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Sample records for blm exhibit divergent

  1. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children.

  2. Chk1 protects against chromatin bridges by constitutively phosphorylating BLM serine 502 to inhibit BLM degradation.

    PubMed

    Petsalaki, Eleni; Dandoulaki, Maria; Morrice, Nick; Zachos, George

    2014-09-15

    Chromatin bridges represent incompletely segregated chromosomal DNA connecting the anaphase poles and can result in chromosome breakage. The Bloom's syndrome protein helicase (BLM, also known as BLMH) suppresses formation of chromatin bridges. Here, we show that cells deficient in checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1, also known as CHEK1) exhibit higher frequency of chromatin bridges and reduced BLM protein levels compared to controls. Chk1 inhibition leads to BLM ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation during interphase. Furthermore, Chk1 constitutively phosphorylates human BLM at serine 502 (S502) and phosphorylated BLM localises to chromatin bridges. Mutation of S502 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine residue (BLM-S502A) reduces the stability of BLM, whereas expression of a phospho-mimicking BLM-S502D, in which S502 is mutated to aspartic acid, stabilises BLM and prevents chromatin bridges in Chk1-deficient cells. In addition, wild-type but not BLM-S502D associates with cullin 3, and cullin 3 depletion rescues BLM accumulation and localisation to chromatin bridges after Chk1 inhibition. We propose that Chk1 phosphorylates BLM-S502 to inhibit cullin-3-mediated BLM degradation during interphase. These results suggest that Chk1 prevents deleterious anaphase bridges by stabilising BLM. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Trophic niche divergence among colour morphs that exhibit alternative mating tactics

    PubMed Central

    Lattanzio, Matthew S.; Miles, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Discrete colour morphs associated with alternative mating tactics are assumed to be ecologically equivalent. Yet suites of behaviours linked with reproduction can also favour habitat segregation and exploitation of different prey among morphs. By contrast, trophic polymorphisms are usually attributed to morphs exhibiting habitat or prey selectivity. An alternative hypothesis is that habitat variation generates a trophic polymorphism driven by differences in morph reproductive behaviour, the spatial dispersion of morphs in a landscape and their exposure to different prey types. In this scenario, morphs are allowed to vary in habitat or diet selectivity (e.g. specialist or generalist) as they do in behaviour, rather than being assumed to exhibit equivalent levels of ecological specialization. We test this hypothesis using male Urosaurus ornatus lizards that exhibit a discrete dewlap colour polymorphism that reflects alternative mating tactics. We found blue morphs specialize on prey at higher trophic levels, yellow males display plasticity in trophic and morphological attributes and orange males are trophic generalists. Our results also demonstrate that morph diet differences are enhanced in resource-limited habitats. We conclude that discrete behavioural morphs may also diverge in morphology and trophic niche. Jointly, these processes may enhance speciation rates in colour polymorphic taxa. PMID:27152203

  4. Gut Symbionts from Distinct Hosts Exhibit Genotoxic Activity via Divergent Colibactin Biosynthesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vizcaino, Maria I.; Crawford, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways are chemical mediators of microbial interactions in diverse environments. However, little is known about their distribution, evolution, and functional roles in bacterial symbionts associated with animals. A prominent example is colibactin, a largely unknown family of secondary metabolites produced by Escherichia coli via a hybrid NRPS-PKS biosynthetic pathway that inflicts DNA damage upon eukaryotic cells and contributes to colorectal cancer and tumor formation in the mammalian gut. Thus far, homologs of this pathway have only been found in closely related Enterobacteriaceae, while a divergent variant of this gene cluster was recently discovered in a marine alphaproteobacterial Pseudovibrio strain. Herein, we sequenced the genome of Frischella perrara PEB0191, a bacterial gut symbiont of honey bees and identified a homologous colibactin biosynthetic pathway related to those found in Enterobacteriaceae. We show that the colibactin genomic island (GI) has conserved gene synteny and biosynthetic module architecture across F. perrara, Enterobacteriaceae, and the Pseudovibrio strain. Comparative metabolomics analyses of F. perrara and E. coli further reveal that these two bacteria produce related colibactin pathway-dependent metabolites. Finally, we demonstrate that F. perrara, like E. coli, causes DNA damage in eukaryotic cells in vitro in a colibactin pathway-dependent manner. Together, these results support that divergent variants of the colibactin biosynthetic pathway are widely distributed among bacterial symbionts, producing related secondary metabolites and likely endowing its producer with functional capabilities important for diverse symbiotic associations. PMID:25527542

  5. Balancing Selection on a Regulatory Region Exhibiting Ancient Variation That Predates Human–Neandertal Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Iskow, Rebecca C.; Austermann, Christian; Scharer, Christopher D.; Raj, Towfique; Boss, Jeremy M.; Sunyaev, Shamil; Price, Alkes; Stranger, Barbara; Simon, Viviana; Lee, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Ancient population structure shaping contemporary genetic variation has been recently appreciated and has important implications regarding our understanding of the structure of modern human genomes. We identified a ∼36-kb DNA segment in the human genome that displays an ancient substructure. The variation at this locus exists primarily as two highly divergent haplogroups. One of these haplogroups (the NE1 haplogroup) aligns with the Neandertal haplotype and contains a 4.6-kb deletion polymorphism in perfect linkage disequilibrium with 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across diverse populations. The other haplogroup, which does not contain the 4.6-kb deletion, aligns with the chimpanzee haplotype and is likely ancestral. Africans have higher overall pairwise differences with the Neandertal haplotype than Eurasians do for this NE1 locus (p<10−15). Moreover, the nucleotide diversity at this locus is higher in Eurasians than in Africans. These results mimic signatures of recent Neandertal admixture contributing to this locus. However, an in-depth assessment of the variation in this region across multiple populations reveals that African NE1 haplotypes, albeit rare, harbor more sequence variation than NE1 haplotypes found in Europeans, indicating an ancient African origin of this haplogroup and refuting recent Neandertal admixture. Population genetic analyses of the SNPs within each of these haplogroups, along with genome-wide comparisons revealed significant FST (p = 0.00003) and positive Tajima's D (p = 0.00285) statistics, pointing to non-neutral evolution of this locus. The NE1 locus harbors no protein-coding genes, but contains transcribed sequences as well as sequences with putative regulatory function based on bioinformatic predictions and in vitro experiments. We postulate that the variation observed at this locus predates Human–Neandertal divergence and is evolving under balancing selection, especially among European populations. PMID

  6. Comparison of stem morphology and anatomy of two alfalfa clonal lines exhibiting divergent cell wall composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In previous research, two alfalfa clonal lines (252, 1283) were identified that exhibited environmentally stable differences in stem cell walls. Compared to stems of 1283, stems of 252 have a higher cell wall concentration and greater amounts of lignin and cellulose but reduced levels of pectic suga...

  7. Muscles innervated by a single motor neuron exhibit divergent synaptic properties on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Dawn M; Pritchard, Amy E; Latimer, John K; Wakefield, Andrew T

    2017-01-19

    Adaptive changes in the output of neural circuits underlying rhythmic behaviors are relayed to muscles via motor neuron activity. Pre- and postsynaptic properties of neuromuscular junctions can impact the transformation from motor neuron activity to muscle response. Further, synaptic plasticity occurring on the time scale of inter-spike intervals can differ between multiple muscles innervated by the same motor neuron. In rhythmic behaviors, motor neuron bursts can elicit additional synaptic plasticity. However, it is unknown if plasticity regulated by the longer time scale of inter-burst intervals also differs between synapses from the same neuron, and whether any such distinctions occur across a physiological activity range. To address these issues, we measured electrical responses in muscles innervated by a chewing circuit neuron, the lateral gastric (LG) motor neuron, in a well-characterized small motor system, the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis In vitro and in vivo, sensory, hormonal and modulatory inputs elicit LG bursting consisting of inter-spike intervals of 50-250 ms and inter-burst intervals of 2-24 s. Muscles expressed similar facilitation measured with paired stimuli except at the shortest inter-spike interval. However distinct decay time constants resulted in differences in temporal summation. In response to bursting activity, augmentation occurred to different extents and saturated at different inter-burst intervals in the three muscles. Further, augmentation interacted with facilitation, resulting in distinct intra-burst facilitation between muscles. Thus, responses of multiple target muscles diverge across a physiological activity range due to distinct synaptic properties sensitive to multiple time scales.

  8. HIV-1 and HIV-2 exhibit divergent interactions with HLTF and UNG2 DNA repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hrecka, Kasia; Hao, Caili; Shun, Ming-Chieh; Kaur, Sarabpreet; Swanson, Selene K.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Skowronski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication in nondividing host cells occurs in the presence of high concentrations of noncanonical dUTP, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) cytidine deaminases, and SAMHD1 (a cell cycle-regulated dNTP triphosphohydrolase) dNTPase, which maintains low concentrations of canonical dNTPs in these cells. These conditions favor the introduction of marks of DNA damage into viral cDNA, and thereby prime it for processing by DNA repair enzymes. Accessory protein Vpr, found in all primate lentiviruses, and its HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVsm paralogue Vpx, hijack the CRL4DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase to alleviate some of these conditions, but the extent of their interactions with DNA repair proteins has not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we identify HLTF, a postreplication DNA repair helicase, as a common target of HIV-1/SIVcpz Vpr proteins. We show that HIV-1 Vpr reprograms CRL4DCAF1 E3 to direct HLTF for proteasome-dependent degradation independent from previously reported Vpr interactions with base excision repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2) and crossover junction endonuclease MUS81, which Vpr also directs for degradation via CRL4DCAF1 E3. Thus, separate functions of HIV-1 Vpr usurp CRL4DCAF1 E3 to remove key enzymes in three DNA repair pathways. In contrast, we find that HIV-2 Vpr is unable to efficiently program HLTF or UNG2 for degradation. Our findings reveal complex interactions between HIV-1 and the DNA repair machinery, suggesting that DNA repair plays important roles in the HIV-1 life cycle. The divergent interactions of HIV-1 and HIV-2 with DNA repair enzymes and SAMHD1 imply that these viruses use different strategies to guard their genomes and facilitate their replication in the host. PMID:27335459

  9. Comparison of stem morphology and anatomy of two alfalfa clonal lines exhibiting divergent cell wall composition.

    PubMed

    Gronwald, John W; Bucciarelli, Bruna

    2013-08-30

    In previous research, two alfalfa clonal lines (252 and 1283) were identified that exhibited environmentally stable differences in stem cell walls. Compared with stems of 1283, stems of 252 have a higher cell wall concentration and greater amounts of lignin and cellulose but reduced levels of pectic sugar residues. These results suggest greater deposition of secondary xylem and a reduction in pith in stems of 252 compared with 1283. The stem morphology and anatomy of first-cut and second-cut harvests of field-grown 1283 and 252 were examined. For both harvests, stems of 1283 were thicker and had a higher leaf/stem ratio compared with stems of 252. Stem cross-sections of both genotypes were stained for lignin, and the proportions of stem area that were pith and secondary xylem were measured using ImageJ. Stems of 252 exhibited greater deposition of secondary xylem and a reduction in pith proportion compared with stems of 1283 for the first-cut harvest, but this difference was not statistically significant for the second-cut harvest. The results indicate that the proportions of secondary xylem and pith are not environmentally stable in these two genotypes and hence cannot be the sole basis for the differences in cell wall concentration/composition. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Regulation of BLM Nucleolar Localization

    PubMed Central

    Tangeman, Larissa; McIlhatton, Michael A.; Grierson, Patrick; Groden, Joanna; Acharya, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Defects in coordinated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the nucleolus cause cellular and organismal growth deficiencies. Bloom’s syndrome, an autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutated recQ-like helicase BLM, presents with growth defects suggestive of underlying defects in rRNA transcription. Our previous studies showed that BLM facilitates rRNA transcription and interacts with RNA polymerase I and topoisomerase I (TOP1) in the nucleolus. The mechanisms regulating localization of BLM to the nucleolus are unknown. In this study, we identify the TOP1-interaction region of BLM by co-immunoprecipitation of in vitro transcribed and translated BLM segments and show that this region includes the highly conserved nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of BLM. Biochemical and nucleolar co-localization studies using site-specific mutants show that two serines within the NLS (S1342 and S1345) are critical for nucleolar localization of BLM but do not affect the functional interaction of BLM with TOP1. Mutagenesis of both serines to aspartic acid (phospho-mimetic), but not alanine (phospho-dead), results in approximately 80% reduction in nucleolar localization of BLM while retaining the biochemical functions and nuclear localization of BLM. Our studies suggest a role for this region in regulating nucleolar localization of BLM via modification of the two serines within the NLS. PMID:27657136

  11. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  12. DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED AT LEFT CENTER, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 AT RIGHT CENTER, UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  13. BLM protein mitigates formaldehyde-induced genomic instability

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anuradha; Owen, Nichole; Juarez, Eleonora; McCullough, Amanda K.

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a reactive aldehyde that has been classified as a class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Cancer Research. There are growing concerns over the possible adverse health effects related to the occupational and environmental human exposures to formaldehyde. Although formaldehyde-induced DNA and protein adducts have been identified, the genomic instability mechanisms and the cellular tolerance pathways associated with formaldehyde exposure are not fully characterized. This study specifically examines the role of a genome stability protein, Bloom (BLM) in limiting formaldehyde-induced cellular and genetic abnormalities. Here, we show that in the absence of BLM protein, formaldehyde-treated cells exhibited increased cellular sensitivity, an immediate cell cycle arrest, and an accumulation of chromosome radial structures. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated that formaldehyde-treated cells are dependent on BLM for timely segregation of daughter cells. Both wild-type and BLM-deficient formaldehyde-treated cells showed an accumulation of 53BP1 and γH2AX foci indicative of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, relative to wild-type cells, the BLM-deficient cells exhibited delayed repair. In response to formaldehyde exposure, we observed co-localization of 53BP1 and BLM foci at the DSB repair site, where ATM-dependent accumulation of formaldehyde-induced BLM foci occurred after the recruitment of 53BP1. Together, these findings highlight the significance of functional interactions among ATM, 53BP1, and BLM proteins as responders associated with the repair and tolerance mechanisms induced by formaldehyde. PMID:25770783

  14. BLM protein mitigates formaldehyde-induced genomic instability.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anuradha; Owen, Nichole; Juarez, Eleonora; McCullough, Amanda K

    2015-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a reactive aldehyde that has been classified as a class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Cancer Research. There are growing concerns over the possible adverse health effects related to the occupational and environmental human exposures to formaldehyde. Although formaldehyde-induced DNA and protein adducts have been identified, the genomic instability mechanisms and the cellular tolerance pathways associated with formaldehyde exposure are not fully characterized. This study specifically examines the role of a genome stability protein, Bloom (BLM) in limiting formaldehyde-induced cellular and genetic abnormalities. Here, we show that in the absence of BLM protein, formaldehyde-treated cells exhibited increased cellular sensitivity, an immediate cell cycle arrest, and an accumulation of chromosome radial structures. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated that formaldehyde-treated cells are dependent on BLM for timely segregation of daughter cells. Both wild-type and BLM-deficient formaldehyde-treated cells showed an accumulation of 53BP1 and γH2AX foci indicative of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, relative to wild-type cells, the BLM-deficient cells exhibited delayed repair of formaldehyde-induced DSBs. In response to formaldehyde exposure, we observed co-localization of 53BP1 and BLM foci at the DSB repair site, where ATM-dependent accumulation of formaldehyde-induced BLM foci occurred after the recruitment of 53BP1. Together, these findings highlight the significance of functional interactions among ATM, 53BP1, and BLM proteins as responders associated with the repair and tolerance mechanisms induced by formaldehyde. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MMS, BLM assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After reviewing the Department of the Interior's organizational structure for federal energy and minerals resource management, the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) concluded that the ‘accountability and management of minerals programs are weakened by the current split of responsibilities between the Bureau of Land Management [BLM] and Minerals Management Service [MMS].’ Moreover, ‘to facilitate efficient, comprehensive management of these resources and to clarify lines of authority and accountability,’ GAO recommends that ‘to the extent permitted by law’ Secretary of the Interior James Watt should ‘consolidate the department's onshore minerals management responsibilities in the Minerals Management Service.’Mineral management programs within BLM are fragmented, GAO says, which makes for difficult routine monitoring of program costs and results. ‘As major sources of federal receipts and domestic supplies of fuel and nonfuel minerals, these resource management programs require, but are lacking, clear lines of repsonsibility and organization for efficient operations and program review.’ However, MMS ‘has the potential to provide comprehensive management of these resources,’ GAO concludes.

  16. Avian hepatitis E virus identified in Russian chicken flocks exhibits high genetic divergence based on the ORF2 capsid gene.

    PubMed

    Sprygin, A V; Nikonova, Z B; Zinyakov, N G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 79 liver samples from clinically sick and asymptomatic chickens were tested for avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV). Samples were received from 19 farms, five of which tested positive with primers targeting the ORF2 capsid gene. The phylogenetic analysis of a 242-base-pair fragment demonstrated that the Russian aHEV isolates share between 78.2 and 96.2% over the fragment sequenced, whereas the nucleotide sequence identities between the Russian isolates and the other representatives from GeneBank varied from 76.3 to 96.2%. The homology between the studied hepatitis E viruses and swine hepatitis E virus varied between 46.9 to 48.1%. The most divergent isolate aHEV16050 showed homology of 82.6% as compared with the strains in the dendrogram. The three positive hepatitis E virus samples (aHEV16279, aHEV16050 and aHEV18196) did not cluster with the European genotype 3 as expected due to the close location of Russia to Europe, nor did they with the other two genotypes, separating to a distinct branch. The aHEV16211 grouped together with European and Chinese isolates, and the aHEV18198 with Canadian ones.

  17. Mutator Phenotype and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in BLM Helicase-Deficient Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yasui, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS), an autosomal recessive disorder of the BLM gene, predisposes sufferers to various cancers. To investigate the mutator phenotype and genetic consequences of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in BS cells, we developed BLM helicase-deficient human cells by disrupting the BLM gene. Cells with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) can be restored with or without site-directed DSB induction. BLM cells exhibited a high frequency of spontaneous interallelic HR with crossover, but noncrossover events with long-tract gene conversions also occurred. Despite the highly interallelic HR events, BLM cells predominantly produced hemizygous LOH by spontaneous deletion. These phenotypes manifested during repair of DSBs. Both NHEJ and HR appropriately repaired DSBs in BLM cells, resulting in hemizygous and homozygous LOHs, respectively. However, the magnitude of the LOH was exacerbated in BLM cells, as evidenced by large deletions and long-tract gene conversions with crossover. BLM helicase suppresses the elongation of branch migration and crossover of double Holliday junctions (HJs) during HR repair, and a deficiency in this enzyme causes collapse, abnormal elongation, and/or preferable resolution to crossover of double HJs, resulting in a large-scale LOH. This mechanism underlies the predisposition for cancer in BS. PMID:27601585

  18. Mutator Phenotype and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in BLM Helicase-Deficient Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yasui, Manabu; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-12-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS), an autosomal recessive disorder of the BLM gene, predisposes sufferers to various cancers. To investigate the mutator phenotype and genetic consequences of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in BS cells, we developed BLM helicase-deficient human cells by disrupting the BLM gene. Cells with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) can be restored with or without site-directed DSB induction. BLM cells exhibited a high frequency of spontaneous interallelic HR with crossover, but noncrossover events with long-tract gene conversions also occurred. Despite the highly interallelic HR events, BLM cells predominantly produced hemizygous LOH by spontaneous deletion. These phenotypes manifested during repair of DSBs. Both NHEJ and HR appropriately repaired DSBs in BLM cells, resulting in hemizygous and homozygous LOHs, respectively. However, the magnitude of the LOH was exacerbated in BLM cells, as evidenced by large deletions and long-tract gene conversions with crossover. BLM helicase suppresses the elongation of branch migration and crossover of double Holliday junctions (HJs) during HR repair, and a deficiency in this enzyme causes collapse, abnormal elongation, and/or preferable resolution to crossover of double HJs, resulting in a large-scale LOH. This mechanism underlies the predisposition for cancer in BS. Copyright © 2016 Suzuki et al.

  19. Summary and findings of the 2006 BLM Forest Lands Report

    Treesearch

    Tim Bottomley; Jim Menlove

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with the Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) to assist in the preparation of a report specific to all forest lands under the administration of the BLM. The BLM requested that the FIA provide information on the extent and general conditions of BLM- managed forests and woodlands, within...

  20. Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands' environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Gray, Miranda M; St Amand, Paul; Bello, Nora M; Galliart, Matthew B; Knapp, Mary; Garrett, Karen A; Morgan, Theodore J; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R; Akhunov, Eduard D; Johnson, Loretta C

    2014-12-01

    Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates. Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation by distance (IBD) vs. isolation by environment (IBE) on ecotype divergence, (iii) identify outlier loci under selection and (iv) assess the association between outlier loci and climate. Using two primer sets, we genotyped 378 plants at 384 polymorphic AFLP loci across regional ecotypes from central and eastern Kansas and Illinois. Neighbour-joining tree and PCoA revealed strong genetic differentiation between Kansas and Illinois ecotypes, which was better explained by IBE than IBD. We found high genetic variability within prairies (80%) and even fragmented Illinois prairies, surprisingly, contained high within-prairie genetic diversity (92%). Using Bayenv2, 14 top-ranked outlier loci among ecotypes were associated with temperature and precipitation variables. Six of seven BayeScanFST outliers were in common with Bayenv2 outliers. High genetic diversity may enable big bluestem populations to better withstand changing climates; however, population divergence supports the use of local ecotypes in grassland restoration. Knowledge of genetic variation in this ecological dominant and other grassland species will be critical to understanding grassland response and restoration challenges in the face of a changing climate.

  1. Aberrant BLM cytoplasmic expression associates with DNA damage stress and hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Votino, Carolina; Laudanna, Carmelo; Parcesepe, Pietro; Giordano, Guido; Remo, Andrea; Manfrin, Erminia; Pancione, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Bloom syndrome is a rare and recessive disorder characterized by loss-of-function mutations of the BLM gene, which encodes a RecQ 3'-5' DNA helicase. Despite its putative tumor suppressor function, the contribution of BLM to human sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) remains poorly understood. The transcriptional regulation mechanism underlying BLM and related DNA damage response regulation in independent CRC subsets and a panel of derived cell lines was investigated by bioinformatics analysis, the transcriptomic profile, a CpG island promoter methylation assay, Western blot, and an immunolocalization assay. In silico analysis of gene expression data sets revealed that BLM is overexpressed in poorly differentiated CRC and exhibits a close connection with shorter relapse-free survival even after adjustment for prognostic factors and pathways that respond to DNA damage response through ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signaling. Functional characterization demonstrated that CpG island promoter hypomethylation increases BLM expression and associates with cytoplasmic BLM mislocalization and increased DNA damage response both in clinical CRC samples and in derived cancer cell lines. The DNA-damaging agent S-adenosylmethionine suppresses BLM expression, leading to the inhibition of cell growth following accumulation of DNA damage. In tumor specimens, cytoplasmic accumulation of BLM correlates with DNA damage and γH2AX and phosphorylated ATM foci and predicts long-term progression-free survival in metastatic patients treated with irinotecan. Taken together, the findings of this study provide the first evidence that cancer-linked DNA hypomethylation and cytosolic BLM mislocalization might reflect compromised levels of DNA-repair activity and enhanced hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in CRC patients.

  2. 43 CFR 3809.10 - How does BLM classify operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management General Information § 3809.10 How does BLM classify operations? BLM...

  3. 43 CFR 3192.10 - What costs will BLM pay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND CONTRACTS FOR OIL AND GAS INSPECTION Cooperative Agreements § 3192.10 What costs will BLM pay... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What costs will BLM pay? 3192.10 Section... Cost Principles for Assistance Programs, of this title. (b) BLM will fund the agreements up to 100...

  4. Purification and enzymatic characterization of Gallus gallus BLM helicase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Na-Nv; Yang, Yan-Tao; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2017-09-01

    Mutations in human BLM helicase give rise to the autosomal recessive Bloom syndrome, which shows high predisposition to types of malignant tumours. Though lots of biochemical and structural investigations have shed lights on the helicase core, structural investigations of the whole BLM protein are still limited due to its low stability and production. Here by comparing with the expression systems and functions of other BLM homologues, we developed the heterologous high-level expression and high-yield purification systems for Gallus gallus BLM (gBLM) in Escherichia coli. Subsequent DNA binding and unwinding determinations demonstrated that gBLM was a vigorous atypical DNA structure specific helicase, which not only showed high preference for the 3'-tailed DNA structures but also could efficiently unwind bubble DNA structures with blunt-ends, indicating its biological roles in processing DNA metabolism intermediates. Further comparative analysis between gBLM and gBLM Core revealed that the long N-terminal domain facilitated the binding affinity of forked and bubble DNA structures and it was also required for the DNA unwinding activities of gBLM. Thus, we present the first enzymatic characterization of gBLM and its N-terminal domain, providing a new model for probing the mechanism and structure of human BLM. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Knockout mouse production assisted by Blm knockdown

    PubMed Central

    FUKUDA, Mikiko; INOUE, Mayuko; MURAMATSU, Daisuke; MIYACHI, Hitoshi; SHINKAI, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Production of knockout mice using targeted embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a powerful approach for investigating the function of specific genes in vivo. Although the protocol for gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) in ESCs is already well established, the targeting efficiency varies at different target loci and is sometimes too low. It is known that knockdown of the Bloom syndrome gene, BLM, enhances HR-mediated gene targeting efficiencies in various cell lines. However, it has not yet been investigated whether this approach in ESCs is applicable for successful knockout mouse production. Therefore, we attempted to answer this question. Consistent with previous reports, Blm knockdown enhanced gene targeting efficiencies for three gene loci that we examined by 2.3–4.1-fold. Furthermore, the targeted ESC clones generated good chimeras and were successful in germline transmission. These data suggest that Blm knockdown provides a general benefit for efficient ESC-based and HR-mediated knockout mouse production. PMID:26598326

  6. 43 CFR 1821.10 - Where are BLM offices located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Where are BLM offices located? 1821.10 Section 1821.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES General Information § 1821.10 Where are BLM offices located? ...

  7. 43 CFR 1821.10 - Where are BLM offices located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where are BLM offices located? 1821.10 Section 1821.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES General Information § 1821.10 Where are BLM offices located? ...

  8. 43 CFR 1821.10 - Where are BLM offices located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where are BLM offices located? 1821.10 Section 1821.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 1821.10 Where are BLM offices located? (a) In addition to the Headquarters Office in Washington,...

  9. Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of proteasome core particles

    PubMed Central

    Weberruss, Marion H; Savulescu, Anca F; Jando, Julia; Bissinger, Thomas; Harel, Amnon; Glickman, Michael H; Enenkel, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    Short-lived proteins are degraded by proteasome complexes, which contain a proteolytic core particle (CP) but differ in the number of regulatory particles (RPs) and activators. A recently described member of conserved proteasome activators is Blm10. Blm10 contains 32 HEAT-like modules and is structurally related to the nuclear import receptor importin/karyopherin β. In proliferating yeast, RP-CP assemblies are primarily nuclear and promote cell division. During quiescence, RP-CP assemblies dissociate and CP and RP are sequestered into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli (PSG). Here, we show that CP sequestration into PSG depends on Blm10, whereas RP sequestration into PSG is independent of Blm10. PSG rapidly clear upon the resumption of cell proliferation and proteasomes are relocated into the nucleus. Thereby, Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of CP. Blm10-bound CP serves as an import receptor–cargo complex, as Blm10 mediates the interaction with FG-rich nucleoporins and is dissociated from the CP by Ran-GTP. Thus, Blm10 represents the first CP-dedicated nuclear import receptor in yeast. PMID:23982732

  10. Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of proteasome core particles.

    PubMed

    Weberruss, Marion H; Savulescu, Anca F; Jando, Julia; Bissinger, Thomas; Harel, Amnon; Glickman, Michael H; Enenkel, Cordula

    2013-10-16

    Short-lived proteins are degraded by proteasome complexes, which contain a proteolytic core particle (CP) but differ in the number of regulatory particles (RPs) and activators. A recently described member of conserved proteasome activators is Blm10. Blm10 contains 32 HEAT-like modules and is structurally related to the nuclear import receptor importin/karyopherin β. In proliferating yeast, RP-CP assemblies are primarily nuclear and promote cell division. During quiescence, RP-CP assemblies dissociate and CP and RP are sequestered into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli (PSG). Here, we show that CP sequestration into PSG depends on Blm10, whereas RP sequestration into PSG is independent of Blm10. PSG rapidly clear upon the resumption of cell proliferation and proteasomes are relocated into the nucleus. Thereby, Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of CP. Blm10-bound CP serves as an import receptor-cargo complex, as Blm10 mediates the interaction with FG-rich nucleoporins and is dissociated from the CP by Ran-GTP. Thus, Blm10 represents the first CP-dedicated nuclear import receptor in yeast.

  11. Enhanced Tumor Formation in Mice Heterozygous for Blm Mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppner Goss, Kathleen; Risinger, Mary A.; Kordich, Jennifer J.; Sanz, Maureen M.; Straughen, Joel E.; Slovek, Lisa E.; Capobianco, Anthony J.; German, James; Boivin, Gregory P.; Groden, Joanna

    2002-09-01

    Persons with the autosomal recessive disorder Bloom syndrome are predisposed to cancers of many types due to loss-of-function mutations in the BLM gene, which encodes a recQ-like helicase. Here we show that mice heterozygous for a targeted null mutation of Blm, the murine homolog of BLM, develop lymphoma earlier than wild-type littermates in response to challenge with murine leukemia virus and develop twice the number of intestinal tumors when crossed with mice carrying a mutation in the Apctumor suppressor. These observations indicate that Blm is a modifier of tumor formation in the mouse and that Blm haploinsufficiency is associated with tumor predisposition, a finding with important implications for cancer risk in humans.

  12. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete, BLM...

  13. 43 CFR 2806.15 - Under what circumstances may BLM waive or reduce my rent?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... qualifies for a waiver or a reduction of rent. (b) BLM may waive or reduce your rent if you show BLM that... reduce my rent? 2806.15 Section 2806.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... circumstances may BLM waive or reduce my rent? (a) BLM may waive or reduce your rent payment, even to zero in...

  14. 43 CFR 4300.71 - Under what circumstances can BLM modify, reduce or cancel my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., reduce or cancel my permit? 4300.71 Section 4300.71 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... modify, reduce or cancel my permit? (a) BLM may cancel the permit if: (1) BLM issued it improperly... least 30 days to show why BLM should not cancel your permit. (c) BLM may modify or reduce a permit in...

  15. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of the...

  16. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of the...

  17. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of the...

  18. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of the...

  19. Semihard processes with BLM renormalization scale setting

    SciTech Connect

    Caporale, Francesco; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2015-04-10

    We apply the BLM scale setting procedure directly to amplitudes (cross sections) of several semihard processes. It is shown that, due to the presence of β{sub 0}-terms in the NLA results for the impact factors, the obtained optimal renormalization scale is not universal, but depends both on the energy and on the process in question. We illustrate this general conclusion considering the following semihard processes: (i) inclusive production of two forward high-p{sub T} jets separated by large interval in rapidity (Mueller-Navelet jets); (ii) high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons; (iii) forward amplitude of the production of two light vector mesons in the collision of two virtual photons.

  20. 43 CFR 3277.12 - What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3277.12 Section 3277.12 Public Lands... § 3277.12 What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) We will issue you a written Incident of Noncompliance, directing you to take...

  1. 43 CFR 3277.12 - What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3277.12 Section 3277.12 Public Lands... § 3277.12 What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) We will issue you a written Incident of Noncompliance, directing you to take...

  2. 43 CFR 3277.12 - What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3277.12 Section 3277.12 Public Lands... § 3277.12 What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) We will issue you a written Incident of Noncompliance, directing you to take...

  3. 43 CFR 3277.12 - What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3277.12 Section 3277.12 Public Lands... § 3277.12 What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) We will issue you a written Incident of Noncompliance, directing you to take...

  4. 77 FR 71822 - Notice of Availability of the BLM's Responses to Public Comments and of the BLM's Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... industries have initiated efforts to work together over the past 2 years. A number of productive meetings and... Manual. Comments on the Draft Order The BLM received 28 comment letters during the comment...

  5. 43 CFR 3830.23 - What types of payment will BLM accept?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS BLM Service Charge and Fee Requirements § 3830.23 What...; (2) Postal money order payable in U.S. dollars to the Department of the Interior—Bureau of Land... with the BLM State Office where your mining claims or sites are recorded. (ii) BLM will deduct service...

  6. 43 CFR 3830.23 - What types of payment will BLM accept?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MAINTAINING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES; GENERAL PROVISIONS BLM Service Charge and Fee Requirements § 3830.23 What...; (2) Postal money order payable in U.S. dollars to the Department of the Interior—Bureau of Land... with the BLM State Office where your mining claims or sites are recorded. (ii) BLM will deduct service...

  7. 43 CFR 1824.12 - How many times must BLM publish a notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How many times must BLM publish a notice... Publication and posting of notices § 1824.12 How many times must BLM publish a notice? The number of times that BLM will publish or cause to be published a notice depends on the publication requirements for the...

  8. 43 CFR 2933.22 - How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM establish Recreation Use... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.22 How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees? BLM sets recreation use fees and adjusts them from time to time to reflect changes in...

  9. 43 CFR 2884.21 - How will BLM process my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MINERAL LEASING ACT Applying for MLA Grants or TUPs § 2884.21 How will BLM process my application? (a) BLM... processing time. (c) Before issuing a grant or TUP, BLM will: (1) Complete a NEPA analysis for the application or approve a NEPA analysis previously completed for the application, as required by 40 CFR...

  10. 43 CFR 3217.14 - When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM approve my drilling or... RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.14 When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract? BLM may approve a drilling or development contract when: (a) One or more geothermal lessees enter into...

  11. 43 CFR 3217.14 - When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM approve my drilling or... RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.14 When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract? BLM may approve a drilling or development contract when: (a) One or more geothermal lessees enter into...

  12. 43 CFR 3217.14 - When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When will BLM approve my drilling or... RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.14 When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract? BLM may approve a drilling or development contract when: (a) One or more geothermal lessees enter into...

  13. 43 CFR 2807.11 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations? 2807.11 Section 2807.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU... contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant; (b)...

  14. 43 CFR 2886.12 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT Operations on MLA Grants and TUPs § 2886.12 When must I contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant or TUP; (b) When your use...

  15. 43 CFR 2886.12 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT Operations on MLA Grants and TUPs § 2886.12 When must I contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant or TUP; (b) When your use...

  16. 43 CFR 2807.11 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations? 2807.11 Section 2807.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU... contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant; (b)...

  17. 43 CFR 2886.12 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT Operations on MLA Grants and TUPs § 2886.12 When must I contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant or TUP; (b) When your use...

  18. 43 CFR 2807.11 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations? 2807.11 Section 2807.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU... contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant; (b)...

  19. 43 CFR 3254.10 - May BLM inspect my exploration operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May BLM inspect my exploration operations... Inspection, Enforcement, and Noncompliance for Exploration Operations § 3254.10 May BLM inspect my exploration operations? BLM may inspect your exploration operations to ensure compliance with the requirements...

  20. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  1. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  2. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  3. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  4. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  5. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  6. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  7. 43 CFR 3809.115 - Can BLM collect information under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can BLM collect information under this... GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management General Information § 3809.115 Can BLM collect information under... contained in this subpart under 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and assigned clearance number 1004-0194. BLM will...

  8. The BLM's oil and gas drainage identification program

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The objective of the bureau of Land Management's (BLM) drainage program is to prevent loss of oil and gas by drainage from jurisdictional lands. When such loss is not prevented, the BLM must ensure that the federal and Indian lessors are fully compensated. These objectives may be met by several alternatives, including drilling a protective well, leasing unleased parcels with drainage stipulations, paying compensatory royalties, or entering into an agreement. Relinquishment of the lease is an extreme solution but is allowed by regulation. Detailed geologic and engineering studies result in technical review, showing whether drainage is or has occurred. The authors then notify the lessee and allow them to submit data showing drainage is not occurring. If they concur, the case is closed. If they still believe drainage is occurring or the lessee does not respond, a decision letter is sent. The decision letter may be reviewed by the BLM state director for technical and procedural quality assurance. If the decision is upheld, the lessee may appeal to the Interior Board of Land Appeals (IBLA). The lessee must submit a statement of reasons, clearly outlining his objections to the bureau's decision. The BLM technical staff must answer the statement or request that the case be remanded from IBLA. Posters illustrate a typical case study, illustrating the discovery of drainage, geology and engineering reports, the decision letter, state director review, and IBLA appeal.

  9. 43 CFR 2374.2 - Conditions of acceptance by BLM.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... possession of the lands. (c) The holding agency, in respect to improvements which are of no value, has... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conditions of acceptance by BLM. 2374.2 Section 2374.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  10. 43 CFR 2374.2 - Conditions of acceptance by BLM.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions of acceptance by BLM. 2374.2 Section 2374.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RESTORATIONS AND REVOCATIONS...

  11. BLM forest lands report -- 2006 status and condition

    Treesearch

    Tim Bottomley; Jim Menlove

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), an agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), administers over 261 million surface acres of public land in the western United States, including Alaska. Approximately 69 million acres, or 26 percent, are classified as forested.

  12. 43 CFR 3900.20 - Appealing the BLM's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appealing the BLM's decision. 3900.20 Section 3900.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil...

  13. 43 CFR 3900.20 - Appealing the BLM's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appealing the BLM's decision. 3900.20 Section 3900.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil...

  14. 43 CFR 3900.20 - Appealing the BLM's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appealing the BLM's decision. 3900.20 Section 3900.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil...

  15. 43 CFR 3900.20 - Appealing the BLM's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appealing the BLM's decision. 3900.20 Section 3900.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil...

  16. 43 CFR 2807.16 - Under what conditions may BLM order an immediate temporary suspension of my activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... before holding an administrative proceeding on the matter. (b) BLM may issue the immediate temporary...) You may file a written request for permission to resume activities at any time after BLM issues the... BLM does not respond within 5 business days, BLM has denied your request. You may appeal the...

  17. 78 FR 29379 - BLM Director's Response to the Appeal by the Governors of Utah and Wyoming of the BLM Assistant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...) for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands Administered by the Bureau of Land... for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands Administered by the BLM in Colorado, Utah... version of Alternative 2(b) from the proposed plan in the Final Oil Shale and Tar Sands Programmatic...

  18. 78 FR 68466 - BLM Director's Response to the Idaho Governor's Appeal of the BLM Idaho State Director's Governor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Sage-Grouse Plan concerns, your letter did not identify inconsistencies between your Plan and any of... regulatory requirements by specifically identifying inconsistencies between the Greater Sage-Grouse Plan and... of BLM Idaho's statement that your Greater Sage-Grouse Plan was `not sufficiently final' to...

  19. 78 FR 4435 - BLM Director's Response to the Alaska Governor's Appeal of the BLM Alaska State Director's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Finding ] of No Significant Impact for the Delta River Special Recreation Management Area (SRMA) Plan and... business hours. A copy of the Delta River SRMA Plan and EARMP are available on the BLM-Alaska Web site at... Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Delta River SRMA Plan and the EARMP...

  20. Mismatch repair genes identified using genetic screens in Blm-deficient embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ge; Wang, Wei; Bradley, Allan

    2004-06-24

    Phenotype-driven recessive genetic screens in diploid organisms require a strategy to render the mutation homozygous. Although homozygous mutant mice can be generated by breeding, a reliable method to make homozygous mutations in cultured cells has not been available, limiting recessive screens in culture. Cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells provide access to all of the genes required to elaborate the fundamental components and physiological systems of a mammalian cell. Here we have exploited the high rate of mitotic recombination in Bloom's syndrome protein (Blm)-deficient ES cells to generate a genome-wide library of homozygous mutant cells from heterozygous mutations induced with a revertible gene trap retrovirus. We have screened this library for cells with defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR), a system that detects and repairs base-base mismatches. We demonstrate the recovery of cells with homozygous mutations in known and novel MMR genes. We identified Dnmt1(ref. 5) as a novel MMR gene and confirmed that Dnmt1-deficient ES cells exhibit micro-satellite instability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the role of Dnmt1 in cancer. The combination of insertional mutagenesis in Blm-deficient ES cells establishes a new approach for phenotype-based recessive genetic screens in ES cells.

  1. Exhibiting Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Deborah; Elbaz-Luwisch, Freema

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines some of the dilemmas that accompany the emergence of the personal voice in scholarly work, by taking a close, grounded look at the way in which these unfolded in a specific academic course. As part of the course, entitled "A cultural approach to the life cycle", students were asked to participate in a group exhibition in which…

  2. Exhibiting Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Deborah; Elbaz-Luwisch, Freema

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines some of the dilemmas that accompany the emergence of the personal voice in scholarly work, by taking a close, grounded look at the way in which these unfolded in a specific academic course. As part of the course, entitled "A cultural approach to the life cycle", students were asked to participate in a group exhibition in which…

  3. The human RecQ helicases BLM and RECQL4 cooperate to preserve genome stability.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Popuri, Venkateswarlu; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Shevelev, Igor; Ghosh, Avik K; Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Rossi, Marie L; Janscak, Pavel; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2012-08-01

    Bacteria and yeast possess one RecQ helicase homolog whereas humans contain five RecQ helicases, all of which are important in preserving genome stability. Three of these, BLM, WRN and RECQL4, are mutated in human diseases manifesting in premature aging and cancer. We are interested in determining to which extent these RecQ helicases function cooperatively. Here, we report a novel physical and functional interaction between BLM and RECQL4. Both BLM and RECQL4 interact in vivo and in vitro. We have mapped the BLM interacting site to the N-terminus of RECQL4, comprising amino acids 361-478, and the region of BLM encompassing amino acids 1-902 interacts with RECQL4. RECQL4 specifically stimulates BLM helicase activity on DNA fork substrates in vitro. The in vivo interaction between RECQL4 and BLM is enhanced during the S-phase of the cell cycle, and after treatment with ionizing radiation. The retention of RECQL4 at DNA double-strand breaks is shortened in BLM-deficient cells. Further, depletion of RECQL4 in BLM-deficient cells leads to reduced proliferative capacity and an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Together, our results suggest that BLM and RECQL4 have coordinated activities that promote genome stability.

  4. Theoretical analysis of BLM system for HLS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Li, Yu-Xiong; Li, Wei-Min; He, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS) is being upgraded to HLS II. Its emittance will be much lower than before, therefore the Touschek scattering will increase significantly and become the dominant factor of beam loss. So it is necessary to build a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system that, in contrast to the old one, is able to obtain the quantity and position information of lost electrons. This information is useful in the commissioning, troubleshooting, and beam lifetime studying for HLS II. This paper analyzes the distribution features of different kinds of lost electrons, introduces the operation parameters of the new machine and discusses how to choose proper monitoring positions. Based on these comprehensive analyses, a new BLM system for HLS II is proposed.

  5. Development of a BLM-based intelligent biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng; Wei, Yunlong; Cai, Shaoxi; Tien, H. Ti; Ottova, Angelica L.

    2001-09-01

    Bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) are promising 'smart' materials for biosensor and biomolecules. A novel pH-microbe of an acupuncture needle support with BLM modified by electron mediators was fabricated. An intelligent biosensor system BLM-based was developed. The intelligent system can automatically measure and analyze pH value of aqueous solution with probes BLMs-based and Si-chips thin-film as sensing elements. It can also give a warning message when the pH value of aqueous solution is over one threshold value. The intelligent system has communication interface of computer. A monitoring system based network can be constructed by connection the intelligence system with computers.

  6. Museum Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A TSP from NASA Tech Briefs provided the solution to an electrical problem at a Florida museum. When a model train would not start without a jerk, a Marshall Space Flight Center development called pulse width control was adapted. The new circuit enables the train to start smoothly and reduces construction and maintenance costs. The same technology is also used in another hands-on exhibit. Applications of other TSPs are anticipated.

  7. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  8. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  9. 43 CFR 3601.51 - How will BLM inspect my operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral... you mine or remove; (d) To examine weight tickets, truck logs, and other records that BLM...

  10. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions for use of motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft, installations, structures, rock drills, and fixed anchors. BLM will require any restoration activities that we find necessary to...

  11. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions for use of motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft, installations, structures, rock drills, and fixed anchors. BLM will require any restoration activities that we find necessary to...

  12. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions for use of motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft, installations, structures, rock drills, and fixed anchors. BLM will require any restoration activities that we find necessary to...

  13. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions for use of motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft, installations, structures, rock drills, and fixed anchors. BLM will require any restoration activities that we find necessary to...

  14. Potential role for the BLM helicase in recombinational repair via a conserved interaction with RAD51.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Davies, S L; Levitt, N C; Hickson, I D

    2001-06-01

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that predisposes individuals to a wide range of cancers. The gene mutated in BS, BLM, encodes a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. The precise role played by these enzymes in the cell remains to be determined. However, genome-wide hyper-recombination is a feature of many RecQ helicase-deficient cells. In eukaryotes, a central step in homologous recombination is catalyzed by the RAD51 protein. In response to agents that induce DNA double-strand breaks, RAD51 accumulates in nuclear foci that are thought to correspond to sites of recombinational repair. Here, we report that purified BLM and human RAD51 interact in vitro and in vivo, and that residues in the N- and C-terminal domains of BLM can independently mediate this interaction. Consistent with these observations, BLM localizes to a subset of RAD51 nuclear foci in normal human cells. Moreover, the number of BLM foci and the extent to which BLM and RAD51 foci co-localize increase in response to ionizing radiation. Nevertheless, the formation of RAD51 foci does not require functional BLM. Indeed, in untreated BS cells, an abnormally high proportion of the cells contain RAD51 nuclear foci. Exogenous expression of BLM markedly reduces the fraction of cells containing RAD51 foci. The interaction between BLM and RAD51 appears to have been evolutionarily conserved since the C-terminal domain of Sgs1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of BLM, interacts with yeast Rad51. Furthermore, genetic analysis reveals that the SGS1 and RAD51 genes are epistatic indicating that they operate in a common pathway. Potential roles for BLM in the RAD51 recombinational repair pathway are discussed.

  15. 43 CFR 3283.6 - What is the purpose of BLM's periodic review?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., committed to any unit are no longer reasonably necessary for unit operations, and eliminate from inclusion... properly managing the geothermal resources. (c) BLM will not eliminate any lands from a unit until BLM... reasonable notice and an opportunity to comment. (d) Any lands eliminated from a unit under this section are...

  16. Stream and River Condition Across the BLM's National System of Public Lands.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted the first ever Western Rivers and Streams Assessment (WRSA), a survey of the condition of BLM streams and rivers throughout the contiguous western U.S. The WRSA was desi...

  17. Stream and River Condition Across the BLM's National System of Public Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meeting Abstract: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted the first ever Western Rivers and Streams Assessment (WRSA), a survey of the condition of BLM streams and rivers throughout the contiguous western U.S...

  18. Stream and River Condition Across the BLM's National System of Public Lands.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted the first ever Western Rivers and Streams Assessment (WRSA), a survey of the condition of BLM streams and rivers throughout the contiguous western U.S. The WRSA was desi...

  19. Stream and River Condition Across the BLM's National System of Public Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meeting Abstract: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted the first ever Western Rivers and Streams Assessment (WRSA), a survey of the condition of BLM streams and rivers throughout the contiguous western U.S...

  20. 43 CFR 3508.14 - How will BLM publish the notice of lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM publish the notice of lease... MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Competitive Lease Applications § 3508.14 How will BLM publish the notice of lease sale? (a) Once we determine which lands are available for leasing, we will publish a...

  1. 43 CFR 3515.25 - Is BLM required to publish notice or hold a hearing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Is BLM required to publish notice or hold... required to publish notice or hold a hearing? Yes. After you and BLM agree on the lands for exchange, we will publish a notice of the proposed exchange in the Federal Register and in a newspaper(s) in the...

  2. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing, BLM...

  3. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing, BLM...

  4. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing, BLM...

  5. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing, BLM...

  6. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates my...

  7. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must either...

  8. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  9. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  10. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  11. 43 CFR 5040.5 - How does BLM determine and declare the annual productive capacity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM determine and declare the annual productive capacity? 5040.5 Section 5040.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.5 How does BLM...

  12. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is BLM's general policy regarding the...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements? For the purpose of more properly conserving...

  13. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees...

  14. 43 CFR 2933.14 - For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false For what time may BLM issue a Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.14 For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit? You may obtain a permit for a day, season of use, year, or any other time period that...

  15. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  16. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  17. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  18. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  19. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  20. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  1. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  2. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  3. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  4. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  5. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  6. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  7. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  8. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  9. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  10. 43 CFR 3203.13 - How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lease sale? 3203.13 Section 3203.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RESOURCE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3203.13 How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale? BLM will hold a competitive lease sale at least once every 2 years for lands available for leasing in a state...

  11. 43 CFR 3192.6 - How will BLM evaluate my request for proprietary data?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM evaluate my request for proprietary data? 3192.6 Section 3192.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... evaluate my request for proprietary data? BLM will evaluate Tribal or State requests for proprietary data...

  12. 43 CFR 3602.48 - What may BLM require when renewing my contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.48 What may BLM require when renewing my contract... renewing your contract, BLM will perform additional environmental analysis as required, and may require...

  13. 43 CFR 3508.22 - What happens if BLM rejects my bid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if BLM rejects my bid? 3508.22 Section 3508.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Competitive Lease Applications § 3508.22 What happens if BLM rejects my bid?...

  14. 43 CFR 3272.10 - What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESOURCE LEASING Utilization Plan and Facility Construction Permit § 3272.10 What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan? Submit to BLM an application describing: (a) The proposed facilities as required... utilization plan? 3272.10 Section 3272.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  15. 43 CFR 3272.10 - What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESOURCE LEASING Utilization Plan and Facility Construction Permit § 3272.10 What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan? Submit to BLM an application describing: (a) The proposed facilities as required... utilization plan? 3272.10 Section 3272.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  16. 43 CFR 3272.10 - What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESOURCE LEASING Utilization Plan and Facility Construction Permit § 3272.10 What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan? Submit to BLM an application describing: (a) The proposed facilities as required... utilization plan? 3272.10 Section 3272.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  17. 43 CFR 3272.10 - What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESOURCE LEASING Utilization Plan and Facility Construction Permit § 3272.10 What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan? Submit to BLM an application describing: (a) The proposed facilities as required... utilization plan? 3272.10 Section 3272.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  18. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  19. 43 CFR 3601.11 - When will environmental considerations prevent BLM from disposing of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will environmental considerations prevent BLM from disposing of mineral materials? 3601.11 Section 3601.11 Public Lands: Interior... Limitations on Disposal of Mineral Materials § 3601.11 When will environmental considerations prevent BLM from...

  20. Structure of a Blm10 complex reveals common mechanisms for proteasome binding and gate opening.

    PubMed

    Sadre-Bazzaz, Kianoush; Whitby, Frank G; Robinson, Howard; Formosa, Tim; Hill, Christopher P

    2010-03-12

    The proteasome is an abundant protease that is critically important for numerous cellular pathways. Proteasomes are activated in vitro by three known classes of proteins/complexes, including Blm10/PA200. Here, we report a 3.4 A resolution crystal structure of a proteasome-Blm10 complex, which reveals that Blm10 surrounds the proteasome entry pore in the 1.2 MDa complex to form a largely closed dome that is expected to restrict access of potential substrates. This architecture and the observation that Blm10 induces a disordered proteasome gate structure challenge the assumption that Blm10 functions as an activator of proteolysis in vivo. The Blm10 C terminus binds in the same manner as seen for 11S activators and inferred for 19S/PAN activators and indicates a unified model for gate opening. We also demonstrate that Blm10 acts to maintain mitochondrial function. Consistent with the structural data, the C-terminal residues of Blm10 are needed for this activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12207), BLM is not required to facilitate such use by... DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use...

  2. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12207), BLM is not required to facilitate such use by... DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use...

  3. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12207), BLM is not required to facilitate such use by... DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use...

  4. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12207), BLM is not required to facilitate such use by... DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts, and Penalties Use of Wilderness Areas § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use...

  5. 76 FR 70163 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting; correction. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) published a document in the Federal Register of...

  6. A GIS-based method to evaluate undeveloped BLM lands in Alaska

    Treesearch

    Jason Geck

    2007-01-01

    As Alaska’s largest land management agency, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has responsibility for over 87 million acres (35 million ha) of public lands throughout the state. By using datasets and Landsat scenes within a Geographical Information System (GIS), this study prioritizes wilderness protection through the ranking of BLM blocks (contiguous land parcels),...

  7. 43 CFR 3250.13 - What additional BLM orders or instructions govern exploration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... govern exploration? 3250.13 Section 3250.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations-General § 3250.13 What additional BLM orders or instructions govern exploration? BLM may issue the following types of orders or instructions: (a) Geothermal resource operational...

  8. 43 CFR 2932.21 - Why should I contact BLM before submitting an application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Why should I contact BLM before submitting... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.21 Why should I contact BLM before submitting an...

  9. Structure of a Blm10 Complex Reveals Common Mechanisms for Proteasome Binding and Gate Opening

    SciTech Connect

    Sadre-Bazzaz, K.; Robinson, H.; Whitby, F. G.; Formosa, T.; Hill, C. P.

    2010-03-12

    The proteasome is an abundant protease that is critically important for numerous cellular pathways. Proteasomes are activated in vitro by three known classes of proteins/complexes, including Blm10/PA200. Here, we report a 3.4 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a proteasome-Blm10 complex, which reveals that Blm10 surrounds the proteasome entry pore in the 1.2 MDa complex to form a largely closed dome that is expected to restrict access of potential substrates. This architecture and the observation that Blm10 induces a disordered proteasome gate structure challenge the assumption that Blm10 functions as an activator of proteolysis in vivo. The Blm10 C terminus binds in the same manner as seen for 11S activators and inferred for 19S/PAN activators and indicates a unified model for gate opening. We also demonstrate that Blm10 acts to maintain mitochondrial function. Consistent with the structural data, the C-terminal residues of Blm10 are needed for this activity.

  10. 43 CFR 3287.2 - When may BLM grant a suspension of unit obligations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... obligations? 3287.2 Section 3287.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... UNIT AGREEMENTS Relief and Appeals § 3287.2 When may BLM grant a suspension of unit obligations? (a) BLM may grant a suspension of unit obligations when, despite the exercise of due care and...

  11. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  12. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  13. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  14. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  15. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  16. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  17. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  18. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  19. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  20. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  1. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  2. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  3. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  4. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  5. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  6. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  7. 43 CFR 3508.22 - What happens if BLM rejects my bid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if BLM rejects my bid? 3508.22 Section 3508.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Competitive Lease Applications § 3508.22 What happens if BLM rejects my bid? (a...

  8. 43 CFR 3508.22 - What happens if BLM rejects my bid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if BLM rejects my bid? 3508.22 Section 3508.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Competitive Lease Applications § 3508.22 What happens if BLM rejects my bid? (a...

  9. 43 CFR 3809.701 - What happens if I make false statements to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if I make false statements to BLM? 3809.701 Section 3809.701 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Penalties § 3809.701 What happens if I make false statements to BLM...

  10. 43 CFR 3809.701 - What happens if I make false statements to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if I make false statements to BLM? 3809.701 Section 3809.701 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Penalties § 3809.701 What happens if I make false statements to BLM...

  11. 43 CFR 3508.22 - What happens if BLM rejects my bid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if BLM rejects my bid? 3508.22 Section 3508.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Competitive Lease Applications § 3508.22 What happens if BLM rejects my bid? (a...

  12. 43 CFR 3192.16 - How will I know if BLM intends to terminate my agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... agreement because you did not carry out the terms of the agreement, BLM must send you a notice that lists the reason(s) why BLM intends to terminate the agreement. (b) Within 30 days after receiving the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) DELEGATION...

  13. 43 CFR 3192.17 - Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cooperative agreement was terminated by consent, you may request that BLM reinstate the agreement at any time. (b) If BLM terminated an agreement because you did not carry out the terms of the agreement, you must... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT...

  14. 43 CFR 3834.13 - Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shale fees? 3834.13 Section 3834.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.13 Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees? BLM will not prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees if you hold a mining claim or site for...

  15. 43 CFR 3834.13 - Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shale fees? 3834.13 Section 3834.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.13 Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees? BLM will not prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees if you hold a mining claim or site for...

  16. 43 CFR 3834.13 - Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shale fees? 3834.13 Section 3834.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.13 Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees? BLM will not prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees if you hold a mining claim or site for...

  17. 43 CFR 3834.13 - Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shale fees? 3834.13 Section 3834.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.13 Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees? BLM will not prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees if you hold a mining claim or site for...

  18. 43 CFR 3602.49 - When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract? 3602.49 Section 3602.49 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.49 When will BLM issue a non-renewable...

  19. 43 CFR 3602.49 - When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract? 3602.49 Section 3602.49 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.49 When will BLM issue a non-renewable...

  20. 43 CFR 3602.49 - When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract? 3602.49 Section 3602.49 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.49 When will BLM issue a non-renewable...

  1. 43 CFR 3602.49 - When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract? 3602.49 Section 3602.49 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.49 When will BLM issue a non-renewable...

  2. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  3. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  4. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  5. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  6. 43 CFR 3834.12 - How will BLM know for which mining claims or sites I am paying the fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or sites that you are paying for by claim name, and by the BLM serial number if BLM has notified you... or sites I am paying the fees? 3834.12 Section 3834.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) REQUIRED FEES FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.12 How will BLM know for which mining claims...

  7. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What action will BLM take when it receives... Operations § 3809.411 What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations? (a) BLM will review... is complete, that is, it meets the content requirements of § 3809.401(b); (2) Your plan does...

  8. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Operations Conducted Under Plans of... public lands where BLM does not have responsibility for managing the surface, BLM consults with the surface-managing agency; (viii) In cases where the surface is owned by a non-Federal entity, BLM consults...

  9. Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Divergent Spatial Memory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can…

  10. Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Divergent Spatial Memory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can…

  11. Sgs1 Truncations Induce Genome Rearrangements but Suppress Detrimental Effects of BLM Overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Syed, Salahuddin; Kennedy, Jessica; Schmidt, Kristina H

    2011-01-01

    RecQ-like DNA helicases are conserved from bacteria to humans. They perform functions in the maintenance of genome stability, and their mutation is associated with cancer predisposition and premature aging syndromes in humans. Here, a series of C-terminal deletions and point mutations of Sgs1, the only RecQ-like helicase in yeast, show that the HRDC and Rad51 interaction domain are dispensable for Sgs1’s role in suppressing genome instability, whereas the zinc-binding domain and the helicase domain are required. BLM expression from the native SGS1 promoter had no adverse effects on cell growth, but also was unable to complement any sgs1Δ defects. BLM overexpression, however, significantly increased the rate of accumulating GCRs in a dosage-dependent manner and greatly exacerbated sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Co-expressing sgs1 truncations of up to 900 residues, lacking all known functional domains of Sgs1, suppressed HU sensitivity of BLM overexpressing cells, suggesting a functional relationship between Sgs1 and BLM. Indeed, protein disorder prediction analysis of Sgs1 and BLM was used to produce a functional Sgs1-BLM chimera by replacing the N-terminus of BLM with the disordered N-terminus of Sgs1. The functionality of this chimera suggests that it is the disordered N-terminus, a site of protein binding and post-translational modification, that confers species-specificity to these two RecQ-like proteins. PMID:21111748

  12. PICH and BLM limit histone association with anaphase centromeric DNA threads and promote their resolution.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuwen; Huh, Jae-Wan; Warrington, Ross; Li, Bing; Wu, Nan; Leng, Mei; Zhang, Junmei; Ball, Haydn L; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongtao

    2011-07-08

    Centromeres nucleate the formation of kinetochores and are vital for chromosome segregation during mitosis. The SNF2 family helicase PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase) and the BLM (the Bloom's syndrome protein) helicase decorate ultrafine histone-negative DNA threads that link the segregating sister centromeres during anaphase. The functions of PICH and BLM at these threads are not understood, however. Here, we show that PICH binds to BLM and enables BLM localization to anaphase centromeric threads. PICH- or BLM-RNAi cells fail to resolve these threads in anaphase. The fragmented threads form centromeric-chromatin-containing micronuclei in daughter cells. Anaphase threads in PICH- and BLM-RNAi cells contain histones and centromere markers. Recombinant purified PICH has nucleosome remodelling activities in vitro. We propose that PICH and BLM unravel centromeric chromatin and keep anaphase DNA threads mostly free of nucleosomes, thus allowing these threads to span long distances between rapidly segregating centromeres without breakage and providing a spatiotemporal window for their resolution.

  13. BLM unfolds G-quadruplexes in different structural environments through different mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Qiang; Hou, Xi-Miao; Li, Ming; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the RecQ DNA helicase gene BLM give rise to Bloom's syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genetic instability and cancer predisposition. BLM helicase is highly active in binding and unwinding G-quadruplexes (G4s), which are physiological targets for BLM, as revealed by genome-wide characterizations of gene expression of cells from BS patients. With smFRET assays, we studied the molecular mechanism of BLM-catalyzed G4 unfolding and showed that ATP is required for G4 unfolding. Surprisingly, depending on the molecular environments of G4, BLM unfolds G4 through different mechanisms: unfolding G4 harboring a 3′-ssDNA tail in three discrete steps with unidirectional translocation, and unfolding G4 connected to dsDNA by ssDNA in a repetitive manner in which BLM remains anchored at the ss/dsDNA junction, and G4 was unfolded by reeling in ssDNA. This indicates that one BLM molecule may unfold G4s in different molecular environments through different mechanisms. PMID:25897130

  14. PICH and BLM limit histone association with anaphase centromeric DNA threads and promote their resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yuwen; Huh, Jae-Wan; Warrington, Ross; Li, Bing; Wu, Nan; Leng, Mei; Zhang, Junmei; Ball, Haydn L; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Centromeres nucleate the formation of kinetochores and are vital for chromosome segregation during mitosis. The SNF2 family helicase PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase) and the BLM (the Bloom's syndrome protein) helicase decorate ultrafine histone-negative DNA threads that link the segregating sister centromeres during anaphase. The functions of PICH and BLM at these threads are not understood, however. Here, we show that PICH binds to BLM and enables BLM localization to anaphase centromeric threads. PICH- or BLM-RNAi cells fail to resolve these threads in anaphase. The fragmented threads form centromeric-chromatin-containing micronuclei in daughter cells. Anaphase threads in PICH- and BLM-RNAi cells contain histones and centromere markers. Recombinant purified PICH has nucleosome remodelling activities in vitro. We propose that PICH and BLM unravel centromeric chromatin and keep anaphase DNA threads mostly free of nucleosomes, thus allowing these threads to span long distances between rapidly segregating centromeres without breakage and providing a spatiotemporal window for their resolution. PMID:21743438

  15. Photoelectric measurements of s-BLM/nucleoli: a new technique for studying apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Feng, J; Zhang, C Y; Ottova, A L; Tien, H T

    2000-06-01

    A new method based on photoelectric measurement for analyzing apoptosis of cell-free MCF-7 nucleoli is reported. Supported bilayer lipid membrane (s-BLM) was used to enclose nucleoli in biological environment. The s-BLM was self-assembled on the wall of a super-thin cell. During the apoptosis induced by Taxol, the photoelectric current of the self-assembled s-BLM/nucleoli was found decreasing with time, suggesting the degradation of nucleus DNA. Electron transfer along the DNA double helix and along nuclear skeleton is assumed in the interpretation. This novel photoelectric analytical method may provide a rapid and sensitive technique to evaluate apoptosis.

  16. Divergences in holographic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Alan; Ross, Simon F.

    2017-05-01

    We study the UV divergences in the action of the ‘Wheeler-de Witt patch’ in asymptotically AdS spacetimes, which has been conjectured to be dual to the computational complexity of the state of the dual field theory on a spatial slice of the boundary. We show that including a surface term in the action on the null boundaries which ensures invariance under coordinate transformations has the additional virtue of removing a stronger than expected divergence, making the leading divergence proportional to the proper volume of the boundary spatial slice. We compare the divergences in the action to divergences in the volume of a maximal spatial slice in the bulk, finding that the qualitative structure is the same, but subleading divergences have different relative coefficients in the two cases.

  17. 43 CFR 3830.23 - What types of payment will BLM accept?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Interior—Bureau of Land Management; (4) Valid credit card that is acceptable to the BLM; or (5) An... issuing institution of your check, negotiable instrument, or credit card refuses to pay and it is not...

  18. 43 CFR 3830.23 - What types of payment will BLM accept?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Interior—Bureau of Land Management; (4) Valid credit card that is acceptable to the BLM; or (5) An... issuing institution of your check, negotiable instrument, or credit card refuses to pay and it is not...

  19. 43 CFR 3264.10 - What must I submit to BLM after I complete a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESOURCE LEASING Reports-Drilling Operations § 3264.10 What must I submit to BLM after I complete a well... all logs; (c) Copies of all directional surveys; and (d) Copies of all mechanical, flow, reservoir...

  20. 43 CFR 6302.19 - When may BLM close or restrict use of wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION (6000... out the provisions of the Wilderness Act and other Federal laws, BLM may close or restrict the use...

  1. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the...

  2. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the...

  3. 43 CFR 4300.54 - Can BLM increase the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.54 Can BLM increase the...

  4. 43 CFR 4300.54 - Can BLM increase the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.54 Can BLM increase the...

  5. 43 CFR 3507.19 - Under what circumstances will BLM reject my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID... requirements of this subpart; or (4) In the case of sodium, potassium and sulphur, if BLM determines that the...

  6. 43 CFR 3809.5 - How does BLM define certain terms used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... terms of temporary closures ordered by BLM. (2) Casual use does not include use of mechanized earth... operations during the life of the action; and (5) Compensating for the impact by replacing, or providing...

  7. 43 CFR 3809.5 - How does BLM define certain terms used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... terms of temporary closures ordered by BLM. (2) Casual use does not include use of mechanized earth... operations during the life of the action; and (5) Compensating for the impact by replacing, or providing...

  8. 43 CFR 3287.2 - When may BLM grant a suspension of unit obligations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operator, such as agency timeframes required to complete environmental documents. (b) BLM may deny the... operator's inability to obtain an electrical sales contract, or when poor economics affect the...

  9. 43 CFR 3253.11 - Must I notify BLM when I have completed my exploration operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... completion of exploration operations, describing the exploration operations, well history, completion and abandonment procedures, and site reclamation measures. You must send this to BLM within 30 days after you: (a...

  10. 43 CFR 3253.11 - Must I notify BLM when I have completed my exploration operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... completion of exploration operations, describing the exploration operations, well history, completion and abandonment procedures, and site reclamation measures. You must send this to BLM within 30 days after you: (a...

  11. 43 CFR 3253.11 - Must I notify BLM when I have completed my exploration operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... completion of exploration operations, describing the exploration operations, well history, completion and abandonment procedures, and site reclamation measures. You must send this to BLM within 30 days after you: (a...

  12. 43 CFR 3253.11 - Must I notify BLM when I have completed my exploration operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... completion of exploration operations, describing the exploration operations, well history, completion and abandonment procedures, and site reclamation measures. You must send this to BLM within 30 days after you: (a...

  13. 75 FR 34152 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... will meet as indicated below: DATES: The Alaska Resource Advisory Council will conduct a field trip..., August 3, at the BLM Glennallen Field Office at Mile Post 186.5 Glenn Highway, Glennallen, Alaska...

  14. 43 CFR 3602.13 - How does BLM measure and establish the price of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000... contract renewal period. (c) BLM measures mineral materials by in-place volume or weight equivalent....

  15. 43 CFR 2932.44 - What bonds does BLM require for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized... Recreation Permit? BLM may require you to submit a payment bond, a cash or surety deposit, or other financial...

  16. 43 CFR 3809.581 - Will BLM accept a replacement financial instrument?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Modification Or Replacement of A Financial Guarantee § 3809.581... obligation that accrued while the surety bond was in effect unless the replacement financial guarantee covers such obligations to BLM's satisfaction....

  17. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  18. 30 CFR 218.305 - How do I pay advanced royalties I owe under BLM regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT COLLECTION OF MONIES AND PROVISION FOR GEOTHERMAL CREDITS AND INCENTIVES Geothermal Resources § 218.305 How do I pay advanced royalties I owe under BLM regulations? If you...

  19. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  20. 43 CFR 2804.25 - How will BLM process my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... application under 43 CFR subpart 2804 for the generation of electricity from wind or solar sources. In... electricity generation from wind or solar sources under the BLM's right-of-way regulations. Upon...

  1. Quantum skew divergence

    SciTech Connect

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  2. Quantum skew divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  3. Dynamics of the DNA repair proteins WRN and BLM in the nucleoplasm and nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Jensen, Martin Borch; May, Alfred; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Trusina, Ala; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Jensen, Mogens H

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the mobility of two EGFP-tagged DNA repair proteins, WRN and BLM. In particular, we focused on the dynamics in two locations, the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. We found that both WRN and BLM use a "DNA-scanning" mechanism, with rapid binding-unbinding to DNA resulting in effective diffusion. In the nucleoplasm WRN and BLM have effective diffusion coefficients of 1.62 and 1.34 μm(2)/s, respectively. Likewise, the dynamics in the nucleoli are also best described by effective diffusion, but with diffusion coefficients a factor of ten lower than in the nucleoplasm. From this large reduction in diffusion coefficient we were able to classify WRN and BLM as DNA damage scanners. In addition to WRN and BLM we also classified other DNA damage proteins and found they all fall into one of two categories. Either they are scanners, similar to WRN and BLM, with very low diffusion coefficients, suggesting a scanning mechanism, or they are almost freely diffusing, suggesting that they interact with DNA only after initiation of a DNA damage response.

  4. Dynamics of the DNA repair proteins WRN and BLM in the nucleoplasm and nucleoli

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Martin Borch; May, Alfred; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Trusina, Ala; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Jensen, Mogens H.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the mobility of two EGFP-tagged DNA repair proteins, WRN and BLM. In particular, we focused on the dynamics in two locations, the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. We found that both WRN and BLM use a “DNA-scanning” mechanism, with rapid binding–unbinding to DNA resulting in effective diffusion. In the nucleoplasm WRN and BLM have effective diffusion coefficients of 1.62 and 1.34 μm2/s, respectively. Like wise, the dynamics in the nucleoli are also best described by effective diffusion, but with diffusion coefficients a factor of ten lower than in the nucleoplasm. From this large reduction in diffusion coefficient we were able to classify WRN and BLM as DNA damage scanners. In addition to WRN and BLM we also classified other DNA damage proteins and found they all fall into one of two categories. Either they are scanners, similar to WRN and BLM, with very low diffusion coefficients, suggesting a scanning mechanism, or they are almost freely diffusing, suggesting that they interact with DNA only after initiation of a DNA damage response. PMID:25119658

  5. SELF-BLM: Prediction of drug-target interactions via self-training SVM

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Jongsoo; Nam, Hojung

    2017-01-01

    Predicting drug-target interactions is important for the development of novel drugs and the repositioning of drugs. To predict such interactions, there are a number of methods based on drug and target protein similarity. Although these methods, such as the bipartite local model (BLM), show promise, they often categorize unknown interactions as negative interaction. Therefore, these methods are not ideal for finding potential drug-target interactions that have not yet been validated as positive interactions. Thus, here we propose a method that integrates machine learning techniques, such as self-training support vector machine (SVM) and BLM, to develop a self-training bipartite local model (SELF-BLM) that facilitates the identification of potential interactions. The method first categorizes unlabeled interactions and negative interactions among unknown interactions using a clustering method. Then, using the BLM method and self-training SVM, the unlabeled interactions are self-trained and final local classification models are constructed. When applied to four classes of proteins that include enzymes, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, and nuclear receptors, SELF-BLM showed the best performance for predicting not only known interactions but also potential interactions in three protein classes compare to other related studies. The implemented software and supporting data are available at https://github.com/GIST-CSBL/SELF-BLM. PMID:28192537

  6. Unwinding forward and sliding back: an intermittent unwinding mode of the BLM helicase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Qin, Wei; Li, Jing-Hua; Lu, Ying; Lu, Ke-Yu; Nong, Da-Guan; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xu, Chun-Hua; Xi, Xu-Guang; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    There are lines of evidence that the Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, catalyzes regression of stalled replication forks and disrupts displacement loops (D-loops) formed during homologous recombination (HR). Here we constructed a forked DNA with a 3′ single-stranded gap and a 5′ double-stranded handle to partly mimic a stalled DNA fork and used magnetic tweezers to study BLM-catalyzed unwinding of the forked DNA. We have directly observed that the BLM helicase may slide on the opposite strand for some distance after duplex unwinding at different forces. For DNA construct with a long hairpin, progressive unwinding of the hairpin is frequently interrupted by strand switching and backward sliding of the enzyme. Quantitative study of the uninterrupted unwinding length (time) has revealed a two-state-transition mechanism for strand-switching during the unwinding process. Mutational studies revealed that the RQC domain plays an important role in stabilizing the helicase/DNA interaction during both DNA unwinding and backward sliding of BLM. Especially, Lys1125 in the RQC domain, a highly conserved amino acid among RecQ helicases, may be involved in the backward sliding activity. We have also directly observed the in vitro pathway that BLM disrupts the mimic stalled replication fork. These results may shed new light on the mechanisms for BLM in DNA repair and homologous recombination. PMID:25765643

  7. BLM helicase measures DNA unwound before switching strands and hRPA promotes unwinding reinitiation.

    PubMed

    Yodh, Jaya G; Stevens, Benjamin C; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Janscak, Pavel; Ha, Taekjip

    2009-02-18

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability and a high predisposition to cancer. The gene defective in BS, BLM, encodes a member of the RecQ family of 3'-5' DNA helicases, and is proposed to function in recombinational repair during DNA replication. Here, we have utilized single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy to examine the behaviour of BLM on forked DNA substrates. Strikingly, BLM unwound individual DNA molecules in a repetitive manner, unwinding a short length of duplex DNA followed by rapid reannealing and reinitiation of unwinding in several successions. Our results show that a monomeric BLM can 'measure' how many base pairs it has unwound, and once it has unwound a critical length, it reverses the unwinding reaction through strand switching and translocating on the opposing strand. Repetitive unwinding persisted even in the presence of hRPA, and interaction between wild-type BLM and hRPA was necessary for unwinding reinitiation on hRPA-coated DNA. The reported activities may facilitate BLM processing of stalled replication forks and illegitimately formed recombination intermediates.

  8. Unwinding forward and sliding back: an intermittent unwinding mode of the BLM helicase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Qin, Wei; Li, Jing-Hua; Lu, Ying; Lu, Ke-Yu; Nong, Da-Guan; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xu, Chun-Hua; Xi, Xu-Guang; Li, Ming

    2015-04-20

    There are lines of evidence that the Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, catalyzes regression of stalled replication forks and disrupts displacement loops (D-loops) formed during homologous recombination (HR). Here we constructed a forked DNA with a 3' single-stranded gap and a 5' double-stranded handle to partly mimic a stalled DNA fork and used magnetic tweezers to study BLM-catalyzed unwinding of the forked DNA. We have directly observed that the BLM helicase may slide on the opposite strand for some distance after duplex unwinding at different forces. For DNA construct with a long hairpin, progressive unwinding of the hairpin is frequently interrupted by strand switching and backward sliding of the enzyme. Quantitative study of the uninterrupted unwinding length (time) has revealed a two-state-transition mechanism for strand-switching during the unwinding process. Mutational studies revealed that the RQC domain plays an important role in stabilizing the helicase/DNA interaction during both DNA unwinding and backward sliding of BLM. Especially, Lys1125 in the RQC domain, a highly conserved amino acid among RecQ helicases, may be involved in the backward sliding activity. We have also directly observed the in vitro pathway that BLM disrupts the mimic stalled replication fork. These results may shed new light on the mechanisms for BLM in DNA repair and homologous recombination.

  9. BLM Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Resource Management Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Breen, A. L.; Thurau, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management is funding research at the University of Alaska Fairbanks to study Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Resource Management Operations. In August 2015, the team conducted flight research at UAF's Toolik Field Station (TFS). The purpose was to determine the most efficient use of small UAS to collect low-altitude airborne digital stereo images, process the stereo imagery into close-range photogrammetry products, and integrate derived imagery products into the BLM's National Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring (AIM) Strategy. The AIM Strategy assists managers in answering questions of land resources at all organizational levels and develop management policy at regional and national levels. In Alaska, the BLM began to implement its AIM strategy in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) in 2012. The primary goals of AIM-monitoring at the NPR-A are to implement an ecological baseline to monitor ecological trends, and to develop a monitoring network to understand the efficacy of management decisions. The long-term AIM strategy also complements other ongoing NPR-A monitoring processes, collects multi-use and multi-temporal data, and supports understanding of ecosystem management strategies in order to implement defensible natural resource management policy. The campaign measured vegetation types found in the NPR-A, using UAF's TFS location as a convenient proxy. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. The payload was a stereo camera system consisting of Sony NEX7's with various lens configurations (16/20/24/35 mm). A total of 77 flights were conducted over a 4 ½ day period, with 1.5 TB of data collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, transect overlaps, and camera lenses/settings. Invaluable knowledge was gained as to

  10. Unphysical divergences in response theory.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shane M; Roy, Saswata; Furche, Filipp

    2016-10-07

    Transition densities between excited states are key for nonlinear theoretical spectroscopy and multi-state non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) simulations. In the framework of response theory, these transition densities are accessible from poles of the quadratic response function. It was shown recently that the thus obtained transition densities within time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) exhibit unphysical divergences when the difference in excitation energy of the two states of interest matches another excitation energy. This unphysical behavior is a consequence of spurious poles in the quadratic response function. We show that the incorrect pole structure of the quadratic response is not limited to TDHF and adiabatic TDDFT, but is also present in many other approximate many-electron response functions, including those from coupled cluster and multiconfigurational self-consistent field response theory. The divergences appear in regions of the potential energy surface where the ground state is perfectly well behaved, and they are frequently encountered in NAMD simulations of photochemical reactions. The origin of the divergences is traced to an incorrect instantaneous time-dependence of the effective Hamiltonian. The implications for computations of frequency-dependent response properties are considerable and call into question the validity of conventional approximate many-electron response theories beyond linear response.

  11. The role of post-translational modifications in fine-tuning BLM helicase function during DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Stefanie; Bernstein, Kara Anne

    2014-01-01

    RecQ-like helicases are a highly conserved family of proteins which are critical for preserving genome integrity. Genome instability is considered a hallmark of cancer and mutations within three of the five human RECQ genes cause hereditary syndromes that are associated with cancer predisposition. The human RecQ-like helicase BLM has a central role in DNA damage signaling, repair, replication, and telomere maintenance. BLM and its budding yeast orthologue Sgs1 unwind double-stranded DNA intermediates. Intriguingly, BLM functions in both a pro- and anti-recombinogenic manner upon replicative damage, acting on similar substrates. Thus, BLM activity must be intricately controlled to prevent illegitimate recombination events that could have detrimental effects on genome integrity. In recent years it has become evident that post-translational modifications (PTMs) of BLM allow a fine-tuning of its function. To date, BLM phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation have been identified, in turn regulating its subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and protein stability. In this review, we will discuss the cellular context of when and how these different modifications of BLM occur. We will reflect on the current model of how PTMs control BLM function during DNA damage repair and compare this to what is known about post-translational regulation of the budding yeast orthologue Sgs1. Finally, we will provide an outlook towards future research, in particular to dissect the cross-talk between the individual PTMs on BLM. PMID:25150915

  12. BLM is required for faithful chromosome segregation and its localization defines a class of ultrafine anaphase bridges.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Lung; North, Phillip S; Hickson, Ian D

    2007-07-25

    Mutations in BLM cause Bloom's syndrome, a disorder associated with cancer predisposition and chromosomal instability. We investigated whether BLM plays a role in ensuring the faithful chromosome segregation in human cells. We show that BLM-defective cells display a higher frequency of anaphase bridges and lagging chromatin than do isogenic corrected derivatives that eptopically express the BLM protein. In normal cells undergoing mitosis, BLM protein localizes to anaphase bridges, where it colocalizes with its cellular partners, topoisomerase IIIalpha and hRMI1 (BLAP75). Using BLM staining as a marker, we have identified a class of ultrafine DNA bridges in anaphase that are surprisingly prevalent in the anaphase population of normal human cells. These so-called BLM-DNA bridges, which also stain for the PICH protein, frequently link centromeric loci, and are present at an elevated frequency in cells lacking BLM. On the basis of these results, we propose that sister-chromatid disjunction is often incomplete in human cells even after the onset of anaphase. We present a model for the action of BLM in ensuring complete sister chromatid decatenation in anaphase.

  13. Three structure-selective endonucleases are essential in the absence of BLM helicase in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Sabrina L; Kuo, H Kenny; Savukoski, Daniel; Brodsky, Michael H; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2011-10-01

    DNA repair mechanisms in mitotically proliferating cells avoid generating crossovers, which can contribute to genome instability. Most models for the production of crossovers involve an intermediate with one or more four-stranded Holliday junctions (HJs), which are resolved into duplex molecules through cleavage by specialized endonucleases. In vitro studies have implicated three nuclear enzymes in HJ resolution: MUS81-EME1/Mms4, GEN1/Yen1, and SLX4-SLX1. The Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, plays key roles in preventing mitotic crossover, either by blocking the formation of HJ intermediates or by removing HJs without cleavage. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that lack Sgs1 (the BLM ortholog) and either Mus81-Mms4 or Slx4-Slx1 are inviable, but mutants that lack Sgs1 and Yen1 are viable. The current view is that Yen1 serves primarily as a backup to Mus81-Mms4. Previous studies with Drosophila melanogaster showed that, as in yeast, loss of both DmBLM and MUS81 or MUS312 (the ortholog of SLX4) is lethal. We have now recovered and analyzed mutations in Drosophila Gen. As in yeast, there is some redundancy between Gen and mus81; however, in contrast to the case in yeast, GEN plays a more predominant role in responding to DNA damage than MUS81-MMS4. Furthermore, loss of DmBLM and GEN leads to lethality early in development. We present a comparison of phenotypes occurring in double mutants that lack DmBLM and either MUS81, GEN, or MUS312, including chromosome instability and deficiencies in cell proliferation. Our studies of synthetic lethality provide insights into the multiple functions of DmBLM and how various endonucleases may function when DmBLM is absent.

  14. The Human RecQ helicases, BLM and RECQ1, display distinct DNA substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Popuri, Venkateswarlu; Bachrati, Csanád Z; Muzzolini, Laura; Mosedale, Georgina; Costantini, Silvia; Giacomini, Elisa; Hickson, Ian D; Vindigni, Alessandro

    2008-06-27

    RecQ helicases maintain chromosome stability by resolving a number of highly specific DNA structures that would otherwise impede the correct transmission of genetic information. Previous studies have shown that two human RecQ helicases, BLM and WRN, have very similar substrate specificities and preferentially unwind noncanonical DNA structures, such as synthetic Holliday junctions and G-quadruplex DNA. Here, we extend this analysis of BLM to include new substrates and have compared the substrate specificity of BLM with that of another human RecQ helicase, RECQ1. Our findings show that RECQ1 has a distinct substrate specificity compared with BLM. In particular, RECQ1 cannot unwind G-quadruplexes or RNA-DNA hybrid structures, even in the presence of the single-stranded binding protein, human replication protein A, that stimulates its DNA helicase activity. Moreover, RECQ1 cannot substitute for BLM in the regression of a model replication fork and is very inefficient in displacing plasmid D-loops lacking a 3'-tail. Conversely, RECQ1, but not BLM, is able to resolve immobile Holliday junction structures lacking an homologous core, even in the absence of human replication protein A. Mutagenesis studies show that the N-terminal region (residues 1-56) of RECQ1 is necessary both for protein oligomerization and for this Holliday junction disruption activity. These results suggest that the N-terminal domain or the higher order oligomer formation promoted by the N terminus is essential for the ability of RECQ1 to disrupt Holliday junctions. Collectively, our findings highlight several differences between the substrate specificities of RECQ1 and BLM (and by inference WRN) and suggest that these enzymes play nonoverlapping functions in cells.

  15. Mechanistic insight into the interaction of BLM helicase with intra-strand G-quadruplex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Savitsky, Pavel; Sturzenegger, Andreas; Huttner, Diana; Janscak, Pavel; Hickson, Ian D.; Gileadi, Opher; Rothenberg, Eli

    2014-11-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RecQ family helicase BLM that is associated with growth retardation and predisposition to cancer. BLM helicase has a high specificity for non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures, which are formed by G-rich DNA strands and play an important role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we used single-molecule FRET to define the mechanism of interaction of BLM helicase with intra-stranded G4 structures. We show that the activity of BLM is substrate dependent, and highly regulated by a short-strand DNA (ssDNA) segment that separates the G4 motif from double-stranded DNA. We demonstrate cooperativity between the RQC and HRDC domains of BLM during binding and unfolding of the G4 structure, where the RQC domain interaction with G4 is stabilized by HRDC binding to ssDNA. We present a model that proposes a unique role for G4 structures in modulating the activity of DNA processing enzymes.

  16. The risk for developing cancer in Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Yael; Boker-Keinan, Lital; Berkenstadt, Michal; Liphsitz, Irena; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Ries-Levavi, Liat; Sarouk, Ifat; Pras, Elon; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer risks in heterozygous mutation carriers of the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes are controversial. To shed light on this issue, cancer rates were evaluated by cross referencing asymptomatic Israeli heterozygous mutation carriers in the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes with cancer diagnoses registered at the Israeli National Cancer Registry (INCR). Comparison of observed to expected Standardized Incidence Rates (SIR) was performed. Overall, 474 individuals participated in the study: 378 females; 25 Arab and 31 Jewish ATM carriers, 152 BLM carriers, and 170 FANCC carriers (all Ashkenazim). Age range at genotyping was 19-53 years (mean + SD 30.6 + 5 years). In addition, 96 males were included; 5, 34, and 57 ATM, BLM, and FANCC mutation carriers, respectively. Over 5-16 years from genotyping (4721 person/years), 15 new cancers were diagnosed in mutation carriers: 5 breast, 4 cervical, 3 melanomas, and one each bone sarcoma, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer. No single cancer diagnosis was more prevalent then expected in all groups combined or per gene analyzed. Specifically breast cancer SIR was 0.02-0.77. We conclude that Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers are not at an increased risk for developing cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeting SOD1 induces synthetic lethal killing in BLM- and CHEK2-deficient colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sajesh, Babu V; McManus, Kirk J

    2015-09-29

    Cancer is a major cause of death throughout the world, and there is a large need for better and more personalized approaches to combat the disease. Over the past decade, synthetic lethal approaches have been developed that are designed to exploit the aberrant molecular origins (i.e. defective genes) that underlie tumorigenesis. BLM and CHEK2 are two evolutionarily conserved genes that are somatically altered in a number of tumor types. Both proteins normally function in preserving genome stability through facilitating the accurate repair of DNA double strand breaks. Thus, uncovering synthetic lethal interactors of BLM and CHEK2 will identify novel candidate drug targets and lead chemical compounds. Here we identify an evolutionarily conserved synthetic lethal interaction between SOD1 and both BLM and CHEK2 in two distinct cell models. Using quantitative imaging microscopy, real-time cellular analyses, colony formation and tumor spheroid models we show that SOD1 silencing and inhibition (ATTM and LCS-1 treatments), or the induction of reactive oxygen species (2ME2 treatment) induces selective killing within BLM- and CHEK2-deficient cells relative to controls. We further show that increases in reactive oxygen species follow SOD1 silencing and inhibition that are associated with the persistence of DNA double strand breaks, and increases in apoptosis. Collectively, these data identify SOD1 as a novel candidate drug target in BLM and CHEK2 cancer contexts, and further suggest that 2ME2, ATTM and LCS-1 are lead therapeutic compounds warranting further pre-clinical study.

  18. Mechanistic insight into the interaction of BLM helicase with intra-strand G-quadruplex structures.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Savitsky, Pavel; Sturzenegger, Andreas; Huttner, Diana; Janscak, Pavel; Hickson, Ian D; Gileadi, Opher; Rothenberg, Eli

    2014-11-24

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RecQ family helicase BLM that is associated with growth retardation and predisposition to cancer. BLM helicase has a high specificity for non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures, which are formed by G-rich DNA strands and play an important role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we used single-molecule FRET to define the mechanism of interaction of BLM helicase with intra-stranded G4 structures. We show that the activity of BLM is substrate dependent, and highly regulated by a short-strand DNA (ssDNA) segment that separates the G4 motif from double-stranded DNA. We demonstrate cooperativity between the RQC and HRDC domains of BLM during binding and unfolding of the G4 structure, where the RQC domain interaction with G4 is stabilized by HRDC binding to ssDNA. We present a model that proposes a unique role for G4 structures in modulating the activity of DNA processing enzymes.

  19. Structural mechanisms of human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The RecQ family DNA helicases Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) play a key role in protecting the genome against deleterious changes. In humans, mutations in these proteins lead to rare genetic diseases associated with cancer predisposition and accelerated aging. WRN and BLM are distinguished from other helicases by possessing signature tandem domains toward the C terminus, referred to as the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) and helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC) domains. Although the precise function of the HRDC domain remains unclear, the previous crystal structure of a WRN RQC-DNA complex visualized a central role for the RQC domain in recognizing, binding and unwinding DNA at branch points. In particular, a prominent hairpin structure (the β-wing) within the RQC winged-helix motif acts as a scalpel to induce the unpairing of a Watson-Crick base pair at the DNA duplex terminus. A similar RQC-DNA interaction was also observed in the recent crystal structure of a BLM-DNA complex. I review the latest structures of WRN and BLM, and then provide a docking simulation of BLM with a Holliday junction. The model offers an explanation for the efficient branch migration activity of the RecQ family toward recombination and repair intermediates.

  20. Mechanistic Insight into the Interaction of BLM helicase with Intra-strand G-quadruplex Structures

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Savitsky, Pavel; Sturzenegger, Andreas; Huttner, Diana; Janscak, Pavel; Hickson, Ian D; Gilaedi, Opher; Rothenberg, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RecQ family helicase BLM that is associated with growth retardation and predisposition to cancer. BLM helicase has a high specificity for non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures, which are formed by G-rich DNA strands and play an important role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here, we used single-molecule FRET to define the mechanism of interaction of BLM helicase with intra-stranded G4 structures. We show that the activity of BLM is substrate dependent, and highly regulated by a short ssDNA segment that separates the G4 motif from dsDNA. We demonstrate cooperativity between the RQC and HRDC domains of BLM during binding and unfolding of the G4 structure, where the RQC domain interaction with G4 is stabilized by HRDC binding to ssDNA. We present a model that proposes a unique role for G4 structures in modulating the activity of DNA processing enzymes. PMID:25418155

  1. BLM helicase facilitates telomere replication during leading strand synthesis of telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Kosiyatrakul, Settapong T.

    2015-01-01

    Based on its in vitro unwinding activity on G-quadruplex (G4) DNA, the Bloom syndrome–associated helicase BLM is proposed to participate in telomere replication by aiding fork progression through G-rich telomeric DNA. Single molecule analysis of replicated DNA (SMARD) was used to determine the contribution of BLM helicase to telomere replication. In BLM-deficient cells, replication forks initiating from origins within the telomere, which copy the G-rich strand by leading strand synthesis, moved slower through the telomere compared with the adjacent subtelomere. Fork progression through the telomere was further slowed in the presence of a G4 stabilizer. Using a G4-specific antibody, we found that deficiency of BLM, or another G4-unwinding helicase, the Werner syndrome-associated helicase WRN, resulted in increased G4 structures in cells. Importantly, deficiency of either helicase led to greater increases in G4 DNA detected in the telomere compared with G4 seen genome-wide. Collectively, our findings are consistent with BLM helicase facilitating telomere replication by resolving G4 structures formed during copying of the G-rich strand by leading strand synthesis. PMID:26195664

  2. POT1 stimulates RecQ helicases WRN and BLM to unwind telomeric DNA substrates.

    PubMed

    Opresko, Patricia L; Mason, Penelope A; Podell, Elaine R; Lei, Ming; Hickson, Ian D; Cech, Thomas R; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2005-09-16

    Defects in human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM are responsible for the cancer-prone disorders Werner syndrome and Bloom syndrome. Cellular phenotypes of Werner syndrome and Bloom syndrome, including genomic instability and premature senescence, are consistent with telomere dysfunction. RecQ helicases are proposed to function in dissociating alternative DNA structures during recombination and/or replication at telomeric ends. Here we report that the telomeric single-strand DNA-binding protein, POT1, strongly stimulates WRN and BLM to unwind long telomeric forked duplexes and D-loop structures that are otherwise poor substrates for these helicases. This stimulation is dependent on the presence of telomeric sequence in the duplex regions of the substrates. In contrast, POT1 failed to stimulate a bacterial 3'-5'-helicase. We find that purified POT1 binds to WRN and BLM in vitro and that full-length POT1 (splice variant 1) precipitates a higher amount of endogenous WRN protein, compared with BLM, from the HeLa nuclear extract. We propose roles for the cooperation of POT1 with RecQ helicases WRN and BLM in resolving DNA structures at telomeric ends, in a manner that protects the telomeric 3' tail as it is exposed during unwinding.

  3. Structural mechanisms of human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The RecQ family DNA helicases Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) play a key role in protecting the genome against deleterious changes. In humans, mutations in these proteins lead to rare genetic diseases associated with cancer predisposition and accelerated aging. WRN and BLM are distinguished from other helicases by possessing signature tandem domains toward the C terminus, referred to as the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) and helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC) domains. Although the precise function of the HRDC domain remains unclear, the previous crystal structure of a WRN RQC-DNA complex visualized a central role for the RQC domain in recognizing, binding and unwinding DNA at branch points. In particular, a prominent hairpin structure (the β-wing) within the RQC winged-helix motif acts as a scalpel to induce the unpairing of a Watson–Crick base pair at the DNA duplex terminus. A similar RQC-DNA interaction was also observed in the recent crystal structure of a BLM-DNA complex. I review the latest structures of WRN and BLM, and then provide a docking simulation of BLM with a Holliday junction. The model offers an explanation for the efficient branch migration activity of the RecQ family toward recombination and repair intermediates. PMID:25400656

  4. FANCD2 regulates BLM complex functions independently of FANCI to promote replication fork recovery.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Sareen, Archana; Raghunandan, Maya; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2013-07-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) and Bloom Syndrome share overlapping phenotypes including spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities and increased cancer predisposition. The FA protein pathway comprises an upstream core complex that mediates recruitment of two central players, FANCD2 and FANCI, to sites of stalled replication forks. Successful fork recovery depends on the Bloom's helicase BLM that participates in a larger protein complex ('BLMcx') containing topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1, RMI2 and replication protein A. We show that FANCD2 is an essential regulator of BLMcx functions: it maintains BLM protein stability and is crucial for complete BLMcx assembly; moreover, it recruits BLMcx to replicating chromatin during normal S-phase and mediates phosphorylation of BLMcx members in response to DNA damage. During replication stress, FANCD2 and BLM cooperate to promote restart of stalled replication forks while suppressing firing of new replication origins. In contrast, FANCI is dispensable for FANCD2-dependent BLMcx regulation, demonstrating functional separation of FANCD2 from FANCI.

  5. 43 CFR 2806.39 - How will BLM calculate rent for a lease for a facility manager's use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for a facility manager's use? 2806.39 Section 2806.39 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 2806.39 How will BLM calculate rent for a lease for a facility manager's use? (a) BLM will follow the provisions in § 2806.31 of this subpart to calculate rent for a lease involving a facility manager's use...

  6. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to terminate...

  7. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to terminate...

  8. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to terminate...

  9. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to terminate...

  10. 43 CFR 2806.43 - How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reflectors and local exchange networks? 2806.43 Section 2806.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...-Of-Way § 2806.43 How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks? (a) BLM calculates rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks by using the same rent...

  11. 43 CFR 2806.43 - How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reflectors and local exchange networks? 2806.43 Section 2806.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...-Of-Way § 2806.43 How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks? (a) BLM calculates rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks by using the same rent...

  12. 43 CFR 2806.43 - How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reflectors and local exchange networks? 2806.43 Section 2806.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...-Of-Way § 2806.43 How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks? (a) BLM calculates rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks by using the same rent...

  13. 43 CFR 2806.43 - How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reflectors and local exchange networks? 2806.43 Section 2806.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...-Of-Way § 2806.43 How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks? (a) BLM calculates rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks by using the same rent...

  14. 43 CFR 2806.35 - How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and âotherâ category uses? 2806.35 Section 2806.35... MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Communication Site Rights-Of-Way § 2806.35 How will BLM calculate rent for private...

  15. 43 CFR 2806.35 - How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and âotherâ category uses? 2806.35 Section 2806.35... MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Communication Site Rights-Of-Way § 2806.35 How will BLM calculate rent for private...

  16. 43 CFR 1824.11 - How does BLM choose a newspaper in which to publish a notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM choose a newspaper in which to publish a notice? 1824.11 Section 1824.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... to publish a notice? BLM bases its choice of newspapers on their reputation and frequency and level...

  17. 43 CFR 3133.3 - Under what circumstances will BLM waive, suspend, or reduce the rental, royalty, or minimum...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., suspend, or reduce the rental, royalty, or minimum royalty on my NPR-A lease? 3133.3 Section 3133.3 Public... Rentals and Royalties § 3133.3 Under what circumstances will BLM waive, suspend, or reduce the rental, royalty, or minimum royalty on my NPR-A lease? (a) BLM will waive, suspend, or reduce the rental or...

  18. 43 CFR 3809.591 - What are the limitations on the amount by which BLM may reduce my financial guarantee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the limitations on the amount by which BLM may reduce my financial guarantee? 3809.591 Section 3809.591 Public Lands: Interior... Financial Guarantee § 3809.591 What are the limitations on the amount by which BLM may reduce my financial...

  19. 43 CFR 3279.10 - When may I request a variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3279.10 Section 3279.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) You may file a request with BLM for a variance for your approved utilization operations from the requirements of § 3200.4....

  20. 43 CFR 3279.10 - When may I request a variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3279.10 Section 3279.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) You may file a request with BLM for a variance for your approved utilization operations from the requirements of § 3200.4....

  1. 43 CFR 3279.10 - When may I request a variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3279.10 Section 3279.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) You may file a request with BLM for a variance for your approved utilization operations from the requirements of § 3200.4....

  2. 43 CFR 3279.10 - When may I request a variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3279.10 Section 3279.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) You may file a request with BLM for a variance for your approved utilization operations from the requirements of § 3200.4....

  3. 43 CFR 2886.16 - Under what conditions may BLM order an immediate temporary suspension of my activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... your activities before holding an administrative proceeding on the matter and may order immediate... request for permission to resume activities at any time after BLM issues the order. In the request, give... grant or deny your request within 5 business days after receiving it. If BLM does not respond within...

  4. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  5. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  6. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  7. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  8. 43 CFR 3281.10 - How will BLM determine that I have sufficient control of the proposed unit area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sufficient control of the proposed unit area? 3281.10 Section 3281.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... § 3281.10 How will BLM determine that I have sufficient control of the proposed unit area? (a) BLM will determine whether: (1) A unit operator has sufficient control of the proposed unit area by reviewing...

  9. 43 CFR 3280.5 - May BLM require the modification of lease requirements in connection with the creation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements in connection with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? 3280.5 Section 3280.5 Public... with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? (a) BLM may, with the consent of the lessees... connection with the creation and operation of any such unit agreement as BLM may consider necessary...

  10. 43 CFR 3280.5 - May BLM require the modification of lease requirements in connection with the creation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements in connection with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? 3280.5 Section 3280.5 Public... with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? (a) BLM may, with the consent of the lessees... connection with the creation and operation of any such unit agreement as BLM may consider necessary...

  11. 43 CFR 3280.5 - May BLM require the modification of lease requirements in connection with the creation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements in connection with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? 3280.5 Section 3280.5 Public... with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? (a) BLM may, with the consent of the lessees... connection with the creation and operation of any such unit agreement as BLM may consider necessary...

  12. 43 CFR 3280.5 - May BLM require the modification of lease requirements in connection with the creation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements in connection with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? 3280.5 Section 3280.5 Public... with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? (a) BLM may, with the consent of the lessees... connection with the creation and operation of any such unit agreement as BLM may consider necessary...

  13. 43 CFR 3509.48 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease? 3509.48 Section 3509.48 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Lease Applications § 3509.48 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional...

  14. 43 CFR 3509.18 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? 3509.18 Section 3509.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Applications § 3509.18 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? (a)...

  15. 43 CFR 2808.11 - What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass? 2808.11 Section 2808.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Trespass § 2808.11 What will BLM do if it...

  16. 43 CFR 3512.11 - Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? 3512.11 Section 3512.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 3512.11 Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? You may assign or...

  17. 43 CFR 3512.11 - Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? 3512.11 Section 3512.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 3512.11 Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? You may assign or...

  18. 43 CFR 3509.18 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? 3509.18 Section 3509.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Applications § 3509.18 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? (a)...

  19. 43 CFR 2808.11 - What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass? 2808.11 Section 2808.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Trespass § 2808.11 What will BLM do if it...

  20. 43 CFR 3509.48 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease? 3509.48 Section 3509.48 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Lease Applications § 3509.48 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional...

  1. 43 CFR 4.470 - How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision to an administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision... Hearings and Appeals Grazing Procedures (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.470 How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision to an administrative law judge. (a) Any applicant, permittee, lessee,...

  2. 43 CFR 4.471 - How to petition for a stay of a final BLM grazing decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... grazing decision. 4.471 Section 4.471 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Grazing Procedures (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.471 How to petition for a stay of a final BLM grazing decision. (a) An appellant under § 4.470 may petition for a stay of the final BLM...

  3. 43 CFR 4.470 - How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision to an administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision... Hearings and Appeals Grazing Procedures (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.470 How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision to an administrative law judge. (a) Any applicant, permittee, lessee,...

  4. 43 CFR 4.471 - How to petition for a stay of a final BLM grazing decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... grazing decision. 4.471 Section 4.471 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Grazing Procedures (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.471 How to petition for a stay of a final BLM grazing decision. (a) An appellant under § 4.470 may petition for a stay of the final BLM...

  5. The Ashkenazic Jewish Bloom syndrome mutation blmAsh is present in non-Jewish Americans of Spanish ancestry.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, N A; Ciocci, S; Proytcheva, M; Lennon, D; Groden, J; German, J

    1998-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is more frequent in the Ashkenazic Jewish population than in any other. There the predominant mutation, referred to as "blmAsh," is a 6-bp deletion and 7-bp insertion at nucleotide position 2281 in the BLM cDNA. Using a convenient PCR assay, we have identified blmAsh on 58 of 60 chromosomes transmitted by Ashkenazic parents to persons with BS. In contrast, in 91 unrelated non-Ashkenazic persons with BS whom we examined, blmAsh was identified only in 5, these coming from Spanish-speaking Christian families from the southwestern United States, Mexico, or El Salvador. These data, along with haplotype analyses, show that blmAsh was independently established through a founder effect in Ashkenazic Jews and in immigrants to formerly Spanish colonies. This striking observation underscores the complexity of Jewish history and demonstrates the importance of migration and genetic drift in the formation of human populations. PMID:9837821

  6. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  7. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  8. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  9. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  10. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what does...

  11. 43 CFR 3809.590 - When will BLM release or reduce the financial guarantee for my notice or plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM release or reduce the... Financial Guarantee § 3809.590 When will BLM release or reduce the financial guarantee for my notice or plan... may notify BLM that the reclamation has occurred and request a reduction in the financial guarantee or...

  12. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  13. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  14. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  15. 43 CFR 1822.15 - If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it timely filed anyway? 1822.15 Section 1822.15....15 If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it...; (b) No other BLM regulation prohibits doing so; and (c) No intervening third party interests...

  16. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  17. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  18. 43 CFR 3217.12 - What does BLM need to approve my communitization agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What does BLM need to approve my communitization agreement? 3217.12 Section 3217.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  19. 43 CFR 3263.10 - May I abandon a well without BLM's approval?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May I abandon a well without BLM's approval? 3263.10 Section 3263.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  20. 43 CFR 3217.15 - What does BLM need to approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.15 What does BLM need to approve my drilling or... parties in that geothermal area or field; (c) The type of operations and schedule set by the contract; (d... the production or sale of geothermal resources; and (e) Any other information we may require to make...

  1. 43 CFR 3216.22 - Does BLM approve all transfer requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Does BLM approve all transfer requests? 3216.22 Section 3216.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  2. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  3. 43 CFR 2804.19 - How will BLM process my Processing Category 6 application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... consists of a work plan and a financial plan. (b) In processing your application, BLM will: (1) Determine the issues subject to analysis under NEPA; (2) Prepare a preliminary work plan; (3) Develop a preliminary financial plan, which estimates the reasonable costs of processing your application and...

  4. 43 CFR 2884.17 - How will BLM process my Processing Category 6 application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... work plan and a financial plan. (b) In processing your application, BLM will: (1) Determine the issues subject to analysis under NEPA; (2) Prepare a preliminary work plan; (3) Develop a preliminary financial...) Your options for the timing of processing and monitoring fee payments; and (iv) Financial...

  5. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to...

  6. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement; (b...

  7. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement; (b...

  8. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to...

  9. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement; (b...

  10. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to...

  11. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement; (b...

  12. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to...

  13. Monitoring a BLM level 5 watershed with very-large aerial imagery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fifth order BLM watershed in central Wyoming was flown using a Sport-airplane to acquire high-resolution aerial images from 2 cameras at 2 altitudes. Project phases 1 and 2 obtained images for measuring ground cover, species composition and canopy cover of Wyoming big sagebrush by ecological site....

  14. What are the best seed sources for ecosystem restoration on BLM and USFS lands?

    Treesearch

    Randy Johnson; Larry Stritch; Peggy Olwell; Scott Lambert; Matthew E. Horning; Richard. Cronn

    2010-01-01

    Native plant restoration policy calls for use of "genetically appropriate" native plant material on USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and USDA Forest Service (USFS) lands. In this article, we summarize experimental evidence showing that local adaptation is widespread in all kingdoms of life, and how this "home-field advantage" has been exploited...

  15. 43 CFR 3809.5 - How does BLM define certain terms used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management General Information § 3809.5 How does BLM define... cumulative effects of the activities result in more than negligible disturbance. Exploration means creating...

  16. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units...

  17. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units...

  18. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units...

  19. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units...

  20. 43 CFR 1823.10 - How may I make my payments to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How may I make my payments to BLM? 1823.10 Section 1823.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES Payments and Refunds § 1823.10 How may I make my payments...

  1. 43 CFR 1823.10 - How may I make my payments to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How may I make my payments to BLM? 1823.10 Section 1823.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES Payments and Refunds § 1823.10 How may I make my payments...

  2. 43 CFR 3835.93 - What happens if BLM finds a defect in my waiver request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) WAIVERS FROM ANNUAL MAINTENANCE FEES Defective Waivers and FLPMA Filings § 3835.93 What happens if BLM finds a defect... 43 CFR 1810.2.) (c) You must cure the defective waiver or pay the annual maintenance fees within...

  3. 43 CFR 2932.44 - What bonds does BLM require for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Recreation Permit? 2932.44 Section 2932.44 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.44 What bonds does BLM require for a Special...

  4. 43 CFR 2932.31 - How does BLM establish fees for Special Recreation Permits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Recreation Permits? 2932.31 Section 2932.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.31 How does BLM establish fees for Special Recreation...

  5. 43 CFR 2932.26 - How will BLM decide whether to issue a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.26 Section 2932.26 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.26 How will BLM decide whether to issue a...

  6. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal...

  7. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit...

  8. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit...

  9. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal...

  10. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit...

  11. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal...

  12. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit...

  13. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit...

  14. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit...

  15. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal...

  16. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal...

  17. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit...

  18. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit...

  19. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit...

  20. 43 CFR 3192.17 - Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that have been terminated? 3192.17 Section 3192.17 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... Agreements § 3192.17 Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated? (a) If your... prove that you have corrected the problem(s) and are able to carry out the terms of the agreement....

  1. 43 CFR 3192.17 - Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that have been terminated? 3192.17 Section 3192.17 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... Agreements § 3192.17 Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated? (a) If your... prove that you have corrected the problem(s) and are able to carry out the terms of the agreement....

  2. AIM-Monitoring: a component of the BLM assessment, inventory, and monitoring strategy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The “BLM Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy for Integrated Renewable Resources Management” (AIM Strategy) was completed in 2011 in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget. The strategy describes an approach for integrated, cross-program assessment, inventory, and m...

  3. 43 CFR 3809.555 - What forms of individual financial guarantee are acceptable to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... through BLM: (1) Negotiable United States Government, State and Municipal securities or bonds; or (2... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Individual Financial Guarantee §...

  4. 43 CFR 3809.115 - Can BLM collect information under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management General Information § 3809.115 Can BLM collect information under this subpart? Yes, the Office of Management and Budget has approved the collections of...

  5. 43 CFR 3515.23 - May BLM require me to submit additional information?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May BLM require me to submit additional information? 3515.23 Section 3515.23 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF...

  6. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  7. 43 CFR 2932.12 - When may BLM waive the requirement to obtain a permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... no threat of appreciable damage to public land or water resource values; (b) BLM sponsors or co... advertised; (4) Poses no appreciable risk for damage to public land or related water resource values; and (5... land or related water resource values; and (4) Requires no specific management or monitoring....

  8. History, extent, and future of Arizona BLM-managed roadless areas in the Madrean Archipelago

    Treesearch

    Trevor Hare; Cory Jones

    2005-01-01

    Roadless areas of southeastern Arizona managed by the Bureau of Land Management are becoming rare. Fragmentation by roads and development, all-terrain vehicle use, erosion, and altered hydrology are a few of the causes of loss and degradation of roadless areas. The history of BLM and publicly identified roadless areas includes the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964...

  9. 76 FR 13660 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Land Management, on a variety of planning and management issues associated with public land management... Resource management planning Other topics of interest to the RAC All meetings are open to the public... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council AGENCY:...

  10. 76 FR 65747 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... planning and management issues associated with public land management in Alaska. At this meeting, topics... Resource management planning Other topics of interest to the RAC All meetings are open to the public... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council AGENCY:...

  11. 75 FR 9250 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... the Interior, through the Bureau of Land Management, on a variety of planning and management issues.... National Landscape Conservation System anniversary. Resource management planning. Other topics of interest... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, BLM--Alaska Resource Advisory Council AGENCY:...

  12. 43 CFR 3206.10 - What must I do for BLM to issue a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must I do for BLM to issue a lease? 3206.10 Section 3206.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  13. 43 CFR 3203.13 - How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale? 3203.13 Section 3203.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  14. 43 CFR 3203.15 - How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale? 3203.15 Section 3203.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  15. 43 CFR 3203.15 - How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale? 3203.15 Section 3203.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  16. 43 CFR 3206.18 - When will BLM issue my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM issue my lease? 3206.18 Section 3206.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease...

  17. 43 CFR 3206.10 - What must I do for BLM to issue a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must I do for BLM to issue a lease? 3206.10 Section 3206.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  18. 77 FR 16856 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of...

  19. Water Quality Criteria for Copper Based on the BLM Approach in the Freshwater in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yahui; Zang, Wenchao; Qin, Lumei; Zheng, Lei; Cao, Ying; Yan, Zhenguang; Yi, Xianliang; Zeng, Honghu; Liu, Zhengtao

    2017-01-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms are highly dependent on water quality parameters in freshwaters. The biotic ligand model (BLM) for copper is an approach to generate the water quality criteria (WQC) with water chemistry in the ambient environment. However, few studies were carried out on the WQCs for copper based on the BLM approach in China. In the present study, the toxicity for copper to native Chinese aquatic organisms was conducted and the published toxicity data with water quality parameters to Chinese aquatic species were collected to derive the WQCs for copper by the BLM approach. The BLM-based WQCs (the criterion maximum criteria (CMC) and the criterion continuous concentration (CCC)) for copper in the freshwater for the nation and in the Taihu Lake were obtained. The CMC and CCC values for copper in China were derived to be 1.391 μg/L and 0.495 μg/L, respectively, and the CMC and CCC in the Taihu Lake were 32.194 μg/L and 9.697 μg/L. The high concentration of dissolved organic carbon might be a main reason which resulted in the higher WQC values in the Taihu Lake. The WQC of copper in the freshwater would provide a scientific foundation for water quality standards and the environment risk assessment in China. PMID:28166229

  20. 43 CFR 3715.8-1 - What happens if I make false statements to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if I make false statements to BLM? 3715.8-1 Section 3715.8-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... JULY 23, 1955 Use and Occupancy Under the Mining Laws § 3715.8-1 What happens if I make false...

  1. 43 CFR 3715.8-1 - What happens if I make false statements to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if I make false statements to BLM? 3715.8-1 Section 3715.8-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... JULY 23, 1955 Use and Occupancy Under the Mining Laws § 3715.8-1 What happens if I make false...

  2. 43 CFR 2804.25 - How will BLM process my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applicable Federal and state laws; (3) If your application is for a road, determine whether it is in the... application under 43 CFR subpart 2804 for the generation of electricity from wind or solar sources. In... electricity generation from wind or solar sources under the BLM's right-of-way regulations. Upon...

  3. Drosophila bloom helicase maintains genome integrity by inhibiting recombination between divergent DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Michael; Kranz, Elisabeth; Woolcock, Katrina; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2008-12-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) can be repaired either via a sequence independent joining of DNA ends or via homologous recombination. We established a detection system in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of sequence constraints on the usage of the homology based DSB repair via single strand annealing (SSA), which leads to recombination between direct repeats with concomitant loss of one repeat copy. First of all, we find the SSA frequency to be inversely proportional to the spacer length between the repeats, for spacers up to 2.4 kb in length. We further show that SSA between divergent repeats (homeologous SSA) is suppressed in cell cultures and in vivo in a sensitive manner, recognizing sequence divergences smaller than 0.5%. Finally, we demonstrate that the suppression of homeologous SSA depends on the Bloom helicase (Blm), encoded by the Drosophila gene mus309. Suppression of homeologous recombination is a novel function of Blm in ensuring genomic integrity, not described to date in mammalian systems. Unexpectedly, distinct from its function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mismatch repair factor Msh2 encoded by spel1 does not suppress homeologous SSA in Drosophila.

  4. Linkage disequilibrium between the FES, D15S127, and BLM loci in Ashkenazi Jews with Bloom syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, N.A.; Roe, A.M.; Kozloski, J.; Proytcheva, M.; Falk, C.; German, J.

    1994-09-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish than in any other population. Approximately 1 in 110 Ashkenazi Jews carries blm, the BS mutation. The locus mutated in BS, BLM, maps to chromosome subband 15q26.1, tightly linked to the proto-oncogene FES. The authors have investigated the basis for the increased frequency of blm in the Ashkenazim by genotyping polymorphic microsatellite loci tightly linked to BLM in affected and unaffected individuals from Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Ashkenazi populations. A striking association of the C3 allele at FES with blm ({Delta} = .422; p = 5.52 x 10{sup {minus}7}) and of the 145-bp and 147-bp alleles at D15S127 with blm ({Delta} = .392 and {Delta} = .483, respectively; p = 2.8 x 10{sup {minus}5} and p = 5.4 x 10{sup {minus}7}, respectively) was detected in Ashkenazi Jews with BS. This linkage disequilibrium constitutes strong support for a founder-effect hypothesis; the chromosome in the hypothetical founder who carried blm also carried the C3 allele at FES and either the 145-bp or the 147-bp allele at D15S127. 32 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Divergence Boundary Conditions for Vector Helmholtz Equations with Divergence Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangro, Urve; Nicolaides, Roy

    1997-01-01

    The idea of replacing a divergence constraint by a divergence boundary condition is investigated. The connections between the formulations are considered in detail. It is shown that the most common methods of using divergence boundary conditions do not always work properly. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of the formulations are given.

  6. Expression of EhRAD54, EhRAD51, and EhBLM proteins during DNA repair by homologous recombination in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Charcas-Lopez, Ma del Socorro; Garcia-Morales, Lorena; Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Marchat, Laurence A

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, exhibits a great genome plasticity that is probably related to homologous recombination events. It contains the RAD52 epistasis group genes, including Ehrad51 and Ehrad54, and the Ehblm gene, which are key homologous recombination factors in other organisms. Ehrad51 and Ehrad54 genes are differentially transcribed in trophozoites when DNA double-strand breaks are induced by ultraviolet-C irradiation. Moreover, the EhRAD51 recombinase is overexpressed at 30 min in the nucleus. Here, we extend our analysis of the homologous recombination mechanism in E. histolytica by studying EhRAD51, EhRAD54, and EhBLM expression in response to DNA damage. Bioinformatic analyses show that EhRAD54 has the molecular features of homologous proteins, indicating that it may have similar functions. Western blot assays evidence the differential expression of EhRAD51, EhRAD54, and EhBLM at different times after DNA damage, suggesting their potential roles in the different steps of homologous recombination in this protozoan.

  7. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  8. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  9. 43 CFR 3204.13 - How will BLM process noncompetitive lease applications pending on August 8, 2005?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Noncompetitive Leasing Other Than Direct Use Leases § 3204.13 How will BLM... pending on August 8, 2005, will be processed under policies and procedures existing on that date...

  10. 43 CFR 3715.7 - How will BLM inspect my use or occupancy and enforce this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23, 1955 Use and Occupancy Under the Mining Laws § 3715.7 How will BLM... include verification of the nature of your use and occupancy to ensure that your use or occupancy is,...

  11. 43 CFR 3264.11 - What must I submit to BLM after I finish subsequent well operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Reports-Drilling Operations § 3264.11 What must I submit to BLM after I finish... work done; (2) A copy of all logs; (3) Copies of all directional surveys; (4) The results of all...

  12. Oil and Gas Drilling and Operations in Cave and Karst area: Background and development of a BLM approach

    SciTech Connect

    Goodbar, J.R. )

    1994-03-01

    Karst lands pose a unique set of problems for the oil and gas industry, as well as for the cave and karst environments. Since 1987, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has been working with the oil and gas industry to develop acceptable practices for drilling and operation in karst lands. The mutual goals of industry and of the BLM is to minimize the potential of encountering those problems and reduce the extent of the problems, if they are encountered. BLM's approach is described in their [open quotes]Draft Guide for Oil and Gas Drilling and Operations in Cave and Karst Areas.[close quotes] This paper discusses the background and development of this guide with an emphasis on the conflict resolution approach of the BLM.

  13. Phosphorylation of BLM, Dissociation from Topoisomerase IIIα, and Colocalization with γ-H2AX after Topoisomerase I-Induced Replication Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. Ashutosh; Fan, Angela M.; Meng, LingHua; Doe, Christopher F.; North, Phillip S.; Hickson, Ian D.; Pommier, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Topoisomerase I-associated DNA single-strand breaks selectively trapped by camptothecins are lethal after being converted to double-strand breaks by replication fork collisions. BLM (Bloom's syndrome protein), a RecQ DNA helicase, and topoisomerase IIIα (Top3α) appear essential for the resolution of stalled replication forks (Holliday junctions). We investigated the involvement of BLM in the signaling response to Top1-mediated replication DNA damage. In BLM-complemented cells, BLM colocalized with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies and Top3α. Fibroblasts without BLM showed an increased sensitivity to camptothecin, enhanced formation of Top1-DNA complexes, and delayed histone H2AX phosphorylation (γ-H2AX). Camptothecin also induced nuclear relocalization of BLM, Top3α, and PML protein and replication-dependent phosphorylation of BLM on threonine 99 (T99p-BLM). T99p-BLM was also observed following replication stress induced by hydroxyurea. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein and AT- and Rad9-related protein kinases, but not DNA-dependent protein kinase, appeared to play a redundant role in phosphorylating BLM. Following camptothecin treatment, T99p-BLM colocalized with γ-H2AX but not with Top3α or PML. Thus, BLM appears to dissociate from Top3α and PML following its phosphorylation and facilitates H2AX phosphorylation in response to replication double-strand breaks induced by Top1. A defect in γ-H2AX signaling in response to unrepaired replication-mediated double-strand breaks might, at least in part, explain the camptothecin-sensitivity of BLM-deficient cells. PMID:16199871

  14. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...

  15. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  16. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  17. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  18. An Exhibit for Touching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Susan

    1979-01-01

    An exhibit designed for visually handicapped persons presented by the Kalamazoo (Michigan) Institute of Art included bronze sculptures and oil paintings from the institute's permanent collection. (CL)

  19. An Exhibit for Touching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Susan

    1979-01-01

    An exhibit designed for visually handicapped persons presented by the Kalamazoo (Michigan) Institute of Art included bronze sculptures and oil paintings from the institute's permanent collection. (CL)

  20. DNA helicases Sgs1 and BLM promote DNA double-strand break resection.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Serge; Chapman, J Ross; Magill, Christine; Jackson, Stephen P

    2008-10-15

    A key cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is 5'-to-3' DSB resection by nucleases to generate regions of ssDNA that then trigger cell cycle checkpoint signaling and DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here, we reveal that in the absence of exonuclease Exo1 activity, deletion or mutation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ-family helicase, Sgs1, causes pronounced hypersensitivity to DSB-inducing agents. Moreover, we establish that this reflects severely compromised DSB resection, deficient DNA damage signaling, and strongly impaired HR-mediated repair. Furthermore, we show that the mammalian Sgs1 ortholog, BLM--whose deficiency causes cancer predisposition and infertility in people--also functions in parallel with Exo1 to promote DSB resection, DSB signaling and resistance to DSB-generating agents. Collectively, these data establish evolutionarily conserved roles for the BLM and Sgs1 helicases in DSB processing, signaling, and repair.

  1. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  2. FANCD2 regulates BLM complex functions independently of FANCI to promote replication fork recovery

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Sareen, Archana; Raghunandan, Maya; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) and Bloom Syndrome share overlapping phenotypes including spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities and increased cancer predisposition. The FA protein pathway comprises an upstream core complex that mediates recruitment of two central players, FANCD2 and FANCI, to sites of stalled replication forks. Successful fork recovery depends on the Bloom’s helicase BLM that participates in a larger protein complex (‘BLMcx’) containing topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1, RMI2 and replication protein A. We show that FANCD2 is an essential regulator of BLMcx functions: it maintains BLM protein stability and is crucial for complete BLMcx assembly; moreover, it recruits BLMcx to replicating chromatin during normal S-phase and mediates phosphorylation of BLMcx members in response to DNA damage. During replication stress, FANCD2 and BLM cooperate to promote restart of stalled replication forks while suppressing firing of new replication origins. In contrast, FANCI is dispensable for FANCD2-dependent BLMcx regulation, demonstrating functional separation of FANCD2 from FANCI. PMID:23658231

  3. FANCD2 limits BLM-dependent telomere instability in the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway.

    PubMed

    Root, Heather; Larsen, Andrew; Komosa, Martin; Al-Azri, Fakhriya; Li, Ren; Bazett-Jones, David P; Stephen Meyn, M

    2016-08-01

    Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome are genomic instability syndromes caused by mutations in proteins that participate in overlapping DNA repair and replication pathways. Here, we show that the monoubiquitinated form of the Fanconi Anemia protein FANCD2 acts in opposition to the BLM DNA helicase to restrain telomere replication and recombination in human cells that utilize the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on exchanges of telomeric DNA to maintain telomeres, a process that we show FANCD2 suppresses. Depletion of FANCD2 results in a hyper-ALT phenotype, including an increase in extrachromosomal telomeric repeat DNAs, putative recombinational byproducts that we show exist as intertwined complexes forming the nucleic acid component of ALT-associated PML bodies. Increases in telomeric DNA are suppressed by loss of BLM but not RAD51, occur without parallel upregulation of shelterin proteins TRF1 and TRF2, and are associated with increased frequencies of deprotected and fragile telomeres. Inactivation of the FA pathway does not trigger ALT, as FANCD2 depleted telomerase positive cells do not acquire ALT-like phenotypes. We observe frequent fragile telomeres in ALT cells, suggesting that telomere sequences are prone to replication problems. We propose that, in ALT cells, FANCD2 promotes intramolecular resolution of stalled replication forks in telomeric DNA while BLM facilitates their resection and subsequent involvement in the intermolecular exchanges that drive ALT. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans HIM-6/BLM helicase: unwinding recombination intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hana; Lee, Jin A; Choi, Seoyoon; Lee, Hyunwoo; Ahn, Byungchan

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in three human RecQ genes are implicated in heritable human syndromes. Mutations in BLM, a RecQ gene, cause Bloom syndrome (BS), which is characterized by short stature, cancer predisposition, and sensitivity to sunlight. BLM is a RecQ DNA helicase that, with interacting proteins, is able to dissolve various DNA structures including double Holliday junctions. A BLM ortholog, him-6, has been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, but little is known about its enzymatic activities or its in vivo roles. By purifying recombinant HIM-6 and performing biochemical assays, we determined that the HIM-6 has DNA-dependent ATPase activity HIM-6 and helicase activity that proceeds in the 3'-5' direction and needs at least five 3' overhanging nucleotides. HIM-6 is also able to unwind DNA structures including D-loops and Holliday junctions. Worms with him-6 mutations were defective in recovering the cell cycle arrest after HU treatment. These activities strongly support in vivo roles for HIM-6 in processing recombination intermediates.

  5. Dynamic Investigation of Static Divergence: Analysis and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    The phenomenon known as aeroelastic divergence is the focus of this work. The analyses and experiment presented here show that divergence can occur without a structural dynamic mode losing its oscillatory nature. Aeroelastic divergence occurs when the structural restorative capability or stiffness of a structure is overwhelmed by the static aerodynamic moment. This static aeroelastic coupling does not require the structural dynamic system behavior to cease, however. Aeroelastic changes in the dynamic mode behavior are governed not only by the stiffness, but by damping and inertial properties. The work presented here supports these fundamental assertions by examining a simple system: a typical section airfoil with only a rotational structural degree of freedom. Analytical results identified configurations that exhibit different types of dynamic mode behavior as the system encounters divergence. A wind tunnel model was designed and tested to examine divergence experimentally. The experimental results validate the analytical calculations and explicitly examine the divergence phenomenon where the dynamic mode persists. Three configurations of the wind tunnel model were tested. The experimental results agree very well with the analytical predictions of subcritical characteristics, divergence velocity, and behavior of the noncritical dynamic mode at divergence.

  6. Landscape Measures of Rangeland Condition in the BLM Owyhee Pilot Project: Shrub Canopy Mapping, Vegetation Classification, and Detection of Anomalous Land Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-12-28

    In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.

  7. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous

  8. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  9. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-29

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  10. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  11. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  12. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  13. 43 CFR 3261.15 - Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Drilling Operations: Getting a Permit... drilling program to allow BLM time to comply with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); and (2)...

  14. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  15. Crystal Structures of RMI1 and RMI2, Two OB-Fold Regulatory Subunits of the BLM Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yuting; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing; Busygina, Valeria; Guo, Rong; Wan, Ke; Wang, Weidong; Sung, Patrick; Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta; Lei, Ming

    2010-11-05

    Mutations in BLM, a RecQ-like helicase, are linked to the autosomal recessive cancer-prone disorder Bloom's syndrome. BLM associates with topoisomerase (Topo) III{alpha}, RMI1, and RMI2 to form the BLM complex that is essential for genome stability. The RMI1-RMI2 heterodimer stimulates the dissolution of double Holliday junction into non-crossover recombinants mediated by BLM-Topo III{alpha} and is essential for stabilizing the BLM complex. However, the molecular basis of these functions of RMI1 and RMI2 remains unclear. Here we report the crystal structures of multiple domains of RMI1-RMI2, providing direct confirmation of the existence of three oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB)-folds in RMI1-RMI2. Our structural and biochemical analyses revealed an unexpected insertion motif in RMI1N-OB, which is important for stimulating the dHJ dissolution. We also revealed the structural basis of the interaction between RMI1C-OB and RMI2-OB and demonstrated the functional importance of the RMI1-RMI2 interaction in genome stability maintenance.

  16. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  17. "Rocket Park" - exhibits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1979-12-20

    Overall view at JSC lookin west from atop of Bldg. 1 showing rockets, parking lot and all threee stages of Saturn V. first stage of Saturn V exhibit in "Rocket Park" on west side of center little joe and mercury models are seen 1. JSC- Aerials

  18. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  19. Exhibitions in Sight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Early in the eighteenth century, Pompeii was discovered, a city that had been hidden for sixteen centuries by volcanic lava. There is a traveling exhibition of the sculptures, friezes, mosaics, and paintings being shown around the United States. Described is the history and contents of "Pompeii--A.D. 79." (RK)

  20. Exhibitions in Sight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Early in the eighteenth century, Pompeii was discovered, a city that had been hidden for sixteen centuries by volcanic lava. There is a traveling exhibition of the sculptures, friezes, mosaics, and paintings being shown around the United States. Described is the history and contents of "Pompeii--A.D. 79." (RK)

  1. Exhibitions in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1977-01-01

    Today, few artists make serving vessels on a monumental scale. Here artists compete in this unique area of specialization prompted by the Campbell Museum in Camden, New Jersey, which is dedicated to collecting and exhibiting the very best in soup tureens. (Author/RK)

  2. Pictures at an Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Youth Art Month exhibit in Howard County (Maryland) where students submitted their art focusing on school buildings and their interiors. Their art reveals concerns and desires about overcrowding, space utilization, school building height, outside lighting, solitude needs, and visual stimulation. The artwork is discussed in terms of…

  3. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Former NASA Astronaut and U.S. Senator John Glenn is seen at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean gives remarks at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Exhibition in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  6. BlmB and TlmB provide resistance to the bleomycin family of antitumor antibiotics by N-acetylating metal-free bleomycin, tallysomycin, phleomycin, and zorbamycin.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Jane M; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Wang, Liyan; Unsin, Claudia; Galm, Ute; Yang, Dong; Tao, Meifeng; Shen, Ben

    2014-11-11

    The bleomycin (BLM) family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics consists of BLMs, tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycins (PLMs), and zorbamycin (ZBM). The self-resistant elements BlmB and TlmB, discovered from the BLM- and TLM-producing organisms Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, respectively, are N-acetyltransferases that provide resistance to the producers by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotics required for activity. Although each member of the BLM family of antibiotics possesses a conserved metal-binding domain, the structural differences between each member, namely, the bithiazole moiety and C-terminal amine of BLMs, have been suggested to instill substrate specificity within BlmB. Here we report that BlmB and TlmB readily accept and acetylate BLMs, TLMs, PLMs, and ZBM in vitro but only in the metal-free forms. Kinetic analysis of BlmB and TlmB reveals there is no strong preference or rate enhancement for specific substrates, indicating that the structural differences between each member of the BLM family play a negligible role in substrate recognition, binding, or catalysis. Intriguingly, the zbm gene cluster from Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892 does not contain an N-acetyltransferase, yet ZBM is readily acetylated by BlmB and TlmB. We subsequently established that S. flavoviridis lacks the homologue of BlmB and TlmB, and ZbmA, the ZBM-binding protein, alone is sufficient to provide ZBM resistance. We further confirmed that BlmB can indeed confer resistance to ZBM in vivo in S. flavoviridis, introduction of which into wild-type S. flavoviridis further increases the level of resistance.

  7. The role of data in the EIS process: Evidence from the BLM wilderness review

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, C.; Mohai, P. )

    1993-03-01

    Various propositions have been offered about the role of the environmental impact statement (EIS) in agency decision making. These include statements that agencies are (1) using the information collected in the EIS to make rational decisions; (2) justifying decisions made a priori; (3) using the EIS to gain support or consensus for projects; or (4) simply fulfilling a legal mandate, with the EIS having no substantive impact on decisions. Previous studies regarding the role of EIS data have focused on the quality of the data in the EIS and whether or not the data are related to decisions. The role of site-specific information in the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) wilderness EIS process is analyzed and the results are used to reflect on the impact of the EIS in agency decision making. These results are compared with an earlier analysis of the Forest Service's Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II). The results of the statistical analyses of three sets of BLM wilderness EISs indicate that although some of the site-specific information about resource potential is statistically related to agency wilderness recommendations, the vast majority of the information is not. In addition, in some cases, the information was related to wilderness recommendations in a counterintuitive direction. Overall, of the 190 measures of resource potential found in these documents, only 17 (9%) were statistically related to BLM recommendations in an intuitive direction. The fact that most of the information in these EISs is not statistically related to decisions lends support to the proposition that the agency was primarily fulfilling the legally mandated procedure of the National Environmental Policy Act in producing these EISs, rather than achieving the spirit of the law. Results from the analysis of the Forest Service's RARE II wilderness review are similar.

  8. Multimerization Domains are Associated with Apparent Strand Exchange Activity in BLM and WRN DNA helicases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Fu; Brill, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    BLM and WRN are members of the RecQ family of DNA helicases that act to suppress genome instability and cancer predisposition. In addition to a RecQ helicase domain, each of these proteins contains an N-terminal domain of approximately 500 amino acids (aa) that is incompletely characterized. Previously, we showed that the N-terminus of Sgs1, the yeast ortholog of BLM, contains a physiologically important 200 aa domain (Sgs1103–322) that displays single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding, strand annealing (SA), and apparent strand-exchange (SE) activities in vitro. Here we used a genetic assay to search for heterologous proteins that could functionally replace this domain of Sgs1 in vivo. In contrast to Rad59, the oligomeric Rad52 protein provided in vivo complementation, suggesting that multimerization is functionally important. An N-terminal domain of WRN was also identified that could replace Sgs1103–322 in yeast. This domain, WRN235–526, contains a known coiled coil and displays the same SA and SE activities as Sgs1103–322. The coiled coil domain of WRN235–526 was found to be required for both its in vivo activity and its in vitro SE activity. Based on this result, a potential coiled coil was identified within Sgs1103–322. This 25 amino acid region was similarly essential for wt Sgs1 activity in vivo and was replaceable by a heterologous coiled coil. Taken together, the results indicate that a coiled coil and a closely-linked apparent SE activity are conserved features of the BLM and WRN DNA helicases. PMID:25198671

  9. Multimerization domains are associated with apparent strand exchange activity in BLM and WRN DNA helicases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Fu; Brill, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    BLM and WRN are members of the RecQ family of DNA helicases that act to suppress genome instability and cancer predisposition. In addition to a RecQ helicase domain, each of these proteins contains an N-terminal domain of approximately 500 amino acids (aa) that is incompletely characterized. Previously, we showed that the N-terminus of Sgs1, the yeast ortholog of BLM, contains a physiologically important 200 aa domain (Sgs1103-322) that displays single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding, strand annealing (SA), and apparent strand-exchange (SE) activities in vitro. Here we used a genetic assay to search for heterologous proteins that could functionally replace this domain of Sgs1 in vivo. In contrast to Rad59, the oligomeric Rad52 protein provided in vivo complementation, suggesting that multimerization is functionally important. An N-terminal domain of WRN was also identified that could replace Sgs1103-322 in yeast. This domain, WRN235-526, contains a known coiled coil and displays the same SA and SE activities as Sgs1103-322. The coiled coil domain of WRN235-526 is required for both its in vivo activity and its in vitro SE activity. Based on this result, a potential coiled coil was identified within Sgs1103-322. This 25 amino acid region was similarly essential for wt Sgs1 activity in vivo and was replaceable by a heterologous coiled coil. Taken together, the results indicate that a coiled coil and a closely linked apparent SE activity are conserved features of the BLM and WRN DNA helicases.

  10. The generalized BLM approach to fix scale- dependence in QCD: the current status of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataev, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    I present a brief review of the generalized Brodsky-Lepage-McKenzie (BLM) approaches to fix the scale-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) invariant quantities in QCD. At first, these approaches are based on the expansions of the coefficients of the perturbative series for the RG-invariant quantities in the products of the coefficients βi of the QCD β-function, which are evaluated in the MS-like schemes. As a next step all βi-dependent terms are absorbed into the BLM-type scale(s) of the powers of the QCD couplings. The difference between two existing formulations of the above mentioned generalizations based on the seBLM approach and the Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) are clarified in the case of the Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rule. Using the conformal symmetry-based relations for the non-singlet coefficient functions of the Adler D-function and of Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rules CBjpNS (as) the βi-dependent structure of the NNLO approximation for CBjpNS (as) is predicted in QCD with ngl-multiplet of gluino degrees of freedom, which appear in SUSY extension of QCD. The importance of performing the analytical calculation of the N3LO additional contributions of ngl gluino multiplet to CBjpNS (as) for checking the presented in the report NNLO prediction and for the studies of the possibility to determine the discussed β-expansion pattern of this sum rule at the O(a4s)-level is emphasised.

  11. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 leaving the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the exhibit site. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC, the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit, automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids and emergency and safety systems, are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  12. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows onlookers viewing displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  13. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  14. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows onlookers viewing displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  15. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  16. 43 CFR 3213.12 - May BLM accept a partial relinquishment if it will reduce my lease to less than 640 acres?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May BLM accept a partial relinquishment if it will reduce my lease to less than 640 acres? 3213.12 Section 3213.12 Public Lands: Interior....12 May BLM accept a partial relinquishment if it will reduce my lease to less than 640 acres? Except...

  17. 43 CFR 2568.91 - Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Lands-General § 2568.91 Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify? 2568.91 Section 2568.91 Public Lands:...

  18. 43 CFR 2568.91 - Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lands-General § 2568.91 Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify? 2568.91 Section 2568.91 Public Lands:...

  19. 43 CFR 2568.91 - Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands-General § 2568.91 Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify? 2568.91 Section 2568.91 Public Lands:...

  20. 43 CFR 2568.91 - Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Lands-General § 2568.91 Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify? 2568.91 Section 2568.91 Public Lands:...

  1. 43 CFR 2884.15 - What is a Master Agreement (Processing Category 5) and what information must I provide to BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE MINERAL LEASING ACT Applying... BLM and you that involves multiple BLM grant or TUP approvals for projects within a defined geographic...

  2. 43 CFR 3715.2-3 - Under what circumstances will BLM allow me to temporarily occupy a site for more than 14 days?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to temporarily occupy a site for more than 14 days? 3715.2-3 Section 3715.2-3 Public Lands: Interior... § 3715.2-3 Under what circumstances will BLM allow me to temporarily occupy a site for more than 14 days? BLM may allow temporary occupancy at a single site to extend beyond the 14-day period described...

  3. 43 CFR 2568.95 - Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey that land to a Native veteran? 2568.95 Section... Allotments For Certain Veterans Available Lands-General § 2568.95 Will BLM try to reacquire land that...

  4. 43 CFR 2568.95 - Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey that land to a Native veteran? 2568.95 Section... Allotments For Certain Veterans Available Lands-General § 2568.95 Will BLM try to reacquire land that...

  5. 43 CFR 2568.95 - Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey that land to a Native veteran? 2568.95 Section... Allotments For Certain Veterans Available Lands-General § 2568.95 Will BLM try to reacquire land that...

  6. 43 CFR 2568.95 - Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey that land to a Native veteran? 2568.95 Section... Allotments For Certain Veterans Available Lands-General § 2568.95 Will BLM try to reacquire land that...

  7. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  8. Infrared divergences in de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Polarski, D. Service d'Astrophysique, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France)

    1991-03-15

    Infrared divergences in de Sitter space are considered. It is shown that symmetry breaking is unavoidable only when the infrared divergence is strong enough. The static vacuum has no symmetry breaking despite the presence of an infrared divergence.

  9. Divergent host-plant use promotes reproductive isolation among cynipid gall wasp populations.

    PubMed

    Egan, Scott P; Hood, Glen R; Feder, Jeff L; Ott, James R

    2012-08-23

    Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of divergent natural selection among environments. A direct prediction of this process is that ecologically divergent pairs of populations will exhibit greater reproductive isolation than ecologically similar pairs of populations. By comparing allopatric populations of the cynipid gall wasp Belonocnema treatae infesting Quercus virginiana and Quercus geminata, we tested the role that divergent host use plays in generating ecological divergence and sexual isolation. We found differences in body size and gall structure associated with divergent host use, but no difference in neutral genetic divergence between populations on the same or different host plant. We observed significant assortative mating between populations from alternative host plants but not between allopatric populations on the same host plant. Thus, we provide evidence that divergent host use promotes speciation among gall wasp populations.

  10. Drill baby drill: An analysis of how energy development displaced ranching's dominance over the BLM's subgovernment policymaking environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbis, Robert Earl, Jr.

    Academic literature analyzing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land-use subgovernment stops at the Taylor Grazing Act and concludes that the historical development of administering grazing on public lands led to the capture of the BLM by ranching interests. Using a two-pronged methodological approach of process tracing and elite interviews this dissertation seeks to advance our collective knowledge of subgovernment theory by (a) clarifying the impact executive decision-making has on subgovernments and (b) identifying the conditions under which strategically competitive behavior between two competing subgovernment actors occurs. The dissertation seeks to update the literature by explaining what has caused the BLM to shift from a rancher-dominated agency to an energy dominated agency by identifying conditions under which subgovernment actors strategically respond to a political conflict. The research poses two questions: (1) how have executive actions disrupted an existing balance of power in a so-called "strong corner" of an entrenched subgovernment system and (2) what happens when conflict and competition break out between allied members of the system? Analysis indicates that as the BLM responded to Executive actions emphasizing domestic energy production, a conflict emerged between traditional allies: ranching and energy. Triggered by the unintended consequence of awakening long-dormant legislation, split-estate energy development---where property rights are severed between private surface and federal mineral estates---expanded across the West. In turn, this expansion helped establish the conditions for conflict and in doing so disrupted the balance of power between large public resource use interests in the relatively stable land-use subgovernment of the BLM. Indicative of energy's emerging dominance of the BLM's subgovernment, split-estate energy development led ranching interests to seek the protection of their Western state legislatures. This shift in

  11. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  12. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  13. Repairing Hubble Exhibit Reception

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-23

    Individuals in attendance who had a hand in the development or servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope pose for a group photo at an event unveiling a new exhibit featuring Hubble's Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) and the WFPC2 on Wednesday, April 23, 2014 at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. COSTAR and WFPC2 were installed in Hubble during the first space shuttle servicing mission in 1993 and returned to Earth on the fifth and final servicing mission in 2009. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  14. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  15. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-05-19

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter.

  16. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  17. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  18. Heroes and Legends Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-07

    Inside the Heroes and Legends attraction at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, the Sigma 7 Mercury spacecraft in this exhibit was piloted by astronaut Wally Schirra during his six-orbit mission on Oct. 3, 1962. For display purposes, it is shown here attached to a Redstone launch vehicle like the one that boosted astronauts Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom on sub-orbital flights in 1961. Schirra's capsule was actually launched by the more powerful Atlas rocket in order to reach orbit. The new facility looks back to the pioneering efforts of Mercury, Gemini and Apollo. It sets the stage by providing the background and context for space exploration and the legendary men and women who pioneered the nation's journey into space.

  19. 43 CFR 6302.16 - When and how may I gather scientific information about resources in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... natural or cultural resources in wilderness areas, using methods that may cause greater impacts on the... the research; and (4) You have an authorization from BLM. (b) You must reclaim disturbed areas, and... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts,...

  20. 43 CFR 6302.16 - When and how may I gather scientific information about resources in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... natural or cultural resources in wilderness areas, using methods that may cause greater impacts on the... the research; and (4) You have an authorization from BLM. (b) You must reclaim disturbed areas, and... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts,...

  1. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  2. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  3. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  4. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  5. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units...

  6. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units...

  7. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units...

  8. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units...

  9. A new model for predicting time course toxicity of heavy metals based on Biotic Ligand Model (BLM).

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ayumi; Shoji, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    A new model for predicting time course toxicity of heavy metals was developed by extending the effective ratio of biotic ligand binding with toxic heavy metals to the total biotic ligand for 50% of test organisms (f(50)) derived by the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). BLM has been well-known as a useful model for prediction of heavy metal toxicity. BLM can consider the effect of exposure conditions such as pH and Ca(2+) on heavy metal toxicity. In addition to the exposure conditions, heavy metal toxicity is strongly dependent on exposure time. In this study, BLM is extended to predict time dependency of heavy metal toxicity by connecting with the concept of primary reaction. The model developed in this study also generates the estimation of the 50% effect concentration (EC(50)) for toxicologically unknown organisms and heavy metals. Two toxicological and kinetic constants, f(50,0) and k, were derived from the initial value of f(50) (f(50,0)) and a time constant (k) independent of time. The model developed in this study enables us to acquire information on the toxicity of heavy metals such as Cu, Cd and Co easily.

  10. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON...

  11. 43 CFR 1823.11 - What is the authority for BLM issuing a refund of a payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the authority for BLM issuing a refund of a payment? 1823.11 Section 1823.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES Payments and Refunds § 1823.11...

  12. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON...

  13. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON...

  14. 43 CFR 1823.11 - What is the authority for BLM issuing a refund of a payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the authority for BLM issuing a refund of a payment? 1823.11 Section 1823.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES Payments and Refunds § 1823.11...

  15. 43 CFR 3513.12 - What criteria does BLM consider in approving a waiver, suspension, or reduction in rental or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approving a waiver, suspension, or reduction in rental or minimum royalty, or a reduction in the royalty... MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Waiver, Suspension or Reduction of Rental and Minimum Royalties Rental and Royalty Reductions § 3513.12 What criteria does BLM consider in approving a waiver, suspension...

  16. 43 CFR 2568.40 - Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations? 2568.40 Section 2568.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND...

  17. 43 CFR 2568.40 - Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations? 2568.40 Section 2568.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND...

  18. 43 CFR 2568.40 - Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations? 2568.40 Section 2568.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND...

  19. 43 CFR 2568.40 - Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations? 2568.40 Section 2568.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND...

  20. 43 CFR 3809.203 - What are the limitations on BLM deferral to State regulation of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Federal/state Agreements...) Federal land-use planning and other Federal laws. BLM will continue to be responsible for all land-use planning on public lands and for implementing other Federal laws relating to the public lands for which...

  1. 43 CFR 2932.25 - What will BLM do when I apply for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.25 Section 2932.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.25 What will BLM do when I apply for a Special...

  2. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part establish...

  3. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples or...

  4. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical generation...

  5. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical generation...

  6. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical generation...

  7. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples or...

  8. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples or...

  9. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples or...

  10. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical generation...

  11. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Operations Conducted Under Plans of... completed, including one or more of the following: (i) You collect adequate baseline data; (ii) BLM..., final approved engineering designs and plans, or other conditions of approval from the review of...

  12. 43 CFR 6305.10 - How will BLM allow access to State and private land within wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... improvements BLM determines are necessary to protect wilderness resources from degradation. (f) If you own land... private land within wilderness areas? 6305.10 Section 6305.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Access to State and Private Lands Or...

  13. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  14. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  15. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  16. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  17. 43 CFR 6305.10 - How will BLM allow access to State and private land within wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State and private land within wilderness areas? (a) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness... existed on the date Congress designated the area surrounding the inholding as wilderness, and (2) BLM... least impact on wilderness character. (b) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness, and...

  18. 43 CFR 2806.39 - How will BLM calculate rent for a lease for a facility manager's use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM calculate rent for a lease for a facility manager's use? 2806.39 Section 2806.39 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE...

  19. 43 CFR 6305.11 - What alternatives to granting access will BLM consider in cases of State and private inholdings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... land in the same State of approximately equal value or, if the owner concurs, by purchase. Access to... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What alternatives to granting access will BLM consider in cases of State and private inholdings? 6305.11 Section 6305.11 Public Lands:...

  20. 43 CFR 2806.35 - How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM calculate rent for private... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND...

  1. 43 CFR 3809.803 - Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA? 3809.803 Section 3809.803 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... go into effect during an appeal to OHA? All decisions under this subpart go into effect immediately...

  2. 43 CFR 3809.803 - Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA? 3809.803 Section 3809.803 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... go into effect during an appeal to OHA? All decisions under this subpart go into effect immediately...

  3. 43 CFR 3809.803 - Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA? 3809.803 Section 3809.803 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... go into effect during an appeal to OHA? All decisions under this subpart go into effect immediately...

  4. 43 CFR 3809.803 - Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA? 3809.803 Section 3809.803 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... go into effect during an appeal to OHA? All decisions under this subpart go into effect immediately...

  5. 43 CFR 3284.7 - May BLM authorize operations on uncommitted Federal leases located within a unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... uncommitted Federal leases located within a unit? 3284.7 Section 3284.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... on uncommitted Federal leases located within a unit? BLM may authorize a lessee/operator to conduct operations on an uncommitted Federal lease located within a unit if the lessee/operator demonstrates to...

  6. 43 CFR 3263.11 - What information must I give BLM to approve my Sundry Notice for abandoning a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.11 What information must I give BLM to...) Methods you will use to verify the plugs (tagging, pressure testing, etc.); (3) Weight and viscosity...

  7. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  8. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  9. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  10. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  11. 43 CFR 3162.2-10 - Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? 3162.2-10 Section 3162.2-10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? We will send you a demand letter by...

  12. 43 CFR 3162.2-10 - Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? 3162.2-10 Section 3162.2-10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? We will send you a demand letter by...

  13. Kinetic mechanism of DNA unwinding by the BLM helicase core and molecular basis for its low processivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xu, Ya-Nan; Bazeille, Nicolas; Wang, Peng-Ye; Rigolet, Pascal; Xu, Hou-Qiang; Xi, Xu Guang

    2010-02-02

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is a rare human autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a strong predisposition to a wide range of cancers commonly affecting the general population. Understanding the functioning mechanism of the BLM protein may provide the opportunity to develop new effective therapy strategies. In this work, we studied the DNA unwinding kinetic mechanism of the helicase core of the BLM protein using various stopped-flow assays. We show that the helicase core of BLM unwinds duplex DNA as monomers even under conditions strongly favoring oligomerization. An unwinding rate of approximately 20 steps per second and a step size of 1 bp have been determined. We have observed that the helicase has a very low processivity. From dissociation and inhibition experiments, we have found that during its ATP hydrolysis cycle in DNA unwinding the helicase tends to dissociate from the DNA substrate in the ADP state. The experimental results imply that the BLM helicase core may unwind duplex DNA in an inchworm manner.

  14. 43 CFR 2805.10 - How will I know whether BLM has approved or denied my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Terms and Conditions of Grants § 2805... your review and signature that: (1) Includes any terms, conditions, and stipulations that BLM... location of the facilities; (2) May include terms that prevent your use of the right-of-way until you...

  15. 43 CFR 2805.10 - How will I know whether BLM has approved or denied my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Terms and Conditions of Grants § 2805... your review and signature that: (1) Includes any terms, conditions, and stipulations that BLM... location of the facilities; (2) May include terms that prevent your use of the right-of-way until you...

  16. 43 CFR 2805.10 - How will I know whether BLM has approved or denied my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Terms and Conditions of Grants § 2805... your review and signature that: (1) Includes any terms, conditions, and stipulations that BLM... location of the facilities; (2) May include terms that prevent your use of the right-of-way until you...

  17. 43 CFR 2805.10 - How will I know whether BLM has approved or denied my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Terms and Conditions of Grants § 2805... your review and signature that: (1) Includes any terms, conditions, and stipulations that BLM... location of the facilities; (2) May include terms that prevent your use of the right-of-way until you...

  18. 43 CFR 3213.14 - Will BLM terminate my lease if I do not pay my rent on time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... overdue. You have 45 days after the anniversary date to pay the rent plus a 10 percent late fee. If MMS does not receive your rental plus the late fee by the end of the 45-day period, BLM will terminate your lease. (b) If you receive notification from MMS under paragraph (a) of this section more than 15 days...

  19. 43 CFR 3515.16 - What standards does BLM use to assess the public interest of an exchange?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What standards does BLM use to assess the public interest of an exchange? 3515.16 Section 3515.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000...

  20. Semantic search during divergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Hass, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Divergent thinking, as a method of examining creative cognition, has not been adequately analyzed in the context of modern cognitive theories. This article casts divergent thinking responding in the context of theories of memory search. First, it was argued that divergent thinking tasks are similar to semantic fluency tasks, but are more constrained, and less well structured. Next, response time distributions from 54 participants were analyzed for temporal and semantic clustering. Participants responded to two prompts from the alternative uses test: uses for a brick and uses for a bottle, for two minutes each. Participants' cumulative response curves were negatively accelerating, in line with theories of search of associative memory. However, results of analyses of semantic and temporal clustering suggested that clustering is less evident in alternative uses responding compared to semantic fluency tasks. This suggests either that divergent thinking responding does not involve an exhaustive search through a clustered memory trace, but rather that the process is more exploratory, yielding fewer overall responses that tend to drift away from close associates of the divergent thinking prompt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.