score at 26 weeks; secondary end points were WOMAC score, VAS for pain, and SF-36 score at any time point. There were 53 females and 22 males in the HYADD 4 group (mean age 71.5±10.6 years), and 50 females and 25 males in the CS group (mean age 68.6±9.9 years). The observed sided effects were mild and their incidence was similar in the two groups. Patients in the HYADD 4 group reported significantly better WOMAC scores at 26 weeks. The patients improved in all considered outcomes after the injections, with a peak of therapeutic effect between 6 and 12 weeks. Patients in the HYADD 4 group obtained significantly better scores than the CS group up to 26 weeks. At the 1-year follow-up no statistically significant differences between treatments were detected. HYADD 4 did not have significantly higher side effects when compared to CS injections and provided better short-term (but not long-term) control of symptoms in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. Patients with less pain and dysfunction at baseline may be the best candidates for HYADD 4 injections.

  5. Effects of 12 weeks' treatment with a proton pump inhibitor on insulin secretion, glucose metabolism and markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised double-blind prospective placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hove, K D; Brøns, C; Færch, K; Lund, S S; Petersen, J S; Karlsen, A E; Rossing, P; Rehfeld, J F; Vaag, A

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor treatment may increase insulin secretion and improve glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. In a randomised double-blind prospective placebo-controlled 2 × 2 factorial study, we examined the effect of esomeprazole on insulin secretion, HbA(1c) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Forty-one patients with type 2 diabetes using dietary control or oral glucose-lowering treatment were randomised to receive add-on esomeprazole 40 mg (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks. Randomisation was carried out prior to inclusion on the basis of a computer-generated random-number list. The allocation sequence was concealed in sealed envelopes from the researcher enrolling and assessing participants. The study was undertaken at Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark. The primary outcome was change in AUC for insulin levels during a meal test. Secondary outcomes were the levels of HbA(1c) and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk, including lipids, coagulation factors, inflammation markers, markers of endothelial function and 24 h ambulatory BP measurements. Forty-one participants were analysed. In the esomeprazole-treated group the AUC for insulin did not change (before vs after treatment: 28,049 ± 17,659 vs 27,270 ± 32,004 pmol/l × min (p = 0.838). In the placebo group AUC for insulin decreased from 27,392 ± 14,348 pmol/l × min to 22,938 ± 11,936 pmol/l × min (p = 0.002). Esomeprazole treatment (n = 20) caused a ninefold increase in the AUC for gastrin. HbA(1c) increased from 7.0 ± 0.6% (53 ± 5 mmol/mol) to 7.3 ± 0.8% (56 ± 6 mmol/mol) in the esomeprazole-treated group and from 7.0 ± 0.6% (53 ± 5 mmol/mol) to 7.4 ± 0.8% (57 ± 6 mmol/mol) in the placebo group (n = 21) (p for difference in change >0.05). Except for BP, there were no differences between the groups in the markers of cardiovascular risk (p > 0.05). Monitoring of 24 h ambulatory BP showed a significant decrease in daytime systolic

  6. Effects of dabigatran on the cellular and protein phase of coagulation in patients with coronary artery disease on dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Results from a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Cho, Jung Rae; King, Rhodri; Phoenix, Fladia; Bhatti, Mona; DeGroat, Christopher; Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Zenni, Martin M; Guzman, Luis A; Bass, Theodore A; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in understanding the effects of adding an oral anticoagulant in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and clopidogrel represent the most broadly utilised oral anticoagulant and P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, respectively. However, VKAs can interfere with clopidogrel metabolism via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system which in turn may result in an increase in platelet reactivity. Dabigatran is a direct acting (anti-II) oral anticoagulant which does not interfere with CYP and has favourable safety and efficacy profiles compared with VKAs. The pharmacodynamic (PD) effects on platelet reactivity and clot kinetic of adjunctive dabigatran therapy in patients on DAPT are poorly explored. In this prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled PD study, patients (n=30) on maintenance DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel were randomised to either dabigatran 150 mg bid or placebo for seven days. PD testing was performed before and after treatment using four different assays exploring multiple pathways of platelet aggregation and fibrin clot kinetics: light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetric assays. There were no differences in multiple measures of platelet reactivity investigating purinergic and non-purinergic signaling pathways assessed by LTA, MEA and TEG platelet mapping. Dabigatran significantly increased parameters related to thrombin activity and thrombus generation, and delayed fibrin clot formation, without affecting clot structure or fibrinolysis. In conclusion, in patients on DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, adjunctive dabigatran therapy is not associated with modulation of profiles of platelet reactivity as determined by several assays assessing multiple platelet signalling pathways. However, dabigatran significantly interferes with parameters related to thrombin activity and delays fibrin clot formation.

  7. Protocol of the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined Trial (FAST): a large prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint study comparing the cardiovascular safety of allopurinol and febuxostat in the management of symptomatic hyperuricaemia.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Ford, Ian; Nuki, George; Mackenzie, Isla S; De Caterina, Raffaele; Findlay, Evelyn; Hallas, Jesper; Hawkey, Christopher J; Ralston, Stuart; Walters, Matthew; Webster, John; McMurray, John; Perez Ruiz, Fernando; Jennings, Claudine G

    2014-07-10

    Gout affects 2.5% of the UK's adult population and is now the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. The long-term management of gout requires reduction of serum urate levels and this is most often achieved with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, such as allopurinol. Febuxostat is the first new xanthine oxidase inhibitor since allopurinol and was licensed for use in 2008. The European Medicines Agency requested a postlicensing cardiovascular safety study of febuxostat versus allopurinol, which has been named the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined trial (FAST). FAST is a cardiovascular safety study using the prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint design. FAST is recruiting in the UK and Denmark. Recruited patients are aged over 60 years, prescribed allopurinol for symptomatic hyperuricaemia and have at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. After an allopurinol lead-in phase where the dose of allopurinol is optimised to achieve European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) urate targets (serum urate <357 µmol/L), patients are randomised to either continue optimal dose allopurinol or to use febuxostat. Patients are followed-up for an average of 3 years. The primary endpoint is first occurrence of the Anti-Platelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC) cardiovascular endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints are all cause mortality and hospitalisations for heart failure, unstable, new or worsening angina, coronary or cerebral revascularisation, transient ischaemic attack, non-fatal cardiac arrest, venous and peripheral arterial vascular thrombotic event and arrhythmia with no evidence of ischaemia. The primary analysis is a non-inferiority analysis with a non-inferiority upper limit for the HR for the primary outcome of 1.3. FAST (ISRCTN72443728) has ethical approval in the UK and Denmark, and results will be published in a peer reviewed journal. FAST is registered in the EU

  8. Protocol of the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined Trial (FAST): a large prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint study comparing the cardiovascular safety of allopurinol and febuxostat in the management of symptomatic hyperuricaemia

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Ford, Ian; Nuki, George; Mackenzie, Isla S; De Caterina, Raffaele; Findlay, Evelyn; Hallas, Jesper; Hawkey, Christopher J; Ralston, Stuart; Walters, Matthew; Webster, John; McMurray, John; Perez Ruiz, Fernando; Jennings, Claudine G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gout affects 2.5% of the UK's adult population and is now the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. The long-term management of gout requires reduction of serum urate levels and this is most often achieved with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, such as allopurinol. Febuxostat is the first new xanthine oxidase inhibitor since allopurinol and was licensed for use in 2008. The European Medicines Agency requested a postlicensing cardiovascular safety study of febuxostat versus allopurinol, which has been named the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined trial (FAST). Methods and analysis FAST is a cardiovascular safety study using the prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint design. FAST is recruiting in the UK and Denmark. Recruited patients are aged over 60 years, prescribed allopurinol for symptomatic hyperuricaemia and have at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. After an allopurinol lead-in phase where the dose of allopurinol is optimised to achieve European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) urate targets (serum urate <357 µmol/L), patients are randomised to either continue optimal dose allopurinol or to use febuxostat. Patients are followed-up for an average of 3 years. The primary endpoint is first occurrence of the Anti-Platelet Trialists’ Collaboration (APTC) cardiovascular endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints are all cause mortality and hospitalisations for heart failure, unstable, new or worsening angina, coronary or cerebral revascularisation, transient ischaemic attack, non-fatal cardiac arrest, venous and peripheral arterial vascular thrombotic event and arrhythmia with no evidence of ischaemia. The primary analysis is a non-inferiority analysis with a non-inferiority upper limit for the HR for the primary outcome of 1.3. Ethics and dissemination FAST (ISRCTN72443728) has ethical approval in the UK and Denmark, and results will be

  9. An adaptogenic role for omega-3 fatty acids in stress; a randomised placebo controlled double blind intervention study (pilot) [ISRCTN22569553

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Joanne; Myers, Stephen P; Oliver, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Background There is evidence for an adaptive role of the omega -3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during stress. Mechanisms of action may involve regulation of stress mediators, such as the catecholamines and proinflammatory cytokines. Prevention of stress-induced aggression and hostility were demonstrated in a series of clinical trials. This study investigates whether perceived stress is ameliorated by DHA in stressed university staff. Methods Subjects that scored ≥ 17 on the Perceived Stress Scale were randomised into a 6-week pilot intervention study. The diet reactive group was supplemented with 6 g of fish oil containing 1.5 g per day DHA, while the placebo group was supplemented with 6 g a day of olive oil. The groups were compared with each other and a wider cross sectional study population that did not receive either active or placebo intervention. Results There was a significant reduction in perceived stress in both the fish oil and the placebo group from baseline. There was also a significant between-group difference between the fish oil group and the no-treatment controls in the rate of stress reduction (p < 0.05). However, there was not a significant between-group difference between the fish oil and the placebo group, nor the placebo group and the control group. These results are discussed in the context of several methodological limitations. The significant stress reductions in both the fish oil and the placebo group are considered in view of statistical regression, an effect likely to have been exaggerated by the time course of the study, a large placebo effect and the possibility of an active effect from the placebo. Conclusion There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the fish oil group compared with no-treatment controls. This effect was not demonstrated in the placebo group. As a pilot study, it was not sufficiently powered to find the difference between the fish oil group and the placebo group significant. Further work needs to be

  10. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. Methods/Design We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms. Discussion If our results show

  11. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Eva S; Eppingstall, Barbara; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2010-07-22

    The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms. If our results show that the use of lavender oil is

  12. A randomised, double-blind study comparing the addition of bicalutamide with or without dutasteride to GnRH analogue therapy in men with non-metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chu, Franklin M; Sartor, Oliver; Gomella, Leonard; Rudo, Todd; Somerville, Matthew C; Hereghty, Belinda; Manyak, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Bicalutamide blocks androgen action and is frequently used in men with non-metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). By reducing intracellular dihydrotestosterone, dutasteride (dual 5-alpha reductase inhibitor) could increase the effectiveness of bicalutamide in this setting. The objective of the study is therefore to prospectively evaluate dutasteride plus bicalutamide in men with asymptomatic, non-metastatic CRPC with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Prostate cancer patients with rising PSA whilst on first-line androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were randomised (1:1) in a double-blind trial to receive bicalutamide 50mg plus placebo or bicalutamide 50mg plus dutasteride 3.5mg once daily for 18 months. Randomisation was stratified by centre; treatment assignments were generated using GlaxoSmithKline's RandAll System. Subjects who completed 18 months could participate in the 2-year extension. Central laboratory and study sites/monitors remained treatment-blinded. Primary end-point was time to disease progression (TDP) up to 42 months (defined as PSA progression from baseline or nadir, radiographic disease progression, death from prostate cancer or receipt of rescue medication). There was no statistically significant difference in TDP in 127 men treated with bicalutamide/dutasteride (n=62) compared with bicalutamide/placebo (n=65) (hazard ratio (HR)=0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61, 1.46]; p=0.79). The estimated median TDP was 425 days (95% CI 302, 858) in the bicalutamide/placebo group and 623 days (95% CI 369, 730) in the bicalutamide/dutasteride group. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups for any secondary efficacy end-points, including time to treatment failure or PSA response. In the multivariate analysis, age, non-White race, higher baseline testosterone and lower baseline PSA were associated with longer TDP. Adverse events were comparable between treatment groups. In men with non

  13. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; de la Rosa, Laura Alejandra; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Methods and analysis Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. Ethics and dissemination This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. PMID:28645949

  14. Use of ramipril in preventing stroke: double blind randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Jackie; Yusuf, Salim; Pogue, Janice; Sleight, Peter; Lonn, Eva; Rangoonwala, Badrudin; Davies, Richard; Ostergren, Jan; Probstfield, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril on the secondary prevention of stroke. Design Randomised controlled trial with 2×2 factorial design. Setting 267 hospitals in 19 countries. Participants 9297 patients with vascular disease or diabetes plus an additional risk factor, followed for 4.5 years as part of the HOPE study. Outcome measures Stroke (confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging when available), transient ischaemic attack, and cognitive function. Blood pressure was recorded at entry to the study, after 2 years, and at the end of the study. Results Reduction in blood pressure was modest (3.8 mm Hg systolic and 2.8 mm Hg diastolic). The relative risk of any stroke was reduced by 32% (156 v 226) in the ramipril group compared with the placebo group, and the relative risk of fatal stroke was reduced by 61% (17 v 44). Benefits were consistent across baseline blood pressures, drugs used, and subgroups defined by the presence or absence of previous stroke, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, diabetes, or hypertension. Significantly fewer patients on ramipril had cognitive or functional impairment. Conclusion Ramipril reduces the incidence of stroke in patients at high risk, despite a modest reduction in blood pressure. What is already known on this topicTreatment with aspirin and lowering blood pressure reduce the incidence of strokeWhat this study addsRamipril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, reduces strokes in patients at high risk whose blood pressure is not elevated, despite only a modest lowering of blood pressureThe benefits are observed even when patients receive aspirin and other blood pressure lowering treatments PMID:11909785

  15. A randomised, double-blind, phase III study comparing SB2, an infliximab biosimilar, to the infliximab reference product Remicade in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Prodanovic, Nenad; Niebrzydowski, Jaroslaw; Staykov, Ivan; Dokoupilova, Eva; Baranauskaite, Asta; Yatsyshyn, Roman; Mekic, Mevludin; Porawska, Wieskawa; Ciferska, Hana; Jedrychowicz-Rosiak, Krystyna; Zielinska, Agnieszka; Choi, Jasmine; Rho, Young Hee; Smolen, Josef S

    2017-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, safety, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetics (PK) of SB2 to the infliximab reference product (INF) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate therapy. This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, multinational, multicentre parallel group study. Patients with moderate to severe RA despite methotrexate therapy were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either SB2 or INF of 3 mg/kg. The primary end point was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 30. Inclusion of the 95% CI of the ACR20 response difference within a ±15% margin was required for equivalence. 584 subjects were randomised into SB2 (N=291; 290 analysed) or INF (N=293). The ACR20 response at week 30 in the per-protocol set was 64.1% in SB2 versus 66.0% in INF. The adjusted rate difference was -1.88% (95% CI -10.26% to 6.51%), which was within the predefined equivalence margin. Other efficacy outcomes such as ACR50/70, disease activity score measured by 28 joints and European League against Rheumatism response were similar between SB2 and INF. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable (57.6% in SB2 vs 58.0% in INF) as well as the incidence of antidrug antibodies (ADA) to infliximab up to week 30 (55.1% in SB2 vs 49.7% in INF). The PK profile was similar between SB2 and INF. Efficacy, safety and PK by ADA subgroup were comparable between SB2 and INF. SB2 was equivalent to INF in terms of ACR20 response at week 30. SB2 was well tolerated with a comparable safety profile, immunogenicity and PK to INF. NCT01936181. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. The first double-blind, randomised, parallel-group certolizumab pegol study in methotrexate-naive early rheumatoid arthritis patients with poor prognostic factors, C-OPERA, shows inhibition of radiographic progression.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Okada, Toshiyuki; van der Heijde, Désirée; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of combination therapy using certolizumab pegol (CZP) and methotrexate (MTX) as first-line treatment for MTX-naive, early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors, compared with MTX alone. MTX-naive, early RA patients with ≤12 months persistent disease, high anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and either rheumatoid factor positive and/or presence of bone erosions were enrolled in this multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo (PBO)-controlled study. Patients were randomised 1:1 to CZP+MTX or PBO+MTX for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was inhibition of radiographic progression (change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS CFB)) at week 52. Secondary endpoints were mTSS CFB at week 24, and clinical remission rates at weeks 24 and 52. 316 patients randomised to CZP+MTX (n=159) or PBO+MTX (n=157) had comparable baseline characteristics reflecting features of early RA (mean disease duration: 4.0 vs 4.3 months; Disease Activity Score 28-joint assessment (DAS28)) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)): 5.4 vs 5.5; mTSS: 5.2 vs 6.0). CZP+MTX group showed significantly greater inhibition of radiographic progression relative to PBO+MTX at week 52 (mTSS CFB=0.36 vs 1.58; p<0.001) and week 24 (mTSS CFB=0.26 vs 0.86; p=0.003). Clinical remission rates (Simple Disease Activity Index, Boolean and DAS28 (ESR)) of the CZP+MTX group were significantly higher compared with those of the PBO+MTX group, at weeks 24 and 52. Safety results in both groups were similar, with no new safety signals observed with addition of CZP to MTX. In MTX-naive early RA patients with poor prognostic factors, CZP+MTX significantly inhibited structural damage and reduced RA signs and symptoms, demonstrating the efficacy of CZP in these patients. (NCT01451203). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. A randomised, double-blinded clinical study on the efficacy of multimedia presentation using an iPad for patient education of postoperative hip surgery patients in a public hospital in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Dallimore, Rachel-Kim; Asinas-Tan, Marxengel Leonin; Chan, Daryl; Hussain, Suharti; Willett, Catherine; Zainuldin, Rahizan

    2017-09-01

    This study compared patient satisfaction and recall of physiotherapy patient education among patients who had undergone hip surgery, with information presented via an iPad versus a standard paper booklet. Patients who had undergone hip surgery joined and completed this single-centre study, which utilised a randomised parallel group design. They were randomly allocated to either Group A (received information on hip surgery physiotherapy via an iPad) or Group B (received the same information via a paper booklet). The participants were blinded to the intervention received by the other group and the testers were blinded to the intervention received by the participants. The interventions were carried out during the patients' first four postoperative physiotherapy sessions. The outcome measures were recorded using pre-validated questionnaires. A total of 42 participants (mean age 70 ± 12 years) were recruited. After the intervention, patients in both groups had improved recall of the information presented during patient education. However, the patients in Group A had a significantly better recall score than those in Group B (4.0 points higher, p < 0.001). The level of patient satisfaction was also significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (8.5 points higher, p < 0.001). While the use of an iPad and a paper booklet both had positive outcomes for patient recall and satisfaction, the use of an iPad was found to be more effective at improving patient satisfaction and recall of physiotherapy patient education in the present study.

  18. The effect of dietary intake of coenzyme Q10 on skin parameters and condition: Results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Žmitek, Katja; Pogačnik, Tina; Mervic, Liljana; Žmitek, Janko; Pravst, Igor

    2017-01-02

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural constituent of foods and is also often used in both functional foods and supplements. In addition, it is a common ingredient of cosmetics where it is believed to reduce the signs of skin ageing. However, the existing data about the effect of dietary intake of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition are scarce. To gain an insight into this issue, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with 33 healthy subjects. Our objective was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of daily supplementation with 50 and 150 mg of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition. Study was conducted with a water-soluble form of CoQ10 with superior bioavailability (Q10Vital(®) ). While the results of some previous in vitro studies showed possible protection in UVB response, we did not observe significant changes in the minimal erythema dose (MED). On the other hand, the intake of CoQ10 limited seasonal deterioration of viscoelasticity and reduced some visible signs of ageing. We determined significantly reduced wrinkles and microrelief lines, and improved skin smoothness. Supplementation with CoQ10 did not significantly affect skin hydration and dermis thickness. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):132-140, 2017.

  19. Imaging pain relief in osteoarthritis (IPRO): protocol of a double-blind randomised controlled mechanistic study assessing pain relief and prediction of duloxetine treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Reckziegel, Diane; Bailey, Helen; Cottam, William J; Tench, Christopher R; Mahajan, Ravi P; Walsh, David A; Knaggs, Roger D; Auer, Dorothee P

    2017-06-26

    Osteoarthritis (OA) pain is a major cause of long-term disability and chronic pain in the adult population. One in five patients does not receive satisfactory pain relief, which reflects the complexity of chronic pain and the current lack of understanding of mechanisms of chronic pain. Recently, duloxetine has demonstrated clinically relevant pain relief, but only in half of treated patients with OA. Here, the aim is to investigate the neural mechanisms of pain relief and neural signatures that may predict treatment response to duloxetine in chronic knee OA pain. This is an ongoing single-centre randomised placebo-controlled mechanistic study (2:1 (placebo) allocation), using a multimodal neuroimaging approach, together with psychophysiological (quantitative sensory testing), genetics and questionnaire assessments. Eighty-one subjects with chronic knee OA pain are planned to power for between-group comparisons (placebo, duloxetine responder and duloxetine non-responder). Participants have a baseline assessment and, following 6 weeks of duloxetine (30 mg for 2 weeks, then 60 mg for 4 weeks), a follow-up evaluation. Brain imaging is performed at 3T with blood-oxygen-level dependent functional MRI at rest and during pin-prick nociceptive stimulation for main outcome assessment; arterial spin labelling and structural imaging (T1-weighted) for secondary outcome assessment. Questionnaires evaluate pain, negative affect, quality of sleep and cognition. The study has been approved by the East Midlands, Nottingham and is being carried out under the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and Good Clinical Practice standards. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02208778).This work was supported by Arthritis Research UK (Grant 18769). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  20. Multivitamin and dietary supplements, body weight and appetite: results from a cross-sectional and a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Major, Geneviève C; Doucet, Eric; Jacqmain, Mélanie; St-Onge, Myriam; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2008-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to compare characteristics of consumers and non-consumers of vitamin and/or dietary supplements (study 1) and to assess the effect of a multivitamin and mineral supplementation during a weight-reducing programme (study 2). Body weight and composition, energy expenditure, and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores were compared between consumers and non-consumers of micronutrients and/or dietary supplements in the Québec Family Study (study 1). In study 2, these variables and appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) were measured in forty-five obese non-consumers of supplements randomly assigned to a double-blind 15-week energy restriction ( - 2930 kJ/d) combined with a placebo or with a multivitamin and mineral supplement. Compared with non-consumers, male consumers of vitamin and/or dietary supplements had a lower body weight (P < 0.01), fat mass (P < 0.05), BMI (P < 0.05), and a tendency for greater resting energy expenditure (P = 0.06). In women, the same differences were observed but not to a statistically significant extent. In addition, female supplements consumers had lower disinhibition and hunger scores (P < 0.05). In study 2, body weight was significantly decreased after the weight-loss intervention (P < 0.001) with no difference between treatment groups. However, fasting and postprandial appetite ratings were significantly reduced in multivitamin and mineral-supplemented women (P < 0.05). Usual vitamin and/or dietary supplements consumption and multivitamin and mineral supplementation during a weight-reducing programme seems to have an appetite-related effect in women. However, lower body weight and fat were more detectable in male than in female vitamin and/or dietary supplements consumers.

  1. [Intravenous iron, functional recovery and delirium in patients with hip fracture. FEDEREF study. Single-centre randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial. 2014-001923-53: EudraCT number].

    PubMed

    Bielza Galindo, Rafael; Llorente Gutiérrez, Jesús; Pérez González, José Luis; Mora Casado, Asunción; Blanco Díaz, David; Escalera Alonso, Javier; Morales Fernández, Adoración; Molano Ortiz, Cristina; García López, Beredys Esmirla; Del Amo Del Arco, Nazaret; Barro Ordovas, Juan Pablo; Arias Muñana, Estefanía; Neira Álvarez, Marta; Sanz Rosa, David; Gómez Cerezo, Jorge Fco

    2017-03-11

    There are no previous studies evaluating the effect of intravenous iron therapy on functional and cognitive status of patients with hip fracture (HF). A single-centre randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind and parallel treatment, clinical trial has been designed to assess the efficacy of intravenous iron therapy during the peri-operative period in elderly patients suffering from a HF. Blinding will be ensured by the packaging of the drug infusion system. On days 1, 3, and 5 from admission, the intervention group will receive 200mg Venofer® (iron sucrose) diluted in 100ml saline, and the control group 100ml saline, also on days 1, 3 and 5. Patients will received conventional treatment in ortho-geriatric unit of the Hospital Infanta Sofia. Functional variables (activities of daily living and walking), cognitive (cognitive status and delirium), surgical, demographic and clinical characteristics will be collected during admission in order to assess the impact of treatment. A safety analysis of the treatment will also performed. Patients will be followed-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. The study will attempt to provide evidence on the impact of the intravenous iron administration on functional recovery. It will be determined whether iron therapy negatively affects the incidence of post-operative delirium. Finally, report will be presented on the safety data of intravenous iron in elderly HF patients, as well as the impact on allogenic blood transfusion savings. The inclusion of elderly HF patients admitted to an ortho-geriatric unit, in a clinical trial, will help to improve the knowledge of the treatment impact on a usual scenario, and provide useful data for use in other units. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Adjuvant antifungal therapy using tissue tolerable plasma on oral mucosa and removable dentures in oral candidiasis patients: a randomised double-blinded split-mouth pilot study.

    PubMed

    Preissner, Saskia; Kastner, Isabell; Schütte, Eyke; Hartwig, Stefan; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Robert; Hertel, Moritz

    2016-07-01

    Extended use of antimycotics in oral candidiasis therapy gives rise to problems related to fungal drug resistance. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) in denture stomatitis patients. It was hypothesised that (I): erythema and (IIa): complaint remission would be accelerated and (IIb): colony forming unit (CFU) reduction would be improved. The halves of the upper jaws of eight patients were randomly assigned to control (nystatin, chlorhexidine and placebo treatment) and test sides (nystatin, chlorhexidine and TTP administered six times each 7 days). The patients and the investigators, who were different from the therapists, were both blinded. Compared to the control sides, the erythema surface was reduced significantly more extensively on the test sides between 2 and 6 weeks of antifungal therapy (P ≤ 0.05). Visual analogue scale values and the frequency of moderate or heavy growth of Candida post-treatment did not differ significantly between both sides (P > 0.05). The primary hypothesis was confirmed, which may be interpreted as an accelerated remission. As drug therapy is usually limited to the time in which signs of infection are present, TTP might help reducing antifungal use. Even though the secondary hypotheses were not confirmed, persistence of Candida might be only colonisation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Efficacy of methylprednisolone and lignocaine on propofol injection pain: A randomised, double-blind, prospective study in adult cardiac surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Shivaprakash; Priye, Shio; Singh, Dipali; Jagannath, Sathyanarayan; Mudassar, Syed; Reddy, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Propofol (2, 6-di-isopropylphenol) used for the induction of anaesthesia often causes mild to severe pain or discomfort on injection. We designed this double-blind study to compare the efficacy of methylprednisolone and lignocaine in reducing the pain of propofol injection in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Methods: A total of 165 adult patients, scheduled for elective cardiac surgery, were divided into three groups: saline (group S, n = 55), lignocaine 20 mg (Group L, n = 55) and methylprednisolone 125 mg diluted into 2 ml of distilled water (Group MP, n = 55). Drugs were administered after tourniquet application and occlusion was released after 1 min and 1/4th of the total dose of propofol (2 mg/kg) was administered at the rate of 0.5 ml/s. Pain on propofol injection was evaluated by four-point verbal rating scale. Statistical methods used included Student's t-test and Chi-square test/Fisher's exact test. Results: The overall incidence of pain was 70.9% in the saline group, 30.9% in the lignocaine group and 36.4% in the methylprednisolone group. The intensity of pain was significantly less in patients receiving methylprednisolone and lignocaine than those receiving saline (P < 0.012). Conclusion: Pre-treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone was found to be as effective as lignocaine in reducing propofol injection-induced pain. PMID:27942060

  4. Acid-base effects of a bicarbonate-balanced priming fluid during cardiopulmonary bypass: comparison with Plasma-Lyte 148. A randomised single-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, T J; Power, G; Venkatesh, B; Jones, M A

    2008-11-01

    Fluid-induced metabolic acidosis can be harmful and can complicate cardiopulmonary bypass. In an attempt to prevent this disturbance, we designed a bicarbonate-based crystalloid circuit prime balanced on physico-chemical principles with a strong ion difference of 24 mEq/l and compared its acid-base effects with those of Plasma-Lyte 148, a multiple electrolyte replacement solution containing acetate plus gluconate totalling 50 mEq/l. Twenty patients with normal acid-base status undergoing elective cardiac surgery were randomised 1:1 to a 2 litre prime of either bicarbonate-balanced fluid or Plasma-Lyte 148. With the trial fluid, metabolic acid-base status was normal following bypass initiation (standard base excess 0.1 (1.3) mEq/l, mean, SD), whereas Plasma-Lyte 148 produced a slight metabolic acidosis (standard base excess -2.2 (2.1) mEq/l). Estimated group difference after baseline adjustment was 3.6 mEq/l (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 5.1 mEq/l, P=0.0001). By late bypass, mean standard base excess in both groups was normal (0.8 (2.2) mEq/l vs. -0.8 (1.3) mEq/l, P=0.5). Strong ion gap values were unaltered with the trial fluid, but with Plasma-Lyte 148 increased significantly on bypass initiation (15.2 (2.5) mEq/l vs. 2.5 (1.5) mEq/l, P < 0.0001), remaining elevated in late bypass (8.4 (3.4) mEq/l vs. 5.8 (2.4) mEq/l, P < 0.05). We conclude that a bicarbonate-based crystalloid with a strong ion difference of 24 mEq/l is balanced for cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with normal acid-base status, whereas Plasma-Lyte 148 triggers a surge of unmeasured anions, persisting throughout bypass. These are likely to be gluconate and/or acetate. Whether surges of exogenous anions during bypass can be harmful requires further study.

  5. Single dose vitamin A treatment in acute shigellosis in Bangladesh children: randomised double blind controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, S.; Biswas, R.; Kabir, I.; Sarker, S.; Dibley, M.; Fuchs, G.; Mahalanabis, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a single large oral dose of vitamin A in treating acute shigellosis in children in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Randomised double blind controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 83 children aged 1-7 years with bacteriologically proved shigellosis but no clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency; 42 were randomised to treatment with vitamin A and 41 formed a control group. INTERVENTION: Children were given a single oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A plus 25 IU vitamin E or a control preparation of 25 IU vitamin E. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical cure on study day 5 and bacteriological cure. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the subjects in the two treatment groups were similar. Significantly more children in the vitamin A group than in the control group achieved clinical cure (19/42 (45%) v 8/14 (20%); chi 2 = 5.14, 1 df, P = 0.02; risk ratio = 0.68 (95% confidence interval; 0.50 to 0.93)). When cure was determined bacteriologically, the groups had similar rates (16/42 (38%) v 16/41 (39%); chi 2 = 0.02, 1 df, P = 0.89; risk ratio = 0.98 (0.70 to 1.39)). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin A reduces the severity of acute shigellosis in children living in areas where vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem. PMID:9492664

  6. Supportive text messaging for depression and comorbid alcohol use disorder: single-blind randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Ahern, Sinead; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor K

    2012-12-10

    Mobile phone text message technology has the potential to improve outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). To perform a randomised rater-blinded trial to explore the effects of supportive text messages on mood and abstinence outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid AUD. Participants (n=54) with a DSM IV diagnosis of unipolar depression and AUD who completed an in-patient dual diagnosis treatment programme were randomised to receive twice daily supportive text messages (n=26) or a fortnightly thank you text message (n=28) for three months. Primary outcome measures were Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores and Cumulative Abstinence Duration (CAD) in days at three months. NCT0137868. There was a statistically significant difference in three month BDI-II scores between the intervention and control groups; 8.5 (SD=8.0) vs. 16.7 (SD=10.3) respectively after adjusting for the baseline scores, F (1, 49)=9.54, p=0.003, η(p)(2)=0.17. The mean difference in change BDI-II scores was -7.9 (95% CI -13.06 to -2.76, Cohen'sd=0.85). There was a trend for a greater CAD in the text message group than the control group: 88.3 (SD=6.2) vs. 79.3 (SD=24.1), t=1.78, df=48, p=0.08. Limitations of the study include the small sample size, the potential for loss of rater blinding and the lack of long term follow-up to determine the longer term effects of the intervention. Supportive text messages have the potential to improve outcomes for patients with comorbid depression and alcohol dependency syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study to determine the gastrointestinal effects of consumption of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides enriched bread in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prebiotics are food ingredients, usually non-digestible oligosaccharides, that are selectively fermented by populations of beneficial gut bacteria. Endoxylanases, altering the naturally present cereal arabinoxylans, are commonly used in the bread industry to improve dough and bread characteristics. Recently, an in situ method has been developed to produce arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) at high levels in breads through the use of a thermophilic endoxylanase. AXOS have demonstrated potentially prebiotic properties in that they have been observed to lead to beneficial shifts in the microbiota in vitro and in murine, poultry and human studies. Methods A double-blind, placebo controlled human intervention study was undertaken with 40 healthy adult volunteers to assess the impact of consumption of breads with in situ produced AXOS (containing 2.2 g AXOS) compared to non-endoxylanase treated breads. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in faeces were assessed and fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to assess changes in gut microbial groups. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels in saliva were also measured. Results Consumption of AXOS-enriched breads led to increased faecal butyrate and a trend for reduced iso-valerate and fatty acids associated with protein fermentation. Faecal levels of bifidobacteria increased following initial control breads and remained elevated throughout the study. Lactobacilli levels were elevated following both placebo and AXOS-breads. No changes in salivary secretory IgA levels were observed during the study. Furthermore, no adverse effects on gastrointestinal symptoms were reported during AXOS-bread intake. Conclusions AXOS-breads led to a potentially beneficial shift in fermentation end products and are well tolerated. PMID:22657950

  8. Comparison of the effect of naproxen, etodolac and diclofenac on postoperative sequels following third molar surgery: A randomised, double-blind, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Nihat; Atakan, Cemal; Çölok, Gülümser

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) diclofenac potassium, etodolac and naproxen sodium in relation to pain, swelling and trismus following impacted third molar surgery. Study Design: The study was a randomized and a double-blinded study which included 42 healthy young individuals with impacted third molars and bone retention. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n: 14) to which diclofenac potassium, naproxen sodium and etodolac were administered orally an hour before the operation. Impacted third molars were surgically extracted with local anaesthesia. Visual analog scales (VAS) were used to assess the pain in the 6th, 12th hours and on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 7th days postoperatively. Swelling was evaluated using ultrasound (US) and mouth opening (trismus) was measured with a composing stick pre and post operatively on the 2nd and 7th days respectively. Results: Regarding pain alleviation, diclofenac potassium was better than naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium was better than etodolac but these differences were not statistically significant. US measurements showed that the swelling on postoperative 2nd day was significantly lowest with diclofenac potassium as compared to others (p= 0.027) while naproxen sodium and etodolac acted similarly (p=0.747). No difference was noted regarding trismus in any of the groups. Conclusions: NSAIDs (diclofenac, naproxen and etodolac) are somehow similarly effective for controlling pain and trismus following extraction of mandibular third molars but diclofenac potassium surpasses others in reduction of swelling. Key words:Diclofenac potassium, naproxen sodium, etodolac, impacted third molar surgery, pain, swelling, trismus. PMID:24316711

  9. Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P; Schafer, Grainne; Gardener, Chelsea; Das, Ravi K; Morgan, Celia J A; Curran, H Valerie

    2015-03-01

    Acute administration of the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs human facial affect recognition, implicating the endocannabinoid system in emotional processing. Another main constituent of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has seemingly opposite functional effects on the brain. This study aimed to determine the effects of THC and CBD, both alone and in combination on emotional facial affect recognition. 48 volunteers, selected for high and low frequency of cannabis use and schizotypy, were administered, THC (8mg), CBD (16mg), THC+CBD (8mg+16mg) and placebo, by inhalation, in a 4-way, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. They completed an emotional facial affect recognition task including fearful, angry, happy, sad, surprise and disgust faces varying in intensity from 20% to 100%. A visual analogue scale (VAS) of feeling 'stoned' was also completed. In comparison to placebo, CBD improved emotional facial affect recognition at 60% emotional intensity; THC was detrimental to the recognition of ambiguous faces of 40% intensity. The combination of THC+CBD produced no impairment. Relative to placebo, both THC alone and combined THC+CBD equally increased feelings of being 'stoned'. CBD did not influence feelings of 'stoned'. No effects of frequency of use or schizotypy were found. In conclusion, CBD improves recognition of emotional facial affect and attenuates the impairment induced by THC. This is the first human study examining the effects of different cannabinoids on emotional processing. It provides preliminary evidence that different pharmacological agents acting upon the endocannabinoid system can both improve and impair recognition of emotional faces.

  10. Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P.; Schafer, Grainne; Gardener, Chelsea; Das, Ravi K.; Morgan, Celia J.A.; Curran, H. Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Acute administration of the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs human facial affect recognition, implicating the endocannabinoid system in emotional processing. Another main constituent of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has seemingly opposite functional effects on the brain. This study aimed to determine the effects of THC and CBD, both alone and in combination on emotional facial affect recognition. 48 volunteers, selected for high and low frequency of cannabis use and schizotypy, were administered, THC (8 mg), CBD (16 mg), THC+CBD (8 mg+16 mg) and placebo, by inhalation, in a 4-way, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. They completed an emotional facial affect recognition task including fearful, angry, happy, sad, surprise and disgust faces varying in intensity from 20% to 100%. A visual analogue scale (VAS) of feeling ‘stoned’ was also completed. In comparison to placebo, CBD improved emotional facial affect recognition at 60% emotional intensity; THC was detrimental to the recognition of ambiguous faces of 40% intensity. The combination of THC+CBD produced no impairment. Relative to placebo, both THC alone and combined THC+CBD equally increased feelings of being ‘stoned’. CBD did not influence feelings of ‘stoned’. No effects of frequency of use or schizotypy were found. In conclusion, CBD improves recognition of emotional facial affect and attenuates the impairment induced by THC. This is the first human study examining the effects of different cannabinoids on emotional processing. It provides preliminary evidence that different pharmacological agents acting upon the endocannabinoid system can both improve and impair recognition of emotional faces. PMID:25534187

  11. Comparative efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon omega in refractory cases of calicivirus-positive cats with caudal stomatitis: a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study in 39 cats.

    PubMed

    Hennet, Philippe R; Camy, Guy A L; McGahie, David M; Albouy, Maxime V

    2011-08-01

    Chronic caudal stomatitis with alveolar/buccal mucositis in calicivirus-positive cats is the most severe presentation of feline chronic gingivostomatitis. Refractory cases are helped by antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatments often including glucocorticoids. In order to evaluate the comparative efficacy of oromucosal administration of recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) versus oral administration of glucocorticoids, a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study was performed in 39 cats. The progression of behavioural, clinical and lesional scores was assessed over 90 days. Daily oromucosal treatment with 0.1 MU of rFeIFN-ω was associated with a significant improvement of clinical lesions (caudal stomatitis and alveolar/buccal mucositis) and a decrease of pain scores from D0 to D90. Although no such statistical improvement was noticed in the prednisolone group, there was, however, no significant difference between the two groups for most of the parameters, except pain at D60 and D90.

  12. Effects of infant cereals with different carbohydrate profiles on colonic function--randomised and double-blind clinical trial in infants aged between 6 and 12 months--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bernal, María José; Periago, María Jesús; Martínez, Rosario; Ortuño, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Solís, Manuel; Ros, Gaspar; Romero, Fernando; Abellán, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    Infant cereals are often the elected foodstuff for beginning complementary feeding and provide carbohydrates which are different to those found in maternal milk. The objective of this preliminary study was to ascertain the colonic effects of two infant cereals, with different carbohydrate profiles, in a randomised and double-blind trial in healthy infants. Nineteen term infants between 6.3 and 9.8 months of age were enrolled, after written informed consent was obtained from parents. Ten subjects were allocated to take infant cereal A and nine, infant cereal B. An intervention period was 2 months, with five visits every 15 days, to take anthropometric measurements and faeces samples for the analysis of microbiota, short-chain fatty acids concentration (SCFA), pH value and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). An adequate growth and stool frequency was registered in both intervention groups. Faecal counts of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides did not show any statistical differences. However, a significantly (P < 0.05) higher butyric acid and sIgA, and lower faecal pH were observed in infants who had ingested infant cereal A, with a higher ratio complex/simple carbohydrates. In conclusion, small changes in the carbohydrate profile of infant cereals could lead to significant differences in parameters related to fermentative activity of intestinal microbiota.

  13. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of sildenafil on the microvascular blood flow in patients with systemic sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Andrigueti, Fernando V; Ebbing, Pâmela C C; Arismendi, Maria I; Kayser, Cristiane

    2017-03-09

    To evaluate the effect of sildenafil as add-on therapy on the microvascular blood flow in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) secondary to systemic sclerosis (SSc). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 41 patients with RP secondary to SSc were randomly assigned to receive oral sildenafil 100 mg/day (21 patients, mean age 47.2 years) or placebo (20 patients, mean age 41.6 years) for 8 weeks. Patients were evaluated at baseline, 8 weeks after treatment, and 2 weeks after the end of the treatment. The primary outcome measures were the mean changes in finger blood flow (FBF) measured using laser Doppler imaging before and after cold stimulus at 8 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints included frequency and duration of RP attacks, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for RP severity, Raynaud's condition score, and serum levels of VEGF and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). After 8 weeks of treatment, the sildenafil group presented a significantly higher mean percentage change from baseline in FBF before cold stimulus (p=0.026), and in FBF after cold stimulus (p=0.028) compared with the placebo group. There was a significant improvement in the duration of RP and in the percentage change from baseline to week 8 in the RP VAS score in sildenafil compared with placebo. There were no changes in EPCs and VEGF levels after treatment in either group. Sildenafil improved digital blood flow and RP symptoms in SSc patients after 8 weeks of treatment, and might be a good therapeutic option for secondary RP.

  15. Once-daily dolutegravir versus raltegravir in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection: 48 week results from the randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority SPRING-2 study.

    PubMed

    Raffi, Francois; Rachlis, Anita; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Hardy, W David; Torti, Carlo; Orkin, Chloe; Bloch, Mark; Podzamczer, Daniel; Pokrovsky, Vadim; Pulido, Federico; Almond, Steve; Margolis, David; Brennan, Clare; Min, Sherene

    2013-03-02

    Dolutegravir (S/GSK1349572) is a once-daily HIV integrase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity and a favourable safety profile. We compared dolutegravir with HIV integrase inhibitor raltegravir, as initial treatment for adults with HIV-1. SPRING-2 is a 96 week, phase 3, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study that began on Oct 19, 2010, at 100 sites in Canada, USA, Australia, and Europe. Treatment-naive adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 RNA concentrations of 1000 copies per mL or greater were randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive either dolutegravir (50 mg once daily) or raltegravir (400 mg twice daily). Study drugs were given with coformulated tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine. Randomisation was stratified by screening HIV-1 RNA (≤ 100,000 copies per mL or >100,000 copies per mL) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. Investigators were not masked to HIV-1 RNA results before randomisation. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL at 48 weeks, with a 10% non-inferiority margin. Main secondary endpoints were changes from baseline in CD4 cell counts, incidence and severity of adverse events, changes in laboratory parameters, and genotypic or phenotypic evidence of resistance. Our primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01227824. 411 patients were randomly allocated to receive dolutegravir and 411 to receive raltegravir and received at least one dose of study drug. At 48 weeks, 361 (88%) patients in the dolutegravir group achieved an HIV-1 RNA value of less than 50 copies per mL compared with 351 (85%) in the raltegravir group (adjusted difference 2·5%; 95% CI -2·2 to 7·1). Adverse events were similar between treatment groups. The most common events were nausea (59 [14%] patients in the dolutegravir group vs 53 [13

  16. Rapid versus standard intravenous rehydration in paediatric gastroenteritis: pragmatic blinded randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Stephen B; Parkin, Patricia C; Willan, Andrew R; Schuh, Suzanne

    2011-11-17

    To determine if rapid rather than standard intravenous rehydration results in improved hydration and clinical outcomes when administered to children with gastroenteritis. Single centre, two arm, parallel randomised pragmatic controlled trial. Blocked randomisation stratified by site. Participants, caregivers, outcome assessors, investigators, and statisticians were blinded to the treatment assignment. Paediatric emergency department in a tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. 226 children aged 3 months to 11 years; complete follow-up was obtained on 223 (99%). Eligible children were aged over 90 days, had a diagnosis of dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis, had not responded to oral rehydration, and had been prescribed intravenous rehydration. Children were excluded if they weighed less than 5 kg or more than 33 kg, required fluid restriction, had a suspected surgical condition, or had an insurmountable language barrier. Children were also excluded if they had a history of a chronic systemic disease, abdominal surgery, bilious or bloody vomit, hypotension, or hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia. Rapid (60 mL/kg) or standard (20 mL/kg) rehydration with 0.9% saline over an hour; subsequent fluids administered according to protocol. clinical rehydration, assessed with a validated scale, two hours after the start of treatment. prolonged treatment, mean clinical dehydration scores over the four hour study period, time to discharge, repeat visits to emergency department, adequate oral intake, and physician's comfort with discharge. Data from all randomised patients were included in an intention to treat analysis. 114 patients were randomised to rapid rehydration and 112 to standard. One child was withdrawn because of severe hyponatraemia at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the rapid and standard rehydration groups in the proportions of participants who were rehydrated at two hours (41/114 (36%) v 33/112 (30%); difference 6.5% (95% confidence

  17. Analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations with the dual bronchodilator QVA149 compared with glycopyrronium and tiotropium (SPARK): a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Decramer, Marc; Ficker, Joachim H; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Sandström, Thomas; Taylor, Angel Fowler; D'Andrea, Peter; Arrasate, Christie; Chen, Hungta; Banerji, Donald

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of dual, longacting inhaled bronchodilator treatment on exacerbations in patients with severe and very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this parallel-group study, 2224 patients (aged ≥40 years, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages III-IV, and one or more moderate COPD exacerbation in the past year) were randomly assigned (1:1:1; via interactive voice response or web system; stratified for smoking status) to once-daily QVA149 (fixed-dose combination of indacaterol 110 μg and glycopyrronium 50 μg), glycopyrronium 50 μg, or tiotropium 18 μg for 64 weeks. Assignment to QVA149 and glycopyrronium was double-blind; tiotropium was open-label. Efficacy was assessed in all patients randomly assigned to treatment groups who received at least one dose of study drug; safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose whether or not they were assigned to a group. The primary objective was to show superiority of QVA149 versus glycopyrronium for rate of moderate to severe COPD exacerbations (defined by worsening symptoms and categorised by treatment requirements) during treatment. This completed trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01120691. Between April 27, 2010, and July 11, 2012, 741 patients were randomly assigned to receive QVA149, 741 to receive glycopyrronium, and 742 to receive tiotropium (729, 739, and 737 patients, respectively, analysed for efficacy). QVA149 significantly reduced the rate of moderate to severe exacerbations versus glycopyrronium by 12% (annualised rate of exacerbations 0·84 [95% CI 0·75-0·94] vs 0·95 [0·85-1·06]; rate ratio 0·88, 95% CI 0·77-0·99, p=0·038). Adverse events (including exacerbations) were reported for 678 (93%) of 729 patients on QVA149, 694 (94%) of 740 on glycopyrronium, and 686 (93%) of 737 on tiotropium. Incidence of serious adverse events was similar between groups (167 [23%] patients on QVA149, 179 [24%] on glycopyrronium

  18. Compensatory changes in energy balance during dapagliflozin treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial (ENERGIZE)—study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rajeev, Surya Panicker; Sprung, Victoria S; Roberts, Carl; Harrold, Jo A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej; Boyland, Emma J; Kemp, Graham J; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Wilding, John P H

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective blood-glucose-lowering medications with beneficial effects on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, observed weight loss is less than that predicted from quantified glycosuria, suggesting a compensatory increase in energy intake or a decrease in energy expenditure. Studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) have suggested most body weight change is due to loss of adipose tissue, but organ-specific changes in fat content (eg, liver, skeletal muscle) have not been determined. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we aim to study the compensatory changes in energy intake, eating behaviour and energy expenditure accompanying use of the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin. Additionally, we aim to quantify changes in fat distribution using MRI, in liver fat using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and in central nervous system (CNS) responses to food images using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). Methods and analysis This outpatient study will evaluate the effect of dapagliflozin (10 mg), compared with placebo, on food intake and energy expenditure at 7 days and 12 weeks. 52 patients with T2DM will be randomised to dapagliflozin or placebo for short-term and long-term trial interventions in a within participants, crossover design. The primary outcome is the difference in energy intake during a test meal between dapagliflozin and placebo. Intake data are collected automatically using a customised programme operating a universal eating monitor (UEM). Secondary outcomes include (1) measures of appetite regulation including rate of eating, satiety quotient, appetite ratings (between and within meals), changes in CNS responses to food images measured using BOLD-fMRI, (2) measures of energy expenditure and (3) changes in body composition including changes in liver fat and abdominal

  19. Compensatory changes in energy balance during dapagliflozin treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial (ENERGIZE)-study protocol.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Surya Panicker; Sprung, Victoria S; Roberts, Carl; Harrold, Jo A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej; Boyland, Emma J; Kemp, Graham J; Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Wilding, John P H

    2017-01-27

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective blood-glucose-lowering medications with beneficial effects on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, observed weight loss is less than that predicted from quantified glycosuria, suggesting a compensatory increase in energy intake or a decrease in energy expenditure. Studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) have suggested most body weight change is due to loss of adipose tissue, but organ-specific changes in fat content (eg, liver, skeletal muscle) have not been determined. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we aim to study the compensatory changes in energy intake, eating behaviour and energy expenditure accompanying use of the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin. Additionally, we aim to quantify changes in fat distribution using MRI, in liver fat using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and in central nervous system (CNS) responses to food images using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). This outpatient study will evaluate the effect of dapagliflozin (10 mg), compared with placebo, on food intake and energy expenditure at 7 days and 12 weeks. 52 patients with T2DM will be randomised to dapagliflozin or placebo for short-term and long-term trial interventions in a within participants, crossover design. The primary outcome is the difference in energy intake during a test meal between dapagliflozin and placebo. Intake data are collected automatically using a customised programme operating a universal eating monitor (UEM). Secondary outcomes include (1) measures of appetite regulation including rate of eating, satiety quotient, appetite ratings (between and within meals), changes in CNS responses to food images measured using BOLD-fMRI, (2) measures of energy expenditure and (3) changes in body composition including changes in liver fat and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and

  20. Clinical effectiveness of a staff training intervention in mental health inpatient rehabilitation units designed to increase patients' engagement in activities (the Rehabilitation Effectiveness for Activities for Life [REAL] study): single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Killaspy, Helen; Marston, Louise; Green, Nicholas; Harrison, Isobel; Lean, Melanie; Cook, Sarah; Mundy, Tim; Craig, Thomas; Holloway, Frank; Leavey, Gerard; Koeser, Leonardo; McCrone, Paul; Arbuthnott, Maurice; Omar, Rumana Z; King, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mental health inpatient rehabilitation services focus on people with complex psychosis who have, for example, treatment-refractory symptoms, cognitive impairment, and severe negative symptoms, which impair functioning and require lengthy admission. Engagement in activities could lead to improvement in negative symptoms and function, but few trials have been done. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a staff training intervention to increase patients' engagement in activities. We did a single-blind, two-arm, cluster-randomised controlled trial in 40 mental health inpatient rehabilitation units across England. Units were randomly allocated to either a manual-based staff training programme delivered by a small intervention team (intervention group, n=20) or standard care (control group, n=20). The primary outcome was patients' engagement in activities 12 months after randomisation, measured with the time use diary. With this measure, both the degree of engagement in an activity and its complexity are recorded four times a day for a week, rated on a scale of 0-4 for every period (maximum score of 112). Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Random-effects models were used to compare outcomes between study groups. Cost-effectiveness was assessed by combining service costs with the primary outcome. This study is registered with Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN25898179). Patients' engagement in activities did not differ between study groups (coefficient 1·44, 95% CI -1·35 to 4·24). An extra £101 was needed to achieve a 1% increase in patients' engagement in activities with the study intervention. Our training intervention did not increase patients' engagement in activities after 12 months of follow-up. This failure could be attributable to inadequate implementation of the intervention, a high turnover of patients in the intervention units, competing priorities on staff time, high levels of patients' morbidity, and ceiling effects because of the high quality of

  1. How Does Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Pain Neuromatrix Affect Brain Excitability and Pain Perception? A Randomised, Double-Blind, Sham-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Background Integration of information between multiple cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix is thought to underpin pain modulation. Although altered processing in the primary motor (M1) and sensory (S1) cortices is implicated in separate studies, the simultaneous changes in and the relationship between these regions are unknown yet. The primary aim was to assess the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over superficial regions of the pain neuromatrix on M1 and S1 excitability. The secondary aim was to investigate how M1 and S1 excitability changes affect sensory (STh) and pain thresholds (PTh). Methods Twelve healthy participants received 20 min a-tDCS under five different conditions including a-tDCS of M1, a-tDCS of S1, a-tDCS of DLPFC, sham a-tDCS, and no-tDCS. Excitability of dominant M1 and S1 were measured before, immediately, and 30 minutes after intervention respectively. Moreover, STh and PTh to peripheral electrical and mechanical stimulation were evaluated. All outcome measures were assessed at three time-points of measurement by a blind rater. Results A-tDCS of M1 and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) significantly increased brain excitability in M1 (p < 0.05) for at least 30 min. Following application of a-tDCS over the S1, the amplitude of the N20-P25 component of SEPs increased immediately after the stimulation (p < 0.05), whilst M1 stimulation decreased it. Compared to baseline values, significant STh and PTh increase was observed after a-tDCS of all three stimulated areas. Except in M1 stimulation, there was significant PTh difference between a-tDCS and sham tDCS. Conclusion a-tDCS of M1 is the best spots to enhance brain excitability than a-tDCS of S1 and DLPFC. Surprisingly, a-tDCS of M1 and S1 has diverse effects on S1 and M1 excitability. A-tDCS of M1, S1, and DLPFC increased STh and PTh levels. Given the placebo effects of a-tDCS of M1 in pain perception, our results should be interpreted with caution

  2. A randomised, controlled, single-blinded study on the impact of a single rhythmical massage (anthroposophic medicine) on well-being and salivary cortisol in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Jenny Lena; Reif, Marcus; Rihs, Carolina; Krause, Ingrid; Seifert, Georg

    2015-10-01

    Rhythmical massage (RM) has evolved from classical massage and is based on the principles of Anthroposophic medicine. The goal of this randomized, single-blinded study was to assess the efficacy of a single RM intervention with either aroma oil (RA) or a neutral oil (RM) compared to a sham massage (SM) on several dimensions of well-being and salivary cortisol in a laboratory setting. 118 healthy adults (mean age: 25.2 years; SD: 4.7) were randomized to one of three groups (RM, RA or SM). After baseline measurements, all subjects were exposed to an experimental stressful situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST), before receiving a single massage intervention of about 60 min including a 20-minute rest period. Well-being as the main outcome parameter was assessed by standardized questionnaires (MDBF, Bf-S, B-L) and visual analogue scales (VAS) prior to the beginning of the massage and subsequently. Salivary cortisol and heart rate variability (data are shown elsewhere) were also measured. Participants who received RM or RA showed no statistically significant improvements (MDBF, Bf-S, B-L) compared to the SM group after adjusting for baseline differences observed between the treatment groups. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were found between the RM and RA groups in any of the analyses. Within a follow-up survey all participants from the RA and 82% from the RM group described the intervention as "relaxing" compared with 42% in the SM group. Salivary cortisol did not differ statistically significantly between the three groups over time. We found no significant effect within this trial. This may be due to the methodological complexity of massage research and especially the sham-controlled design with only one single intervention examined. The influence of the setting, and the expectations of and interaction between participant and practitioner seem to play a role that needs to be verified. Therefore the true potential of rhythmical massage

  3. Treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp with a topical solution of urea, lactic acid, and propylene glycol (K301): results of two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Emtestam, Lennart; Svensson, Åke; Rensfeldt, Kjell

    2012-09-01

    Alternative treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis are needed because of the increasing risk of anti-fungal resistance to existing therapies. To investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical scalp treatment with K301 solution. Two multi-centre, randomised, double-blind studies were conducted. Study I: 4 weeks of once-daily treatment with either one form of K301 (a or b) or placebo, followed by 4 weeks of maintenance treatment three times-per-week. Study II: 4 weeks of K301 (a) or placebo once-daily. Study I: 98 patients enrolled (K301a + b, n = 51; placebo, n = 47) and 83 completed; 201 entered Study II (K301a, n = 136; placebo, n = 65) and 195 completed. Erythema and desquamation sum score at 4 weeks, mean (SD) values were 2.4 (2.0) for K301a + b and 3.2 (2.2) for placebo in Study I (P = 0.025) and 2.5 (1.9) for K301a and 3.2 (1.8) for placebo in Study II (not significant). In both studies, 4-week desquamation scores were significantly improved for K301 vs. placebo (P < 0.05). Both studies showed significant improvements in symptomatic investigator and patient assessments for K301 over placebo after 4 weeks (P < 0.05). Treatment-related adverse events were generally mild and included some smarting or burning upon application. The K301 was well tolerated and associated with clinically meaningful improvements in seborrhoeic dermatitis endpoints.

  4. Influence of habitual dietary fibre intake on the responsiveness of the gut microbiota to a prebiotic: protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, single-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Genelle; Brough, Louise; Butts, Chrissie; Murphy, Rinki; Whelan, Kevin; Coad, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The commensal gut microbiota have been shown to have an impact on human health as aberrant gut microbiota have been linked to disease. Dietary constituents are influential in shaping the gut microbiota. Diet-specific therapeutic strategies may therefore play a role in optimising human health via beneficial manipulation of the gut microbiota. Research has suggested that an individual's baseline gut microbiota composition may influence how the gut microbiota respond to a dietary intervention and individuals with differing habitual dietary intakes appear to have distinct baseline gut microbiota compositions. The responsiveness of the gut microbiota may therefore be influenced by habitual dietary intakes. This study aims to investigate what influence differing habitual dietary fibre intakes have on the responsiveness of the gut microbiota to a prebiotic intervention. Methods and analysis In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, single-centre study, 20 low dietary fibre (dietary fibre intake <18 g/day for females and <22 g/day for males) and 20 high dietary fibre (dietary fibre intake ≥25 g/day for females and ≥30 g/day for males) consumers will be recruited. Participants will be randomised to a placebo (Glucidex 29 Premium) or a prebiotic (Synergy 1) intervention for 3 weeks with a 3-week washout followed by 3 weeks of the alternative intervention. Outcome measures of gut microbiota composition (using 16S rRNA gene sequencing) and functional capacity (faecal short chain fatty acid concentrations and Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt)) as well as appetite (visual analogue scale appetite questionnaire) will be assessed at the beginning and end of each intervention phase. Ethics and dissemination The Massey University Human Ethics Committee approved this study (Massey University HEC: Southern A application—15/34). Results will be disseminated through peer

  5. Mycophenolate Mofetil versus Oral Cyclophosphamide in Scleroderma-related Interstitial Lung Disease: Scleroderma Lung Study II (SLS-II), a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tashkin, Donald P; Roth, Michael D; Clements, Philip J; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh; Kleerup, Eric C; Goldin, Jonathan; Arriola, Edgar; Volkmann, Elizabeth R; Kafaja, Suzanne; Silver, Richard; Steen, Virginia; Strange, Charlie; Wise, Robert; Wigley, Fredrick; Mayes, Maureen; Riley, David J; Hussain, Sabiha; Assassi, Shervin; Hsu, Vivien M; Patel, Bela; Phillips, Kristine; Martinez, Fernando; Golden, Jeffrey; Connolly, M Kari; Varga, John; Dematte, Jane; Hinchcliff, Monique; Fischer, Aryeh; Swigris, Jeffrey; Meehan, Richard; Theodore, Arthur; Simms, Robert; Volkov, Suncica; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Scholand, Mary Beth; Frech, Tracy; Molitor, Jerry A; Highland, Kristin; Read, Charles A; Fritzler, Marvin J; Kim, Grace Hyun J; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Elashoff, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Twelve months of oral cyclophosphamide (CYC) has been shown to alter the progression of scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) when compared to placebo. However, toxicity was a concern and without continued treatment the efficacy disappeared by 24 months. We hypothesized that a two-year course of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) would be safer, better tolerated and produce longer lasting improvements than CYC. METHODS Patients with SSc-ILD meeting defined dyspnea, pulmonary function and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) criteria were randomized in a double-blind, two-arm trial at 14 medical centers. MMF (target dose 1500 mg twice daily) was administered for 24 months in one arm and oral CYC (target dose 2·0 mg/kg/day) administered for 12 months followed by placebo for 12 months in the other arm. The primary endpoint, change in forced vital capacity as a percent of the predicted normal value (FVC %) over the course of 24 months, was assessed in a modified intention-to-treat analysis using an inferential joint model combining a mixed effects model for longitudinal outcomes and a survival model to handle non-ignorable missing data. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00883129, and is closed. RESULTS Between November, 2009, and January, 2013, 142 patients were randomized. 126 patients (63 MMF; 63 CYC) with acceptable baseline HRCT studies and at least one outcome measure were included in the analysis. The adjusted FVC % (primary endpoint) improved from baseline to 24 months by 2.17 in the MMF arm (95% CI, 0.53–3.84) and 2·86 in the CYC arm (95% confidence interval 1·19–4·58) with no significant between-treatment difference (p=0·24), indicating that the trial was negative for the primary endpoint. However, in a post-hoc analysis of the primary endpoint, within-treatment improvements from baseline to 24 months were noted in both the CYC and MMF arms. A greater number of patients on CYC than on MMF

  6. Efficacy and tolerability of a spray with Salvia officinalis in the treatment of acute pharyngitis - a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with adaptive design and interim analysis.

    PubMed

    Hubbert, Michael; Sievers, H; Lehnfeld, R; Kehrl, W

    2006-01-31

    This randomised, double-blind, parallel group phase II/III study with adaptive two-stage design and interim analysis compared the efficacy and tolerability of spray (containing a Salvia officinalis fluid extract) against placebo in the treatment of patients with acute viral pharyngitis. - in two study parts, a total of 286 patients with subjective and objective evidence of pharyngitis were randomized. In the first study part 122 patients were enrolled. In the second study part 164 patients were included. The treatment duration per patient was 3 days, including one baseline visit and one final visit. - Area under Curve for change of throat pain intensity (spontaneous pain), documented every 15 minutes within the first 2 hours after the first application as compared to baseline using a visual analog scale (VAS 100 mm). - Following the interim analyses of the first study part the 15 % spray containing 140 microl sage extract per dose was the most promising preparation for the second study part (main study) whereas for the 30% and the 5% preparation results made superiority over placebo unlikely in the final analysis. Overall, the 15 % spray was significantly superior to placebo for the primary efficacy variable with regard to a reduction of the throat pain intensity score. Only minor side effects such as dry pharynx or burning of mild intensity were seen. - The efficacy and tolerability profile of a 15 % sage spray indicated that this preparation provides a convenient and safe treatment for patients with acute pharyngitis. A symptomatic relief occurred within the first two hours after first administration and was statistically significantly superior to placebo.

  7. Multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end point trial of the efficacy of allopurinol therapy in improving cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ischaemic heart disease: protocol of the ALL-HEART study

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Ian; Walker, Andrew; Hawkey, Chris; Begg, Alan; Avery, Anthony; Taggar, Jaspal; Wei, Li; Struthers, Allan D; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the most common causes of death in the UK and treatment of patients with IHD costs the National Health System (NHS) billions of pounds each year. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to prevent gout that also has several positive effects on the cardiovascular system. The ALL-HEART study aims to determine whether allopurinol improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with IHD. Methods and analysis The ALL-HEART study is a multicentre, controlled, prospective, randomised, open-label blinded end point (PROBE) trial of allopurinol (up to 600 mg daily) versus no treatment in a 1:1 ratio, added to usual care, in 5215 patients aged 60 years and over with IHD. Patients are followed up by electronic record linkage and annual questionnaires for an average of 4 years. The primary outcome is the composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary outcomes include all-cause mortality, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of allopurinol. The study will end when 631 adjudicated primary outcomes have occurred. The study is powered at 80% to detect a 20% reduction in the primary end point for the intervention. Patient recruitment to the ALL-HEART study started in February 2014. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service (EoSRES) REC 2 (13/ES/0104). The study is event-driven and results are expected after 2019. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific meetings. Results will also be disseminated to guideline committees, NHS organisations and patient groups. Trial registration number 32017426, pre-results. PMID:27609859

  8. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aminophylline for bronchiolitis in infants admitted to intensive care.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alastair; Shann, Frank; Delzoppo, Carmel; Henning, Robert; Slater, Anthony; Beca, John; Erickson, Simon; Butt, Warwick

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether aminophylline reduced the duration of respiratory support in children admitted to intensive care with bronchiolitis. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Paediatric intensive care units in teaching hospitals. Forty-five children with severe bronchiolitis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive an infusion of aminophylline (23) or placebo (22). The primary outcome measure was the number of hours of respiratory support required in the 120 hours after randomisation; respiratory support was defined as either nasal continuous positive airways pressure or mechanical ventilation. The trial was stopped early due to poor recruitment. Respiratory support was required for a median of only 1.5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 0.4-3.5 days) in the aminophylline group compared with 1.9 days (IQR, 0.3-3.5) days in the placebo group. However, more patients in the placebo group were receiving respiratory support at the time of randomisation and, after adjustment for this, there was no suggestion of a beneficial effect of aminophylline among the small number of patients studied (P=0.54, exact log-rank test stratified by respiratory support at the time of randomisation and censored at the time of death in one child in the aminophylline group). Not enough children were recruited for the study to test the hypothesis that aminophylline reduces the need for respiratory support in severe bronchiolitis. Consequently, the role of aminophylline in the management of severe bronchiolitis remains unknown.

  9. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Josef S; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B M; Matteson, Eric L; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C; Doyle, Mittie K

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Methods Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of active RA (≥4 tender, ≥4 swollen joints) were previously reported. Patients received placebo (Group 1), 50 mg golimumab (Group 2) or 100 mg golimumab (Group 3) subcutaneous injections every 4 weeks. Patients from Groups 1 and 2 with <20% improvement in tender/swollen joints at week 16 early escaped to golimumab 50 mg and 100 mg, respectively. At week 24, Group 1 patients crossed over to golimumab 50 mg, Group 2 continued golimumab 50/100 mg per escape status and Group 3 maintained dosing. Data through week 160 are reported. Results 459 of the 461 randomised patients were treated; 236/459 (51%) continued treatment through week 160. From week 24 to week 100, ACR20 (≥20% improvement in American College of Rheumatology criteria) response and ≥0.25 unit HAQ (Health Assessment Questionnaire) improvement were sustained in 70–73% and 75–81% of responding patients, respectively. Overall at week 160, 63%, 67% and 57% of patients achieved ACR20 response and 59%, 65% and 64% had HAQ improvement ≥0.25 unit in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Adjusted for follow-up duration, adverse event incidences (95% CI) per 100 patient-years among patients treated with golimumab 50 mg and 100 mg were 4.70 (2.63 to 7.75) and 8.07 (6.02 to 10.58) for serious infection, 0.95 (0.20 to 2.77) and 2.04 (1.09 to 3.49) for malignancy and 0.00 (0.00 to 0.94) and 0.62 (0.17 to 1.59) for death, respectively. Conclusion In patients with active RA who discontinued previous TNF-antagonist treatment, golimumab 50 and 100 mg injections every 4 weeks yielded sustained improvements in signs/symptoms and physical function in ∼57–67% of patients who continued treatment. Golimumab

  10. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of methoxyflurane for procedural pain of a bone marrow biopsy.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Odette; Westerman, David; Milner, Alvin; Bressel, Mathias; Wein, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Pain during bone marrow biopsy (BMB) under local anaesthesia (LA) is reported in 70% of patients, of whom 35% rate the pain as severe. Pain is experienced during both the biopsy and the marrow aspiration. Many medical centres use conscious sedation involving benzodiazepines and/or opioids administered orally or intravenously for BMB analgesia. Methoxyflurane (MEOF) is self-administered by a handheld device (the Penthrox inhaler), which is licensed in Australia for the relief of pain associated with short surgical procedures. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of MEOF analgesia in patients with cancer undergoing BMB. Patients received LA plus either MEOF or placebo. The primary endpoint was worst pain intensity measured with the Numerical Rating Scale. Anxiety was assessed with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y-1). Patients, operators and the research nurse rated global medication performance using a 5-point Likert scale. Forty-nine of the 50 patients randomised to MEOF and 48 of the 50 patients randomised to placebo effectively received the allocated intervention. Mean±SD worst pain overall was 4.90±2.07 in MEOF group and 6.0±2.24 in placebo group (p=0.011). Worst pain during the aspiration was 3.3±2.0 in MEOF group and 5.0±2.4 in placebo group (p<0.001). 49% of patients treated with MEOF rated the medication as very good or excellent compared with 16.5% of the patients treated with placebo (p=0.005). 20.4% of patients treated with MEOF had an adverse event (AE) compared with 4.2% in the placebo arm (p=0.028). All AEs were grade 1. MEOF was safe and performed better than placebo for analgesia in BMB procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rosa, Laura Alejandra de la; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-06-23

    In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Evaluator-blinded trial evaluating nurse-led immunotherapy DEcision Coaching In persons with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (DECIMS) and accompanying process evaluation: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Anne Christin; Köpke, Sascha; Kasper, Jürgen; Vettorazzi, Eik; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Heesen, Christoph

    2015-03-21

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition usually starting in early adulthood and regularly leading to severe disability. Immunotherapy options are growing in number and complexity, while costs of treatments are high and adherence rates remain low. Therefore, treatment decision-making has become more complex for patients. Structured decision coaching, based on the principles of evidence-based patient information and shared decision-making, has the potential to facilitate participation of individuals in the decision-making process. This cluster randomised controlled trial follows the assumption that decision coaching by trained nurses, using evidence-based patient information and preference elicitation, will facilitate informed choices and induce higher decision quality, as well as better decisional adherence. The decision coaching programme will be evaluated through an evaluator-blinded superiority cluster randomised controlled trial, including 300 patients with suspected or definite relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, facing an immunotherapy decision. The clusters are 12 multiple sclerosis outpatient clinics in Germany. Further, the trial will be accompanied by a mixed-methods process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness study. Nurses in the intervention group will be trained in shared decision-making, coaching, and evidence-based patient information principles. Patients who meet the inclusion criteria will receive decision coaching (intervention group) with up to three face-to-face coaching sessions with a trained nurse (decision coach) or counselling as usual (control group). Patients in both groups will be given access to an evidence-based online information tool. The primary outcome is 'informed choice' after six months, assessed with the multi-dimensional measure of informed choice including the sub-dimensions risk knowledge (questionnaire), attitude concerning immunotherapy (questionnaire), and immunotherapy uptake (telephone survey

  13. Impact of a prophylactic combination of dexamethasone-ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting in obese adult patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy during closed-loop propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Aurélien; Letourneulx, Jacques-Florian; Charmeau, Alain; Lemedioni, Pascale; Léger, Philippe; Chazot, Thierry; Le Guen, Morgan; Diemunsch, Pierre; Fischler, Marc; Liu, Ngai

    2016-12-01

    In obese patients, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following sleeve gastrectomy under titration of total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and the relevance of risk factors to indicate prophylaxis is unknown. The hypothesis was that after automated TIVA, prophylaxis reduces PONV following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Our objective was to determine the incidence of PONV and evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone and ondansetron as prophylaxis when automated intravenous anaesthesia is employed. A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-centre, double-blinded study. Secondary care centre in New Caledonia from June 2013 to January 2014. A total of 122 patients were randomised and 117 (92 women) were included in the analysis (58 in the prophylaxis group and 59 in the placebo group). Eligibility criteria included at least two of the known risk factors for PONV: female sex, nonsmoking status, prior history of PONV or motion sickness and expected postoperative opioid analgesia. Exclusion criteria included disorders limiting the use of the bispectral index. All patients received propofol and remifentanil controlled by the same automated system during induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia. The controller modifies the calculated effect-site concentrations according to bispectral index values. Patients received either intravenous dexamethasone 4 mg after tracheal intubation and ondansetron 4 mg during skin closure, or placebo. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidences of 24-h PONV and severe PONV (vomiting or nausea with a score of ≥4 on an 11-point verbal rating scale). Data are presented as percentage (95% confidence interval). PONV in the first 24 h occurred in 45 (34 to 60)% of patients who received prophylaxis and 54 (41 to 67)% in the placebo group (P = 0.35). The numbers of patients who suffered severe PONV [19 (10 to 32)% in the prophylaxis group vs. 20 (11 to 33)%, P = 1, in the placebo group] and who

  14. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure.

  15. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, duloxetine-referenced study of the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine in the acute treatment of adults with generalised anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahableshwarkar, A R; Jacobsen, P L; Chen, Y; Simon, J S

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine 2.5-, 5- and 10-mg once-daily doses vs. placebo in the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). In this 8-week, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 study, patients with a primary GAD diagnosis were randomised to receive placebo (n = 157), vortioxetine 2.5 mg, vortioxetine 5 mg, vortioxetine 10 mg or duloxetine 60 mg once daily (n = 156 each). The primary end-point, mean change from baseline in Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) total score and key secondary end-points for the 5- and 10-mg vortioxetine doses were analysed in a prespecified sequential testing procedure (all at week 8). Sexual dysfunction was evaluated using the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale. Differences from placebo in the primary efficacy end-point were not statistically significant for the vortioxetine groups. The mean difference from placebo was significant in the duloxetine arm. For all secondary efficacy end-points, results were similar among the vortioxetine groups and did not reach statistical significance. The vortioxetine 10-mg group showed separation from placebo on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression anxiety subscore (nominal p = 0.036). Duloxetine 60 mg significantly improved the primary end-point (p < 0.05 vs. placebo), validating the study. Nausea, dry mouth, diarrhoea, nasopharyngitis, headache, dizziness, somnolence, vomiting, dyspepsia, constipation and fatigue were reported in ≥ 5% of patients receiving vortioxetine. Rates of treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction (TESD) in the vortioxetine dosing groups were similar to placebo. In this study, vortioxetine 2.5-, 5- and 10-mg once-daily doses showed no significant improvement in HAM-A total scores vs. placebo. Vortioxetine was well tolerated at all doses and was not associated with TESD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Protocol study for a randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial involving virtual reality and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation for the improvement of upper limb motor function in children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; de Moura, Renata Calhes Franco; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Duarte, Natalia de Almeida Carvalho; Miziara, Isabela; de Melo, Gileno Edu Lameira; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Santos Oliveira, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Down syndrome results in neuromotor impairment that affects selective motor control, compromising the acquisition of motor skills and functional independence. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate and compare the effects of multiple-monopolar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex during upper limb motor training involving virtual reality on motor control, muscle activity, cerebral activity and functional independence. Methods and analysis A randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is proposed. The calculation of the sample size will be defined based on the results of a pilot study involving the same methods. The participants will be randomly allocated to two groups. Evaluations will be conducted before and after the intervention as well as 1 month after the end of the intervention process. At each evaluation, three-dimensional analysis of upper limb movement muscle activity will be measured using electromyography, cerebral activity will be measured using an electroencephalogram system and intellectual capacity will be assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Virtual reality training will be performed three times a week (one 20 min session per day) for a total of 10 sessions. During the protocol, transcranial stimulation will be administered concomitantly to upper limb motor training. The results will be analysed statistically, with a p value≤0.05 considered indicative of statistical significance. Ethical aspects and publicity The present study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of Universidade Nove de Julho (Sao Paulo,Brazil) under process number 1.540.113 and is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (N° RBR3PHPXB). The participating institutions have presented a declaration of participation. The volunteers will be permitted to drop out of the study at any time with no negative repercussions. The results will

  17. Seladelpar (MBX-8025), a selective PPAR-δ agonist, in patients with primary biliary cholangitis with an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2, proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Jones, David; Boudes, Pol F; Swain, Mark G; Bowlus, Christopher L; Galambos, Michael R; Bacon, Bruce R; Doerffel, Yvonne; Gitlin, Norman; Gordon, Stuart C; Odin, Joseph A; Sheridan, David; Wörns, Markus-Alexander; Clark, Virginia; Corless, Linsey; Hartmann, Heinz; Jonas, Mark E; Kremer, Andreas E; Mells, George F; Buggisch, Peter; Freilich, Bradley L; Levy, Cynthia; Vierling, John M; Bernstein, David E; Hartleb, Marek; Janczewska, Ewa; Rochling, Fedja; Shah, Hemant; Shiffman, Mitchell L; Smith, John H; Choi, Yun-Jung; Steinberg, Alexandra; Varga, Monika; Chera, Harinder; Martin, Robert; McWherter, Charles A; Hirschfield, Gideon M

    2017-10-01

    Many patients with primary biliary cholangitis have an inadequate response to first-line therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid. Seladelpar is a potent, selective agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-δ), which is implicated in bile acid homoeostasis. This first-in-class study evaluated the anti-cholestatic effects and safety of seladelpar in patients with an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid. The study was a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of patients with alkaline phosphatase of at least 1·67 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) despite treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Patients, recruited at 29 sites in North America and Europe, were randomly assigned to placebo, seladelpar 50 mg/day, or seladelpar 200 mg/day while ursodeoxycholic acid was continued. Randomisation was done centrally (1:1:1) by a computerised system using an interactive voice-web response system with a block size of three. Randomisation was stratified by region (North America and Europe). The primary outcome was the percentage change from baseline in alkaline phosphatase over 12 weeks, analysed in the modified intention-to-treat (ITT) population (any randomised patient who received at least one dose of medication and had at least one post-baseline alkaline phosphatase evaluation). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02609048) and the EU Clinical Trials Registry (EudraCT2015-002698-39). Between Nov 4, 2015, and May 26, 2016, 70 patients were screened at 29 sites in North America and Europe. During recruitment, three patients treated with seladelpar developed fully reversible, asymptomatic grade 3 alanine aminotransferase increases (one on 50 mg, two on 200 mg), ranging from just over five to 20 times the ULN; as a result, the study was terminated after 41 patients were randomly assigned. The modified ITT population consisted of 12 patients in the placebo group, 13 in the seladelpar 50 mg group, and 10 in the

  18. Randomised, double blind trial of oxytocin nasal spray in mothers expressing breast milk for preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Fewtrell, M S; Loh, K L; Blake, A; Ridout, D A; Hawdon, J

    2006-01-01

    Background Human milk has considerable short and long term benefits for preterm infants, but mothers may experience difficulties in expressing breast milk for infants too immature or sick to breast feed. Oxytocin has been used to assist breast feeding and milk expression, but few data are available to support this intervention in the neonatal unit setting. Aim To test the hypothesis that oxytocin nasal spray increases early milk output in mothers expressing milk for preterm infants. Methods A randomised, double blind trial of oxytocin nasal spray (100 µl per dose) versus placebo was conducted in mothers delivering infants <35 weeks gestation. Sprays were used before expression of milk using an electric pump up to day 5. Main outcome Total weight of milk expressed while using spray (study powered to detect >1SD difference between groups). Secondary outcomes Pattern of milk production; number of pumping sessions; weight/fat content of milk expressed during a fixed 20 minute period on day 5 (“physiological study”); mother's opinion of expressing and spray assessed by questionnaire. Results Fifty one mothers were randomised (27 oxytocin, 24 placebo). Total milk production did not differ between groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance suggested significantly (p  =  0.001) different patterns of milk production, with initial faster production in the oxytocin group then convergence between groups. Parity did not influence the response to the intervention. No significant differences were seen in milk weight or fat content in the physiological study nor in mothers' opinions of milk expression and treatment. Conclusions Despite marginal differences in the pattern of early milk production, the use of oxytocin nasal spray did not significantly improve outcome. Most mothers believed they were receiving the active spray, suggesting a significant placebo effect (supported by limited data from historical controls) and benefits from the extra breast feeding

  19. Safety and efficacy of liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes and end-stage renal disease: protocol for an investigator-initiated prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten; Jensen, Tonny; Resuli, Marsela; Hansen, Pernille M; Christensen, Karl B; Holst, Jens J; Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Owing to renal clearance, several antidiabetic agents cannot be used in patients with ESRD. The present protocol describes an investigator-initiated trial aiming to test safety and efficacy of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes and dialysis-dependent ESRD. Methods and analysis Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes and ESRD will be compared with 20 matched patients with type 2 diabetes and normal kidney function in a randomised, parallel, placebo-controlled (1 : 1), double-blinded setting. All participants will receive 12 weeks of daily treatment with liraglutide/placebo in an individually titrated dose of 0.6, 1.2 or 1.8 mg. Over nine visits, plasma liraglutide, glycaemic control, β-cell response, cardiovascular parameters, various biomarkers and adverse events will be assessed. The primary endpoint will be evaluated from dose-corrected plasma trough liraglutide concentration at the final trial visit to determine potential accumulation in the ESRD group. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Danish Medicines Agency, the Scientific-Ethical Committee of the Capital Region of Denmark and the Danish Data Protection Agency. An external monitoring committee (The Good Clinical Practice Unit at Copenhagen University Hospitals) will oversee the study. The results of the study will be presented at national and international scientific meetings, and publications will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01394341 PMID:23624993

  20. Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 improves gastrointestinal well-being and digestive symptoms in women reporting minor digestive symptoms: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Guyonnet, Denis; Schlumberger, Armelle; Mhamdi, Leila; Jakob, Stefan; Chassany, Olivier

    2009-12-01

    The ability of probiotics to improve bowel habits or transit time has been shown in healthy populations. Additional data are required to support the use of specific probiotics to improve gastrointestinal (GI) well-being. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of consuming fermented milk (FM) on GI well-being, digestive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) amongst women without diagnosed GI disorders. In this double-blind, controlled, parallel-design study, subjects were randomised to ingest daily either 2 x 125 g FM containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 and yoghurt strains or a control non-fermented dairy product for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week wash-out period. GI well-being and digestive symptoms were assessed weekly. HRQoL was measured every 4 weeks. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, correcting for baseline values on the full analysis set population of 197 women (aged 18-60 years). The percentage of women reporting an improvement in their GI well-being was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the FM group v. the control group (OR 1.69; 95 % CI 1.17, 2.45). A significantly (P < 0.05) more pronounced decrease in the composite score of digestive symptoms was observed in the FM group when comparing with the control group (least squares mean - 0.57; 95 % CI - 1.12, - 0.02). Among HRQoL dimensions, the digestive comfort score was significantly (P < 0.05) improved in the FM group compared with the control group. The present study showed that the daily consumption of a specific FM is able to improve GI well-being and digestive symptoms in adult women without GI disorders.

  1. Effects of electroacupuncture on overactive bladder refractory to anticholinergics: a single-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Mingming

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the clinical effects and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) refractory to first-line anticholinergic treatment. Women diagnosed with OAB who were refractory to first-line anticholinergic treatment were referred for EA therapy. 50 women enrolled in this single-blind randomised controlled trial and were randomised 1:1 to EA or sham EA (SEA). The EA and SEA groups were treated with 30 sessions (5 sessions a week for 6 weeks), and each session lasted 30 min. OAB symptom scores (OABSS), King's Health Questionnaire scores (KHQ) and urodynamic parameters were used to assess treatment effects. Safety was also evaluated. 45 women completed all aspects of the study (23 in the EA group and 22 in the SEA group). The OABSS and KHQ showed statistically significant improvements in the EA group compared with the SEA group after 6 weeks of treatment (p<0.05). There were no statistical differences in the maximum flow rate and postvoid residual (p>0.05), but there were statistical improvements in the first sensation of bladder filling, first urge to void and maximum cystometric capacity (p<0.05) in the EA group compared with the SEA group. No serious adverse events occurred in either group. EA appears to be an effective, safe and minimally invasive treatment for women with OAB. Further studies with longer follow-up are needed to evaluate whether it could be a therapeutic option for OAB refractory to treatment with anticholinergics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Effects of baclofen on the functional anatomy of the oesophago-gastric junction and proximal stomach in healthy volunteers and patients with GERD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution manometry: a randomised controlled double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Curcic, J; Schwizer, A; Kaufman, E; Forras-Kaufman, Z; Banerjee, S; Pal, A; Hebbard, G S; Boesiger, P; Fried, M; Steingoetter, A; Schwizer, W; Fox, M

    2014-11-01

    The mechanism of reflux protection may involve a 'flap valve' at the oesophago-gastric junction (OGJ). To assess the effects of baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type-B (GABA-B) agonist known to suppress reflux events, on the 'functional anatomy' of the OGJ and proximal stomach after a large test meal. Twelve healthy volunteers (HVs) and 12 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD); with erosive oesophagitis or pathological oesophageal acid exposure completed a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study. On 2 test days participants received 40-mg baclofen or placebo before ingestion of a large test meal. OGJ structure and function were assessed by high-resolution manometry (HRM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using validated methods. Measurements of the oesophago-gastric angle were derived from three-dimensional models reconstructed from anatomic MRI images. Cine-MRI and HRM identified postprandial reflux events. Mixed model analysis and Wilcoxon rank signed tests assessed differences between participant groups and treatment conditions. In both HVs and GERD patients, baclofen reduced the frequency of postprandial reflux events. The oesophago-gastric insertion angle in GERD patients was reduced (-4.1 ± 1.8, P = 0.025), but was unchanged in healthy controls. In both study groups, baclofen augmented lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) pressure (HVs: +7.3 ± 1.8 mmHg, P < 0.0001, GERD: +4.50 ± 1.49 mmHg, P < 0.003) and increased LES length (HVs: +0.48 ± 0.11 cm, P < 0.0003, GERD: +0.35 ± 0.06 cm, P < 0.0001). Baclofen inhibits transient LES relaxations and augments LES pressure and length. Additionally, baclofen has effects on the 'functional anatomy' of the OGJ and proximal stomach in GERD patients, which may suppress reflux by means of a 'flap valve' mechanism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Efficacy and safety of prophylaxis with once-weekly BAY 79-4980 compared with thrice-weekly rFVIII-FS in haemophilia A patients. A randomised, active-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jerry; Martinowitz, Uri; Windyga, Jerzy; Di Minno, Giovanni; Hellmann, Andrzej; Pabinger, Ingrid; Maas Enriquez, Monika; Schwartz, Lawrence; Ingerslev, Jørgen

    2012-11-01

    The benefits of prophylaxis of haemophilia A patients regarding joint health and quality-of-life are well established. However, adherence to an up to every-other-day infusion regimen is a barrier to widespread adoption of prophylaxis. BAY 79-4980 is an investigational drug consisting of rFVIII-FS (sucrose-formulated recombinant FVIII) reconstituted with liposome solvent. Previous clinical studies showed extended protection from bleeding after a single injection of BAY 79-4980 (13.3 ± 6.2 days) compared with rFVIII-FS (7.2 ± 1.7 days). The effect of once-a-week prophylaxis with BAY 79-4980 (35 IU/kg) compared with three times-per-week rFVIII-FS (25 IU/kg) in previously treated, severe haemophilia A patients was evaluated in a 52-week, double-blind, two-arm, randomised, controlled study. The primary and secondary endpoints were protection from total bleeds and joint bleeds, respectively. Short- and long-term safety and tolerability of BAY 79-4980 including effects on lipid levels were assessed. A total of 139 and 131 subjects were evaluable for safety and efficacy analyses, respectively. A large difference in efficacy between treatment groups was observed with 72.1% (49/68) in the rFVIII-FS control group demonstrating <9 bleeds/year compared with 38.1% (24/63) of BAY 79-4980-treated subjects. A similar difference was seen in annualised joint bleeds, with 43 subjects (63.2%) in the control group demonstrating <5 joint bleeds/year compared with 24 subjects (38.1%) treated with BAY 79-4980. The distribution of bleeds seven days post-prophylactic treatment with BAY 79-4980 showed that 61% of bleeds occurred after day 4 post dosing. There were no safety concerns identified. The investigational treatment arm was prematurely discontinued due to failure to achieve the primary endpoint.

  4. Randomised clinical trial: relief of upper gastrointestinal symptoms by an acid pocket-targeting alginate-antacid (Gaviscon Double Action) - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Wade, A; Crawford, G; Jenner, B; Levinson, N; Wilkinson, J

    2014-03-01

    The alginate-antacid, Gaviscon Double Action (Gaviscon DA; Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, UK) suppresses reflux after meals by creating a gel-like barrier that caps and displaces the acid pocket distal to the oesophago-gastric junction. The effect of Gaviscon DA on reflux and dyspepsia symptoms has not yet been demonstrated with a modern trial design. A pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of Gaviscon DA compared with matched placebo for decreasing upper gastrointestinal symptoms in symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. A randomised, double-blind, parallel group study was performed in 110 patients with symptoms of GERD. Patients received Gaviscon DA or placebo tablets for 7 consecutive days. The primary endpoint compared the change in overall Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) symptom score (combined heartburn/regurgitation/dyspepsia). Secondary endpoints assessed individual dimensions, GERD dimension (heartburn and regurgitation) and overall treatment evaluation (OTE). There was a greater decrease in overall RDQ symptom score in the Gaviscon DA group compared with the placebo group (Least Squares Mean difference -0.55; P = 0.0033), and for each of the dimensions independently. Patients in the Gaviscon DA group evaluated their overall treatment response higher than patients in the placebo group [mean (standard deviation) OTE 4.1 (2.44) vs. 1.9 (3.34); P = 0.0005]. No differences in the incidence of adverse events were observed between treatment groups. Gaviscon DA decreases reflux and dyspeptic symptoms in GERD patients compared with matched placebo and has a favourable benefit-risk balance. Larger scale clinical investigations of medications targeting the acid pocket are warranted. (EudraCT, 2012-002188-84). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, as a component of first-line and second-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a phase III, randomised, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kazunari; Sakurai, Yuuichi; Shiino, Madoka; Funao, Nobuo; Nishimura, Akira; Asaka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, as a component of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Design A randomised, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group study was conducted to verify the non-inferiority of vonoprazan 20 mg to lansoprazole 30 mg as part of first-line triple therapy (with amoxicillin 750 mg and clarithromycin 200 or 400 mg) in H pylori-positive patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer history. The first 50 patients failing first-line therapy with good compliance also received second-line vonoprazan-based triple therapy (with amoxicillin 750 mg and metronidazole 250 mg) as an open-label treatment. Results Of the 650 subjects randomly allocated to either first-line triple therapy, 641 subjects completed first-line therapy and 50 subjects completed second-line therapy. The first-line eradication rate (primary end point) was 92.6% (95% CI 89.2% to 95.2%) with vonoprazan versus 75.9% (95% CI 70.9% to 80.5%) with lansoprazole, with the difference being 16.7% (95% CI 11.2% to 22.1%) in favour of vonoprazan, thus confirming the non-inferiority of vonoprazan (p<0.0001). The second-line eradication rate (secondary end point) was also high (98.0%; 95% CI 89.4% to 99.9%) in those who received second-line therapy (n=50). Both first-line triple therapies were well tolerated with no notable differences. Second-line triple therapy was also well tolerated. Conclusion Vonoprazan is effective as part of first-line triple therapy and as part of second-line triple therapy in H pylori-positive patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcer. Trial registration number NCT01505127. PMID:26935876

  6. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges in patients with/without group A or C streptococcal throat infection, with an assessment of clinicians' prediction of 'strep throat'.

    PubMed

    Shephard, A; Smith, G; Aspley, S; Schachtel, B P

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing group A streptococcus (Strep A) throat infection by clinical examination is difficult, and misdiagnosis may lead to inappropriate antibiotic use. Most patients with sore throat seek symptom relief rather than antibiotics, therefore, therapies that relieve symptoms should be recommended to patients. We report two clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge in patients with and without streptococcal sore throat. The studies enrolled adults with moderate-to-severe throat symptoms (sore throat pain, difficulty swallowing and swollen throat) and a diagnosis of pharyngitis. The practitioner assessed the likelihood of Strep A infection based on historical and clinical findings. Patients were randomised to flurbiprofen 8.75 mg or placebo lozenges under double-blind conditions and reported the three throat symptoms at baseline and at regular intervals over 24 h. A total of 402 patients received study medication (n = 203 flurbiprofen, n = 199 placebo). Throat culture identified Strep A in 10.0% of patients and group C streptococcus (Strep C) in a further 14.0%. The practitioners' assessments correctly diagnosed Strep A in 11/40 cases (sensitivity 27.5%, and specificity 79.7%). A single flurbiprofen lozenge provided significantly greater relief than placebo for all three throat symptoms, lasting 3-4 h for patients with and without Strep A/C. Multiple doses of flurbiprofen lozenges over 24 h also led to symptom relief, although not statistically significant in the Strep A/C group. There were no serious adverse events. The results highlight the challenge of identifying Strep A based on clinical features. With the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, non-antibiotic treatments should be considered. As demonstrated here, flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenges are an effective therapeutic option, providing immediate and long-lasting symptom relief in patients with and without Strep A/C infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A double-blind randomised clinical trial of two techniques for gingival displacement.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, H R; Leite, F R M; Dantas, R V F; Ogliari, F A; Demarco, F F; Faot, F

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about security and the potential damage originated by the gingival displacement techniques has not been described through randomised clinical studies. This crossover, double-blind, randomised clinical trial evaluated clinical and immunological factors related to conventional and cordless gingival displacement (GD) techniques, and patients' perceptions in 12 subjects with the employment of 2 GD techniques: conventional (gingival cord + 25% AlCl3 astringent gel) and cordless (15% AlCl3 astringent-based paste). In each subject, two anterior teeth were treated and a 10-day wash-out period separated the two treatments. Periodontal indices were evaluated before (baseline) and 1 and 10 days after GD. Interleukin 1β, interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor α concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid were measured before and 1 day after GD. Subjective parameters (pain, unpleasant taste and stress) were also evaluated. Data were analysed by one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (immunological factors), the Friedman test (periodontal parameters) and Fisher's exact or chi-squared test (subjective parameters), with a significance level of 95%. Gingival bleeding index, probing depth and plaque index values did not differ significantly between groups at any timepoint. Neither technique resulted in worse periodontal indices. Both techniques yielded similar results for pain and unpleasant taste, but conventional GD was significantly more stressful than cordless GD for volunteers. Both treatments significantly increased mean concentrations of the three cytokines, with the conventional technique producing the highest cytokine levels. Cordless GD is less stressful for patients and results in lower post-treatment levels of inflammatory cytokines compared with conventional GD.

  8. Effect of fermented milk product containing lactotripeptides and plant sterol esters on haemodynamics in subjects with the metabolic syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hautaniemi, Elina J; Tikkakoski, Antti J; Tahvanainen, Anna; Nordhausen, Klaus; Kähönen, Mika; Mattsson, Tiina; Luhtala, Satu; Turpeinen, Anu M; Niemelä, Onni; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korpela, Riitta; Pörsti, Ilkka H

    2015-08-14

    We investigated the effects of fermented milk product containing isoleucine-proline-proline, valine-proline-proline and plant sterol esters (Pse) on plasma lipids, blood pressure (BP) and its determinants systemic vascular resistance and cardiac output. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 104 subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were allocated to three groups in order to receive fermented milk product containing (1) 5 mg/d lactotripeptides (LTP) and 2 g/d plant sterols; (2) 25 mg/d LTP and 2 g/d plant sterols; (3) placebo for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids and home BP were monitored. Haemodynamics were examined in a laboratory using radial pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography in the supine position and during orthostatic challenge. There were no differences between the effects of the two treatments and placebo on the measurements of BP at home or on BP, systemic vascular resistance index and cardiac index in the laboratory, neither in the supine nor in the upright position. The changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration were - 0.1 (95% CI - 0.3, 0.1 and - 0.3, 0.0) mmol/l in the 5 and 25 mg/d LTP groups, respectively, and +0.1 (95% CI - 0.1, 0.3) mmol/l during placebo (P= 0.024). Both at baseline and at week 12, the increase in systemic vascular resistance during head-up tilt was lower in the 25 mg/d LTP group than in the 5 mg/d LTP group (P< 0.01), showing persistent differences in cardiovascular regulation between these groups. In subjects with the MetS, intake of LTP and Pse in fermented milk product showed a lipid-lowering effect of borderline significance, while no antihypertensive effect was observed at home or in the laboratory.

  9. Effects of a combined oral contraceptive containing oestradiol valerate/dienogest on hormone withdrawal-associated symptoms: results from the multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled HARMONY II study.

    PubMed

    Macìas, G; Merki-Feld, G S; Parke, S; Mellinger, U; Serrani, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind study was to compare a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing oestradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG) administered in a dynamic dosing regimen with a monophasic COC containing ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel (EE/LNG), with regard to their ability to reduce the frequency and intensity of headache and pelvic pain in women with hormone withdrawal-associated symptoms (HWAS). Women aged 18-50 years received E2V/DNG in an oestrogen step-down and progestin step-up regimen (26/2 regimen; n = 223) or EE 20 μg/LNG 100 μg (21/7 regimen; n = 218) over six cycles. Headache and pelvic pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) during cycle days 22-28. Rescue medication use was also assessed. E2V/DNG was superior to EE/LNG with regard to reducing the frequency and intensity of headache and pelvic pain from baseline to cycle 6 (change from baseline in the average of the three highest VAS values [mean ± standard deviation]: 47.7 ± 29.4 vs 34.5 ± 25.7 mm, respectively; p < 0.0001). The use of rescue medication was also significantly reduced with E2V/DNG compared with EE/LNG (p < 0.05). E2V/DNG may be a good option for women who experience HWAS with traditional 21/7-day regimen COCs.

  10. A randomised, double-blind study in adults with major depressive disorder with an inadequate response to a single course of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor treatment switched to vortioxetine or agomelatine†

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Stuart A; Nielsen, Rebecca Z; Poulsen, Lis H; Häggström, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objective This randomised, double-blind, 12-week study compared efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose treatment with vortioxetine (10–20 mg/day) versus agomelatine (25–50 mg/day) in major depressive disorder patients with inadequate response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) monotherapy. Methods Patients were switched directly from SSRI/SNRI to vortioxetine or agomelatine. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 8 in the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score analysed by mixed model for repeated measurements, using a noninferiority test followed by a superiority test. Secondary endpoints included response and remission rates, anxiety symptoms (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), Clinical Global Impression, overall functioning (Sheehan Disability Scale), health-related quality of life (EuroQol 5 Dimensions), productivity (work limitation questionnaire) and family functioning (Depression and Family Functioning Scale). Results Primary endpoint noninferiority was established and vortioxetine (n = 252) was superior to agomelatine (n = 241) by 2.2 MADRS points (p < 0.01). Vortioxetine was also significantly superior in response and remission rates at weeks 8 and 12; MADRS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Sheehan Disability Scale and EuroQol 5 Dimensions scores at week 4 onwards; work limitation questionnaire at week 8 and Depression and Family Functioning Scale at weeks 8 and 12. Fewer patients withdrew because of adverse events with vortioxetine (5.9% vs 9.5%). Adverse events (incidence ≥5%) were nausea, headache, dizziness and somnolence. Conclusions Vortioxetine was noninferior and significantly superior to agomelatine in major depressive disorder patients with previous inadequate response to a single course of SSRI/SNRI monotherapy. Vortioxetine was safe and well tolerated. PMID:25087600

  11. A randomised, double-blind study in adults with major depressive disorder with an inadequate response to a single course of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor treatment switched to vortioxetine or agomelatine.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stuart A; Nielsen, Rebecca Z; Poulsen, Lis H; Häggström, Lars

    2014-09-01

    This randomised, double-blind, 12-week study compared efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose treatment with vortioxetine(10-20 mg/day) versus agomelatine (25-50 mg/day) in major depressive disorder patients with inadequate response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) monotherapy. Patients were switched directly from SSRI/SNRI to vortioxetine or agomelatine. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 8 in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score analysed by mixed model for repeated measurements, using a noninferiority test followed by a superiority test. Secondary endpoints included response and remission rates, anxiety symptoms(Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), Clinical Global Impression, overall functioning (Sheehan Disability Scale), health-related quality of life(EuroQol 5 Dimensions), productivity (work limitation questionnaire) and family functioning (Depression and Family Functioning Scale). Primary endpoint noninferiority was established and vortioxetine (n = 252) was superior to agomelatine (n = 241) by 2.2 MADRS points (p<0.01). Vortioxetine was also significantly superior in response and remission rates at weeks 8 and 12; MADRS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Sheehan Disability Scale and EuroQol 5 Dimensions scores at week 4 onwards; work limitation questionnaire at week 8 and Depression and Family Functioning Scale at weeks 8 and 12. Fewer patients withdrew because of adverse events with vortioxetine (5.9% vs 9.5%). Adverse events (incidence ≥5%) were nausea, headache, dizziness and somnolence. Vortioxetine was noninferior and significantly superior to agomelatine in major depressive disorder patients with previous inadequate response to a single course of SSRI/SNRI monotherapy. Vortioxetine was safe and well tolerated.

  12. β2-1 Fructan supplementation alters host immune responses in a manner consistent with increased exposure to microbial components: results from a double-blinded, randomised, cross-over study in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sandra T; Green-Johnson, Julia M; Brooks, Stephen P J; Ramdath, D Dan; Bercik, Premysl; Avila, Christian; Inglis, G Douglas; Green, Judy; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-28

    β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects' regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood was analysed for clinical, biochemical and immunological variables. Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken. β2-1 Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion. With respect to immune function, β2-1 fructan supplementation increased serum IL-4, circulating percentages of CD282+/TLR2+ myeloid dendritic cells and ex vivo responsiveness to a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. β2-1 Fructans also decreased serum IL-10, but did not affect C-reactive protein or serum/faecal Ig concentrations. No differences in host well-being were associated with either treatment, although the self-reported incidence of GI symptoms and headaches increased during the β2-1 fructan phase. Although β2-1 fructan supplementation increased faecal bifidobacteria, this change was not directly related to any of the determined host parameters.

  13. Escin/diethylammonium salicylate/heparin combination gels for the topical treatment of acute impact injuries: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel, D; Menke, W; Dieter, R; Smasal, V; Giannetti, B; Bulitta, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of escin-containing gels in the topical treatment of blunt impact injuries. Methods: Competitors in soccer, handball, or karate competitions were enrolled within two hours of sustaining a strain, sprain, or contusion and treated three times with the trial gel within a period of eight hours. Patients were randomised to three parallel groups consisting of two active treatment gels, containing escin (1% or 2%), 5% diethylammonium salicylate, and 5000 IU heparin, or placebo gel. Tenderness produced by pressure was measured at 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours after enrolment (within two hours of the injury). Tenderness was defined as the amount of pressure (measured by a calibrated caliper at the centre of the injury) that first produced a pain reaction as reported by the patient. Results: A total of 158 patients were enrolled; 156 were evaluated in the intention to treat analysis. The primary efficacy variable was the area under the curve for tenderness over a six hour period. The gel preparations containing 1% and 2% escin were significantly more effective (a priori ordered hypotheses testing controlling the multiple α = 5% significance level) than placebo (p1 = 0.0001 and p2 = 0.0002 respectively). The treatment effects were 5.7 kp h/cm2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9 to 8.5) and 5.9 kilopond (kp) h/cm2 (95% CI 2.9 to 8.8) between 1% escin and placebo and between 2% escin and placebo respectively. These results were supported by secondary efficacy variables. The time to reach the baseline contralateral tenderness value (resolution of pain) at the injured site was shorter in the treatment groups than in the placebo group (p<0.0001). Both active gel preparations produced more rapid pain relief than the placebo gel. No relevant differences were detected between the two active gels. The safety and tolerability of the escin-containing gels were excellent. Conclusions: Escin/diethylammonium salicylate

  14. Escin/diethylammonium salicylate/heparin combination gels for the topical treatment of acute impact injuries: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, D; Menke, W; Dieter, R; Smasal, V; Giannetti, B; Bulitta, M

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of escin-containing gels in the topical treatment of blunt impact injuries. Competitors in soccer, handball, or karate competitions were enrolled within two hours of sustaining a strain, sprain, or contusion and treated three times with the trial gel within a period of eight hours. Patients were randomised to three parallel groups consisting of two active treatment gels, containing escin (1% or 2%), 5% diethylammonium salicylate, and 5000 IU heparin, or placebo gel. Tenderness produced by pressure was measured at 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours after enrollment (within two hours of the injury). Tenderness was defined as the amount of pressure (measured by a calibrated caliper at the centre of the injury) that first produced a pain reaction as reported by the patient. A total of 158 patients were enrolled; 156 were evaluated in the intention to treat analysis. The primary efficacy variable was the area under the curve for tenderness over a six hour period. The gel preparations containing 1% and 2% escin were significantly more effective (a priori ordered hypotheses testing controlling the multiple alpha = 5% significance level) than placebo (p(1) = 0.0001 and p(2) = 0.0002 respectively). The treatment effects were 5.7 kp h/cm(2) (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9 to 8.5) and 5.9 kilopond (kp) h/cm(2) (95% CI 2.9 to 8.8) between 1% escin and placebo and between 2% escin and placebo respectively. These results were supported by secondary efficacy variables. The time to reach the baseline contralateral tenderness value (resolution of pain) at the injured site was shorter in the treatment groups than in the placebo group (p<0.0001). Both active gel preparations produced more rapid pain relief than the placebo gel. No relevant differences were detected between the two active gels. The safety and tolerability of the escin-containing gels were excellent. Escin/diethylammonium salicylate/heparin combination gel

  15. Kinesiologic taping and muscular activity: a myofascial hypothesis and a randomised, blinded trial on healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Gusella, Alberto; Bettuolo, Marcello; Contiero, Francesco; Volpe, Giovanni

    2014-07-01

    During recent years scientific research has demonstrated a growing interest in elastic and anaelastics adhesive taping techniques. However, only a few studies investigating the principles behind the effects of taping. At present, the action mechanisms of kinesiology taping remain speculative. To investigate the effects of taping application on the tone of the pectoralis major muscle at rest, in absence of any relevant pathologies. The study involved a prospective, randomised and blinded clinical trial on healthy individuals and a repeated measures study design. Two different taping techniques (facilitatory and inhibitory) were applied over the pectoralis major of 24 healthy volunteers. The outcome measure was passive range of motion of external rotation of the glenohumeral joint. Facilitatory taping significatively enhanced the activity of the underlying muscle. Results showed a negative correlation between facilitatory taping application and the contralateral pectoralis major length, indicating a possible effect on the muscle tone of areas outside the site of direct application. The inhibitory taping application did not produce significant results. effects on ipsilateral and contralateral muscle physiology could be interpreted through the initial hypothesis of taping inducing changes in fascial stiffness. These could be transmitted along the continuing system. Further studies are needed to inform the possible uses of taping in clinical practice. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does oral alprazolam affect ventilation? A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carraro, G E; Russi, E W; Buechi, S; Bloch, Konrad E

    2009-05-01

    The respiratory effects of benzodiazepines have been controversial. This investigation aimed to study the effects of oral alprazolam on ventilation. In a randomised, double-blind cross-over protocol, 20 healthy men ingested 1 mg of alprazolam or placebo in random order, 1 week apart. Ventilation was unobtrusively monitored by inductance plethysmography along with end-tidal PCO(2) and pulse oximetry 60-160 min after drug intake. Subjects were encouraged to keep their eyes open. Mean +/- SD minute ventilation 120 min after alprazolam and placebo was similar (6.21 +/- 0.71 vs 6.41 +/- 1.12 L/min, P = NS). End-tidal PCO(2) and oxygen saturation did also not differ between treatments. However, coefficients of variation of minute ventilation after alprazolam exceeded those after placebo (43 +/- 23% vs 31 +/- 13%, P < 0.05). More encouragements to keep the eyes open were required after alprazolam than after placebo (5.2 +/- 5.7 vs 1.3 +/- 2.3 calls, P < 0.05). In a multiple regression analysis, higher coefficients of variation of minute ventilation after alprazolam were related to a greater number of calls. Oral alprazolam in a mildly sedative dose has no clinically relevant effect on ventilation in healthy, awake men. The increased variability of ventilation on alprazolam seems related to vigilance fluctuations rather than to a direct drug effect on ventilation.

  17. Randomised, double blind comparison of omeprazole and cimetidine in the treatment of symptomatic gastric ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bate, C M; Wilkinson, S P; Bradby, G V; Bateson, M C; Hislop, W S; Crowe, J P; Willoughby, C P; Peers, E M; Richardson, P D

    1989-01-01

    In a randomised, double blind, parallel group study in patients with symptomatic gastric ulcer (94% greater than or equal to 5 mm diameter), 102 received omeprazole 20 mg om and 87 cimetidine 400 mg bd. After four weeks 73% and 58% (p less than 0.05) respectively had healed (eight weeks: 84% and 75%, ns). After four weeks, a greater proportion (81%) of omeprazole treated patients was symptom free than of those receiving cimetidine (60%; p less than 0.01). Over the first two weeks, patients receiving omeprazole had less day pain, less night pain and took fewer antacids than those receiving cimetidine (all p less than 0.05). The difference between omeprazole and cimetidine was not appreciably affected by age, smoking, size of the ulcer and trial centre. Tolerability was similar in the two treatment groups. In the treatment of symptomatic gastric ulcer, omeprazole relieves the symptoms more quickly than cimetidine and heals a greater proportion of ulcers within four weeks. PMID:2684802

  18. Efficacy of a nicotine mouth spray in smoking cessation: a randomised, double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Tønnesen, Philip; Lauri, Hans; Perfekt, Roland; Mann, Karl; Batra, Anil

    2012-01-01

    A nicotine mouth spray has advantages over other acute forms of nicotine replacement therapy, such as a faster uptake of nicotine and faster relief of craving. This multicentre, randomised (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study evaluated self-reported, carbon monoxide-verified continuous abstinence from smoking from week 2 until weeks 6, 24, and 52 in 479 smokers (≥1 cigarette per day) who were treated with either active (n=318) or placebo (n=161) spray for 12 weeks and low-intensity counselling at three smoking cessation clinics in Denmark and Germany. Active treatment yielded significantly higher continuous abstinence rates than placebo from week 2 until week 6 (26.1% versus 16.1%; relative success rate (RR) 1.62, 95% CI 1.09–2.41), week 24 (15.7% versus 6.8%; RR 2.30, 95% CI 1.23–4.30), and week 52 (13.8% versus 5.6%; RR 2.48, 95% CI 1.24–4.94). Most adverse events were mild to moderate, and 9.1% of subjects on active spray withdrew due to adverse events, compared to 7.5% on placebo. The overall rate of treatment-related adverse events was 87.4% with active spray versus 71.4% with placebo spray. Nicotine mouth spray delivered significantly higher 6-, 24- and 52-week continuous abstinence rates than placebo. PMID:22323576

  19. Doxycycline in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Haïk, Stéphane; Marcon, Gabriella; Mallet, Alain; Tettamanti, Mauro; Welaratne, Arlette; Giaccone, Giorgio; Azimi, Shohreh; Pietrini, Vladimiro; Fabreguettes, Jean-Roch; Imperiale, Daniele; Cesaro, Pierre; Buffa, Carlo; Aucan, Christophe; Lucca, Ugo; Peckeu, Laurène; Suardi, Silvia; Tranchant, Christine; Zerr, Inga; Houillier, Caroline; Redaelli, Veronica; Vespignani, Hervé; Campanella, Angela; Sellal, François; Krasnianski, Anna; Seilhean, Danielle; Heinemann, Uta; Sedel, Frédéric; Canovi, Mara; Gobbi, Marco; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Salmona, Mario; Forloni, Gianluigi; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2014-02-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal, untreatable prion encephalopathy. Previous studies showed that doxycycline is effective in in-vitro and in-vivo models of disease, and patients with CJD who received compassionate treatment with doxycycline showed increased survival time compared with historical series. We therefore did a randomised, double-blind study of doxycycline versus placebo in CJD. We recruited patients older than 18 years old who had a diagnosis of definite or probable sporadic CJD or genetic forms of the disease via Italian reference centres and the French national referral system. Patients were randomly assigned (ratio 1:1) to receive oral doxycycline (100 mg daily) or placebo under double-blind conditions from the day of randomisation to death. Centralised randomisation was done independently of enrolment or evaluation of patients using a minimisation method in Italy and a simple randomisation in France. Participants, caregivers, and clinicians were masked to group assignment. The primary efficacy variable was the survival time from randomisation. Interim analyses were planned to detect a significant effect of treatment as early as possible. This trial is registered with EudraCT, 2006-001858-27 for the Italian study and 2007-005553-34 for the French study. From April 12, 2007, to Aug 19, 2010, in Italy, and from Jan 30, 2009, to Jan 10, 2012, in France, 121 patients with CJD were enrolled in the study, 62 of whom were randomly assigned to the treatment group and 59 to the placebo group. The first interim analysis showed absence of superiority of doxycycline compared with placebo, and the trial was stopped for futility. Efficacy analyses did not show significant differences between patients treated with doxycycline and placebo with regard to survival times (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.7, p=0.50). Serious adverse events were judged not to be related to treatment, whereas a relation was deemed probable or possible for five non-serious adverse events

  20. Effects of a continuous-combined regimen of low-dose hormone therapy (oestradiol and norethindrone acetate) and tibolone on the quality of life in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Polisseni, Alvaro Fernando; Andrade, Amaury Teixeira Leite; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; Castro, Isabela Queirós; Brandão, Marcos; Polisseni, Fernanda; Guerra, Martha de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    This study compared the effects of a continuous-combined regimen of low-dose hormone therapy (LD-HT) versus tibolone and supplemental calcium/vitamin D3 (control) on quality of life (QoL) in symptomatic postmenopausal women. This study was a prospective, randomised, double-blind, comparative trial with a control group. The study was conducted in a climacteric outpatient clinic in the University Hospital of Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil. A total of 174 postmenopausal women under 60 years of age who attended the climacteric outpatient clinic between June 2009 and June 2011 were recruited. These women complained of moderate or intense vasomotor symptoms and exhibited no contraindications for the use of hormone therapy. The patients were randomised into three groups: (1) daily treatment with 2.5mg tibolone (n=64), (2) 50mg calcium carbonate+200 IU vitamin D3 (Ca/Vit D3, n=54) or (3) 1mg oestradiol+0.5mg norethindrone acetate (E2/NETA, n=56) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the evaluation of QoL using the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) in all subjects at baseline and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. A total of 130 women in the following groups completed the study: tibolone (n=42), Ca/Vit D3 (n=44) and E2/NETA (n=44). An improved QoL based on the WHQ was observed at T0 (80.12±14.04, 77.73±15.3, 77.45±15.4) and T12 (57.0±15.5, 55.7±16.7, 58.4±12.6) for the tibolone, E2+NETA and Ca/Vit D3 groups, respectively (p values <0.05). The three groups exhibited significantly different scores at T12 for sexual behaviour and vasomotor symptoms. The tibolone group exhibited better sexual function compared with the E2/NETA and Ca/Vit D3 groups (4.2±26, 5.6±2.8, 5.4±2.8, respectively, p values <0.05). LD-HT was superior to tibolone and Ca/Vit D3 treatment for improvements in vasomotor symptoms (3.2±1.5, 4.0±1.8, 4.3±2.0, respectively, p values <0.05). Adverse effects were few and mild. An improved QoL was observed in the three study groups

  1. How "Blind" Are Double-Blind Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margraf, Jurgen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared alprazolam, imipramine, and placebo in the treatment of panic disorder patients (n=59) to investigate concerns about the internal validity of the double-blind design. Found that the great majority of patients and physicians were able to rate accurately whether active drug or placebo had been given and physicians could distinguish between…

  2. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2b study evaluating sorafenib in combination with paclitaxel as a first-line therapy in patients with HER2-negative advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gradishar, William J; Kaklamani, Virginia; Sahoo, Tarini P; Lokanatha, Dasappa; Raina, Vinod; Bondarde, Shailesh; Jain, Minish; Ro, Sunhee Kwon; Lokker, Nathalie A; Schwartzberg, Lee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a phase 2b, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled screening trial to evaluate the addition of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib (antiproliferative/antiangiogenic) to first-line paclitaxel for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative locally recurrent/metastatic breast cancer. Patients were randomised to paclitaxel (90mg/m(2), weekly, intravenously, 3 weeks on/1 week off) plus sorafenib (400mg, orally, twice daily) or placebo. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). A sample size of 220 patients was planned with relative risk ≤ 0.82 (1-sided α=0.14) after 120 events supporting a treatment effect. Patients were randomised in India (n=170), the United States (n=52) and Brazil (n=15). Median PFS was 6.9 months for sorafenib versus 5.6 months for placebo (hazard ratio (HR)=0.788; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.558-1.112; P=0.1715 [1-sided P=0.0857]). The addition of sorafenib increased time to progression (median, 8.1 versus 5.6 months; HR=0.674; 95% CI 0.465-0.975; P=0.0343) and improved overall response (67% versus 54%; P=0.0468). Overall survival did not statistically differ (median, 16.8 versus 17.4 months; HR=1.022; 95% CI 0.715-1.461; P=0.904). Grade 3/4 toxicities (sorafenib versus placebo) included hand-foot skin reaction (31% versus 3%), neutropenia (13% versus 7%) and anaemia (11% versus 6%). Two treatment-related deaths occurred (malaria and liver dysfunction) in the sorafenib arm. The addition of sorafenib to paclitaxel improved disease control but did not significantly improve PFS to support a phase 3 trial of similar design. Toxicity of the combination was manageable with dose reductions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Protocol study for a randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial involving virtual reality and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation for the improvement of upper limb motor function in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Moura, Renata Calhes Franco de; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Duarte, Natalia de Almeida Carvalho; Miziara, Isabela; Melo, Gileno Edu Lameira de; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Santos Oliveira, Claudia

    2017-08-11

    Down syndrome results in neuromotor impairment that affects selective motor control, compromising the acquisition of motor skills and functional independence. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate and compare the effects of multiple-monopolar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex during upper limb motor training involving virtual reality on motor control, muscle activity, cerebral activity and functional independence. A randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is proposed. The calculation of the sample size will be defined based on the results of a pilot study involving the same methods. The participants will be randomly allocated to two groups. Evaluations will be conducted before and after the intervention as well as 1 month after the end of the intervention process. At each evaluation, three-dimensional analysis of upper limb movement muscle activity will be measured using electromyography, cerebral activity will be measured using an electroencephalogram system and intellectual capacity will be assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Virtual reality training will be performed three times a week (one 20 min session per day) for a total of 10 sessions. During the protocol, transcranial stimulation will be administered concomitantly to upper limb motor training. The results will be analysed statistically, with a p value≤0.05 considered indicative of statistical significance. The present study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of Universidade Nove de Julho (Sao Paulo,Brazil) under process number 1.540.113 and is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (N° RBR3PHPXB). The participating institutions have presented a declaration of participation. The volunteers will be permitted to drop out of the study at any time with no negative repercussions. The results will be published and will contribute evidence regarding the use of

  4. Safety, potential efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of specific polyclonal immunoglobulin F(ab')₂ fragments against avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy volunteers: a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Bal, Céline; Herbreteau, Cécile H; Buchy, Philippe; Rith, Sareth; Zaid, Masliza; Kristanto, William; Han, Velda; Reynaud, Charlotte; Granjard, Patrick; Lépine, Bertrand; Durand, Caroline; Tambyah, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    Human infection with the avian influenza A H5N1 virus results in disease with a high fatality rate, against which antiviral treatments have limited efficacy. We aimed to investigate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and therapeutic potential of specific polyclonal immunoglobulin equine F(ab')₂ fragments raised against influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 virus (H5N1 subtype) in healthy volunteers. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre phase 1 study. In stage 1 (one infusion) and stage 2 (five infusions) of the trial, we randomly assigned healthy male volunteers to receive once-daily intravenous infusions of 0·85 U/kg body weight of F(ab')₂ or once-daily saline placebo. Randomisation was done centrally, with one block of four patients and one block for substitutes (three actives, one placebo) in stage 1, and two blocks of six patients (five actives and one placebo) and the same block for substitutes in stage 2. The primary objective was assessment of the clinical and laboratory safety of F(ab')₂, which was monitored for 22 days in the group that received one dose (assessments on days 0-2, 4, 8, 15, and 22) and 33 days in the group that received five doses (days 0-6, 8, 10, 12, 19, 26, and 33). A final post-study safety assessment was done at 120 days. We also assessed pharmacokinetic outcomes, and assayed haemagglutination and seroneutralisation activity. Analysis was done according to intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02295813. We enrolled 16 healthy Asian men between Sept 28 and Dec 28, 2012, and randomly assigned 13 to one or five doses of F(ab')₂ and three to placebo. F(ab')₂ was well tolerated, and no deaths or serious adverse events occurred. Three patients had mild adverse events (one each of blepharospasm, sinusitis, and pyrexia). The pyrexia (38°C) was regarded as probably related to the infusion, and resolved after 37 min. Our laboratory assessments of blood and urine samples and

  5. Accuracy and reliability of the sensory test performed using the laryngopharyngeal endoscopic esthesiometer and rangefinder in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea: protocol for a prospective double-blinded, randomised, exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Giraldo-Cadavid, Luis Fernando; Bastidas, Alirio Rodrigo; Padilla-Ortiz, Diana Marcela; Concha-Galan, Diana Carolina; Bazurto, María Angelica; Vargas, Leslie

    2017-08-21

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSA) might have varying degrees of laryngopharyngeal mechanical hyposensitivity that might impair the brain's capacity to prevent airway collapse during sleep. However, this knowledge about sensory compromises in OSA comes from studies performed using methods with little evidence of their validity. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and accuracy of the measurement of laryngopharyngeal mechanosensitivity in patients with OSA using a recently developed laryngopharyngeal endoscopic esthesiometer and rangefinder (LPEER). The study will be prospective and double blinded, with a randomised crossover assignment of raters performing the sensory tests. Subjects will be recruited from patients with suspected OSA referred for baseline polysomnography to a university hospital sleep laboratory. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability will be evaluated using the Bland-Altman's limits of agreement plot, the intraclass correlation coefficient, and the Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. Diagnostic accuracy will be evaluated plotting ROC curves using standard baseline polysomnography as a reference. The sensory threshold values ​​for patients with mild, moderate and severe OSA will be determined and compared using ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test, depending on the distribution of the variables. The LPEER could be a new tool for evaluating and monitoring laryngopharyngeal sensory impairment in patients with OSA. If it is shown to be valid, it could help to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this condition and potentially help in finding new therapeutic interventions for OSA. The protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of Fundacion Neumologica Colombiana. The results will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publication. This trial was registered at Clinical

  6. Efficacy and safety of tabalumab, an anti-BAFF monoclonal antibody, in patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate response to TNF inhibitors: results of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Michael; Combe, Bernard; Dörner, Thomas; Kremer, Joel M; Huizinga, Thomas W; Veenhuizen, Melissa; Gill, Anne; Komocsar, Wendy; Berclaz, Pierre-Yves; Ortmann, Robert; Lee, Chin

    2015-01-01

    Background Tabalumab is a human monoclonal antibody that neutralises B-cell activating factor. Objectives To evaluate tabalumab efficacy and safety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods This phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 456 patients with active RA after 24-week treatment with subcutaneous tabalumab (120 mg every 4 weeks (120/Q4W) or 90 mg every 2 weeks (90/Q2W)) versus placebo, with loading doses (240 or 180 mg) at week 0. Patients were allowed background disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and previously discontinued ≥1 tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors for lack of efficacy/intolerance. Primary end point was American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at 24 weeks. This study was terminated early due to futility. Results Most patients had moderate-to-high baseline disease activity. There was no significant difference in week 24 ACR20 responses between 120/Q4W, 90/Q2W, and placebo (17.6%, 24.3%, 20%) per non-responder imputation analysis. Mean percent changes in CD20+ B-cell count (−10.8%, −9.6%, +10.9%) demonstrated expected pharmacodynamic effects. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were similar (59.5%, 51.7%, 52.6%), as were AE discontinuations (2.6%, 2.7%, 2.6%), serious AEs (4.6%, 4.1%, 3.9%), serious infectious events (1.3%, 0, 0) and events of interest: infections (23.5%, 25.9%, 24%), injection site reactions (13.1%, 25.8%, 11%) and allergy/hypersensitivity (3.9%, 4.1%, 3.9%) reports. Incidence of treatment-emergent antidrug antibodies was similar to placebo (3.9%, 4.8%, 3.9%). No deaths or new/unexpected safety findings were reported. Conclusions Tabalumab did not demonstrate clinical efficacy in patients with RA in this phase 3 study, despite evidence of biological activity. There were no notable differences in safety parameters between tabalumab treatment groups and placebo. Trial registration number: NCT01202773. PMID:26535134

  7. Posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks: a randomised controlled, double blind trial.

    PubMed

    Singla, Himanshi; Alexander, Mohan

    2015-06-01

    Local anesthesia has been a boon for dentistry to allay the most common fear of pain among dental patients. Several techniques to achieve anesthesia for posterior maxillae have been advocated albeit with minor differences. We compared two techniques of posterior superior alveolar nerve block (PSANB), the one claimed to be "most accurate" to the one "most commonly used." This study was conducted to assess and compare the efficacy as well as complications of "the straight needle technique" to that of "the bent needle technique" for PSANB. We conducted a prospective, randomised, double blind study on 120 patients divided into two groups, using a 26-gauge, 38 mm long needle with 2 ml of 2 % lignocaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 adrenaline solution. Objective symptoms were evaluated by a single investigator. Cold test using ice was used to evaluate the status of pulpal anesthesia. Data thus obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Out of the 120 blocks, 19 blocks failed. Statistical analysis found straight needle technique to be more successful than the bent needle technique (p = 0.002). Both the techniques were equally effective for the first molar region on both right and left side (p = 0.66 on right side and p = 0.20 on left side). However, in the second and third molar region technique A was more effective than B (p = 0.01) on right side only. On Left side, both techniques were equally effective (p = 0.08). Sensitivity of the cold test was 82 % which is quite high but the specificity was 68 % which seems to be falling in the above average range only. Positive predictive value of 75 and negative predictive value of 76 was observed. We did not encounter any complications in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled clinical study on PSANB techniques. This study suggests that the PSANB using the straight needle technique as advocated by Malamed [1] can be routinely and safely used to achieve anesthesia in

  8. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, single-dose study assessing the efficacy of AMC/DCBA Warm lozenge or AMC/DCBA Cool lozenge in the relief of acute sore throat.

    PubMed

    Wade, Alan G; Morris, Christopher; Shephard, Adrian; Crawford, Gordon M; Goulder, Michael A

    2011-02-18

    Clinically proven over-the-counter (OTC) treatment options are becoming increasingly important in the self-management of acute sore throat. The aim of this study was to determine the analgesic and sensorial benefits of two different amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol (AMC/DCBA) throat lozenge formulation variants, AMC/DCBA Warm lozenge and AMC/DCBA Cool lozenge, compared with an unflavoured, non-medicated placebo lozenge in the relief of acute sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infections. In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, single-dose study, 225 adult patients with acute sore throat were randomly assigned to receive either one AMC/DCBA Warm lozenge (n = 77), one AMC/DCBA Cool lozenge (n = 74) or one unflavoured, non-medicated lozenge (matched for size, shape and demulcency; n = 74). After baseline assessments, patients received their assigned lozenge and completed four rating assessments at 11 timepoints from 1 to 120 minutes post dose. Analgesic properties were assessed by comparing severity of throat soreness and sore throat relief ratings. Difficulty in swallowing, throat numbness, functional, sensorial and emotional benefits were also assessed. Both the AMC/DCBA Warm and AMC/DCBA Cool lozenge induced significant analgesic, functional, sensorial and emotional effects compared with the unflavoured, non-medicated lozenge. Sore throat relief, improvements in throat soreness and difficulty in swallowing, and throat numbness were observed as early as 1-5 minutes, and lasted up to 2 hours post dose. Sensorial benefits of warming and cooling associated with the AMC/DCBA Warm and AMC/DCBA Cool lozenge, respectively, were experienced soon after first dose, and in the case of the latter, it lasted long after the lozenge had dissolved. Emotional benefits of feeling better, happier, less distracted and less frustrated were reported in those taking either of the AMC/DCBA throat lozenge variants, with no differences in adverse events compared with

  9. Low serum enterolactone concentration is associated with low colonic Lactobacillus-Enterococcus counts in men but is not affected by a synbiotic mixture in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over intervention study.

    PubMed

    Holma, Reetta; Kekkonen, Riina A; Hatakka, Katja; Poussa, Tuija; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Adlercreutz, Herman; Korpela, Riitta

    2014-01-28

    The aims of the present study were to assess the possible differences in faecal microbiota between men with a low serum enterolactone concentration and those with a high concentration, and to investigate the impact of a synbiotic mixture on serum enterolactone concentration in men with a low concentration. We compared faecal microbiota between ten men with the lowest serum enterolactone concentration and ten men with the highest concentration at recruitment (n 84). Furthermore, we carried out a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention study (6-week intervention periods and 4-week washout period) to investigate the impact of a synbiotic mixture (two Lactobacillus strains, one Bifidobacterium strain, one Propionibacterium strain and galacto-oligosaccharides (32 g/l)) on serum enterolactone concentration in fifty-two men who had a concentration < 20 nmol/l. Serum sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured at the end of the first intervention period. Men with a low serum enterolactone concentration when compared with those with a high concentration had less faecal bacteria, especially those belonging to the Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group (median 8·2 (interquartile range 7·8-8·4) log10 colony-forming units/g v. median 8·8 (interquartile range 8·5-8·9) log10 colony-forming units/g, P= 0·009). The synbiotic mixture that was used did not have a significant effect on serum enterolactone (synbiotic v. placebo ratio 0·96 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·22), P= 0·724) or serum sensitive CRP (synbiotic v. placebo ratio 0·99 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·33), P= 0·954) concentration. Men with a low serum enterolactone concentration harbour less colonic bacteria, especially those belonging to the Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group. A synbiotic mixture does not increase serum enterolactone concentration.

  10. Vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, as a component of first-line and second-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a phase III, randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kazunari; Sakurai, Yuuichi; Shiino, Madoka; Funao, Nobuo; Nishimura, Akira; Asaka, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, as a component of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. A randomised, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group study was conducted to verify the non-inferiority of vonoprazan 20 mg to lansoprazole 30 mg as part of first-line triple therapy (with amoxicillin 750 mg and clarithromycin 200 or 400 mg) in H pylori-positive patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer history. The first 50 patients failing first-line therapy with good compliance also received second-line vonoprazan-based triple therapy (with amoxicillin 750 mg and metronidazole 250 mg) as an open-label treatment. Of the 650 subjects randomly allocated to either first-line triple therapy, 641 subjects completed first-line therapy and 50 subjects completed second-line therapy. The first-line eradication rate (primary end point) was 92.6% (95% CI 89.2% to 95.2%) with vonoprazan versus 75.9% (95% CI 70.9% to 80.5%) with lansoprazole, with the difference being 16.7% (95% CI 11.2% to 22.1%) in favour of vonoprazan, thus confirming the non-inferiority of vonoprazan (p<0.0001). The second-line eradication rate (secondary end point) was also high (98.0%; 95% CI 89.4% to 99.9%) in those who received second-line therapy (n=50). Both first-line triple therapies were well tolerated with no notable differences. Second-line triple therapy was also well tolerated. Vonoprazan is effective as part of first-line triple therapy and as part of second-line triple therapy in H pylori-positive patients with a history of gastric or duodenal ulcer. NCT01505127. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characterisation of JNJ-40411813, a positive allosteric modulator of mGluR2, in two randomised, double-blind phase-I studies.

    PubMed

    Salih, Hiba; Anghelescu, Ion; Kezic, Iva; Sinha, Vikash; Hoeben, Eef; Van Nueten, Luc; De Smedt, Heidi; De Boer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor-2 positive allosteric modulator, JNJ-40411813 (ADX71149), was characterised for clinical effects in healthy volunteers in two phase-1 studies. In study 1, healthy men received 50-, 100-, 150- or 225 mg and women received 100 mg JNJ-40411813 (n=6, each cohort) or placebo (n=2, each cohort) twice daily for seven days; smoking men (n=30) received placebo twice daily on days 1-7, 100 mg JNJ-40411813 (n=20) or placebo (n=10) on days 8-14. In study 2, healthy men received intravenous 0.005 mg/kg S(+) ketamine over 60 min at 3 (n=24; cohort 1), 12 h (n=8; cohort 3), and 24 h (n=8; cohort 2) after a single oral dose of 500 mg JNJ-40411813 or placebo. The pharmacokinetics and effects of JNJ-40411813 on cognition and subjective awareness were evaluated. Plasma JNJ-40411813 exposure was dose-dependent, t max ranged from 3-4 h and t 1/2 19.4-34.2 h across the dose levels. JNJ-40411813 significantly (p=0.02) reduced continuity of attention score (150 mg dose) and ameliorated smoking withdrawal-induced changes in power of attention and quality of episodic memory versus placebo. A modest reduction in alertness was observed at 150-225 mg doses, JNJ-40411813 (500 mg) reduced S(+) ketamine-induced negative symptoms by approximately 43% and 30% in cohorts 1 and 3, respectively. JNJ-40411813 was generally well-tolerated.

  12. Lubiprostone decreases the small bowel transit time by capsule endoscopy: an exploratory, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-way crossover study.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Endo, Hiroki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Kanoshima, Kenji; Inoh, Yumi; Fujita, Yuji; Umezawa, Shotaro; Fuyuki, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Iida, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Takashi; Futagami, Seiji; Kusakabe, Akihiko; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of lubiprostone for bowel preparation and as a propulsive agent in small bowel endoscopy. Six healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 3-way crossover study. The subjects received a 24 μg tablet of lubiprostone 60 minutes prior to the capsule ingestion for capsule endoscopy (CE) and a placebo tablet 30 minutes before the capsule ingestion (L-P regimen), a placebo tablet 60 minutes prior to CE and a 24 μg tablet of lubiprostone 30 minutes prior to CE (P-L regimen), or a placebo tablet 60 minutes prior to r CE and a placebo tablet again 30 minutes prior to CE (P-P regimen). The quality of the capsule endoscopic images and the amount of water in the small bowel were assessed on 5-point scale. The median SBTT was 178.5 (117-407) minutes in the P-P regimen, 122.5 (27-282) minutes in the L-P regimen, and 110.5 (11-331) minutes in the P-L regimen (P = 0.042). This study showed that the use of lubiprostone significantly decreased the SBTT. We also confirmed that lubiprostone was effective for inducing water secretion into the small bowel during CE.

  13. A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Woelk, H; Schläfke, S

    2010-02-01

    Generalized and persistent anxiety, accompanied by nervousness and other symptoms (Generalised Anxiety Disorder, GAD) is frequent in the general population and leads to benzodiazepine usage. Unfortunately, these substances induce sedation and have a high potential for drug abuse, and there is thus a need for alternatives. As the anxiolytic properties of lavender have already been demonstrated in pharmacological studies and small-scale clinical trials, it was postulated that lavender has a positive effect in GAD. A controlled clinical study was then performed to evaluate the efficacy of silexan, a new oral lavender oil capsule preparation, versus a benzodiazepine. In this study, the efficacy of a 6-week-intake of silexan compared to lorazepam was investigated in adults with GAD. The primary target variable was the change in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A-total score) as an objective measurement of the severity of anxiety between baseline and week 6. The results suggest that silexan effectively ameliorates generalized anxiety comparable to a common benzodiazepine (lorazepam). The mean of the HAM-A-total score decreased clearly and to a similar extent in both groups (by 11.3+/-6.7 points (45%) in the silexan group and by 11.6+/-6.6 points (46%) in the lorazepam group, from 25+/-4 points at baseline in both groups). During the active treatment period, the two HAM-A subscores "somatic anxiety" (HAM-A subscore I) and "psychic anxiety" (HAM-A subscore II) also decreased clearly and to a similar extent in both groups. The changes in other subscores measured during the study, such as the SAS (Self-rating Anxiety Scale), PSWQ-PW (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), SF 36 Health survey Questionnaire and Clinical Global Impressions of severity of disorder (CGI item 1, CGI item 2, CGI item 3), and the results of the sleep diary demonstrated comparable positive effects of the two compounds. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that silexan is as effective as lorazepam

  14. Administration of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine does not improve healing of glandular gastric ulceration in horses receiving omeprazole: a randomised, blinded, clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome (EGUS) has recently increased in part due to a growing awareness of the differences between squamous and glandular disease. The pathophysiology and epidemiology of squamous and glandular disease are different and recently it has been shown that the response of glandular gastric ulceration to monotherapy with omeprazole is poor. Given these differences it has been recommended that specific treatment guidelines be formulated for equine glandular disease and that adjunctive therapies be investigated. Along these lines it has been suggested that the addition of antimicrobials may enhance healing. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the addition of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine to omeprazole therapy would result in superior healing of naturally occurring equine glandular ulceration compared with omeprazole monotherapy. Results Combination therapy of omeprazole plus trimethoprim-sulphadimidine could not be demonstrated to be superior to omeprazole monotherapy. Healing of the glandular mucosa was observed in 7/15 (47%; 95% CI 24 to 71%) and 3/13 (23%; 95% CI 7% to 50%) of horses in the TMPS and OMEP groups, respectively (OR?=?1.8; 95% CI 0.32 to 10.0; p?=?0.67). Improvement of the glandular mucosa was observed in 12/15 (80%; 95% CI 56 to 94%) and 9/13 (69%; 95% CI 42 to 89%) of horses in the TMPS and OMEP groups, respectively (OR?=?2.9; 95% CI 0.6 to 15.0; p?=?0.25). Conclusions The results of the present study do not support the addition of trimethoprim-sulphadimidine to therapeutic protocols for equine glandular ulceration. Several limitations were present in the study and the use of antimicrobials as an adjunctive treatment warrants further investigation. However, given the potential deleterious consequences associated with the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, the inclusion of antimicrobials in treatment regimes for EGUS is not justified until their efficacy is further validated. PMID:25927827

  15. A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study on intra-articular hyaluronan treatment in equine lameness originating from the metacarpophalangeal joint.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Tytti M; Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K

    2016-03-23

    Intra-articular inflammation resulting in lameness is a common health problem in horses. Exogenous intra-articular hyaluronic acid has been shown to provide an analgesic effect and reduce pain in equine and human osteoarthritis. High molecular weight non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) has gained popularity in the treatment of human arthritic conditions due to its long-acting pain-relieving effects. The aim of this study was to compare the response to treatment of lameness localized in the equine metacarpophalangeal joint injected with non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) and placebo (saline). Twenty-seven clinically lame horses with a positive response to diagnostic intra-articular anaesthesia of the metacarpophalangeal joint and with no, or at most mild, radiographic changes in this joint were included in the study. Horses in the treatment group (n = 14) received 3 mL of a NASHA product intra-articularly, and those in the placebo group (n = 13) received an equivalent volume of sterile 0.9% saline solution. The change in the lameness score did not significantly differ between NASHA and placebo groups (P = 0.94). Scores in the flexion test improved more in the NASHA group compared with placebo (P = 0.01). The changes in effusion and pain in flexion were similar (P = 0.94 and P = 0.27, respectively) when NASHA and placebo groups were compared. A telephone interview follow-up of the owners three months post-treatment revealed that 14 of the 21 horses (67%) were able to perform at their previous level of exercise. In the present study, a single IA NASHA injection was not better than a single saline injection for reducing lameness in horses with synovitis or mild osteoarthritis. However, the results of this study indicate that IA NASHA may have some beneficial effects in modifying mild clinical signs but more research is needed to evaluate whether the positive effect documented ie. reduced response in the flexion test is a true treatment effect.

  16. A comparison of antibody responses to commercial equine influenza vaccines following primary vaccination of Thoroughbred weanlings--a randomised blind study.

    PubMed

    Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann

    2011-11-15

    Many racing authorities, sales companies and equestrian bodies have mandatory vaccination policies for equine influenza (EI). The consequences of lack of vaccine efficacy include clinical disease, disruption to training programmes, the cancellation of equestrian events and the introduction of virus to susceptible populations. The correlation between antibody against the virus haemagglutinin and protection against influenza has been well established. The objective of this study was to compare the antibody responses of 66 unvaccinated Thoroughbred weanlings on four different stud farms, following primary vaccination (V1, V2 and V3) with the five EI vaccines commercially available in Ireland (Duvaxyn IET Plus, Equilis Resequin, Equip FT, Equilis Prequenza Te, ProteqFlu Te). Antibody responses were monitored for 6 months post V3 by single radial haemolysis. The pattern of antibody response was similar for all vaccines and for all antigens tested. A rapid decline of antibody level was observed by 3 months post V2 for all vaccines. The antibody response of the horses vaccinated with the whole virus vaccine Duvaxyn IET Plus was significantly higher than that of the horses vaccinated with the other four products. Five weanlings had maternally derived antibodies (MDA) at the time of V1. The canary pox recombinant vaccine, subunit vaccine and whole virus inactivated vaccines administered to these weanlings did not induce a detectable antibody response against the background of MDA but effectively primed the animals as revaccination resulted in a strong antibody response. In this study 43% of the weanlings failed to seroconvert after V1. This high incidence of poor responders has not been reported in previous experimental studies relating to these products. The poor responders were observed in all vaccine groups except those vaccinated with Duvaxyn IET Plus. Post V2 the incidence of poor responders was reduced to 7% and all horses responded to V3. The study demonstrates that

  17. A comparison of antibody responses to commercial equine influenza vaccines following annual booster vaccination of National Hunt horses - a randomised blind study.

    PubMed

    Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann

    2011-05-17

    Protection against equine influenza virus (EIV) relies largely on the production of circulating antibodies specific for the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. The objective of this study was to determine the antibody response of National Hunt horses in training to booster vaccination. The antibody response to the six equine influenza vaccines available in Ireland (three whole inactivated vaccines, two subunit vaccines and a canary pox recombinant vaccine), was monitored by single radial haemolysis (SRH) for six months post vaccination. There was no significant difference between antibody response induced following booster vaccination with any of the six vaccines. The antibodies peaked between two and four weeks post vaccination, decreased significantly by three months post vaccination and declined to their original levels by six months post vaccination. Peak antibody response to the canary pox recombinant vaccine was delayed in comparison to the other vaccines. Although analysis of the mean SRH levels of the horses suggested that they were clinically protected post booster vaccination, analysis of the individual responses suggested that there was potential for vaccination breakdown in a manner similar to that observed previously in racing yards in Ireland. There was a significant correlation between the SRH level at the time of vaccination and the antibody response. The findings of the study suggest that it would be advantageous to monitor SRH levels and to vaccinate strategically. The revaccination of horses with low antibody levels three months post booster vaccination may have been more effective in protecting horses in this yard than the annual vaccination of horses with high SRH levels. Eighteen of the 44 (41%) horses included in this study did not demonstrate a significant rise in SRH level to H3N8 following booster vaccination. It is presumed that annual revaccination is the minimum necessary to protect all horses against EI but this assumption needs to be

  18. Phase I randomised double-blind pilot study of micronized resveratrol (SRT501) in patients with hepatic metastases - safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Howells, L. M.; Berry, D. P.; Elliott, P.J.; Jacobson, E. W.; Hoffmann, E.; Hegarty, B.; Brown, K.; Steward, W. P.; Gescher, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The phytochemical resveratrol has undergone extensive preclinical investigation for its putative cancer chemopreventive properties. Low systemic availability of the parent compound due to rapid and extensive metabolism, may confound its usefulness as a potential agent to prevent malignancies in organs remote from the site of absorption. Micronization allows increased drug absorption, thus increasing availability. Here we describe a pilot study of SRT501, micronized resveratrol, given at 5.0 g daily for 14 days, to patients with colorectal cancer and hepatic metastases scheduled to undergo hepatectomy. The purpose of the study was to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the formulation. SRT501 was found to be well tolerated. Mean plasma resveratrol levels following a single dose of SRT501 administration were 1942±1422 ng/mL, exceeding those published for equivalent doses of non-micronized resveratrol by 3.6-fold. Resveratrol was detectable in hepatic tissue following SRT501 administration (up to 2287 ng/g). Cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, was significantly increased by 39% in malignant hepatic tissue following SRT501 treatment, compared to tissue from the placebo-treated patients. SRT501 warrants further clinical exploration to assess its potential clinical utility. PMID:21680702

  19. Potential of Spirulina Platensis as a Nutritional Supplement in Malnourished HIV-Infected Adults in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Randomised, Single-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Azabji-Kenfack, M.; Dikosso, S. Edie; Loni, E.G.; Onana, E.A.; Sobngwi, E.; Gbaguidi, E.; Kana, A.L. Ngougni; Nguefack-Tsague, G.; Von der Weid, D.; Njoya, O.; Ngogang, J.

    2011-01-01

    compared between the two groups at the end of the trial, FFM was significantly higher in the spirulina group (42.2 vs. 39.0 Kg, P = 0.01). The haemoglobin level rose significantly within groups (P < 0.001 for each group) with no difference between groups (P = 0.77). Serum albumin level did not increase significantly within groups (P < 0.90 vs. P < 0.82) with no difference between groups (P = 0.39). The increase in CD4 cell count within groups was significant (P < 0.01 in both groups), with a significantly higher CD4 count in the spirulina group compared to subjects on soya beans at the end of the study (P = 0.02). Within each group, HIV viral load significantly reduced at the end of the study (P < 0.001 and P = 0.04 for spirulina and soya beans groups respectively). Between the groups, the viral load was similar at baseline but significantly reduced in the spirulina group at the end of the study (P = 0.02). Conclusion: We therefore conclude in this preliminary study, firstly, that both spirulina and soja improve on nutritional status of malnourished HIV-infected patients but in terms of quality of nutritional improvement, subjects on spirulina were better off than subjects on soya beans. Secondly, nutritional rehabilitation improves on immune status with a consequent drop in viral load but further investigations on the antiviral effects of this alga and its clinical implications are strongly needed. PMID:23946659

  20. Safety and tolerability of SCH 530348 in patients undergoing non-urgent percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard C; Moliterno, David J; Jennings, Lisa K; Pieper, Karen S; Pei, Jinglan; Niederman, Alan; Ziada, Khaled M; Berman, Gail; Strony, John; Joseph, Diane; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Van de Werf, Frans; Veltri, Enrico; Harrington, Robert A

    2009-03-14

    An antithrombotic drug is needed that safely reduces cardiovascular events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We therefore assessed the tolerability and safety of SCH 530348-an oral platelet protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist. We randomly assigned patients aged 45 years or older and undergoing non-urgent PCI or coronary angiography with planned PCI to an oral loading dose of SCH 530348 (10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg) or matching placebo in a 3:1 ratio in a multicentre international study. Those in the SCH 530348 group who subsequently underwent PCI (primary PCI cohort) continued taking an oral maintenance dose (0.5 mg, 1.0 mg, or 2.5 mg per day), and patients in the placebo group continued placebo for 60 days. The primary endpoint was the incidence of clinically significant major or minor bleeding according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) scale. Both investigators and patients were unaware of treatment allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00132912. 257 patients were assigned to placebo and 773 to SCH 530348. The primary endpoint occurred in 2 (2%) of 129, 3 (3%) of 120, and 7 (4%) of 173 patients, respectively, in the SCH 530348 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg groups compared with 5 (3%) of 151 patients in the placebo group (p=0.5786). TIMI major plus minor bleeding occurred in 3 (2%) of 136, 5 (4%) of 139, and 4 (3%) of 138 patients given SCH 530348 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg, and 2.5 mg once per day, respectively (p=0.7561). Oral SCH 530348 was generally well tolerated and did not cause increased TIMI bleeding, even when administered concomitantly with aspirin and clopidogrel. Further testing in phase III trials to accurately define the safety and efficacy of SCH 530348 is warranted.

  1. The Influence of Two Different Foam Creams on Skin Barrier Repair of Foot Xerosis: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Intra-Individual Study.

    PubMed

    Daehnhardt, Dorothee; Daehnhardt-Pfeiffer, Stephan; Schulte-Walter, Judith; Neubourg, Thomas; Hanisch, Eckhard; Schmetz, Christel; Breuer, Marion; Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Dry skin, or xerosis, is a common condition and a key feature of skin diseases like atopic dermatitis (AD) and ichthyosis vulgaris. Foot xerosis may exist without underlying disease and could be related to very mild forms of AD or ichthyosis vulgaris. The synthesis of important skin lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides) is reduced in xerosis and AD, and reduced lipid synthesis is responsible for a lack of lipids and enzymes in the skin barrier. This slows down reorganisation of the lipid lamellae in the stratum corneum (SC). Skin barrier integrity was measured by morphometric analysis of the lipid lamellae in the SC after 4 weeks of treatment with a foam cream (active agent vs. placebo). Significant treatment effects were shown after 2 and 4 weeks by an increasing amount of intercellular lipids in the SC. This study shows that a quick reorganisation of the SC lipids initiates a good restoration of the whole skin barrier after 4 weeks of treatment with a foam cream. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Comparison of fractionated dose versus bolus dose injection in spinal anaesthesia for patients undergoing elective caesarean section: A randomised, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Badheka, Jigisha Prahaladray; Oza, Vrinda Pravinbhai; Vyas, Ashutosh; Baria, Deepika; Nehra, Poonam; Babu, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Spinal anaesthesia (SA) with bolus dose has rapid onset but may precipitate hypotension. When we inject local anaesthetic in fractions with a time gap, it provides a dense block with haemodynamic stability and also prolongs the duration of analgesia. We aimed to compare fractionated dose with bolus dose in SA for haemodynamic stability and duration of analgesia in patients undergoing elective lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). Methods: After clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee, the study was carried out in sixty patients undergoing elective LSCS. Patients were divided into two groups. Group B patients received single bolus SA with injection bupivacaine heavy (0.5%) and Group F patients fractionated dose with two-third of the total dose of injection bupivacaine heavy (0.5%) given initially followed by one-third dose after 90 s. Time of onset and regression of sensory and motor blockage, intraoperative haemodynamics and duration of analgesia were recorded and analysed with Student's unpaired t-test. Result: All the patients were haemodynamically stable in Group F as compared to Group B. Five patients in Group F and fourteen patients in Group B required vasopressor. Duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia were longer in Group F (273.83 ± 20.62 min) compared to Group B (231.5 ± 31.87 min) P < 0.05. Conclusion: Fractionated dose of SA provides greater haemodynamic stability and longer duration of analgesia compared to bolus dose. PMID:28216705

  3. Effect of dietary prebiotic supplementation on advanced glycation, insulin resistance and inflammatory biomarkers in adults with pre-diabetes: a study protocol for a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kellow, Nicole J; Coughlan, Melinda T; Savige, Gayle S; Reid, Christopher M

    2014-07-10

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contribute to the development of vascular complications of diabetes and have been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Since AGEs are generated within foodstuffs upon food processing, it is increasingly recognised that the modern diet is replete with AGEs. AGEs are thought to stimulate chronic low-grade inflammation and promote oxidative stress and have been linked to the development of insulin resistance. Simple therapeutic strategies targeted at attenuating the progression of chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are urgently required to prevent or slow the development of type 2 diabetes in susceptible individuals. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota has been shown to confer a number of health benefits to the host, but its effect on advanced glycation is unknown. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover trial designed to determine the effect of 12 week consumption of a prebiotic dietary supplement on the advanced glycation pathway, insulin sensitivity and chronic low-grade inflammation in adults with pre-diabetes. Thirty adults with pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Impaired Fasting Glucose) aged between 40-60 years will be randomly assigned to receive either 10 grams of prebiotic (inulin/oligofructose) daily or 10 grams placebo (maltodextrin) daily for 12 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, study subjects will crossover to receive the alternative dietary treatment for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the difference in markers of the advanced glycation pathway carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG) between experimental and control treatments. Secondary outcomes include HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, blood pressure, serum glutathione, adiponectin, IL-6, E-selectin, myeloperoxidase, C-reactive protein, Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), soluble receptor for AGE (sRAGE), urinary 8

  4. Effect of dietary prebiotic supplementation on advanced glycation, insulin resistance and inflammatory biomarkers in adults with pre-diabetes: a study protocol for a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contribute to the development of vascular complications of diabetes and have been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Since AGEs are generated within foodstuffs upon food processing, it is increasingly recognised that the modern diet is replete with AGEs. AGEs are thought to stimulate chronic low-grade inflammation and promote oxidative stress and have been linked to the development of insulin resistance. Simple therapeutic strategies targeted at attenuating the progression of chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance are urgently required to prevent or slow the development of type 2 diabetes in susceptible individuals. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota has been shown to confer a number of health benefits to the host, but its effect on advanced glycation is unknown. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover trial designed to determine the effect of 12 week consumption of a prebiotic dietary supplement on the advanced glycation pathway, insulin sensitivity and chronic low-grade inflammation in adults with pre-diabetes. Methods/Design Thirty adults with pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Impaired Fasting Glucose) aged between 40–60 years will be randomly assigned to receive either 10 grams of prebiotic (inulin/oligofructose) daily or 10 grams placebo (maltodextrin) daily for 12 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, study subjects will crossover to receive the alternative dietary treatment for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the difference in markers of the advanced glycation pathway carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG) between experimental and control treatments. Secondary outcomes include HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, blood pressure, serum glutathione, adiponectin, IL-6, E-selectin, myeloperoxidase, C-reactive protein, Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4), soluble receptor

  5. The Beyond Ageing Project Phase 2--a double-blind, selective prevention, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids and sertraline in an older age cohort at risk for depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cockayne, Nicole L; Duffy, Shantel L; Bonomally, Rosalind; English, Amelia; Amminger, Paul G; Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen M; Naismith, Sharon L; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-06-03

    Late-life depression is associated with high rates of morbidity, premature mortality, disability, functional decline, caregiver burden and increased health care costs. While clinical and public health approaches are focused on prevention or early intervention strategies, the ideal method of intervention remains unclear. No study has set out to evaluate the role of neurobiological agents in preventing depressive symptoms in older populations at risk of depression. Subjects with previously reported sub-threshold depressive symptoms, aged 60 to 74 years, will be screened to participate in a single-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial with three parallel groups involving omega-3 fatty acid supplementation or sertraline hydrochloride, compared with matching placebo. Subjects will be excluded if they have current depression or suicide ideation; are taking antidepressants or any supplement containing omega-3 fatty acid; or have a prior history of stroke or other serious cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, significant psychiatric disease (other than depression) or neurodegenerative disease. The trial will consist of a 12 month treatment phase with follow-up at three months and 12 months to assess outcome events. At three months, subjects will undergo structural neuroimaging to assess whether treatment effects on depressive symptoms correlate with brain changes. Additionally, proton spectroscopy techniques will be used to capture brain-imaging markers of the biological effects of the interventions. The trial will be conducted in urban New South Wales, Australia, and will recruit a community-based sample of 450 adults. Using intention-to-treat methods, the primary endpoint is an absence of clinically relevant depression scores at 12 months between the omega-3 fatty acid and sertraline interventions and the placebo condition. The current health, social and economic costs of late-life depression make prevention imperative from a public

  6. Pain relief of sore throat with a new anti-inflammatory throat lozenge, ibuprofen 25 mg: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international phase III study.

    PubMed

    Bouroubi, Athmane; Donazzolo, Yves; Donath, Franck; Eccles, Ron; Russo, Marc; Harambillet, Nadine; Gautier, Stéphanie; Montagne, Agnès

    2017-09-04

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a new oromucosal ibuprofen form, ibuprofen 25 mg lozenge, in single and repeat dosing for up to 4 days, to the matched placebo, in the treatment of acute sore throat pain in adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients with non-streptococcal sore throat and signs of moderate-to-severe associated pain (≥5 on the objective Tonsillo-Pharyngitis Assessment 21-point scale and ≥60 mm on the subjective 0-100 mm visual analogue Sore Throat Pain Intensity Scale [STPIS]) were assigned ibuprofen 25 mg (n=194) or matching placebo (n=191) lozenge treatment. Efficacy was assessed (at the investigating centre up to 2 hours after first dosing, then on an ambulatory basis) by parameters derived from patient's scores on scales of pain relief, pain intensity, and global efficacy assessment. The primary efficacy end-point was the time-weighted TOTal PAin Relief (TOTPAR) over 2 hours after first dosing using the Sore Throat Relief Scale (STRS). Safety and local tolerability were assessed. Ibuprofen 25 mg was superior to placebo on numerous pain relief parameters; TOTPAR was significantly higher with ibuprofen 25 mg over 2 hours after first dosing (P<.05), the effect being apparent from the first evaluation at 15 minutes (P<.05). The STPIS reduction in favour of ibuprofen 25 mg was not significant vs placebo. Mean STRS scores and patient's global efficacy assessment both reflected a higher efficacy of ibuprofen 25 mg over the 4-day treatment period with tests of statistical significance up to day 1 evening (P<.05), and, in patients with still clinically significant pain (n=128), after an average 4 days (P<.01). Ibuprofen 25 mg lozenge was well tolerated with a safety profile similar to placebo. Low-dose ibuprofen 25 mg lozenge in repeat dosing provides in adults more efficacious and rapid relief of sore throat pain and is as well tolerated as placebo. Clinical

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in HIV-positive women in South Africa: a partially-blind randomised placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Denny, Lynette; Hendricks, Bronwyn; Gordon, Chivaugn; Thomas, Florence; Hezareh, Marjan; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Durand, Christelle; Hervé, Caroline; Descamps, Dominique

    2013-11-19

    In developing countries, risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be increased by the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in HIV-infected women in South Africa. Asymptomatic HIV-positive women aged 18-25 years (N=120) were stratified by CD4⁺ T-cell count and randomised (1:1) to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) or placebo (Al[OH]3) at 0, 1 and 6 months (double-blind). HIV-negative women (N=30) received HPV-16/18 vaccine (open label). Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody and CD4⁺ T-cell responses, CD4⁺ T-cell count, HIV viral load, HIV clinical stage and safety were evaluated for 12 months. The safety and reactogenicity profile of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was comparable in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Irrespective of baseline HPV status, all HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who received the HPV-16/18 vaccine were seropositive for both HPV-16 and HPV-18 after the second vaccine dose (month 2) and remained seropositive for both antigens at month 12. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody titres at month 12 remained substantially above levels associated with natural infection. The HPV-16/18 vaccine induced sustained anti-HPV-16/18 CD4⁺ T-cell responses in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. No impact of baseline CD4⁺ T-cell count or HIV viral load was observed on the magnitude of the immune response in HIV-positive women. In HIV-positive women, CD4⁺ T-cell count, HIV viral load and HIV clinical stage were unaffected by HPV-16/18 vaccine administration. In conclusion, the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine appears immunogenic and well-tolerated in women with HIV infection. Study ID: 107863/NCT00586339.

  8. Methylprednisolone in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (SIRS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Richard P; Devereaux, P J; Teoh, Kevin H; Lamy, Andre; Vincent, Jessica; Pogue, Janice; Paparella, Domenico; Sessler, Daniel I; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Villar, Juan Carlos; Zuo, Yunxia; Avezum, Álvaro; Quantz, Mackenzie; Tagarakis, Georgios I; Shah, Pallav J; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Zheng, Hong; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-09-26

    Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388. Patients were recruited between June 21, 2007, and Dec 19, 2013. Complete 30-day data was available for all 7507 patients randomly assigned to methylprednisolone (n=3755) and to placebo (n=3752). Methylprednisolone, compared

  9. Objectifying Specific and Nonspecific Effects of Acupuncture: A Double-Blinded Randomised Trial in Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Karner, Max; Brazkiewicz, Frank; Remppis, Andrew; Fischer, Joachim; Gerlach, Oliver; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Subramanian, Shanmuga Velayutham; Greten, Henry Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Acupuncture was recently shown to be effective in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. However, controversy persists whether the observed effects are specific to acupuncture or merely nonspecific consequences of needling. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of different acupuncture treatment modalities. Materials and Methods. We compared between three different forms of acupuncture in a prospective randomised trial with a novel double-blinded study design. One-hundred and sixteen patients aged from 35 to 82 with osteoarthritis of the knee were enrolled in three study centres. Interventions were individualised classical/ modern semistandardised acupuncture and non-specific needling. Blinded outcome assessment comprised knee flexibility and changes in pain according to the WOMAC score. Results and Discussion. Improvement in knee flexibility was significantly higher after classical Chinese acupuncture (10.3 degrees; 95% CI 8.9 to 11.7) as compared to modern acupuncture (4.7 degrees; 3.6 to 5.8). All methods achieved pain relief, with a patient response rate of 48 percent for non-specific needling, 64 percent for modern acupuncture, and 73 percent for classical acupuncture. Conclusion. This trial establishes a novel study design enabling double blinding in acupuncture studies. The data suggest a specific effect of acupuncture in knee mobility and both non-specific and specific effects of needling in pain relief. PMID:23365608

  10. Two Phase III randomised double-blind studies of fixed-dose TC-5214 (dexmecamylamine) adjunct to ongoing antidepressant therapy in patients with major depressive disorder and an inadequate response to prior antidepressant therapy.

    PubMed

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Demyttenaere, Koen; Olausson, Bengt; Szamosi, Johan; Wilson, Ellis; Hosford, David; Dunbar, Geoffrey; Tummala, Raj; Eriksson, Hans

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the neuronal nicotinic channel modulator TC-5214 (dexmecamylamine) as adjunct therapy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and inadequate response to prior antidepressant treatment. Study 004 (D4130C00004) and Study 005 (D4130C00005) comprised an 8-week open-label antidepressant (SSRI/SNRI) treatment period followed by an 8-week randomised, active treatment with twice-daily TC-5214 (0.5, 2 or 4 mg in Study 004; 0.1, 1 or 4 mg in Study 005) or placebo, adjunct to ongoing SSRI/SNRI. Primary efficacy endpoint was change in MADRS total score from randomisation (Week 8) to treatment end (Week 16). Secondary endpoints included MADRS response and remission, and changes in SDS and HAM-D-17-item scores. Safety and tolerability were monitored throughout. Studies 004 and 005 randomised 640 and 696 patients, respectively, to TC-5214 or placebo. No statistically significant improvements in MADRS total score or any secondary endpoints were seen with TC-5214 versus placebo in either study at treatment end. The most commonly reported adverse events (> 10%) with TC-5214 were constipation, dizziness and dry mouth. TC-5214 adjunct to antidepressant was generally well tolerated. However, the studies were not supportive of an antidepressant effect for TC-5214 in patients with MDD and inadequate response to prior antidepressant therapy.

  11. Double blind randomised controlled trial of two different breathing techniques in the management of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Slader, C A; Reddel, H K; Spencer, L M; Belousova, E G; Armour, C L; Bosnic‐Anticevich, S Z; Thien, F C K; Jenkins, C R

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting β2 agonist use and improve quality of life (QoL) in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non‐specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. Methods After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos. During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week 12. Results Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or 28. The QoL score remained unchanged (0.7 at baseline v 0.5 at week 28, p = 0.11 both groups combined), as did lung function and airway responsiveness. However, across both groups, reliever use decreased by 86% (p<0.0001) and ICS dose was reduced by 50% (p<0.0001; p>0.10 between groups). Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Conclusion Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non‐specific upper body exercises. PMID:16517572

  12. Blood pressure and glycaemic effects of dapagliflozin versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes on combination antihypertensive therapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael A; Mansfield, Traci A; Cain, Valerie A; Iqbal, Nayyar; Parikh, Shamik; Ptaszynska, Agata

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a major risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease. Although the blood pressure-lowering effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are already established, guidance is needed on how to use these drugs in patients already receiving antihypertensive therapy. We aimed to compare blood pressure and glycaemic effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin with placebo in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study we enrolled patients from 311 centres in 16 countries across five continents. Patients had uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 7·0%-10·5%; 53-91 mmol/mol) and hypertension (systolic 140-165 mm Hg and diastolic 85-105 mm Hg at both enrolment and randomisation, and a mean 24 h blood pressure of ≥130/80 mm Hg by ambulatory monitoring within 1 week of randomisation) and were receiving oral antihyperglycaemic drugs, insulin, or both, plus a renin-angiotensin system blocker and an additional antihypertensive drug. Using an interactive voice-response system, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients to dapagliflozin 10 mg once a day or to placebo, with randomisation stratified by additional antihypertensive drug use and insulin use at baseline, in a block size of two. The co-primary endpoints were changes in seated systolic blood pressure and HbA1c measured in the full analysis set, which included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had both a baseline and at least one post-baseline measurement of efficacy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01195662. Between Oct 29, 2010, and Oct 4, 2012, we randomly assigned 225 patients to dapagliflozin and 224 to placebo. Seated systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced in the group assigned to dapagliflozin (adjusted mean change from baseline -11·90 mm Hg [95% CI -13

  13. Anterior pallidal deep brain stimulation for Tourette's syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Welter, Marie-Laure; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Thobois, Stéphane; Bataille, Benoit; Guenot, Marc; Worbe, Yulia; Hartmann, Andreas; Czernecki, Virginie; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jerome; du Montcel, Sophie Tezenas; Agid, Yves; Vidailhet, Marie; Cornu, Philippe; Tanguy, Audrey; Ansquer, Solène; Jaafari, Nematollah; Poulet, Emmanuel; Serra, Giulia; Burbaud, Pierre; Cuny, Emmanuel; Aouizerate, Bruno; Pollak, Pierre; Chabardes, Stephan; Polosan, Mircea; Borg, Michel; Fontaine, Denys; Giordana, Bruno; Raoul, Sylvie; Rouaud, Tiphaine; Sauvaget, Anne; Jalenques, Isabelle; Karachi, Carine; Mallet, Luc

    2017-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed to treat patients with severe Tourette's syndrome, and open-label trials and two small double-blind trials have tested DBS of the posterior and the anterior internal globus pallidus (aGPi). We aimed to specifically assess the efficacy of aGPi DBS for severe Tourette's syndrome. In this randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18-60 years with severe and medically refractory Tourette's syndrome from eight hospitals specialised in movement disorders in France. Enrolled patients received surgery to implant bilateral electrodes for aGPi DBS; 3 months later they were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio with a block size of eight; computer-generated pairwise randomisation according to order of enrolment) to receive either active or sham stimulation for the subsequent 3 months in a double-blind fashion. All patients then received open-label active stimulation for the subsequent 6 months. Patients and clinicians assessing outcomes were masked to treatment allocation; an unmasked clinician was responsible for stimulation parameter programming, with intensity set below the side-effect threshold. The primary endpoint was difference in Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score between the beginning and end of the 3 month double-blind period, as assessed with a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test in all randomly allocated patients who received active or sham stimulation during the double-blind period. We assessed safety in all patients who were enrolled and received surgery for aGPi DBS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00478842. Between Dec 6, 2007, and Dec 13, 2012, we enrolled 19 patients. We randomly assigned 17 (89%) patients, with 16 completing blinded assessments (seven [44%] in the active stimulation group and nine [56%] in the sham stimulation group). We noted no significant difference in YGTSS score change between the beginning and the end of the 3 month double-blind period

  14. Flurbiprofen microgranules for relief of sore throat: a randomised, double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Marc; Bloch, Mark; de Looze, Fred; Morris, Christopher; Shephard, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people with sore throat seek, and are often inappropriately prescribed, antibiotics. Aim The objective of this study was to determine the analgesic efficacy of flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules versus placebo. These microgranules are a possible alternative treatment for patients with sore throat due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Design and setting Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study conducted at eight primary care sites in Australia. Method Participants with sore throat of onset within the past 4 days received either flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules or non-medicated placebo microgranules. Throat soreness, difficulty in swallowing, sore throat pain intensity, sore throat relief, oral temperature, and treatment benefits were all assessed at regular intervals. Result Of 373 patients from eight centres, 186 received flurbiprofen 8.75 mg microgranules and 187 received placebo microgranules (intent-to-treat population). Throat soreness was significantly reduced over the first 2 hours after the first dose. Reductions in difficulty in swallowing were observed at all time points from 5 to 360 minutes after the first dose, after taking flurbiprofen microgranules versus placebo. Sore throat relief was also evident at 1 minute and lasted for at least 6 hours. The multiple-dose efficacy results showed reduction of difficulty in swallowing at the end of days 1–3 and sore throat relief at the end of day 1. Conclusion Microgranules containing flurbiprofen 8.75 mg provided fast and effective relief from sore throat due to URTI and represent an alternative treatment option to antibiotic therapy. PMID:23561694

  15. Study protocol for a phase III multicentre, randomised, open-label, blinded-end point trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of immunoglobulin plus cyclosporin A in patients with severe Kawasaki disease (KAICA Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Reiko; Hamada, Hiromichi; Sato, Yasunori; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Onouchi, Yoshihiro; Ebata, Ryota; Terauchi, Moe; Terai, Masaru; Hanaoka, Hideki; Hata, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown aetiology that predominantly affects infants and young children. We hypothesise that cyclosporin A (CsA) may be effective in treating KD by regulating the Ca2+/NFAT signalling pathway. This trial compares the current standard therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and the combined IVIG+CsA therapy in paediatric patients with severe KD. Methods and analysis This trial is a phase III, multicentre, randomised, open-label, blinded-end point trial that evaluates the efficacy and safety of IVIG+CsA therapy. Patients with severe KD who satisfy the eligibility criteria are randomised (1:1) to receive either CsA (5 mg/kg/day for 5 days; Neoral) plus high-dose IVIG (2 g/kg for 24 h and aspirin 30 mg/kg/day), or high-dose IVIG alone (2 g/kg for 24 h and aspirin 30 mg/kg/day). The primary end point is the frequency of occurrence of coronary artery abnormalities during the trial period. An independent end point review committee will be in charge of the trial assessment. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of each institution. The trial was notified and registered at the Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency, in Japan. The trial is currently on-going and is scheduled to finish in April 2017. The findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number JMA-IIA00174; Pre-results. PMID:26628527

  16. [Milnacipran and venlafaxine at flexible doses (up to 200 mg/d) in the outpatient treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder: a 24-week randomised, double blind exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Olié, J-P; Gourion, D; Montagne, A; Rostin, M; Poirier, M-F

    2009-12-01

    Serotonin (HT) and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are commonly used as first line treatment of major depressive disorders (MDD). As compared to tricyclic antidepressants, they have proved similar efficacy and better tolerability. Milnacipran (MLN) (Ixel) and venlafaxine (VLF) (Effexor) are two SNRIs pharmacologically differing by their NA/HT ratio of potency: 1:1 and 1:30, respectively. To investigate the efficacy and safety/tolerability of MLN and VLF administered at flexible doses (100, 150 or 200 mg/day) for 24 weeks (including 4 weeks of up-titration) in the outpatient treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe MDD. Multicentre, randomised, double blind, 2-parallel-arm, 24-week exploratory trial conducted in France by 50 psychiatrists. DIAGNOSIS AND MAIN INCLUSION CRITERIA: Male or female outpatients, aged 18 to 70, meeting the DSM-IV-TR and related MINI criteria for recurrent, unipolar, moderate-to-severe MDD, with neither psychotic features nor severe suicidal risk. A Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) score> or =23 was required at inclusion. TREATMENT SCHEDULE: Patients were randomised to receive either MLN or VLF (1:1 ratio) for 24 weeks in double-blind conditions. Regardless of the treatment received, the following dosing schedule was applied: during the initial 4-week up-titration phase, the dosage was progressively increased from 25 mg/day (qd administration) to 150 mg/day (bid administration). At week 4, the dosage was either maintained at 150 mg/day, or adapted to 100 or 200 mg/day, based on the investigator's clinical judgement. At any time during the 20 following treatment weeks, the dose could be lowered for safety concerns until a minimal threshold of 100 mg/day. From Week 24, the dosage was decreased by 50mg/day every five days. After randomisation, eight assessment visits were organised at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 weeks, and at study end (after the 5-15 days of down-titration and 10 days free of treatment). Efficacy

  17. Randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial of pentoxifylline in the treatment of venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Dale, J J; Ruckley, C V; Harper, D R; Gibson, B; Nelson, E A; Prescott, R J

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether pentoxifylline 400 mg (Trental 400) taken orally three times daily, in addition to ambulatory compression bandages and dressings, improves the healing rate of pure venous ulcers. Design Randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial, parallel group study of factorial design, permitting the simultaneous evaluation of alternative pharmaceutical, bandaging, and dressings materials. Setting Leg ulcer clinics of a teaching and a district general hospital in southern Scotland. Participants 200 patients with confirmed venous ulcers and in whom other major causal factors were excluded. Interventions Pentoxifylline 400 mg three times daily or placebo. Main outcome measure Complete healing (full epithelialisation) of all ulcers on the trial leg. Results Complete healing occurred in 65 of the 101 (64%) patients receiving pentoxifylline and 52 of the 99 (53%) patients receiving placebo. Conclusions The difference in the healing rates between patients taking pentoxifylline and those taking placebo did not reach statistical significance. Key messagesLeg ulcers cost the NHS around £400 million per annum50%-75% of venous leg ulcers can be succesfully treated with dressings and compression bandages but take many months to healA drug that reduced the healing time of venous ulcers would be useful, although no agent has been proved to be effective to dateTrials with pentoxifylline, a vasoactive drug used in the treatment of peripheral vascular diseases, as an adjunct to the treatment of venous ulcers have been inconclusiveAt the 5% level, pentoxifylline had a non-significant effect on healing rates of pure venous ulcers PMID:10506039

  18. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for lateral epicondylitis--a double blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Speed, C A; Nichols, D; Richards, C; Humphreys, H; Wies, J T; Burnet, S; Hazleman, B L

    2002-09-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an increasingly popular therapeutic approach to the treatment of a number of soft tissue complaints. Whilst benefit has been demonstrated in calcific tendinitis, evidence is lacking for benefit in the management of non-calcific rotator cuff disorders. To perform a double-blind placebo controlled trial of moderate dose ESWT in chronic lateral epicondylitis. Adults with lateral epicondylitis were randomised to receive either active treatment (1500 pulses ESWT at 0.12 mJ/ mm2) or sham therapy, monthly for three months. All were assessed before each treatment and one month after completion of therapy. Outcome measures consisted of visual analogue scores for pain in the day and at night. Seventy-five subjects participated and there were no significant differences between the two groups at baseline. The mean duration of symptoms was 15.9 and 12 months in the ESWT and sham groups, respectively. Both groups showed significant improvements from two months. No significant difference existed between the groups with respect to the degrees of change in pain scores over the study period. In the ESWT group the mean (SD, range) pain score was 73.4 (14.5, 38-99) at baseline and 47.9 (31.4, 3-100) at three months. In the sham group the mean (SD, range) pain score was 67.2 (21.7, 12-100) at baseline and 51.5 (32.5, 3-100) at three months. At three months, 50% improvement from baseline was noted in 35% of the ESWT group and 34% of the sham group with respect to pain. There appears to be a significant placebo effect of moderate dose ESWT in subjects with lateral epicondylitis but there is no evidence of added benefit of treatment when compared to sham therapy.

  19. Amiodarone prophylaxis for tachycardias after coronary artery surgery: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J; Harriss, D R; Sinclair, M; Westaby, S

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Arrhythmias are a common cause of morbidity after cardiac surgery. This study assessed the efficacy of prophylactic amiodarone in reducing the incidence of atrial fibrillation or flutter and ventricular arrhythmias after coronary artery surgery. METHODS--A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. 60 patients received a 24 hour intravenous infusion of amiodarone (15 mg/kg started after removal of the aortic cross clamp) followed by 200 mg orally three times daily for 5 days, and 60 patients received placebo. RESULTS--6 patients (10%) in the amiodarone group and 14 (23%) in the placebo group needed treatment for arrhythmias (95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the difference between groups was 0 to 26%, p = 0.05). The incidence of supraventricular tachycardia detected clinically and requiring treatment was lower in the amiodarone group (8% amiodarone v 20% placebo, 95% CI 0 to 24%, p = 0.07). The incidence detected by 24 hour Holter monitoring was similar (17% amiodarone v 20% placebo). Untreated arrhythmias in the amiodarone group were either clinically benign and undetected (n = 3) or the ventricular response rate was slow (n = 2). Age > 60 years was a positive risk factor for the development of supraventricular tachycardia in the amiodarone group but not in the placebo group. Fewer patients had episodes of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation recorded on Holter monitoring in the amiodarone group (15% amiodarone v 33% placebo, 95% CI 3 to 33%, p = 0.02). Bradycardia (78% amiodarone v 48% placebo, 95% CI 14% to 46%, p < 0.005) and pauses (7% amiodarone v 0% placebo) occurred in more amiodarone treated patients. Bradycardia warranted discontinuation of treatment in one patient treated with amiodarone. CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of clinically significant tachycardia was reduced by amiodarone. The ventricular response rate was slowed in supraventricular tachycardia, but the induction of bradycardia may preclude the routine use of amiodarone

  20. Once-daily dolutegravir versus twice-daily raltegravir in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection (SPRING-2 study): 96 week results from a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Raffi, François; Jaeger, Hans; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Albrecht, Helmut; Belonosova, Elena; Gatell, Jose M; Baril, Jean-Guy; Domingo, Pere; Brennan, Clare; Almond, Steve; Min, Sherene

    2013-11-01

    In the primary analysis of SPRING-2 at week 48, dolutegravir showed non-inferior efficacy to and similar tolerability to raltegravir in adults infected with HIV-1 and naive for antiretroviral treatment. We present the 96 week results. SPRING-2 is an ongoing phase 3, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study in treatment-naive adults infected with HIV-1 that started in Oct 19, 2010. We present results for the safety cutoff date of Jan 30, 2013. Patients had to be aged 18 years or older and have HIV-1 RNA concentrations of 1000 copies per mL or more. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either dolutegravir (50 mg once daily) or raltegravir (400 mg twice daily), plus investigator-selected tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine. Prespecified 96 week secondary endpoints included proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL, CD4 cell count changes from baseline, safety, tolerability, and genotypic or phenotypic resistance. We used an intention-to-treat exposed population (received at least one dose of study drug) for the analyses. Sponsor staff were masked to treatment assignment until primary analysis at week 48; investigators, site staff, and patients were masked until week 96. Of 1035 patients screened, 827 were randomly assigned to study group, and 822 received at least one dose of the study drug (411 patients in each group). At week 96, 332 (81%) of 411 patients in the dolutegravir group and 314 (76%) of 411 patients in the raltegravir group had HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL (adjusted difference 4∙5%, 95% CI -1∙1% to 10∙0%) confirming non-inferiority. Secondary analyses of efficacy such as per protocol (HIV RNA <50 copies per mL: 83% for dolutegravir and 80% for raltegravir) and treatment-related discontinuation equals failure (93% without failure for dolutegravir; 91% for raltegravir) supported non-inferiority. Virological non-response occurred less frequently in the dolutegravir group

  1. Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women older than 25 years: 7-year follow-up of the phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled VIVIANE study.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Cosette M; Skinner, S Rachel; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Garland, Suzanne M; Chatterjee, Archana; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; McNeil, Shelly; Stapleton, Jack T; Bouchard, Céline; Martens, Mark G; Money, Deborah M; Quek, Swee Chong; Romanowski, Barbara; Vallejos, Carlos S; Ter Harmsel, Bram; Prilepskaya, Vera; Fong, Kah Leng; Kitchener, Henry; Minkina, Galina; Lim, Yong Kuei Timothy; Stoney, Tanya; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Cruickshank, Margaret E; Savicheva, Alevtina; da Silva, Daniel Pereira; Ferguson, Murdo; Molijn, Anco C; Quint, Wim G V; Hardt, Karin; Descamps, Dominique; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju V; Karkada, Naveen; Geeraerts, Brecht; Dubin, Gary; Struyf, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Although the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is greatest in young women, women older than 25 years remain at risk. We present data from the VIVIANE study of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women after 7 years of follow-up. In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, healthy women older than 25 years were enrolled (age stratified: 26-35 years, 36-45 years, and ≥46 years). Up to 15% in each age stratum had a history of HPV infection or disease. Women were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive HPV 16/18 vaccine or aluminium hydroxide control, with an internet-based system. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. We did analyses in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy and total vaccinated cohort. Data for the combined primary endpoint in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI around the point estimate was greater than 30%. For all other endpoints and cohorts, data were considered significant when the lower limit of the 96·2% CI was greater than 0%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294047. The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit took place on Jan 29, 2014. 4407 women were in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2209 vaccine, n=2198 control) and 5747 women in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2877 vaccine, n=2870 control). At month 84, in women seronegative for the corresponding HPV type in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ associated with HPV 16/18 was significant in all age groups combined (90·5%, 96·2% CI 78·6-96·5). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related cytological abnormalities (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous

  2. Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women older than 25 years: 4-year interim follow-up of the phase 3, double-blind, randomised controlled VIVIANE study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, S Rachel; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Garland, Suzanne M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Verheijen, René H M; Quek, Swee Chong; da Silva, Daniel P; Kitchener, Henry; Fong, Kah Leng; Bouchard, Céline; Money, Deborah M; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Cruickshank, Margaret E; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Stapleton, Jack T; Martens, Mark; Quint, Wim; David, Marie-Pierre; Meric, Dorothée; Hardt, Karin; Descamps, Dominique; Geeraerts, Brecht; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary

    2014-12-20

    Although adolescent girls are the main population for prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, adult women who remain at risk of cervical cancer can also be vaccinated. We report data from the interim analysis of the ongoing VIVIANE study, the aim of which is to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of the HPV 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in adult women. In this phase 3, multinational, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned healthy women older than 25 years to the HPV 16/18 vaccine or control (1:1), via an internet-based system with an algorithm process that accounted for region, age stratum, baseline HPV DNA status, HPV 16/18 serostatus, and cytology. Enrolment was age-stratified, with about 45% of participants in each of the 26-35 and 36-45 years age strata and 10% in the 46 years and older stratum. Up to 15% of women in each age stratum could have a history of HPV infection or disease. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy against 6-month persistent infection or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher (CIN1+) associated with HPV 16/18. The primary analysis was done in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy, which consists of women who received all three vaccine or control doses, had negative or low-grade cytology at baseline, and had no history of HPV disease. Secondary analyses included vaccine efficacy against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types. Mean follow-up time was 40·3 months. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00294047. The first participant was enrolled on Feb 16, 2006, and the last study visit for the present analysis took place on Dec 10, 2010; 5752 women were included in the total vaccinated cohort (n=2881 vaccine, n=2871 control), and 4505 in the according-to-protocol cohort for efficacy (n=2264 vaccine, n=2241 control). Vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18-related 6-month persistent infection or CIN1+ was significant in all age groups combined (81·1%, 97·7

  3. Double-blind randomised clinical trial of a pepsin-inhibitory pentapeptide (pepstatin) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnevie, O; Svendsen, L B; Holst-Christensen, J; Johansen, T S; Søltoft, J; Christiansen, P M

    1979-01-01

    In a double-blind randomised clinical trial a specific inhibition of peptic activity with a pentapeptide, pepstatin, had no significant advantage over placebo in the ulcer healing and symptomatology of duodenal ulcer. Thus, the inhibition of pepsin in human gastric juice does not appear to have a major influence on the healing of duodenal ulcer. PMID:385457

  4. Influence of the antiseptic agents polyhexanide and octenidine on FL cells and on healing of experimental superficial aseptic wounds in piglets. A double-blind, randomised, stratified, controlled, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Roth, B; Müller, G; Rudolph, P; Klöcker, N

    2004-01-01

    The main target of the combination of octenidine with phenoxyethanol (Octenisept) is the antisepsis of acute wounds, whereas polyhexanide combined with polyethylene glycol in Ringer solution (Lavasept) is the agent of choice for antisepsis of chronic wounds and burns. Because comparative data for both agents on the effects on wound healing are lacking, we investigated the influence of preparations based on polyhexanide and octenidine versus placebo (Ringer solution) in experimental superficial aseptic skin wounds (n = 108) of 20 mm diameter, using a double-blind, randomised, stratified, controlled, parallel-group design in piglets. Computerised planimetry and histopathological methods were used for the assessment of wound healing. Histologically, no significant differences could be verified at any time between the 3 groups. However, in the early phase (day 9 after wounding), the octenidine-based product retarded wound contraction to a significantly greater extent than placebo and polyhexanide, whereas in the later phase (days 18 and 28), polyhexanide promoted contraction significantly more than did placebo and octenidine. The consequence is complete wound closure after 22.9 days using polyhexanide, in comparison to the placebo after 24.1 days (p < 0.05) and octenidine after 28.3 days (no statistical difference to placebo). This may be explained by the better tolerance of polyhexanide in vitro, which was demonstrated with dose and time dependence in cytotoxicity tests on human amnion cells. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Study of active controlled monotherapy used for rheumatoid arthritis, an IL‐6 inhibitor (SAMURAI): evidence of clinical and radiographic benefit from an x ray reader‐blinded randomised controlled trial of tocilizumab

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Jun; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Murata, Norikazu; van der Heijde, Désirée; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of tocilizumab (a humanised anti‐IL‐6 receptor antibody) monotherapy to inhibit progression of structural joint damage in patients with RA. Methods In a multi‐centre, x ray reader‐blinded, randomised, controlled trial, 306 patients with active RA of <5 years' duration were allocated to receive either tocilizumab monotherapy at 8 mg/kg intravenously every 4 weeks or conventional disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for 52 weeks. Radiographs of hands and forefeet were scored by the van der Heijde modified Sharp method. Results Patients had a mean disease duration of 2.3 years and a disease activity score in 28 joints of 6.5 at baseline. Mean total modified Sharp score (TSS) was 29.4, which was very high despite the relatively short disease duration. At week 52, the tocilizumab group showed statistically significantly less radiographic change in TSS (mean 2.3; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2) than the DMARD group (mean 6.1; 95% CI 4.2 to 8.0; p<0.01). Tocilizumab monotherapy also improved signs and symptoms. The overall incidences of AEs were 89% and 82% (serious AEs: 18% and 13%; serious infections: 7.6% and 4.1%) in the tocilizumab and DMARD groups, respectively. Conclusion Tocilizumab monotherapy was generally well tolerated and provided radiographic benefit in patients with RA. PMID:17485422

  6. Study of active controlled monotherapy used for rheumatoid arthritis, an IL-6 inhibitor (SAMURAI): evidence of clinical and radiographic benefit from an x ray reader-blinded randomised controlled trial of tocilizumab.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Jun; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Murata, Norikazu; van der Heijde, Désirée; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the ability of tocilizumab (a humanised anti-IL-6 receptor antibody) monotherapy to inhibit progression of structural joint damage in patients with RA. In a multi-centre, x ray reader-blinded, randomised, controlled trial, 306 patients with active RA of <5 years' duration were allocated to receive either tocilizumab monotherapy at 8 mg/kg intravenously every 4 weeks or conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for 52 weeks. Radiographs of hands and forefeet were scored by the van der Heijde modified Sharp method. Patients had a mean disease duration of 2.3 years and a disease activity score in 28 joints of 6.5 at baseline. Mean total modified Sharp score (TSS) was 29.4, which was very high despite the relatively short disease duration. At week 52, the tocilizumab group showed statistically significantly less radiographic change in TSS (mean 2.3; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2) than the DMARD group (mean 6.1; 95% CI 4.2 to 8.0; p<0.01). Tocilizumab monotherapy also improved signs and symptoms. The overall incidences of AEs were 89% and 82% (serious AEs: 18% and 13%; serious infections: 7.6% and 4.1%) in the tocilizumab and DMARD groups, respectively. Tocilizumab monotherapy was generally well tolerated and provided radiographic benefit in patients with RA.

  7. Amantadine for treatment of fatigue in Guillain‐Barré syndrome: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Garssen, M P J; Schmitz, P I M; Merkies, I S J; Jacobs, B C; van der Meché, F G A; van Doorn, P A

    2006-01-01

    Objective Fatigue is a major complaint in patients with immune mediated polyneuropathies. Despite apparently good physical recovery after Guillain‐Barré syndrome (GBS), many patients remain restricted in daily and social activities, and have a decreased quality of life. In this trial, the effect of amantadine on severe fatigue related to GBS was studied. Methods During the pre‐treatment phase, all patients were monitored for 2 weeks. Only patients with severe fatigue, defined as a mean fatigue score of ⩾5.0 on the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), were randomised for this double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study. Primary outcome measure was improvement of at least 1 point on the FSS. Secondary outcome measures were impact of fatigue, anxiety and depression, handicap, and quality of life. Results In total, 80 patients with GBS were randomised, of whom 74 were included for analysis. Fatigue appeared to be reduced already during the pre‐treatment phase (p = 0.05), probably due to increased attention provided to the patients. No significant differences in any of the primary and secondary outcome measures were found. Conclusions Amantadine was not superior to placebo. Because fatigue remains a serious complaint, other studies evaluating new treatment options are strongly recommended. PMID:16361594

  8. Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nurmikko, Turo J; Serpell, Mick G; Hoggart, Barbara; Toomey, Peter J; Morlion, Bart J; Haines, Derek

    2007-12-15

    Cannabinoids are known to have analgesic properties. We evaluated the effect of oro-mucosal sativex, (THC: CBD), an endocannabinoid system modulator, on pain and allodynia, in 125 patients with neuropathic pain of peripheral origin in a five-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial. Patients remained on their existing stable analgesia. A self-titrating regimen was used to optimise drug administration. Sixty-three patients were randomised to receive sativex and 62 placebo. The mean reduction in pain intensity scores (primary outcome measure) was greater in patients receiving sativex than placebo (mean adjusted scores -1.48 points vs. -0.52 points on a 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (p=0.004; 95% CI: -1.59, -0.32). Improvements in Neuropathic Pain Scale composite score (p=0.007), sleep NRS (p=0.001), dynamic allodynia (p=0.042), punctate allodynia (p=0.021), Pain Disability Index (p=0.003) and Patient's Global Impression of Change (p<0.001) were similarly greater on sativex vs. placebo. Sedative and gastrointestinal side effects were reported more commonly by patients on active medication. Of all participants, 18% on sativex and 3% on placebo withdrew during the study. An open-label extension study showed that the initial pain relief was maintained without dose escalation or toxicity for 52 weeks.

  9. Intrathecal 1% 2-chloroprocaine vs. 0.5% bupivacaine in ambulatory surgery: a prospective, observer-blinded, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Camponovo, C; Wulf, H; Ghisi, D; Fanelli, A; Riva, T; Cristina, D; Vassiliou, T; Leschka, K; Fanelli, G

    2014-05-01

    This prospective, observer-blinded, randomised, multicentre study aimed at determining the non-inferiority of 50 mg of plain 1% 2-chloroprocaine vs. 10 mg of 0.5% plain bupivacaine in terms of sensory block onset time at T10 after spinal injection. The study hypothesis was that the difference in onset times of sensory block to T10 between the two drugs is ≤ 4 min. One hundred and thirty patients undergoing lower abdominal or lower limb procedures (≤ 40 min) were randomised to receive one of two treatments: 50 mg of plain 1% 2-chloroprocaine (Group C, n = 66) or 10 mg of plain 0.5% bupivacaine (Group B, n = 64). Times to sensory and motor block onsets, maximum sensory block level, readiness for surgery, regression of sensory and motor blocks, first analgesic requirements, unassisted ambulation, home discharge, and side effects after 24 h and 7 days were registered blindly. Chloroprocaine was comparable with plain 0.5% bupivacaine in terms of time to sensory block at T10 level. Group C showed faster onsets of motor block (5 vs. 6 min), maximum sensory block level (8.5 vs. 14 min), resolution of sensory (105 vs. 225 min) and motor (100 vs. 210 min) blocks, unassisted ambulation (142.5 vs. 290.5 min), first analgesic requirement (120 vs. 293.5 min), and home discharge (150 vs. 325 min) (all comparisons, P < 0.05). No chloroprocaine patient developed transient neurological symptoms. Spinal anaesthesia with 50 mg of plain 1% 2-chloroprocaine is similar to 10 mg of plain 0.5% bupivacaine in terms of onset of sensory block at T10 but shows quicker recovery from anaesthesia than with 0.5% bupivacaine. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. TCH346 as a neuroprotective drug in Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Olanow, C Warren; Schapira, Anthony H V; LeWitt, Peter A; Kieburtz, Karl; Sauer, Dirk; Olivieri, Gianfranco; Pohlmann, Harald; Hubble, Jean

    2006-12-01

    There is an important unmet medical need in Parkinson's disease for a neuroprotective treatment that slows or stops disease progression. TCH346 is a potent anti-apoptotic drug that protects against loss of dopaminergic neurons in laboratory models. Our aim was to assess TCH346 as a neuroprotective drug in patients with Parkinson's disease. Patients presenting at 45 international movement disorder clinics with early untreated Parkinson's disease were assessed as part of this parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. 301 eligible patients were randomly assigned 12-18 months' treatment with TCH346 at a daily dose of 0.5 mg (n=78), 2.5 mg (n=79), or 10 mg (n=73), or placebo (n=71), followed by a 4 week washout period. The primary outcome measure was time to development of a disability requiring dopaminergic treatment. Secondary outcome measures were the annual rate of change in the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and the PDQ-39, a measure of quality of life. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. This study is pending registration with . 255 patients completed the study. TCH346 did not differ from placebo for any of the study outcomes. Treatment was needed in 26 (34%) patients in the TCH346 0.5 mg group, 30 (38%) in the TCH346 2.5 mg group, 24 (33%) in the TCH346 10 mg group, and 23 (32%) in the placebo group. There were no significant differences between groups. There were no differences between groups in the annual change in the UPDRS or PDQ-39 either. Few patients withdrew because of adverse events and none was judged to be related to the study intervention. TCH346 did not show evidence of a neuroprotective effect. The discrepancy between the preclinical promise of TCH346 and the clinical outcome could have arisen because of the use of laboratory models that do not accurately reflect the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, the doses of study drug used, insensitive clinical endpoints, and the patient population selected for study.

  11. Sources of Bias in Outcome Assessment in Randomised Controlled Trials: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Hannah; Hewitt, Catherine E.; Higgins, Steve; Wiggins, Andy; Torgerson, David J.; Torgerson, Carole J.

    2015-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can be at risk of bias. Using data from a RCT, we considered the impact of post-randomisation bias. We compared the trial primary outcome, which was administered blindly, with the secondary outcome, which was not administered blindly. From 44 schools, 522 children were randomised to receive a one-to-one maths…

  12. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fructo-oligosaccharides in active Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Jane L; Hedin, Charlotte R H; Koutsoumpas, Andreas; Ng, Siew C; McCarthy, Neil E; Hart, Ailsa L; Kamm, Michael A; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Knight, Stella C; Forbes, Alastair; Stagg, Andrew J; Whelan, Kevin; Lindsay, James O

    2011-07-01

    The commensal intestinal microbiota drive the inflammation associated with Crohn's disease. However, bacteria such as bifidobacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii appear to be immunoregulatory. In healthy subjects the intestinal microbiota are influenced by prebiotic carbohydrates such as fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Preliminary data suggest that FOS increase faecal bifidobacteria, induce immunoregulatory dendritic cell (DC) responses and reduce disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease. To assess the impact of FOS in patients with active Crohn's disease using an adequately powered randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with predefined clinical, microbiological and immunological end points. Patients with active Crohn's disease were randomised to 15 g/day FOS or non-prebiotic placebo for 4 weeks. The primary end point was clinical response at week 4 (fall in Crohn's Disease Activity Index of ≥ 70 points) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. 103 patients were randomised to receive FOS (n = 54) or placebo (n = 49). More patients receiving FOS (14 (26%) vs 4 (8%); p = 0.018) withdrew before the 4-week end point. There was no significant difference in the number of patients achieving a clinical response between the FOS and placebo groups in the ITT analysis (12 (22%) vs 19 (39%), p = 0.067). Patients receiving FOS had reduced proportions of interleukin (IL)-6-positive lamina propria DC and increased DC staining of IL-10 (p < 0.05) but no change in IL-12p40 production. There were no significant differences in the faecal concentration of bifidobacteria and F prausnitzii between the groups at baseline or after the 4-week intervention. An adequately powered placebo-controlled trial of FOS showed no clinical benefit in patients with active Crohn's disease, despite impacting on DC function. ISRCTN50422530.

  13. Erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury (EPO-TBI): a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Alistair; French, Craig; Little, Lorraine; Haddad, Samir; Presneill, Jeffrey; Arabi, Yaseen; Bailey, Michael; Cooper, D James; Duranteau, Jacques; Huet, Olivier; Mak, Anne; McArthur, Colin; Pettilä, Ville; Skrifvars, Markus; Vallance, Shirley; Varma, Dinesh; Wills, Judy; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-12-19

    Erythropoietin might have neurocytoprotective effects. In this trial, we studied its effect on neurological recovery, mortality, and venous thrombotic events in patients with traumatic brain injury. Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury (EPO-TBI) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken in 29 centres (all university-affiliated teaching hospitals) in seven countries (Australia, New Zealand, France, Germany, Finland, Ireland, and Saudi Arabia). Within 24 h of brain injury, 606 patients were randomly assigned by a concealed web-based computer-generated randomisation schedule to erythropoietin (40,000 units subcutaneously) or placebo (0·9% sodium chloride subcutaneously) once per week for a maximum of three doses. Randomisation was stratified by severity of traumatic brain injury (moderate vs severe) and participating site. With the exception of designated site pharmacists, the site dosing nurses at all sites, and the pharmacists at the central pharmacy in France, all study personnel, patients, and patients' relatives were masked to treatment assignment. The primary outcome, assessed at 6 months by modified intention-to-treat analysis, was improvement in the patients' neurological status, summarised as a reduction in the proportion of patients with an Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) of 1-4 (death, vegetative state, and severe disability). Two equally spaced preplanned interim analyses were done (after 202 and 404 participants were enrolled). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00987454. Between May 3, 2010, and Nov 1, 2014, 606 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to erythropoietin (n=308) or placebo (n=298). Ten of these patients (six in the erythropoietin group and four in the placebo group) were lost to follow up at 6 months; therefore, data for the primary outcome analysis was available for 596 patients (302 in the erythropoietin group and 294 in the placebo group). Compared with placebo, erythropoietin did

  14. Remission induction comparing infliximab and high-dose intravenous steroid, followed by treat-to-target: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial in new-onset, treatment-naive, rheumatoid arthritis (the IDEA study).

    PubMed

    Nam, J L; Villeneuve, E; Hensor, E M A; Conaghan, P G; Keen, H I; Buch, M H; Gough, A K; Green, M J; Helliwell, P S; Keenan, A M; Morgan, A W; Quinn, M; Reece, R; van der Heijde, D M; Wakefield, R J; Emery, P

    2014-01-01

    In disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to compare the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX) and infliximab (IFX) with MTX and intravenous corticosteroid for remission induction. In a 78-week multicentre randomised controlled trial, double-blinded to week 26, 112 treatment-naive RA patients (1987 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) with disease activity score 44 (DAS44)>2.4 were randomised to MTX + IFX or MTX + single dose intravenous methylprednisolone 250 mg. A treat-to-target approach was used with treatment escalation if DAS44>2.4. In the IFX group, IFX was discontinued for sustained remission (DAS44<1.6 for 6 months). The primary outcome was change in modified total Sharp-van der Heijde score (mTSS) at week 50. The mean changes in mTSS score at week 50 in the IFX and intravenous steroid groups were 1.20 units and 2.81 units, respectively (adjusted difference (95% CI) -1.45 (-3.35 to 0.45); p=0.132). Radiographic non-progression (mTSS<2.0) occurred in 81% vs 71% (OR 1.77 (0.56 to 5.61); p=0.328). DAS44 remission was achieved at week 50 in 49% and 36% (OR 2.13 (0.91 to 5.00); p=0.082), and at week 78 in 48% and 50% (OR 1.12 (0.47 to 2.68); p=0.792). Exploratory analyses suggested higher DAS28 remission at week 6 and less ultrasound synovitis at week 50 in the IFX group. Of the IFX group, 25% (14/55) achieved sustained remission and stopped IFX. No substantive differences in adverse events were seen. In DMARD-naive early RA patients, initial therapy with MTX+high-dose intravenous steroid resulted in good disease control with little structural damage. MTX+IFX was not statistically superior to MTX+intravenous steroid when combined with a treat-to-target approach.

  15. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with tafenoquine: a randomised study.

    PubMed

    Lell, B; Faucher, J F; Missinou, M A; Borrmann, S; Dangelmaier, O; Horton, J; Kremsner, P G

    2000-06-10

    Tafenoquine is an analogue of primaquine with an improved therapeutic and safety profile. It has a long half-life and activity against liver-stage malaria parasites, so may be useful for chemoprophylaxis. In this randomised, double-blind study we assessed the efficacy and safety of tafenoquine in different doses. 2144 individuals aged 12-20 years living in Lambaréné, Gabon, an endemic area for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, were invited to take part. 535 attended, and 426 eligible participants were randomly assigned tafenoquine (250 mg, 125 mg, 62.5 mg, or 31.25 mg) or placebo daily for 3 days. 417 received initial curative treatment with halofantrine, and 410 completed the assigned prophylaxis regimen. During follow-up of 70 days, adverse events were recorded and thick blood smears were examined weekly. The primary and secondary endpoints were the number of individuals with positive blood smears by day 56 and day 77, respectively. Analyses were per-protocol. Eight positive blood smears were recorded by day 56 (four/82 participants in the placebo group; four/79 tafenoquine 31.25 mg group). By day 77, 34 positive blood smears had been recorded (14/82 placebo; 16/79 tafenoquine 31.25 mg; three/86 tafenoquine 62.5 mg; one/79 tafenoquine 125 mg; none/84 tafenoquine 250 mg). Numbers of adverse events did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. Tafenoquine is effective and well tolerated. It has the potential to replace currently used drugs for malaria chemoprophylaxis.

  16. Randomised trial of a vibrating bladder stimulator--the time to pee study.

    PubMed

    Davies, P; Greenwood, R; Benger, J

    2008-05-01

    This randomised, non-blinded study evaluated a vibrating bladder stimulator to facilitate collection of a urine sample from pre-continent children. The use of a bladder stimulator produced no significant time improvements in any of the analysed parameters (n = 97). We identify a population of patients who may benefit from some form of bladder stimulation.

  17. The Effect of Azithromycin in Adults with Stable Neutrophilic COPD: A Double Blind Randomised, Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jodie L.; Powell, Heather; Baines, Katherine J.; Milne, David; Coxson, Harvey O.; Hansbro, Philip M.; Gibson, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive airway disease characterised by neutrophilic airway inflammation or bronchitis. Neutrophilic bronchitis is associated with both bacterial colonisation and lung function decline and is common in exacerbations of COPD. Despite current available therapies to control inflammation, neutrophilic bronchitis remains common. This study tested the hypothesis that azithromycin treatment, as an add-on to standard medication, would significantly reduce airway neutrophil and neutrophils chemokine (CXCL8) levels, as well as bacterial load. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in COPD participants with stable neutrophilic bronchitis. Methods Eligible participants (n = 30) were randomised to azithromycin 250 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks in addition to their standard respiratory medications. Sputum was induced at screening, randomisation and monthly for a 12 week treatment period and processed for differential cell counts, CXCL8 and neutrophil elastase assessment. Quantitative bacteriology was assessed in sputum samples at randomisation and the end of treatment visit. Severe exacerbations where symptoms increased requiring unscheduled treatment were recorded during the 12 week treatment period and for 14 weeks following treatment. A sub-group of participants underwent chest computed tomography scans (n = 15). Results Nine participants with neutrophilic bronchitis had a potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated and the median total bacterial load of all participants was 5.22×107 cfu/mL. Azithromycin treatment resulted in a non-significant reduction in sputum neutrophil proportion, CXCL8 levels and bacterial load. The mean severe exacerbation rate was 0.33 per person per 26 weeks in the azithromycin group compared to 0.93 exacerbations per person in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio (95%CI): 0.37 (0.11,1.21), p = 0.062). For participants who underwent chest CT

  18. Evaluating drug-free remission with abatacept in early rheumatoid arthritis: results from the phase 3b, multicentre, randomised, active-controlled AVERT study of 24 months, with a 12-month, double-blind treatment period.

    PubMed

    Emery, Paul; Burmester, Gerd R; Bykerk, Vivian P; Combe, Bernard G; Furst, Daniel E; Barré, Emilie; Karyekar, Chetan S; Wong, Dennis A; Huizinga, Tom W J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate clinical remission with subcutaneous abatacept plus methotrexate (MTX) and abatacept monotherapy at 12 months in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and maintenance of remission following the rapid withdrawal of all RA treatment. In the Assessing Very Early Rheumatoid arthritis Treatment phase 3b trial, patients with early active RA were randomised to double-blind, weekly, subcutaneous abatacept 125 mg plus MTX, abatacept 125 mg monotherapy, or MTX for 12 months. Patients with low disease activity (Disease Activity Score (DAS)28 (C reactive protein (CRP)) <3.2) at month 12 entered a 12-month period of withdrawal of all RA therapy. The coprimary endpoints were the proportion of patients with DAS28 (CRP) <2.6 at month 12 and both months 12 and 18, for abatacept plus MTX versus MTX. Patients had <2 years of RA symptoms, DAS28 (CRP) ≥3.2, anticitrullinated peptide-2 antibody positivity and 95.2% were rheumatoid factor positive. For abatacept plus MTX versus MTX, DAS28 (CRP) <2.6 was achieved in 60.9% versus 45.2% (p=0.010) at 12 months, and following treatment withdrawal, in 14.8% versus 7.8% (p=0.045) at both 12 and 18 months. DAS28 (CRP) <2.6 was achieved for abatacept monotherapy in 42.5% (month 12) and 12.4% (both months 12 and 18). Both abatacept arms had a safety profile comparable with MTX alone. Abatacept plus MTX demonstrated robust efficacy compared with MTX alone in early RA, with a good safety profile. The achievement of sustained remission following withdrawal of all RA therapy suggests an effect of abatacept's mechanism on autoimmune processes. NCT01142726. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Effect on LDL-cholesterol of a large dose of a dietary supplement with plant extracts in subjects with untreated moderate hypercholesterolaemia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Barrat, Emmanuel; Zaïr, Yassine; Sirvent, Pascal; Chauveau, Patrice; Maudet, Corinne; Housez, Béatrice; Derbord, Elodie; Lescuyer, Jean-François; Bard, Jean-Marie; Cazaubiel, Murielle; Peltier, Sébastien L

    2013-12-01

    To determine the effect of 4 weeks of supplementation, then, withdrawal of a dietary supplement (DS) containing red yeast rice extract, policosanol and artichoke leaf extract at twice the recommended daily dose (6 tablets, 6-TAB) compared to the usual dose (3-TAB) or to a placebo (PLA), on blood lipid profiles and safety biomarkers. Forty-five healthy subjects (15 per group), with untreated hypercholesterolaemia, were included in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. After 4 weeks of supplementation, LDL-C was significantly lower in 6-TAB (-0.21 g/l; 95 % CI -0.38 to -0.03 g/l; p = 0.0217) and 3-TAB (-0.25 g/l; 95 % CI -0.42 to -0.07 g/l; p = 0.0071) compared to PLA, although no difference in LDL-cholesterol was observed between the two groups, while no effect was seen on triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol. Four weeks after the end of supplementation, no difference in LDL-C was seen between the PLA group and the DS-treated groups. The muscle breakdown biomarkers, as well as biomarkers of liver and renal function, were altered by neither dose of the DS. Acute application of the DS on permeabilised skeletal muscle fibres of rats did not induce deleterious effects on mitochondrial function. Supplementation with twice the recommended dose of the DS was effective in reducing LDL-cholesterol and appeared safe, but according to the present results, no additional benefit could be achieved compared to the recommended dose.

  20. Efficacy of the epidural blood patch for the treatment of post lumbar puncture headache BLOPP: A randomised, observer-blind, controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN 71598245

    PubMed Central

    Oedit, R; van Kooten, F; Bakker, SLM; Dippel, DWJ

    2005-01-01

    Background Post dural punction headache (PDPH) occurs in 10% to 40% of the patients who had a lumbar puncture. Its symptoms can be severe and incapacitating. The epidural blood patch is widely accepted as the treatment of choice for postdural puncture headache. Uncontrolled studies report rapid recovery after patching in 90% to 100% of treated patients. However, sufficient evidence from randomised, controlled clinical trials is lacking. Methods BLOPP (blood patch for post dural puncture headache) is a randomised, single centre, observer-blind clinical trial. Patients with PDPH for at least 24 hours and at most 7 days after lumbar puncture will be randomised to treatment with an epidural blood patch (EDBP) or to conventional treatment, i.e. 24 hours bed rest and ample fluid intake. PDPH 24 hours after treatment, classified on a 4-point scale (no, mild, moderate, severe) is the primary outcome. The secondary outcome is the presence of PDPH 7 days after treatment. We estimated that a sample size of 2 × 20 patients would provide us with a power of 80% to detect a relative reduction in number of patients with persisting PDPH after 24 hours of 50% at the usual significance level α = 5%, taking into account that in approximately 10% of the patients the PDPH will have resolved spontaneously after one day. Discussion The EDBP is accepted as the treatment of choice for PDPH although randomised, controlled data is scarce. Our randomised, observer-blind clinical trial enables us to compare the efficacy of two clinically practiced methods of PDPH treatment; EDBP versus conventional treatment, as they are applied in clinical practise. PMID:15998467

  1. Smoking cessation support delivered via mobile phone text messaging (txt2stop): a single-blind, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Free, Caroline; Knight, Rosemary; Robertson, Steven; Whittaker, Robyn; Edwards, Phil; Zhou, Weiwei; Rodgers, Anthony; Cairns, John; Kenward, Michael G; Roberts, Ian

    2011-07-02

    Smoking cessation programmes delivered via mobile phone text messaging show increases in self-reported quitting in the short term. We assessed the effect of an automated smoking cessation programme delivered via mobile phone text messaging on continuous abstinence, which was biochemically verified at 6 months. In this single-blind, randomised trial, undertaken in the UK, smokers willing to make a quit attempt were randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomisation system, to a mobile phone text messaging smoking cessation programme (txt2stop), comprising motivational messages and behavioural-change support, or to a control group that received text messages unrelated to quitting. The system automatically generated intervention or control group texts according to the allocation. Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was self-reported continuous smoking abstinence, biochemically verified at 6 months. All analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 80978588. We assessed 11,914 participants for eligibility. 5800 participants were randomised, of whom 2915 smokers were allocated to the txt2stop intervention and 2885 were allocated to the control group; eight were excluded because they were randomised more than once. Primary outcome data were available for 5524 (95%) participants. Biochemically verified continuous abstinence at 6 months was significantly increased in the txt2stop group (10·7% txt2stop vs 4·9% control, relative risk [RR] 2·20, 95% CI 1·80-2·68; p<0·0001). Similar results were obtained when participants that were lost to follow-up were treated as smokers (268 [9%] of 2911 txt2stop vs 124 [4%] of 2881 control [RR 2·14, 95% CI 1·74-2·63; p<0·0001]), and when they were excluded (268 [10%] of 2735 txt2stop vs 124 [4%] of 2789 control [2·20, 1·79-2·71; p<0·0001]). No significant heterogeneity was shown in any of the prespecified subgroups. The txt2stop smoking

  2. Smoking cessation support delivered via mobile phone text messaging (txt2stop): a single-blind, randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Free, Caroline; Knight, Rosemary; Robertson, Steven; Whittaker, Robyn; Edwards, Phil; Zhou, Weiwei; Rodgers, Anthony; Cairns, John; Kenward, Michael G; Roberts, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Smoking cessation programmes delivered via mobile phone text messaging show increases in self-reported quitting in the short term. We assessed the effect of an automated smoking cessation programme delivered via mobile phone text messaging on continuous abstinence, which was biochemically verified at 6 months. Methods In this single-blind, randomised trial, undertaken in the UK, smokers willing to make a quit attempt were randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomisation system, to a mobile phone text messaging smoking cessation programme (txt2stop), comprising motivational messages and behavioural-change support, or to a control group that received text messages unrelated to quitting. The system automatically generated intervention or control group texts according to the allocation. Outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was self-reported continuous smoking abstinence, biochemically verified at 6 months. All analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN 80978588. Findings We assessed 11 914 participants for eligibility. 5800 participants were randomised, of whom 2915 smokers were allocated to the txt2stop intervention and 2885 were allocated to the control group; eight were excluded because they were randomised more than once. Primary outcome data were available for 5524 (95%) participants. Biochemically verified continuous abstinence at 6 months was significantly increased in the txt2stop group (10·7% txt2stop vs 4·9% control, relative risk [RR] 2·20, 95% CI 1·80–2·68; p<0·0001). Similar results were obtained when participants that were lost to follow-up were treated as smokers (268 [9%] of 2911 txt2stop vs 124 [4%] of 2881 control [RR 2·14, 95% CI 1·74–2·63; p<0·0001]), and when they were excluded (268 [10%] of 2735 txt2stop vs 124 [4%] of 2789 control [2·20, 1·79–2·71; p<0·0001]). No significant heterogeneity was shown in any of the

  3. Treatment of antipsychotic-associated obesity with a GLP-1 receptor agonist—protocol for an investigator-initiated prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention study: the TAO study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ishøy, Pelle L; Knop, Filip K; Broberg, Brian V; Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Andersen, Ulrik B; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Ebdrup, Bjørn H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antipsychotic medication is widely associated with dysmetabolism including obesity and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular-related diseases and early death. Obesity is considered the single most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interventions against antipsychotic-associated obesity are limited and insufficient. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but their bodyweight-lowering effects have also been recognised in patients with non-diabetes. The primary endpoint of this trial is weight loss after 3 months of treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist (exenatide once weekly) in patients with non-diabetic schizophrenia with antipsychotic-associated obesity. Secondary endpoints include physiological and metabolic measurements, various psychopathological and cognitive measures, and structural and functional brain MRI. Methods and analysis 40 obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotic drugs will be randomised to subcutaneous injection of exenatide once weekly (2 mg) or placebo for 3 months, adjunctive to their antipsychotic treatment. Ethics and dissemination The trial has been approved by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the National Committee on Health Research Ethics and the Danish Data Protection Agency. Trial participation presupposes theoral and written patient informed consent. An external, independent monitoring committee (Good Clinical Practice Unit at Copenhagen University Hospital) will monitor the study according to the GCP Guidelines. Trial data, including positive, negative and inconclusive results, will be presented at national and international scientific meetings and conferences. Papers will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01794429; National Committee on Health Research Ethics project number: 36378; EudraCT nr: 2012-005404-17; The

  4. Quality of life in patients with leg ulcers: results from CHALLENGE, a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meaume, S; Dompmartin, A; Lok, C; Lazareth, I; Sigal, M; Truchetet, F; Sauvadet, A; Bohbot, S

    2017-07-02

    We recently showed the superiority of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) modulating dressing (foam impregnated with NOSF, nano-oligosaccharide factor) compared with a lipidocolloid matrix (TLC) control dressing in median wound area reduction (WAR). Here we report the results from the same study assessing the performance and safety of TLC-NOSF in the local management of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) or mixed leg ulcers and determining its impact on the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A superiority randomised double-blind controlled trial was conducted on patients presenting with a non-infected leg ulcer (VLUs or mixed leg ulcers) of predominantly venous origin (ABPI >0.8), with a surface area ranging from 5 to 50cm(2) and a duration of 6 to 36 months. Patients were randomly allocated to either the TLC-NOSF matrix foam (UrgoStart) dressing group or to the neutral TLC foam dressing group (UrgoTul Absorb). All received appropriate compression therapy and the wounds were assessed blindly (clinical examination, wound area tracing and photographic record) every 2 weeks for a period of 8 weeks, or until complete closure. A secondary endpoint, described here, was the patient's HRQoL, documented by the patient, through the EuroQol 5D tool (EQ-5D) questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS). In total, 187 patients were randomised to either the TLC-NOSF group (n=94) or the control dressing group (n=93). The two groups were well balanced at baseline with regard to wound and patient characteristics. In the HRQoL questionnaire (EQ-5D), the pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression dimensions were significantly improved in the TLC-NOSF group versus the control one (pain/discomfort: 1.53±0.53 versus 1.74±0.65; p=0.022, and anxiety/depression: 1.35±0.53 versus 1.54±0.60, p=0.037). The VAS score was better in the test group compared with the control group (72.1±17.5 versus 67.3±18.7, respectively), without reaching significance (p=0.072). Acceptability and tolerance

  5. Efficacy and safety of efavirenz 400 mg daily versus 600 mg daily: 96-week data from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority ENCORE1 study.

    PubMed

    Carey, Dianne; Puls, Rebekah; Amin, Janaki; Losso, Marcelo; Phanupak, Praphan; Foulkes, Sharne; Mohapi, Lerato; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Jessen, Heiko; Kumar, Suresh; Winston, Alan; Lee, Man-Po; Belloso, Waldo; Cooper, David A; Emery, Sean

    2015-07-01

    The week 48 primary analysis of the ENCORE1 trial established the virological non-inferiority and safety of efavirenz 400 mg compared with the standard 600 mg dose, combined with tenofovir and emtricitabine, as first-line HIV therapy. This 96-week follow-up of the trial assesses the durability of efficacy and safety of this treatment over 96 weeks. ENCORE1 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial done at 38 clinical sites in 13 countries. HIV-infected adult patients (≥16 years of age) with no previous antiretroviral therapy, a CD4 cell count of 50-500 cells per μL, and plasma HIV-1 viral load of at least 1000 copies per mL were randomly assigned (1:1) by an electronic case report form to receive fixed-dose daily tenofovir 300 mg and emtricitabine 200 mg plus efavirenz either 400 mg daily or 600 mg daily. Participants, physicians, and all other trial staff were masked to treatment assignment. Randomisation was stratified by HIV-1 viral load at baseline (≤ or >100 000 copies per mL). The primary endpoint was the difference in the proportions of patients in the two treatment groups with a plasma HIV-1 viral load below 200 copies per mL at week 96. Treatment groups were deemed to be non-inferior if the lower limit of the 95% CI for the difference in viral load was above -10% by modified intention-to-treat analysis. Non-inferiority was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat, per-protocol, and non-completer=failure (NC=F) populations. Adverse events and serious adverse events were summarised by treatment group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01011413. Between Aug 24, 2011, and March 19, 2012, 636 eligible participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to the two treatment groups (324 to efavirenz 400 mg and 312 to efavirenz 600 mg). The intention-to-treat population who received at least one dose of study drug comprised 630 patients: 321 in the efavirenz 400 mg group and 309 in the efavirenz 600 mg group

  6. Efficacy and safety of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/tretinoin 0.025% formulation for the treatment of acne vulgaris: pooled analysis of data from three randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, phase III studies.

    PubMed

    Dréno, Brigitte; Bettoli, Vincenzo; Ochsendorf, Falk; Layton, Alison M; Perez, Montserrat; Dakovic, Rada; Gollnick, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/tretinoin 0.025% (Clin-RA) were evaluated in three 12-week randomised studies. To perform a pooled analysis of data from these studies to evaluate Clin-RA's efficacy and safety in a larger overall population, in subgroups of adolescents and according to acne severity. 4550 patients were randomised to Clin-RA, clindamycin, tretinoin and vehicle. Evaluations included percentage change in lesions, treatment success rate, proportions of patients with ≥50% or ≥80% continuous reduction in lesions, adverse events and cutaneous tolerability. In the overall population, the percentage reduction in inflammatory, non-inflammatory and total lesions and the treatment success rate were significantly greater with Clin-RA compared with clindamycin, tretinoin and vehicle alone (all p<0.01). The percentage reduction in all types of lesions was also significantly greater with Clin-RA in the adolescent subgroup (2915 patients, p<0.002) and in patients with mild/moderate acne (3662 patients, p<0.02) versus comparators. In patients with severe acne (n = 880), the percentage reduction in all lesion types was significantly greater with Clin-RA versus vehicle (p<0.0001). A greater proportion of Clin-RA treated patients had a ≥50% or ≥80% continuous reduction in all types of lesions at week 12 compared with clindamycin, tretinoin and vehicle. Adverse event frequencies in the active and vehicle groups were similar. Baseline-adjusted mean tolerability scores over time were <1 (mild) and similar in all groups. Clin-RA is safe, has superior efficacy to its component monotherapies and should be considered as one of the first-line therapies for mild-to-moderate facial acne.

  7. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial evaluating the effect of a polyphenol-rich whole food supplement on PSA progression in men with prostate cancer—the UK NCRN Pomi-T study

    P