Science.gov

Sample records for blm exhibit divergent

  1. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children.

  2. Chk1 protects against chromatin bridges by constitutively phosphorylating BLM serine 502 to inhibit BLM degradation.

    PubMed

    Petsalaki, Eleni; Dandoulaki, Maria; Morrice, Nick; Zachos, George

    2014-09-15

    Chromatin bridges represent incompletely segregated chromosomal DNA connecting the anaphase poles and can result in chromosome breakage. The Bloom's syndrome protein helicase (BLM, also known as BLMH) suppresses formation of chromatin bridges. Here, we show that cells deficient in checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1, also known as CHEK1) exhibit higher frequency of chromatin bridges and reduced BLM protein levels compared to controls. Chk1 inhibition leads to BLM ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation during interphase. Furthermore, Chk1 constitutively phosphorylates human BLM at serine 502 (S502) and phosphorylated BLM localises to chromatin bridges. Mutation of S502 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine residue (BLM-S502A) reduces the stability of BLM, whereas expression of a phospho-mimicking BLM-S502D, in which S502 is mutated to aspartic acid, stabilises BLM and prevents chromatin bridges in Chk1-deficient cells. In addition, wild-type but not BLM-S502D associates with cullin 3, and cullin 3 depletion rescues BLM accumulation and localisation to chromatin bridges after Chk1 inhibition. We propose that Chk1 phosphorylates BLM-S502 to inhibit cullin-3-mediated BLM degradation during interphase. These results suggest that Chk1 prevents deleterious anaphase bridges by stabilising BLM.

  3. Trophic niche divergence among colour morphs that exhibit alternative mating tactics

    PubMed Central

    Lattanzio, Matthew S.; Miles, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Discrete colour morphs associated with alternative mating tactics are assumed to be ecologically equivalent. Yet suites of behaviours linked with reproduction can also favour habitat segregation and exploitation of different prey among morphs. By contrast, trophic polymorphisms are usually attributed to morphs exhibiting habitat or prey selectivity. An alternative hypothesis is that habitat variation generates a trophic polymorphism driven by differences in morph reproductive behaviour, the spatial dispersion of morphs in a landscape and their exposure to different prey types. In this scenario, morphs are allowed to vary in habitat or diet selectivity (e.g. specialist or generalist) as they do in behaviour, rather than being assumed to exhibit equivalent levels of ecological specialization. We test this hypothesis using male Urosaurus ornatus lizards that exhibit a discrete dewlap colour polymorphism that reflects alternative mating tactics. We found blue morphs specialize on prey at higher trophic levels, yellow males display plasticity in trophic and morphological attributes and orange males are trophic generalists. Our results also demonstrate that morph diet differences are enhanced in resource-limited habitats. We conclude that discrete behavioural morphs may also diverge in morphology and trophic niche. Jointly, these processes may enhance speciation rates in colour polymorphic taxa. PMID:27152203

  4. Gut Symbionts from Distinct Hosts Exhibit Genotoxic Activity via Divergent Colibactin Biosynthesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vizcaino, Maria I.; Crawford, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways are chemical mediators of microbial interactions in diverse environments. However, little is known about their distribution, evolution, and functional roles in bacterial symbionts associated with animals. A prominent example is colibactin, a largely unknown family of secondary metabolites produced by Escherichia coli via a hybrid NRPS-PKS biosynthetic pathway that inflicts DNA damage upon eukaryotic cells and contributes to colorectal cancer and tumor formation in the mammalian gut. Thus far, homologs of this pathway have only been found in closely related Enterobacteriaceae, while a divergent variant of this gene cluster was recently discovered in a marine alphaproteobacterial Pseudovibrio strain. Herein, we sequenced the genome of Frischella perrara PEB0191, a bacterial gut symbiont of honey bees and identified a homologous colibactin biosynthetic pathway related to those found in Enterobacteriaceae. We show that the colibactin genomic island (GI) has conserved gene synteny and biosynthetic module architecture across F. perrara, Enterobacteriaceae, and the Pseudovibrio strain. Comparative metabolomics analyses of F. perrara and E. coli further reveal that these two bacteria produce related colibactin pathway-dependent metabolites. Finally, we demonstrate that F. perrara, like E. coli, causes DNA damage in eukaryotic cells in vitro in a colibactin pathway-dependent manner. Together, these results support that divergent variants of the colibactin biosynthetic pathway are widely distributed among bacterial symbionts, producing related secondary metabolites and likely endowing its producer with functional capabilities important for diverse symbiotic associations. PMID:25527542

  5. Comparison of stem morphology and anatomy of two alfalfa clonal lines exhibiting divergent cell wall composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous research, two alfalfa clonal lines (252, 1283) were identified that exhibited environmentally stable differences in stem cell walls. Compared to stems of 1283, stems of 252 have a higher cell wall concentration and greater amounts of lignin and cellulose but reduced levels of pectic suga...

  6. Muscles innervated by a single motor neuron exhibit divergent synaptic properties on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Dawn M; Pritchard, Amy E; Latimer, John K; Wakefield, Andrew T

    2017-01-19

    Adaptive changes in the output of neural circuits underlying rhythmic behaviors are relayed to muscles via motor neuron activity. Pre- and postsynaptic properties of neuromuscular junctions can impact the transformation from motor neuron activity to muscle response. Further, synaptic plasticity occurring on the time scale of inter-spike intervals can differ between multiple muscles innervated by the same motor neuron. In rhythmic behaviors, motor neuron bursts can elicit additional synaptic plasticity. However, it is unknown if plasticity regulated by the longer time scale of inter-burst intervals also differs between synapses from the same neuron, and whether any such distinctions occur across a physiological activity range. To address these issues, we measured electrical responses in muscles innervated by a chewing circuit neuron, the lateral gastric (LG) motor neuron, in a well-characterized small motor system, the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis In vitro and in vivo, sensory, hormonal and modulatory inputs elicit LG bursting consisting of inter-spike intervals of 50-250 ms and inter-burst intervals of 2-24 s. Muscles expressed similar facilitation measured with paired stimuli except at the shortest inter-spike interval. However distinct decay time constants resulted in differences in temporal summation. In response to bursting activity, augmentation occurred to different extents and saturated at different inter-burst intervals in the three muscles. Further, augmentation interacted with facilitation, resulting in distinct intra-burst facilitation between muscles. Thus, responses of multiple target muscles diverge across a physiological activity range due to distinct synaptic properties sensitive to multiple time scales.

  7. HIV-1 and HIV-2 exhibit divergent interactions with HLTF and UNG2 DNA repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hrecka, Kasia; Hao, Caili; Shun, Ming-Chieh; Kaur, Sarabpreet; Swanson, Selene K.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Skowronski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication in nondividing host cells occurs in the presence of high concentrations of noncanonical dUTP, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) cytidine deaminases, and SAMHD1 (a cell cycle-regulated dNTP triphosphohydrolase) dNTPase, which maintains low concentrations of canonical dNTPs in these cells. These conditions favor the introduction of marks of DNA damage into viral cDNA, and thereby prime it for processing by DNA repair enzymes. Accessory protein Vpr, found in all primate lentiviruses, and its HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVsm paralogue Vpx, hijack the CRL4DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase to alleviate some of these conditions, but the extent of their interactions with DNA repair proteins has not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we identify HLTF, a postreplication DNA repair helicase, as a common target of HIV-1/SIVcpz Vpr proteins. We show that HIV-1 Vpr reprograms CRL4DCAF1 E3 to direct HLTF for proteasome-dependent degradation independent from previously reported Vpr interactions with base excision repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2) and crossover junction endonuclease MUS81, which Vpr also directs for degradation via CRL4DCAF1 E3. Thus, separate functions of HIV-1 Vpr usurp CRL4DCAF1 E3 to remove key enzymes in three DNA repair pathways. In contrast, we find that HIV-2 Vpr is unable to efficiently program HLTF or UNG2 for degradation. Our findings reveal complex interactions between HIV-1 and the DNA repair machinery, suggesting that DNA repair plays important roles in the HIV-1 life cycle. The divergent interactions of HIV-1 and HIV-2 with DNA repair enzymes and SAMHD1 imply that these viruses use different strategies to guard their genomes and facilitate their replication in the host. PMID:27335459

  8. Regulation of BLM Nucleolar Localization

    PubMed Central

    Tangeman, Larissa; McIlhatton, Michael A.; Grierson, Patrick; Groden, Joanna; Acharya, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Defects in coordinated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription in the nucleolus cause cellular and organismal growth deficiencies. Bloom’s syndrome, an autosomal recessive human disorder caused by mutated recQ-like helicase BLM, presents with growth defects suggestive of underlying defects in rRNA transcription. Our previous studies showed that BLM facilitates rRNA transcription and interacts with RNA polymerase I and topoisomerase I (TOP1) in the nucleolus. The mechanisms regulating localization of BLM to the nucleolus are unknown. In this study, we identify the TOP1-interaction region of BLM by co-immunoprecipitation of in vitro transcribed and translated BLM segments and show that this region includes the highly conserved nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of BLM. Biochemical and nucleolar co-localization studies using site-specific mutants show that two serines within the NLS (S1342 and S1345) are critical for nucleolar localization of BLM but do not affect the functional interaction of BLM with TOP1. Mutagenesis of both serines to aspartic acid (phospho-mimetic), but not alanine (phospho-dead), results in approximately 80% reduction in nucleolar localization of BLM while retaining the biochemical functions and nuclear localization of BLM. Our studies suggest a role for this region in regulating nucleolar localization of BLM via modification of the two serines within the NLS. PMID:27657136

  9. DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED AT LEFT CENTER, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 AT RIGHT CENTER, UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  10. MMS, BLM assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    After reviewing the Department of the Interior's organizational structure for federal energy and minerals resource management, the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) concluded that the ‘accountability and management of minerals programs are weakened by the current split of responsibilities between the Bureau of Land Management [BLM] and Minerals Management Service [MMS].’ Moreover, ‘to facilitate efficient, comprehensive management of these resources and to clarify lines of authority and accountability,’ GAO recommends that ‘to the extent permitted by law’ Secretary of the Interior James Watt should ‘consolidate the department's onshore minerals management responsibilities in the Minerals Management Service.’Mineral management programs within BLM are fragmented, GAO says, which makes for difficult routine monitoring of program costs and results. ‘As major sources of federal receipts and domestic supplies of fuel and nonfuel minerals, these resource management programs require, but are lacking, clear lines of repsonsibility and organization for efficient operations and program review.’ However, MMS ‘has the potential to provide comprehensive management of these resources,’ GAO concludes.

  11. Avian hepatitis E virus identified in Russian chicken flocks exhibits high genetic divergence based on the ORF2 capsid gene.

    PubMed

    Sprygin, A V; Nikonova, Z B; Zinyakov, N G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 79 liver samples from clinically sick and asymptomatic chickens were tested for avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV). Samples were received from 19 farms, five of which tested positive with primers targeting the ORF2 capsid gene. The phylogenetic analysis of a 242-base-pair fragment demonstrated that the Russian aHEV isolates share between 78.2 and 96.2% over the fragment sequenced, whereas the nucleotide sequence identities between the Russian isolates and the other representatives from GeneBank varied from 76.3 to 96.2%. The homology between the studied hepatitis E viruses and swine hepatitis E virus varied between 46.9 to 48.1%. The most divergent isolate aHEV16050 showed homology of 82.6% as compared with the strains in the dendrogram. The three positive hepatitis E virus samples (aHEV16279, aHEV16050 and aHEV18196) did not cluster with the European genotype 3 as expected due to the close location of Russia to Europe, nor did they with the other two genotypes, separating to a distinct branch. The aHEV16211 grouped together with European and Chinese isolates, and the aHEV18198 with Canadian ones.

  12. Mutator Phenotype and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in BLM Helicase-Deficient Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yasui, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS), an autosomal recessive disorder of the BLM gene, predisposes sufferers to various cancers. To investigate the mutator phenotype and genetic consequences of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in BS cells, we developed BLM helicase-deficient human cells by disrupting the BLM gene. Cells with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) can be restored with or without site-directed DSB induction. BLM cells exhibited a high frequency of spontaneous interallelic HR with crossover, but noncrossover events with long-tract gene conversions also occurred. Despite the highly interallelic HR events, BLM cells predominantly produced hemizygous LOH by spontaneous deletion. These phenotypes manifested during repair of DSBs. Both NHEJ and HR appropriately repaired DSBs in BLM cells, resulting in hemizygous and homozygous LOHs, respectively. However, the magnitude of the LOH was exacerbated in BLM cells, as evidenced by large deletions and long-tract gene conversions with crossover. BLM helicase suppresses the elongation of branch migration and crossover of double Holliday junctions (HJs) during HR repair, and a deficiency in this enzyme causes collapse, abnormal elongation, and/or preferable resolution to crossover of double HJs, resulting in a large-scale LOH. This mechanism underlies the predisposition for cancer in BS. PMID:27601585

  13. Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands' environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Gray, Miranda M; St Amand, Paul; Bello, Nora M; Galliart, Matthew B; Knapp, Mary; Garrett, Karen A; Morgan, Theodore J; Baer, Sara G; Maricle, Brian R; Akhunov, Eduard D; Johnson, Loretta C

    2014-12-01

    Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates. Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation by distance (IBD) vs. isolation by environment (IBE) on ecotype divergence, (iii) identify outlier loci under selection and (iv) assess the association between outlier loci and climate. Using two primer sets, we genotyped 378 plants at 384 polymorphic AFLP loci across regional ecotypes from central and eastern Kansas and Illinois. Neighbour-joining tree and PCoA revealed strong genetic differentiation between Kansas and Illinois ecotypes, which was better explained by IBE than IBD. We found high genetic variability within prairies (80%) and even fragmented Illinois prairies, surprisingly, contained high within-prairie genetic diversity (92%). Using Bayenv2, 14 top-ranked outlier loci among ecotypes were associated with temperature and precipitation variables. Six of seven BayeScanFST outliers were in common with Bayenv2 outliers. High genetic diversity may enable big bluestem populations to better withstand changing climates; however, population divergence supports the use of local ecotypes in grassland restoration. Knowledge of genetic variation in this ecological dominant and other grassland species will be critical to understanding grassland response and restoration challenges in the face of a changing climate.

  14. 43 CFR 3809.10 - How does BLM classify operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management General Information § 3809.10 How does BLM classify operations? BLM...

  15. Knockout mouse production assisted by Blm knockdown

    PubMed Central

    FUKUDA, Mikiko; INOUE, Mayuko; MURAMATSU, Daisuke; MIYACHI, Hitoshi; SHINKAI, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Production of knockout mice using targeted embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a powerful approach for investigating the function of specific genes in vivo. Although the protocol for gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) in ESCs is already well established, the targeting efficiency varies at different target loci and is sometimes too low. It is known that knockdown of the Bloom syndrome gene, BLM, enhances HR-mediated gene targeting efficiencies in various cell lines. However, it has not yet been investigated whether this approach in ESCs is applicable for successful knockout mouse production. Therefore, we attempted to answer this question. Consistent with previous reports, Blm knockdown enhanced gene targeting efficiencies for three gene loci that we examined by 2.3–4.1-fold. Furthermore, the targeted ESC clones generated good chimeras and were successful in germline transmission. These data suggest that Blm knockdown provides a general benefit for efficient ESC-based and HR-mediated knockout mouse production. PMID:26598326

  16. 43 CFR 1821.10 - Where are BLM offices located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where are BLM offices located? 1821.10 Section 1821.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 1821.10 Where are BLM offices located? (a) In addition to the Headquarters Office in Washington,...

  17. Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of proteasome core particles.

    PubMed

    Weberruss, Marion H; Savulescu, Anca F; Jando, Julia; Bissinger, Thomas; Harel, Amnon; Glickman, Michael H; Enenkel, Cordula

    2013-10-16

    Short-lived proteins are degraded by proteasome complexes, which contain a proteolytic core particle (CP) but differ in the number of regulatory particles (RPs) and activators. A recently described member of conserved proteasome activators is Blm10. Blm10 contains 32 HEAT-like modules and is structurally related to the nuclear import receptor importin/karyopherin β. In proliferating yeast, RP-CP assemblies are primarily nuclear and promote cell division. During quiescence, RP-CP assemblies dissociate and CP and RP are sequestered into motile cytosolic proteasome storage granuli (PSG). Here, we show that CP sequestration into PSG depends on Blm10, whereas RP sequestration into PSG is independent of Blm10. PSG rapidly clear upon the resumption of cell proliferation and proteasomes are relocated into the nucleus. Thereby, Blm10 facilitates nuclear import of CP. Blm10-bound CP serves as an import receptor-cargo complex, as Blm10 mediates the interaction with FG-rich nucleoporins and is dissociated from the CP by Ran-GTP. Thus, Blm10 represents the first CP-dedicated nuclear import receptor in yeast.

  18. Enhanced Tumor Formation in Mice Heterozygous for Blm Mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppner Goss, Kathleen; Risinger, Mary A.; Kordich, Jennifer J.; Sanz, Maureen M.; Straughen, Joel E.; Slovek, Lisa E.; Capobianco, Anthony J.; German, James; Boivin, Gregory P.; Groden, Joanna

    2002-09-01

    Persons with the autosomal recessive disorder Bloom syndrome are predisposed to cancers of many types due to loss-of-function mutations in the BLM gene, which encodes a recQ-like helicase. Here we show that mice heterozygous for a targeted null mutation of Blm, the murine homolog of BLM, develop lymphoma earlier than wild-type littermates in response to challenge with murine leukemia virus and develop twice the number of intestinal tumors when crossed with mice carrying a mutation in the Apctumor suppressor. These observations indicate that Blm is a modifier of tumor formation in the mouse and that Blm haploinsufficiency is associated with tumor predisposition, a finding with important implications for cancer risk in humans.

  19. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of...

  20. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of...

  1. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of...

  2. 43 CFR 2806.32 - How does BLM determine the population strata served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM determine the population... does BLM determine the population strata served? (a) BLM determines the population strata served as follows: (1) If the site or facility is within a designated RMA, BLM will use the population strata of...

  3. Semihard processes with BLM renormalization scale setting

    SciTech Connect

    Caporale, Francesco; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2015-04-10

    We apply the BLM scale setting procedure directly to amplitudes (cross sections) of several semihard processes. It is shown that, due to the presence of β{sub 0}-terms in the NLA results for the impact factors, the obtained optimal renormalization scale is not universal, but depends both on the energy and on the process in question. We illustrate this general conclusion considering the following semihard processes: (i) inclusive production of two forward high-p{sub T} jets separated by large interval in rapidity (Mueller-Navelet jets); (ii) high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons; (iii) forward amplitude of the production of two light vector mesons in the collision of two virtual photons.

  4. 43 CFR 3277.12 - What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3277.12 Section 3277.12 Public Lands... § 3277.12 What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) We will issue you a written Incident of Noncompliance, directing you to take...

  5. 43 CFR 3277.12 - What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3277.12 Section 3277.12 Public Lands... § 3277.12 What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) We will issue you a written Incident of Noncompliance, directing you to take...

  6. 43 CFR 3277.12 - What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3277.12 Section 3277.12 Public Lands... § 3277.12 What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) We will issue you a written Incident of Noncompliance, directing you to take...

  7. 43 CFR 3277.12 - What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3277.12 Section 3277.12 Public Lands... § 3277.12 What will BLM do if I do not comply with all BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) We will issue you a written Incident of Noncompliance, directing you to take...

  8. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  9. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  10. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  11. 43 CFR 3809.311 - What action does BLM take when it receives my notice?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What action does BLM take when it receives... action does BLM take when it receives my notice? (a) Upon receipt of your notice, BLM will review it within 15 calendar days to see if it is complete under § 3809.301. (b) If your notice is incomplete,...

  12. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  13. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  14. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  15. 43 CFR 3200.6 - What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What types of geothermal leases will BLM...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Resource Leasing § 3200.6 What types of geothermal leases will BLM issue? BLM...

  16. 43 CFR 3217.14 - When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM approve my drilling or... RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.14 When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract? BLM may approve a drilling or development contract when: (a) One or more geothermal lessees enter...

  17. 43 CFR 3217.14 - When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM approve my drilling or... RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.14 When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract? BLM may approve a drilling or development contract when: (a) One or more geothermal lessees enter...

  18. 43 CFR 3217.14 - When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When will BLM approve my drilling or... RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.14 When will BLM approve my drilling or development contract? BLM may approve a drilling or development contract when: (a) One or more geothermal lessees enter...

  19. 43 CFR 2933.22 - How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM establish Recreation Use... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.22 How does BLM establish Recreation Use Permit fees? BLM sets recreation use fees and adjusts them from time to time to reflect changes...

  20. 43 CFR 2807.11 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations? 2807.11 Section 2807.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU... contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant; (b)...

  1. 43 CFR 2886.12 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT Operations on MLA Grants and TUPs § 2886.12 When must I contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant or TUP; (b) When your use...

  2. 43 CFR 2886.12 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT Operations on MLA Grants and TUPs § 2886.12 When must I contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant or TUP; (b) When your use...

  3. 43 CFR 2807.11 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations? 2807.11 Section 2807.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU... contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant; (b)...

  4. 43 CFR 2886.12 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations... THE MINERAL LEASING ACT Operations on MLA Grants and TUPs § 2886.12 When must I contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant or TUP; (b) When your use...

  5. 43 CFR 2807.11 - When must I contact BLM during operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When must I contact BLM during operations? 2807.11 Section 2807.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU... contact BLM during operations? You must contact BLM: (a) At the times specified in your grant; (b)...

  6. 43 CFR 2884.21 - How will BLM process my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MINERAL LEASING ACT Applying for MLA Grants or TUPs § 2884.21 How will BLM process my application? (a) BLM... processing time. (c) Before issuing a grant or TUP, BLM will: (1) Complete a NEPA analysis for the application or approve a NEPA analysis previously completed for the application, as required by 40 CFR...

  7. 43 CFR 3809.115 - Can BLM collect information under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can BLM collect information under this... GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management General Information § 3809.115 Can BLM collect information under... contained in this subpart under 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and assigned clearance number 1004-0194. BLM will...

  8. 43 CFR 2802.11 - How does BLM designate corridors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... which lands may be suitable for right-of-way corridors, the factors BLM considers include, but are not..., local, and tribal laws; (2) Environmental impacts on cultural resources and natural resources, including... activities located within the proposed right-of-way corridor; (7) Social and economic impacts of the...

  9. 43 CFR 2802.11 - How does BLM designate corridors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... which lands may be suitable for right-of-way corridors, the factors BLM considers include, but are not..., local, and tribal laws; (2) Environmental impacts on cultural resources and natural resources, including... activities located within the proposed right-of-way corridor; (7) Social and economic impacts of the...

  10. 43 CFR 2802.11 - How does BLM designate corridors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... which lands may be suitable for right-of-way corridors, the factors BLM considers include, but are not..., local, and tribal laws; (2) Environmental impacts on cultural resources and natural resources, including... activities located within the proposed right-of-way corridor; (7) Social and economic impacts of the...

  11. 43 CFR 2802.11 - How does BLM designate corridors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... which lands may be suitable for right-of-way corridors, the factors BLM considers include, but are not..., local, and tribal laws; (2) Environmental impacts on cultural resources and natural resources, including... activities located within the proposed right-of-way corridor; (7) Social and economic impacts of the...

  12. 43 CFR 3900.20 - Appealing the BLM's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appealing the BLM's decision. 3900.20 Section 3900.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil...

  13. 43 CFR 3900.20 - Appealing the BLM's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appealing the BLM's decision. 3900.20 Section 3900.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil...

  14. 43 CFR 3900.20 - Appealing the BLM's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appealing the BLM's decision. 3900.20 Section 3900.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil...

  15. 43 CFR 3900.20 - Appealing the BLM's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appealing the BLM's decision. 3900.20 Section 3900.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Oil...

  16. Exhibiting Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Deborah; Elbaz-Luwisch, Freema

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines some of the dilemmas that accompany the emergence of the personal voice in scholarly work, by taking a close, grounded look at the way in which these unfolded in a specific academic course. As part of the course, entitled "A cultural approach to the life cycle", students were asked to participate in a group exhibition in which…

  17. 43 CFR 2807.16 - Under what conditions may BLM order an immediate temporary suspension of my activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... before holding an administrative proceeding on the matter. (b) BLM may issue the immediate temporary...) You may file a written request for permission to resume activities at any time after BLM issues the... BLM does not respond within 5 business days, BLM has denied your request. You may appeal the...

  18. 78 FR 4435 - BLM Director's Response to the Alaska Governor's Appeal of the BLM Alaska State Director's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Finding ] of No Significant Impact for the Delta River Special Recreation Management Area (SRMA) Plan and... business hours. A copy of the Delta River SRMA Plan and EARMP are available on the BLM-Alaska Web site at... Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Delta River SRMA Plan and the EARMP...

  19. 78 FR 29379 - BLM Director's Response to the Appeal by the Governors of Utah and Wyoming of the BLM Assistant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...) for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands Administered by the Bureau of Land... for Allocation of Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources on Lands Administered by the BLM in Colorado, Utah... version of Alternative 2(b) from the proposed plan in the Final Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

  20. 78 FR 68466 - BLM Director's Response to the Idaho Governor's Appeal of the BLM Idaho State Director's Governor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Sage-Grouse Plan concerns, your letter did not identify inconsistencies between your Plan and any of... regulatory requirements by specifically identifying inconsistencies between the Greater Sage-Grouse Plan and... of BLM Idaho's statement that your Greater Sage-Grouse Plan was `not sufficiently final' to...

  1. Mismatch repair genes identified using genetic screens in Blm-deficient embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ge; Wang, Wei; Bradley, Allan

    2004-06-24

    Phenotype-driven recessive genetic screens in diploid organisms require a strategy to render the mutation homozygous. Although homozygous mutant mice can be generated by breeding, a reliable method to make homozygous mutations in cultured cells has not been available, limiting recessive screens in culture. Cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells provide access to all of the genes required to elaborate the fundamental components and physiological systems of a mammalian cell. Here we have exploited the high rate of mitotic recombination in Bloom's syndrome protein (Blm)-deficient ES cells to generate a genome-wide library of homozygous mutant cells from heterozygous mutations induced with a revertible gene trap retrovirus. We have screened this library for cells with defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR), a system that detects and repairs base-base mismatches. We demonstrate the recovery of cells with homozygous mutations in known and novel MMR genes. We identified Dnmt1(ref. 5) as a novel MMR gene and confirmed that Dnmt1-deficient ES cells exhibit micro-satellite instability, providing a mechanistic explanation for the role of Dnmt1 in cancer. The combination of insertional mutagenesis in Blm-deficient ES cells establishes a new approach for phenotype-based recessive genetic screens in ES cells.

  2. Museum Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A TSP from NASA Tech Briefs provided the solution to an electrical problem at a Florida museum. When a model train would not start without a jerk, a Marshall Space Flight Center development called pulse width control was adapted. The new circuit enables the train to start smoothly and reduces construction and maintenance costs. The same technology is also used in another hands-on exhibit. Applications of other TSPs are anticipated.

  3. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  4. The human RecQ helicases BLM and RECQL4 cooperate to preserve genome stability.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Popuri, Venkateswarlu; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Shevelev, Igor; Ghosh, Avik K; Ramamoorthy, Mahesh; Rossi, Marie L; Janscak, Pavel; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2012-08-01

    Bacteria and yeast possess one RecQ helicase homolog whereas humans contain five RecQ helicases, all of which are important in preserving genome stability. Three of these, BLM, WRN and RECQL4, are mutated in human diseases manifesting in premature aging and cancer. We are interested in determining to which extent these RecQ helicases function cooperatively. Here, we report a novel physical and functional interaction between BLM and RECQL4. Both BLM and RECQL4 interact in vivo and in vitro. We have mapped the BLM interacting site to the N-terminus of RECQL4, comprising amino acids 361-478, and the region of BLM encompassing amino acids 1-902 interacts with RECQL4. RECQL4 specifically stimulates BLM helicase activity on DNA fork substrates in vitro. The in vivo interaction between RECQL4 and BLM is enhanced during the S-phase of the cell cycle, and after treatment with ionizing radiation. The retention of RECQL4 at DNA double-strand breaks is shortened in BLM-deficient cells. Further, depletion of RECQL4 in BLM-deficient cells leads to reduced proliferative capacity and an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Together, our results suggest that BLM and RECQL4 have coordinated activities that promote genome stability.

  5. Development of a BLM-based intelligent biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng; Wei, Yunlong; Cai, Shaoxi; Tien, H. Ti; Ottova, Angelica L.

    2001-09-01

    Bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) are promising 'smart' materials for biosensor and biomolecules. A novel pH-microbe of an acupuncture needle support with BLM modified by electron mediators was fabricated. An intelligent biosensor system BLM-based was developed. The intelligent system can automatically measure and analyze pH value of aqueous solution with probes BLMs-based and Si-chips thin-film as sensing elements. It can also give a warning message when the pH value of aqueous solution is over one threshold value. The intelligent system has communication interface of computer. A monitoring system based network can be constructed by connection the intelligence system with computers.

  6. Theoretical analysis of BLM system for HLS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Li, Yu-Xiong; Li, Wei-Min; He, Li-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Hefei Light Source (HLS) is being upgraded to HLS II. Its emittance will be much lower than before, therefore the Touschek scattering will increase significantly and become the dominant factor of beam loss. So it is necessary to build a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system that, in contrast to the old one, is able to obtain the quantity and position information of lost electrons. This information is useful in the commissioning, troubleshooting, and beam lifetime studying for HLS II. This paper analyzes the distribution features of different kinds of lost electrons, introduces the operation parameters of the new machine and discusses how to choose proper monitoring positions. Based on these comprehensive analyses, a new BLM system for HLS II is proposed.

  7. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions for use of motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft, installations, structures, rock drills, and fixed anchors. BLM will require any restoration activities that we find necessary to...

  8. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions for use of motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft, installations, structures, rock drills, and fixed anchors. BLM will require any restoration activities that we find necessary to...

  9. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions for use of motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft, installations, structures, rock drills, and fixed anchors. BLM will require any restoration activities that we find necessary to...

  10. 43 CFR 6303.1 - How does BLM carry out administrative and emergency functions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions for use of motorized equipment, mechanical transport, aircraft, installations, structures, rock drills, and fixed anchors. BLM will require any restoration activities that we find necessary to...

  11. 43 CFR 3601.51 - How will BLM inspect my operation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral... you mine or remove; (d) To examine weight tickets, truck logs, and other records that BLM...

  12. Chimpanzees and Bonobos Exhibit Divergent Spatial Memory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can…

  13. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  14. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  15. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  16. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  17. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  18. 43 CFR 3213.15 - How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM notify me if it terminates my lease? 3213.15 Section 3213.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... LEASING Relinquishment, Termination, and Cancellation § 3213.15 How will BLM notify me if it terminates...

  19. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  20. 43 CFR 3215.11 - Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Must I replace my bond after BLM collects against it? 3215.11 Section 3215.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... against it? If BLM collects against your bond, before you conduct any further operations you must...

  1. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may I use a wheelchair in BLM... § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use of a wheelchair, you may use a wheelchair in a wilderness. Consistent with the Wilderness Act and...

  2. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may I use a wheelchair in BLM... § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use of a wheelchair, you may use a wheelchair in a wilderness. Consistent with the Wilderness Act and...

  3. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may I use a wheelchair in BLM... § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use of a wheelchair, you may use a wheelchair in a wilderness. Consistent with the Wilderness Act and...

  4. 43 CFR 6302.17 - When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may I use a wheelchair in BLM... § 6302.17 When may I use a wheelchair in BLM wilderness? If you have a disability that requires the use of a wheelchair, you may use a wheelchair in a wilderness. Consistent with the Wilderness Act and...

  5. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  6. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  7. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  8. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  9. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  10. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  11. 43 CFR 3270.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Utilization of Geothermal Resources-General § 3270.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders, for detailed requirements that...

  12. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  13. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  14. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  15. 43 CFR 3260.12 - What other orders or instructions may BLM issue?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Geothermal Drilling Operations-General § 3260.12 What other orders or instructions may BLM issue? BLM may issue: (a) Geothermal resource operational orders for detailed requirements that...

  16. Structure of a Blm10 complex reveals common mechanisms for proteasome binding and gate opening.

    PubMed

    Sadre-Bazzaz, Kianoush; Whitby, Frank G; Robinson, Howard; Formosa, Tim; Hill, Christopher P

    2010-03-12

    The proteasome is an abundant protease that is critically important for numerous cellular pathways. Proteasomes are activated in vitro by three known classes of proteins/complexes, including Blm10/PA200. Here, we report a 3.4 A resolution crystal structure of a proteasome-Blm10 complex, which reveals that Blm10 surrounds the proteasome entry pore in the 1.2 MDa complex to form a largely closed dome that is expected to restrict access of potential substrates. This architecture and the observation that Blm10 induces a disordered proteasome gate structure challenge the assumption that Blm10 functions as an activator of proteolysis in vivo. The Blm10 C terminus binds in the same manner as seen for 11S activators and inferred for 19S/PAN activators and indicates a unified model for gate opening. We also demonstrate that Blm10 acts to maintain mitochondrial function. Consistent with the structural data, the C-terminal residues of Blm10 are needed for this activity.

  17. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  18. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  19. 43 CFR 2932.34 - When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When may BLM waive Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.34 When may BLM waive Special Recreation Permit...

  20. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  1. 43 CFR 2933.14 - For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false For what time may BLM issue a Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.14 For what time may BLM issue a Recreation Use Permit? You may obtain a permit for a day, season of use, year, or any other time period...

  2. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  3. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  4. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  5. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the mineral...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger...

  6. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  7. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  8. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  9. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  10. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  11. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  12. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  13. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  14. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  15. 43 CFR 3602.42 - How does BLM publicize competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How does BLM publicize competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.42 How does BLM publicize...

  16. 43 CFR 3602.43 - How does BLM conduct competitive mineral materials sales?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How does BLM conduct competitive mineral... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.43 How does BLM conduct...

  17. 43 CFR 3192.16 - How will I know if BLM intends to terminate my agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... agreement because you did not carry out the terms of the agreement, BLM must send you a notice that lists the reason(s) why BLM intends to terminate the agreement. (b) Within 30 days after receiving the... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) DELEGATION...

  18. 43 CFR 3192.17 - Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cooperative agreement was terminated by consent, you may request that BLM reinstate the agreement at any time. (b) If BLM terminated an agreement because you did not carry out the terms of the agreement, you must... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT...

  19. 43 CFR 3287.2 - When may BLM grant a suspension of unit obligations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... obligations? 3287.2 Section 3287.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... UNIT AGREEMENTS Relief and Appeals § 3287.2 When may BLM grant a suspension of unit obligations? (a) BLM may grant a suspension of unit obligations when, despite the exercise of due care and...

  20. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is BLM's general policy regarding the...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements? For the purpose of more properly conserving...

  1. Stream and River Condition Across the BLM's National System of Public Lands.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted the first ever Western Rivers and Streams Assessment (WRSA), a survey of the condition of BLM streams and rivers throughout the contiguous western U.S. The WRSA was desi...

  2. Stream and River Condition Across the BLM's National System of Public Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meeting Abstract: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted the first ever Western Rivers and Streams Assessment (WRSA), a survey of the condition of BLM streams and rivers throughout the contiguous western U.S...

  3. 43 CFR 3602.49 - When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract? 3602.49 Section 3602.49 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.49 When will BLM issue a non-renewable...

  4. 43 CFR 3602.49 - When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract? 3602.49 Section 3602.49 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.49 When will BLM issue a non-renewable...

  5. 43 CFR 3602.49 - When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract? 3602.49 Section 3602.49 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.49 When will BLM issue a non-renewable...

  6. 43 CFR 3602.49 - When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When will BLM issue a non-renewable contract? 3602.49 Section 3602.49 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued... DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.49 When will BLM issue a non-renewable...

  7. 43 CFR 3272.10 - What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESOURCE LEASING Utilization Plan and Facility Construction Permit § 3272.10 What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan? Submit to BLM an application describing: (a) The proposed facilities as required... utilization plan? 3272.10 Section 3272.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  8. 43 CFR 3272.10 - What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESOURCE LEASING Utilization Plan and Facility Construction Permit § 3272.10 What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan? Submit to BLM an application describing: (a) The proposed facilities as required... utilization plan? 3272.10 Section 3272.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  9. 43 CFR 3272.10 - What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESOURCE LEASING Utilization Plan and Facility Construction Permit § 3272.10 What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan? Submit to BLM an application describing: (a) The proposed facilities as required... utilization plan? 3272.10 Section 3272.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  10. 43 CFR 3272.10 - What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESOURCE LEASING Utilization Plan and Facility Construction Permit § 3272.10 What must I submit to BLM in my utilization plan? Submit to BLM an application describing: (a) The proposed facilities as required... utilization plan? 3272.10 Section 3272.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...

  11. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  12. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  13. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  14. 43 CFR 6302.14 - What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What authorization do I need to climb in... Wilderness Areas § 6302.14 What authorization do I need to climb in BLM wilderness? (a) You do not need a permit or other authorization to climb in BLM wilderness. (b) (c) You must not use power drills...

  15. 43 CFR 3602.48 - What may BLM require when renewing my contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.48 What may BLM require when renewing my contract... renewing your contract, BLM will perform additional environmental analysis as required, and may require...

  16. 43 CFR 3601.11 - When will environmental considerations prevent BLM from disposing of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will environmental considerations prevent BLM from disposing of mineral materials? 3601.11 Section 3601.11 Public Lands: Interior... Limitations on Disposal of Mineral Materials § 3601.11 When will environmental considerations prevent BLM...

  17. 43 CFR 3834.13 - Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shale fees? 3834.13 Section 3834.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.13 Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees? BLM will not prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees if you hold a mining claim or site for...

  18. 43 CFR 3834.13 - Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shale fees? 3834.13 Section 3834.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.13 Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees? BLM will not prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees if you hold a mining claim or site for...

  19. 43 CFR 3834.13 - Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shale fees? 3834.13 Section 3834.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.13 Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees? BLM will not prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees if you hold a mining claim or site for...

  20. 43 CFR 3834.13 - Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shale fees? 3834.13 Section 3834.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.13 Will BLM prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees? BLM will not prorate annual maintenance or oil shale fees if you hold a mining claim or site for...

  1. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do before it establishes...) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units? Before BLM designates sustained-yield forest units, it will: (a) Hold a public hearing in the area...

  2. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do before it establishes...) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units? Before BLM designates sustained-yield forest units, it will: (a) Hold a public hearing in the area...

  3. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What action will BLM take when it receives... Operations § 3809.411 What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations? (a) BLM will review... is complete, that is, it meets the content requirements of § 3809.401(b); (2) Your plan does...

  4. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What action will BLM take when it receives... Operations § 3809.411 What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations? (a) BLM will review... is complete, that is, it meets the content requirements of § 3809.401(b); (2) Your plan does...

  5. 43 CFR 3834.12 - How will BLM know for which mining claims or sites I am paying the fees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or sites that you are paying for by claim name, and by the BLM serial number if BLM has notified you... or sites I am paying the fees? 3834.12 Section 3834.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) REQUIRED FEES FOR MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Fee Payment § 3834.12 How will BLM know for which mining claims...

  6. Quantum skew divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  7. Quantum skew divergence

    SciTech Connect

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  8. Sgs1 Truncations Induce Genome Rearrangements but Suppress Detrimental Effects of BLM Overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Syed, Salahuddin; Kennedy, Jessica; Schmidt, Kristina H

    2011-01-01

    RecQ-like DNA helicases are conserved from bacteria to humans. They perform functions in the maintenance of genome stability, and their mutation is associated with cancer predisposition and premature aging syndromes in humans. Here, a series of C-terminal deletions and point mutations of Sgs1, the only RecQ-like helicase in yeast, show that the HRDC and Rad51 interaction domain are dispensable for Sgs1’s role in suppressing genome instability, whereas the zinc-binding domain and the helicase domain are required. BLM expression from the native SGS1 promoter had no adverse effects on cell growth, but also was unable to complement any sgs1Δ defects. BLM overexpression, however, significantly increased the rate of accumulating GCRs in a dosage-dependent manner and greatly exacerbated sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Co-expressing sgs1 truncations of up to 900 residues, lacking all known functional domains of Sgs1, suppressed HU sensitivity of BLM overexpressing cells, suggesting a functional relationship between Sgs1 and BLM. Indeed, protein disorder prediction analysis of Sgs1 and BLM was used to produce a functional Sgs1-BLM chimera by replacing the N-terminus of BLM with the disordered N-terminus of Sgs1. The functionality of this chimera suggests that it is the disordered N-terminus, a site of protein binding and post-translational modification, that confers species-specificity to these two RecQ-like proteins. PMID:21111748

  9. BLM unfolds G-quadruplexes in different structural environments through different mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Qiang; Hou, Xi-Miao; Li, Ming; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the RecQ DNA helicase gene BLM give rise to Bloom's syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genetic instability and cancer predisposition. BLM helicase is highly active in binding and unwinding G-quadruplexes (G4s), which are physiological targets for BLM, as revealed by genome-wide characterizations of gene expression of cells from BS patients. With smFRET assays, we studied the molecular mechanism of BLM-catalyzed G4 unfolding and showed that ATP is required for G4 unfolding. Surprisingly, depending on the molecular environments of G4, BLM unfolds G4 through different mechanisms: unfolding G4 harboring a 3′-ssDNA tail in three discrete steps with unidirectional translocation, and unfolding G4 connected to dsDNA by ssDNA in a repetitive manner in which BLM remains anchored at the ss/dsDNA junction, and G4 was unfolded by reeling in ssDNA. This indicates that one BLM molecule may unfold G4s in different molecular environments through different mechanisms. PMID:25897130

  10. PICH and BLM limit histone association with anaphase centromeric DNA threads and promote their resolution.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuwen; Huh, Jae-Wan; Warrington, Ross; Li, Bing; Wu, Nan; Leng, Mei; Zhang, Junmei; Ball, Haydn L; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongtao

    2011-07-08

    Centromeres nucleate the formation of kinetochores and are vital for chromosome segregation during mitosis. The SNF2 family helicase PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase) and the BLM (the Bloom's syndrome protein) helicase decorate ultrafine histone-negative DNA threads that link the segregating sister centromeres during anaphase. The functions of PICH and BLM at these threads are not understood, however. Here, we show that PICH binds to BLM and enables BLM localization to anaphase centromeric threads. PICH- or BLM-RNAi cells fail to resolve these threads in anaphase. The fragmented threads form centromeric-chromatin-containing micronuclei in daughter cells. Anaphase threads in PICH- and BLM-RNAi cells contain histones and centromere markers. Recombinant purified PICH has nucleosome remodelling activities in vitro. We propose that PICH and BLM unravel centromeric chromatin and keep anaphase DNA threads mostly free of nucleosomes, thus allowing these threads to span long distances between rapidly segregating centromeres without breakage and providing a spatiotemporal window for their resolution.

  11. Photoelectric measurements of s-BLM/nucleoli: a new technique for studying apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Feng, J; Zhang, C Y; Ottova, A L; Tien, H T

    2000-06-01

    A new method based on photoelectric measurement for analyzing apoptosis of cell-free MCF-7 nucleoli is reported. Supported bilayer lipid membrane (s-BLM) was used to enclose nucleoli in biological environment. The s-BLM was self-assembled on the wall of a super-thin cell. During the apoptosis induced by Taxol, the photoelectric current of the self-assembled s-BLM/nucleoli was found decreasing with time, suggesting the degradation of nucleus DNA. Electron transfer along the DNA double helix and along nuclear skeleton is assumed in the interpretation. This novel photoelectric analytical method may provide a rapid and sensitive technique to evaluate apoptosis.

  12. The Roles of the BLM Helicase in Homologous Recombination and DNA Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    in the HR pathway for the RecQ family of helicases . Mutation of the BLM protein, one of five RecQ helicases in humans, causes Bloom’s syndrome, a rare...and a number of factors essential to this process have been described. One such factor is the human RecQ -like helicase BLM, whose inactivation is...BLM is one of five members of the RecQ helicase family identified thus far in humans. Interestingly, mutations in two other human RecQ helicases

  13. Unphysical divergences in response theory.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shane M; Roy, Saswata; Furche, Filipp

    2016-10-07

    Transition densities between excited states are key for nonlinear theoretical spectroscopy and multi-state non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) simulations. In the framework of response theory, these transition densities are accessible from poles of the quadratic response function. It was shown recently that the thus obtained transition densities within time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) exhibit unphysical divergences when the difference in excitation energy of the two states of interest matches another excitation energy. This unphysical behavior is a consequence of spurious poles in the quadratic response function. We show that the incorrect pole structure of the quadratic response is not limited to TDHF and adiabatic TDDFT, but is also present in many other approximate many-electron response functions, including those from coupled cluster and multiconfigurational self-consistent field response theory. The divergences appear in regions of the potential energy surface where the ground state is perfectly well behaved, and they are frequently encountered in NAMD simulations of photochemical reactions. The origin of the divergences is traced to an incorrect instantaneous time-dependence of the effective Hamiltonian. The implications for computations of frequency-dependent response properties are considerable and call into question the validity of conventional approximate many-electron response theories beyond linear response.

  14. 43 CFR 3287.2 - When may BLM grant a suspension of unit obligations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operator, such as agency timeframes required to complete environmental documents. (b) BLM may deny the... operator's inability to obtain an electrical sales contract, or when poor economics affect the...

  15. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  16. 30 CFR 218.305 - How do I pay advanced royalties I owe under BLM regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT COLLECTION OF MONIES AND PROVISION FOR GEOTHERMAL CREDITS AND INCENTIVES Geothermal Resources § 218.305 How do I pay advanced royalties I owe under BLM regulations? If you...

  17. 43 CFR 3280.3 - What is BLM's general policy regarding the formation of unit agreements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Geothermal Resources Unit Agreements-General § 3280.3 What is BLM's... natural resources of any geothermal reservoir, field, or like area, or any part thereof, lessees and...

  18. 43 CFR 2804.25 - How will BLM process my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... application under 43 CFR subpart 2804 for the generation of electricity from wind or solar sources. In... electricity generation from wind or solar sources under the BLM's right-of-way regulations. Upon...

  19. 43 CFR 3507.19 - Under what circumstances will BLM reject my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID... requirements of this subpart; or (4) In the case of sodium, potassium and sulphur, if BLM determines that...

  20. 43 CFR 3809.581 - Will BLM accept a replacement financial instrument?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Modification Or Replacement of A Financial Guarantee § 3809.581... obligation that accrued while the surety bond was in effect unless the replacement financial guarantee covers such obligations to BLM's satisfaction....

  1. 43 CFR 3602.13 - How does BLM measure and establish the price of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000... contract renewal period. (c) BLM measures mineral materials by in-place volume or weight equivalent....

  2. 43 CFR 6302.19 - When may BLM close or restrict use of wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION (6000... out the provisions of the Wilderness Act and other Federal laws, BLM may close or restrict the use...

  3. BLM helicase measures DNA unwound before switching strands and hRPA promotes unwinding reinitiation.

    PubMed

    Yodh, Jaya G; Stevens, Benjamin C; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Janscak, Pavel; Ha, Taekjip

    2009-02-18

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability and a high predisposition to cancer. The gene defective in BS, BLM, encodes a member of the RecQ family of 3'-5' DNA helicases, and is proposed to function in recombinational repair during DNA replication. Here, we have utilized single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy to examine the behaviour of BLM on forked DNA substrates. Strikingly, BLM unwound individual DNA molecules in a repetitive manner, unwinding a short length of duplex DNA followed by rapid reannealing and reinitiation of unwinding in several successions. Our results show that a monomeric BLM can 'measure' how many base pairs it has unwound, and once it has unwound a critical length, it reverses the unwinding reaction through strand switching and translocating on the opposing strand. Repetitive unwinding persisted even in the presence of hRPA, and interaction between wild-type BLM and hRPA was necessary for unwinding reinitiation on hRPA-coated DNA. The reported activities may facilitate BLM processing of stalled replication forks and illegitimately formed recombination intermediates.

  4. Unwinding forward and sliding back: an intermittent unwinding mode of the BLM helicase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Qin, Wei; Li, Jing-Hua; Lu, Ying; Lu, Ke-Yu; Nong, Da-Guan; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xu, Chun-Hua; Xi, Xu-Guang; Li, Ming

    2015-04-20

    There are lines of evidence that the Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, catalyzes regression of stalled replication forks and disrupts displacement loops (D-loops) formed during homologous recombination (HR). Here we constructed a forked DNA with a 3' single-stranded gap and a 5' double-stranded handle to partly mimic a stalled DNA fork and used magnetic tweezers to study BLM-catalyzed unwinding of the forked DNA. We have directly observed that the BLM helicase may slide on the opposite strand for some distance after duplex unwinding at different forces. For DNA construct with a long hairpin, progressive unwinding of the hairpin is frequently interrupted by strand switching and backward sliding of the enzyme. Quantitative study of the uninterrupted unwinding length (time) has revealed a two-state-transition mechanism for strand-switching during the unwinding process. Mutational studies revealed that the RQC domain plays an important role in stabilizing the helicase/DNA interaction during both DNA unwinding and backward sliding of BLM. Especially, Lys1125 in the RQC domain, a highly conserved amino acid among RecQ helicases, may be involved in the backward sliding activity. We have also directly observed the in vitro pathway that BLM disrupts the mimic stalled replication fork. These results may shed new light on the mechanisms for BLM in DNA repair and homologous recombination.

  5. SELF-BLM: Prediction of drug-target interactions via self-training SVM

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Jongsoo; Nam, Hojung

    2017-01-01

    Predicting drug-target interactions is important for the development of novel drugs and the repositioning of drugs. To predict such interactions, there are a number of methods based on drug and target protein similarity. Although these methods, such as the bipartite local model (BLM), show promise, they often categorize unknown interactions as negative interaction. Therefore, these methods are not ideal for finding potential drug-target interactions that have not yet been validated as positive interactions. Thus, here we propose a method that integrates machine learning techniques, such as self-training support vector machine (SVM) and BLM, to develop a self-training bipartite local model (SELF-BLM) that facilitates the identification of potential interactions. The method first categorizes unlabeled interactions and negative interactions among unknown interactions using a clustering method. Then, using the BLM method and self-training SVM, the unlabeled interactions are self-trained and final local classification models are constructed. When applied to four classes of proteins that include enzymes, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, and nuclear receptors, SELF-BLM showed the best performance for predicting not only known interactions but also potential interactions in three protein classes compare to other related studies. The implemented software and supporting data are available at https://github.com/GIST-CSBL/SELF-BLM. PMID:28192537

  6. Unwinding forward and sliding back: an intermittent unwinding mode of the BLM helicase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Qin, Wei; Li, Jing-Hua; Lu, Ying; Lu, Ke-Yu; Nong, Da-Guan; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xu, Chun-Hua; Xi, Xu-Guang; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    There are lines of evidence that the Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, catalyzes regression of stalled replication forks and disrupts displacement loops (D-loops) formed during homologous recombination (HR). Here we constructed a forked DNA with a 3′ single-stranded gap and a 5′ double-stranded handle to partly mimic a stalled DNA fork and used magnetic tweezers to study BLM-catalyzed unwinding of the forked DNA. We have directly observed that the BLM helicase may slide on the opposite strand for some distance after duplex unwinding at different forces. For DNA construct with a long hairpin, progressive unwinding of the hairpin is frequently interrupted by strand switching and backward sliding of the enzyme. Quantitative study of the uninterrupted unwinding length (time) has revealed a two-state-transition mechanism for strand-switching during the unwinding process. Mutational studies revealed that the RQC domain plays an important role in stabilizing the helicase/DNA interaction during both DNA unwinding and backward sliding of BLM. Especially, Lys1125 in the RQC domain, a highly conserved amino acid among RecQ helicases, may be involved in the backward sliding activity. We have also directly observed the in vitro pathway that BLM disrupts the mimic stalled replication fork. These results may shed new light on the mechanisms for BLM in DNA repair and homologous recombination. PMID:25765643

  7. Dynamics of the DNA repair proteins WRN and BLM in the nucleoplasm and nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Jensen, Martin Borch; May, Alfred; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Trusina, Ala; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Jensen, Mogens H

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the mobility of two EGFP-tagged DNA repair proteins, WRN and BLM. In particular, we focused on the dynamics in two locations, the nucleoli and the nucleoplasm. We found that both WRN and BLM use a "DNA-scanning" mechanism, with rapid binding-unbinding to DNA resulting in effective diffusion. In the nucleoplasm WRN and BLM have effective diffusion coefficients of 1.62 and 1.34 μm(2)/s, respectively. Likewise, the dynamics in the nucleoli are also best described by effective diffusion, but with diffusion coefficients a factor of ten lower than in the nucleoplasm. From this large reduction in diffusion coefficient we were able to classify WRN and BLM as DNA damage scanners. In addition to WRN and BLM we also classified other DNA damage proteins and found they all fall into one of two categories. Either they are scanners, similar to WRN and BLM, with very low diffusion coefficients, suggesting a scanning mechanism, or they are almost freely diffusing, suggesting that they interact with DNA only after initiation of a DNA damage response.

  8. The role of post-translational modifications in fine-tuning BLM helicase function during DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Stefanie; Bernstein, Kara Anne

    2014-01-01

    RecQ-like helicases are a highly conserved family of proteins which are critical for preserving genome integrity. Genome instability is considered a hallmark of cancer and mutations within three of the five human RECQ genes cause hereditary syndromes that are associated with cancer predisposition. The human RecQ-like helicase BLM has a central role in DNA damage signaling, repair, replication, and telomere maintenance. BLM and its budding yeast orthologue Sgs1 unwind double-stranded DNA intermediates. Intriguingly, BLM functions in both a pro- and anti-recombinogenic manner upon replicative damage, acting on similar substrates. Thus, BLM activity must be intricately controlled to prevent illegitimate recombination events that could have detrimental effects on genome integrity. In recent years it has become evident that post-translational modifications (PTMs) of BLM allow a fine-tuning of its function. To date, BLM phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation have been identified, in turn regulating its subcellular localization, protein-protein interactions, and protein stability. In this review, we will discuss the cellular context of when and how these different modifications of BLM occur. We will reflect on the current model of how PTMs control BLM function during DNA damage repair and compare this to what is known about post-translational regulation of the budding yeast orthologue Sgs1. Finally, we will provide an outlook towards future research, in particular to dissect the cross-talk between the individual PTMs on BLM. PMID:25150915

  9. The Human RecQ helicases, BLM and RECQ1, display distinct DNA substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Popuri, Venkateswarlu; Bachrati, Csanád Z; Muzzolini, Laura; Mosedale, Georgina; Costantini, Silvia; Giacomini, Elisa; Hickson, Ian D; Vindigni, Alessandro

    2008-06-27

    RecQ helicases maintain chromosome stability by resolving a number of highly specific DNA structures that would otherwise impede the correct transmission of genetic information. Previous studies have shown that two human RecQ helicases, BLM and WRN, have very similar substrate specificities and preferentially unwind noncanonical DNA structures, such as synthetic Holliday junctions and G-quadruplex DNA. Here, we extend this analysis of BLM to include new substrates and have compared the substrate specificity of BLM with that of another human RecQ helicase, RECQ1. Our findings show that RECQ1 has a distinct substrate specificity compared with BLM. In particular, RECQ1 cannot unwind G-quadruplexes or RNA-DNA hybrid structures, even in the presence of the single-stranded binding protein, human replication protein A, that stimulates its DNA helicase activity. Moreover, RECQ1 cannot substitute for BLM in the regression of a model replication fork and is very inefficient in displacing plasmid D-loops lacking a 3'-tail. Conversely, RECQ1, but not BLM, is able to resolve immobile Holliday junction structures lacking an homologous core, even in the absence of human replication protein A. Mutagenesis studies show that the N-terminal region (residues 1-56) of RECQ1 is necessary both for protein oligomerization and for this Holliday junction disruption activity. These results suggest that the N-terminal domain or the higher order oligomer formation promoted by the N terminus is essential for the ability of RECQ1 to disrupt Holliday junctions. Collectively, our findings highlight several differences between the substrate specificities of RECQ1 and BLM (and by inference WRN) and suggest that these enzymes play nonoverlapping functions in cells.

  10. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  11. Mechanistic insight into the interaction of BLM helicase with intra-strand G-quadruplex structures.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Savitsky, Pavel; Sturzenegger, Andreas; Huttner, Diana; Janscak, Pavel; Hickson, Ian D; Gileadi, Opher; Rothenberg, Eli

    2014-11-24

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RecQ family helicase BLM that is associated with growth retardation and predisposition to cancer. BLM helicase has a high specificity for non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures, which are formed by G-rich DNA strands and play an important role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we used single-molecule FRET to define the mechanism of interaction of BLM helicase with intra-stranded G4 structures. We show that the activity of BLM is substrate dependent, and highly regulated by a short-strand DNA (ssDNA) segment that separates the G4 motif from double-stranded DNA. We demonstrate cooperativity between the RQC and HRDC domains of BLM during binding and unfolding of the G4 structure, where the RQC domain interaction with G4 is stabilized by HRDC binding to ssDNA. We present a model that proposes a unique role for G4 structures in modulating the activity of DNA processing enzymes.

  12. Structural mechanisms of human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The RecQ family DNA helicases Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) play a key role in protecting the genome against deleterious changes. In humans, mutations in these proteins lead to rare genetic diseases associated with cancer predisposition and accelerated aging. WRN and BLM are distinguished from other helicases by possessing signature tandem domains toward the C terminus, referred to as the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) and helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC) domains. Although the precise function of the HRDC domain remains unclear, the previous crystal structure of a WRN RQC-DNA complex visualized a central role for the RQC domain in recognizing, binding and unwinding DNA at branch points. In particular, a prominent hairpin structure (the β-wing) within the RQC winged-helix motif acts as a scalpel to induce the unpairing of a Watson-Crick base pair at the DNA duplex terminus. A similar RQC-DNA interaction was also observed in the recent crystal structure of a BLM-DNA complex. I review the latest structures of WRN and BLM, and then provide a docking simulation of BLM with a Holliday junction. The model offers an explanation for the efficient branch migration activity of the RecQ family toward recombination and repair intermediates.

  13. Mechanistic Insight into the Interaction of BLM helicase with Intra-strand G-quadruplex Structures

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Savitsky, Pavel; Sturzenegger, Andreas; Huttner, Diana; Janscak, Pavel; Hickson, Ian D; Gilaedi, Opher; Rothenberg, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RecQ family helicase BLM that is associated with growth retardation and predisposition to cancer. BLM helicase has a high specificity for non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures, which are formed by G-rich DNA strands and play an important role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here, we used single-molecule FRET to define the mechanism of interaction of BLM helicase with intra-stranded G4 structures. We show that the activity of BLM is substrate dependent, and highly regulated by a short ssDNA segment that separates the G4 motif from dsDNA. We demonstrate cooperativity between the RQC and HRDC domains of BLM during binding and unfolding of the G4 structure, where the RQC domain interaction with G4 is stabilized by HRDC binding to ssDNA. We present a model that proposes a unique role for G4 structures in modulating the activity of DNA processing enzymes. PMID:25418155

  14. Mechanistic insight into the interaction of BLM helicase with intra-strand G-quadruplex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Savitsky, Pavel; Sturzenegger, Andreas; Huttner, Diana; Janscak, Pavel; Hickson, Ian D.; Gileadi, Opher; Rothenberg, Eli

    2014-11-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RecQ family helicase BLM that is associated with growth retardation and predisposition to cancer. BLM helicase has a high specificity for non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures, which are formed by G-rich DNA strands and play an important role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we used single-molecule FRET to define the mechanism of interaction of BLM helicase with intra-stranded G4 structures. We show that the activity of BLM is substrate dependent, and highly regulated by a short-strand DNA (ssDNA) segment that separates the G4 motif from double-stranded DNA. We demonstrate cooperativity between the RQC and HRDC domains of BLM during binding and unfolding of the G4 structure, where the RQC domain interaction with G4 is stabilized by HRDC binding to ssDNA. We present a model that proposes a unique role for G4 structures in modulating the activity of DNA processing enzymes.

  15. The risk for developing cancer in Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Yael; Boker-Keinan, Lital; Berkenstadt, Michal; Liphsitz, Irena; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Ries-Levavi, Liat; Sarouk, Ifat; Pras, Elon; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-03-01

    Cancer risks in heterozygous mutation carriers of the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes are controversial. To shed light on this issue, cancer rates were evaluated by cross referencing asymptomatic Israeli heterozygous mutation carriers in the ATM, BLM, and FANCC genes with cancer diagnoses registered at the Israeli National Cancer Registry (INCR). Comparison of observed to expected Standardized Incidence Rates (SIR) was performed. Overall, 474 individuals participated in the study: 378 females; 25 Arab and 31 Jewish ATM carriers, 152 BLM carriers, and 170 FANCC carriers (all Ashkenazim). Age range at genotyping was 19-53 years (mean + SD 30.6 + 5 years). In addition, 96 males were included; 5, 34, and 57 ATM, BLM, and FANCC mutation carriers, respectively. Over 5-16 years from genotyping (4721 person/years), 15 new cancers were diagnosed in mutation carriers: 5 breast, 4 cervical, 3 melanomas, and one each bone sarcoma, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer. No single cancer diagnosis was more prevalent then expected in all groups combined or per gene analyzed. Specifically breast cancer SIR was 0.02-0.77. We conclude that Israeli ATM, BLM, and FANCC heterozygous mutation carriers are not at an increased risk for developing cancer.

  16. POT1 stimulates RecQ helicases WRN and BLM to unwind telomeric DNA substrates.

    PubMed

    Opresko, Patricia L; Mason, Penelope A; Podell, Elaine R; Lei, Ming; Hickson, Ian D; Cech, Thomas R; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2005-09-16

    Defects in human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM are responsible for the cancer-prone disorders Werner syndrome and Bloom syndrome. Cellular phenotypes of Werner syndrome and Bloom syndrome, including genomic instability and premature senescence, are consistent with telomere dysfunction. RecQ helicases are proposed to function in dissociating alternative DNA structures during recombination and/or replication at telomeric ends. Here we report that the telomeric single-strand DNA-binding protein, POT1, strongly stimulates WRN and BLM to unwind long telomeric forked duplexes and D-loop structures that are otherwise poor substrates for these helicases. This stimulation is dependent on the presence of telomeric sequence in the duplex regions of the substrates. In contrast, POT1 failed to stimulate a bacterial 3'-5'-helicase. We find that purified POT1 binds to WRN and BLM in vitro and that full-length POT1 (splice variant 1) precipitates a higher amount of endogenous WRN protein, compared with BLM, from the HeLa nuclear extract. We propose roles for the cooperation of POT1 with RecQ helicases WRN and BLM in resolving DNA structures at telomeric ends, in a manner that protects the telomeric 3' tail as it is exposed during unwinding.

  17. Structural mechanisms of human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The RecQ family DNA helicases Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) play a key role in protecting the genome against deleterious changes. In humans, mutations in these proteins lead to rare genetic diseases associated with cancer predisposition and accelerated aging. WRN and BLM are distinguished from other helicases by possessing signature tandem domains toward the C terminus, referred to as the RecQ C-terminal (RQC) and helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC) domains. Although the precise function of the HRDC domain remains unclear, the previous crystal structure of a WRN RQC-DNA complex visualized a central role for the RQC domain in recognizing, binding and unwinding DNA at branch points. In particular, a prominent hairpin structure (the β-wing) within the RQC winged-helix motif acts as a scalpel to induce the unpairing of a Watson–Crick base pair at the DNA duplex terminus. A similar RQC-DNA interaction was also observed in the recent crystal structure of a BLM-DNA complex. I review the latest structures of WRN and BLM, and then provide a docking simulation of BLM with a Holliday junction. The model offers an explanation for the efficient branch migration activity of the RecQ family toward recombination and repair intermediates. PMID:25400656

  18. Divergence Boundary Conditions for Vector Helmholtz Equations with Divergence Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangro, Urve; Nicolaides, Roy

    1997-01-01

    The idea of replacing a divergence constraint by a divergence boundary condition is investigated. The connections between the formulations are considered in detail. It is shown that the most common methods of using divergence boundary conditions do not always work properly. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of the formulations are given.

  19. FANCD2 regulates BLM complex functions independently of FANCI to promote replication fork recovery.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Sareen, Archana; Raghunandan, Maya; Sobeck, Alexandra

    2013-07-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) and Bloom Syndrome share overlapping phenotypes including spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities and increased cancer predisposition. The FA protein pathway comprises an upstream core complex that mediates recruitment of two central players, FANCD2 and FANCI, to sites of stalled replication forks. Successful fork recovery depends on the Bloom's helicase BLM that participates in a larger protein complex ('BLMcx') containing topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1, RMI2 and replication protein A. We show that FANCD2 is an essential regulator of BLMcx functions: it maintains BLM protein stability and is crucial for complete BLMcx assembly; moreover, it recruits BLMcx to replicating chromatin during normal S-phase and mediates phosphorylation of BLMcx members in response to DNA damage. During replication stress, FANCD2 and BLM cooperate to promote restart of stalled replication forks while suppressing firing of new replication origins. In contrast, FANCI is dispensable for FANCD2-dependent BLMcx regulation, demonstrating functional separation of FANCD2 from FANCI.

  20. 43 CFR 3509.48 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease? 3509.48 Section 3509.48 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Lease Applications § 3509.48 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional...

  1. 43 CFR 3509.18 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? 3509.18 Section 3509.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Applications § 3509.18 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? (a)...

  2. 43 CFR 2808.11 - What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass? 2808.11 Section 2808.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Trespass § 2808.11 What will BLM do if it...

  3. 43 CFR 3512.11 - Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? 3512.11 Section 3512.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 3512.11 Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? You may assign or...

  4. 43 CFR 3512.11 - Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? 3512.11 Section 3512.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... § 3512.11 Once BLM issues me a permit or lease, may I assign or sublease it? You may assign or...

  5. 43 CFR 3509.18 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? 3509.18 Section 3509.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... Applications § 3509.18 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a future interest lease? (a)...

  6. 43 CFR 2808.11 - What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do if it determines that I am in trespass? 2808.11 Section 2808.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands...-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Trespass § 2808.11 What will BLM do if it...

  7. 43 CFR 3509.48 - What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional interest lease? 3509.48 Section 3509.48 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Lease Applications § 3509.48 What will BLM do after it receives my application for a fractional...

  8. 43 CFR 2886.16 - Under what conditions may BLM order an immediate temporary suspension of my activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... your activities before holding an administrative proceeding on the matter and may order immediate... request for permission to resume activities at any time after BLM issues the order. In the request, give... grant or deny your request within 5 business days after receiving it. If BLM does not respond within...

  9. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to...

  10. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to...

  11. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to...

  12. 43 CFR 3281.10 - How will BLM determine that I have sufficient control of the proposed unit area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sufficient control of the proposed unit area? 3281.10 Section 3281.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... § 3281.10 How will BLM determine that I have sufficient control of the proposed unit area? (a) BLM will determine whether: (1) A unit operator has sufficient control of the proposed unit area by reviewing...

  13. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  14. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  15. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  16. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  17. 43 CFR 4.470 - How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision to an administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision... Hearings and Appeals Grazing Procedures (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.470 How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision to an administrative law judge. (a) Any applicant, permittee, lessee,...

  18. 43 CFR 4.471 - How to petition for a stay of a final BLM grazing decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... grazing decision. 4.471 Section 4.471 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Grazing Procedures (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.471 How to petition for a stay of a final BLM grazing decision. (a) An appellant under § 4.470 may petition for a stay of the final BLM...

  19. 43 CFR 4.470 - How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision to an administrative law judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision... Hearings and Appeals Grazing Procedures (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.470 How to appeal a final BLM grazing decision to an administrative law judge. (a) Any applicant, permittee, lessee,...

  20. 43 CFR 4.471 - How to petition for a stay of a final BLM grazing decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... grazing decision. 4.471 Section 4.471 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Grazing Procedures (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.471 How to petition for a stay of a final BLM grazing decision. (a) An appellant under § 4.470 may petition for a stay of the final BLM...

  1. 43 CFR 3280.5 - May BLM require the modification of lease requirements in connection with the creation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements in connection with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? 3280.5 Section 3280.5 Public... with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? (a) BLM may, with the consent of the lessees... connection with the creation and operation of any such unit agreement as BLM may consider necessary...

  2. 43 CFR 3280.5 - May BLM require the modification of lease requirements in connection with the creation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements in connection with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? 3280.5 Section 3280.5 Public... with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? (a) BLM may, with the consent of the lessees... connection with the creation and operation of any such unit agreement as BLM may consider necessary...

  3. 43 CFR 3280.5 - May BLM require the modification of lease requirements in connection with the creation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements in connection with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? 3280.5 Section 3280.5 Public... with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? (a) BLM may, with the consent of the lessees... connection with the creation and operation of any such unit agreement as BLM may consider necessary...

  4. 43 CFR 3280.5 - May BLM require the modification of lease requirements in connection with the creation and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements in connection with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? 3280.5 Section 3280.5 Public... with the creation and operation of a unit agreement? (a) BLM may, with the consent of the lessees... connection with the creation and operation of any such unit agreement as BLM may consider necessary...

  5. 43 CFR 3279.10 - When may I request a variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3279.10 Section 3279.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) You may file a request with BLM for a variance for your approved utilization operations from the requirements of § 3200.4....

  6. 43 CFR 3279.10 - When may I request a variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3279.10 Section 3279.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) You may file a request with BLM for a variance for your approved utilization operations from the requirements of § 3200.4....

  7. 43 CFR 3279.10 - When may I request a variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3279.10 Section 3279.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) You may file a request with BLM for a variance for your approved utilization operations from the requirements of § 3200.4....

  8. 43 CFR 3279.10 - When may I request a variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements pertaining to utilization operations? 3279.10 Section 3279.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... variance from BLM requirements pertaining to utilization operations? (a) You may file a request with BLM for a variance for your approved utilization operations from the requirements of § 3200.4....

  9. 43 CFR 3195.37 - Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? 3195.37 Section 3195.37 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.37 Under what circumstances can BLM terminate me as an authorized Federal helium supplier? BLM has the authority to...

  10. The Ashkenazic Jewish Bloom syndrome mutation blmAsh is present in non-Jewish Americans of Spanish ancestry.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, N A; Ciocci, S; Proytcheva, M; Lennon, D; Groden, J; German, J

    1998-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is more frequent in the Ashkenazic Jewish population than in any other. There the predominant mutation, referred to as "blmAsh," is a 6-bp deletion and 7-bp insertion at nucleotide position 2281 in the BLM cDNA. Using a convenient PCR assay, we have identified blmAsh on 58 of 60 chromosomes transmitted by Ashkenazic parents to persons with BS. In contrast, in 91 unrelated non-Ashkenazic persons with BS whom we examined, blmAsh was identified only in 5, these coming from Spanish-speaking Christian families from the southwestern United States, Mexico, or El Salvador. These data, along with haplotype analyses, show that blmAsh was independently established through a founder effect in Ashkenazic Jews and in immigrants to formerly Spanish colonies. This striking observation underscores the complexity of Jewish history and demonstrates the importance of migration and genetic drift in the formation of human populations. PMID:9837821

  11. Drosophila bloom helicase maintains genome integrity by inhibiting recombination between divergent DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, Michael; Kranz, Elisabeth; Woolcock, Katrina; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2008-12-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) can be repaired either via a sequence independent joining of DNA ends or via homologous recombination. We established a detection system in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of sequence constraints on the usage of the homology based DSB repair via single strand annealing (SSA), which leads to recombination between direct repeats with concomitant loss of one repeat copy. First of all, we find the SSA frequency to be inversely proportional to the spacer length between the repeats, for spacers up to 2.4 kb in length. We further show that SSA between divergent repeats (homeologous SSA) is suppressed in cell cultures and in vivo in a sensitive manner, recognizing sequence divergences smaller than 0.5%. Finally, we demonstrate that the suppression of homeologous SSA depends on the Bloom helicase (Blm), encoded by the Drosophila gene mus309. Suppression of homeologous recombination is a novel function of Blm in ensuring genomic integrity, not described to date in mammalian systems. Unexpectedly, distinct from its function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mismatch repair factor Msh2 encoded by spel1 does not suppress homeologous SSA in Drosophila.

  12. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  13. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  14. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  15. 43 CFR 3830.8 - How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM use the information it collects and what does it estimate the burden is on the public? 3830.8 Section 3830.8 Public Lands... PROVISIONS Providing Information to BLM § 3830.8 How will BLM use the information it collects and what...

  16. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  17. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  18. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  19. 43 CFR 3276.13 - What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? 3276.13 Section 3276.13 Public Lands... What additional information must I give BLM in the monthly report for flash and dry steam facilities? In addition to the regular monthly report information required by § 3276.12, send to BLM: (a)...

  20. 43 CFR 1822.15 - If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it timely filed anyway? 1822.15 Section 1822.15....15 If I miss filing a required document or payment within the specified period, can BLM consider it...; (b) No other BLM regulation prohibits doing so; and (c) No intervening third party interests...

  1. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  2. 43 CFR 3217.12 - What does BLM need to approve my communitization agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What does BLM need to approve my communitization agreement? 3217.12 Section 3217.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  3. 43 CFR 3263.10 - May I abandon a well without BLM's approval?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May I abandon a well without BLM's approval? 3263.10 Section 3263.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  4. 43 CFR 3217.15 - What does BLM need to approve my drilling or development contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Cooperative Agreements § 3217.15 What does BLM need to approve my drilling or... parties in that geothermal area or field; (c) The type of operations and schedule set by the contract; (d... the production or sale of geothermal resources; and (e) Any other information we may require to make...

  5. 43 CFR 3216.22 - Does BLM approve all transfer requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Does BLM approve all transfer requests? 3216.22 Section 3216.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  6. 43 CFR 3809.115 - Can BLM collect information under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management General Information § 3809.115 Can BLM collect information under this subpart? Yes, the Office of Management and Budget has approved the collections of...

  7. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement;...

  8. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report...

  9. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report...

  10. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement;...

  11. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement;...

  12. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report...

  13. 43 CFR 3203.13 - How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale? 3203.13 Section 3203.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  14. 43 CFR 3206.10 - What must I do for BLM to issue a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What must I do for BLM to issue a lease? 3206.10 Section 3206.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  15. 43 CFR 3206.11 - What must BLM do before issuing a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must BLM do before issuing a lease? 3206.11 Section 3206.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  16. 43 CFR 3203.13 - How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How often will BLM hold a competitive lease sale? 3203.13 Section 3203.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000)...

  17. 43 CFR 3203.15 - How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale? 3203.15 Section 3203.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  18. 43 CFR 3203.15 - How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does BLM conduct a competitive lease sale? 3203.15 Section 3203.15 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  19. 43 CFR 3206.18 - When will BLM issue my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM issue my lease? 3206.18 Section 3206.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease...

  20. 43 CFR 3206.10 - What must I do for BLM to issue a lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What must I do for BLM to issue a lease? 3206.10 Section 3206.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE...

  1. 43 CFR 3192.17 - Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that have been terminated? 3192.17 Section 3192.17 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... Agreements § 3192.17 Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated? (a) If your... prove that you have corrected the problem(s) and are able to carry out the terms of the agreement....

  2. 43 CFR 3192.17 - Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... that have been terminated? 3192.17 Section 3192.17 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... Agreements § 3192.17 Can BLM reinstate cooperative agreements that have been terminated? (a) If your... prove that you have corrected the problem(s) and are able to carry out the terms of the agreement....

  3. 43 CFR 3835.93 - What happens if BLM finds a defect in my waiver request?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) WAIVERS FROM ANNUAL MAINTENANCE FEES Defective Waivers and FLPMA Filings § 3835.93 What happens if BLM finds a defect... 43 CFR 1810.2.) (c) You must cure the defective waiver or pay the annual maintenance fees within...

  4. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part...

  5. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part...

  6. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  7. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part...

  8. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  9. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  10. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  11. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  12. 25 CFR 212.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 212.4 Section 212.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  13. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  14. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part...

  15. 25 CFR 225.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Management (BLM). 225.4 Section 225.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General § 225.4 Authority and... Agreements: Unproven Areas, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part...

  16. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  17. 76 FR 13660 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Land Management, on a variety of planning and management issues associated with public land management... Resource management planning Other topics of interest to the RAC All meetings are open to the public... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council AGENCY:...

  18. 76 FR 65747 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... planning and management issues associated with public land management in Alaska. At this meeting, topics... Resource management planning Other topics of interest to the RAC All meetings are open to the public... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council AGENCY:...

  19. 75 FR 9250 - Notice of Public Meeting, BLM-Alaska Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... the Interior, through the Bureau of Land Management, on a variety of planning and management issues.... National Landscape Conservation System anniversary. Resource management planning. Other topics of interest... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, BLM--Alaska Resource Advisory Council AGENCY:...

  20. AIM-Monitoring: a component of the BLM assessment, inventory, and monitoring strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “BLM Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy for Integrated Renewable Resources Management” (AIM Strategy) was completed in 2011 in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget. The strategy describes an approach for integrated, cross-program assessment, inventory, and m...

  1. 43 CFR 3195.33 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.33 What information must I report to BLM? (a) In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report...

  2. 43 CFR 3195.26 - What information must I report to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal... Helium Sales Contract, within 45 days of the end of each quarter, you must report to BLM (see § 3195.13) the following: (a) The name of the company from which you purchased a major helium requirement;...

  3. 43 CFR 3809.555 - What forms of individual financial guarantee are acceptable to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... through BLM: (1) Negotiable United States Government, State and Municipal securities or bonds; or (2... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Individual Financial Guarantee §...

  4. Water Quality Criteria for Copper Based on the BLM Approach in the Freshwater in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yahui; Zang, Wenchao; Qin, Lumei; Zheng, Lei; Cao, Ying; Yan, Zhenguang; Yi, Xianliang; Zeng, Honghu; Liu, Zhengtao

    2017-01-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms are highly dependent on water quality parameters in freshwaters. The biotic ligand model (BLM) for copper is an approach to generate the water quality criteria (WQC) with water chemistry in the ambient environment. However, few studies were carried out on the WQCs for copper based on the BLM approach in China. In the present study, the toxicity for copper to native Chinese aquatic organisms was conducted and the published toxicity data with water quality parameters to Chinese aquatic species were collected to derive the WQCs for copper by the BLM approach. The BLM-based WQCs (the criterion maximum criteria (CMC) and the criterion continuous concentration (CCC)) for copper in the freshwater for the nation and in the Taihu Lake were obtained. The CMC and CCC values for copper in China were derived to be 1.391 μg/L and 0.495 μg/L, respectively, and the CMC and CCC in the Taihu Lake were 32.194 μg/L and 9.697 μg/L. The high concentration of dissolved organic carbon might be a main reason which resulted in the higher WQC values in the Taihu Lake. The WQC of copper in the freshwater would provide a scientific foundation for water quality standards and the environment risk assessment in China. PMID:28166229

  5. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest...

  6. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest...

  7. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing,...

  8. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest...

  9. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing,...

  10. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing,...

  11. 43 CFR 5040.3 - How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... forest units? 5040.3 Section 5040.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.3 How does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units? After a public hearing,...

  12. 43 CFR 5040.1 - Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.1 Section 5040.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.1 Under what authority does BLM establish sustained-yield forest...

  13. 25 CFR 211.4 - Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority and responsibility of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 211.4 Section 211.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND...: Unproven Area, 43 CFR part 3260—Geothermal Resources Operations, 43 CFR part 3280—Geothermal Resources...

  14. 43 CFR 2804.19 - How will BLM process my Processing Category 6 application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... consists of a work plan and a financial plan. (b) In processing your application, BLM will: (1) Determine the issues subject to analysis under NEPA; (2) Prepare a preliminary work plan; (3) Develop a preliminary financial plan, which estimates the reasonable costs of processing your application and...

  15. 43 CFR 2884.17 - How will BLM process my Processing Category 6 application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... work plan and a financial plan. (b) In processing your application, BLM will: (1) Determine the issues subject to analysis under NEPA; (2) Prepare a preliminary work plan; (3) Develop a preliminary financial...) Your options for the timing of processing and monitoring fee payments; and (iv) Financial...

  16. Monitoring a BLM level 5 watershed with very-large aerial imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fifth order BLM watershed in central Wyoming was flown using a Sport-airplane to acquire high-resolution aerial images from 2 cameras at 2 altitudes. Project phases 1 and 2 obtained images for measuring ground cover, species composition and canopy cover of Wyoming big sagebrush by ecological site....

  17. 43 CFR 2804.25 - How will BLM process my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applicable Federal and state laws; (3) If your application is for a road, determine whether it is in the... application under 43 CFR subpart 2804 for the generation of electricity from wind or solar sources. In... electricity generation from wind or solar sources under the BLM's right-of-way regulations. Upon...

  18. Dynamic Investigation of Static Divergence: Analysis and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    The phenomenon known as aeroelastic divergence is the focus of this work. The analyses and experiment presented here show that divergence can occur without a structural dynamic mode losing its oscillatory nature. Aeroelastic divergence occurs when the structural restorative capability or stiffness of a structure is overwhelmed by the static aerodynamic moment. This static aeroelastic coupling does not require the structural dynamic system behavior to cease, however. Aeroelastic changes in the dynamic mode behavior are governed not only by the stiffness, but by damping and inertial properties. The work presented here supports these fundamental assertions by examining a simple system: a typical section airfoil with only a rotational structural degree of freedom. Analytical results identified configurations that exhibit different types of dynamic mode behavior as the system encounters divergence. A wind tunnel model was designed and tested to examine divergence experimentally. The experimental results validate the analytical calculations and explicitly examine the divergence phenomenon where the dynamic mode persists. Three configurations of the wind tunnel model were tested. The experimental results agree very well with the analytical predictions of subcritical characteristics, divergence velocity, and behavior of the noncritical dynamic mode at divergence.

  19. Expression of EhRAD54, EhRAD51, and EhBLM proteins during DNA repair by homologous recombination in Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Charcas-Lopez, Ma del Socorro; Garcia-Morales, Lorena; Pezet-Valdez, Marisol; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Marchat, Laurence A

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan responsible for human amoebiasis, exhibits a great genome plasticity that is probably related to homologous recombination events. It contains the RAD52 epistasis group genes, including Ehrad51 and Ehrad54, and the Ehblm gene, which are key homologous recombination factors in other organisms. Ehrad51 and Ehrad54 genes are differentially transcribed in trophozoites when DNA double-strand breaks are induced by ultraviolet-C irradiation. Moreover, the EhRAD51 recombinase is overexpressed at 30 min in the nucleus. Here, we extend our analysis of the homologous recombination mechanism in E. histolytica by studying EhRAD51, EhRAD54, and EhBLM expression in response to DNA damage. Bioinformatic analyses show that EhRAD54 has the molecular features of homologous proteins, indicating that it may have similar functions. Western blot assays evidence the differential expression of EhRAD51, EhRAD54, and EhBLM at different times after DNA damage, suggesting their potential roles in the different steps of homologous recombination in this protozoan.

  20. An Exhibit for Touching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Susan

    1979-01-01

    An exhibit designed for visually handicapped persons presented by the Kalamazoo (Michigan) Institute of Art included bronze sculptures and oil paintings from the institute's permanent collection. (CL)

  1. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  2. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous

  3. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  4. 43 CFR 3204.13 - How will BLM process noncompetitive lease applications pending on August 8, 2005?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Noncompetitive Leasing Other Than Direct Use Leases § 3204.13 How will BLM... pending on August 8, 2005, will be processed under policies and procedures existing on that date...

  5. 43 CFR 3715.7 - How will BLM inspect my use or occupancy and enforce this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23, 1955 Use and Occupancy Under the Mining Laws § 3715.7 How will BLM... include verification of the nature of your use and occupancy to ensure that your use or occupancy is,...

  6. Oil and Gas Drilling and Operations in Cave and Karst area: Background and development of a BLM approach

    SciTech Connect

    Goodbar, J.R. )

    1994-03-01

    Karst lands pose a unique set of problems for the oil and gas industry, as well as for the cave and karst environments. Since 1987, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has been working with the oil and gas industry to develop acceptable practices for drilling and operation in karst lands. The mutual goals of industry and of the BLM is to minimize the potential of encountering those problems and reduce the extent of the problems, if they are encountered. BLM's approach is described in their [open quotes]Draft Guide for Oil and Gas Drilling and Operations in Cave and Karst Areas.[close quotes] This paper discusses the background and development of this guide with an emphasis on the conflict resolution approach of the BLM.

  7. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  8. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  9. 43 CFR 2881.11 - When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When do I need a grant from BLM for an oil and gas pipeline? 2881.11 Section 2881.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... oil and gas pipeline? You must have a BLM grant under 30 U.S.C. 185 for an oil or gas pipeline...

  10. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  11. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  12. DNA helicases Sgs1 and BLM promote DNA double-strand break resection.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Serge; Chapman, J Ross; Magill, Christine; Jackson, Stephen P

    2008-10-15

    A key cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is 5'-to-3' DSB resection by nucleases to generate regions of ssDNA that then trigger cell cycle checkpoint signaling and DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here, we reveal that in the absence of exonuclease Exo1 activity, deletion or mutation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ-family helicase, Sgs1, causes pronounced hypersensitivity to DSB-inducing agents. Moreover, we establish that this reflects severely compromised DSB resection, deficient DNA damage signaling, and strongly impaired HR-mediated repair. Furthermore, we show that the mammalian Sgs1 ortholog, BLM--whose deficiency causes cancer predisposition and infertility in people--also functions in parallel with Exo1 to promote DSB resection, DSB signaling and resistance to DSB-generating agents. Collectively, these data establish evolutionarily conserved roles for the BLM and Sgs1 helicases in DSB processing, signaling, and repair.

  13. Characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans HIM-6/BLM helicase: unwinding recombination intermediates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hana; Lee, Jin A; Choi, Seoyoon; Lee, Hyunwoo; Ahn, Byungchan

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in three human RecQ genes are implicated in heritable human syndromes. Mutations in BLM, a RecQ gene, cause Bloom syndrome (BS), which is characterized by short stature, cancer predisposition, and sensitivity to sunlight. BLM is a RecQ DNA helicase that, with interacting proteins, is able to dissolve various DNA structures including double Holliday junctions. A BLM ortholog, him-6, has been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, but little is known about its enzymatic activities or its in vivo roles. By purifying recombinant HIM-6 and performing biochemical assays, we determined that the HIM-6 has DNA-dependent ATPase activity HIM-6 and helicase activity that proceeds in the 3'-5' direction and needs at least five 3' overhanging nucleotides. HIM-6 is also able to unwind DNA structures including D-loops and Holliday junctions. Worms with him-6 mutations were defective in recovering the cell cycle arrest after HU treatment. These activities strongly support in vivo roles for HIM-6 in processing recombination intermediates.

  14. Landscape Measures of Rangeland Condition in the BLM Owyhee Pilot Project: Shrub Canopy Mapping, Vegetation Classification, and Detection of Anomalous Land Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-12-28

    In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.

  15. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  16. Infrared divergences in de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Polarski, D. Service d'Astrophysique, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France)

    1991-03-15

    Infrared divergences in de Sitter space are considered. It is shown that symmetry breaking is unavoidable only when the infrared divergence is strong enough. The static vacuum has no symmetry breaking despite the presence of an infrared divergence.

  17. Pictures at an Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Youth Art Month exhibit in Howard County (Maryland) where students submitted their art focusing on school buildings and their interiors. Their art reveals concerns and desires about overcrowding, space utilization, school building height, outside lighting, solitude needs, and visual stimulation. The artwork is discussed in terms of…

  18. Exhibitions in Sight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Early in the eighteenth century, Pompeii was discovered, a city that had been hidden for sixteen centuries by volcanic lava. There is a traveling exhibition of the sculptures, friezes, mosaics, and paintings being shown around the United States. Described is the history and contents of "Pompeii--A.D. 79." (RK)

  19. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  20. Exhibition in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  1. 43 CFR 3261.15 - Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Drilling Operations: Getting a Permit... drilling program to allow BLM time to comply with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); and (2)...

  2. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 leaving the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the exhibit site. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC, the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit, automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids and emergency and safety systems, are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  3. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows onlookers viewing displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  4. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  5. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  6. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  7. Crystal Structures of RMI1 and RMI2, Two OB-Fold Regulatory Subunits of the BLM Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yuting; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing; Busygina, Valeria; Guo, Rong; Wan, Ke; Wang, Weidong; Sung, Patrick; Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta; Lei, Ming

    2010-11-05

    Mutations in BLM, a RecQ-like helicase, are linked to the autosomal recessive cancer-prone disorder Bloom's syndrome. BLM associates with topoisomerase (Topo) III{alpha}, RMI1, and RMI2 to form the BLM complex that is essential for genome stability. The RMI1-RMI2 heterodimer stimulates the dissolution of double Holliday junction into non-crossover recombinants mediated by BLM-Topo III{alpha} and is essential for stabilizing the BLM complex. However, the molecular basis of these functions of RMI1 and RMI2 remains unclear. Here we report the crystal structures of multiple domains of RMI1-RMI2, providing direct confirmation of the existence of three oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB)-folds in RMI1-RMI2. Our structural and biochemical analyses revealed an unexpected insertion motif in RMI1N-OB, which is important for stimulating the dHJ dissolution. We also revealed the structural basis of the interaction between RMI1C-OB and RMI2-OB and demonstrated the functional importance of the RMI1-RMI2 interaction in genome stability maintenance.

  8. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  9. BlmB and TlmB provide resistance to the bleomycin family of antitumor antibiotics by N-acetylating metal-free bleomycin, tallysomycin, phleomycin, and zorbamycin.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Jane M; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Wang, Liyan; Unsin, Claudia; Galm, Ute; Yang, Dong; Tao, Meifeng; Shen, Ben

    2014-11-11

    The bleomycin (BLM) family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics consists of BLMs, tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycins (PLMs), and zorbamycin (ZBM). The self-resistant elements BlmB and TlmB, discovered from the BLM- and TLM-producing organisms Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158, respectively, are N-acetyltransferases that provide resistance to the producers by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotics required for activity. Although each member of the BLM family of antibiotics possesses a conserved metal-binding domain, the structural differences between each member, namely, the bithiazole moiety and C-terminal amine of BLMs, have been suggested to instill substrate specificity within BlmB. Here we report that BlmB and TlmB readily accept and acetylate BLMs, TLMs, PLMs, and ZBM in vitro but only in the metal-free forms. Kinetic analysis of BlmB and TlmB reveals there is no strong preference or rate enhancement for specific substrates, indicating that the structural differences between each member of the BLM family play a negligible role in substrate recognition, binding, or catalysis. Intriguingly, the zbm gene cluster from Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892 does not contain an N-acetyltransferase, yet ZBM is readily acetylated by BlmB and TlmB. We subsequently established that S. flavoviridis lacks the homologue of BlmB and TlmB, and ZbmA, the ZBM-binding protein, alone is sufficient to provide ZBM resistance. We further confirmed that BlmB can indeed confer resistance to ZBM in vivo in S. flavoviridis, introduction of which into wild-type S. flavoviridis further increases the level of resistance.

  10. The role of data in the EIS process: Evidence from the BLM wilderness review

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, C.; Mohai, P. )

    1993-03-01

    Various propositions have been offered about the role of the environmental impact statement (EIS) in agency decision making. These include statements that agencies are (1) using the information collected in the EIS to make rational decisions; (2) justifying decisions made a priori; (3) using the EIS to gain support or consensus for projects; or (4) simply fulfilling a legal mandate, with the EIS having no substantive impact on decisions. Previous studies regarding the role of EIS data have focused on the quality of the data in the EIS and whether or not the data are related to decisions. The role of site-specific information in the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) wilderness EIS process is analyzed and the results are used to reflect on the impact of the EIS in agency decision making. These results are compared with an earlier analysis of the Forest Service's Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II). The results of the statistical analyses of three sets of BLM wilderness EISs indicate that although some of the site-specific information about resource potential is statistically related to agency wilderness recommendations, the vast majority of the information is not. In addition, in some cases, the information was related to wilderness recommendations in a counterintuitive direction. Overall, of the 190 measures of resource potential found in these documents, only 17 (9%) were statistically related to BLM recommendations in an intuitive direction. The fact that most of the information in these EISs is not statistically related to decisions lends support to the proposition that the agency was primarily fulfilling the legally mandated procedure of the National Environmental Policy Act in producing these EISs, rather than achieving the spirit of the law. Results from the analysis of the Forest Service's RARE II wilderness review are similar.

  11. Multimerization Domains are Associated with Apparent Strand Exchange Activity in BLM and WRN DNA helicases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Fu; Brill, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    BLM and WRN are members of the RecQ family of DNA helicases that act to suppress genome instability and cancer predisposition. In addition to a RecQ helicase domain, each of these proteins contains an N-terminal domain of approximately 500 amino acids (aa) that is incompletely characterized. Previously, we showed that the N-terminus of Sgs1, the yeast ortholog of BLM, contains a physiologically important 200 aa domain (Sgs1103–322) that displays single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding, strand annealing (SA), and apparent strand-exchange (SE) activities in vitro. Here we used a genetic assay to search for heterologous proteins that could functionally replace this domain of Sgs1 in vivo. In contrast to Rad59, the oligomeric Rad52 protein provided in vivo complementation, suggesting that multimerization is functionally important. An N-terminal domain of WRN was also identified that could replace Sgs1103–322 in yeast. This domain, WRN235–526, contains a known coiled coil and displays the same SA and SE activities as Sgs1103–322. The coiled coil domain of WRN235–526 was found to be required for both its in vivo activity and its in vitro SE activity. Based on this result, a potential coiled coil was identified within Sgs1103–322. This 25 amino acid region was similarly essential for wt Sgs1 activity in vivo and was replaceable by a heterologous coiled coil. Taken together, the results indicate that a coiled coil and a closely-linked apparent SE activity are conserved features of the BLM and WRN DNA helicases. PMID:25198671

  12. Multimerization domains are associated with apparent strand exchange activity in BLM and WRN DNA helicases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Fu; Brill, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    BLM and WRN are members of the RecQ family of DNA helicases that act to suppress genome instability and cancer predisposition. In addition to a RecQ helicase domain, each of these proteins contains an N-terminal domain of approximately 500 amino acids (aa) that is incompletely characterized. Previously, we showed that the N-terminus of Sgs1, the yeast ortholog of BLM, contains a physiologically important 200 aa domain (Sgs1103-322) that displays single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding, strand annealing (SA), and apparent strand-exchange (SE) activities in vitro. Here we used a genetic assay to search for heterologous proteins that could functionally replace this domain of Sgs1 in vivo. In contrast to Rad59, the oligomeric Rad52 protein provided in vivo complementation, suggesting that multimerization is functionally important. An N-terminal domain of WRN was also identified that could replace Sgs1103-322 in yeast. This domain, WRN235-526, contains a known coiled coil and displays the same SA and SE activities as Sgs1103-322. The coiled coil domain of WRN235-526 is required for both its in vivo activity and its in vitro SE activity. Based on this result, a potential coiled coil was identified within Sgs1103-322. This 25 amino acid region was similarly essential for wt Sgs1 activity in vivo and was replaceable by a heterologous coiled coil. Taken together, the results indicate that a coiled coil and a closely linked apparent SE activity are conserved features of the BLM and WRN DNA helicases.

  13. Graybody Factors and Infrared Divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul; Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Parentani, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    A method of computing the gray-body factors for static spherically symmetric and BEC acoustic black holes using a Volterra integral equation is given. The results are used to investigate infrared divergences in the particle number, two-point function, point-split stress-energy tensor and density-density correlation function. Infrared divergences in the particle number and two-point function occur if the gray-body factor approaches a nonzero constant in the zero frequency limit, as happens for Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes and BEC acoustic black holes. However, no infrared divergences occur in the point-split stress-energy tensor or the density-density correlation function. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. PHY-0856050 and PHY-1308325.

  14. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field Offices AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake...

  15. 43 CFR 2568.95 - Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey that land to a Native veteran? 2568.95 Section... Allotments For Certain Veterans Available Lands-General § 2568.95 Will BLM try to reacquire land that...

  16. 43 CFR 2568.95 - Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey that land to a Native veteran? 2568.95 Section... Allotments For Certain Veterans Available Lands-General § 2568.95 Will BLM try to reacquire land that...

  17. 43 CFR 2568.95 - Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey that land to a Native veteran? 2568.95 Section... Allotments For Certain Veterans Available Lands-General § 2568.95 Will BLM try to reacquire land that...

  18. 43 CFR 2568.95 - Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Will BLM try to reacquire land that has been conveyed out of Federal ownership so it can convey that land to a Native veteran? 2568.95 Section... Allotments For Certain Veterans Available Lands-General § 2568.95 Will BLM try to reacquire land that...

  19. 43 CFR 3715.2-3 - Under what circumstances will BLM allow me to temporarily occupy a site for more than 14 days?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to temporarily occupy a site for more than 14 days? 3715.2-3 Section 3715.2-3 Public Lands: Interior... § 3715.2-3 Under what circumstances will BLM allow me to temporarily occupy a site for more than 14 days? BLM may allow temporary occupancy at a single site to extend beyond the 14-day period described...

  20. Drill baby drill: An analysis of how energy development displaced ranching's dominance over the BLM's subgovernment policymaking environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbis, Robert Earl, Jr.

    Academic literature analyzing the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land-use subgovernment stops at the Taylor Grazing Act and concludes that the historical development of administering grazing on public lands led to the capture of the BLM by ranching interests. Using a two-pronged methodological approach of process tracing and elite interviews this dissertation seeks to advance our collective knowledge of subgovernment theory by (a) clarifying the impact executive decision-making has on subgovernments and (b) identifying the conditions under which strategically competitive behavior between two competing subgovernment actors occurs. The dissertation seeks to update the literature by explaining what has caused the BLM to shift from a rancher-dominated agency to an energy dominated agency by identifying conditions under which subgovernment actors strategically respond to a political conflict. The research poses two questions: (1) how have executive actions disrupted an existing balance of power in a so-called "strong corner" of an entrenched subgovernment system and (2) what happens when conflict and competition break out between allied members of the system? Analysis indicates that as the BLM responded to Executive actions emphasizing domestic energy production, a conflict emerged between traditional allies: ranching and energy. Triggered by the unintended consequence of awakening long-dormant legislation, split-estate energy development---where property rights are severed between private surface and federal mineral estates---expanded across the West. In turn, this expansion helped establish the conditions for conflict and in doing so disrupted the balance of power between large public resource use interests in the relatively stable land-use subgovernment of the BLM. Indicative of energy's emerging dominance of the BLM's subgovernment, split-estate energy development led ranching interests to seek the protection of their Western state legislatures. This shift in

  1. Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

  2. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-05-19

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter.

  3. A Low-Noise Transimpedance Amplifier for BLM-Based Ion Channel Recording

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Marco; Bennati, Marco; Saha, Shimul Chandra; Ivica, Josip; de Planque, Maurits; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) using ion channel recording is a powerful drug discovery technique in pharmacology. Ion channel recording with planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) is scalable and has very high sensitivity. A HTS system based on BLM ion channel recording faces three main challenges: (i) design of scalable microfluidic devices; (ii) design of compact ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifiers able to detect currents in the pA range with bandwidth >10 kHz; (iii) design of compact, robust and scalable systems that integrate these two elements. This paper presents a low-noise transimpedance amplifier with integrated A/D conversion realized in CMOS 0.35 μm technology. The CMOS amplifier acquires currents in the range ±200 pA and ±20 nA, with 100 kHz bandwidth while dissipating 41 mW. An integrated digital offset compensation loop balances any voltage offsets from Ag/AgCl electrodes. The measured open-input input-referred noise current is as low as 4 fA/√Hz at ±200 pA range. The current amplifier is embedded in an integrated platform, together with a microfluidic device, for current recording from ion channels. Gramicidin-A, α-haemolysin and KcsA potassium channels have been used to prove both the platform and the current-to-digital converter. PMID:27213382

  4. Functional basis of ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of ecological divergence in closely related species is a key component of adaptive radiation. However, in most examples of adaptive radiation the mechanistic basis of ecological divergence remains unclear. A classic example is seen in the young benthic and limnetic stickleback species pairs of British Columbia. In each pair the benthic species feeds on littoral macroinvertebrates whereas the limnetic feeds on pelagic zooplankton. Previous studies indicate that in both short-term feeding trials and long-term enclosure studies, benthics and limnetics exhibit enhanced performance on their own resource but fare more poorly on the other species’ resource. We examined the functional basis of ecological divergence in the stickleback species pair from Paxton Lake, BC, using biomechanical models of fish feeding applied to morphological traits. We examined the consequences of morphological differences using high speed video of feeding fish. Results Benthic stickleback possess morphological traits that predict high suction generation capacity, including greatly hypertrophied epaxial musculature. In contrast, limnetic stickleback possess traits thought to enhance capture of evasive planktonic prey, including greater jaw protrusion than benthics and greater displacement advantage in both the lower jaw-opening lever system and the opercular four-bar linkage. Kinematic data support the expectations from the morphological analysis that limnetic stickleback exhibit faster strikes and greater jaw protrusion than benthic fish, whereas benthics exert greater suction force on attached prey. Conclusions We reveal a previously unknown suite of complex morphological traits that affect rapid ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback. These results indicate that postglacial divergence in stickleback involves many functional systems and shows the value of investigating the functional consequences of phenotypic divergence in adaptive radiation. PMID:24380474

  5. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J.; Tong, Xin T.

    2015-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature. PMID:26261335

  6. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  7. Gut microbiota may predict host divergence time during Glires evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Qu, Jiapeng; Li, Tongtong; Yao, Minjie; Li, Jiaying; Li, Xiangzhen

    2017-01-29

    The gut microbial communities of animals play key roles in host evolution. However, the possible relationship between gut microbiota and host divergence time remains unknown. Here, we investigated the gut microbiota of eight Glires species (four lagomorpha species and four rodent species) distributed throughout the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and Inner Mongolia grassland. Lagomorphs and rodents had distinct gut microbial compositions. Three out of four lagomorpha species were dominated by Firmicutes, while rodents were dominated by Bacteroidetes in general. The alpha diversity values (Shannon diversity and evenness) exhibited significant differences between any two species within lagomorphs, whereas there were no significant differences among rodents. The structure of the gut microbiota between lagomorphs and rodents showed significant differences. In addition, we calculated host phylogeny and divergence times, and used a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how the animal gut microbiota has diverged from their ancestral species. Some core bacterial genera (e.g. Prevotella and Clostridium) shared by more than nine-tenths of all the Glires individuals associated with plant polysaccharide degradation showed marked changes within lagomorphs. Differences in Glires gut microbiota (based on weighted UniFrac and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity metrics) were positively correlated with host divergence time. Our results thus suggest the gut microbial composition is associated with host phylogeny, and further suggest that dissimilarity of animal gut microbiota may predict host divergence time.

  8. 43 CFR 6302.16 - When and how may I gather scientific information about resources in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... natural or cultural resources in wilderness areas, using methods that may cause greater impacts on the... the research; and (4) You have an authorization from BLM. (b) You must reclaim disturbed areas, and... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts,...

  9. 43 CFR 6302.16 - When and how may I gather scientific information about resources in BLM wilderness?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... natural or cultural resources in wilderness areas, using methods that may cause greater impacts on the... the research; and (4) You have an authorization from BLM. (b) You must reclaim disturbed areas, and... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Use of Wilderness Areas, Prohibited Acts,...

  10. 43 CFR 3162.2-10 - Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? 3162.2-10 Section 3162.2-10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? We will send you a demand letter by...

  11. 43 CFR 3162.2-10 - Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will BLM notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? 3162.2-10 Section 3162.2-10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... notify me when it determines that drainage is occurring? We will send you a demand letter by...

  12. 43 CFR 6305.10 - How will BLM allow access to State and private land within wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State and private land within wilderness areas? (a) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness... existed on the date Congress designated the area surrounding the inholding as wilderness, and (2) BLM... least impact on wilderness character. (b) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness, and...

  13. 43 CFR 3284.7 - May BLM authorize operations on uncommitted Federal leases located within a unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... uncommitted Federal leases located within a unit? 3284.7 Section 3284.7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... on uncommitted Federal leases located within a unit? BLM may authorize a lessee/operator to conduct operations on an uncommitted Federal lease located within a unit if the lessee/operator demonstrates to...

  14. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  15. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  16. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  17. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  18. 43 CFR 2806.35 - How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and âotherâ category uses? 2806.35 Section 2806.35... MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Communication Site Rights-Of-Way § 2806.35 How will BLM calculate rent for private mobile radio service (PMRS), internal microwave, and “other” category uses? If an entity engaged in...

  19. Kinetic mechanism of DNA unwinding by the BLM helicase core and molecular basis for its low processivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Xu, Ya-Nan; Bazeille, Nicolas; Wang, Peng-Ye; Rigolet, Pascal; Xu, Hou-Qiang; Xi, Xu Guang

    2010-02-02

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is a rare human autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a strong predisposition to a wide range of cancers commonly affecting the general population. Understanding the functioning mechanism of the BLM protein may provide the opportunity to develop new effective therapy strategies. In this work, we studied the DNA unwinding kinetic mechanism of the helicase core of the BLM protein using various stopped-flow assays. We show that the helicase core of BLM unwinds duplex DNA as monomers even under conditions strongly favoring oligomerization. An unwinding rate of approximately 20 steps per second and a step size of 1 bp have been determined. We have observed that the helicase has a very low processivity. From dissociation and inhibition experiments, we have found that during its ATP hydrolysis cycle in DNA unwinding the helicase tends to dissociate from the DNA substrate in the ADP state. The experimental results imply that the BLM helicase core may unwind duplex DNA in an inchworm manner.

  20. 43 CFR 2931.2 - What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreation-related uses of public lands? 2931.2 Section 2931.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to... (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Permits for Recreation; General § 2931.2 What kinds of permits does BLM issue for recreation-related uses of public lands? The regulations in this part...

  1. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  2. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  3. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  4. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  5. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples...

  6. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical...

  7. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples...

  8. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples...

  9. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical...

  10. 43 CFR 3262.14 - May BLM require me to take samples or perform tests and surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., or gases; (3) Presence of geothermal resources, water, or reservoir energy; (4) Quality and quantity of geothermal resources; (5) Well bore angle and direction of deviation; (6) Formation, casing, or...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Drilling Operations § 3262.14 May BLM require me to take samples...

  11. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical...

  12. 43 CFR 3212.27 - How will BLM or MMS review my request to modify the lease royalty rate terms?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.27 How will BLM or MMS review my request to... to establish a royalty rate if the geothermal resources are used for commercial electrical...

  13. 43 CFR 3809.203 - What are the limitations on BLM deferral to State regulation of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Federal/state Agreements...) Federal land-use planning and other Federal laws. BLM will continue to be responsible for all land-use planning on public lands and for implementing other Federal laws relating to the public lands for which...

  14. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Operations Conducted Under Plans of... completed, including one or more of the following: (i) You collect adequate baseline data; (ii) BLM..., final approved engineering designs and plans, or other conditions of approval from the review of...

  15. 43 CFR 6305.10 - How will BLM allow access to State and private land within wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... improvements BLM determines are necessary to protect wilderness resources from degradation. (f) If you own land... private land within wilderness areas? 6305.10 Section 6305.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Access to State and Private Lands Or...

  16. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  17. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  18. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  19. 43 CFR 6304.12 - How will BLM determine the validity of unpatented mining claims or sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Uses Addressed in Special Provisions of the Wilderness Act Mining Under the General Mining Laws § 6304.12 How will BLM determine the validity of... appropriation under the mining laws. We also will determine whether your claim or site remains valid at the...

  20. 43 CFR 3263.11 - What information must I give BLM to approve my Sundry Notice for abandoning a well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.11 What information must I give BLM to...) Methods you will use to verify the plugs (tagging, pressure testing, etc.); (3) Weight and viscosity...

  1. 43 CFR 3809.803 - Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA? 3809.803 Section 3809.803 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... go into effect during an appeal to OHA? All decisions under this subpart go into effect...

  2. 43 CFR 3809.803 - Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA? 3809.803 Section 3809.803 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... go into effect during an appeal to OHA? All decisions under this subpart go into effect...

  3. 43 CFR 3809.803 - Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA? 3809.803 Section 3809.803 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... go into effect during an appeal to OHA? All decisions under this subpart go into effect...

  4. 43 CFR 3809.803 - Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Will the BLM decision go into effect during an appeal to OHA? 3809.803 Section 3809.803 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public... go into effect during an appeal to OHA? All decisions under this subpart go into effect...

  5. 43 CFR 3809.591 - What are the limitations on the amount by which BLM may reduce my financial guarantee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the limitations on the amount by... Financial Guarantee § 3809.591 What are the limitations on the amount by which BLM may reduce my financial... effluent discharged from the area has met applicable effluent limitations and water quality standards...

  6. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest...

  7. 43 CFR 5040.2 - What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest units?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sustained-yield forest units? 5040.2 Section 5040.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SUSTAINED-YIELD FOREST UNITS § 5040.2 What will BLM do before it establishes sustained-yield forest...

  8. 43 CFR 3809.411 - What action will BLM take when it receives my plan of operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Surface Management Operations Conducted Under Plans of... the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act; (iv) BLM or the Department of...

  9. 43 CFR 2805.10 - How will I know whether BLM has approved or denied my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Terms and Conditions of Grants § 2805... your review and signature that: (1) Includes any terms, conditions, and stipulations that BLM... location of the facilities; (2) May include terms that prevent your use of the right-of-way until you...

  10. 43 CFR 2805.10 - How will I know whether BLM has approved or denied my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Terms and Conditions of Grants § 2805... your review and signature that: (1) Includes any terms, conditions, and stipulations that BLM... location of the facilities; (2) May include terms that prevent your use of the right-of-way until you...

  11. 43 CFR 2805.10 - How will I know whether BLM has approved or denied my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Terms and Conditions of Grants § 2805... your review and signature that: (1) Includes any terms, conditions, and stipulations that BLM... location of the facilities; (2) May include terms that prevent your use of the right-of-way until you...

  12. 43 CFR 2805.10 - How will I know whether BLM has approved or denied my application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Terms and Conditions of Grants § 2805... your review and signature that: (1) Includes any terms, conditions, and stipulations that BLM... location of the facilities; (2) May include terms that prevent your use of the right-of-way until you...

  13. A new model for predicting time course toxicity of heavy metals based on Biotic Ligand Model (BLM).

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ayumi; Shoji, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    A new model for predicting time course toxicity of heavy metals was developed by extending the effective ratio of biotic ligand binding with toxic heavy metals to the total biotic ligand for 50% of test organisms (f(50)) derived by the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). BLM has been well-known as a useful model for prediction of heavy metal toxicity. BLM can consider the effect of exposure conditions such as pH and Ca(2+) on heavy metal toxicity. In addition to the exposure conditions, heavy metal toxicity is strongly dependent on exposure time. In this study, BLM is extended to predict time dependency of heavy metal toxicity by connecting with the concept of primary reaction. The model developed in this study also generates the estimation of the 50% effect concentration (EC(50)) for toxicologically unknown organisms and heavy metals. Two toxicological and kinetic constants, f(50,0) and k, were derived from the initial value of f(50) (f(50,0)) and a time constant (k) independent of time. The model developed in this study enables us to acquire information on the toxicity of heavy metals such as Cu, Cd and Co easily.

  14. Contrastive divergence in gaussian diffusions.

    PubMed

    Movellan, Javier R

    2008-09-01

    This letter presents an analysis of the contrastive divergence (CD) learning algorithm when applied to continuous-time linear stochastic neural networks. For this case, powerful techniques exist that allow a detailed analysis of the behavior of CD. The analysis shows that CD converges to maximum likelihood solutions only when the network structure is such that it can match the first moments of the desired distribution. Otherwise, CD can converge to solutions arbitrarily different from the log-likelihood solutions, or they can even diverge. This result suggests the need to improve our theoretical understanding of the conditions under which CD is expected to be well behaved and the conditions under which it may fail. In, addition the results point to practical ideas on how to improve the performance of CD.

  15. Divergent Cognitive Styles in Academic Overachievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spotts, Nina R.

    This study explored the relationship of two distinctive types of divergent cognitive styles, "cold" creativity and "hot" creativity, to academic overachievement. The "cold" divergent cognitive style was found to be a controlled, problem-solving approach to stimuli, whereas the "hot" divergent cognitive style was a freer, more impulsive response to…

  16. Ecological selection as the cause and sexual differentiation as the consequence of species divergence?

    PubMed

    Oneal, Elen; Knowles, L Lacey

    2013-01-07

    Key conceptual issues about speciation go unanswered without consideration of non-mutually exclusive factors. With tests based on speciation theory, we exploit the island distribution and habitat differences exhibited by the Caribbean cricket Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis, and with an analysis of divergent ecological selection, sexually selected differentiation and geographical isolation, address how these different factors interact. After testing for divergent selection by comparing neutral genetic and morphological divergence in one ecological (mandible shape) and one sexual (male genitalia shape) trait, we examine whether ecological or sexual selection is the primary mechanism driving population divergence. We find that all three factors--isolation, ecological and sexual selection--contribute to divergence, and that their interaction determines the stage of completeness achieved during the speciation process, as measured by patterns of genetic differentiation. Moreover, despite the striking diversity in genitalic shapes across the genus Amphiacusta, which suggests that sexual selection drives speciation, the significant differences in genitalia shape between forest habitats revealed here implies that ecological divergence may be the primary axis of divergence. Our work highlights critical unstudied aspects in speciation-differentiating the cause from the consequence of divergence-and suggests avenues for further disentangling the roles of natural and sexual selection in driving divergence in Amphiacusta.

  17. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  18. Creativity and Memory: Effects of an Episodic-Specificity Induction on Divergent Thinking.

    PubMed

    Madore, Kevin P; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-09-01

    People produce more episodic details when imagining future events and solving means-end problems after receiving an episodic-specificity induction-brief training in recollecting details of a recent event-than after receiving a control induction not focused on episodic retrieval. Here we show for the first time that an episodic-specificity induction also enhances divergent creative thinking. In Experiment 1, participants exhibited a selective boost on a divergent-thinking task (generating unusual uses of common objects) after a specificity induction compared with a control induction; by contrast, performance following the two inductions was similar on an object association task thought to involve little divergent thinking. In Experiment 2, we replicated the specificity-induction effect on divergent thinking using a different control induction, and also found that participants performed similarly on a convergent-thinking task following the two inductions. These experiments provide novel evidence that episodic memory is involved in divergent creative thinking.

  19. Creativity and Memory: Effects of an Episodic Specificity Induction on Divergent Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Kevin P.; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    After receiving an episodic specificity induction - brief training in recollecting details of a recent event - people produce more episodic details when imagining future events and solving means-end problems than after receiving a control induction not focused on episodic retrieval. Here we show for the first time that an episodic specificity induction also enhances divergent creative thinking. In Experiment 1, participants exhibited a selective boost on a divergent thinking task that involves generating unusual uses of common objects after a specificity induction compared with a control induction; by contrast, performance was similar on an object association task thought to involve little divergent thinking. In Experiment 2, we replicated the specificity induction effect on divergent thinking using a different control induction, and also found that participants performed similarly on a convergent thinking task following both inductions. These experiments provide novel evidence that episodic memory is involved in divergent creative thinking. PMID:26205963

  20. Divergence with gene flow within the recent chipmunk radiation (Tamias).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J; Demboski, J R; Bell, K C; Hird, S; Sarver, B; Reid, N; Good, J M

    2014-09-01

    Increasing data have supported the importance of divergence with gene flow (DGF) in the generation of biological diversity. In such cases, lineage divergence occurs on a shorter timescale than does the completion of reproductive isolation. Although it is critical to explore the mechanisms driving divergence and preventing homogenization by hybridization, it is equally important to document cases of DGF in nature. Here we synthesize data that have accumulated over the last dozen or so years on DGF in the chipmunk (Tamias) radiation with new data that quantify very high rates of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression among para- and sympatric species in the T. quadrivittatus group in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. These new data (188 cytochrome b sequences) bring the total number of sequences up to 1871; roughly 16% (298) of the chipmunks we have sequenced exhibit introgressed mtDNA. This includes ongoing introgression between subspecies and between both closely related and distantly related taxa. In addition, we have identified several taxa that are apparently fixed for ancient introgressions and in which there is no evidence of ongoing introgression. A recurrent observation is that these introgressions occur between ecologically and morphologically diverged, sometimes non-sister taxa that engage in well-documented niche partitioning. Thus, the chipmunk radiation in western North America represents an excellent mammalian example of speciation in the face of recurrent gene flow among lineages and where biogeography, habitat differentiation and mating systems suggest important roles for both ecological and sexual selection.

  1. Divergence with gene flow within the recent chipmunk radiation (Tamias)

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, J; Demboski, J R; Bell, K C; Hird, S; Sarver, B; Reid, N; Good, J M

    2014-01-01

    Increasing data have supported the importance of divergence with gene flow (DGF) in the generation of biological diversity. In such cases, lineage divergence occurs on a shorter timescale than does the completion of reproductive isolation. Although it is critical to explore the mechanisms driving divergence and preventing homogenization by hybridization, it is equally important to document cases of DGF in nature. Here we synthesize data that have accumulated over the last dozen or so years on DGF in the chipmunk (Tamias) radiation with new data that quantify very high rates of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression among para- and sympatric species in the T. quadrivittatus group in the central and southern Rocky Mountains. These new data (188 cytochrome b sequences) bring the total number of sequences up to 1871; roughly 16% (298) of the chipmunks we have sequenced exhibit introgressed mtDNA. This includes ongoing introgression between subspecies and between both closely related and distantly related taxa. In addition, we have identified several taxa that are apparently fixed for ancient introgressions and in which there is no evidence of ongoing introgression. A recurrent observation is that these introgressions occur between ecologically and morphologically diverged, sometimes non-sister taxa that engage in well-documented niche partitioning. Thus, the chipmunk radiation in western North America represents an excellent mammalian example of speciation in the face of recurrent gene flow among lineages and where biogeography, habitat differentiation and mating systems suggest important roles for both ecological and sexual selection. PMID:24781803

  2. Genetic evidence for ecological divergence in kokanee salmon.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Matthew A; Russello, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of locally adapted phenotypes among populations that experience divergent selective pressures is a central mechanism for generating and maintaining biodiversity. Recently, the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technology has provided tools for investigating the genetic basis of this process in natural populations of nonmodel organisms. Kokanee, the freshwater form of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), occurs as two reproductive ecotypes, which differ in spawning habitat (tributaries vs. shorelines); however, outside of the spawning season the two ecotypes co-occur in many lakes and lack diagnostic morphological characteristics. We used restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to identify 6145 SNPs and genotype kokanee from multiple spawning sites in Okanagan Lake (British Columbia, Canada). Outlier tests revealed 18 loci putatively under divergent selection between ecotypes, all of which exhibited temporally stable allele frequencies within ecotypes. Six outliers were annotated to sequences in the NCBI database, two of which matched genes associated with early development. There was no evidence for neutral genetic differentiation; however, outlier loci demonstrated significant structure with respect to ecotype and had high assignment accuracy in mixed composition simulations. The absence of neutral structure combined with a small number of highly divergent outlier loci is consistent with theoretical predictions for the early stages of ecological divergence. These outlier loci were then applied to a realistic fisheries scenario in which additional RAD sequencing was used to genotype kokanee collected by trawl in Okanagan Lake, providing preliminary evidence that this approach may be an effective tool for conservation and management.

  3. 43 CFR 3502.33 - If I represent an applicant as an attorney-in-fact, do I have to submit anything to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-fact, do I have to submit anything to BLM? Yes. Send us evidence of your authority to act on behalf of... empowered to make this statement. Otherwise, the applicant must send us this information separately....

  4. 43 CFR 3501.20 - If BLM approves my application for a use authorization under this part, when does it become...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale-General § 3501.20 If BLM approves my application for a...

  5. 43 CFR 3501.20 - If BLM approves my application for a use authorization under this part, when does it become...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale-General § 3501.20 If BLM approves my application for a...

  6. 43 CFR 3501.20 - If BLM approves my application for a use authorization under this part, when does it become...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale-General § 3501.20 If BLM approves my application for a...

  7. 43 CFR 3501.20 - If BLM approves my application for a use authorization under this part, when does it become...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Leasing of Solid Minerals Other Than Coal and Oil Shale-General § 3501.20 If BLM approves my application for a...

  8. 43 CFR 2885.20 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2885.20 Section 2885.20 Public Lands: Interior... and TUPs § 2885.20 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  9. 43 CFR 2885.20 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2885.20 Section 2885.20 Public Lands: Interior... and TUPs § 2885.20 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  10. 43 CFR 2885.20 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2885.20 Section 2885.20 Public Lands: Interior... and TUPs § 2885.20 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  11. 43 CFR 2885.20 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2885.20 Section 2885.20 Public Lands: Interior... and TUPs § 2885.20 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  12. Reconstruction from divergent ray projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastry, C. S.; Singh, Santosh

    2012-03-01

    Despite major advances in x-ray sources, detector arrays, gantry mechanical design and special computer performances, computed tomography (CT) enjoys the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm as its first choice for the CT image reconstruction in the commercial scanners [1]. Over the years, a lot of fundamental work has been done in the area of finding the sophisticated solutions for the inverse problems using different kinds of optimization techniques. Recent literature in applied mathematics is being dominated by the compressive sensing techniques and/or sparse reconstruction techniques [2], [3]. Still there is a long way to go for translating these newly developed algorithms in the clinical environment. The reasons are not obvious and seldom discussed [1]. Knowing the fact that the filtered back projection is one of the most popular CT image reconstruction algorithms, one pursues research work to improve the different error estimates at different steps performed in the filtered back projection. In this paper, we present a back projection formula for the reconstruction of divergent beam tomography with unique convolution structure. Using such a proposed approximate convolution structure, the approximation error mathematically justifies that the reconstruction error is low for a suitable choice of parameters. In order to minimize the exposure time and possible distortions due to the motion of the patient, the fan beam method of collection of data is used. Rebinning [4] transformation is used to connect fan beam data into parallel beam data so that the well developed methods of image reconstruction for parallel beam geometry can be used. Due to the computational errors involved in the numerical process of rebinning, some degradation of image is inevitable. However, to date very little work has been done for the reconstruction of fan beam tomography. There have been some recent results [5], [6] on wavelet reconstruction of divergent beam tomography. In this paper

  13. Divergent thinking and constructing episodic simulations.

    PubMed

    Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.

  14. Linkage disequilibrium between BLM, FES, D15S127, and IP15M9 in Ashkenazi Jews with Bloom`s syndrome (BS)

    SciTech Connect

    German, J.; Lennon, D.; Proytcheva, M.

    1994-09-01

    BS is more common in the Ashkenazi Jewish than in any other population. About 1 in 110 Ashkenazi Jews carries bbm, a BS mutation. The locus mutated in BS, BLM, maps to chromosome sub-band 15q26.1, tightly linked to the proto-oncogene FES. We have investigated the basis for the increased frequency of bbm in the Ashkenazim by genotyping polymorphic microsatellite loci tightly linked to BLM in affected and unaffected individuals from Ashkenazi Jewish and non-Ashkenazi populations. A striking linkage disequilibrium has been observed between BLM and FES, D15S127, and IP15M9 -- three loci unseparated by conventional pedigree analysis. The linkage disequilibrium constitutes strong support for a founder-effect hypothesis. We have also analyzed blm and BLM haplotypes when genotype information from the parents was available. The haplotype analysis indicates that the chromosome in the hypothetical founder carried the C3 allele at FES, either the 145 bp or the 147 bp allele at D15S127, and the 83 bp allele at IP15M9. Besides providing strong support for the founder-effect hypothesis, haplotype analysis in a fetus at risk for BS also provided evidence against either homozygosity or heterozygosity for mutation at BLM -- evidence shown valuable by the subsequent birth of a normal boy to a couple, the father being Ashkenazi Jewish and the mother being Sephardi-Egyptian Jewish.

  15. A helical bundle in the N-terminal domain of the BLM helicase mediates dimer and potentially hexamer formation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Chen, Wei-Fei; Zhang, Bo; Fan, San-Hong; Ai, Xia; Liu, Na-Nv; Rety, Stephane; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2017-04-07

    Helicases play a critical role in processes such as replication or recombination by unwinding double-stranded DNA; mutations of these genes can therefore have devastating biological consequences. In humans, mutations in genes of three members of the RecQ family helicases (blm, wrn, and recq4) give rise to three strikingly distinctive clinical phenotypes: Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, respectively. However, the molecular basis for these varying phenotypic outcomes is unclear, in part because a full mechanistic description of helicase activity is lacking. Because the helicase core domains are highly conserved, it has been postulated that functional differences among family members might be explained by significant differences in the N-terminal domains, but these domains are poorly characterized. To help fill this gap, we now describe bioinformatics, biochemical, and structural data for three vertebrate BLM proteins. We pair high resolution crystal structures with SAXS analysis to describe an internal, highly conserved sequence we term the dimerization helical bundle in N-terminal domain (DHBN). We show that, despite the N-terminal domain being loosely structured and potentially lacking a defined three-dimensional structure in general, the DHBN exists as a dimeric structure required for higher order oligomer assembly. Interestingly, the unwinding amplitude and rate decrease as BLM is assembled from dimer into hexamer, and also, the stable DHBN dimer can be dissociated upon ATP hydrolysis. Thus, the structural and biochemical characterizations of N-terminal domains will provide new insights into how the N-terminal domain affects the structural and functional organization of the full BLM molecule.

  16. Pediatric complex divergent elbow dislocation.

    PubMed

    van Wagenberg, Jan-Maarten F; van Huijstee, Pieter J; Verhofstad, Michiel H J

    2011-01-01

    A divergent dislocation of the elbow is a very rare injury, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. It is characterized as a dorsal dislocation of the ulnohumeral joint combined with a lateral dislocation of the proximal radius. All three articulations of the elbow joint are involved. Like in our case, it can be accompanied by an avulsion fracture of the coronoid and a distal radius fracture. For correct understanding of the injury, proper radiographic studies are imperative. In contrast to some earlier reports that advise a conservative approach, we performed a very aggressive operative treatment. To ensure anatomic reconstruction of the elbow, surgical exposure of the various injuries was performed first. After gross reduction of the joint dislocation, definitive osteosynthesis of the distal radius fracture was performed. Subsequently, the coronoid process and lateral collateral ligament could be repaired anatomically, improving the stability of the elbow. An uneventful recovery with excellent elbow motion and stability was achieved.

  17. DISSIPATIVE DIVERGENCE OF RESONANT ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean-motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g., 2:1, 3:2, and 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here, we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.

  18. Adaptive filters: stable but divergent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The pros and cons of a quadratic error measure in the context of various applications have often been discussed. In this tutorial, we argue that it is not only a suboptimal but definitely the wrong choice when describing the stability behavior of adaptive filters. We take a walk through the past and recent history of adaptive filters and present 14 canonical forms of adaptive algorithms and even more variants thereof contrasting their mean-square with their l 2-stability conditions. In particular, in safety critical applications, the convergence in the mean-square sense turns out to provide wrong results, often not leading to stability at all. Only the robustness concept with its l 2-stability conditions ensures the absence of divergence.

  19. Evolutionary Divergence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Kittichotirat, W; Bumgarner, R E; Chen, C

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative facultative Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral pathogen associated with periodontitis. The genetic heterogeneity among A. actinomycetemcomitans strains has been long recognized. This study provides a comprehensive genomic analysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans and the closely related nonpathogenic Aggregatibacter aphrophilus. Whole genome sequencing by Illumina MiSeq platform was performed for 31 A. actinomycetemcomitans and 2 A. aphrophilus strains. Sequence similarity analysis shows a total of 3,220 unique genes across the 2 species, where 1,550 are core genes present in all genomes and 1,670 are variable genes (accessory genes) missing in at least 1 genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on 397 concatenated core genes distinguished A. aphrophilus and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The latter was in turn divided into 5 clades: clade b (serotype b), clade c (serotype c), clade e/f (serotypes e and f), clade a/d (serotypes a and d), and clade e' (serotype e strains). Accessory genes accounted for 14.1% to 23.2% of the A. actinomycetemcomitans genomes, with a majority belonging to the category of poorly characterized by Cluster of Orthologous Groups classification. These accessory genes were often organized into genomic islands (n = 387) with base composition biases, suggesting their acquisitions via horizontal gene transfer. There was a greater degree of similarity in gene content and genomic islands among strains within clades than between clades. Strains of clade e' isolated from human were found to be missing the genomic island that carries genes encoding cytolethal distending toxins. Taken together, the results suggest a pattern of sequential divergence, starting from the separation of A. aphrophilus and A. actinomycetemcomitans through gain and loss of genes and ending with the divergence of the latter species into distinct clades and serotypes. With differing constellations of genes, the A. actinomycetemcomitans clades may have evolved

  20. Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Cherchiglia, A.L.; Vieira, A.R.; Hiller, Brigitte; Baêta Scarpelli, A.P.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2014-12-15

    In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale λ. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.

  1. Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchiglia, A. L.; Vieira, A. R.; Hiller, Brigitte; Baêta Scarpelli, A. P.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale λ. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.

  2. Content-based network model with duplication and divergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Yasemin; Erzan, Ayşe

    2006-06-01

    We construct a minimal content-based realization of the duplication and divergence model of genomic networks introduced by Wagner [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91 (1994) 4387] and investigate the scaling properties of the directed degree distribution and clustering coefficient. We find that the content-based network exhibits crossover between two scaling regimes, with log-periodic oscillations for large degrees. These features are not present in the original gene duplication model, but inherent in the content-based model of Balcan and Erzan. The scaling form of the degree distribution of the content-based model turns out to be robust under duplication and divergence, with some re-adjustment of the scaling exponents, while the out-clustering coefficient goes over from a weak power-law dependence on the degree, to an exponential decay under mutations which include splitting and merging of strings.

  3. Traveling Exhibitions: translating current science into effective science exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Morrow, C.; Harold, J.

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop two other exhibitions called Cosmic Origins and InterActive Earth. Museum exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of earth and space outreach programs. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the presentation will be on the Institute's MarsQuest exhibition. This project is a 5000 square-foot, 2.5M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's 3-year tour is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient host museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents). The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibitions interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. SSI is also developing an interactive web site called MarsQuest On-line. The linkage between the web site, education program and exhibit will be discussed. MarsQuest and SSI's other exhibitions are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education.

  4. Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Morrissy, A. Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J. H.; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M. G.; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K.; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L.; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J. L.; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L.; Lee, John J. Y.; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C.; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K. A.; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y.; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D.; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C.; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E.; Fults, Daniel W.; Walter, Andrew W.; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V. Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.; Garvin, James H.; Stearns, Duncan S.; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E.; Tirapelli, Daniela P. C.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R.; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Clifford, Steven C.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Cooper, Michael K.; Packer, Roger J.; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Weiss, William A.; Collier, Lara S.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T. W.; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Largaespada, David A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon–driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with ‘humanized’ in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (<5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (<12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy. PMID:26760213

  5. Divergent selection for muscle color in broilers.

    PubMed

    Harford, I D; Pavlidis, H O; Anthony, N B

    2014-05-01

    One consumer-related physiological abnormality that is a recent concern for the poultry industry is atypical meat quality. Currently in the processing plant, meat is characterized on appearance such as tears, bruises, discoloration, or missing parts. Unfortunately, this method ignores physical properties such as palatability, texture, tenderness, taste, color, pH, and water-holding capacity (WHC). The growing demand for a convenient, economical, and palatable product has shifted the market toward value-added poultry products. The effect of a meat's physical properties on its marketability and versatility has become apparent to processors attempting to utilize poor quality meat. After 8 generations of divergent selection for muscle color or lightness (L*) in broilers, muscle quality parameters were investigated. The 2 broiler lines divergently selected for high (HMC) and low (LMC) muscle color along with their randombred control line (RBC) were included in the study. Heritability estimates for L* were 0.47 ± 0.05 and 0.51 ± 0.05 in the HMC and LMC lines, respectively. For generation 8, the mean L* for the HMC, RBC, and LMC lines were 53.91, 49.70, and 46.86, respectively. Selection for increased L* was found to result in increased breast fillet yellowness (b*), whereas selection for decreased L* resulted in an increase in breast fillet redness (a*). Selection for increased L* has resulted in increased rate of pH decline over time, whereas selection for decreased L* has resulted in a decreased rate of pH decline. The HMC line exhibited a higher percentage fillet drip loss than both the LMC and RBC lines, which did not differ from each other. Overall selection for L* was effective in modifying breast muscle color as well as correlated responses associated with atypical poultry meat such as drip loss and postmortem muscle pH. These selected lines can serve as resource populations for the study of PSE and DFD-like meat in poultry and demonstrate that L* selection

  6. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  7. The exact distribution of divergence times.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Saralees; Kotz, Samuel

    2008-02-01

    The recent work of Haubold and Wiehe (Mol. Biol. Evol. 18:1157-1160, 2001) considered statistical inference of the divergence time. However, there appears to be a fundamental flaw in the paper since it treated the divergence time as a random variable and not as a parameter. In this note, we derive a valid statistical inference for the divergence time. We derive an estimator for the divergence time as well as explicit expressions for its the probability density function, cumulative distribution function and the means. We also provide a 5-line computer program for computing the associated confidence intervals. We expect that the results presented could be useful for statistical modeling of divergence times.

  8. Vorticity and divergence in the solar photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, YI; Noyes, Robert W.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied an outstanding sequence of continuum images of the solar granulation from Pic du Midi Observatory. We have calculated the horizontal vector flow field using a correlation tracking algorithm, and from this determined three scalar field: the vertical component of the curl; the horizontal divergence; and the horizontal flow speed. The divergence field has substantially longer coherence time and more power than does the curl field. Statistically, curl is better correlated with regions of negative divergence - that is, the vertical vorticity is higher in downflow regions, suggesting excess vorticity in intergranular lanes. The average value of the divergence is largest (i.e., outflow is largest) where the horizontal speed is large; we associate these regions with exploding granules. A numerical simulation of general convection also shows similar statistical differences between curl and divergence. Some individual small bright points in the granulation pattern show large local vorticities.

  9. Mandibular shape and skeletal divergency.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; De Franco, D J

    1999-04-01

    Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 41 skeletal Class I girls aged 11 to 15 were divided according to MP-SN angle: lower than 28 degrees (hypodivergent, 10 girls), between 31 and 34 degrees (normodivergent, 18 girls), or larger than 37 degrees (hyperdivergent, 13 girls). The mandibular outlines were traced and digitized, and differences in shape were quantified using the elliptic Fourier series. Size differences were measured from the areas enclosed by the mandibular outlines. Shape differences were assessed by calculating a morphological distance (MD) between the size-independent mean mathematical reconstructions of the mandibular outlines of the three divergency classes. Mandibular shape was different in the three classes: large variations were found in hyperdivergent girls versus normodivergent girls (MD = 4.61), while smaller differences were observed in hypodivergent girls (MD versus normodivergent 2.91). Mean size-independent mandibular shapes were superimposed on an axis passing through the centres of gravity of the condyle and of the chin. Normodivergent and hyperdivergent mandibles differed mostly at gonion, the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, alveolar process, posterior border of the ramus, and along the mandibular plane. A significant size effect was also found, with smaller mandibles in the hyperdivergent girls.

  10. Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Leftwich, Philip T; Nash, William J; Friend, Lucy A; Chapman, Tracey

    2017-02-01

    Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life-history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses. There were proximate-only responses to the larval diet in adult male courtship and the frequency of copulation. Males on higher calorie larval diets consistently engaged in more bouts of energetic courtship. In contrast, following selection, larval development time, and egg to adult survival showed evidence of evolved divergence between diet regimes. Adult body size showed evidence for adaptation, with flies being significantly heavier when reared on their "own" diet. The results show the multifaceted responses of individuals to dietary selection and are important in understanding the extreme generalism exhibited by the medfly.

  11. Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata

    PubMed Central

    Leftwich, Philip T.; Nash, William J.; Friend, Lucy A.; Chapman, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life‐history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses. There were proximate‐only responses to the larval diet in adult male courtship and the frequency of copulation. Males on higher calorie larval diets consistently engaged in more bouts of energetic courtship. In contrast, following selection, larval development time, and egg to adult survival showed evidence of evolved divergence between diet regimes. Adult body size showed evidence for adaptation, with flies being significantly heavier when reared on their “own” diet. The results show the multifaceted responses of individuals to dietary selection and are important in understanding the extreme generalism exhibited by the medfly. PMID:27883361

  12. BLM Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study: Establishment Report and Study Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cissel, J.H.; Anderson, P.D.; Olson, Deanna H.; Puettmann, Klaus; Berryman, Shanti; Chan, Samuel; Thompson, Charley

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon State University (OSU) established the BLM Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study (DMS) in 1994 to demonstrate and test options for young stand management to meet Northwest Forest Plan objectives in western Oregon. The primary objectives of the DMS are to evaluate the effects of alternative forest density management treatments in young stands on the development of important late-successional forest habitat attributes and to assess the combined effects of density management and alternative riparian buffer widths on aquatic and riparian ecosystems. The DMS consists of three integrated studies: initial thinning, rethinning, and riparian buffer widths. The initial thinning study was installed in 50- to 80-year-old stands that had never been commercially thinned. Four stand treatments of 30-60 acres each were established at each of seven study sites: (1) unthinned control, (2) high density retention [120 trees per acre (TPA)], (3) moderate density retention (80 TPA), and (4) variable density retention (40-120 TPA). Small (1/4 to 1 acre in size) leave islands were included in all treatments except the control, and small patch cuts (1/4 to 1 acre in size) were included in the moderate and variable density treatments. An eighth site, Callahan Creek, contains a partial implementation of the study design. The rethinning study was installed in four 70- to 90-year-old stands that previously had been commercially thinned. Each study stand was split into two parts: one part as an untreated control and the other part as a rethinning (30-60 TPA). The riparian buffer study was nested within the moderate density retention treatment at each of the eight initial thinning study sites and two rethinning sites. Alternative riparian buffer widths included: (1) streamside retention (one tree canopy width, or 20-25 feet), (2) variable width (follows topographic and

  13. Replicated evolution of integrated plastic responses during early adaptive divergence.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Kevin J; Robinson, Beren W

    2006-04-01

    . Variation between ecomorphs and among lake populations in the covariance of plastic responses suggests the presence of genetic variation in plastic character responses. In three populations, open water ecomorphs also exhibited larger plastic responses to the environmental gradient than the local shallow water ecomorph. This could account for the greater integration of plastic responses in open water ecomorphs in two of the populations. This suggests that the plastic responses of local sunfish ecomorphs can diverge through changes in the magnitude and coordination of plastic responses. Although these results require further investigation, they suggest that early adaptive evolution in a novel environment can include changes to plastic character states. The genetic assimilation of coordinated plastic responses could result in the further, and possibly rapid, divergence of such populations and could also account for the evolution of genes of major effect that contribute to suites of phenotypic differences between divergent populations.

  14. Verbal and visual divergent thinking in aging.

    PubMed

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    According to the peak and decline model divergent thinking declines at a specific age (in or after middle age). However, if divergent thinking declines steadily in aging still has to be clarified. In order to explore the age-related changes in verbal and visual divergent thinking, in the present study a sample of 159 participants was divided in five age groups: young adults (18-35 years), middle-aged adults (36-55), young old (56-74), old (75-85) and the oldest-old (86-98). Two divergent thinking tasks were administered: the alternative uses for cardboard boxes, aimed at assessing verbal ideational fluency, flexibility and originality; the completion drawing task, aimed at assessing visual ideational fluency, flexibility and originality. Results showed that after peaking in the young adult group (20-35 years) all components of verbal and visual divergent thinking stabilized in the middle-aged adult group (36-55 years) and then started declining in the young old group (56-75). Interestingly, all components were found to be preserved after declining. Yet, verbal and visual divergent thinking were found at the same extent across age groups, with the exception of visual ideational fluency, that was higher in the young old group, the old group and the oldest-old group than verbal ideational fluency. These results support the idea that divergent thinking does not decline steadily in the elderly. Given that older people can preserve to some extent verbal and visual divergent thinking, these findings have important implications for active aging, that is, divergent thinking might be fostered in aging in order to prevent the cognitive decline.

  15. DNA2 cooperates with the WRN and BLM RecQ helicases to mediate long-range DNA end resection in human cells.

    PubMed

    Sturzenegger, Andreas; Burdova, Kamila; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Levikova, Maryna; Pinto, Cosimo; Cejka, Petr; Janscak, Pavel

    2014-09-26

    The 5'-3' resection of DNA ends is a prerequisite for the repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination, microhomology-mediated end joining, and single strand annealing. Recent studies in yeast have shown that, following initial DNA end processing by the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex and Sae2, the extension of resection tracts is mediated either by exonuclease 1 or by combined activities of the RecQ family DNA helicase Sgs1 and the helicase/endonuclease Dna2. Although human DNA2 has been shown to cooperate with the BLM helicase to catalyze the resection of DNA ends, it remains a matter of debate whether another human RecQ helicase, WRN, can substitute for BLM in DNA2-catalyzed resection. Here we present evidence that WRN and BLM act epistatically with DNA2 to promote the long-range resection of double strand break ends in human cells. Our biochemical experiments show that WRN and DNA2 interact physically and coordinate their enzymatic activities to mediate 5'-3' DNA end resection in a reaction dependent on RPA. In addition, we present in vitro and in vivo data suggesting that BLM promotes DNA end resection as part of the BLM-TOPOIIIα-RMI1-RMI2 complex. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the process of DNA end resection in mammalian cells.

  16. The crystal structure of BlmI as a model for nonribosomal peptide synthetase peptidyl carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Jeremy R; Ma, Ming; Cuff, Marianne E; Bigelow, Lance; Bearden, Jessica; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N; Shen, Ben

    2014-07-01

    Carrier proteins (CPs) play a critical role in the biosynthesis of various natural products, especially in nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymology, where the CPs are referred to as peptidyl-carrier proteins (PCPs) or acyl-carrier proteins (ACPs), respectively. CPs can either be a domain in large multifunctional polypeptides or standalone proteins, termed Type I and Type II, respectively. There have been many biochemical studies of the Type I PKS and NRPS CPs, and of Type II ACPs. However, recently a number of Type II PCPs have been found and biochemically characterized. In order to understand the possible interaction surfaces for combinatorial biosynthetic efforts we crystallized the first characterized and representative Type II PCP member, BlmI, from the bleomycin biosynthetic pathway from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC 15003. The structure is similar to CPs in general but most closely resembles PCPs. Comparisons with previously determined PCP structures in complex with catalytic domains reveals a common interaction surface. This surface is highly variable in charge and shape, which likely confers specificity for interactions. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of a prototypical Type I PCP excised from the multimodular context revealed three conformational states. Comparison of the states with the structure of BlmI and other PCPs reveals that only one of the NMR states is found in other studies, suggesting the other two states may not be relevant. The state represented by the BlmI crystal structure can therefore serve as a model for both Type I and Type II PCPs.

  17. Genetic Divergence in Mandible Form in Relation to Molecular Divergence in Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, W. R.; Newman, S.; Cowley, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic divergence in the form of the mandible is examined in ten inbred strains of mice. Several univariate and multivariate genetic distance estimates are given for the morphological data and these estimates are compared to measures of genealogical and molecular divergence. Highly significant divergence occurs among the ten strains in all 11 mandible traits considered individually and simultaneously. Genealogical relationship among strains is highly correlated with genetic divergence in single locus molecular traits. However, the concordance between genealogical relationship and multivariate genetic divergence in morphology is much more complex. Whether there is a significant correlation between morphological divergence and genealogy depends upon the method of analysis and the particular genetic distance statistic being employed. PMID:3220250

  18. Marine bacteria exhibit a bipolar distribution.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo Jun; Oliver, Thomas A; Ducklow, Hugh W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2013-02-05

    The microbial cosmopolitan dispersion hypothesis often invoked to explain distribution patterns driven by high connectivity of oceanographic water masses and widespread dispersal ability has never been rigorously tested. By using a global marine bacterial dataset and iterative matrix randomization simulation, we show that marine bacteria exhibit a significantly greater dispersal limitation than predicted by our null model using the "everything is everywhere" tenet with no dispersal limitation scenario. Specifically, marine bacteria displayed bipolar distributions (i.e., species occurring exclusively at both poles and nowhere else) significantly less often than in the null model. Furthermore, we observed fewer taxa present in both hemispheres but more taxa present only in a single hemisphere than expected under the null model. Each of these trends diverged further from the null expectation as the compared habitats became more geographically distant but more environmentally similar. Our meta-analysis supported a latitudinal gradient in bacterial diversity with higher richness at lower latitudes, but decreased richness toward the poles. Bacteria in the tropics also demonstrated narrower latitudinal ranges at lower latitudes and relatively larger ranges in higher latitudes, conforming to the controversial macroecological pattern of the "Rapoport rule." Collectively, our findings suggest that bacteria follow biogeographic patterns more typical of macroscopic organisms, and that dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, likely plays an important role. Distributions of microbes that deliver critical ecosystem services, particularly those in polar regions, may be vulnerable to the same impacts that environmental stressors, climate warming, and degradation in habitat quality are having on biodiversity in animal and plant species.

  19. Differences in rheotactic responses contribute to divergent habitat use between parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuexin; Torrance, Louisa; Peichel, Catherine L; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2015-09-01

    Migration among populations is widely thought to undermine adaptive divergence, assuming gene flow arises from random movement of individuals. If individuals instead differ in dispersal behavior, phenotype-dependent dispersal can reduce the effective rate of gene flow or even facilitate divergence. For example, parapatric populations of lake and stream stickleback tend to actively avoid dispersing into the adjoining habitat. However, the behavioral basis of this nonrandom dispersal was previously unknown. Here, we show that lake and stream stickleback exhibit divergent rheotactic responses (behavioral response to currents). During the breeding season, wild-caught inlet stream stickleback were better than lake fish at maintaining position in currents, faced upstream more, and spent more time in low-current areas. As a result, stream fish expended significantly less energy in currents than did lake fish. These divergent rheotactic responses likely contribute to divergent habitat use by lake and stream stickleback. Although rheotactic differences were absent in nonbreeding fish, divergent behavior of breeding-season fish may suffice for assortative mating by breeding location. The resulting reproductive isolation between lake and stream fish may explain the fine-scale evolutionary differentiation in parapatric stickleback populations.

  20. The influence of pollinator phylogeography and mate preference on floral divergence in a sexually deceptive daisy.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Marinus L; Ellis, Allan G

    2013-06-01

    Divergent mate preferences and subsequent genetic differentiation between populations has been demonstrated, but its effects on interspecific interactions are unknown. Associated species exploiting these mate preferences, for example, may diverge to match local preferences. We explore this idea in the sexually deceptive, fly-mimicking daisy, Gorteria diffusa, by testing for association between genetic structure in the fly pollinator (a proxy for mate preference divergence) and geographic divergence in floral form. If genetic structure in flies influences interactions with G. diffusa, we expect phylogeographically distinct flies to be associated with different floral forms. Flies associated with forms exploiting only feeding behavior often belonged to several phylogeographic clades, whereas flies associated with forms exploiting male-mating behavior always belonged to distinct clades, indicating the possibility of pollinator-mediated floral divergence through phylogeographic variation in mating preferences of male flies. We tested this hypothesis with reciprocal presentations using male flies from distinct clades associated with separate floral forms. Results show that males from all clades exhibit similar preferences, making pollinator driven divergence through geographic variation in mate preference unlikely. Males, however, showed evidence of learned resistance to deceptive traits, suggesting antagonistic interactions between plants and pollinators may drive deceptive floral trait evolution in G. diffusa.

  1. Antagonistic selection factors induce a continuous population divergence in a polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Y; Nagata, N; Kawata, M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of selection and stochastic factors in population divergence of adaptive traits is a classical topic in evolutionary biology. However, it is difficult to separate these factors and detect the effects of selection when two or more contrasting selective factors are simultaneously acting on a single locus. In the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis, females exhibit color dimorphism and morph frequencies change geographically. We here evaluated the role of selection and stochastic factors in population divergence of morph frequencies by comparing the divergences in color locus and neutral loci. Comparisons between population pairwise FST for neutral loci and for the color locus did not detect any stochastic factors affecting color locus. Although comparison between population divergence in color and neutral loci using all populations detected only divergent selection, we detected two antagonistic selective factors acting on the color locus, that is, balancing and divergent selection, when considering geographical distance between populations. Our results suggest that a combination of two antagonistic selective factors, rather than stochastic factors, establishes the geographic cline in morph frequency in this system. PMID:24281546

  2. Characterization of duplicated Dunaliella viridis SPT1 genes provides insights into early gene divergence after duplication.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhenwei; Meng, Xiangzong; Sun, Zhenhua; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2008-10-15

    The sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene from unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis, DvSPT1, shares similarity with members of Pi transporter family. Sequencing analysis of D. viridis BAC clone containing the DvSPT1 gene revealed two inverted duplicated copies of this gene (DvSPT1 and DvSPT1-2 respectively). The duplication covered most of both genes except for their 3' downstream region. The duplicated genomic sequences exhibited 97.9% identity with a synonymous divergence of Ks=0.0126 in the coding region. This data indicated very recent gene duplication in D. viridis genome, providing an excellent opportunity to investigate sequence and expression divergence of duplicated genes at an early stage. Scattered point mutations and length polymorphism of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were predominant among the sequence divergence soon after gene duplication. Due to sequence divergence in the 5' regulatory regions and a swap of the entire 3' downstream regions (3'-UTR), DvSPT1 and DvSPT1-2 showed expression divergence in response to extra-cellular NaCl concentration changes. According to their expression patterns, the two diverged gene copies would provide better adaptation to a broader range of extra-cellular NaCl concentration. Furthermore, Southern blot analysis indicated that there might be a large phosphate transporter gene family in D. viridis.

  3. Human DNA2 possesses a cryptic DNA unwinding activity that functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cosimo; Kasaciunaite, Kristina; Seidel, Ralf; Cejka, Petr

    2016-09-09

    Human DNA2 (hDNA2) contains both a helicase and a nuclease domain within the same polypeptide. The nuclease of hDNA2 is involved in a variety of DNA metabolic processes. Little is known about the role of the hDNA2 helicase. Using bulk and single-molecule approaches, we show that hDNA2 is a processive helicase capable of unwinding kilobases of dsDNA in length. The nuclease activity prevents the engagement of the helicase by competing for the same substrate, hence prominent DNA unwinding by hDNA2 alone can only be observed using the nuclease-deficient variant. We show that the helicase of hDNA2 functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases to promote dsDNA degradation by forming a heterodimeric molecular machine. This collectively suggests that the hDNA2 motor promotes the enzyme's capacity to degrade dsDNA in conjunction with BLM or WRN and thus promote the repair of broken DNA.

  4. Human DNA2 possesses a cryptic DNA unwinding activity that functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cosimo; Kasaciunaite, Kristina; Seidel, Ralf; Cejka, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Human DNA2 (hDNA2) contains both a helicase and a nuclease domain within the same polypeptide. The nuclease of hDNA2 is involved in a variety of DNA metabolic processes. Little is known about the role of the hDNA2 helicase. Using bulk and single-molecule approaches, we show that hDNA2 is a processive helicase capable of unwinding kilobases of dsDNA in length. The nuclease activity prevents the engagement of the helicase by competing for the same substrate, hence prominent DNA unwinding by hDNA2 alone can only be observed using the nuclease-deficient variant. We show that the helicase of hDNA2 functionally integrates with BLM or WRN helicases to promote dsDNA degradation by forming a heterodimeric molecular machine. This collectively suggests that the hDNA2 motor promotes the enzyme's capacity to degrade dsDNA in conjunction with BLM or WRN and thus promote the repair of broken DNA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18574.001 PMID:27612385

  5. Convergence and divergence are mostly reciprocated properties of the connections in the network of cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Négyessy, László; Nepusz, Tamás; Zalányi, László; Bazsó, Fülöp

    2008-10-22

    Cognition is based on the integrated functioning of hierarchically organized cortical processing streams in a manner yet to be clarified. Because integration fundamentally depends on convergence and the complementary notion of divergence of the neuronal connections, we analysed integration by measuring the degree of convergence/divergence through the connections in the network of cortical areas. By introducing a new index, we explored the complementary convergent and divergent nature of connectional reciprocity and delineated the backward and forward cortical sub-networks for the first time. Integrative properties of the areas defined by the degree of convergence/divergence through their afferents and efferents exhibited distinctive characteristics at different levels of the cortical hierarchy. Areas previously identified as hubs exhibit information bottleneck properties. Cortical networks largely deviate from random graphs where convergence and divergence are balanced at low reciprocity level. In the cortex, which is dominated by reciprocal connections, balance appears only by further increasing the number of reciprocal connections. The results point to the decisive role of the optimal number and placement of reciprocal connections in large-scale cortical integration. Our findings also facilitate understanding of the functional interactions between the cortical areas and the information flow or its equivalents in highly recurrent natural and artificial networks.

  6. Thermoelectric device exhibiting decreased stress

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, D.L.; Chou, D.J.

    1985-02-05

    A thermoelectric device exhibiting both structural integrity and decreased stress across the device notwithstanding the application of thermally cycled temperature differentials thereacross includes, electrically interconnected thermoelectric elements and a rigidly affixed substrate. Thermal stress is relieved by using flexible conductors to interconnect the thermoelectric elements, and by the use of a flexile joint to attach a second substrate to the remainder of the device. Complete elimination of the second substrate may also be used to eliminate stress. Presence of the rigidly affixed substrate gives the device sufficient structural integrity to enable it to withstand rugged conditions.

  7. Large holograms in traveling exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christakis, Anne-Marie

    1994-01-01

    The presentation of large holograms in travelling exhibitions has always posed problems, mainly due to lack of space. The Museum of Holography was consequently required to develop, with Jean-Francois Moreau, display consoles which are light, affordable and completely detachable. In a permanent exposition at the Forum des Halles in Paris, the Museum displays a room with 22 holograms, each measuring 1 m X 1 m, in a structure designed by the architect Fabien Vienne. The different systems used by the Museum are presented here.

  8. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  9. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient. PMID:27195668

  10. What drivers phenotypic divergence in Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) on large-scale gradient, climate or genetic differentiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shan; Ma, Linna; Guo, Chengyuan; Wang, Renzhong

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the driving factors among-population divergence is an important task in evolutionary biology, however the relative contribution from natural selection and neutral genetic differentiation has been less debated. A manipulation experiment was conducted to examine whether the phenotypic divergence of Leymus chinensis depended on climate variations or genetic differentiations at 18 wild sites along a longitudinal gradient from 114 to 124°E in northeast China and at common garden condition of transplantation. Demographical, morphological and physiological phenotypes of 18 L. chinensis populations exhibited significant divergence along the gradient, but these divergent variations narrowed significantly at the transplantation. Moreover, most of the phenotypes were significantly correlated with mean annual precipitation and temperature in wild sites, suggesting that climatic variables played vital roles in phenotypic divergence of the species. Relative greater heterozygosity (HE), genotype evenness (E) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (I) in western group of populations suggested that genetic differentiation also drove phenotypic divergence of the species. However, neutral genetic differentiation (FST = 0.041) was greatly lower than quantitative differentiation (QST = 0.199), indicating that divergent selection/climate variable was the main factor in determining the phenotypic divergence of the species along the large-scale gradient.

  11. Experimental evidence that phenotypic divergence in predators drives community divergence in prey.

    PubMed

    Palkovacs, Eric P; Post, David M

    2009-02-01

    Studies of adaptive divergence have traditionally focused on the ecological causes of trait diversification, while the ecological consequences of phenotypic divergence remain relatively unexplored. Divergence in predator foraging traits, in particular, has the potential to impact the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. To examine the effects of predator trait divergence on prey communities, we exposed zooplankton communities in lake mesocosms to predation from either anadromous or landlocked (freshwater resident) alewives, which have undergone recent and rapid phenotypic differentiation in foraging traits (gape width, gill raker spacing, and prey size-selectivity). Anadromous alewives, which exploit large prey items, significantly reduced the mean body size, total biomass, species richness, and diversity of crustacean zooplankton relative to landlocked alewives, which exploit smaller prey. The zooplankton responses observed in this experiment are consistent with patterns observed in lakes. This study provides direct evidence that phenotypic divergence in predators, even in its early stages, can play a critical role in determining prey community structure.

  12. Evolutionary Divergence of Arabidopsis thaliana Classical Peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Kupriyanova, E V; Mamoshina, P O; Ezhova, T A

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms of 62 peroxidase genes derived from Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated to evaluate evolutionary dynamics and divergence of peroxidase proteins. By comparing divergence of duplicated genes AtPrx53-AtPrx54 and AtPrx36-AtPrx72 and their products, nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were identified that were apparently targets of positive selection. These substitutions were detected among paralogs of 461 ecotypes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Some of these substitutions are conservative and matched paralogous peroxidases in other Brassicaceae species. These results suggest that after duplication, peroxidase genes evolved under the pressure of positive selection, and amino acid substitutions identified during our study provided divergence of properties and physiological functions in peroxidases. Our predictions regarding functional significance for amino acid residues identified in variable sites of peroxidases may allow further experimental assessment of evolution of peroxidases after gene duplication.

  13. Vibhakti Divergence between Sanskrit and Hindi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Preeti; Shukl, Devanand; Kulkarni, Amba

    Translation divergence at various levels between languages arises due to the different conventions followed by different languages for coding the information of grammatical relations. Though Sanskrit and Hindi belong to the same Indo-Aryan family and structurally as well as lexically Hindi inherits a lot from Sanskrit, yet divergences are observed at the level of function words such as vibhaktis. Pāṇini in his Aṣṭādhyāyī has assigned a default vibhakti to kārakas alongwith many scopes for exceptions. He handles these exceptions either by imposing a new kāraka role or by assigning a special vibhakti. However, these methods are not acceptable in Hindi in toto. Based on the nature of deviation, we propose seven cases of divergences in this paper.

  14. 43 CFR 3837.23 - How do I notify BLM that I have acquired a delinquent co-claimant's interests in a mining claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... delinquent co-claimant's interests in a mining claim or site? 3837.23 Section 3837.23 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ACQUIRING A DELINQUENT CO-CLAIMANT'S INTERESTS IN A MINING CLAIM OR SITE Acquisition Procedures § 3837.23 How do I notify BLM that I have acquired a delinquent co-claimant's...

  15. 43 CFR 3837.23 - How do I notify BLM that I have acquired a delinquent co-claimant's interests in a mining claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... delinquent co-claimant's interests in a mining claim or site? 3837.23 Section 3837.23 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ACQUIRING A DELINQUENT CO-CLAIMANT'S INTERESTS IN A MINING CLAIM OR SITE Acquisition Procedures § 3837.23 How do I notify BLM that I have acquired a delinquent co-claimant's...

  16. 43 CFR 3837.23 - How do I notify BLM that I have acquired a delinquent co-claimant's interests in a mining claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... delinquent co-claimant's interests in a mining claim or site? 3837.23 Section 3837.23 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ACQUIRING A DELINQUENT CO-CLAIMANT'S INTERESTS IN A MINING CLAIM OR SITE Acquisition Procedures § 3837.23 How do I notify BLM that I have acquired a delinquent co-claimant's...

  17. 43 CFR 3837.23 - How do I notify BLM that I have acquired a delinquent co-claimant's interests in a mining claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... delinquent co-claimant's interests in a mining claim or site? 3837.23 Section 3837.23 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ACQUIRING A DELINQUENT CO-CLAIMANT'S INTERESTS IN A MINING CLAIM OR SITE Acquisition Procedures § 3837.23 How do I notify BLM that I have acquired a delinquent co-claimant's...

  18. Potential of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) to Predict Copper Toxicity in the White-Water of the Solimões-Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Pont, Giorgi Dal; Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt Valdez; Fernandes-de-Castilho, Marisa; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the capacity of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) to predict copper toxicity in white-waters of the Solimões-Amazon River. LC50 tests using the species Otocinclus vittatus (Regan, 1904) were performed with Solimões-Amazon river water (100%) at 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% dilutions. A sevenfold decrease in both dissolved and total Cu toxicity was observed in the experiment conducted with 100% when compared to 20% white-water, indicating that physicochemical characteristics of white-water attenuate Cu toxicity. There was agreement between the observed LC50 and the LC50 predicted by the BLM after the adjustment of critical accumulation concentration (LA50) for O. vittatus. BLM modeling indicated that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH were the most important water parameters influencing Cu toxicity, followed by Ca(2+). Our results highlight the first evidence that the BLM presents potential to predict Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms in the white-water of the Solimões-Amazon River.

  19. 43 CFR 3212.16 - Can I apply to BLM to reduce, suspend, or waive the royalty or rental of my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.16 Can I apply to BLM to reduce, suspend... of conservation and to encourage the greatest ultimate recovery of geothermal resources, if...

  20. 43 CFR 3212.16 - Can I apply to BLM to reduce, suspend, or waive the royalty or rental of my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.16 Can I apply to BLM to reduce, suspend... of conservation and to encourage the greatest ultimate recovery of geothermal resources, if...

  1. 43 CFR 3212.16 - Can I apply to BLM to reduce, suspend, or waive the royalty or rental of my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.16 Can I apply to BLM to reduce, suspend... of conservation and to encourage the greatest ultimate recovery of geothermal resources, if...

  2. 43 CFR 3212.16 - Can I apply to BLM to reduce, suspend, or waive the royalty or rental of my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lease Suspensions, Cessation of Production, Royalty Rate Reductions, and Energy Policy Act Royalty Rate Conversions § 3212.16 Can I apply to BLM to reduce, suspend... of conservation and to encourage the greatest ultimate recovery of geothermal resources, if...

  3. 43 CFR 2806.41 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? 2806.41 Section 2806.41 Public... facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? When a communication facility is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant for a linear use, or some other type of use authorization...

  4. 43 CFR 2885.23 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? 2885.23 Section 2885.23 Public... linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? When a communication use is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant or TUP for a linear use, or some other type of authorization (e.g., a...

  5. 43 CFR 2885.23 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? 2885.23 Section 2885.23 Public... linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? When a communication use is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant or TUP for a linear use, or some other type of authorization (e.g., a...

  6. 43 CFR 2885.23 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? 2885.23 Section 2885.23 Public... linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? When a communication use is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant or TUP for a linear use, or some other type of authorization (e.g., a...

  7. 43 CFR 2806.23 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2806.23 Section 2806.23 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Linear Rights-Of-Way § 2806.23 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  8. 43 CFR 2806.23 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2806.23 Section 2806.23 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Linear Rights-Of-Way § 2806.23 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  9. 43 CFR 2806.23 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2806.23 Section 2806.23 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Linear Rights-Of-Way § 2806.23 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  10. 43 CFR 2806.41 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? 2806.41 Section 2806.41 Public... facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? When a communication facility is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant for a linear use, or some other type of use authorization...

  11. 43 CFR 2885.23 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... communication uses ancillary to a linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? 2885.23 Section 2885.23 Public... linear grant, TUP, or other use authorization? When a communication use is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant or TUP for a linear use, or some other type of authorization (e.g., a...

  12. 43 CFR 2806.41 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? 2806.41 Section 2806.41 Public... facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? When a communication facility is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant for a linear use, or some other type of use authorization...

  13. 43 CFR 2806.41 - How will BLM calculate rent for communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... communication facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? 2806.41 Section 2806.41 Public... facilities ancillary to a linear grant or other use authorization? When a communication facility is ancillary to, and authorized by BLM under, a grant for a linear use, or some other type of use authorization...

  14. 43 CFR 2806.23 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2806.23 Section 2806.23 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Linear Rights-Of-Way § 2806.23 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  15. 43 CFR 3195.13 - If I am a Federal helium supplier or buyer, what reports must I submit to BLM?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false If I am a Federal helium supplier or buyer... (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.13 If I am a Federal helium supplier or buyer, what reports must I submit to BLM? In accordance with the In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract: (a)...

  16. 43 CFR 3000.11 - When and how does BLM charge me processing fees on a case-by-case basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fees on a case-by-case basis? 3000.11 Section 3000.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) MINERALS MANAGEMENT: GENERAL General § 3000.11 When and how does BLM charge me processing fees on a case-by-case basis? (a) Fees in this subchapter are designated either as case-by-case fees or as fixed...

  17. 43 CFR 2806.37 - How will BLM calculate rent for a grant or lease involving an entity with a single use (holder or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lease involving an entity with a single use (holder or tenant) having equipment or occupying space in... with a single use (holder or tenant) having equipment or occupying space in multiple BLM-authorized... lease authorizing that use. For example, a television station locates its antenna on a tower...

  18. 43 CFR 2806.37 - How will BLM calculate rent for a grant or lease involving an entity with a single use (holder or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lease involving an entity with a single use (holder or tenant) having equipment or occupying space in... with a single use (holder or tenant) having equipment or occupying space in multiple BLM-authorized... lease authorizing that use. For example, a television station locates its antenna on a tower...

  19. 43 CFR 2806.37 - How will BLM calculate rent for a grant or lease involving an entity with a single use (holder or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lease involving an entity with a single use (holder or tenant) having equipment or occupying space in... with a single use (holder or tenant) having equipment or occupying space in multiple BLM-authorized... lease authorizing that use. For example, a television station locates its antenna on a tower...

  20. 43 CFR 3162.2-9 - What is my duty to inquire about the potential for drainage and inform BLM of my findings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS Requirements for Operating Rights Owners and... mineral resources which will be drained from your Federal or Indian lease during the life of the draining... provide BLM with the analysis under paragraph (a) of this section within 60 days after we request it....

  1. Polarity and Bypass of DNA Heterology during Branch Migration of Holliday Junctions by Human RAD54, BLM, and RECQ1 Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Mazina, Olga M.; Rossi, Matthew J.; Deakyne, Julianna S.; Huang, Fei; Mazin, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    Several proteins have been shown to catalyze branch migration (BM) of the Holliday junction, a key intermediate in DNA repair and recombination. Here, using joint molecules made by human RAD51 or Escherichia coli RecA, we find that the polarity of the displaced ssDNA strand of the joint molecules defines the polarity of BM of RAD54, BLM, RECQ1, and RuvAB. Our results demonstrate that RAD54, BLM, and RECQ1 promote BM preferentially in the 3′→5′ direction, whereas RuvAB drives it in the 5′→3′ direction relative to the displaced ssDNA strand. Our data indicate that the helicase activity of BM proteins does not play a role in the heterology bypass. Thus, RAD54 that lacks helicase activity is more efficient in DNA heterology bypass than BLM or REQ1 helicases. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the BLM helicase and BM activities require different protein stoichiometries, indicating that different complexes, monomers and multimers, respectively, are responsible for these two activities. These results define BM as a mechanistically distinct activity of DNA translocating proteins, which may serve an important function in DNA repair and recombination. PMID:22356911

  2. Diverging Fluctuations of the Lyapunov Exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazó, Diego; López, Juan M.; Politi, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We show that in generic one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices the diffusion coefficient of the maximum Lyapunov exponent diverges in the thermodynamic limit. We trace this back to the long-range correlations associated with the evolution of the hydrodynamic modes. In the case of normal heat transport, the divergence is even stronger, leading to the breakdown of the usual single-function Family-Vicsek scaling ansatz. A similar scenario is expected to arise in the evolution of rough interfaces in the presence of suitably correlated background noise.

  3. Geochemical investigations and interim recommendations for priority abandoned mine sites, BLM lands, upper Animas River watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Field observations, sampling of mine dumps and mine drainage waters, and laboratory studies of dump materials have been made at mining areas deemed to be on public lands administered by the U. S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the Upper Animas River watershed. Results of chemical analyses of dump materials, leachates of those materials, and surface waters draining mines or dumps provide indications of where acid is generated or consumed, and metal concentrations below mines or dumps. Information on sites previously identified as needing reclamation is reviewed and available geochemical information is used to rank 26 sites into four classes of priority for reclamation. Although there are more than a thousand mining sites (productive mines and prospects) on BLM lands in the Upper Animas River watershed study area, the majority are very small (less than about 70 cubic yards of dump material), are more than 2 miles from a major stream, or so inaccessible as to prohibit reclamation. In the summers of 1997 and 1998 approximately 200 sites were observed and more than 100 of these that appeared to have the potential to geochemically impact the watershed were examined more carefully and sampled. Building upon the prior work of the BLM and associated agencies, this work attempted to identify the most significant sources of mine-related contamination and to rank those sites as to priority for reclamation. These most significant mining areas have been examined within a geologic framework and were evaluated by multiple criteria, including tendency to generate acid and release toxic metals, observed damage to vegetation, potential to release metals based on leach tests, and likelihood of transport into streams of the watershed. No single measurable parameter, such as metal concentration, can be used to rank the sites. Rather, subjective estimates are required to evaluate combinations or interactions among several parameters. The most subjective estimate, while ranking

  4. Adaptive divergence in resistance to herbivores in Datura stramonium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Guillermo; Valverde, Pedro L; Cruz, Laura L; Hernández-Cumplido, Johnattan; Andraca-Gómez, Guadalupe; Fornoni, Juan; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Olmedo-Vicente, Erika; Flores-Ortiz, César M; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Defensive traits exhibited by plants vary widely across populations. Heritable phenotypic differentiation is likely to be produced by genetic drift and spatially restricted gene flow between populations. However, spatially variable selection exerted by herbivores may also give rise to differences among populations. To explore to what extent these factors promote the among-population differentiation of plant resistance of 13 populations of Datura stramonium, we compared the degree of phenotypic differentiation (P ST) of leaf resistance traits (trichome density, atropine and scopolamine concentration) against neutral genetic differentiation (F ST) at microsatellite loci. Results showed that phenotypic differentiation in defensive traits among-population is not consistent with divergence promoted by genetic drift and restricted gene flow alone. Phenotypic differentiation in scopolamine concentration was significantly higher than F ST across the range of trait heritability values. In contrast, genetic differentiation in trichome density was different from F ST only when heritability was very low. On the other hand, differentiation in atropine concentration differed from the neutral expectation when heritability was less than or equal to 0.3. In addition, we did not find a significant correlation between pair-wise neutral genetic distances and distances of phenotypic resistance traits. Our findings reinforce previous evidence that divergent natural selection exerted by herbivores has promoted the among-population phenotypic differentiation of defensive traits in D. stramonium.

  5. Divergent responses of Pygoscelis penguins reveal a common environmental driver.

    PubMed

    Hinke, Jefferson T; Salwicka, Kasia; Trivelpiece, Susan G; Watters, George M; Trivelpiece, Wayne Z

    2007-10-01

    The responses of predators to environmental variability in the Antarctic Peninsula region have exhibited divergent patterns owing to variation in the geographic settings of colonies and predator life-history strategies. Five breeding colonies of Pygoscelis penguins from King George Island and Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, were examined to (1) compare the responses of sympatric congeners to recent changes in their Antarctic ecosystem and (2) assess underlying causes for such responses. We used linear regression and correlation analyses to compare indices of abundance, recruitment, and summer breeding performance of the Adélie (P. adeliae), gentoo (P. papua), and chinstrap penguins (P. antarctica). Breeding colonies of Adélie and chinstrap penguins have declined by roughly 50% since the mid-1970s, and recruitment indices of Adélie penguins have declined by roughly 80%, but no such patterns are evident for gentoo penguins. Fledging success, however, has remained stable at all breeding colonies. The different trends in abundance and recruitment indices for each species, despite generally similar indices of summer performance, suggest that winter conditions contribute to the divergent responses among the penguins. In particular, strong correlations between indices of penguin and krill recruitment suggest that penguins in the South Shetland Islands may live under an increasingly krill-limited system that has disproportionate effects on the survival of juvenile birds.

  6. Adaptive divergence in resistance to herbivores in Datura stramonium

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Guillermo; Valverde, Pedro L.; Cruz, Laura L.; Hernández-Cumplido, Johnattan; Andraca-Gómez, Guadalupe; Fornoni, Juan; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Olmedo-Vicente, Erika; Flores-Ortiz, César M.

    2015-01-01

    Defensive traits exhibited by plants vary widely across populations. Heritable phenotypic differentiation is likely to be produced by genetic drift and spatially restricted gene flow between populations. However, spatially variable selection exerted by herbivores may also give rise to differences among populations. To explore to what extent these factors promote the among-population differentiation of plant resistance of 13 populations of Datura stramonium, we compared the degree of phenotypic differentiation (PST) of leaf resistance traits (trichome density, atropine and scopolamine concentration) against neutral genetic differentiation (FST) at microsatellite loci. Results showed that phenotypic differentiation in defensive traits among-population is not consistent with divergence promoted by genetic drift and restricted gene flow alone. Phenotypic differentiation in scopolamine concentration was significantly higher than FST across the range of trait heritability values. In contrast, genetic differentiation in trichome density was different from FST only when heritability was very low. On the other hand, differentiation in atropine concentration differed from the neutral expectation when heritability was less than or equal to 0.3. In addition, we did not find a significant correlation between pair-wise neutral genetic distances and distances of phenotypic resistance traits. Our findings reinforce previous evidence that divergent natural selection exerted by herbivores has promoted the among-population phenotypic differentiation of defensive traits in D. stramonium. PMID:26644970

  7. The Harmonic Series Diverges Again and Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kifowit, Steven J.; Stamps, Terra A.

    2006-01-01

    The harmonic series is one of the most celebrated infinite series of mathematics. A quick glance at a variety of modern calculus textbooks reveals that there are two very popular proofs of the divergence of the harmonic series. In this article, the authors survey these popular proofs along with many other proofs that are equally simple and…

  8. Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Divergence in Global Policy.

    PubMed

    Schandera, Johanna; Mackey, Tim K

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the UK became the first country permitting the clinical application of mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT). Here, we explore how MRT have led to diverging international policy. In response, we recommend focused regulatory efforts coupled with United Nations (UN) leadership to build international consensus on the future of MRT.

  9. Scholarly Groups' Choices Yield Diverging Fortunes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrett, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Scholarly groups have long served as hubs of academic life and the embodiments of their disciplines, but they face uncertain and divergent futures. Some disciplinary associations are struggling to remain relevant and financially viable as demographic and technological changes threaten their traditional sources of revenue. The core of their…

  10. Reinforcement and divergence under assortative mating.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, M

    2000-01-01

    Traits that cause assortative mating such as the flowering time in plants and body size in animals can produce reproductive isolation between hybridizing populations. Can selection against unfit hybrids cause two populations to diverge in their mean values for these kinds of traits? Here I present a haploid analytical model of one population that receives gene flow from another. The partial pre-zygotic isolation between the two populations is caused by assortative mating for a trait that is influenced by any number of genes with additive effects. The post-zygotic isolation is caused by selection against genetic incompatibilities that can involve any form of selection on individual genes and gene combinations (epistasis). The analysis assumes that the introgression rate and selection coefficients are small. The results show that the assortment trait mean will not diverge from the immigrants unless there is direct selection on the trait favouring it to do so or there are genes of very large effect. The amount of divergence at equilibrium is determined by a balance between direct selection on the assortment trait and introgression from the other population. Additional selection against hybrid genetic incompatibilities reduces the effective migration rate and allows greater divergence. The role of assortment in speciation is discussed in the light of these results. PMID:11467428

  11. Geographically multifarious phenotypic divergence during speciation

    PubMed Central

    Gompert, Zachariah; Lucas, Lauren K; Nice, Chris C; Fordyce, James A; Alex Buerkle, C; Forister, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    Speciation is an important evolutionary process that occurs when barriers to gene flow evolve between previously panmictic populations. Although individual barriers to gene flow have been studied extensively, we know relatively little regarding the number of barriers that isolate species or whether these barriers are polymorphic within species. Herein, we use a series of field and lab experiments to quantify phenotypic divergence and identify possible barriers to gene flow between the butterfly species Lycaeides idas and Lycaeides melissa. We found evidence that L. idas and L. melissa have diverged along multiple phenotypic axes. Specifically, we identified major phenotypic differences in female oviposition preference and diapause initiation, and more moderate divergence in mate preference. Multiple phenotypic differences might operate as barriers to gene flow, as shown by correlations between genetic distance and phenotypic divergence and patterns of phenotypic variation in admixed Lycaeides populations. Although some of these traits differed primarily between species (e.g., diapause initiation), several traits also varied among conspecific populations (e.g., male mate preference and oviposition preference). PMID:23532669

  12. Controversial Issues Confronting Special Education: Divergent Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, William; Stainback, Susan

    This book of 24 papers presents divergent views on 12 issues in special education: organizational strategies, classroom service delivery approaches, maximizing the talents and gifts of students, classification and labeling, assessment, instructional strategies, classroom management, collaboration/consultation, research practices, higher education,…

  13. Inventory of San Joaquin kit fox on BLM lands in southern and southwestern San Joaquin Valley. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.; McCue, P.; Sauls, M.L.

    1980-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide the Bureau of Land Management, Bakersfield District, with information on the distribution of the San Joaquin kit fox, an endangered species, on public lands in the southern and southwestern San Joaquin Valley of California, and to develop information essential for designating kit fox critical habitats on lands under their jurisdiction as outlined by the Endangered Species Act and its amendments. A total of 31,860 acres of BLM lands were surveyed using line transects at a density of 8 per linear mile. Observations were recorded on: (1) kit fox dens, tracks, scats, and remains of their prey; (2) vegetation associations; (3) topography; (4) evidence of human activities; (5) species composition and abundance of wildlife seen, especially lagomorphs; (6) presence of Eriogonum gossypinum, a plant of special interest; and (7) presence of the blunt-nosed leopard lizard, another endangered species.

  14. Pollinator Competition as a Driver of Floral Divergence: An Experimental Test

    PubMed Central

    Temeles, Ethan J.; Newman, Julia T.; Newman, Jennifer H.; Cho, Se Yeon; Mazzotta, Alexandra R.; Kress, W. John

    2016-01-01

    Optimal foraging models of floral divergence predict that competition between two different types of pollinators will result in partitioning, increased assortative mating, and divergence of two floral phenotypes. We tested these predictions in a tropical plant-pollinator system using sexes of purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Anthracothorax jugularis) as the pollinators, red and yellow inflorescence morphs of Heliconia caribaea as the plants, and fluorescent dyes as pollen analogs in an enclosed outdoor garden. When foraging alone, males exhibited a significant preference for the yellow morph of H. caribaea, whereas females exhibited no preference. In competition, males maintained their preference for the yellow morph and through aggression caused females to over-visit the red morph, resulting in resource partitioning. Competition significantly increased within-morph dye transfer (assortative mating) relative to non-competitive environments. Competition and partitioning of color morphs by sexes of purple-throated caribs also resulted in selection for floral divergence as measured by dye deposition on stigmas. Red and yellow morphs did not differ significantly in dye deposition in the competition trials, but differences in dye deposition and preferences for morphs when sexes of purple-throated caribs foraged alone implied fixation of one or the other color morph in the absence of competition. Competition also resulted in selection for divergence in corolla length, with the red morph experiencing directional selection for longer corollas and the yellow morph experiencing stabilizing selection on corolla length. Our results thus support predictions of foraging models of floral divergence and indicate that pollinator competition is a viable mechanism for divergence in floral traits of plants. PMID:26814810

  15. Pollinator Competition as a Driver of Floral Divergence: An Experimental Test.

    PubMed

    Temeles, Ethan J; Newman, Julia T; Newman, Jennifer H; Cho, Se Yeon; Mazzotta, Alexandra R; Kress, W John

    2016-01-01

    Optimal foraging models of floral divergence predict that competition between two different types of pollinators will result in partitioning, increased assortative mating, and divergence of two floral phenotypes. We tested these predictions in a tropical plant-pollinator system using sexes of purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Anthracothorax jugularis) as the pollinators, red and yellow inflorescence morphs of Heliconia caribaea as the plants, and fluorescent dyes as pollen analogs in an enclosed outdoor garden. When foraging alone, males exhibited a significant preference for the yellow morph of H. caribaea, whereas females exhibited no preference. In competition, males maintained their preference for the yellow morph and through aggression caused females to over-visit the red morph, resulting in resource partitioning. Competition significantly increased within-morph dye transfer (assortative mating) relative to non-competitive environments. Competition and partitioning of color morphs by sexes of purple-throated caribs also resulted in selection for floral divergence as measured by dye deposition on stigmas. Red and yellow morphs did not differ significantly in dye deposition in the competition trials, but differences in dye deposition and preferences for morphs when sexes of purple-throated caribs foraged alone implied fixation of one or the other color morph in the absence of competition. Competition also resulted in selection for divergence in corolla length, with the red morph experiencing directional selection for longer corollas and the yellow morph experiencing stabilizing selection on corolla length. Our results thus support predictions of foraging models of floral divergence and indicate that pollinator competition is a viable mechanism for divergence in floral traits of plants.

  16. Ultraviolet divergences in non-renormalizable supersymmetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilga, A.

    2017-03-01

    We present a pedagogical review of our current understanding of the ultraviolet structure of N = (1,1) 6D supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and of N = 8 4 D supergravity. These theories are not renormalizable, they involve power ultraviolet divergences and, in all probability, an infinite set of higherdimensional counterterms that contribute to on-mass-shell scattering amplitudes. A specific feature of supersymmetric theories (especially, of extended supersymmetric theories) is that these counterterms may not be invariant off shell under the full set of supersymmetry transformations. The lowest-dimensional nontrivial counterterm is supersymmetric on shell. Still higher counterterms may lose even the on-shell invariance. On the other hand, the full effective Lagrangian, generating the amplitudes and representing an infinite sum of counterterms, still enjoys the complete symmetry of original theory. We also discuss simple supersymmetric quantum-mechanical models that exhibit the same behaviour.

  17. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao-Li; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Ge, Xue-Jun; Chen, Charles; Wu, Tai-Han; Chou, Chang-Hung; Huang, Hao-Jen; Gojobori, Takashi; Osada, Naoki; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2014-12-01

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59 million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M = 3.36 × 10(-9) to 1.20 × 10(-6) , resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M. sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  18. Divergence in genital morphology may contribute to mechanical reproductive isolation in a millipede

    PubMed Central

    Wojcieszek, Janine M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Genitalia appear to evolve rapidly and divergently in taxa with internal fertilization. The current consensus is that intense directional sexual selection drives the rapid evolution of genitalia. Recent research on the millipede Antichiropus variabilis suggests that the male genitalia are currently experiencing stabilizing selection – a pattern of selection expected for lock-and-key structures that enforce mate recognition and reproductive isolation. Here, we investigate how divergence in genital morphology affects reproductive compatibility among isolated populations of A. variabilis. Females from a focal population were mated first to a male from their own population and, second, to a male from one of two populations with divergent genital morphology. We observed variation in mating behavior that might indicate the emergence of precopulatory reproductive barriers: males from one divergent population took significantly longer to recognize females and exhibited mechanical difficulty in genital insertion. Moreover, we observed very low paternity success for extra-population males who were successful in copulating. Our data suggest that divergence in genital shape may be contributing to reproductive isolation, and incipient speciation among isolated populations of A. variabilis. PMID:23467632

  19. Is Gene Flow Promoting the Reversal of Pleistocene Divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli)?

    PubMed Central

    Manthey, Joseph D.; Klicka, John; Spellman, Garth M.

    2012-01-01

    The Pleistocene glacial cycles left a genetic legacy on taxa throughout the world; however, the persistence of genetic lineages that diverged during these cycles is dependent upon levels of gene flow and introgression. The consequences of secondary contact among taxa may reveal new insights into the history of the Pleistocene’s genetic legacy. Here, we use phylogeographic methods, using 20 nuclear loci from regional populations, to infer the consequences of secondary contact following divergence in the Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli). Analysis of nuclear data identified two geographically-structured genetic groups, largely concordant with results from a previous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study. Additionally, the estimated multilocus divergence times indicate a Pleistocene divergence, and are highly concordant with mtDNA. The previous mtDNA study showed a paucity of sympatry between clades, while nuclear patterns of gene flow show highly varied patterns between populations. The observed pattern of gene flow, from coalescent-based analyses, indicates southern populations in both clades exhibit little gene flow within or between clades, while northern populations are experiencing higher gene flow within and between clades. If this pattern were to persist, it is possible the historical legacy of Pleistocene divergence may be preserved in the southern populations only, and the northern populations would become a genetically diverse hybrid species. PMID:23152877

  20. Locomotor performance of closely related Tropidurus species: relationships with physiological parameters and ecological divergence.

    PubMed

    Kohlsdorf, Tiana; James, Rob S; Carvalho, José E; Wilson, Robbie S; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli; Navas, Carlos A

    2004-03-01

    Tropidurid lizards have colonized a variety of Brazilian open environments without remarkable morphological variation, despite ecological and structural differences among habitats used. This study focuses on two Tropidurus sister-species that, despite systematic proximity and similar morphology, exhibit great ecological divergence and a third ecologically generalist congeneric species providing an outgroup comparison. We quantified jumping capacity and sprint speed of each species on sand and rock to test whether ecological divergence was also accompanied by differences in locomotor performance. Relevant physiological traits possibly associated with locomotor performance - metabolic scopes and fiber type composition, power output and activity of the enzymes citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase of the iliofibularis muscle - were also compared among the three Tropidurus species. We found that the two sister-species exhibited remarkable differences in jumping performance, while Tropidurus oreadicus, the more distantly related species, exhibited intermediate values. Tropidurus psamonastes, a species endemic to sand dunes, exhibited high absolute sprint speeds on sand, jumped rarely and possessed a high proportion of glycolytic fibers and low activity of citrate synthase. The sister-species Tropidurus itambere, endemic to rocky outcrops, performed a large number of jumps and achieved lower absolute sprint speed than T. psamonastes. This study provides evidence of rapid divergence of locomotor parameters between sister-species that use different substrates, which is only partially explained by variation in physiological parameters of the iliofibularis muscle.

  1. ATP-dependent G-quadruplex unfolding by Bloom helicase exhibits low processivity

    PubMed Central

    Budhathoki, Jagat B.; Stafford, Edward J.; Yodh, Jaya G.; Balci, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Various helicases and single stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding proteins unfold G-quadruplex (GQ) structures. However, the underlying mechanisms of this activity have only recently come to focus. We report kinetic studies on Bloom (BLM) helicase and human telomeric GQ interactions using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). Using partial duplex DNA (pdDNA) constructs with different 5′ ssDNA overhangs, we show that BLM localizes in the vicinity of ssDNA/double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) junction and reels in the ssDNA overhang in an ATP-dependent manner. A comparison of DNA constructs with or without GQ in the overhang shows that GQ unfolding is achieved in 50–70% of reeling attempts under physiological salt and pH conditions. The unsuccessful attempts often result in dissociation of BLM from DNA which slows down the overall BLM activity. BLM-mediated GQ unfolding is typically followed by refolding of the GQ, a pattern that is repeated several times before BLM dissociates from DNA. BLM is significantly less processive compared to the highly efficient GQ destabilizer Pif1 that can repeat GQ unfolding activity hundreds of times before dissociating from DNA. Despite the variations in processivity, our studies point to possible common patterns used by different helicases in minimizing the duration of stable GQ formation. PMID:25990739

  2. Nested Levels of Adaptive Divergence: The Genetic Basis of Craniofacial Divergence and Ecological Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Kevin J.; Wang, Jason; Anderson, Graeme; Albertson, R. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Exemplary systems for adaptive divergence are often characterized by their large degrees of phenotypic variation. This variation represents the outcome of generations of diversifying selection. However, adaptive radiations can also contain a hierarchy of differentiation nested within them where species display only subtle phenotypic differences that still have substantial effects on ecology, function, and ultimately fitness. Sexual dimorphisms are also common in species displaying adaptive divergence and can be the result of differential selection between sexes that produce ecological differences between sexes. Understanding the genetic basis of subtle variation (between certain species or sexes) is therefore important for understanding the process of adaptive divergence. Using cichlids from the dramatic adaptive radiation of Lake Malawi, we focus on understanding the genetic basis of two aspects of relatively subtle phenotypic variation. This included a morphometric comparison of the patterns of craniofacial divergence between two ecologically similar species in relation to the larger adaptive radiation of Malawi, and male–female morphological divergence between their F2 hybrids. We then genetically map craniofacial traits within the context of sex and locate several regions of the genome that contribute to variation in craniofacial shape that is relevant to sexual dimorphism within species and subtle divergence between closely related species, and possibly to craniofacial divergence in the Malawi radiation as a whole. To enhance our search for candidate genes we take advantage of population genomic data and a genetic map that is anchored to the cichlid genome to determine which genes within our QTL regions are associated with SNPs that are alternatively fixed between species. This study provides a holistic understanding of the genetic underpinnings of adaptive divergence in craniofacial shape. PMID:26038365

  3. Long-term stasis and short-term divergence in the phenotypes of microsnails on oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Wada, Shinichiro; Kameda, Yuichi; Chiba, Satoshi

    2013-09-01

    Phenotypic divergence is often unrelated to genotypic divergence. An extreme example is rapid phenotypic differentiation despite genetic similarity. Another extreme is morphological stasis despite substantial genetic divergence. These opposite patterns have been viewed as reflecting opposite properties of the lineages. In this study, phenotypic radiation accompanied by both rapid divergence and long-term conservatism is documented in the inferred molecular phylogeny of the micro land snails Cavernacmella (Assimineidae) on the Ogasawara Islands. The populations of Cavernacmella on the Sekimon limestone outcrop of Hahajima Island showed marked divergence in shell morphology. Within this area, one lineage diversified into types with elongated turret shells, conical shells and flat disc-like shells without substantial genetic differentiation. Additionally, a co-occurring species with these types developed a much larger shell size. Moreover, a lineage adapted to live inside caves in this area. In contrast, populations in the other areas exhibited no morphological differences despite high genetic divergence among populations. Accordingly, the phenotypic evolution of Cavernacmella in Ogasawara is characterized by a pattern of long-term stasis and periodic bursts of change. This pattern suggests that even lineages with phenotypic conservatism could shift to an alternative state allowing rapid phenotypic divergence.

  4. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  5. Genetics of ecological divergence during speciation

    PubMed Central

    Arnegard, Matthew E.; McGee, Matthew D.; Matthews, Blake; Marchinko, Kerry B.; Conte, Gina L.; Kabir, Sahriar; Bedford, Nicole; Bergek, Sara; Chan, Yingguang Frank; Jones, Felicity C.; Kingsley, David M.; Peichel, Catherine L.; Schluter, Dolph

    2014-01-01

    Ecological differences often evolve early in speciation as divergent natural selection drives adaptation to distinct ecological niches, leading ultimately to reproductive isolation. Though this process is a major generator of biodiversity, its genetic basis remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of niche differentiation in a sympatric species pair of threespine stickleback fish by mapping the environment-dependent effects of phenotypic traits on hybrid feeding and performance under semi-natural conditions. We show that multiple, unlinked loci act largely additively to determine position along the major niche axis separating these recently diverged species. We also find that functional mismatch between phenotypic traits reduces growth of some stickleback hybrids beyond that expected from an intermediate phenotype, suggesting a role for epistasis between the underlying genes. This functional mismatch might lead to hybrid incompatibilities that are analogous to those underlying intrinsic reproductive isolation but that depend on the ecological context. PMID:24909991

  6. Instrumental Divergence and the Value of Control

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Prachi; Liljeholm, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    A critical aspect of flexible choice is that alternative actions yield distinct consequences: Only when available action alternatives produce distinct outcome states does discrimination and selection between actions allow an agent to flexibly obtain the currently most desired outcome. Here, we use instrumental divergence – the degree to which alternative actions differ with respect to their outcome probability distributions – as an index of flexible instrumental control, and assess the influence of this novel decision variable on choice preference. In Experiment 1, when other decision variables, such as expected value and outcome entropy, were held constant, we found a significant preference for high instrumental divergence. In Experiment 2, we used an “auto- vs. self-play” manipulation to eliminate outcome diversity as a source of behavioral preferences, and to contrast flexible instrumental control with the complete absence of voluntary choice. Our results suggest that flexible instrumental control over decision outcomes may have intrinsic value. PMID:27811969

  7. Morphological and niche divergence of pinyon pines.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Medrano, Alejandra; Scantlebury, Daniel Patrick; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Piñero, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The environmental variables that define a species ecological niche should be associated with the evolutionary patterns present in the adaptations that resulted from living in these conditions. Thus, when comparing across species, we can expect to find an association between phylogenetically independent phenotypic characters and ecological niche evolution. Few studies have evaluated how organismal phenotypes might mirror patterns of niche evolution if these phenotypes reflect adaptations. Doing so could contribute on the understanding of the origin and maintenance of phenotypic diversity observed in nature. Here, we show the pattern of niche evolution of the pinyon pine lineage (Pinus subsection Cembroides); then, we suggest morphological adaptations possibly related to niche divergence, and finally, we test for correlation between ecological niche and morphology. We demonstrate that niche divergence is the general pattern within the clade and that it is positively correlated with adaptation.

  8. 14 CFR 29.629 - Flutter and divergence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.629 Flutter and divergence. Each aerodynamic surface of the rotorcraft must be free from flutter and divergence under...

  9. Phenotypic plasticity and divergence in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Healy, Timothy M; Schulte, Patricia M

    2015-07-01

    The extent to which phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes in different environments, impedes or promotes genetic divergence has been a matter of debate within evolutionary biology for many decades (see, for example, Ghalambor et al. ; Pfennig et al. ). Similarly, the role of evolution in shaping phenotypic plasticity remains poorly understood (Pigliucci ). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dayan et al. () provide empirical data relevant to these questions by assessing the extent of plasticity and divergence in the expression levels of 2272 genes in muscle tissue from killifish (genus Fundulus) exposed to different temperatures. F. heteroclitus (Fig. A) and F. grandis are minnows that inhabit estuarine marshes (Fig. B) along the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico in North America. These habitats undergo large variations in temperature both daily and seasonally, and these fish are known to demonstrate substantial phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature change (e.g. Fangue et al. ). Furthermore, the range of F. heteroclitus spans a large latitudinal gradient of temperatures, such that northern populations experience temperatures that are on average ~10°C colder than do southern populations (Schulte ). By comparing gene expression patterns between populations of these fish from different thermal habitats held in the laboratory at three different temperatures, Dayan et al. () address two important questions regarding the interacting effects of plasticity and evolution: (i) How does phenotypic plasticity affect adaptive divergence? and (ii) How does adaptive divergence affect plasticity?

  10. Anthropogenic ecosystem fragmentation drives shared and unique patterns of sexual signal divergence among three species of Bahamian mosquitofish

    PubMed Central

    Giery, Sean T; Layman, Craig A; Langerhans, R Brian

    2015-01-01

    When confronted with similar environmental challenges, different organisms can exhibit dissimilar phenotypic responses. Therefore, understanding patterns of phenotypic divergence for closely related species requires considering distinct evolutionary histories. Here, we investigated how a common form of human-induced environmental alteration, habitat fragmentation, may drive phenotypic divergence among three closely related species of Bahamian mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.). Focusing on one phenotypic trait (male coloration), having a priori predictions of divergence, we tested whether populations persisting in fragmented habitats differed from those inhabiting unfragmented habitats and examined the consistency of the pattern across species. Species exhibited both shared and unique patterns of phenotypic divergence between the two types of habitats, with shared patterns representing the stronger effect. For all species, populations in fragmented habitats had fewer dorsal-fin spots. In contrast, the magnitude and trajectory of divergence in dorsal-fin color, a sexually selected trait, differed among species. We identified fragmentation-mediated increased turbidity as a possible driver of these trait shifts. These results suggest that even closely related species can exhibit diverse phenotypic responses when encountering similar human-mediated selection regimes. This element of unpredictability complicates forecasting the phenotypic responses of wild organisms faced with anthropogenic change – an important component of biological conservation and ecosystem management. PMID:26240605

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion by using convexly divergent channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    We describe a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator equipped with a convexly divergent channel, as determined through shock-tunnel-based experiments. The quality of MHD power-generating plasma and the energy conversion efficiency in the convexly divergent channel are compared with those from previous linearly divergent channel. The divergence enhancement in the channel upstream is effective for suppressing an excessive increase in static pressure, whereby notably high isentropic efficiency is achieved.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion by using convexly divergent channel

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-21

    We describe a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generator equipped with a convexly divergent channel, as determined through shock-tunnel-based experiments. The quality of MHD power-generating plasma and the energy conversion efficiency in the convexly divergent channel are compared with those from previous linearly divergent channel. The divergence enhancement in the channel upstream is effective for suppressing an excessive increase in static pressure, whereby notably high isentropic efficiency is achieved.

  13. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ye; Neill, Duff; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  14. Polygamy slows down population divergence in shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Josephine D'Urban; dos Remedios, Natalie; Maher, Kathryn; Zefania, Sama; Haig, Susan M.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Blomqvist, Donald; Burke, Terry; Bruford, Michael W.; Székely, Tamás; Küpper, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    Sexual selection may act as a promotor of speciation since divergent mate choice and competition for mates can rapidly lead to reproductive isolation. Alternatively, sexual selection may also retard speciation since polygamous individuals can access additional mates by increased breeding dispersal. High breeding dispersal should hence increase gene flow and reduce diversification in polygamous species. Here, we test how polygamy predicts diversification in shorebirds using genetic differentiation and subspecies richness as proxies for population divergence. Examining microsatellite data from 79 populations in 10 plover species (Genus: Charadrius) we found that polygamous species display significantly less genetic structure and weaker isolation-by-distance effects than monogamous species. Consistent with this result, a comparative analysis including 136 shorebird species showed significantly fewer subspecies for polygamous than for monogamous species. By contrast, migratory behavior neither predicted genetic differentiation nor subspecies richness. Taken together, our results suggest that dispersal associated with polygamy may facilitate gene flow and limit population divergence. Therefore, intense sexual selection, as occurs in polygamous species, may act as a brake rather than an engine of speciation in shorebirds. We discuss alternative explanations for these results and call for further studies to understand the relationships between sexual selection, dispersal, and diversification.

  15. Genetic divergence predicts reproductive isolation in damselflies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guillén, R A; Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Cordero-Rivera, A; Wellenreuther, M

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive isolation is the defining characteristic of a biological species, and a common, but often untested prediction is a positive correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Here, we test for this correlation in odonates, an order characterized by strong sexual selection. First, we measure reproductive isolation and genetic divergence in eight damselfly genera (30 species pairs) and test for a positive correlation. Second, we estimate the genetic threshold preventing hybrid formation and empirically test this threshold using wild populations of species within the Ischnura genus. Our results indicate a positive and strong correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic distance using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes cytochrome oxidase II (COII: r = 0.781 and 18S-28S: r = 0.658). Hybridization thresholds range from -0.43 to 1.78% for COII and -0.052-0.71% for 18S-28S, and both F1 -hybrids and backcrosses were detected in wild populations of two pairs of Ischnura species with overlapping thresholds. Our study suggests that threshold values are suitable to identify species prone to hybridization and that positive isolation-divergence relationships are taxonomically widespread.

  16. Polygamy slows down population divergence in shorebirds.

    PubMed

    D'Urban Jackson, Josephine; Dos Remedios, Natalie; Maher, Kathryn H; Zefania, Sama; Haig, Susan; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Blomqvist, Donald; Burke, Terry; Bruford, Michael W; Székely, Tamás; Küpper, Clemens

    2017-02-24

    Sexual selection may act as a promotor of speciation since divergent mate choice and competition for mates can rapidly lead to reproductive isolation. Alternatively, sexual selection may also retard speciation since polygamous individuals can access additional mates by increased breeding dispersal. High breeding dispersal should hence increase gene flow and reduce diversification in polygamous species. Here we test how polygamy predicts diversification in shorebirds using genetic differentiation and subspecies richness as proxies for population divergence. Examining microsatellite data from 79 populations in ten plover species (Genus: Charadrius) we found that polygamous species display significantly less genetic structure and weaker isolation-by-distance effects than monogamous species. Consistent with this result, a comparative analysis including 136 shorebird species showed significantly fewer subspecies for polygamous than for monogamous species. By contrast, migratory behaviour neither predicted genetic differentiation nor subspecies richness. Taken together, our results suggest that dispersal associated with polygamy may facilitate gene flow and limit population divergence. Therefore, intense sexual selection, as occurs in polygamous species, may act as a brake rather than an engine of speciation in shorebirds. We discuss alternative explanations for these results and call for further studies to understand the relationships between sexual selection, dispersal and diversification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholinergic modulation of local pyramid-interneuron synapses exhibiting divergent short-term dynamics in rat sensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Levy, Robert B; Reyes, Alex D; Aoki, Chiye

    2008-06-18

    Acetylcholine (ACh) influences attention, short-term memory, and sleep/waking transitions, through its modulatory influence on cortical neurons. It has been proposed that behavioral state changes mediated by ACh result from its selective effects on the intrinsic membrane properties of diverse cortical inhibitory interneuron classes. ACh has been widely shown to reduce the strength of excitatory (glutamatergic) synapses. But past studies using extracellular stimulation have not been able to examine the effects of ACh on local cortical connections important for shaping sensory processing. Here, using dual intracellular recording in slices of rat somatosensory cortex, we show that reduction of local excitatory input to inhibitory neurons by ACh is coupled to differences in the underlying short-term synaptic plasticity (STP). In synapses with short-term depression, where successive evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs; >5 Hz) usually diminish in strength (short-term depression), cholinergic agonist (5-10 microM carbachol (CCh)) reduced the amplitude of the first EPSP in an evoked train, but CCh's net effect on subsequent EPSPs rapidly diminished. In synapses where successive EPSPs increased in strength (facilitation), the effect of CCh on later EPSPs in an evoked train became progressively greater. The effect of CCh on both depressing and facilitating synapses was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist, 1-5 microM atropine. It is suggested that selective influence on STP contributes fundamentally to cholinergic "switching" between cortical rhythms that underlie different behavioral states.

  18. Divergent natural selection promotes immigrant inviability at early and late stages of evolutionary divergence.

    PubMed

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    Natural selection's role in speciation has been of fundamental importance since Darwin first outlined his theory. Recently, work has focused on understanding how selection drives trait divergence, and subsequently reproductive isolation. "Immigrant inviability," a barrier that arises from selection against immigrants in their nonnative environment, appears to be of particular importance. Although immigrant inviability is likely ubiquitous, we know relatively little about how selection acts on traits to drive immigrant inviability, and how important immigrant inviability is at early-versus-late stages of divergence. We present a study evaluating the role of predation in the evolution of immigrant inviability in recently diverged population pairs and a well-established species pair of Brachyrhaphis fishes. We evaluate performance in a high-predation environment by assessing survival in the presence of a predator, and swimming endurance in a low-predation environment. We find strong signatures of local adaptation and immigrant inviability of roughly the same magnitude both early and late in divergence. We find remarkably conserved selection for burst-speed swimming (important in predator evasion), and selection for increased size in low-predation environments. Our results highlight the consistency with which selection acts during speciation, and suggest that similar factors might promote initial population differentiation and maintain differentiation at late stages of divergence.

  19. Divergence in an obligate mutualism is not explained by divergent climatic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsoe, W.; Strand, Espen; Smith, C.I.; Yoder, J.B.; Esque, T.C.; Pellmyr, O.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to divergent environments creates and maintains biological diversity, but we know little about the importance of different agents of ecological divergence. Coevolution in obligate mutualisms has been hypothesized to drive divergence, but this contention has rarely been tested against alternative ecological explanations. Here, we use a well-established example of coevolution in an obligate pollination mutualism, Yucca brevifolia and its two pollinating yucca moths, to test the hypothesis that divergence in this system is the result of mutualists adapting to different abiotic environments as opposed to coevolution between mutualists. ??? We used a combination of principal component analyses and ecological niche modeling to determine whether varieties of Y. brevifolia associated with different pollinators specialize on different environments. ??? Yucca brevifolia occupies a diverse range of climates. When the two varieties can disperse to similar environments, they occupy similar habitats. ??? This suggests that the two varieties have not specialized on distinct habitats. In turn, this suggests that nonclimatic factors, such as the biotic interaction between Y. brevifolia and its pollinators, are responsible for evolutionary divergence in this system. ?? New Phytologist (2009).

  20. Z chromosome divergence, polymorphism and relative effective population size in a genus of lekking birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Cornman, Robert S.; Kenneth L. Jones,; Fike, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes contribute disproportionately to species boundaries as they diverge faster than autosomes and often have reduced diversity. Their hemizygous nature contributes to faster divergence and reduced diversity, as do some types of selection. In birds, other factors (mating system and bottlenecks) can further decrease the effective population size of Z-linked loci and accelerate divergence (Fast-Z). We assessed Z-linked divergence and effective population sizes for two polygynous sage-grouse species and compared them to estimates from birds with various mating systems. We found lower diversity and higher FST for Z-linked loci than for autosomes, as expected. The πZ/πA ratio was 0.38 in Centrocercus minimus, 0.48 in Centrocercus urophasianus and 0.59 in a diverged, parapatric population of C. urophasianus, a broad range given the mating system among these groups is presumably equivalent. The full data set had unequal males and females across groups, so we compared an equally balanced reduced set of C. minimus and individuals pooled from both C. urophasianus subgroups recovering similar estimates: 0.54 for C. urophasianus and 0.38 for C. minimus. We provide further evidence that NeZ/NeA in birds is often lower than expected under random mating or monogamy. The lower ratio in C. minimus could be a consequence of stronger selection or drift acting on Z loci during speciation, as this species differs strongly from C. urophasianus in sexually selected characters with minimal mitochondrial divergence. As C. minimus also exhibited lower genomic diversity, it is possible that a more severe demographic history may contribute to its lower ratio.