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Sample records for blm exhibit divergent

  1. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children.

  2. Chk1 protects against chromatin bridges by constitutively phosphorylating BLM serine 502 to inhibit BLM degradation.

    PubMed

    Petsalaki, Eleni; Dandoulaki, Maria; Morrice, Nick; Zachos, George

    2014-09-15

    Chromatin bridges represent incompletely segregated chromosomal DNA connecting the anaphase poles and can result in chromosome breakage. The Bloom's syndrome protein helicase (BLM, also known as BLMH) suppresses formation of chromatin bridges. Here, we show that cells deficient in checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1, also known as CHEK1) exhibit higher frequency of chromatin bridges and reduced BLM protein levels compared to controls. Chk1 inhibition leads to BLM ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation during interphase. Furthermore, Chk1 constitutively phosphorylates human BLM at serine 502 (S502) and phosphorylated BLM localises to chromatin bridges. Mutation of S502 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine residue (BLM-S502A) reduces the stability of BLM, whereas expression of a phospho-mimicking BLM-S502D, in which S502 is mutated to aspartic acid, stabilises BLM and prevents chromatin bridges in Chk1-deficient cells. In addition, wild-type but not BLM-S502D associates with cullin 3, and cullin 3 depletion rescues BLM accumulation and localisation to chromatin bridges after Chk1 inhibition. We propose that Chk1 phosphorylates BLM-S502 to inhibit cullin-3-mediated BLM degradation during interphase. These results suggest that Chk1 prevents deleterious anaphase bridges by stabilising BLM.

  3. Trophic niche divergence among colour morphs that exhibit alternative mating tactics

    PubMed Central

    Lattanzio, Matthew S.; Miles, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Discrete colour morphs associated with alternative mating tactics are assumed to be ecologically equivalent. Yet suites of behaviours linked with reproduction can also favour habitat segregation and exploitation of different prey among morphs. By contrast, trophic polymorphisms are usually attributed to morphs exhibiting habitat or prey selectivity. An alternative hypothesis is that habitat variation generates a trophic polymorphism driven by differences in morph reproductive behaviour, the spatial dispersion of morphs in a landscape and their exposure to different prey types. In this scenario, morphs are allowed to vary in habitat or diet selectivity (e.g. specialist or generalist) as they do in behaviour, rather than being assumed to exhibit equivalent levels of ecological specialization. We test this hypothesis using male Urosaurus ornatus lizards that exhibit a discrete dewlap colour polymorphism that reflects alternative mating tactics. We found blue morphs specialize on prey at higher trophic levels, yellow males display plasticity in trophic and morphological attributes and orange males are trophic generalists. Our results also demonstrate that morph diet differences are enhanced in resource-limited habitats. We conclude that discrete behavioural morphs may also diverge in morphology and trophic niche. Jointly, these processes may enhance speciation rates in colour polymorphic taxa. PMID:27152203

  4. Gut Symbionts from Distinct Hosts Exhibit Genotoxic Activity via Divergent Colibactin Biosynthesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vizcaino, Maria I.; Crawford, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways are chemical mediators of microbial interactions in diverse environments. However, little is known about their distribution, evolution, and functional roles in bacterial symbionts associated with animals. A prominent example is colibactin, a largely unknown family of secondary metabolites produced by Escherichia coli via a hybrid NRPS-PKS biosynthetic pathway that inflicts DNA damage upon eukaryotic cells and contributes to colorectal cancer and tumor formation in the mammalian gut. Thus far, homologs of this pathway have only been found in closely related Enterobacteriaceae, while a divergent variant of this gene cluster was recently discovered in a marine alphaproteobacterial Pseudovibrio strain. Herein, we sequenced the genome of Frischella perrara PEB0191, a bacterial gut symbiont of honey bees and identified a homologous colibactin biosynthetic pathway related to those found in Enterobacteriaceae. We show that the colibactin genomic island (GI) has conserved gene synteny and biosynthetic module architecture across F. perrara, Enterobacteriaceae, and the Pseudovibrio strain. Comparative metabolomics analyses of F. perrara and E. coli further reveal that these two bacteria produce related colibactin pathway-dependent metabolites. Finally, we demonstrate that F. perrara, like E. coli, causes DNA damage in eukaryotic cells in vitro in a colibactin pathway-dependent manner. Together, these results support that divergent variants of the colibactin biosynthetic pathway are widely distributed among bacterial symbionts, producing related secondary metabolites and likely endowing its producer with functional capabilities important for diverse symbiotic associations. PMID:25527542

  5. Balancing selection on a regulatory region exhibiting ancient variation that predates human-neandertal divergence.

    PubMed

    Gokcumen, Omer; Zhu, Qihui; Mulder, Lubbertus C F; Iskow, Rebecca C; Austermann, Christian; Scharer, Christopher D; Raj, Towfique; Boss, Jeremy M; Sunyaev, Shamil; Price, Alkes; Stranger, Barbara; Simon, Viviana; Lee, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Ancient population structure shaping contemporary genetic variation has been recently appreciated and has important implications regarding our understanding of the structure of modern human genomes. We identified a ∼36-kb DNA segment in the human genome that displays an ancient substructure. The variation at this locus exists primarily as two highly divergent haplogroups. One of these haplogroups (the NE1 haplogroup) aligns with the Neandertal haplotype and contains a 4.6-kb deletion polymorphism in perfect linkage disequilibrium with 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across diverse populations. The other haplogroup, which does not contain the 4.6-kb deletion, aligns with the chimpanzee haplotype and is likely ancestral. Africans have higher overall pairwise differences with the Neandertal haplotype than Eurasians do for this NE1 locus (p<10⁻¹⁵). Moreover, the nucleotide diversity at this locus is higher in Eurasians than in Africans. These results mimic signatures of recent Neandertal admixture contributing to this locus. However, an in-depth assessment of the variation in this region across multiple populations reveals that African NE1 haplotypes, albeit rare, harbor more sequence variation than NE1 haplotypes found in Europeans, indicating an ancient African origin of this haplogroup and refuting recent Neandertal admixture. Population genetic analyses of the SNPs within each of these haplogroups, along with genome-wide comparisons revealed significant FST (p = 0.00003) and positive Tajima's D (p = 0.00285) statistics, pointing to non-neutral evolution of this locus. The NE1 locus harbors no protein-coding genes, but contains transcribed sequences as well as sequences with putative regulatory function based on bioinformatic predictions and in vitro experiments. We postulate that the variation observed at this locus predates Human-Neandertal divergence and is evolving under balancing selection, especially among European populations. PMID

  6. MYB31/MYB42 Syntelogs Exhibit Divergent Regulation of Phenylpropanoid Genes in Maize, Sorghum and Rice

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Tina; Grotewold, Erich; Doseff, Andrea I.; Gray, John

    2016-01-01

    ZmMYB31 and ZmMYB42 are R2R3-MYB transcription factors implicated in the regulation of phenylpropanoid genes in maize. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the regulatory function of MYB31 and MYB42 is conserved in other monocots, specifically in sorghum and rice. We demonstrate that syntelogs of MYB31 and MYB42 do bind to phenylpropanoid genes that function in all stages of the pathway and in different tissues along the developmental gradient of seedling leaves. We found that caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT1) is a common target of MYB31 and MYB42 in the mature leaf tissues of maize, sorghum and rice, as evidenced by Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments. In contrast, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL2), ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H), and caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), were targeted by MYB31 or MYB42, but in a more species-specific fashion. Our results revealed MYB31 and MYB42 participation in auto- and cross-regulation in all three species. Apart from a limited conservation of regulatory modules, MYB31 and MYB42 syntelogs appear to have undergone subfunctionalization following gene duplication and divergence of maize, sorghum, and rice. Elucidating the different regulatory roles of these syntelogs in the context of positive transcriptional activators may help guide attempts to alter the flux of intermediates towards lignin production in biofuel grasses. PMID:27328708

  7. BLM SUMOylation regulates ssDNA accumulation at stalled replication forks.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Karen J; Yagle, Mary K; Matunis, Michael J; Ellis, Nathan A

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase stalling results in uncoupling of DNA polymerase and the replicative helicase, which generates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After stalling, RAD51 accumulates at stalled replication forks to stabilize the fork and to repair by homologous recombination (HR) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that accumulate there. We showed recently that SUMO modification of the BLM helicase is required in order for RAD51 to accumulate at stalled forks. In order to investigate how BLM SUMOylation controls RAD51 accumulation, we characterized the function of HR proteins and ssDNA-binding protein RPA in cells that stably expressed either normal BLM (BLM+) or SUMO-mutant BLM (SM-BLM). In HU-treated SM-BLM cells, mediators BRCA2 and RAD52, which normally substitute RAD51 for RPA on ssDNA, failed to accumulate normally at stalled forks; instead, excess RPA accumulated. SM-BLM cells also exhibited higher levels of HU-induced chromatin-bound RPA than BLM+ cells did. The excess RPA did not result from excessive intrinsic BLM helicase activity, because in vitro SUMOylated BLM unwound similar amounts of replication-fork substrate as unSUMOylated BLM. Nor did BLM SUMOylation inhibit binding of RPA to BLM in vitro; however, in immunoprecipitation experiments, more BLM-RPA complex formed in HU-treated SM-BLM cells, indicating that BLM SUMOylation controls the amount of BLM-RPA complex normally formed at stalled forks. Together, these results showed that BLM SUMOylation regulates the amount of ssDNA that accumulates during polymerase stalling. We conclude that BLM SUMOylation functions as a licensing mechanism that permits and regulates HR at damaged replication forks.

  8. Two spin-peierls-like compounds exhibiting divergent structural features, lattice compression, and expansion in the low- temperature phase.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhengfang; Duan, Haibao; Ren, Xiaoming; Lu, Changsheng; Li, Yizhi; Song, You; Zhu, Huizhen; Meng, Qingjin

    2009-06-18

    Two quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) compounds, [4'-CH(3)Bz-4-RPy][Ni(mnt)(2)] (mnt(2-) = maleonitriledithiolate), where 4'-CH(3)Bz-4-RPy(+) = 1-(4'-methylbenzyl)pyridinium (denoted as compound 1) and 1-(4'-methylbenzyl)-4-aminopyridinium (denoted as compound 2), show a spin-Peierls-like transition with T(C) approximately 182 K for 1 and T(C) approximately 155 K for 2. The enthalpy changes for the transition are estimated to be DeltaH = 316.6 J.mol(-1) for 1 and 1082.1 J.mol(-1) for 2. From fits to the magnetic susceptibility, the magnetic exchange constants in the gapless state are calculated to be J = 166(2) K with g = 2.020(23) for 1 versus J = 42(0) K with g = 2.056(5) for 2. In the high-temperature (HT) phase, 1 and 2 are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c. The nonmagnetic cations and paramagnetic anions form segregated columns with regular anionic and cationic stacks. In the low-temperature (LT) phase, the crystals of the two compounds undergo a transformation to the triclinic space group P-1, and both anionic and cationic stacks dimerize. In the transformation from the HT to LT phases, the two compounds exhibit divergent structural features, with lattice compression for 1 but lattice expansion for 2, due to intermolecular slippage. Combined with our previous studies, it is also noted that the transition temperature, T(C), is qualitatively related to the cell volume in the HT phase for the series of compounds [1-(4'-R-benzylpyridinium][Ni(mnt)(2)] (where R represents the substituent). When there is a single substituent in the para position of benzene, giving a larger cell volume, the transition temperature increases.

  9. BLM Environmental Education National Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Land Management (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This environmental education strategy was developed by a Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Washington Office Task Group in collaboration with staff at all levels of the BLM. The strategy calls for the BLM to expand its efforts in educating citizens about ecosystems and ecosystem management, and to establish environmental education as an integral…

  10. Regulation of BLM Nucleolar Localization

    PubMed Central

    Tangeman, Larissa; McIlhatton, Michael A.; Grierson, Patrick; Groden, Joanna; Acharya, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Defects in coordinated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the nucleolus cause cellular and organismal growth deficiencies. Bloom’s syndrome, an autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutated recQ-like helicase BLM, presents with growth defects suggestive of underlying defects in rRNA transcription. Our previous studies showed that BLM facilitates rRNA transcription and interacts with RNA polymerase I and topoisomerase I (TOP1) in the nucleolus. The mechanisms regulating localization of BLM to the nucleolus are unknown. In this study, we identify the TOP1-interaction region of BLM by co-immunoprecipitation of in vitro transcribed and translated BLM segments and show that this region includes the highly conserved nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of BLM. Biochemical and nucleolar co-localization studies using site-specific mutants show that two serines within the NLS (S1342 and S1345) are critical for nucleolar localization of BLM but do not affect the functional interaction of BLM with TOP1. Mutagenesis of both serines to aspartic acid (phospho-mimetic), but not alanine (phospho-dead), results in approximately 80% reduction in nucleolar localization of BLM while retaining the biochemical functions and nuclear localization of BLM. Our studies suggest a role for this region in regulating nucleolar localization of BLM via modification of the two serines within the NLS. PMID:27657136

  11. Regulation of BLM Nucleolar Localization.

    PubMed

    Tangeman, Larissa; McIlhatton, Michael A; Grierson, Patrick; Groden, Joanna; Acharya, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Defects in coordinated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the nucleolus cause cellular and organismal growth deficiencies. Bloom's syndrome, an autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutated recQ-like helicase BLM, presents with growth defects suggestive of underlying defects in rRNA transcription. Our previous studies showed that BLM facilitates rRNA transcription and interacts with RNA polymerase I and topoisomerase I (TOP1) in the nucleolus. The mechanisms regulating localization of BLM to the nucleolus are unknown. In this study, we identify the TOP1-interaction region of BLM by co-immunoprecipitation of in vitro transcribed and translated BLM segments and show that this region includes the highly conserved nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of BLM. Biochemical and nucleolar co-localization studies using site-specific mutants show that two serines within the NLS (S1342 and S1345) are critical for nucleolar localization of BLM but do not affect the functional interaction of BLM with TOP1. Mutagenesis of both serines to aspartic acid (phospho-mimetic), but not alanine (phospho-dead), results in approximately 80% reduction in nucleolar localization of BLM while retaining the biochemical functions and nuclear localization of BLM. Our studies suggest a role for this region in regulating nucleolar localization of BLM via modification of the two serines within the NLS. PMID:27657136

  12. Avian hepatitis E virus identified in Russian chicken flocks exhibits high genetic divergence based on the ORF2 capsid gene.

    PubMed

    Sprygin, A V; Nikonova, Z B; Zinyakov, N G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 79 liver samples from clinically sick and asymptomatic chickens were tested for avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV). Samples were received from 19 farms, five of which tested positive with primers targeting the ORF2 capsid gene. The phylogenetic analysis of a 242-base-pair fragment demonstrated that the Russian aHEV isolates share between 78.2 and 96.2% over the fragment sequenced, whereas the nucleotide sequence identities between the Russian isolates and the other representatives from GeneBank varied from 76.3 to 96.2%. The homology between the studied hepatitis E viruses and swine hepatitis E virus varied between 46.9 to 48.1%. The most divergent isolate aHEV16050 showed homology of 82.6% as compared with the strains in the dendrogram. The three positive hepatitis E virus samples (aHEV16279, aHEV16050 and aHEV18196) did not cluster with the European genotype 3 as expected due to the close location of Russia to Europe, nor did they with the other two genotypes, separating to a distinct branch. The aHEV16211 grouped together with European and Chinese isolates, and the aHEV18198 with Canadian ones.

  13. Ewes With Divergent Cortisol Responses to ACTH Exhibit Functional Differences in the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis.

    PubMed

    Hewagalamulage, Sakda D; Clarke, Iain J; Rao, Alexandra; Henry, Belinda A

    2016-09-01

    Within any population, the cortisol response to ACTH covers a considerable range. High responders (HRs) exhibit a greater cortisol secretory response to stress or ACTH, compared with individuals classified as low cortisol responders (LRs). We administered ACTH (0.2 μg/kg, iv) to 160 female sheep and selected subpopulations of animals as LR and HR. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in HR and LR and to identify factors that underlie the differing cortisol responses to ACTH. Hypothalami, pituitaries, and adrenals were collected from nonstressed HR and LR ewes. Expression of genes for CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP), oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptor, and mineralocorticoid receptor were measured by in situ hybridization in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression was measured in the anterior pituitary. Expression of CRH, AVP, and POMC was higher in HR, with no differences in either glucocorticoid receptor or mineralocorticoid receptor expression. Oxytocin expression was greater in LR. In the adrenal gland, real-time PCR analysis indicated that expression of the ACTH receptor and a range of steroidogenic enzymes was similar in HR and LR. Adrenal weights, the cortex to medulla ratio and adrenal cortisol content were also similar in LR and HR. In conclusion, LR and HR display innate differences in the steady-state expression of CRH, AVP, oxytocin, and POMC, indicating that selection for cortisol responsiveness identifies distinct subpopulations that exhibit innate differences in the gene expression/function of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis markers. PMID:27414744

  14. DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED AT LEFT CENTER, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 AT RIGHT CENTER, UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  15. BLM protein mitigates formaldehyde-induced genomic instability

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anuradha; Owen, Nichole; Juarez, Eleonora; McCullough, Amanda K.

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a reactive aldehyde that has been classified as a class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Cancer Research. There are growing concerns over the possible adverse health effects related to the occupational and environmental human exposures to formaldehyde. Although formaldehyde-induced DNA and protein adducts have been identified, the genomic instability mechanisms and the cellular tolerance pathways associated with formaldehyde exposure are not fully characterized. This study specifically examines the role of a genome stability protein, Bloom (BLM) in limiting formaldehyde-induced cellular and genetic abnormalities. Here, we show that in the absence of BLM protein, formaldehyde-treated cells exhibited increased cellular sensitivity, an immediate cell cycle arrest, and an accumulation of chromosome radial structures. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated that formaldehyde-treated cells are dependent on BLM for timely segregation of daughter cells. Both wild-type and BLM-deficient formaldehyde-treated cells showed an accumulation of 53BP1 and γH2AX foci indicative of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, relative to wild-type cells, the BLM-deficient cells exhibited delayed repair. In response to formaldehyde exposure, we observed co-localization of 53BP1 and BLM foci at the DSB repair site, where ATM-dependent accumulation of formaldehyde-induced BLM foci occurred after the recruitment of 53BP1. Together, these findings highlight the significance of functional interactions among ATM, 53BP1, and BLM proteins as responders associated with the repair and tolerance mechanisms induced by formaldehyde. PMID:25770783

  16. BLM protein mitigates formaldehyde-induced genomic instability.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anuradha; Owen, Nichole; Juarez, Eleonora; McCullough, Amanda K

    2015-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a reactive aldehyde that has been classified as a class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Cancer Research. There are growing concerns over the possible adverse health effects related to the occupational and environmental human exposures to formaldehyde. Although formaldehyde-induced DNA and protein adducts have been identified, the genomic instability mechanisms and the cellular tolerance pathways associated with formaldehyde exposure are not fully characterized. This study specifically examines the role of a genome stability protein, Bloom (BLM) in limiting formaldehyde-induced cellular and genetic abnormalities. Here, we show that in the absence of BLM protein, formaldehyde-treated cells exhibited increased cellular sensitivity, an immediate cell cycle arrest, and an accumulation of chromosome radial structures. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated that formaldehyde-treated cells are dependent on BLM for timely segregation of daughter cells. Both wild-type and BLM-deficient formaldehyde-treated cells showed an accumulation of 53BP1 and γH2AX foci indicative of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, relative to wild-type cells, the BLM-deficient cells exhibited delayed repair of formaldehyde-induced DSBs. In response to formaldehyde exposure, we observed co-localization of 53BP1 and BLM foci at the DSB repair site, where ATM-dependent accumulation of formaldehyde-induced BLM foci occurred after the recruitment of 53BP1. Together, these findings highlight the significance of functional interactions among ATM, 53BP1, and BLM proteins as responders associated with the repair and tolerance mechanisms induced by formaldehyde.

  17. MMS, BLM assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After reviewing the Department of the Interior's organizational structure for federal energy and minerals resource management, the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) concluded that the ‘accountability and management of minerals programs are weakened by the current split of responsibilities between the Bureau of Land Management [BLM] and Minerals Management Service [MMS].’ Moreover, ‘to facilitate efficient, comprehensive management of these resources and to clarify lines of authority and accountability,’ GAO recommends that ‘to the extent permitted by law’ Secretary of the Interior James Watt should ‘consolidate the department's onshore minerals management responsibilities in the Minerals Management Service.’Mineral management programs within BLM are fragmented, GAO says, which makes for difficult routine monitoring of program costs and results. ‘As major sources of federal receipts and domestic supplies of fuel and nonfuel minerals, these resource management programs require, but are lacking, clear lines of repsonsibility and organization for efficient operations and program review.’ However, MMS ‘has the potential to provide comprehensive management of these resources,’ GAO concludes.

  18. Three homologous genes encoding sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 exhibit different expression patterns and functional divergence in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Truksa, Martin; Snyder, Crystal L; El-Mezawy, Aliaa; Shah, Saleh; Weselake, Randall J

    2011-02-01

    Brassica napus is an allotetraploid (AACC) formed from the fusion of two diploid progenitors, Brassica rapa (AA) and Brassica oleracea (CC). Polyploidy and genome-wide rearrangement during the evolution process have resulted in genes that are present as multiple homologs in the B. napus genome. In this study, three B. napus homologous genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum-bound sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 (GPAT4) were identified and characterized. Although the three GPAT4 homologs share a high sequence similarity, they exhibit different expression patterns and altered epigenetic features. Heterologous expression in yeast further revealed that the three BnGPAT4 homologs encoded functional GPAT enzymes but with different levels of polypeptide accumulation. Complementation of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gpat4 gpat8 double mutant line with individual BnGPAT4 homologs suggested their physiological roles in cuticle formation. Analysis of gpat4 RNA interference lines of B. napus revealed that the BnGPAT4 deficiency resulted in reduced cutin content and altered stomatal structures in leaves. Our results revealed that the BnGPAT4 homologs have evolved into functionally divergent forms and play important roles in cutin synthesis and stomatal development.

  19. Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands' environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Gray, Miranda M; St Amand, Paul; Bello, Nora M; Galliart, Matthew B; Knapp, Mary; Garrett, Karen A; Morgan, Theodore J; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R; Akhunov, Eduard D; Johnson, Loretta C

    2014-12-01

    Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates. Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation by distance (IBD) vs. isolation by environment (IBE) on ecotype divergence, (iii) identify outlier loci under selection and (iv) assess the association between outlier loci and climate. Using two primer sets, we genotyped 378 plants at 384 polymorphic AFLP loci across regional ecotypes from central and eastern Kansas and Illinois. Neighbour-joining tree and PCoA revealed strong genetic differentiation between Kansas and Illinois ecotypes, which was better explained by IBE than IBD. We found high genetic variability within prairies (80%) and even fragmented Illinois prairies, surprisingly, contained high within-prairie genetic diversity (92%). Using Bayenv2, 14 top-ranked outlier loci among ecotypes were associated with temperature and precipitation variables. Six of seven BayeScanFST outliers were in common with Bayenv2 outliers. High genetic diversity may enable big bluestem populations to better withstand changing climates; however, population divergence supports the use of local ecotypes in grassland restoration. Knowledge of genetic variation in this ecological dominant and other grassland species will be critical to understanding grassland response and restoration challenges in the face of a changing climate.

  20. Subgroup C avian metapneumovirus (MPV) and the recently isolated human MPV exhibit a common organization but have extensive sequence divergence in their putative SH and G genes.

    PubMed

    Toquin, D; de Boisseson, C; Beven, V; Senne, D A; Eterradossi, N

    2003-08-01

    The genes encoding the putative small hydrophobic (SH), attachment (G) and polymerase (L) proteins of the Colorado isolate of subgroup C avian pneumovirus (APV) were entirely or partially sequenced. They all included metapneumovirus (MPV)-like gene start and gene end sequences. The deduced Colorado SH protein shared 26.9 and 21.7 % aa identity with its counterpart in human MPV (hMPV) and APV subgroup A, respectively, but its only significant aa similarities were to hMPV. Conserved features included a common hydrophobicity profile with an unique transmembrane domain and the conservation of most extracellular cysteine residues. The Colorado putative G gene encoded several ORFs, the longer of which encoded a 252 aa long type II glycoprotein with aa similarities to hMPV G only (20.6 % overall aa identity with seven conserved N-terminal residues). The putative Colorado G protein shared, at best, 21.0 % aa identity with its counterparts in the other APV subgroups and did not contain the extracellular cysteine residues and short aa stretch highly conserved in other APVs. The N-terminal end of the Colorado L protein exhibited 73.6 and 54.9 % aa identity with hMPV and APV subgroup A, respectively, with four aa blocks highly conserved among Pneumovirus: Phylogenetic analysis performed on the nt sequences confirmed that the L sequences from MPVs were genetically related, whereas analysis of the G sequences revealed that among MPVs, only APV subgroups A, B and D clustered together, independently of both the Colorado isolate and hMPV, which shared weak genetic relatedness at the G gene level.

  1. Bloom Syndrome Radials are Non-homologous and are Suppressed by Phosphorylated BLM

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Scott; Mitchell, Asia; Newell, Amy Hanlon; Ziaie, Navid; Moses, Robb E.; Olson, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Biallelic mutations in BLM cause Bloom syndrome (BS), a genome instability disorder characterized by growth retardation, sun sensitivity and a predisposition to cancer. As evidence of decreased genome stability, BS cells demonstrate not only elevated levels of spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), but also exhibit chromosomal radial formation. The molecular nature and mechanism of radial formation is not known, but they have been thought to be DNA recombination intermediates between homologs that failed to resolve. However, we find that radials in BS cells occur over 95% between non-homologous chromosomes, and occur non-randomly throughout the genome. BLM must be phosphorylated at T99 and T122 for certain cell cycle checkpoints, but it is not known whether these modifications are necessary to suppress radial formation. We find that exogenous BLM constructs preventing phosphorylation at T99 and T122 are not able to suppress radial formation in BS cells, but are able to inhibit SCE formation. These findings indicate that BLM functions in two distinct pathways requiring different modifications. In one pathway—for which the phosphorylation marks appear dispensable—BLM functions to suppress SCE formation. In a second pathway, T99 and T122 phosphorylation are essential for suppression of chromosomal radial formation, both those formed spontaneously and those formed following interstrand crosslink (ICL) damage. PMID:25766002

  2. Data acquisition system for BLM at NSRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guanghua; Li, Yuxiong; Cui, Yonggang; Li, Juexin; Li, Weiming; Shao, Beibei

    2003-06-01

    A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System has been built up for the 800 MeV storage ring in National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. It has helped to resolve some problems about beam lifetime. This paper introduces the data acquisition system of BLM. It has a counter whose counting rate is higher than 10 MHz. Furthermore, this counter is a free running one that will never lose any pulse when it is being read or written. This DAQ system is composed of 14 front-ends and a console connected via CAN bus. The intensity, distribution and time information of the beam loss can be offered by this system. This BLM system is helpful for machine study and operation.

  3. TopBP1 Interacts with BLM to Maintain Genome Stability but Is Dispensable for Preventing BLM Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Blackford, Andrew N.; Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Schwab, Rebekka A.; Galanty, Yaron; Jackson, Stephen P.; Niedzwiedz, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM and topoisomerase-IIβ-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) are key regulators of genome stability. It was recently proposed that BLM phosphorylation on Ser338 mediates its interaction with TopBP1, to protect BLM from ubiquitylation and degradation (Wang et al., 2013). Here, we show that the BLM-TopBP1 interaction does not involve Ser338 but instead requires BLM phosphorylation on Ser304. Furthermore, we establish that disrupting this interaction does not markedly affect BLM stability. However, BLM-TopBP1 binding is important for maintaining genome integrity, because in its absence cells display increased sister chromatid exchanges, replication origin firing and chromosomal aberrations. Therefore, the BLM-TopBP1 interaction maintains genome stability not by controlling BLM protein levels, but via another as-yet undetermined mechanism. Finally, we identify critical residues that mediate interactions between TopBP1 and MDC1, and between BLM and TOP3A/RMI1/RMI2. Taken together, our findings provide molecular insights into a key tumor suppressor and genome stability network. PMID:25794620

  4. 43 CFR 4300.54 - Can BLM increase the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.54 Can BLM increase the... if BLM determines that the area is too small for the number of reindeer you are grazing. BLM...

  5. 43 CFR 4300.54 - Can BLM increase the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.54 Can BLM increase the... if BLM determines that the area is too small for the number of reindeer you are grazing. BLM...

  6. 43 CFR 4300.54 - Can BLM increase the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.54 Can BLM increase the... if BLM determines that the area is too small for the number of reindeer you are grazing. BLM...

  7. 43 CFR 4300.54 - Can BLM increase the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.54 Can BLM increase the... if BLM determines that the area is too small for the number of reindeer you are grazing. BLM...

  8. BLM promotes the activation of Fanconi Anemia signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, Jayabal; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Che, Raymond; Yu, Herbert; Fei, Peiwen

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the human RecQ helicase, BLM, causes Bloom Syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and characterized by genomic instability and an increased risk of cancer. Fanconi Anemia (FA), resulting from mutations in any of the 19 known FA genes and those yet to be known, is also characterized by chromosomal instability and a high incidence of cancer. BLM helicase and FA proteins, therefore, may work in a common tumor-suppressor signaling pathway. To date, it remains largely unclear as to how BLM and FA proteins work concurrently in the maintenance of genome stability. Here we report that BLM is involved in the early activation of FA group D2 protein (FANCD2). We found that FANCD2 activation is substantially delayed and attenuated in crosslinking agent-treated cells harboring deficient Blm compared to similarly treated control cells with sufficient BLM. We also identified that the domain VI of BLM plays an essential role in promoting FANCD2 activation in cells treated with DNA crosslinking agents, especially ultraviolet B. The similar biological effects performed by ΔVI-BLM and inactivated FANCD2 further confirm the relationship between BLM and FANCD2. Mutations within the domain VI of BLM detected in human cancer samples demonstrate the functional importance of this domain, suggesting human tumorigenicity resulting from mtBLM may be at least partly attributed to mitigated FANCD2 activation. Collectively, our data show a previously unknown regulatory liaison in advancing our understanding of how the cancer susceptibility gene products act in concert to maintain genome stability. PMID:27083049

  9. Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of proteasome core particles

    PubMed Central

    Weberruss, Marion H; Savulescu, Anca F; Jando, Julia; Bissinger, Thomas; Harel, Amnon; Glickman, Michael H; Enenkel, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    Short-lived proteins are degraded by proteasome complexes, which contain a proteolytic core particle (CP) but differ in the number of regulatory particles (RPs) and activators. A recently described member of conserved proteasome activators is Blm10. Blm10 contains 32 HEAT-like modules and is structurally related to the nuclear import receptor importin/karyopherin β. In proliferating yeast, RP-CP assemblies are primarily nuclear and promote cell division. During quiescence, RP-CP assemblies dissociate and CP and RP are sequestered into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli (PSG). Here, we show that CP sequestration into PSG depends on Blm10, whereas RP sequestration into PSG is independent of Blm10. PSG rapidly clear upon the resumption of cell proliferation and proteasomes are relocated into the nucleus. Thereby, Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of CP. Blm10-bound CP serves as an import receptor–cargo complex, as Blm10 mediates the interaction with FG-rich nucleoporins and is dissociated from the CP by Ran-GTP. Thus, Blm10 represents the first CP-dedicated nuclear import receptor in yeast. PMID:23982732

  10. Enhanced Tumor Formation in Mice Heterozygous for Blm Mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppner Goss, Kathleen; Risinger, Mary A.; Kordich, Jennifer J.; Sanz, Maureen M.; Straughen, Joel E.; Slovek, Lisa E.; Capobianco, Anthony J.; German, James; Boivin, Gregory P.; Groden, Joanna

    2002-09-01

    Persons with the autosomal recessive disorder Bloom syndrome are predisposed to cancers of many types due to loss-of-function mutations in the BLM gene, which encodes a recQ-like helicase. Here we show that mice heterozygous for a targeted null mutation of Blm, the murine homolog of BLM, develop lymphoma earlier than wild-type littermates in response to challenge with murine leukemia virus and develop twice the number of intestinal tumors when crossed with mice carrying a mutation in the Apctumor suppressor. These observations indicate that Blm is a modifier of tumor formation in the mouse and that Blm haploinsufficiency is associated with tumor predisposition, a finding with important implications for cancer risk in humans.

  11. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of...

  12. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of...

  13. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of...

  14. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of...

  15. Semihard processes with BLM renormalization scale setting

    SciTech Connect

    Caporale, Francesco; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2015-04-10

    We apply the BLM scale setting procedure directly to amplitudes (cross sections) of several semihard processes. It is shown that, due to the presence of β{sub 0}-terms in the NLA results for the impact factors, the obtained optimal renormalization scale is not universal, but depends both on the energy and on the process in question. We illustrate this general conclusion considering the following semihard processes: (i) inclusive production of two forward high-p{sub T} jets separated by large interval in rapidity (Mueller-Navelet jets); (ii) high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons; (iii) forward amplitude of the production of two light vector mesons in the collision of two virtual photons.

  16. 43 CFR 2802.11 - How does BLM designate corridors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... air, water, soil, fish, wildlife, and vegetation; (3) Physical effects and constraints on corridor... further review. (d) The resource management plan or plan amendment may also identify areas where BLM...

  17. Prototype of linac BLM at NSRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Yuxiong; Gong, Guanghua; Li, Juexin; Shao, Beibei; Zhao, Zhengguo

    2007-08-01

    A prototype of the Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System for the linac and transportation line has been built up in National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Different from the storage ring, the radiation field around linac and transportation line have a duty factor of 10 -6 and a dose rate of hundreds Gy/h. The Monte-Carlo calculation gave the dose, flux, energy and direction distributions of the radiation field. According to the simulation result, the proper type of detector was chosen and the installation positions were selected accordingly. The widely used ionization chamber is not suitable to give accurate and real-time information of beam loss due to its large dimension and slow respond speed. Several PIN silicon diode-based detectors were designed and tested, and a charge-balanced integrating amplifier circuit was applied to read out the charge. A distributed data acquisition system based on embedded Ethernet technology was implemented in the prototype, which can offer a web server from the microcontroller. From preliminary tests, this new prototype was proved to be sensitive to the change of the linac status, and is a useful tool for monitoring and adjusting machine parameters. Further analyses are required to achieve a more accurate measurement of the beam loss.

  18. 43 CFR 3513.23 - May BLM order a suspension of operations and production (conservation concerns)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Rental and Minimum Royalties Suspension of Operations and Production (conservation Concerns) § 3513.23 May BLM order a suspension of operations and production (conservation concerns)? Yes, BLM may order a suspension of operations and production....

  19. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  20. 43 CFR 3214.14 - May BLM increase the bond amount above the minimum?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minimum? 3214.14 Section 3214.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Personal and Surety Bonds § 3214.14 May BLM increase the bond amount above the minimum? (a) BLM... surface in a timely manner; (3) MMS has notified BLM that a person covered by the bond owes...

  1. 43 CFR 3217.14 - When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When will BLM approve my drilling or... RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.14 When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract? BLM may approve a drilling or development contract when: (a) One or more geothermal lessees enter...

  2. 43 CFR 3217.14 - When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM approve my drilling or... RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.14 When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract? BLM may approve a drilling or development contract when: (a) One or more geothermal lessees enter...

  3. 43 CFR 3504.11 - What forms of payment will BLM and MMS accept?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR part 218 for their payment requirements. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What forms of payment will BLM and MMS... forms of payment will BLM and MMS accept? Make your payments to BLM in cash, postal money...

  4. 43 CFR 3504.11 - What forms of payment will BLM and MMS accept?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 218 for their payment requirements. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What forms of payment will BLM and MMS... forms of payment will BLM and MMS accept? Make your payments to BLM in cash, postal money...

  5. 43 CFR 3504.11 - What forms of payment will BLM and MMS accept?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 218 for their payment requirements. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What forms of payment will BLM and MMS... forms of payment will BLM and MMS accept? Make your payments to BLM in cash, postal money...

  6. 43 CFR 3504.11 - What forms of payment will BLM and MMS accept?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 218 for their payment requirements. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What forms of payment will BLM and MMS... forms of payment will BLM and MMS accept? Make your payments to BLM in cash, postal money...

  7. 43 CFR 3263.10 - May I abandon a well without BLM's approval?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.10 May I abandon a well without BLM's approval? (a) You must have a BLM-approved Sundry Notice documenting your plugging and abandonment program before you start abandoning any well. (b) You must also notify the local BLM office before you begin abandonment activities, so that...

  8. 43 CFR 2933.22 - How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM establish Recreation Use... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.22 How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees? BLM sets recreation use fees and adjusts them from time to time to reflect changes...

  9. 43 CFR 2933.22 - How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM establish Recreation Use... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.22 How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees? BLM sets recreation use fees and adjusts them from time to time to reflect changes...

  10. 43 CFR 2933.22 - How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM establish Recreation Use... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.22 How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees? BLM sets recreation use fees and adjusts them from time to time to reflect changes...

  11. 43 CFR 2933.22 - How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM establish Recreation Use... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.22 How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees? BLM sets recreation use fees and adjusts them from time to time to reflect changes...

  12. 43 CFR 3206.14 - How does BLM compute acreage holdings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM compute acreage holdings? 3206.14 Section 3206.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU... Lease Issuance § 3206.14 How does BLM compute acreage holdings? BLM computes acreage holdings as...

  13. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  14. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  15. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  16. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  17. 43 CFR 3281.18 - What action will BLM take in reviewing the Plan of Development?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What action will BLM take in reviewing the... action will BLM take in reviewing the Plan of Development? BLM will review the Plan of Development to ensure that the types of activities and the timeframes for their completion meet public...

  18. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  19. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  20. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  1. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  2. SUMO modification regulates BLM and RAD51 interaction at damaged replication forks.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Karen J; Woo, Leslie L; Zhu, Jianmei; Huo, Dezheng; Matunis, Michael J; Ellis, Nathan A

    2009-12-01

    The gene mutated in Bloom's syndrome, BLM, is important in the repair of damaged replication forks, and it has both pro- and anti-recombinogenic roles in homologous recombination (HR). At damaged forks, BLM interacts with RAD51 recombinase, the essential enzyme in HR that catalyzes homology-dependent strand invasion. We have previously shown that defects in BLM modification by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) cause increased gamma-H2AX foci. Because the increased gamma-H2AX could result from defective repair of spontaneous DNA damage, we hypothesized that SUMO modification regulates BLM's function in HR repair at damaged forks. To test this hypothesis, we treated cells that stably expressed a normal BLM (BLM+) or a SUMO-mutant BLM (SM-BLM) with hydroxyurea (HU) and examined the effects of stalled replication forks on RAD51 and its DNA repair functions. HU treatment generated excess gamma-H2AX in SM-BLM compared to BLM+ cells, consistent with a defect in replication-fork repair. SM-BLM cells accumulated increased numbers of DNA breaks and were hypersensitive to DNA damage. Importantly, HU treatment failed to induce sister-chromatid exchanges in SM-BLM cells compared to BLM+ cells, indicating a specific defect in HR repair and suggesting that RAD51 function could be compromised. Consistent with this hypothesis, RAD51 localization to HU-induced repair foci was impaired in SM-BLM cells. These data suggested that RAD51 might interact noncovalently with SUMO. We found that in vitro RAD51 interacts noncovalently with SUMO and that it interacts more efficiently with SUMO-modified BLM compared to unmodified BLM. These data suggest that SUMOylation controls the switch between BLM's pro- and anti-recombinogenic roles in HR. In the absence of BLM SUMOylation, BLM perturbs RAD51 localization at damaged replication forks and inhibits fork repair by HR. Conversely, BLM SUMOylation relieves its inhibitory effects on HR, and it promotes RAD51 function.

  3. 43 CFR 2374.2 - Conditions of acceptance by BLM.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... have burdened the lands or interests therein. Group 2400—Land Classification ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conditions of acceptance by BLM. 2374.2 Section 2374.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  4. A Note on Divergences.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    In many areas of neural computation, like learning, optimization, estimation, and inference, suitable divergences play a key role. In this note, we study the conjecture presented by Amari ( 2009 ) and find a counterexample to show that the conjecture does not hold generally. Moreover, we investigate two classes of [Formula: see text]-divergence (Zhang, 2004 ), weighted f-divergence and weighted [Formula: see text]-divergence, and prove that if a divergence is a weighted f-divergence, as well as a Bregman divergence, then it is a weighted [Formula: see text]-divergence. This result reduces in form to the main theorem established by Amari ( 2009 ) when [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text].

  5. 77 FR 71822 - Notice of Availability of the BLM's Responses to Public Comments and of the BLM's Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ..., 2012, 77 FR 41442. This Notice announces the availability of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM... this area and has been mined since 1930. The Secretary issued the first Potash Order in 1939 (4 FR 1012... with development of the other (16 FR 10669, October 18, 1951). The Order was amended in 1965 (30...

  6. 78 FR 68466 - BLM Director's Response to the Idaho Governor's Appeal of the BLM Idaho State Director's Governor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Sage-Grouse Plan concerns, your letter did not identify inconsistencies between your Plan and any of... regulatory requirements by specifically identifying inconsistencies between the Greater Sage-Grouse Plan and... of BLM Idaho's statement that your Greater Sage-Grouse Plan was `not sufficiently final' to...

  7. 78 FR 4435 - BLM Director's Response to the Alaska Governor's Appeal of the BLM Alaska State Director's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Finding ] of No Significant Impact for the Delta River Special Recreation Management Area (SRMA) Plan and... business hours. A copy of the Delta River SRMA Plan and EARMP are available on the BLM-Alaska Web site at... Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Delta River SRMA Plan and the EARMP...

  8. Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Divergent Spatial Memory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can…

  9. 43 CFR 2568.111 - What if BLM decides that I qualify for land that is in the category of Federal land that BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What if BLM decides that I qualify for land that is in the category of Federal land that BLM cannot convey? 2568.111 Section 2568.111 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT...

  10. 43 CFR 2884.25 - What activities may I conduct on BLM lands covered by my application for a grant or TUP while BLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What activities may I conduct on BLM lands covered by my application for a grant or TUP while BLM is processing my application? 2884.25 Section 2884.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND...

  11. Development of a BLM-based intelligent biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng; Wei, Yunlong; Cai, Shaoxi; Tien, H. Ti; Ottova, Angelica L.

    2001-09-01

    Bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) are promising 'smart' materials for biosensor and biomolecules. A novel pH-microbe of an acupuncture needle support with BLM modified by electron mediators was fabricated. An intelligent biosensor system BLM-based was developed. The intelligent system can automatically measure and analyze pH value of aqueous solution with probes BLMs-based and Si-chips thin-film as sensing elements. It can also give a warning message when the pH value of aqueous solution is over one threshold value. The intelligent system has communication interface of computer. A monitoring system based network can be constructed by connection the intelligence system with computers.

  12. Theoretical analysis of BLM system for HLS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Li, Yu-Xiong; Li, Wei-Min; He, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS) is being upgraded to HLS II. Its emittance will be much lower than before, therefore the Touschek scattering will increase significantly and become the dominant factor of beam loss. So it is necessary to build a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system that, in contrast to the old one, is able to obtain the quantity and position information of lost electrons. This information is useful in the commissioning, troubleshooting, and beam lifetime studying for HLS II. This paper analyzes the distribution features of different kinds of lost electrons, introduces the operation parameters of the new machine and discusses how to choose proper monitoring positions. Based on these comprehensive analyses, a new BLM system for HLS II is proposed.

  13. SNS BLM SYSTEM EVOLUTION: DETECTORS, ELECTRONICS AND SOFTWARE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, Alexander P; Pogge, James R; Dickson, Richard W

    2009-01-01

    SNS is a high intensity hadron beam facility; so the Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) system is a crucial part of Machine Protection System and an important tool for beam tuning. The paper presents the current status of installed detectors and experimental data obtained during SNS operations. We compare several different types of BLMs and show advantages and disadvantages of each type. The electronic parts obsolescence became a real issue since the original electronics was designed about 10 years ago. The first test of our next generation BLM system is expected to be done by summer 2009. The new system will contribute to significant noise reduction and will follow a modular concept of Smart Device to achieve a higher degree of reliability and maintainability.

  14. Quantum skew divergence

    SciTech Connect

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  15. 75 FR 34152 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... attend and need special assistance, such as sign language interpretation, transportation, or other reasonable accommodations, should contact the BLM. Dated: June 9, 2010. Julia Dougan, Acting State...

  16. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  17. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  18. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  19. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  20. 43 CFR 3602.29 - How will BLM verify my production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM verify my production? 3602.29... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.29 How will BLM verify my production? (a) You must submit...

  1. 43 CFR 3284.9 - May BLM set or modify production or injection rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May BLM set or modify production or... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Unit Operations § 3284.9 May BLM set or modify production or injection rates?...

  2. 43 CFR 3602.29 - How will BLM verify my production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM verify my production? 3602.29... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.29 How will BLM verify my production? (a) You must submit...

  3. 43 CFR 3602.29 - How will BLM verify my production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM verify my production? 3602.29... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales § 3602.29 How will BLM verify my production? (a) You must submit...

  4. 43 CFR 3284.9 - May BLM set or modify production or injection rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May BLM set or modify production or... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Unit Operations § 3284.9 May BLM set or modify production or injection rates?...

  5. 43 CFR 3284.9 - May BLM set or modify production or injection rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May BLM set or modify production or... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Unit Operations § 3284.9 May BLM set or modify production or injection rates?...

  6. 43 CFR 1823.10 - How may I make my payments to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How may I make my payments to BLM? 1823.10 Section 1823.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 1823.10 How may I make my payments to BLM? Unless specific regulations provide otherwise, you may...

  7. 43 CFR 1823.10 - How may I make my payments to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How may I make my payments to BLM? 1823.10 Section 1823.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 1823.10 How may I make my payments to BLM? Unless specific regulations provide otherwise, you may...

  8. 43 CFR 1823.10 - How may I make my payments to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How may I make my payments to BLM? 1823.10 Section 1823.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 1823.10 How may I make my payments to BLM? Unless specific regulations provide otherwise, you may...

  9. 43 CFR 1823.10 - How may I make my payments to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How may I make my payments to BLM? 1823.10 Section 1823.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 1823.10 How may I make my payments to BLM? Unless specific regulations provide otherwise, you may...

  10. 43 CFR 3601.51 - How will BLM inspect my operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM inspect my operation? 3601.51 Section 3601.51 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Materials Disposal; General Provisions Contract and Permit Administration § 3601.51 How will BLM inspect...

  11. 43 CFR 3137.51 - Under what conditions does BLM permit multiple unit operators?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Under what conditions does BLM permit multiple unit operators? 3137.51 Section 3137.51 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...-Alaska Optional Terms § 3137.51 Under what conditions does BLM permit multiple unit operators?...

  12. 43 CFR 3262.13 - May BLM require me to follow a well spacing program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... spacing program? 3262.13 Section 3262.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.13 May BLM require me to follow a well spacing program? BLM may require you to follow a well spacing program if we determine that it is necessary...

  13. 43 CFR 2933.14 - For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false For what time may BLM issue a Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.14 For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit? You may obtain a permit for a day, season of use, year, or any other time period...

  14. 43 CFR 2933.14 - For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false For what time may BLM issue a Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.14 For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit? You may obtain a permit for a day, season of use, year, or any other time period...

  15. 43 CFR 2933.14 - For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false For what time may BLM issue a Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.14 For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit? You may obtain a permit for a day, season of use, year, or any other time period...

  16. 43 CFR 2933.14 - For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false For what time may BLM issue a Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.14 For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit? You may obtain a permit for a day, season of use, year, or any other time period...

  17. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  18. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  19. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  20. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  1. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  2. 43 CFR 6301.3 - What is a BLM wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is a BLM wilderness area? 6301.3 Section 6301.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... public lands that Congress has designated for BLM to manage as a component of the National...

  3. 43 CFR 6301.3 - What is a BLM wilderness area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is a BLM wilderness area? 6301.3 Section 6301.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... public lands that Congress has designated for BLM to manage as a component of the National...

  4. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may I use a wheelchair in BLM... § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use of a wheelchair, you may use a wheelchair in a wilderness. Consistent with the Wilderness Act and...

  5. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may I use a wheelchair in BLM... § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use of a wheelchair, you may use a wheelchair in a wilderness. Consistent with the Wilderness Act and...

  6. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may I use a wheelchair in BLM... § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use of a wheelchair, you may use a wheelchair in a wilderness. Consistent with the Wilderness Act and...

  7. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may I use a wheelchair in BLM... § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use of a wheelchair, you may use a wheelchair in a wilderness. Consistent with the Wilderness Act and...

  8. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  9. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  10. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  11. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  12. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  13. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  14. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  15. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  16. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  17. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  18. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  19. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  20. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  1. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  2. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  3. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  4. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  5. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  6. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  7. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  8. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  9. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  10. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  11. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  12. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  13. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  14. Stream and River Condition Across the BLM's National System of Public Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meeting Abstract: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted the first ever Western Rivers and Streams Assessment (WRSA), a survey of the condition of BLM streams and rivers throughout the contiguous western U.S...

  15. Stream and River Condition Across the BLM's National System of Public Lands.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted the first ever Western Rivers and Streams Assessment (WRSA), a survey of the condition of BLM streams and rivers throughout the contiguous western U.S. The WRSA was desi...

  16. 43 CFR 3263.14 - May BLM require me to abandon a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May BLM require me to abandon a well? 3263.14 Section 3263.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.14 May BLM require me...

  17. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  18. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  19. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  20. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  1. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  2. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  3. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  4. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  5. Carrier relaxation time divergence in single and double layer cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M. L.; Rast, S.; Onellion, M.; Demsar, J.; Taylor, A. J.; Glinka, Y.; Tolk, N. H.; Ren, Y. H.; Lüpke, G.; Klimov, A.; Xu, Y.; Sobolewski, R.; Si, W.; Zeng, X. H.; Soukiassian, A.; Xi, X. X.; Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Pavuna, D.; Krapf, A.; Manzke, R.; Printz, J. O.; Williamsen, M. S.; Downum, K. E.; Guptasarma, P.; Bozovic, I.

    2003-12-01

    We report the transient optical pump-probe reflectivity measurements on single and double layer cuprate single crystals and thin films of ten different stoichiometries. We find that with sufficiently low fluence the relaxation time (tauR) of all samples exhibits a power law divergence with temperature (T): tauR ∝ T^{-3 ± 0.5}. Further, the divergence has an onset temperature above the superconducting transition temperature for all superconducting samples. Possible causes of this divergence are discussed.

  6. 43 CFR 2804.20 - How does BLM determine reasonable costs for Processing Category 6 or Monitoring Category 6...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM determine reasonable costs... Applying for FLPMA Grants § 2804.20 How does BLM determine reasonable costs for Processing Category 6 or....21 of this subpart to determine reasonable costs. Submit to the BLM field office having...

  7. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What action will BLM take when it receives... Operations § 3809.411 What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations? (a) BLM will review... is complete, that is, it meets the content requirements of § 3809.401(b); (2) Your plan does...

  8. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What action will BLM take when it receives... Operations § 3809.411 What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations? (a) BLM will review... is complete, that is, it meets the content requirements of § 3809.401(b); (2) Your plan does...

  9. Multiple Functions of Drosophila BLM Helicase in Maintenance of Genome Stability

    PubMed Central

    McVey, Mitch; Andersen, Sabrina L.; Broze, Yuri; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Bloom Syndrome, a rare human disorder characterized by genomic instability and predisposition to cancer, is caused by mutation of BLM, which encodes a RecQ-family DNA helicase. The Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of BLM, DmBlm, is encoded by mus309. Mutations in mus309 cause hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, female sterility, and defects in repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs). To better understand these phenotypes, we isolated novel mus309 alleles. Mutations that delete the N terminus of DmBlm, but not the helicase domain, have DSB repair defects as severe as those caused by null mutations. We found that female sterility is due to a requirement for DmBlm in early embryonic cell cycles; embryos lacking maternally derived DmBlm have anaphase bridges and other mitotic defects. These defects were less severe for the N-terminal deletion alleles, so we used one of these mutations to assay meiotic recombination. Crossovers were decreased to about half the normal rate, and the remaining crossovers were evenly distributed along the chromosome. We also found that spontaneous mitotic crossovers are increased by several orders of magnitude in mus309 mutants. These results demonstrate that DmBlm functions in multiple cellular contexts to promote genome stability. PMID:17507683

  10. The BLM helicase contributes to telomere maintenance through processing of late-replicating intermediate structures

    PubMed Central

    Barefield, Colleen; Karlseder, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Werner’s syndrome (WS) and Bloom’s syndrome (BS) are cancer predisposition disorders caused by loss of function of the RecQ helicases WRN or BLM, respectively. BS and WS are characterized by replication defects, hyperrecombination events and chromosomal aberrations, which are hallmarks of cancer. Inefficient replication of the G-rich telomeric strand contributes to chromosome aberrations in WS cells, demonstrating a link between WRN, telomeres and genomic stability. Herein, we provide evidence that BLM also contributes to chromosome-end maintenance. Telomere defects (TDs) are observed in BLM-deficient cells at an elevated frequency, which is similar to cells lacking a functional WRN helicase. Loss of both helicases exacerbates TDs and chromosome aberrations, indicating that BLM and WRN function independently in telomere maintenance. BLM localization, particularly its recruitment to telomeres, changes in response to replication dysfunction, such as in WRN-deficient cells or after aphidicolin treatment. Exposure to replication challenge causes an increase in decatenated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) structures and late-replicating intermediates (LRIs), which are visible as BLM-covered ultra-fine bridges (UFBs) in anaphase. A subset of UFBs originates from telomeric DNA and their frequency correlates with telomere replication defects. We propose that the BLM complex contributes to telomere maintenance through its activity in resolving LRIs. PMID:22576367

  11. Deleterious Germline BLM Mutations and the Risk for Early-onset Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Voer, Richarda M.; Hahn, Marc-Manuel; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Hoischen, Alexander; Gilissen, Christian; Henkes, Arjen; Spruijt, Liesbeth; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Marleen Kets, C.; Verwiel, Eugene T.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Schackert, Hans K.; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.L.; Kuiper, Roland P.

    2015-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chromosomal instability and increased cancer risk, caused by biallelic mutations in the RECQL-helicase gene BLM. Previous studies have led to conflicting conclusions as to whether carriers of heterozygous BLM mutations have an increased risk to develop colorectal cancer (CRC). We recently identified two carriers of a pathogenic BLM mutation in a cohort of 55 early-onset CRC patients (≤45 years of age), suggesting an overrepresentation compared to the normal population. Here, we performed targeted sequencing using molecular inversion probes to screen an additional cohort of 185 CRC patients (≤50 years of age) and 532 population-matched controls for deleterious BLM mutations. In total, we identified three additional CRC patients (1.6%) and one control individual (0.2%) that carried a known pathogenic BLM mutation, suggesting that these mutations are enriched in early-onset CRC patients (P = 0.05516). A comparison with local and publically available databases from individuals without suspicion for hereditary cancer confirmed this enrichment (P = 0.003534). Analysis of family members of the five BLM mutation carriers with CRC suggests an incomplete penetrance for CRC development. Therefore, these data indicate that carriers of deleterious BLM mutations are at increased risk to develop CRC, albeit with a moderate-to-low penetrance. PMID:26358404

  12. PICH and BLM limit histone association with anaphase centromeric DNA threads and promote their resolution.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuwen; Huh, Jae-Wan; Warrington, Ross; Li, Bing; Wu, Nan; Leng, Mei; Zhang, Junmei; Ball, Haydn L; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongtao

    2011-08-17

    Centromeres nucleate the formation of kinetochores and are vital for chromosome segregation during mitosis. The SNF2 family helicase PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase) and the BLM (the Bloom's syndrome protein) helicase decorate ultrafine histone-negative DNA threads that link the segregating sister centromeres during anaphase. The functions of PICH and BLM at these threads are not understood, however. Here, we show that PICH binds to BLM and enables BLM localization to anaphase centromeric threads. PICH- or BLM-RNAi cells fail to resolve these threads in anaphase. The fragmented threads form centromeric-chromatin-containing micronuclei in daughter cells. Anaphase threads in PICH- and BLM-RNAi cells contain histones and centromere markers. Recombinant purified PICH has nucleosome remodelling activities in vitro. We propose that PICH and BLM unravel centromeric chromatin and keep anaphase DNA threads mostly free of nucleosomes, thus allowing these threads to span long distances between rapidly segregating centromeres without breakage and providing a spatiotemporal window for their resolution. PMID:21743438

  13. Parallels and Divergences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spray, Martin

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the varying philosophical viewpoints and program orientations associated with the conservation movement, assessing the implications of these divergences on the objectives and instructional methods of environmental education. Also identifies and explains the range of differences existing in environmental education programs. (ML)

  14. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  15. Statistics of divergence times.

    PubMed

    Haubold, B; Wiehe, T

    2001-07-01

    Given the number of nucleotide substitutions between two species (K) and the substitution rate nu, the expectation of the corresponding divergence time is usually calculated as K/(2 nu). This is strictly true only if nu is regarded as a constant because the ratio of two random variables, such as K/(2 nu), has distributional properties different from those of the distribution of K. Therefore, both the mean and any confidence interval for divergence times are unknown in this situation. We model the distribution of K and nu using the Gamma distribution and calculate the mean and 95% confidence interval for the corresponding divergence time. These calculations are compared with results obtained by bootstrapping sequence data from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and its relatives. We show that for nonoverlapping pairs of phylogenetic distances, our method approaches the bootstrap results very closely. In contrast, regarding the mutation rate as a constant leads to strong underestimation of the confidence interval. An implementation of our method of computing divergence times is accessible through a web interface at http://www.soft.ice.mpg.de/cite.

  16. Ion divergence in magnetically insulated diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Slutz, S.A.; Lemke, R.W.; Pointon, T.D.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Filuk, A.; Bailey, J.

    1995-12-01

    Magnetically insulated ion diodes are being developed to drive inertial confinement fusion. Ion beam microdivergence must be reduced to achieve the very high beam intensities required to achieve this goal. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that instability induced fluctuations can produce significant ion divergence during acceleration. These simulations exhibit a fast growing mode early in time, which has been identified as the diocotron instability. The divergence generated by this mode is modest due to the relatively high frequency (>1GHz). Later, a low-frequency low-phase-velocity instability develops. This instability couples effectively to the ions, since the frequency is approximately the reciprocal of the ion transit time, and can generate unacceptably large ion divergences (>30 mrad). Linear stability theory reveals that this mode requires perturbations parallel to the applied magnetic field and is related to the modified two stream instability. Measurements of ion density fluctuations and energy-momentum correlations have confirmed that instabilities develop in ion diodes and contribute to the ion divergence. In addition, spectroscopic measurements indicate that the ions have a significant transverse temperature very close to the emission surface. Passive lithium fluoride (LiF) anodes have larger transverse beam temperatures than laser irradiated active sources. Calculations of source divergence expected from the roughness of LiF surfaces and the possible removal of this layer is presented.

  17. 43 CFR 3602.13 - How does BLM measure and establish the price of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000... contract renewal period. (c) BLM measures mineral materials by in-place volume or weight equivalent....

  18. 43 CFR 6302.19 - When may BLM close or restrict use of wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION (6000... out the provisions of the Wilderness Act and other Federal laws, BLM may close or restrict the use...

  19. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the... number of reindeer you are grazing; or (b) When disposal, withdrawal, natural causes, such as drought...

  20. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the... number of reindeer you are grazing; or (b) When disposal, withdrawal, natural causes, such as drought...

  1. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the... number of reindeer you are grazing; or (b) When disposal, withdrawal, natural causes, such as drought...

  2. 43 CFR 4300.53 - Can BLM reduce the size of the land in my permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Changes in the Size of the Permit Area § 4300.53 Can BLM reduce the size of the... number of reindeer you are grazing; or (b) When disposal, withdrawal, natural causes, such as drought...

  3. Higher-order prediction terms and fixing the renormalization scale using the BLM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, Abolfazl; Khellat, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    There is an ambiguity in the perturbative series of QCD observables on how to choose the renormalization and even more the factorization scale. There are many approaches to overcome this obstacle and to fix the scales. Among them, there is the Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie (BLM) approach which is based on an intriguing principle. Based on the BLM approach, we intend to absorb the nf-terms in the pQCD series that rightly determines the running behavior of the running coupling into the running coupling. We make an extensive use of the BLM approach to investigate the details of predicting higher order correction terms of some QCD observables. By this way we test different methods to improve the prediction process. It is also found out that an overall normalization could change BLM predictions effectively.

  4. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  5. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  6. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  7. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  8. Divergence Boundary Conditions for Vector Helmholtz Equations with Divergence Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangro, Urve; Nicolaides, Roy

    1997-01-01

    The idea of replacing a divergence constraint by a divergence boundary condition is investigated. The connections between the formulations are considered in detail. It is shown that the most common methods of using divergence boundary conditions do not always work properly. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of the formulations are given.

  9. Dynamics of the DNA repair proteins WRN and BLM in the nucleoplasm and nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Jensen, Martin Borch; May, Alfred; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Trusina, Ala; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Jensen, Mogens H

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the mobility of two EGFP-tagged DNA repair proteins, WRN and BLM. In particular, we focused on the dynamics in two locations, the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. We found that both WRN and BLM use a "DNA-scanning" mechanism, with rapid binding-unbinding to DNA resulting in effective diffusion. In the nucleoplasm WRN and BLM have effective diffusion coefficients of 1.62 and 1.34 μm(2)/s, respectively. Likewise, the dynamics in the nucleoli are also best described by effective diffusion, but with diffusion coefficients a factor of ten lower than in the nucleoplasm. From this large reduction in diffusion coefficient we were able to classify WRN and BLM as DNA damage scanners. In addition to WRN and BLM we also classified other DNA damage proteins and found they all fall into one of two categories. Either they are scanners, similar to WRN and BLM, with very low diffusion coefficients, suggesting a scanning mechanism, or they are almost freely diffusing, suggesting that they interact with DNA only after initiation of a DNA damage response.

  10. Sources and Structures of Mitotic Crossovers That Arise When BLM Helicase Is Absent in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    LaFave, Matthew C.; Andersen, Sabrina L.; Stoffregen, Eric P.; Holsclaw, Julie K.; Kohl, Kathryn P.; Overton, Lewis J.; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, has numerous functions that prevent mitotic crossovers. We used unique features of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate origins and properties of mitotic crossovers that occur when BLM is absent. Induction of lesions that block replication forks increased crossover frequencies, consistent with functions for BLM in responding to fork blockage. In contrast, treatment with hydroxyurea, which stalls forks, did not elevate crossovers, even though mutants lacking BLM are sensitive to killing by this agent. To learn about sources of spontaneous recombination, we mapped mitotic crossovers in mutants lacking BLM. In the male germline, irradiation-induced crossovers were distributed randomly across the euchromatin, but spontaneous crossovers were nonrandom. We suggest that regions of the genome with a high frequency of mitotic crossovers may be analogous to common fragile sites in the human genome. Interestingly, in the male germline there is a paucity of crossovers in the interval that spans the pericentric heterochromatin, but in the female germline this interval is more prone to crossing over. Finally, our system allowed us to recover pairs of reciprocal crossover chromosomes. Sequencing of these revealed the existence of gene conversion tracts and did not provide any evidence for mutations associated with crossovers. These findings provide important new insights into sources and structures of mitotic crossovers and functions of BLM helicase. PMID:24172129

  11. Dynamics of the DNA repair proteins WRN and BLM in the nucleoplasm and nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Jensen, Martin Borch; May, Alfred; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Trusina, Ala; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Jensen, Mogens H

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the mobility of two EGFP-tagged DNA repair proteins, WRN and BLM. In particular, we focused on the dynamics in two locations, the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. We found that both WRN and BLM use a "DNA-scanning" mechanism, with rapid binding-unbinding to DNA resulting in effective diffusion. In the nucleoplasm WRN and BLM have effective diffusion coefficients of 1.62 and 1.34 μm(2)/s, respectively. Likewise, the dynamics in the nucleoli are also best described by effective diffusion, but with diffusion coefficients a factor of ten lower than in the nucleoplasm. From this large reduction in diffusion coefficient we were able to classify WRN and BLM as DNA damage scanners. In addition to WRN and BLM we also classified other DNA damage proteins and found they all fall into one of two categories. Either they are scanners, similar to WRN and BLM, with very low diffusion coefficients, suggesting a scanning mechanism, or they are almost freely diffusing, suggesting that they interact with DNA only after initiation of a DNA damage response. PMID:25119658

  12. Loss of Blm enhances basal cell carcinoma and rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis in Ptch1+/- mice.

    PubMed

    Davari, Parastoo; Hebert, Jennifer L; Albertson, Donna G; Huey, Bing; Roy, Ritu; Mancianti, Maria L; Horvai, Andrew E; McDaniel, Lisa D; Schultz, Roger A; Epstein, Ervin H

    2010-06-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) have relative genomic stability and relatively benign clinical behavior but whether these two are related causally is unknown. To investigate the effects of introducing genomic instability into murine BCCs, we have compared ionizing radiation-induced tumorigenesis in Ptch1(+/-) mice versus that in Ptch1(+/-) mice carrying mutant Blm alleles. We found that BCCs in Ptch1(+/-) Blm(tm3Brd/tm3Brd) mice had a trend toward greater genomic instability as measured by array comprehensive genomic hybridization and that these mice developed significantly more microscopic BCCs than did Ptch1(+/-) Blm(+/tm3Brd) or Ptch1(+/-) Blm(+/+) mice. The mutant Blm alleles also markedly enhanced the formation of rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs), another cancer to which Ptch1(+/)(-) mice and PTCH1(+/)(-) (basal cell nevus syndrome) patients are susceptible. Highly recurrent but different copy number changes were associated with the two tumor types and included losses of chromosomes 4 and 10 in all BCCs and gain of chromosome 10 in 80% of RMSs. Loss of chromosome 11 and 13, including the Trp53 and Ptch1 loci, respectively, occurred frequently in BCCs, suggesting tissue-specific selection for genes or pathways that collaborate with Ptch deficiency in tumorigenesis. Despite the quantitative differences, there was no dramatic qualititative difference in the BCC or RMS tumors associated with the mutant Blm genotype.

  13. Unwinding forward and sliding back: an intermittent unwinding mode of the BLM helicase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Qin, Wei; Li, Jing-Hua; Lu, Ying; Lu, Ke-Yu; Nong, Da-Guan; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xu, Chun-Hua; Xi, Xu-Guang; Li, Ming

    2015-04-20

    There are lines of evidence that the Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, catalyzes regression of stalled replication forks and disrupts displacement loops (D-loops) formed during homologous recombination (HR). Here we constructed a forked DNA with a 3' single-stranded gap and a 5' double-stranded handle to partly mimic a stalled DNA fork and used magnetic tweezers to study BLM-catalyzed unwinding of the forked DNA. We have directly observed that the BLM helicase may slide on the opposite strand for some distance after duplex unwinding at different forces. For DNA construct with a long hairpin, progressive unwinding of the hairpin is frequently interrupted by strand switching and backward sliding of the enzyme. Quantitative study of the uninterrupted unwinding length (time) has revealed a two-state-transition mechanism for strand-switching during the unwinding process. Mutational studies revealed that the RQC domain plays an important role in stabilizing the helicase/DNA interaction during both DNA unwinding and backward sliding of BLM. Especially, Lys1125 in the RQC domain, a highly conserved amino acid among RecQ helicases, may be involved in the backward sliding activity. We have also directly observed the in vitro pathway that BLM disrupts the mimic stalled replication fork. These results may shed new light on the mechanisms for BLM in DNA repair and homologous recombination.

  14. Drosophila bloom helicase maintains genome integrity by inhibiting recombination between divergent DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kappeler, Michael; Kranz, Elisabeth; Woolcock, Katrina; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) can be repaired either via a sequence independent joining of DNA ends or via homologous recombination. We established a detection system in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of sequence constraints on the usage of the homology based DSB repair via single strand annealing (SSA), which leads to recombination between direct repeats with concomitant loss of one repeat copy. First of all, we find the SSA frequency to be inversely proportional to the spacer length between the repeats, for spacers up to 2.4 kb in length. We further show that SSA between divergent repeats (homeologous SSA) is suppressed in cell cultures and in vivo in a sensitive manner, recognizing sequence divergences smaller than 0.5%. Finally, we demonstrate that the suppression of homeologous SSA depends on the Bloom helicase (Blm), encoded by the Drosophila gene mus309. Suppression of homeologous recombination is a novel function of Blm in ensuring genomic integrity, not described to date in mammalian systems. Unexpectedly, distinct from its function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mismatch repair factor Msh2 encoded by spel1 does not suppress homeologous SSA in Drosophila. PMID:18978019

  15. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  16. Dynamic Investigation of Static Divergence: Analysis and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    The phenomenon known as aeroelastic divergence is the focus of this work. The analyses and experiment presented here show that divergence can occur without a structural dynamic mode losing its oscillatory nature. Aeroelastic divergence occurs when the structural restorative capability or stiffness of a structure is overwhelmed by the static aerodynamic moment. This static aeroelastic coupling does not require the structural dynamic system behavior to cease, however. Aeroelastic changes in the dynamic mode behavior are governed not only by the stiffness, but by damping and inertial properties. The work presented here supports these fundamental assertions by examining a simple system: a typical section airfoil with only a rotational structural degree of freedom. Analytical results identified configurations that exhibit different types of dynamic mode behavior as the system encounters divergence. A wind tunnel model was designed and tested to examine divergence experimentally. The experimental results validate the analytical calculations and explicitly examine the divergence phenomenon where the dynamic mode persists. Three configurations of the wind tunnel model were tested. The experimental results agree very well with the analytical predictions of subcritical characteristics, divergence velocity, and behavior of the noncritical dynamic mode at divergence.

  17. Structural mechanisms of human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The RecQ family DNA helicases Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) play a key role in protecting the genome against deleterious changes. In humans, mutations in these proteins lead to rare genetic diseases associated with cancer predisposition and accelerated aging. WRN and BLM are distinguished from other helicases by possessing signature tandem domains toward the C terminus, referred to as the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) and helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC) domains. Although the precise function of the HRDC domain remains unclear, the previous crystal structure of a WRN RQC-DNA complex visualized a central role for the RQC domain in recognizing, binding and unwinding DNA at branch points. In particular, a prominent hairpin structure (the β-wing) within the RQC winged-helix motif acts as a scalpel to induce the unpairing of a Watson–Crick base pair at the DNA duplex terminus. A similar RQC-DNA interaction was also observed in the recent crystal structure of a BLM-DNA complex. I review the latest structures of WRN and BLM, and then provide a docking simulation of BLM with a Holliday junction. The model offers an explanation for the efficient branch migration activity of the RecQ family toward recombination and repair intermediates. PMID:25400656

  18. The risk for developing cancer in Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Yael; Boker-Keinan, Lital; Berkenstadt, Michal; Liphsitz, Irena; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Ries-Levavi, Liat; Sarouk, Ifat; Pras, Elon; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer risks in heterozygous mutation carriers of the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes are controversial. To shed light on this issue, cancer rates were evaluated by cross referencing asymptomatic Israeli heterozygous mutation carriers in the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes with cancer diagnoses registered at the Israeli National Cancer Registry (INCR). Comparison of observed to expected Standardized Incidence Rates (SIR) was performed. Overall, 474 individuals participated in the study: 378 females; 25 Arab and 31 Jewish ATM carriers, 152 BLM carriers, and 170 FANCC carriers (all Ashkenazim). Age range at genotyping was 19-53 years (mean + SD 30.6 + 5 years). In addition, 96 males were included; 5, 34, and 57 ATM, BLM, and FANCC mutation carriers, respectively. Over 5-16 years from genotyping (4721 person/years), 15 new cancers were diagnosed in mutation carriers: 5 breast, 4 cervical, 3 melanomas, and one each bone sarcoma, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer. No single cancer diagnosis was more prevalent then expected in all groups combined or per gene analyzed. Specifically breast cancer SIR was 0.02-0.77. We conclude that Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers are not at an increased risk for developing cancer.

  19. 43 CFR 3263.12 - How will BLM review my Sundry Notice to abandon my well and notify me of their decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.12 How will BLM review my... review is complete. Do not start abandonment of the well until we approve your Sundry Notice. (b) BLM...

  20. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to...

  1. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to...

  2. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to...

  3. 43 CFR 3503.44 - How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? 3503.44 Section 3503.44 Public Lands: Interior... Leasing Filing Applications § 3503.44 How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the...

  4. 43 CFR 3255.13 - How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? 3255.13 Section 3255.13 Public Lands: Interior... will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? Under the...

  5. 43 CFR 3503.44 - How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? 3503.44 Section 3503.44 Public Lands: Interior... Leasing Filing Applications § 3503.44 How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the...

  6. 43 CFR 3255.13 - How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? 3255.13 Section 3255.13 Public Lands: Interior... will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? Under the...

  7. 43 CFR 3503.44 - How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? 3503.44 Section 3503.44 Public Lands: Interior... Leasing Filing Applications § 3503.44 How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the...

  8. 43 CFR 3255.13 - How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? 3255.13 Section 3255.13 Public Lands: Interior... will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? Under the...

  9. 43 CFR 3503.44 - How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? 3503.44 Section 3503.44 Public Lands: Interior... Leasing Filing Applications § 3503.44 How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the...

  10. 43 CFR 3255.13 - How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? 3255.13 Section 3255.13 Public Lands: Interior... will BLM treat Indian information submitted under the Indian Mineral Development Act? Under the...

  11. 43 CFR 3809.203 - What are the limitations on BLM deferral to State regulation of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the limitations on BLM deferral to State regulation of operations? 3809.203 Section 3809.203 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... § 3809.203 What are the limitations on BLM deferral to State regulation of operations? Any...

  12. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to...

  13. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  14. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  15. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  16. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  17. 43 CFR 3275.21 - May BLM order me to drill and produce wells on my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wells on my lease? 3275.21 Section 3275.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.21 May BLM order me to drill and produce wells on my lease? BLM may order you to drill and produce wells on your lease when we find it necessary...

  18. 43 CFR 3506.13 - What information must I provide to BLM to include in the notice of exploration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include in the notice of exploration? 3506.13 Section 3506.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Obtaining Exploration Licenses § 3506.13 What information must I provide to BLM to include in the notice of... the BLM office where your exploration plan will be available for inspection; and (d) An invitation...

  19. 43 CFR 3272.13 - How will BLM review my utilization plan and notify me of its decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization Plan and Facility Construction Permit § 3272.13 How will BLM review... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM review my utilization plan and notify me of its decision? 3272.13 Section 3272.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...

  20. 43 CFR 3512.11 - Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? 3512.11 Section 3512.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 3512.11 Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? You may assign or...

  1. 43 CFR 3509.18 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? 3509.18 Section 3509.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Applications § 3509.18 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? (a)...

  2. 43 CFR 3512.11 - Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? 3512.11 Section 3512.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 3512.11 Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? You may assign or...

  3. 43 CFR 3509.48 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease? 3509.48 Section 3509.48 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Lease Applications § 3509.48 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional...

  4. 43 CFR 3509.18 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? 3509.18 Section 3509.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Applications § 3509.18 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? (a)...

  5. 43 CFR 3509.48 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease? 3509.48 Section 3509.48 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Lease Applications § 3509.48 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional...

  6. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  7. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  8. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  9. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  10. 43 CFR 3809.601 - What types of enforcement action may BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What types of enforcement action may BLM... Inspection and Enforcement § 3809.601 What types of enforcement action may BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart? BLM may issue various types of enforcement orders, including the following:...

  11. 43 CFR 3715.7-1 - What types of enforcement action can BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of enforcement action can BLM... Laws § 3715.7-1 What types of enforcement action can BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart? BLM has four types of orders that it can issue depending on the circumstances: (a)...

  12. 43 CFR 3715.7-1 - What types of enforcement action can BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of enforcement action can BLM... Laws § 3715.7-1 What types of enforcement action can BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart? BLM has four types of orders that it can issue depending on the circumstances: (a)...

  13. 43 CFR 3809.601 - What types of enforcement action may BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of enforcement action may BLM... Inspection and Enforcement § 3809.601 What types of enforcement action may BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart? BLM may issue various types of enforcement orders, including the following:...

  14. 43 CFR 3715.7-1 - What types of enforcement action can BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What types of enforcement action can BLM... Laws § 3715.7-1 What types of enforcement action can BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart? BLM has four types of orders that it can issue depending on the circumstances: (a)...

  15. 43 CFR 3809.601 - What types of enforcement action may BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of enforcement action may BLM... Inspection and Enforcement § 3809.601 What types of enforcement action may BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart? BLM may issue various types of enforcement orders, including the following:...

  16. 43 CFR 3715.7-1 - What types of enforcement action can BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of enforcement action can BLM... Laws § 3715.7-1 What types of enforcement action can BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart? BLM has four types of orders that it can issue depending on the circumstances: (a)...

  17. 43 CFR 3809.601 - What types of enforcement action may BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of enforcement action may BLM... Inspection and Enforcement § 3809.601 What types of enforcement action may BLM take if I do not meet the requirements of this subpart? BLM may issue various types of enforcement orders, including the following:...

  18. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  19. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  20. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  1. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  2. The Ashkenazic Jewish Bloom syndrome mutation blmAsh is present in non-Jewish Americans of Spanish ancestry.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, N A; Ciocci, S; Proytcheva, M; Lennon, D; Groden, J; German, J

    1998-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is more frequent in the Ashkenazic Jewish population than in any other. There the predominant mutation, referred to as "blmAsh," is a 6-bp deletion and 7-bp insertion at nucleotide position 2281 in the BLM cDNA. Using a convenient PCR assay, we have identified blmAsh on 58 of 60 chromosomes transmitted by Ashkenazic parents to persons with BS. In contrast, in 91 unrelated non-Ashkenazic persons with BS whom we examined, blmAsh was identified only in 5, these coming from Spanish-speaking Christian families from the southwestern United States, Mexico, or El Salvador. These data, along with haplotype analyses, show that blmAsh was independently established through a founder effect in Ashkenazic Jews and in immigrants to formerly Spanish colonies. This striking observation underscores the complexity of Jewish history and demonstrates the importance of migration and genetic drift in the formation of human populations. PMID:9837821

  3. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  4. Gene duplication and divergence produce divergent MHC genotypes without disassortative mating.

    PubMed

    Dearborn, Donald C; Gager, Andrea B; McArthur, Andrew G; Gilmour, Morgan E; Mandzhukova, Elena; Mauck, Robert A

    2016-09-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exhibit heterozygote advantage in immune defence, which in turn can select for MHC-disassortative mate choice. However, many species lack this expected pattern of MHC-disassortative mating. A possible explanation lies in evolutionary processes following gene duplication: if two duplicated MHC genes become functionally diverged from each other, offspring will inherit diverse multilocus genotypes even under random mating. We used locus-specific primers for high-throughput sequencing of two expressed MHC Class II B genes in Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa, and found that exon 2 alleles fall into two gene-specific monophyletic clades. We tested for disassortative vs. random mating at these two functionally diverged Class II B genes, using multiple metrics and different subsets of exon 2 sequence data. With good statistical power, we consistently found random assortment of mates at MHC. Despite random mating, birds had MHC genotypes with functionally diverged alleles, averaging 13 amino acid differences in pairwise comparisons of exon 2 alleles within individuals. To test whether this high MHC diversity in individuals is driven by evolutionary divergence of the two duplicated genes, we built a phylogenetic permutation model. The model showed that genotypic diversity was strongly impacted by sequence divergence between the most common allele of each gene, with a smaller additional impact of monophyly of the two genes. Divergence of allele sequences between genes may have reduced the benefits of actively seeking MHC-dissimilar mates, in which case the evolutionary history of duplicated genes is shaping the adaptive landscape of sexual selection. PMID:27376487

  5. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous

  6. Divergence in Dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Patrick G. T.; Purver, Matthew; Howes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    One of the best known claims about human communication is that people's behaviour and language use converge during conversation. It has been proposed that these patterns can be explained by automatic, cross-person priming. A key test case is structural priming: does exposure to one syntactic structure, in production or comprehension, make reuse of that structure (by the same or another speaker) more likely? It has been claimed that syntactic repetition caused by structural priming is ubiquitous in conversation. However, previous work has not tested for general syntactic repetition effects in ordinary conversation independently of lexical repetition. Here we analyse patterns of syntactic repetition in two large corpora of unscripted everyday conversations. Our results show that when lexical repetition is taken into account there is no general tendency for people to repeat their own syntactic constructions. More importantly, people repeat each other's syntactic constructions less than would be expected by chance; i.e., people systematically diverge from one another in their use of syntactic constructions. We conclude that in ordinary conversation the structural priming effects described in the literature are overwhelmed by the need to actively engage with our conversational partners and respond productively to what they say. PMID:24919186

  7. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  8. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  9. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  10. Competition asymmetry with taxon divergence.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A

    2003-03-22

    Most organisms experience competition for resources, probably most of the time. As the structure and requirements of closely related species are generally liable to be more similar than in distantly linked species, Darwin suggested that the potential for competition was greater in the former. Since that time, studies have concentrated on interactions of either conspecifics or congeneric species. Shared critical resources, which organisms compete for, are generally mates, food and space (for access to the former). Whilst mates are valued only within species, in that the definition of a species requires it so, both food and space have the potential to be shared by very different organisms. It is now clear that vertebrates may compete with remotely related species: e.g. with squid for krill and with insects for nectar or seeds. Diamond suggested that (i) mutual aggression, (ii) displacement and (iii) evolutionary change in morphology would be increasingly asymmetric with competitor dissimilarity. Thus, with increasing taxonomic distance between two competitors (A and B), increasing aggression is exhibited between them and, increasingly, one consistently displaces the other. Here, Darwin's suggestion and Diamond's first two theories are tested across a taxonomic spectrum for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. The proportion of spatial competitors in two different marine invertebrate groups demonstrating mutual aggression and displacement increases with taxon divergence (Nei's genetic identity). Congenerics were twice as likely to fight as conspecifics, and confamilial competitors were three times as likely to fight as conspecifics. This relationship seems robust to taxonomic and environmental variability. Competitors do not need to be as distant as birds and bees for complete asymmetry, a different family seems sufficient.

  11. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report...

  12. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement;...

  13. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report...

  14. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report...

  15. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement;...

  16. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement;...

  17. 43 CFR 3284.9 - May BLM set or modify production or injection rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May BLM set or modify production or injection rates? 3284.9 Section 3284.9 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Unit Operations §...

  18. 43 CFR 3602.29 - How will BLM verify my production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM verify my production? 3602.29 Section 3602.29 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Administration of Sales...

  19. 43 CFR 2804.25 - How will BLM process my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... application under 43 CFR subpart 2804 for the generation of electricity from wind or solar sources. In... electricity generation from wind or solar sources under the BLM's right-of-way regulations. Upon segregation... required by 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508; (2) Determine whether or not your proposed use complies...

  20. Monitoring a BLM level 5 watershed with very-large aerial imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fifth order BLM watershed in central Wyoming was flown using a Sport-airplane to acquire high-resolution aerial images from 2 cameras at 2 altitudes. Project phases 1 and 2 obtained images for measuring ground cover, species composition and canopy cover of Wyoming big sagebrush by ecological site....

  1. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority...

  2. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  3. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  4. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  5. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority...

  6. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority...

  7. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  8. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority...

  9. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority...

  10. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  11. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  12. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  13. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  14. 43 CFR 3809.551 - What are my choices for providing BLM with a financial guarantee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are my choices for providing BLM with a financial guarantee? 3809.551 Section 3809.551 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT...

  15. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest...

  16. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing,...

  17. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing,...

  18. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing,...

  19. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing,...

  20. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest...

  1. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest...

  2. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest...

  3. 43 CFR 2932.26 - How will BLM decide whether to issue a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.26 Section 2932.26 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.26 How will BLM decide whether to issue...

  4. 43 CFR 2932.26 - How will BLM decide whether to issue a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.26 Section 2932.26 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.26 How will BLM decide whether to issue...

  5. 43 CFR 2932.31 - How does BLM establish fees for Special Recreation Permits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Recreation Permits? 2932.31 Section 2932.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.31 How does BLM establish fees for Special...

  6. 43 CFR 2932.44 - What bonds does BLM require for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Recreation Permit? 2932.44 Section 2932.44 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.44 What bonds does BLM require for a...

  7. 43 CFR 2932.44 - What bonds does BLM require for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Recreation Permit? 2932.44 Section 2932.44 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.44 What bonds does BLM require for a...

  8. 43 CFR 2932.31 - How does BLM establish fees for Special Recreation Permits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Recreation Permits? 2932.31 Section 2932.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.31 How does BLM establish fees for Special...

  9. 43 CFR 2932.26 - How will BLM decide whether to issue a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.26 Section 2932.26 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.26 How will BLM decide whether to issue...

  10. 43 CFR 2932.44 - What bonds does BLM require for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Recreation Permit? 2932.44 Section 2932.44 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.44 What bonds does BLM require for a...

  11. 43 CFR 2932.31 - How does BLM establish fees for Special Recreation Permits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Recreation Permits? 2932.31 Section 2932.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.31 How does BLM establish fees for Special...

  12. 43 CFR 2932.31 - How does BLM establish fees for Special Recreation Permits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Recreation Permits? 2932.31 Section 2932.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.31 How does BLM establish fees for Special...

  13. 43 CFR 2932.26 - How will BLM decide whether to issue a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.26 Section 2932.26 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.26 How will BLM decide whether to issue...

  14. 43 CFR 2932.44 - What bonds does BLM require for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Recreation Permit? 2932.44 Section 2932.44 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.44 What bonds does BLM require for a...

  15. 43 CFR 3715.6 - What things does BLM prohibit under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... required under 43 CFR part 3800, subparts 3802 or 3809; (c) Beginning occupancy before consultation with BLM as required by § 3715.3 for activities that do not require a plan of operations under 43 CFR part 3800, subpart 3802 or that are defined as casual use or notice activities under 43 CFR part...

  16. 43 CFR 3715.6 - What things does BLM prohibit under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... required under 43 CFR part 3800, subparts 3802 or 3809; (c) Beginning occupancy before consultation with BLM as required by § 3715.3 for activities that do not require a plan of operations under 43 CFR part 3800, subpart 3802 or that are defined as casual use or notice activities under 43 CFR part...

  17. 43 CFR 3715.6 - What things does BLM prohibit under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... required under 43 CFR part 3800, subparts 3802 or 3809; (c) Beginning occupancy before consultation with BLM as required by § 3715.3 for activities that do not require a plan of operations under 43 CFR part 3800, subpart 3802 or that are defined as casual use or notice activities under 43 CFR part...

  18. AIM-Monitoring: a component of the BLM assessment, inventory, and monitoring strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “BLM Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy for Integrated Renewable Resources Management” (AIM Strategy) was completed in 2011 in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget. The strategy describes an approach for integrated, cross-program assessment, inventory, and m...

  19. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions? 6303.1 Section 6303.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION...

  20. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions? 6303.1 Section 6303.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION...

  1. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement;...

  2. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report...

  3. 43 CFR 3809.5 - How does BLM define certain terms used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... terms of temporary closures ordered by BLM. (2) Casual use does not include use of mechanized earth... Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.). Mitigation, as defined in 40 CFR 1508... permanent surface or subsurface water influence. Typical riparian areas include lands along, adjacent to,...

  4. 43 CFR 3203.15 - How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale? 3203.15 Section 3203.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  5. 43 CFR 3206.10 - What must I do for BLM to issue a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must I do for BLM to issue a lease? 3206.10 Section 3206.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  6. 43 CFR 3203.13 - How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale? 3203.13 Section 3203.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  7. 43 CFR 3203.13 - How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale? 3203.13 Section 3203.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  8. 43 CFR 3203.15 - How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale? 3203.15 Section 3203.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  9. 43 CFR 3206.10 - What must I do for BLM to issue a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must I do for BLM to issue a lease? 3206.10 Section 3206.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  10. 43 CFR 3206.11 - What must BLM do before issuing a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must BLM do before issuing a lease? 3206.11 Section 3206.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  11. 43 CFR 3206.18 - When will BLM issue my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM issue my lease? 3206.18 Section 3206.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease...

  12. 43 CFR 2801.2 - What is the objective of BLM's right-of-way program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the objective of BLM's right-of-way program? 2801.2 Section 2801.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT...

  13. 43 CFR 2881.2 - What is the objective of BLM's right-of-way program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the objective of BLM's right-of-way program? 2881.2 Section 2881.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE MINERAL LEASING ACT...

  14. 43 CFR 3263.14 - May BLM require me to abandon a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for geothermal resource production, injection, or monitoring, or if we determine that the well is not... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May BLM require me to abandon a well? 3263... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING...

  15. 43 CFR 3263.14 - May BLM require me to abandon a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for geothermal resource production, injection, or monitoring, or if we determine that the well is not... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May BLM require me to abandon a well? 3263... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING...

  16. 43 CFR 3263.14 - May BLM require me to abandon a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for geothermal resource production, injection, or monitoring, or if we determine that the well is not... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May BLM require me to abandon a well? 3263... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING...

  17. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  18. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 3160—Onshore Oil and Gas Operations, 43 CFR part 3180—Onshore Oil and Gas Unit Agreements: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources Unit... Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY...

  19. Infrared divergences in de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Polarski, D. Service d'Astrophysique, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France)

    1991-03-15

    Infrared divergences in de Sitter space are considered. It is shown that symmetry breaking is unavoidable only when the infrared divergence is strong enough. The static vacuum has no symmetry breaking despite the presence of an infrared divergence.

  20. Linkage disequilibrium between the FES, D15S127, and BLM loci in Ashkenazi Jews with Bloom syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, N.A.; Roe, A.M.; Kozloski, J.; Proytcheva, M.; Falk, C.; German, J.

    1994-09-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish than in any other population. Approximately 1 in 110 Ashkenazi Jews carries blm, the BS mutation. The locus mutated in BS, BLM, maps to chromosome subband 15q26.1, tightly linked to the proto-oncogene FES. The authors have investigated the basis for the increased frequency of blm in the Ashkenazim by genotyping polymorphic microsatellite loci tightly linked to BLM in affected and unaffected individuals from Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Ashkenazi populations. A striking association of the C3 allele at FES with blm ({Delta} = .422; p = 5.52 x 10{sup {minus}7}) and of the 145-bp and 147-bp alleles at D15S127 with blm ({Delta} = .392 and {Delta} = .483, respectively; p = 2.8 x 10{sup {minus}5} and p = 5.4 x 10{sup {minus}7}, respectively) was detected in Ashkenazi Jews with BS. This linkage disequilibrium constitutes strong support for a founder-effect hypothesis; the chromosome in the hypothetical founder who carried blm also carried the C3 allele at FES and either the 145-bp or the 147-bp allele at D15S127. 32 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Targeting SOD1 induces synthetic lethal killing in BLM- and CHEK2-deficient colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sajesh, Babu V; McManus, Kirk J

    2015-09-29

    Cancer is a major cause of death throughout the world, and there is a large need for better and more personalized approaches to combat the disease. Over the past decade, synthetic lethal approaches have been developed that are designed to exploit the aberrant molecular origins (i.e. defective genes) that underlie tumorigenesis. BLM and CHEK2 are two evolutionarily conserved genes that are somatically altered in a number of tumor types. Both proteins normally function in preserving genome stability through facilitating the accurate repair of DNA double strand breaks. Thus, uncovering synthetic lethal interactors of BLM and CHEK2 will identify novel candidate drug targets and lead chemical compounds. Here we identify an evolutionarily conserved synthetic lethal interaction between SOD1 and both BLM and CHEK2 in two distinct cell models. Using quantitative imaging microscopy, real-time cellular analyses, colony formation and tumor spheroid models we show that SOD1 silencing and inhibition (ATTM and LCS-1 treatments), or the induction of reactive oxygen species (2ME2 treatment) induces selective killing within BLM- and CHEK2-deficient cells relative to controls. We further show that increases in reactive oxygen species follow SOD1 silencing and inhibition that are associated with the persistence of DNA double strand breaks, and increases in apoptosis. Collectively, these data identify SOD1 as a novel candidate drug target in BLM and CHEK2 cancer contexts, and further suggest that 2ME2, ATTM and LCS-1 are lead therapeutic compounds warranting further pre-clinical study. PMID:26318585

  2. Effective potential and quadratic divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, M.B. ); Jones, D.R.T. )

    1992-12-01

    We use the effective potential to give a simple derivation of Veltman's formula for the quadratic divergence in the Higgs self-energy. We also comment on the effect of going beyond the one-loop approximation.

  3. Ultraviolet divergences in cosmological correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Steven

    2011-03-15

    A method is developed for dealing with ultraviolet divergences in calculations of cosmological correlations, which does not depend on dimensional regularization. An extended version of the WKB approximation is used to analyze the divergences in these calculations, and these divergences are controlled by the introduction of Pauli-Villars regulator fields. This approach is illustrated in the theory of a scalar field with arbitrary self-interactions in a fixed flat-space Robertson-Walker metric with arbitrary scale factor a(t). Explicit formulas are given for the counterterms needed to cancel all dependence on the regulator properties, and an explicit prescription is given for calculating finite regulator-independent correlation functions. The possibility of infrared divergences in this theory is briefly considered.

  4. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  5. Exhibition in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  6. Exhibition in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    One of the most offbeat exhibitions presented in the last several years was the widely celebrated Warhol-Wyeth duo show, "Portraits of Each Other", held at the Brandywine River Museum in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania. Discusses their paintings and their diametrically different personalities. (Author/RK)

  7. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows onlookers viewing displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  8. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  9. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 leaving the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the exhibit site. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC, the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit, automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids and emergency and safety systems, are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  10. 43 CFR 3838.14 - What will BLM do when I submit a NOITL for SRHA lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS Locating and Recording Mining Claims and Tunnel Sites on SRHA Lands § 3838.14 What will BLM...

  11. 43 CFR 3838.14 - What will BLM do when I submit a NOITL for SRHA lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS Locating and Recording Mining Claims and Tunnel Sites on SRHA Lands § 3838.14 What will BLM...

  12. 43 CFR 3838.14 - What will BLM do when I submit a NOITL for SRHA lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS Locating and Recording Mining Claims and Tunnel Sites on SRHA Lands § 3838.14 What will BLM...

  13. 43 CFR 3838.14 - What will BLM do when I submit a NOITL for SRHA lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR LOCATING AND RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND TUNNEL SITES ON STOCKRAISING HOMESTEAD ACT (SRHA) LANDS Locating and Recording Mining Claims and Tunnel Sites on SRHA Lands § 3838.14 What will BLM...

  14. Oil and Gas Drilling and Operations in Cave and Karst area: Background and development of a BLM approach

    SciTech Connect

    Goodbar, J.R. )

    1994-03-01

    Karst lands pose a unique set of problems for the oil and gas industry, as well as for the cave and karst environments. Since 1987, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has been working with the oil and gas industry to develop acceptable practices for drilling and operation in karst lands. The mutual goals of industry and of the BLM is to minimize the potential of encountering those problems and reduce the extent of the problems, if they are encountered. BLM's approach is described in their [open quotes]Draft Guide for Oil and Gas Drilling and Operations in Cave and Karst Areas.[close quotes] This paper discusses the background and development of this guide with an emphasis on the conflict resolution approach of the BLM.

  15. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  16. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  17. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  18. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  19. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  20. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  1. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  2. Graybody Factors and Infrared Divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul; Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Parentani, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    A method of computing the gray-body factors for static spherically symmetric and BEC acoustic black holes using a Volterra integral equation is given. The results are used to investigate infrared divergences in the particle number, two-point function, point-split stress-energy tensor and density-density correlation function. Infrared divergences in the particle number and two-point function occur if the gray-body factor approaches a nonzero constant in the zero frequency limit, as happens for Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes and BEC acoustic black holes. However, no infrared divergences occur in the point-split stress-energy tensor or the density-density correlation function. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. PHY-0856050 and PHY-1308325.

  3. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  4. Landscape Measures of Rangeland Condition in the BLM Owyhee Pilot Project: Shrub Canopy Mapping, Vegetation Classification, and Detection of Anomalous Land Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-12-28

    In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.

  5. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  6. Aeroacoustic Resonance with Convergent-Divergent Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Dahl, M. D.

    1999-01-01

    Convergent-divergent nozzles, when run at off-design conditions, often undergo flow resonance accompanied by the emission of a tone. Apart from screech occurring at higher operating pressures, resonance is also common at lower Mach numbers near transonic as well as subsonic conditions. With data from six nozzles of different size and design Mach number, the present paper documents the characteristics of the latter phenomenon that is morphologically quite different from conventional screech. The resonance is due to a feedback loop internal to the nozzle and is apparently driven by unsteady laminar boundary layer separation near the throat of the nozzle. Appropriate boundary layer tripping prior to the throat is found to eliminate or alter most of the tones. The Helmholtz number of the resonance, based on the throat-to-exit length, is found to attain a value of approximately 0.15 at M(sub j)=1 for all nozzles. However, its variation with M(sub j) may be different and depend on the nozzle geometry. With nozzles having larger throat-to-exit angle of divergence, the frequency is found to increase, in some cases having stage jumps to lower frequencies, with increasing operating pressure. With nozzles having smaller angle of divergence, the frequency variation exhibits an increase followed by a decrease involving one prominent stage occurring around transonic (M(sub j)= 1) condition. While the mechanisms remain far from completely clear, a model involving downstream propagating aerodynamic disturbance together with acoustic feedback explains the overall frequency characteristics for most cases.

  7. Equivalence theorem and infrared divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, T.

    1996-08-01

    We look at the equivalence theorem as a statement about the absence of polynomial infrared divergences when {ital m}{sub {ital W}}{r_arrow}0. We prove their absence in a truncated toy model and conjecture that, if they exist at all, they are due to couplings between light particles. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

  9. Functional basis of ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of ecological divergence in closely related species is a key component of adaptive radiation. However, in most examples of adaptive radiation the mechanistic basis of ecological divergence remains unclear. A classic example is seen in the young benthic and limnetic stickleback species pairs of British Columbia. In each pair the benthic species feeds on littoral macroinvertebrates whereas the limnetic feeds on pelagic zooplankton. Previous studies indicate that in both short-term feeding trials and long-term enclosure studies, benthics and limnetics exhibit enhanced performance on their own resource but fare more poorly on the other species’ resource. We examined the functional basis of ecological divergence in the stickleback species pair from Paxton Lake, BC, using biomechanical models of fish feeding applied to morphological traits. We examined the consequences of morphological differences using high speed video of feeding fish. Results Benthic stickleback possess morphological traits that predict high suction generation capacity, including greatly hypertrophied epaxial musculature. In contrast, limnetic stickleback possess traits thought to enhance capture of evasive planktonic prey, including greater jaw protrusion than benthics and greater displacement advantage in both the lower jaw-opening lever system and the opercular four-bar linkage. Kinematic data support the expectations from the morphological analysis that limnetic stickleback exhibit faster strikes and greater jaw protrusion than benthic fish, whereas benthics exert greater suction force on attached prey. Conclusions We reveal a previously unknown suite of complex morphological traits that affect rapid ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback. These results indicate that postglacial divergence in stickleback involves many functional systems and shows the value of investigating the functional consequences of phenotypic divergence in adaptive radiation. PMID:24380474

  10. Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence.

    PubMed

    Morrissy, A Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J H; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M G; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J L; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L; Lee, John J Y; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K A; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S N; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q; Schein, Jacqueline E; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F; Hamilton, Ronald L; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E; Fults, Daniel W; Walter, Andrew W; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Garvin, James H; Stearns, Duncan S; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Carlotti, Carlos G; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J; Olson, Jeffrey J; Van Meir, Erwin G; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C; Clifford, Steven C; Eberhart, Charles G; Cooper, Michael K; Packer, Roger J; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Weiss, William A; Collier, Lara S; Dupuy, Adam J; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A; Pfister, Stefan M; Largaespada, David A; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard A; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D; Jones, Steven J M; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-01-21

    The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon-driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with 'humanized' in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (<5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (<12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy.

  11. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  12. BlmB and TlmB provide resistance to the bleomycin family of antitumor antibiotics by N-acetylating metal-free bleomycin, tallysomycin, phleomycin, and zorbamycin.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Jane M; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Wang, Liyan; Unsin, Claudia; Galm, Ute; Yang, Dong; Tao, Meifeng; Shen, Ben

    2014-11-11

    The bleomycin (BLM) family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics consists of BLMs, tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycins (PLMs), and zorbamycin (ZBM). The self-resistant elements BlmB and TlmB, discovered from the BLM- and TLM-producing organisms Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, respectively, are N-acetyltransferases that provide resistance to the producers by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotics required for activity. Although each member of the BLM family of antibiotics possesses a conserved metal-binding domain, the structural differences between each member, namely, the bithiazole moiety and C-terminal amine of BLMs, have been suggested to instill substrate specificity within BlmB. Here we report that BlmB and TlmB readily accept and acetylate BLMs, TLMs, PLMs, and ZBM in vitro but only in the metal-free forms. Kinetic analysis of BlmB and TlmB reveals there is no strong preference or rate enhancement for specific substrates, indicating that the structural differences between each member of the BLM family play a negligible role in substrate recognition, binding, or catalysis. Intriguingly, the zbm gene cluster from Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892 does not contain an N-acetyltransferase, yet ZBM is readily acetylated by BlmB and TlmB. We subsequently established that S. flavoviridis lacks the homologue of BlmB and TlmB, and ZbmA, the ZBM-binding protein, alone is sufficient to provide ZBM resistance. We further confirmed that BlmB can indeed confer resistance to ZBM in vivo in S. flavoviridis, introduction of which into wild-type S. flavoviridis further increases the level of resistance.

  13. Ecological selection as the cause and sexual differentiation as the consequence of species divergence?

    PubMed

    Oneal, Elen; Knowles, L Lacey

    2013-01-01

    Key conceptual issues about speciation go unanswered without consideration of non-mutually exclusive factors. With tests based on speciation theory, we exploit the island distribution and habitat differences exhibited by the Caribbean cricket Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis, and with an analysis of divergent ecological selection, sexually selected differentiation and geographical isolation, address how these different factors interact. After testing for divergent selection by comparing neutral genetic and morphological divergence in one ecological (mandible shape) and one sexual (male genitalia shape) trait, we examine whether ecological or sexual selection is the primary mechanism driving population divergence. We find that all three factors--isolation, ecological and sexual selection--contribute to divergence, and that their interaction determines the stage of completeness achieved during the speciation process, as measured by patterns of genetic differentiation. Moreover, despite the striking diversity in genitalic shapes across the genus Amphiacusta, which suggests that sexual selection drives speciation, the significant differences in genitalia shape between forest habitats revealed here implies that ecological divergence may be the primary axis of divergence. Our work highlights critical unstudied aspects in speciation-differentiating the cause from the consequence of divergence-and suggests avenues for further disentangling the roles of natural and sexual selection in driving divergence in Amphiacusta.

  14. The generalized BLM approach to fix scale- dependence in QCD: the current status of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataev, A. L.

    2015-05-01

    I present a brief review of the generalized Brodsky-Lepage-McKenzie (BLM) approaches to fix the scale-dependence of the renormalization group (RG) invariant quantities in QCD. At first, these approaches are based on the expansions of the coefficients of the perturbative series for the RG-invariant quantities in the products of the coefficients βi of the QCD β-function, which are evaluated in the MS-like schemes. As a next step all βi-dependent terms are absorbed into the BLM-type scale(s) of the powers of the QCD couplings. The difference between two existing formulations of the above mentioned generalizations based on the seBLM approach and the Principle of Maximal Conformality (PMC) are clarified in the case of the Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rule. Using the conformal symmetry-based relations for the non-singlet coefficient functions of the Adler D-function and of Bjorken polarized deep-inelastic scattering sum rules CBjpNS (as) the βi-dependent structure of the NNLO approximation for CBjpNS (as) is predicted in QCD with ngl-multiplet of gluino degrees of freedom, which appear in SUSY extension of QCD. The importance of performing the analytical calculation of the N3LO additional contributions of ngl gluino multiplet to CBjpNS (as) for checking the presented in the report NNLO prediction and for the studies of the possibility to determine the discussed β-expansion pattern of this sum rule at the O(a4s)-level is emphasised.

  15. The role of data in the EIS process: Evidence from the BLM wilderness review

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, C.; Mohai, P. )

    1993-03-01

    Various propositions have been offered about the role of the environmental impact statement (EIS) in agency decision making. These include statements that agencies are (1) using the information collected in the EIS to make rational decisions; (2) justifying decisions made a priori; (3) using the EIS to gain support or consensus for projects; or (4) simply fulfilling a legal mandate, with the EIS having no substantive impact on decisions. Previous studies regarding the role of EIS data have focused on the quality of the data in the EIS and whether or not the data are related to decisions. The role of site-specific information in the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) wilderness EIS process is analyzed and the results are used to reflect on the impact of the EIS in agency decision making. These results are compared with an earlier analysis of the Forest Service's Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II). The results of the statistical analyses of three sets of BLM wilderness EISs indicate that although some of the site-specific information about resource potential is statistically related to agency wilderness recommendations, the vast majority of the information is not. In addition, in some cases, the information was related to wilderness recommendations in a counterintuitive direction. Overall, of the 190 measures of resource potential found in these documents, only 17 (9%) were statistically related to BLM recommendations in an intuitive direction. The fact that most of the information in these EISs is not statistically related to decisions lends support to the proposition that the agency was primarily fulfilling the legally mandated procedure of the National Environmental Policy Act in producing these EISs, rather than achieving the spirit of the law. Results from the analysis of the Forest Service's RARE II wilderness review are similar.

  16. Litters of photosynthetically divergent grasses exhibit differential metabolic responses to warming and elevated CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic stress induced by warming can alter plant metabolism, leading to changes in litter chemistry that can affect soil carbon cycling. Elevated CO2 could partly mitigate warming induced moisture stress, and the degree of this mitigation may vary with plant functional types. We hypothesized that,...

  17. 43 CFR 3207.11 - What work am I required to perform during the first 10 years of my lease for BLM to grant the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the first 10 years of my lease for BLM to grant the initial extension of the primary term of my lease... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING... lease for BLM to grant the initial extension of the primary term of my lease? (a) By the end of the...

  18. 43 CFR 3207.11 - What work am I required to perform during the first 10 years of my lease for BLM to grant the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the first 10 years of my lease for BLM to grant the initial extension of the primary term of my lease... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING... lease for BLM to grant the initial extension of the primary term of my lease? (a) By the end of the...

  19. 43 CFR 3207.11 - What work am I required to perform during the first 10 years of my lease for BLM to grant the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the first 10 years of my lease for BLM to grant the initial extension of the primary term of my lease... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING... lease for BLM to grant the initial extension of the primary term of my lease? (a) By the end of the...

  20. 43 CFR 3207.11 - What work am I required to perform during the first 10 years of my lease for BLM to grant the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the first 10 years of my lease for BLM to grant the initial extension of the primary term of my lease... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING... lease for BLM to grant the initial extension of the primary term of my lease? (a) By the end of the...

  1. 43 CFR 2568.91 - Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Lands-General § 2568.91 Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify? 2568.91 Section 2568.91 Public Lands:...

  2. 43 CFR 2568.91 - Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lands-General § 2568.91 Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify? 2568.91 Section 2568.91 Public Lands:...

  3. 43 CFR 2568.91 - Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands-General § 2568.91 Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify? 2568.91 Section 2568.91 Public Lands:...

  4. 43 CFR 2568.91 - Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Lands-General § 2568.91 Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Is there land owned by the Federal government that BLM cannot convey to me even if I qualify? 2568.91 Section 2568.91 Public Lands:...

  5. 43 CFR 3261.15 - Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Must I give BLM my drilling permit... § 3261.15 Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the... your drilling permit, the approved drilling permit will authorize both the pad construction and...

  6. 43 CFR 3261.15 - Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Must I give BLM my drilling permit... § 3261.15 Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the... your drilling permit, the approved drilling permit will authorize both the pad construction and...

  7. 43 CFR 3261.15 - Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Must I give BLM my drilling permit... § 3261.15 Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the... your drilling permit, the approved drilling permit will authorize both the pad construction and...

  8. 43 CFR 3261.15 - Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Must I give BLM my drilling permit... § 3261.15 Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the... your drilling permit, the approved drilling permit will authorize both the pad construction and...

  9. 43 CFR 1822.15 - If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it timely filed anyway? 1822.15 Section 1822.15....15 If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider...

  10. 43 CFR 1822.15 - If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it timely filed anyway? 1822.15 Section 1822.15....15 If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider...

  11. 43 CFR 1822.15 - If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it timely filed anyway? 1822.15 Section 1822.15....15 If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider...

  12. 43 CFR 1822.15 - If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it timely filed anyway? 1822.15 Section 1822.15....15 If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider...

  13. Island biology and morphological divergence of the Skyros wall lizard Podarcis gaigeae: a combined role for local selection and genetic drift on color morph frequency divergence?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patterns of spatial variation in discrete phenotypic traits can be used to draw inferences about the adaptive significance of traits and evolutionary processes, especially when compared to patterns of neutral genetic variation. Population divergence in adaptive traits such as color morphs can be influenced by both local ecology and stochastic factors such as genetic drift or founder events. Here, we use quantitative color measurements of males and females of Skyros wall lizard, Podarcis gaigeae, to demonstrate that this species is polymorphic with respect to throat color, and the morphs form discrete phenotypic clusters with limited overlap between categories. We use divergence in throat color morph frequencies and compare that to neutral genetic variation to infer the evolutionary processes acting on islet- and mainland populations. Results Geographically close islet- and mainland populations of the Skyros wall lizard exhibit strong divergence in throat color morph frequencies. Population variation in throat color morph frequencies between islets was higher than that between mainland populations, and the effective population sizes on the islets were small (Ne:s < 100). Population divergence (FST) for throat color morph frequencies fell within the neutral FST-distribution estimated from microsatellite markers, and genetic drift could thus not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern. Moreover, for both comparisons among mainland-mainland population pairs and between mainland-islet population pairs, morph frequency divergence was significantly correlated with neutral divergence, further pointing to some role for genetic drift in divergence also at the phenotypic level of throat color morphs. Conclusions Genetic drift could not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern of population divergence in morph frequencies. In spite of an expected stabilising selection, throat color frequencies diverged in the islet populations. These results suggest that

  14. A novel frameshift mutation in BLM gene associated with high sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in heterozygous family members.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Ghada; Hadj Salem, Ikhlas; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Kallabi, Fakhri; Turki, Hamida; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Ayadi, Hamadi; Kamoun, Hassen

    2014-11-01

    The Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomic recessive disorder comprising a wide range of abnormalities, including stunted growth, immunodeficiency, sun sensitivity and increased frequency of various types of cancer. Bloom syndrome cells display a high level of genetic instability, including a 10-fold increase in the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) level. Bloom syndrome arises through mutations in both alleles of the BLM gene, which was identified as a member of the RecQ helicase family. In this study, we screened a Tunisian family with three BS patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed several chromosomal aberrations, and an approximately 14-fold elevated SCE frequency in BS cells. A significant increase in SCE frequency was observed in some family members but not reaching the BS patients values, leading to suggest that this could be due to the heterozygous profile. Microsatellite genotyping using four fluorescent dye-labeled microsatellite markers revealed evidence of linkage to BLM locus and the healthy members, sharing higher SCE frequency, showed heterozygous haplotypes as expected. Additionally, the direct BLM gene sequencing identified a novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.3617-3619delAA (p.K1207fsX9) in BS patients and a heterozygous BLM mutation in the family members with higher SCE frequency. Our findings suggest that this latter mutation likely leads to a reduced BLM activity explaining the homologous recombination repair defect and, therefore, the increase in SCE. Based on the present data, the screening of this mutation could contribute to the rapid diagnosis of BS. The genetic confirmation of the mutation in BLM gene provides crucial information for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

  15. Creativity and Memory: Effects of an Episodic Specificity Induction on Divergent Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Kevin P.; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an episodic specificity induction - brief training in recollecting details of a recent event - people produce more episodic details when imagining future events and solving means-end problems than after receiving a control induction not focused on episodic retrieval. Here we show for the first time that an episodic specificity induction also enhances divergent creative thinking. In Experiment 1, participants exhibited a selective boost on a divergent thinking task that involves generating unusual uses of common objects after a specificity induction compared with a control induction; by contrast, performance was similar on an object association task thought to involve little divergent thinking. In Experiment 2, we replicated the specificity induction effect on divergent thinking using a different control induction, and also found that participants performed similarly on a convergent thinking task following both inductions. These experiments provide novel evidence that episodic memory is involved in divergent creative thinking. PMID:26205963

  16. Creativity and Memory: Effects of an Episodic-Specificity Induction on Divergent Thinking.

    PubMed

    Madore, Kevin P; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-09-01

    People produce more episodic details when imagining future events and solving means-end problems after receiving an episodic-specificity induction-brief training in recollecting details of a recent event-than after receiving a control induction not focused on episodic retrieval. Here we show for the first time that an episodic-specificity induction also enhances divergent creative thinking. In Experiment 1, participants exhibited a selective boost on a divergent-thinking task (generating unusual uses of common objects) after a specificity induction compared with a control induction; by contrast, performance following the two inductions was similar on an object association task thought to involve little divergent thinking. In Experiment 2, we replicated the specificity-induction effect on divergent thinking using a different control induction, and also found that participants performed similarly on a convergent-thinking task following the two inductions. These experiments provide novel evidence that episodic memory is involved in divergent creative thinking.

  17. Ultraviolet divergences and supersymmetric theories

    SciTech Connect

    Sagnotti, A.

    1984-09-01

    This article is closely related to the one by Ferrara in these same Proceedings. It deals with what is perhaps the most fascinating property of supersymmetric theories, their improved ultraviolet behavior. My aim here is to present a survey of the state of the art as of August, 1984, and a somewhat more detailed discussion of the breakdown of the superspace power-counting beyond N = 2 superfields. A method is also described for simplifying divergence calculations that uses the locality of subtracted Feynman integrals. 74 references.

  18. Drill baby drill: An analysis of how energy development displaced ranching's dominance over the BLM's subgovernment policymaking environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbis, Robert Earl, Jr.

    Academic literature analyzing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land-use subgovernment stops at the Taylor Grazing Act and concludes that the historical development of administering grazing on public lands led to the capture of the BLM by ranching interests. Using a two-pronged methodological approach of process tracing and elite interviews this dissertation seeks to advance our collective knowledge of subgovernment theory by (a) clarifying the impact executive decision-making has on subgovernments and (b) identifying the conditions under which strategically competitive behavior between two competing subgovernment actors occurs. The dissertation seeks to update the literature by explaining what has caused the BLM to shift from a rancher-dominated agency to an energy dominated agency by identifying conditions under which subgovernment actors strategically respond to a political conflict. The research poses two questions: (1) how have executive actions disrupted an existing balance of power in a so-called "strong corner" of an entrenched subgovernment system and (2) what happens when conflict and competition break out between allied members of the system? Analysis indicates that as the BLM responded to Executive actions emphasizing domestic energy production, a conflict emerged between traditional allies: ranching and energy. Triggered by the unintended consequence of awakening long-dormant legislation, split-estate energy development---where property rights are severed between private surface and federal mineral estates---expanded across the West. In turn, this expansion helped establish the conditions for conflict and in doing so disrupted the balance of power between large public resource use interests in the relatively stable land-use subgovernment of the BLM. Indicative of energy's emerging dominance of the BLM's subgovernment, split-estate energy development led ranching interests to seek the protection of their Western state legislatures. This shift in

  19. Genetic evidence for ecological divergence in kokanee salmon.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Matthew A; Russello, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of locally adapted phenotypes among populations that experience divergent selective pressures is a central mechanism for generating and maintaining biodiversity. Recently, the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technology has provided tools for investigating the genetic basis of this process in natural populations of nonmodel organisms. Kokanee, the freshwater form of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), occurs as two reproductive ecotypes, which differ in spawning habitat (tributaries vs. shorelines); however, outside of the spawning season the two ecotypes co-occur in many lakes and lack diagnostic morphological characteristics. We used restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to identify 6145 SNPs and genotype kokanee from multiple spawning sites in Okanagan Lake (British Columbia, Canada). Outlier tests revealed 18 loci putatively under divergent selection between ecotypes, all of which exhibited temporally stable allele frequencies within ecotypes. Six outliers were annotated to sequences in the NCBI database, two of which matched genes associated with early development. There was no evidence for neutral genetic differentiation; however, outlier loci demonstrated significant structure with respect to ecotype and had high assignment accuracy in mixed composition simulations. The absence of neutral structure combined with a small number of highly divergent outlier loci is consistent with theoretical predictions for the early stages of ecological divergence. These outlier loci were then applied to a realistic fisheries scenario in which additional RAD sequencing was used to genotype kokanee collected by trawl in Okanagan Lake, providing preliminary evidence that this approach may be an effective tool for conservation and management. PMID:25580953

  20. Divergence with gene flow within the recent chipmunk radiation (Tamias).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J; Demboski, J R; Bell, K C; Hird, S; Sarver, B; Reid, N; Good, J M

    2014-09-01

    Increasing data have supported the importance of divergence with gene flow (DGF) in the generation of biological diversity. In such cases, lineage divergence occurs on a shorter timescale than does the completion of reproductive isolation. Although it is critical to explore the mechanisms driving divergence and preventing homogenization by hybridization, it is equally important to document cases of DGF in nature. Here we synthesize data that have accumulated over the last dozen or so years on DGF in the chipmunk (Tamias) radiation with new data that quantify very high rates of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression among para- and sympatric species in the T. quadrivittatus group in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. These new data (188 cytochrome b sequences) bring the total number of sequences up to 1871; roughly 16% (298) of the chipmunks we have sequenced exhibit introgressed mtDNA. This includes ongoing introgression between subspecies and between both closely related and distantly related taxa. In addition, we have identified several taxa that are apparently fixed for ancient introgressions and in which there is no evidence of ongoing introgression. A recurrent observation is that these introgressions occur between ecologically and morphologically diverged, sometimes non-sister taxa that engage in well-documented niche partitioning. Thus, the chipmunk radiation in western North America represents an excellent mammalian example of speciation in the face of recurrent gene flow among lineages and where biogeography, habitat differentiation and mating systems suggest important roles for both ecological and sexual selection.

  1. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  2. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  3. Sumoylation of the BLM ortholog, Sgs1, promotes telomere–telomere recombination in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Yin; Tsai, Cheng-Hui; Brill, Steven J.; Teng, Shu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    BLM and WRN are members of the RecQ family of DNA helicases, and in humans their loss is associated with syndromes characterized by genome instability and cancer predisposition. As the only RecQ DNA helicase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sgs1 is known to safeguard genome integrity through its role in DNA recombination. Interestingly, WRN, BLM and Sgs1 are all known to be modified by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO), although the significance of this posttranslational modification remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Sgs1 is specifically sumoylated under the stress of DNA double strand breaks. The major SUMO attachment site in Sgs1 is lysine 621, which lies between the Top3 binding domain and the DNA helicase domain. Surprisingly, sumoylation of K621 was found to be uniquely required for Sgs1’s role in telomere–telomere recombination. In contrast, sumoylation was dispensable for Sgs1’s roles in DNA damage tolerance, supppression of direct repeat and rDNA recombination, and promotion of top3Δ slow growth. Our results demonstrate that although modification by SUMO is a conserved feature of RecQ family DNA helicases, the major sites of modification are located on different domains of the protein in different organisms. We suggest that sumoylation of different domains of RecQ DNA helicases from different organisms contributes to conserved roles in regulating telomeric recombination. PMID:19906698

  4. Ecological selection as the cause and sexual differentiation as the consequence of species divergence?

    PubMed Central

    Oneal, Elen; Knowles, L. Lacey

    2013-01-01

    Key conceptual issues about speciation go unanswered without consideration of non-mutually exclusive factors. With tests based on speciation theory, we exploit the island distribution and habitat differences exhibited by the Caribbean cricket Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis, and with an analysis of divergent ecological selection, sexually selected differentiation and geographical isolation, address how these different factors interact. After testing for divergent selection by comparing neutral genetic and morphological divergence in one ecological (mandible shape) and one sexual (male genitalia shape) trait, we examine whether ecological or sexual selection is the primary mechanism driving population divergence. We find that all three factors—isolation, ecological and sexual selection—contribute to divergence, and that their interaction determines the stage of completeness achieved during the speciation process, as measured by patterns of genetic differentiation. Moreover, despite the striking diversity in genitalic shapes across the genus Amphiacusta, which suggests that sexual selection drives speciation, the significant differences in genitalia shape between forest habitats revealed here implies that ecological divergence may be the primary axis of divergence. Our work highlights critical unstudied aspects in speciation—differentiating the cause from the consequence of divergence—and suggests avenues for further disentangling the roles of natural and sexual selection in driving divergence in Amphiacusta. PMID:23173206

  5. Modified Bleomycin Disaccharides Exhibiting Improved Tumor Cell Targeting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bleomycins (BLMs) are a family of antitumor antibiotics used clinically for anticancer chemotherapy. Their antitumor selectivity derives at least in part from their ability to target tumor cells, a property that resides in the carbohydrate moiety of the antitumor agent. In earlier studies, we have demonstrated that the tumor cell selectivity resides in the mannose carbamoyl moiety of the BLM saccharide and that both the BLM disaccharide and monosaccharide containing the carbamoyl moiety were capable of the delivery/uptake of a conjugated cyanine dye into cultured cancer cell lines. Presently, the nature of the participation of the carbamoyl moiety has been explored further to provide compounds of utility for defining the nature of the mechanism of tumor cell recognition and uptake by BLM saccharides and in the hope that more efficient compounds could be identified. A library of seven disaccharide–Cy5** dye conjugates was prepared that are structural analogues of the BLM disaccharide. These differed from the natural BLM disaccharide in the position, orientation, and substitution of the carbamoyl group. Studies of these compounds in four matched sets of tumor and normal cell lines revealed a few that were both tumor cell selective and internalized 2–4-fold more efficiently than the natural BLM disaccharide. PMID:25272367

  6. DISSIPATIVE DIVERGENCE OF RESONANT ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean-motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g., 2:1, 3:2, and 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here, we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.

  7. 43 CFR 2806.43 - How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electric power; and (2) Local exchange network means radio service which provides basic telephone service... reflectors and local exchange networks? 2806.43 Section 2806.43 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...-Of-Way § 2806.43 How does BLM calculate rent for passive reflectors and local exchange networks?...

  8. 43 CFR 3275.21 - May BLM order me to drill and produce wells on my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May BLM order me to drill and produce wells on my lease? 3275.21 Section 3275.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting...

  9. 43 CFR 3135.2 - Under what circumstances will BLM require a suspension of operations and production or approve my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Under what circumstances will BLM require a suspension of operations and production or approve my request for a suspension of operations and production for my lease? 3135.2 Section 3135.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND...

  10. 43 CFR 2806.35 - How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... if the value of that use is equal to or greater than the value of any other use in the facility. BLM excludes these uses in the 25 percent calculation (see § 2806.31(a) of this subpart) when their value does not exceed the highest value in the facility....

  11. 43 CFR 2806.35 - How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... if the value of that use is equal to or greater than the value of any other use in the facility. BLM excludes these uses in the 25 percent calculation (see § 2806.31(a) of this subpart) when their value does not exceed the highest value in the facility....

  12. 43 CFR 2806.35 - How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... if the value of that use is equal to or greater than the value of any other use in the facility. BLM excludes these uses in the 25 percent calculation (see § 2806.31(a) of this subpart) when their value does not exceed the highest value in the facility....

  13. 43 CFR 2806.35 - How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... if the value of that use is equal to or greater than the value of any other use in the facility. BLM excludes these uses in the 25 percent calculation (see § 2806.31(a) of this subpart) when their value does not exceed the highest value in the facility....

  14. 43 CFR 2804.21 - What other factors will BLM consider in determining processing and monitoring fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fee in any category, the BLM State Director will consider whether: (1) Payment of actual costs would: (i) Result in undue financial hardship to your small business, and you would receive little monetary value from your grant as compared to the costs of processing and monitoring; or (ii) Create such...

  15. 43 CFR 6302.16 - When and how may I gather scientific information about resources in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When and how may I gather scientific information about resources in BLM wilderness? 6302.16 Section 6302.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT...

  16. 43 CFR 3504.12 - What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rentals and all other payments for leases to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). See 30 CFR part 218... payments do I submit to MMS? 3504.12 Section 3504.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... Information § 3504.12 What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS? (a) Fees...

  17. 43 CFR 3504.12 - What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rentals and all other payments for leases to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). See 30 CFR part 218... payments do I submit to MMS? 3504.12 Section 3504.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... Information § 3504.12 What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS? (a) Fees...

  18. 43 CFR 3504.12 - What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rentals and all other payments for leases to the Minerals Management Service (MMS). See 30 CFR part 218... payments do I submit to MMS? 3504.12 Section 3504.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... Information § 3504.12 What payments do I submit to BLM and what payments do I submit to MMS? (a) Fees...

  19. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples...

  20. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical...

  1. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples...

  2. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical...

  3. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples...

  4. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical...

  5. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical...

  6. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples...

  7. 43 CFR 3809.803 - Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA? 3809.803 Section 3809.803 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... go into effect during an appeal to OHA? All decisions under this subpart go into effect...

  8. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest...

  9. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest...

  10. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest...

  11. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest...

  12. 43 CFR 3214.15 - What kind of financial guarantee will BLM accept to back my bond?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What kind of financial guarantee will BLM accept to back my bond? 3214.15 Section 3214.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... accept to back my bond? We will not accept cash bonds. We will only accept: (a) Corporate surety...

  13. 43 CFR 2804.28 - What processing fees must I pay for a BLM grant application associated with Federal Energy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Applying for FLPMA... Act (FPA)? (a) You must reimburse BLM for the costs which the United States incurs in processing your... processing fee categories described at § 2804.14 of this subpart and bill you for the costs. FERC...

  14. 43 CFR 3263.11 - What information must I give BLM to approve my Sundry Notice for abandoning a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.11 What information must I give BLM to...) Methods you will use to verify the plugs (tagging, pressure testing, etc.); (3) Weight and viscosity...

  15. 43 CFR 3276.12 - What information must I give BLM in the monthly report for facility operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... steam or hot water in psi. You must also specify whether this is psig or psia; (4) Gross generation in... I give BLM in the monthly report for facility operations? (a) For all electrical generation facilities, include in your monthly report of facility operations: (1) Mass of steam and/or hot water,...

  16. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... will be consistent with State water quality requirements. (b) Pending final approval of your plan of... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations? 3809.411 Section 3809.411 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...

  17. 43 CFR 2932.25 - What will BLM do when I apply for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.25 Section 2932.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.25 What will BLM do when I apply for a...

  18. 43 CFR 2932.25 - What will BLM do when I apply for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.25 Section 2932.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.25 What will BLM do when I apply for a...

  19. 43 CFR 2932.25 - What will BLM do when I apply for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.25 Section 2932.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.25 What will BLM do when I apply for a...

  20. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  1. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  2. 43 CFR 2932.25 - What will BLM do when I apply for a Special Recreation Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Special Recreation Permit? 2932.25 Section 2932.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.25 What will BLM do when I apply for a...

  3. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  4. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  5. 43 CFR 3515.16 - What standards does BLM use to assess the public interest of an exchange?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What standards does BLM use to assess the public interest of an exchange? 3515.16 Section 3515.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN...

  6. 43 CFR 4300.59 - If I want to assign my permit to another party, when must I notify BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false If I want to assign my permit to another...) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Assigning Your Permit to Another Party § 4300.59 If I want to assign my permit to another party, when must I notify BLM? You must file a proposed...

  7. 43 CFR 3205.12 - How will BLM respond to direct use lease applications on lands managed by another agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... applications on lands managed by another agency? 3205.12 Section 3205.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... lease applications on lands managed by another agency? BLM will respond to a direct use lease application on lands managed by another surface management agency by forwarding the application to that...

  8. 43 CFR 3205.12 - How will BLM respond to direct use lease applications on lands managed by another agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applications on lands managed by another agency? 3205.12 Section 3205.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... lease applications on lands managed by another agency? BLM will respond to a direct use lease application on lands managed by another surface management agency by forwarding the application to that...

  9. 43 CFR 4300.59 - If I want to assign my permit to another party, when must I notify BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false If I want to assign my permit to another...) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; REINDEER; GENERAL Assigning Your Permit to Another Party § 4300.59 If I want to assign my permit to another party, when must I notify BLM? You must file a proposed...

  10. 43 CFR 3512.19 - Must I notify BLM if I intend to transfer an overriding royalty to another party?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Must I notify BLM if I intend to transfer an overriding royalty to another party? 3512.19 Section 3512.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... another party? Yes. Although we do not approve these transfers, you must file all overriding...

  11. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Operations Conducted Under Plans of... completed, including one or more of the following: (i) You collect adequate baseline data; (ii) BLM... operations. (d) Upon completion of the review of your plan of operations, including analysis under NEPA...

  12. 43 CFR 2568.40 - Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations? 2568.40 Section 2568.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  13. 43 CFR 2568.40 - Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations? 2568.40 Section 2568.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  14. 43 CFR 2568.40 - Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations? 2568.40 Section 2568.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  15. 43 CFR 2568.40 - Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Does BLM have the authority to ask me for the information required in these regulations? 2568.40 Section 2568.40 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...

  16. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  17. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  18. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  19. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  20. 43 CFR 3162.2-10 - Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? 3162.2-10 Section 3162.2-10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS...

  1. 43 CFR 1823.11 - What is the authority for BLM issuing a refund of a payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the authority for BLM issuing a refund of a payment? 1823.11 Section 1823.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPLICATION PROCEDURES Payments and Refunds §...

  2. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  3. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  4. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  5. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  6. 43 CFR 3275.21 - May BLM order me to drill and produce wells on my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May BLM order me to drill and produce wells on my lease? 3275.21 Section 3275.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting...

  7. 43 CFR 2808.11 - What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... use fee, amortization fee, and maintenance fee for unauthorized use of any BLM-administered road; and... times the charges for road use, amortization, and maintenance which have accrued since the trespass... trespass you must meet one of the conditions identified in 43 CFR 9239.7-1. For roads, the penalty is...

  8. 43 CFR 3264.11 - What must I submit to BLM after I finish subsequent well operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What must I submit to BLM after I finish subsequent well operations? 3264.11 Section 3264.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING...

  9. 43 CFR 3264.11 - What must I submit to BLM after I finish subsequent well operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... well was acidized to increase production, state whether the production rate increased when you put the... subsequent well operations? 3264.11 Section 3264.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... subsequent well operations? (a) Submit to BLM a subsequent well operations report within 30 days...

  10. 43 CFR 3264.11 - What must I submit to BLM after I finish subsequent well operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... well was acidized to increase production, state whether the production rate increased when you put the... subsequent well operations? 3264.11 Section 3264.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... subsequent well operations? (a) Submit to BLM a subsequent well operations report within 30 days...

  11. 43 CFR 3275.21 - May BLM order me to drill and produce wells on my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May BLM order me to drill and produce wells on my lease? 3275.21 Section 3275.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting...

  12. 43 CFR 3264.11 - What must I submit to BLM after I finish subsequent well operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... well was acidized to increase production, state whether the production rate increased when you put the... subsequent well operations? 3264.11 Section 3264.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... subsequent well operations? (a) Submit to BLM a subsequent well operations report within 30 days...

  13. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  14. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  15. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  16. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  17. 43 CFR 3162.2-10 - Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? 3162.2-10 Section 3162.2-10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? We will send you a demand letter by...

  18. 43 CFR 3162.2-10 - Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? 3162.2-10 Section 3162.2-10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? We will send you a demand letter by...

  19. Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Cherchiglia, A.L.; Vieira, A.R.; Hiller, Brigitte; Baêta Scarpelli, A.P.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2014-12-15

    In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale λ. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.

  20. Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence.

    PubMed

    Morrissy, A Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J H; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M G; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J L; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L; Lee, John J Y; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K A; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S N; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q; Schein, Jacqueline E; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F; Hamilton, Ronald L; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E; Fults, Daniel W; Walter, Andrew W; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H; Garvin, James H; Stearns, Duncan S; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Carlotti, Carlos G; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J; Olson, Jeffrey J; Van Meir, Erwin G; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C; Clifford, Steven C; Eberhart, Charles G; Cooper, Michael K; Packer, Roger J; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Weiss, William A; Collier, Lara S; Dupuy, Adam J; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A; Pfister, Stefan M; Largaespada, David A; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard A; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D; Jones, Steven J M; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-01-21

    The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon-driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with 'humanized' in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (<5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (<12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy. PMID:26760213

  1. Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Morrissy, A. Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J. H.; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M. G.; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K.; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L.; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J. L.; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L.; Lee, John J. Y.; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C.; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K. A.; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y.; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D.; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C.; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E.; Fults, Daniel W.; Walter, Andrew W.; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V. Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.; Garvin, James H.; Stearns, Duncan S.; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E.; Tirapelli, Daniela P. C.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R.; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Clifford, Steven C.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Cooper, Michael K.; Packer, Roger J.; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Weiss, William A.; Collier, Lara S.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T. W.; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Largaespada, David A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon–driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with ‘humanized’ in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (<5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (<12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy. PMID:26760213

  2. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  3. Divergent selection for muscle color in broilers.

    PubMed

    Harford, I D; Pavlidis, H O; Anthony, N B

    2014-05-01

    One consumer-related physiological abnormality that is a recent concern for the poultry industry is atypical meat quality. Currently in the processing plant, meat is characterized on appearance such as tears, bruises, discoloration, or missing parts. Unfortunately, this method ignores physical properties such as palatability, texture, tenderness, taste, color, pH, and water-holding capacity (WHC). The growing demand for a convenient, economical, and palatable product has shifted the market toward value-added poultry products. The effect of a meat's physical properties on its marketability and versatility has become apparent to processors attempting to utilize poor quality meat. After 8 generations of divergent selection for muscle color or lightness (L*) in broilers, muscle quality parameters were investigated. The 2 broiler lines divergently selected for high (HMC) and low (LMC) muscle color along with their randombred control line (RBC) were included in the study. Heritability estimates for L* were 0.47 ± 0.05 and 0.51 ± 0.05 in the HMC and LMC lines, respectively. For generation 8, the mean L* for the HMC, RBC, and LMC lines were 53.91, 49.70, and 46.86, respectively. Selection for increased L* was found to result in increased breast fillet yellowness (b*), whereas selection for decreased L* resulted in an increase in breast fillet redness (a*). Selection for increased L* has resulted in increased rate of pH decline over time, whereas selection for decreased L* has resulted in a decreased rate of pH decline. The HMC line exhibited a higher percentage fillet drip loss than both the LMC and RBC lines, which did not differ from each other. Overall selection for L* was effective in modifying breast muscle color as well as correlated responses associated with atypical poultry meat such as drip loss and postmortem muscle pH. These selected lines can serve as resource populations for the study of PSE and DFD-like meat in poultry and demonstrate that L* selection

  4. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  5. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  6. A Distributed Amplifier System for Bilayer Lipid Membrane (BLM) Arrays With Noise and Individual Offset Cancellation.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Marco; Thei, Frederico; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul; de Planque, Maurits R R; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Lipid bilayer membrane (BLM) arrays are required for high throughput analysis, for example drug screening or advanced DNA sequencing. Complex microfluidic devices are being developed but these are restricted in terms of array size and structure or have integrated electronic sensing with limited noise performance. We present a compact and scalable multichannel electrophysiology platform based on a hybrid approach that combines integrated state-of-the-art microelectronics with low-cost disposable fluidics providing a platform for high-quality parallel single ion channel recording. Specifically, we have developed a new integrated circuit amplifier based on a novel noise cancellation scheme that eliminates flicker noise derived from devices under test and amplifiers. The system is demonstrated through the simultaneous recording of ion channel activity from eight bilayer membranes. The platform is scalable and could be extended to much larger array sizes, limited only by electronic data decimation and communication capabilities.

  7. MHD simple waves and the divergence wave

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G. M.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.

    2010-03-25

    In this paper we investigate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simple divergence waves in MHD, for models in which nablacentre dotBnot =0. These models are related to the eight wave Riemann solvers in numerical MHD, in which the eighth wave is the divergence wave associated with nablacentre dotBnot =0. For simple wave solutions, all physical variables (the gas density, pressure, fluid velocity, entropy, and magnetic field induction in the MHD case) depend on a single phase function phi. We consider the form of the MHD equations used by both Powell et al. and Janhunen. It is shown that the Janhunen version of the equations possesses fully nonlinear, exact simple wave solutions for the divergence wave, but no physically meaningful simple divergence wave solution exists for the Powell et al. system. We suggest that the 1D simple, divergence wave solution for the Janhunen system, may be useful for the testing and validation of numerical MHD codes.

  8. Vorticity and Divergence in the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Noyes, Robert W.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1995-07-01

    We have studied an outstanding sequence of continuum images of the solar granulation from Pic du Midi Observatory. We have calculated the horizontal vector flow field using a correlation tracking algorithm, and from this determined three scalar fields: the vertical component of the curl, the horizontal divergence, and the horizontal flow speed. The divergence field has substantially longer coherence time and more power than does the curl field. Statistically, curl is better correlated with regions of negative divergence that is, the vertical vorticity is higher in downflow regions, suggesting excess vorticity in intergranular lanes. The average value of the divergence is largest (i.e., outflow is largest) where the horizontal speed is large; we associate these regions with exploding granules. A numerical simulation of general convection also shows similar statistical differences between curl and divergence. Some individual small bright points in the granulation pattern show large local vorticities.

  9. Vorticity and divergence in the solar photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, YI; Noyes, Robert W.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied an outstanding sequence of continuum images of the solar granulation from Pic du Midi Observatory. We have calculated the horizontal vector flow field using a correlation tracking algorithm, and from this determined three scalar field: the vertical component of the curl; the horizontal divergence; and the horizontal flow speed. The divergence field has substantially longer coherence time and more power than does the curl field. Statistically, curl is better correlated with regions of negative divergence - that is, the vertical vorticity is higher in downflow regions, suggesting excess vorticity in intergranular lanes. The average value of the divergence is largest (i.e., outflow is largest) where the horizontal speed is large; we associate these regions with exploding granules. A numerical simulation of general convection also shows similar statistical differences between curl and divergence. Some individual small bright points in the granulation pattern show large local vorticities.

  10. Divergent thermopower without a quantum phase transition.

    PubMed

    Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Phillips, Philip W

    2014-08-22

    A general principle of modern statistical physics is that divergences of either thermodynamic or transport properties are only possible if the correlation length diverges. We show by explicit calculation that the thermopower in the quantum XY model d = 1 + 1 and the Kitaev model in d = 2 + 1 can (i) diverge even when the correlation length is finite and (ii) remain finite even when the correlation length diverges, thereby providing a counterexample to the standard paradigm. Two conditions are necessary: (i) the sign of the charge carriers and that of the group velocity must be uncorrelated and (ii) the current operator defined formally as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to the gauge field does not describe a set of excitations that have a particle interpretation, as in strongly correlated electron matter. Recent experimental and theoretical findings on the divergent thermopower of a 2D electron gas are discussed in this context.

  11. Mandibular shape and skeletal divergency.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; De Franco, D J

    1999-04-01

    Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 41 skeletal Class I girls aged 11 to 15 were divided according to MP-SN angle: lower than 28 degrees (hypodivergent, 10 girls), between 31 and 34 degrees (normodivergent, 18 girls), or larger than 37 degrees (hyperdivergent, 13 girls). The mandibular outlines were traced and digitized, and differences in shape were quantified using the elliptic Fourier series. Size differences were measured from the areas enclosed by the mandibular outlines. Shape differences were assessed by calculating a morphological distance (MD) between the size-independent mean mathematical reconstructions of the mandibular outlines of the three divergency classes. Mandibular shape was different in the three classes: large variations were found in hyperdivergent girls versus normodivergent girls (MD = 4.61), while smaller differences were observed in hypodivergent girls (MD versus normodivergent 2.91). Mean size-independent mandibular shapes were superimposed on an axis passing through the centres of gravity of the condyle and of the chin. Normodivergent and hyperdivergent mandibles differed mostly at gonion, the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, alveolar process, posterior border of the ramus, and along the mandibular plane. A significant size effect was also found, with smaller mandibles in the hyperdivergent girls.

  12. Stark sexual display divergence among jumping spider populations in the face of gene flow.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Gwylim S; Maddison, Wayne P

    2014-11-01

    Gene flow can inhibit evolutionary divergence by eroding genetic differences between populations. A current aim in speciation research is to identify conditions in which selection overcomes this process. We focused on a state of limited differentiation, asking whether selection enables divergence with gene flow in a set of Habronattus americanus jumping spider populations that exhibit three distinct male sexual display morphs. We found that each population is at high frequency or fixed for a single morph. These strong phenotypic differences contrast with low divergence at 210 AFLP markers, suggesting selection has driven or maintains morph divergence. Coinciding patterns of isolation by distance and 'isolation by phenotype' (i.e. increased genetic divergence among phenotypically contrasting populations) across the study area support several alternative demographic hypotheses for display divergence, each of which entails gene flow. Display-associated structure appears broadly distributed across the genome and the markers producing this pattern do not stand out from background levels of differentiation. Overall, the results suggest selection can promote stark sexual display divergence in the face of gene flow among closely related populations. PMID:25266277

  13. An update of DIVERGE software for functional divergence analysis of protein family.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xun; Zou, Yangyun; Su, Zhixi; Huang, Wei; Zhou, Zhan; Arendsee, Zebulun; Zeng, Yanwu

    2013-07-01

    DIVERGE is a software system for phylogeny-based analyses of protein family evolution and functional divergence. It provides a suite of statistical tools for selection and prioritization of the amino acid sites that are responsible for the functional divergence of a gene family. The synergistic efforts of DIVERGE and other methods have convincingly demonstrated that the pattern of rate change at a particular amino acid site may contain insightful information about the underlying functional divergence following gene duplication. These predicted sites may be used as candidates for further experiments. We are now releasing an updated version of DIVERGE with the following improvements: 1) a feasible approach to examining functional divergence in nearly complete sequences by including deletions and insertions (indels); 2) the calculation of the false discovery rate of functionally diverging sites; 3) estimation of the effective number of functional divergence-related sites that is reliable and insensitive to cutoffs; 4) a statistical test for asymmetric functional divergence; and 5) a new method to infer functional divergence specific to a given duplicate cluster. In addition, we have made efforts to improve software design and produce a well-written software manual for the general user.

  14. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... LA and Vox Populi organizations. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson At the exhibition, HIV and AIDS were topics addressed by Dr. Victoria Cargill (right), Director of Clinical Studies and Director of Minority ...

  15. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  16. 43 CFR 3137.91 - When will BLM allow a well previously determined to be a non-unit well to be used in establishing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-unit well now meets the productivity criteria, you must demonstrate this to BLM within 60 calendar days after you determine that the well meets the productivity criteria. You must then modify an...

  17. 43 CFR 3137.91 - When will BLM allow a well previously determined to be a non-unit well to be used in establishing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-unit well now meets the productivity criteria, you must demonstrate this to BLM within 60 calendar days after you determine that the well meets the productivity criteria. You must then modify an...

  18. 43 CFR 3137.91 - When will BLM allow a well previously determined to be a non-unit well to be used in establishing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-unit well now meets the productivity criteria, you must demonstrate this to BLM within 60 calendar days after you determine that the well meets the productivity criteria. You must then modify an...

  19. 43 CFR 3137.91 - When will BLM allow a well previously determined to be a non-unit well to be used in establishing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-unit well now meets the productivity criteria, you must demonstrate this to BLM within 60 calendar days after you determine that the well meets the productivity criteria. You must then modify an...

  20. 43 CFR 3261.18 - Do I need to file a bond with BLM before I build a well pad or drill a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... before I build a well pad or drill a well? Before starting any operation, you must: (a) File with BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Do I need to file a bond with BLM before I build a well pad or drill a well? 3261.18 Section 3261.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...

  1. 43 CFR 3261.18 - Do I need to file a bond with BLM before I build a well pad or drill a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... before I build a well pad or drill a well? Before starting any operation, you must: (a) File with BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Do I need to file a bond with BLM before I build a well pad or drill a well? 3261.18 Section 3261.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...

  2. 43 CFR 3261.18 - Do I need to file a bond with BLM before I build a well pad or drill a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... before I build a well pad or drill a well? Before starting any operation, you must: (a) File with BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do I need to file a bond with BLM before I build a well pad or drill a well? 3261.18 Section 3261.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...

  3. 43 CFR 3261.18 - Do I need to file a bond with BLM before I build a well pad or drill a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... before I build a well pad or drill a well? Before starting any operation, you must: (a) File with BLM... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Do I need to file a bond with BLM before I build a well pad or drill a well? 3261.18 Section 3261.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating...

  4. Blm-s, a BH3-only protein enriched in postmitotic immature neurons, is transcriptionally upregulated by p53 during DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Wen; Chen, Shih-Yu; Cheng, Chia-Hsien; Cheng, Hwai-Jong; Huang, Pei-Hsin

    2014-10-01

    Programmed cell death is a pivotal process that regulates neuronal number during development. Key regulators of this process are members of the BCL-2 family. Using mRNA differential display, we identified a Bcl-2 family gene, Blm-s (Bcl-2-like molecule, short form), enriched in postmitotic neurons of the developing cerebral cortex. BLM-s functions as a BH3-only apoptosis sensitizer/derepressor and causes BAX-dependent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by selectively binding to prosurvival BCL-2 or MCL-1. When challenged with γ-irradiation that produces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), Blm-s is transcriptionally upregulated in postmitotic immature neurons with concurrently increased apoptosis. RNAi-mediated depletion of Blm-s protects immature neurons from irradiation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Blm-s is a direct target gene of p53 and AP1 via the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-signaling pathways activated by DSBs. Thus, BLM-s is likely an apoptosis sensor activated by DSBs accumulating in postmitotic immature neurons. PMID:25263558

  5. Linkage disequilibrium between BLM, FES, D15S127, and IP15M9 in Ashkenazi Jews with Bloom`s syndrome (BS)

    SciTech Connect

    German, J.; Lennon, D.; Proytcheva, M.

    1994-09-01

    BS is more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish than in any other population. About 1 in 110 Ashkenazi Jews carries bbm, a BS mutation. The locus mutated in BS, BLM, maps to chromosome sub-band 15q26.1, tightly linked to the proto-oncogene FES. We have investigated the basis for the increased frequency of bbm in the Ashkenazim by genotyping polymorphic microsatellite loci tightly linked to BLM in affected and unaffected individuals from Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Ashkenazi populations. A striking linkage disequilibrium has been observed between BLM and FES, D15S127, and IP15M9 -- three loci unseparated by conventional pedigree analysis. The linkage disequilibrium constitutes strong support for a founder-effect hypothesis. We have also analyzed blm and BLM haplotypes when genotype information from the parents was available. The haplotype analysis indicates that the chromosome in the hypothetical founder carried the C3 allele at FES, either the 145 bp or the 147 bp allele at D15S127, and the 83 bp allele at IP15M9. Besides providing strong support for the founder-effect hypothesis, haplotype analysis in a fetus at risk for BS also provided evidence against either homozygosity or heterozygosity for mutation at BLM -- evidence shown valuable by the subsequent birth of a normal boy to a couple, the father being Ashkenazi Jewish and the mother being Sephardi-Egyptian Jewish.

  6. 43 CFR 2808.11 - What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... trespass you must meet one of the conditions identified in 43 CFR 9239.7-1. For roads, the penalty is an... knowing and willful trespass, as provided at 43 CFR 9262.1 and 43 U.S.C. 1733(a). (e) Until you comply with the requirements of 43 CFR 9239.7-1, BLM will not process any of your applications for...

  7. 43 CFR 2808.11 - What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... trespass you must meet one of the conditions identified in 43 CFR 9239.7-1. For roads, the penalty is an... knowing and willful trespass, as provided at 43 CFR 9262.1 and 43 U.S.C. 1733(a). (e) Until you comply with the requirements of 43 CFR 9239.7-1, BLM will not process any of your applications for...

  8. 43 CFR 2808.11 - What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... trespass you must meet one of the conditions identified in 43 CFR 9239.7-1. For roads, the penalty is an... knowing and willful trespass, as provided at 43 CFR 9262.1 and 43 U.S.C. 1733(a). (e) Until you comply with the requirements of 43 CFR 9239.7-1, BLM will not process any of your applications for...

  9. Considering High-Tech Exhibits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a variety of high-tech exhibit media used in The Living World, an educational facility operated by The Saint Louis Zoo. Considers the strengths and weaknesses of holograms, video, animatronics, video-equipped microscopes, and computer interactives. Computer interactives are treated with special attention. (LZ)

  10. Marine bacteria exhibit a bipolar distribution.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo Jun; Oliver, Thomas A; Ducklow, Hugh W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2013-02-01

    The microbial cosmopolitan dispersion hypothesis often invoked to explain distribution patterns driven by high connectivity of oceanographic water masses and widespread dispersal ability has never been rigorously tested. By using a global marine bacterial dataset and iterative matrix randomization simulation, we show that marine bacteria exhibit a significantly greater dispersal limitation than predicted by our null model using the "everything is everywhere" tenet with no dispersal limitation scenario. Specifically, marine bacteria displayed bipolar distributions (i.e., species occurring exclusively at both poles and nowhere else) significantly less often than in the null model. Furthermore, we observed fewer taxa present in both hemispheres but more taxa present only in a single hemisphere than expected under the null model. Each of these trends diverged further from the null expectation as the compared habitats became more geographically distant but more environmentally similar. Our meta-analysis supported a latitudinal gradient in bacterial diversity with higher richness at lower latitudes, but decreased richness toward the poles. Bacteria in the tropics also demonstrated narrower latitudinal ranges at lower latitudes and relatively larger ranges in higher latitudes, conforming to the controversial macroecological pattern of the "Rapoport rule." Collectively, our findings suggest that bacteria follow biogeographic patterns more typical of macroscopic organisms, and that dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, likely plays an important role. Distributions of microbes that deliver critical ecosystem services, particularly those in polar regions, may be vulnerable to the same impacts that environmental stressors, climate warming, and degradation in habitat quality are having on biodiversity in animal and plant species.

  11. Differences in rheotactic responses contribute to divergent habitat use between parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuexin; Torrance, Louisa; Peichel, Catherine L; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2015-09-01

    Migration among populations is widely thought to undermine adaptive divergence, assuming gene flow arises from random movement of individuals. If individuals instead differ in dispersal behavior, phenotype-dependent dispersal can reduce the effective rate of gene flow or even facilitate divergence. For example, parapatric populations of lake and stream stickleback tend to actively avoid dispersing into the adjoining habitat. However, the behavioral basis of this nonrandom dispersal was previously unknown. Here, we show that lake and stream stickleback exhibit divergent rheotactic responses (behavioral response to currents). During the breeding season, wild-caught inlet stream stickleback were better than lake fish at maintaining position in currents, faced upstream more, and spent more time in low-current areas. As a result, stream fish expended significantly less energy in currents than did lake fish. These divergent rheotactic responses likely contribute to divergent habitat use by lake and stream stickleback. Although rheotactic differences were absent in nonbreeding fish, divergent behavior of breeding-season fish may suffice for assortative mating by breeding location. The resulting reproductive isolation between lake and stream fish may explain the fine-scale evolutionary differentiation in parapatric stickleback populations.

  12. Antagonistic selection factors induce a continuous population divergence in a polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Nagata, N; Kawata, M

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the relative importance of selection and stochastic factors in population divergence of adaptive traits is a classical topic in evolutionary biology. However, it is difficult to separate these factors and detect the effects of selection when two or more contrasting selective factors are simultaneously acting on a single locus. In the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis, females exhibit color dimorphism and morph frequencies change geographically. We here evaluated the role of selection and stochastic factors in population divergence of morph frequencies by comparing the divergences in color locus and neutral loci. Comparisons between population pairwise FST for neutral loci and for the color locus did not detect any stochastic factors affecting color locus. Although comparison between population divergence in color and neutral loci using all populations detected only divergent selection, we detected two antagonistic selective factors acting on the color locus, that is, balancing and divergent selection, when considering geographical distance between populations. Our results suggest that a combination of two antagonistic selective factors, rather than stochastic factors, establishes the geographic cline in morph frequency in this system. PMID:24281546

  13. Balamuthia mandrillaris exhibits metalloprotease activities.

    PubMed

    Matin, Abdul; Stins, Monique; Kim, Kwang Sik; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2006-06-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a recently identified protozoan pathogen that can cause fatal granulomatous encephalitis. However, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis remain unclear. Because proteases may play a role in the central nervous system (CNS) pathology, we used spectrophotometric, cytopathic and zymographic assays to assess protease activities of B. mandrillaris. Using two clinical isolates of B. mandrillaris (from human and baboon), we observed that B. mandrillaris exhibits protease activities. Zymographic assays revealed major protease bands of approximate molecular weights in the region of 40-50 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels using gelatin as substrate. The protease bands were inhibited with 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting metallo-type proteases. The proteolytic activities were observed over a pH range of 5-11 with maximum activity at neutral pH and at 42 degrees C. Balamuthia mandrillaris proteases exhibit properties to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM), which provide structural and functional support to the brain tissue. This is shown by degradation of collagen I and III (major components of collagenous ECM), elastin (elastic fibrils of ECM), plasminogen (involved in proteolytic degradation of ECM), as well as other substrates such as casein and gelatin but not haemoglobin. However, these proteases exhibited a minimal role in B. mandrillaris-mediated host cell death in vitro using human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). This was shown using broad-spectrum matrix metalloprotease inhibitors, GM 6001 and GM 1489, which had no effect on B. mandrillaris-mediated HBMEC cytotoxicity. This is the first demonstration that B. mandrillaris exhibits metalloproteases, which may play important role(s) in the ECM degradation and thus in CNS pathology. PMID:16706791

  14. Convergence and divergence are mostly reciprocated properties of the connections in the network of cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Négyessy, László; Nepusz, Tamás; Zalányi, László; Bazsó, Fülöp

    2008-10-22

    Cognition is based on the integrated functioning of hierarchically organized cortical processing streams in a manner yet to be clarified. Because integration fundamentally depends on convergence and the complementary notion of divergence of the neuronal connections, we analysed integration by measuring the degree of convergence/divergence through the connections in the network of cortical areas. By introducing a new index, we explored the complementary convergent and divergent nature of connectional reciprocity and delineated the backward and forward cortical sub-networks for the first time. Integrative properties of the areas defined by the degree of convergence/divergence through their afferents and efferents exhibited distinctive characteristics at different levels of the cortical hierarchy. Areas previously identified as hubs exhibit information bottleneck properties. Cortical networks largely deviate from random graphs where convergence and divergence are balanced at low reciprocity level. In the cortex, which is dominated by reciprocal connections, balance appears only by further increasing the number of reciprocal connections. The results point to the decisive role of the optimal number and placement of reciprocal connections in large-scale cortical integration. Our findings also facilitate understanding of the functional interactions between the cortical areas and the information flow or its equivalents in highly recurrent natural and artificial networks.

  15. BILAYER LIPID MEMBRANE (BLM) BASED ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES AT THE MESO, MICRO, AND NANO SCALES

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingwen; Rieck, Daniel; Van Wie, Bernard J.; Cheng, Gary J.; Moffett, David F.; Kidwell, David A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for making micron-sized apertures with tapered sidewalls and nano-sized apertures. Their use in bilayer lipid membrane-based ion selective electrode design is demonstrated and compared to mesoscale bilayers and traditional PVC ion selective electrodes. Micron-sized apertures are fabricated in SU-8 photoresist films and vary in diameter from 10 to 40 microns. The tapered edges in SU-8 films are desired to enhance bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) formation and are fabricated by UV-light overexposure. Nanoapertures are made in boron diffused silicon film. The membranes are used as septa to separate two potassium chloride solutions of different concentrations. Lecithin BLMs are assembled on the apertures by ejecting lipid solution. Potassium ionophore, dibenzo-18-crown-6, is incorporated into BLMs by dissolving it in the lipid solution before membrane assembly. Voltage changes with increasing potassium ion concentrations are recorded with an A/D converter. Various ionophore concentrations in BLMs are investigated. At least a 1% concentration is needed for consistent slopes. Electrode response curves are linear over the 10−6 to 0.1 M range with a sub-Nernstian slope of 20 mV per Log concentration change. This system shows high selectivity to potassium ions over potential interfering sodium ions. BLMs on the three different aperture sizes at the meso, micro, and nano-scales all show similar linear ranges and limits of detection (LODs) as PVC ion selective membranes. PMID:19008091

  16. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient. PMID:27195668

  17. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient.

  18. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training.

  19. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  20. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  1. Evolutionary Divergence of Arabidopsis thaliana Classical Peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Kupriyanova, E V; Mamoshina, P O; Ezhova, T A

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms of 62 peroxidase genes derived from Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated to evaluate evolutionary dynamics and divergence of peroxidase proteins. By comparing divergence of duplicated genes AtPrx53-AtPrx54 and AtPrx36-AtPrx72 and their products, nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were identified that were apparently targets of positive selection. These substitutions were detected among paralogs of 461 ecotypes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Some of these substitutions are conservative and matched paralogous peroxidases in other Brassicaceae species. These results suggest that after duplication, peroxidase genes evolved under the pressure of positive selection, and amino acid substitutions identified during our study provided divergence of properties and physiological functions in peroxidases. Our predictions regarding functional significance for amino acid residues identified in variable sites of peroxidases may allow further experimental assessment of evolution of peroxidases after gene duplication.

  2. Optical rain gauge using a divergent beam.

    PubMed

    Wang, T I; Lawrence, R S; Tsay, M K

    1980-11-01

    We have shown that path-averaged rain rates can be obtained from the raindrop-induced amplitude scintillations of a divergent laser beam (spherical wave case). We found that the rain rate obtained from a divergent beam is less sensitive to drop-size distribution than that from a collimated beam. However, the path-weighting function is heavily weighted toward the receiving end in the spherical wave case, whereas in the plane wave case, it is almost uniformly weighted along the optical path. The theory was confirmed by observations on two optical paths, one using a collimated beam on a 200-m path, the other using a divergent beam on a 1000-m path. The results for the longer path show a saturation effect for rain rates higher than 12 mm/h.

  3. Divergence detectors for multitarget tracking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    Single-target tracking filters will typically diverge when their internal measurement or motion models deviate too much from the actual models. Niu, Varshney, Alford, Bubalo, Jones, and Scalzo have proposed a metric-- the normalized innovation squared (NIS)--that recursively estimates the degree of nonlinearity in a single-target tracking problem by detecting filter divergence. This paper establishes the following: (1) NIS can be extended to generalized NIS (GNIS), which addresses more general nonlinearities; (2) NIS and GNIS are actually anomaly detectors, rather than filter-divergence detectors; (3) NIS can be heuristically generalized to a multitarget NIS (MNIS) metric; (4) GNIS also can be rigorously extended to multitarget problems via the multitarget GNIS (MGNIS); (5) explicit, computationally tractable formulas for MGNIS can be derived for use with CPHD and PHD filters; and thus (6) these formulas can be employed as anomaly detectors for use with these filters.

  4. Chromosomal instability associated with a novel BLM frameshift mutation (c.1980-1982delAA) in two unrelated Tunisian families with Bloom syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, G; Salem, I Hadj; Masmoudi, A; Ben Rhouma, B; Turki, H; Fakhfakh, F; Ayadi, H; Kamoun, H

    2014-10-01

    The Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with dwarfism, immunodeficiency, reduced fertility and cancer risk. BS cells show genomic instability, particularly an hyper exchange between the sister chromatids due to a defective processing of the DNA replication intermediates. It is caused by mutations in the BLM gene which encodes a member of the RecQ family of DExH box DNA helicases. In this study, we reported cytogenetic, BLM linkage and mutational analyses for two affected Tunisian families. The Cytogenetic parameters were performed by chromosomal aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays and results showed a significant increase in mean frequency of CA and SCE in BS cells. BLM linkage performed by microsatellite genotyping revealed homozygous haplotypes for the BS patients, evidence of linkage to BLM gene. Mutational analysis by direct DNA sequencing revealed a novel frameshift mutation (c.1980-1982delAA) in exon 8 of BLM gene, resulting in a truncated protein (p.Lys662fsX5). The truncated protein could explain genomic instability and its related symptoms in the BS patients. The screening of this mutation is useful for BS diagnosis confirmation in Tunisian families.

  5. Temporary divergence paralysis in viral meningitis.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Stef L M; Gan, Ivan M

    2008-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman who reported diplopia and headache was found to have comitant esotropia at distance fixation and normal alignment at reading distance (divergence paralysis). Eye movement, including abduction, was normal as was the rest of the neurologic examination. Brain MRI was normal. Lumbar puncture showed an elevated opening pressure and a cerebrospinal fluid formula consistent with viral meningitis. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and analgesics and with a temporary prism to alleviate diplopia. Within 3 weeks, she had fully recovered. This is the first report of divergence palsy in viral meningitis.

  6. Diverging Fluctuations of the Lyapunov Exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazó, Diego; López, Juan M.; Politi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We show that in generic one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices the diffusion coefficient of the maximum Lyapunov exponent diverges in the thermodynamic limit. We trace this back to the long-range correlations associated with the evolution of the hydrodynamic modes. In the case of normal heat transport, the divergence is even stronger, leading to the breakdown of the usual single-function Family-Vicsek scaling ansatz. A similar scenario is expected to arise in the evolution of rough interfaces in the presence of suitably correlated background noise.

  7. BLM Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study: Establishment Report and Study Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cissel, J.H.; Anderson, P.D.; Olson, Deanna H.; Puettmann, Klaus; Berryman, Shanti; Chan, Samuel; Thompson, Charley

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon State University (OSU) established the BLM Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study (DMS) in 1994 to demonstrate and test options for young stand management to meet Northwest Forest Plan objectives in western Oregon. The primary objectives of the DMS are to evaluate the effects of alternative forest density management treatments in young stands on the development of important late-successional forest habitat attributes and to assess the combined effects of density management and alternative riparian buffer widths on aquatic and riparian ecosystems. The DMS consists of three integrated studies: initial thinning, rethinning, and riparian buffer widths. The initial thinning study was installed in 50- to 80-year-old stands that had never been commercially thinned. Four stand treatments of 30-60 acres each were established at each of seven study sites: (1) unthinned control, (2) high density retention [120 trees per acre (TPA)], (3) moderate density retention (80 TPA), and (4) variable density retention (40-120 TPA). Small (1/4 to 1 acre in size) leave islands were included in all treatments except the control, and small patch cuts (1/4 to 1 acre in size) were included in the moderate and variable density treatments. An eighth site, Callahan Creek, contains a partial implementation of the study design. The rethinning study was installed in four 70- to 90-year-old stands that previously had been commercially thinned. Each study stand was split into two parts: one part as an untreated control and the other part as a rethinning (30-60 TPA). The riparian buffer study was nested within the moderate density retention treatment at each of the eight initial thinning study sites and two rethinning sites. Alternative riparian buffer widths included: (1) streamside retention (one tree canopy width, or 20-25 feet), (2) variable width (follows topographic and

  8. Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver.

    PubMed

    Hinke, Jefferson T; Salwicka, Kasia; Trivelpiece, Susan G; Watters, George M; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z

    2007-10-01

    The responses of predators to environmental variability in the Antarctic Peninsula region have exhibited divergent patterns owing to variation in the geographic settings of colonies and predator life-history strategies. Five breeding colonies of Pygoscelis penguins from King George Island and Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, were examined to (1) compare the responses of sympatric congeners to recent changes in their Antarctic ecosystem and (2) assess underlying causes for such responses. We used linear regression and correlation analyses to compare indices of abundance, recruitment, and summer breeding performance of the Adélie (P. adeliae), gentoo (P. papua), and chinstrap penguins (P. antarctica). Breeding colonies of Adélie and chinstrap penguins have declined by roughly 50% since the mid-1970s, and recruitment indices of Adélie penguins have declined by roughly 80%, but no such patterns are evident for gentoo penguins. Fledging success, however, has remained stable at all breeding colonies. The different trends in abundance and recruitment indices for each species, despite generally similar indices of summer performance, suggest that winter conditions contribute to the divergent responses among the penguins. In particular, strong correlations between indices of penguin and krill recruitment suggest that penguins in the South Shetland Islands may live under an increasingly krill-limited system that has disproportionate effects on the survival of juvenile birds.

  9. Kinetoplast DNA minicircles: regions of extensive sequence divergence.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, W O; Wirth, D F

    1987-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the kinetoplast minicircle DNA of Leishmania species exhibits species-specific sequence divergence and this observation has led to the development of a DNA probe-based diagnostic test for leishmaniasis. In the work reported here, we demonstrate that the minicircle is composed of three types of DNA sequences with differing specificities reflecting different rates of DNA sequence change. A library of cloned fragments of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) from Leishmania mexicana amazonensis was prepared and the cloned subfragments were found to contain DNA sequences with different taxonomic specificities based on hybridization analysis with various species of Leishmania. Four groups of subfragments were found, those that hybridized with a large number of Leishmania sp. as well as sequences unique to the species, subspecies, or isolate. Analysis of nested deletions of a single, full-length minicircle demonstrates that these different taxonomic specificities are contained within a single minicircle. This implies that different regions of a single minicircle have DNA sequences that diverge at different rates. These sequences represent potentially valuable tools in diagnostic, epidemiologic, and ecological studies of leishmaniasis and provide the basis for a model of kDNA sequence evolution. Images PMID:3025880

  10. Adaptive divergence in resistance to herbivores in Datura stramonium

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Guillermo; Valverde, Pedro L.; Cruz, Laura L.; Hernández-Cumplido, Johnattan; Andraca-Gómez, Guadalupe; Fornoni, Juan; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Olmedo-Vicente, Erika; Flores-Ortiz, César M.

    2015-01-01

    Defensive traits exhibited by plants vary widely across populations. Heritable phenotypic differentiation is likely to be produced by genetic drift and spatially restricted gene flow between populations. However, spatially variable selection exerted by herbivores may also give rise to differences among populations. To explore to what extent these factors promote the among-population differentiation of plant resistance of 13 populations of Datura stramonium, we compared the degree of phenotypic differentiation (PST) of leaf resistance traits (trichome density, atropine and scopolamine concentration) against neutral genetic differentiation (FST) at microsatellite loci. Results showed that phenotypic differentiation in defensive traits among-population is not consistent with divergence promoted by genetic drift and restricted gene flow alone. Phenotypic differentiation in scopolamine concentration was significantly higher than FST across the range of trait heritability values. In contrast, genetic differentiation in trichome density was different from FST only when heritability was very low. On the other hand, differentiation in atropine concentration differed from the neutral expectation when heritability was less than or equal to 0.3. In addition, we did not find a significant correlation between pair-wise neutral genetic distances and distances of phenotypic resistance traits. Our findings reinforce previous evidence that divergent natural selection exerted by herbivores has promoted the among-population phenotypic differentiation of defensive traits in D. stramonium. PMID:26644970

  11. Ribonucleotide reductases: divergent evolution of an ancient enzyme.

    PubMed

    Torrents, Eduard; Aloy, Patrick; Gibert, Isidre; Rodríguez-Trelles, Francisco

    2002-08-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are uniquely responsible for converting nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in all dividing cells. The three known classes of RNRs operate through a free radical mechanism but differ in the way in which the protein radical is generated. Class I enzymes depend on oxygen for radical generation, class II uses adenosylcobalamin, and the anaerobic class III requires S-adenosylmethionine and an iron-sulfur cluster. Despite their metabolic prominence, the evolutionary origin and relationships between these enzymes remain elusive. This gap in RNR knowledge can, to a major extent, be attributed to the fact that different RNR classes exhibit greatly diverged polypeptide chains, rendering homology assessments inconclusive. Evolutionary studies of RNRs conducted until now have focused on comparison of the amino acid sequence of the proteins, without considering how they fold into space. The present study is an attempt to understand the evolutionary history of RNRs taking into account their three-dimensional structure. We first infer the structural alignment by superposing the equivalent stretches of the three-dimensional structures of representatives of each family. We then use the structural alignment to guide the alignment of all publicly available RNR sequences. Our results support the hypothesis that the three RNR classes diverged from a common ancestor currently represented by the anaerobic class III. Also, lateral transfer appears to have played a significant role in the evolution of this protein family. PMID:12107591

  12. Adaptive divergence in resistance to herbivores in Datura stramonium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Guillermo; Valverde, Pedro L; Cruz, Laura L; Hernández-Cumplido, Johnattan; Andraca-Gómez, Guadalupe; Fornoni, Juan; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Olmedo-Vicente, Erika; Flores-Ortiz, César M; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Defensive traits exhibited by plants vary widely across populations. Heritable phenotypic differentiation is likely to be produced by genetic drift and spatially restricted gene flow between populations. However, spatially variable selection exerted by herbivores may also give rise to differences among populations. To explore to what extent these factors promote the among-population differentiation of plant resistance of 13 populations of Datura stramonium, we compared the degree of phenotypic differentiation (P ST) of leaf resistance traits (trichome density, atropine and scopolamine concentration) against neutral genetic differentiation (F ST) at microsatellite loci. Results showed that phenotypic differentiation in defensive traits among-population is not consistent with divergence promoted by genetic drift and restricted gene flow alone. Phenotypic differentiation in scopolamine concentration was significantly higher than F ST across the range of trait heritability values. In contrast, genetic differentiation in trichome density was different from F ST only when heritability was very low. On the other hand, differentiation in atropine concentration differed from the neutral expectation when heritability was less than or equal to 0.3. In addition, we did not find a significant correlation between pair-wise neutral genetic distances and distances of phenotypic resistance traits. Our findings reinforce previous evidence that divergent natural selection exerted by herbivores has promoted the among-population phenotypic differentiation of defensive traits in D. stramonium. PMID:26644970

  13. Semiclassical black holes expose forbidden charges and censor divergent densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.

    2013-09-01

    Classically, the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole (BH) is a rigid surface of infinite redshift; whereas the uncertainty principle dictates that the semiclassical (would-be) horizon cannot be fixed in space nor can it exhibit any divergences. We propose that this distinction underlies the BH information-loss paradox, the apparent absence of BH hair, the so-called trans-Planckian problem and the recent "firewall" controversy. We argue that the correct prescription is to first integrate out the fluctuations of the background geometry and only then evaluate matter observables. The basic idea is illustrated using a system of two strongly coupled harmonic oscillators, with the heavier oscillator representing the background. We then apply our proposal to matter fields near a BH horizon, initially treating the matter fields as classical and the background as semiclassical. In this case, the average value of the associated current does not vanish; so that it is possible, in pr inciple, to measure the global charge of the BH. Then the matter is, in addition to the background, treated quantum mechanically. We show that the average energy density of matter as seen by an asymptotic observer is finite and proportional to the BH entropy, rather than divergent. We discuss the implications of our results for the various controversial issues concerning BH physics.

  14. The impact of selection, gene flow and demographic history on heterogeneous genomic divergence: three-spine sticklebacks in divergent environments.

    PubMed

    Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Hansen, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous genomic divergence between populations may reflect selection, but should also be seen in conjunction with gene flow and drift, particularly population bottlenecks. Marine and freshwater three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations often exhibit different lateral armour plate morphs. Moreover, strikingly parallel genomic footprints across different marine-freshwater population pairs are interpreted as parallel evolution and gene reuse. Nevertheless, in some geographic regions like the North Sea and Baltic Sea, different patterns are observed. Freshwater populations in coastal regions are often dominated by marine morphs, suggesting that gene flow overwhelms selection, and genomic parallelism may also be less pronounced. We used RAD sequencing for analysing 28 888 SNPs in two marine and seven freshwater populations in Denmark, Europe. Freshwater populations represented a variety of environments: river populations accessible to gene flow from marine sticklebacks and large and small isolated lakes with and without fish predators. Sticklebacks in an accessible river environment showed minimal morphological and genomewide divergence from marine populations, supporting the hypothesis of gene flow overriding selection. Allele frequency spectra suggested bottlenecks in all freshwater populations, and particularly two small lake populations. However, genomic footprints ascribed to selection could nevertheless be identified. No genomic regions were consistent freshwater-marine outliers, and parallelism was much lower than in other comparable studies. Two genomic regions previously described to be under divergent selection in freshwater and marine populations were outliers between different freshwater populations. We ascribe these patterns to stronger environmental heterogeneity among freshwater populations in our study as compared to most other studies, although the demographic history involving bottlenecks should also be considered in the

  15. The crystal structure of BlmI as a model for nonribosomal peptide synthetase peptidyl carrier proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Jeremy R.; Ma, Ming; Cuff, Marianne E.; Bigelow, Lance; Bearden, Jessica; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N.; Shen, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Carrier proteins (CPs) play a critical role in the biosynthesis of various natural products, especially in nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymology, where the CPs are referred to as peptidyl-carrier proteins (PCPs) or acyl-carrier proteins (ACPs), respectively. CPs can either be a domain in large multifunctional polypeptides or standalone proteins, termed Type I and Type II, respectively. There have been many biochemical studies of the Type I PKS and NRPS CPs, and of Type II ACPs. However, recently a number of Type II PCPs have been found and biochemically characterized. In order to understand the possible interaction surfaces for combinatorial biosynthetic efforts we crystallized the first characterized and representative Type II PCP member, BlmI, from the bleomycin biosynthetic pathway from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC 15003. The structure is similar to CPs in general but most closely resembles PCPs. Comparisons with previously determined PCP structures in complex with catalytic domains reveals a common interaction surface. This surface is highly variable in charge and shape, which likely confers specificity for interactions. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a prototypical Type I PCP excised from the multimodular context revealed three conformational states. Comparison of the states with the structure of BlmI and other PCPs reveals that only one of the NMR states is found in other studies, suggesting the other two states may not be relevant. The state represented by the BlmI crystal structure can therefore serve as a model for both Type I and Type II PCPs. PMID:25050442

  16. Diverging vortex separator description and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, J.R.

    1981-10-01

    Geothermal field test results of the diverging vortex separator have shown operating efficiencies of 99.998% liquid removal at well head conditions in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. These results indicate this separator concept to be a viable process alternative.

  17. Scholarly Groups' Choices Yield Diverging Fortunes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrett, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Scholarly groups have long served as hubs of academic life and the embodiments of their disciplines, but they face uncertain and divergent futures. Some disciplinary associations are struggling to remain relevant and financially viable as demographic and technological changes threaten their traditional sources of revenue. The core of their…

  18. Controversial Issues Confronting Special Education: Divergent Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, William; Stainback, Susan

    This book of 24 papers presents divergent views on 12 issues in special education: organizational strategies, classroom service delivery approaches, maximizing the talents and gifts of students, classification and labeling, assessment, instructional strategies, classroom management, collaboration/consultation, research practices, higher education,…

  19. Geographically multifarious phenotypic divergence during speciation

    PubMed Central

    Gompert, Zachariah; Lucas, Lauren K; Nice, Chris C; Fordyce, James A; Alex Buerkle, C; Forister, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    Speciation is an important evolutionary process that occurs when barriers to gene flow evolve between previously panmictic populations. Although individual barriers to gene flow have been studied extensively, we know relatively little regarding the number of barriers that isolate species or whether these barriers are polymorphic within species. Herein, we use a series of field and lab experiments to quantify phenotypic divergence and identify possible barriers to gene flow between the butterfly species Lycaeides idas and Lycaeides melissa. We found evidence that L. idas and L. melissa have diverged along multiple phenotypic axes. Specifically, we identified major phenotypic differences in female oviposition preference and diapause initiation, and more moderate divergence in mate preference. Multiple phenotypic differences might operate as barriers to gene flow, as shown by correlations between genetic distance and phenotypic divergence and patterns of phenotypic variation in admixed Lycaeides populations. Although some of these traits differed primarily between species (e.g., diapause initiation), several traits also varied among conspecific populations (e.g., male mate preference and oviposition preference). PMID:23532669

  20. Genomic divergence during speciation: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Speciation is a fundamental process responsible for the diversity of life. Progress has been made in detecting individual ‘speciation genes’ that cause reproductive isolation. In contrast, until recently, less attention has been given to genome-wide patterns of divergence during speciation. Thus, major questions remain concerning how individual speciation genes are arrayed within the genome, and how this affects speciation. This theme issue is dedicated to exploring this genomic perspective of speciation. Given recent sequencing and computational advances that now allow genomic analyses in most organisms, the goal is to help move the field towards a more integrative approach. This issue draws upon empirical studies in plants and animals, and theoretical work, to review and further document patterns of genomic divergence. In turn, these studies begin to disentangle the role that different processes, such as natural selection, gene flow and recombination rate, play in generating observed patterns. These factors are considered in the context of how genomes diverge as speciation unfolds, from beginning to end. The collective results point to how experimental work is now required, in conjunction with theory and sequencing studies, to move the field from descriptive studies of patterns of divergence towards a predictive framework that tackles the causes and consequences of genome-wide patterns. PMID:22201163