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Sample records for block movement proteins

  1. The triple gene block movement proteins of a grape virus in the genus Foveavirus confer limited cell-to-cell spread of a mutant Potato virus X.

    PubMed

    Mann, Krinpreet; Meng, Baozhong

    2013-08-01

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a member of the genus Foveavirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. The genome of GRSPaV encodes five proteins, among which are three movement proteins designated the triple gene block (TGB) proteins. The TGB proteins of GRSPaV are highly similar to their counterparts in Potato virus X (PVX), as reflected in size, modular structure, conservation of critical amino acid sequence motifs, as well as similar cellular localization. Based on these similarities, we predicted that the TGB proteins of these two viruses would be interchangeable. To test this hypothesis, we replaced the entire or partial sequence of PVX TGB with the corresponding regions from GRSPaV, creating chimeric viruses that contain the PVX backbone and different sequences from GRSPaV TGB. These chimeric constructs were delivered into plants of Nicotiana benthamiana through agro-infiltration to test whether they were capable of cell-to-cell and systemic movement. To our surprise, viruses derived from pPVX.GFP(CH3) bearing GRSPaV TGB in place of PVX TGB lost the ability to move either cell-to-cell or systemically. Interestingly, another chimeric virus resulting from pPVX.GFP(HY2) containing four TGB genes (TGB1 from PVX and TGB1-3 from GRSPaV), exhibited limited cell-to-cell, but not systemic, movement. Our data question the notion that analogous movement proteins encoded by even distantly related viruses are functionally interchangeable and can be replaced by each other. These data suggest that other factors, besides the TGB proteins, may be required for successful intercellular and/or systemic movement of progeny viruses. This is the first experimental demonstration that the GRSPaV TGB function as movement proteins in the context of a chimeric virus and that four TGB genes were required to support the intercellular movement of the chimeric virus.

  2. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  3. A novel block of plant virus movement genes.

    PubMed

    Lazareva, Ekaterina A; Lezzhov, Alexander A; Komarova, Tatiana V; Morozov, Sergey Y; Heinlein, Manfred; Solovyev, Andrey G

    2016-04-26

    Hibiscus green spot virus (HGSV) is a recently discovered and so far poorly characterized bacilliform plant virus with a positive-stranded RNA genome consisting of three RNA species. Here, we demonstrate that the proteins encoded by the ORF2 and ORF3 in HGSV RNA2 are necessary and sufficient to mediate cell-to-cell movement of transport-deficient Potato virus X in Nicotiana benthamiana. These two genes represent a specialized transport module called a 'binary movement block' (BMB), and ORF2 and ORF3 are termed BMB1 and BMB2 genes. In agroinfiltrated epidermal cells of N. benthamiana, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-BMB1 fusion protein was distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. However, in the presence of BMB2, GFP-BMB1 was directed to cell wall-adjacent elongated bodies at the cell periphery, to cell wall-embedded punctate structures co-localizing with callose deposits at plasmodesmata, and to cells adjacent to the initially transformed cell. Thus, BMB2 can mediate the transport of BMB1 to and through plasmodesmata. In general, our observations support the idea that cell-to-cell trafficking of movement proteins involves an initial delivery to membrane compartments adjacent to plasmodesmata, subsequent entry of the plasmodesmata cavity and, finally, transport to adjacent cells. This process, as an alternative to tubule-based transport, has most likely evolved independently in triple gene block (TGB), double gene block (DGB), BMB and the single gene-coded transport system.

  4. Importin-α-Mediated Nucleolar Localization of Potato Mop-Top Virus TRIPLE GENE BLOCK1 (TGB1) Protein Facilitates Virus Systemic Movement, Whereas TGB1 Self-Interaction Is Required for Cell-to-Cell Movement in Nicotiana benthamiana1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lukhovitskaya, Nina I.; Cowan, Graham H.; Vetukuri, Ramesh R.; Tilsner, Jens; Torrance, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has become evident that nucleolar passage of movement proteins occurs commonly in a number of plant RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. Systemic movement of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) involves two viral transport forms represented by a complex of viral RNA and TRIPLE GENE BLOCK1 (TGB1) movement protein and by polar virions that contain the minor coat protein and TGB1 attached to one extremity. The integrity of polar virions ensures the efficient movement of RNA-CP, which encodes the virus coat protein. Here, we report the involvement of nuclear transport receptors belonging to the importin-α family in nucleolar accumulation of the PMTV TGB1 protein and, subsequently, in the systemic movement of the virus. Virus-induced gene silencing of two importin-α paralogs in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in significant reduction of TGB1 accumulation in the nucleus, decreasing the accumulation of the virus progeny in upper leaves and the loss of systemic movement of RNA-CP. PMTV TGB1 interacted with importin-α in N. benthamiana, which was detected by bimolecular fluorescence complementation in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus. The interaction was mediated by two nucleolar localization signals identified by bioinformatics and mutagenesis in the TGB1 amino-terminal domain. Our results showed that while TGB1 self-interaction is needed for cell-to-cell movement, importin-α-mediated nucleolar targeting of TGB1 is an essential step in establishing the efficient systemic infection of the entire plant. These results enabled the identification of two separate domains in TGB1: an internal domain required for TGB1 self-interaction and cell-to-cell movement and the amino-terminal domain required for importin-α interaction in plants, nucleolar targeting, and long-distance movement. PMID:25576325

  5. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation. PMID:25482764

  6. Deficiency of the eIF4E isoform nCBP limits the cell-to-cell movement of a plant virus encoding triple-gene-block proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Keima, Takuya; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Neriya, Yutaro; Koinuma, Hiroaki; Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Nishida, Shuko; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2017-01-01

    One of the important antiviral genetic strategies used in crop breeding is recessive resistance. Two eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E family genes, eIF4E and eIFiso4E, are the most common recessive resistance genes whose absence inhibits infection by plant viruses in Potyviridae, Carmovirus, and Cucumovirus. Here, we show that another eIF4E family gene, nCBP, acts as a novel recessive resistance gene in Arabidopsis thaliana toward plant viruses in Alpha- and Betaflexiviridae. We found that infection by Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), a potexvirus, was delayed in ncbp mutants of A. thaliana. Virus replication efficiency did not differ between an ncbp mutant and a wild type plant in single cells, but viral cell-to-cell movement was significantly delayed in the ncbp mutant. Furthermore, the accumulation of triple-gene-block protein 2 (TGB2) and TGB3, the movement proteins of potexviruses, decreased in the ncbp mutant. Inoculation experiments with several viruses showed that the accumulation of viruses encoding TGBs in their genomes decreased in the ncbp mutant. These results indicate that nCBP is a novel member of the eIF4E family recessive resistance genes whose loss impairs viral cell-to-cell movement by inhibiting the efficient accumulation of TGB2 and TGB3. PMID:28059075

  7. A short survey on protein blocks

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Agarwal, Garima; Mahajan, Swapnil; Gelly, Jean-Christophe; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S.; Offmann, Bernard; Cadet, Frédéric; Bornot, Aurélie; Tyagi, Manoj; Valadié, Hélène; Schneider, Bohdan; Etchebest, Catherine; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; De Brevern, Alexandre G.

    2010-01-01

    Protein structures are classically described in terms of secondary structures. Even if the regular secondary structures have relevant physical meaning, their recognition from atomic coordinates has some important limitations such as uncertainties in the assignment of boundaries of helical and β-strand regions. Further, on an average about 50% of all residues are assigned to an irregular state, i.e., the coil. Thus different research teams have focused on abstracting conformation of protein backbone in the localized short stretches. Using different geometric measures, local stretches in protein structures are clustered in a chosen number of states. A prototype representative of the local structures in each cluster is generally defined. These libraries of local structures prototypes are named as “structural alphabets”. We have developed a structural alphabet, named Protein Blocks, not only to approximate the protein structure, but also to predict them from sequence. Since its development, we and other teams have explored numerous new research fields using this structural alphabet. We review here some of the most interesting applications. PMID:21731588

  8. A dynamical basis for crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1983-01-01

    The stress field in the earth's crust as inferred from satellite gravity data causes crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe. The satellite-determined stresses in the crust of central Europe are consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms, joint-orientation and in situ stress measurements.

  9. Myosin inhibitors block accumulation movement of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells.

    PubMed

    Paves, H; Truve, E

    2007-01-01

    Chloroplasts alter their distribution within plant cells depending on the external light conditions. Myosin inhibitors 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), and 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine hydrochloride (ML-7) were used to study the possible role of myosins in chloroplast photorelocation in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll cells. None of these agents had an effect on the chloroplast high-fluence-rate avoidance movement but all of the three myosin inhibitors blocked the accumulation movement of chloroplasts after a high-fluence-rate irradiation of the leaves. The results suggest that myosins have a role in A. thaliana chloroplast photorelocation.

  10. Classification of domain movements in proteins using dynamic contact graphs.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Daniel; Cawley, Gavin; Hayward, Steven

    2013-01-01

    A new method for the classification of domain movements in proteins is described and applied to 1822 pairs of structures from the Protein Data Bank that represent a domain movement in two-domain proteins. The method is based on changes in contacts between residues from the two domains in moving from one conformation to the other. We argue that there are five types of elemental contact changes and that these relate to five model domain movements called: "free", "open-closed", "anchored", "sliding-twist", and "see-saw." A directed graph is introduced called the "Dynamic Contact Graph" which represents the contact changes in a domain movement. In many cases a graph, or part of a graph, provides a clear visual metaphor for the movement it represents and is a motif that can be easily recognised. The Dynamic Contact Graphs are often comprised of disconnected subgraphs indicating independent regions which may play different roles in the domain movement. The Dynamic Contact Graph for each domain movement is decomposed into elemental Dynamic Contact Graphs, those that represent elemental contact changes, allowing us to count the number of instances of each type of elemental contact change in the domain movement. This naturally leads to sixteen classes into which the 1822 domain movements are classified.

  11. Responsive block copolymer photonics triggered by protein-polyelectrolyte coacervation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yin; Tang, Shengchang; Thomas, Edwin L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2014-11-25

    Ionic interactions between proteins and polyelectrolytes are demonstrated as a method to trigger responsive transitions in block copolymer (BCP) photonic gels containing one neutral hydrophobic block and one cationic hydrophilic block. Poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) blocks in lamellar poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) block copolymer thin films are quaternized with primary bromides to yield swollen gels that show strong reflectivity peaks in the visible range; exposure to aqueous solutions of various proteins alters the swelling ratios of the quaternized P2VP (QP2VP) gel layers in the PS-QP2VP materials due to the ionic interactions between proteins and the polyelectrolyte. Parameters such as charge density, hydrophobicity, and cross-link density of the QP2VP gel layers as well as the charge and size of the proteins play significant roles on the photonic responses of the BCP gels. Differences in the size and pH-dependent charge of proteins provide a basis for fingerprinting proteins based on their temporal and equilibrium photonic response. The results demonstrate that the BCP gels and their photonic effect provide a robust and visually interpretable method to differentiate different proteins.

  12. Novel protein-protein interaction family proteins involved in chloroplast movement response.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yutaka; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu

    2011-04-01

    To optimize photosynthetic activity, chloroplasts change their intracellular location in response to ambient light conditions; chloroplasts move toward low intensity light to maximize light capture, and away from high intensity light to avoid photodamage. Although several proteins have been reported to be involved in the chloroplast photorelocation movement response, any physical interaction among them was not found so far. We recently found a physical interaction between two plant-specific coiled-coil proteins, WEB1 (Weak Chloroplast Movement under Blue Light 1) and PMI2 (Plastid Movement Impaired 2), that were identified to regulate chloroplast movement velocity. Since the both coiled-coil regions of WEB1 and PMI2 were classified into an uncharacterized protein family having DUF827 (DUF: Domain of Unknown Function) domain, it was the first report that DUF827 proteins could mediate protein-protein interaction. In this mini-review article, we discuss regarding molecular function of WEB1 and PMI2, and also define a novel protein family composed of WEB1, PMI2 and WEB1/PMI2-like proteins for protein-protein interaction in land plants.

  13. Vagally induced block and delayed conduction as a mechanism for circus movement tachycardia in frog atria.

    PubMed

    Rosenshtraukh, L V; Zaitsev, A V; Fast, V G; Pertsov, A M; Krinsky, V I

    1989-02-01

    Episodes of tachycardia induced by strong vagal stimulation in spontaneously beating isolated atria of frog (Rana temporaria) were studied with multielectrode mapping technique. These episodes were inducible in 19 of 39 preparations. The arrhythmia started several seconds after cessation of vagal stimulation strong enough to cause sinus arrest, without electrical stimulation of the myocardium. The arrhythmia consisted of two to 20 beats (6 +/- 4, mean +/- SD, n = 42) with a cycle length of 100-500 msec. Recording from 32 sites with spatial resolution of 1-2 mm showed that the arrhythmia was due to intra-atrial circus movement. The estimated perimeter of the reentrant circuit ranged from 6 to 20 mm. In circuits of the minimal size, the average conduction velocity along the circuit was as low as 2-3 cm/sec. Paroxysms of the tachycardia were always preceded by vagally induced nonuniform depression of conduction, with some areas of atria being completely blocked. As the vagal influence decreased, the blocked areas recovered in an inhomogeneous manner, their unblocking being significantly (p less than 0.05) delayed after inhibition of tissue cholinesterase by proserine. The reentrant tachycardia was initiated when a sinus impulse arrived during certain phase of the unblocking. Unlike the well-known mechanism of reentrant excitation, which is based on inhomogeneous refractoriness and critically timed extrabeat(s), the circus movement in our model depended on vagally induced conduction block and could be launched by a single sinus impulse.

  14. Principles of nanostructure design with protein building blocks.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Zheng, Jie; Zanuy, David; Haspel, Nurit; Wolfson, Haim; Alemán, Carlos; Nussinov, Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Currently there is increasing interest in nanostructures and their design. Nanostructure design involves the ability to predictably manipulate the properties of the self-assembly of autonomous units. Autonomous units have preferred conformational states. The units can be synthetic material science-based or derived from functional biological macromolecules. Autonomous biological building blocks with available structures provide an extremely rich and useful resource for design. For proteins, the structural databases contain large libraries of protein molecules and their building blocks with a range of shapes, surfaces, and chemical properties. The introduction of engineered synthetic residues or short peptides into these can expand the available chemical space and enhance the desired properties. Here we focus on the principles of nanostructure design with protein building blocks.

  15. Nanopatterning of recombinant proteins and viruses using block copolymer templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresce, Arthur Von Wald

    The study of interfaces is important in understanding biological interactions, including cellular signaling and virus infection. This thesis is an original effort to examine the interaction between a block copolymer and both a protein and a virus. Block copolymers intrinsically form nanometer-scale structures over large areas without expensive processing, making them ideal for the synthesis of the nanopatterned surfaces used in this study. The geometry of these nanostructures can be easily tuned for different applications by altering the block ratio and composition of the block copolymer. Block copolymers can be used for controlled uptake of metal ions, where one block selectively binds metal ions while the other does not. 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid is synthesized through ring-opening metathesis polymerization. It formed spherical domains with spheres approximately 30 nm in diameter, and these spheres were then subsequently loaded with nickel ion. This norbornene block copolymer was tested for its ability to bind histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (hisGFP), and it was found that the nickel-loaded copolymer was able to retain hisGFP through chelation between the histidine tag and the metal-containing portions of the copolymer surface. Poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS/P4VP) was also loaded with nickel, forming a cylindrical microstructure. The binding of Tobacco mosaic virus and Tobacco necrosis virus was tested through Tween 20 detergent washes. Electron microscopy allowed for observation of both block copolymer nanostructures and virus particles. Results showed that Tween washes could not remove bound Tobacco mosaic virus from the surface of PS/P4VP. It was also seen that the size and tunability of block copolymers and the lack of processing needed to attain different structures makes them attractive for many applications, including microfluidic devices, surfaces to influence cellular signaling and growth, and as a nanopatterning surface for

  16. Multi-block poloxamer surfactants suppress aggregation of denatured proteins.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, Devkumar; Smith, Catherine M; Makinen, Marvin W; Lee, Raphael C

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of elastic light scattering, we have compared the capacity of the multi-block, surfactant copolymers Poloxamer 108 (P108), Poloxamer 188 (P188), and Tetronic 1107 (T1107), of average molecular weight 4700, 8400, and 15,000, respectively, with that of polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 8000) to suppress aggregation of heat-denatured hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). We also compared the capacity of P188 to that of PEG to suppress aggregation of carboxypeptidase A denatured in the presence of trifluoroethanol and to facilitate recovery of catalytic activity. In contrast to the multi-block copolymers, PEG had no effect in inhibiting aggregation of HEWL or of carboxypeptidase A with the recovery of catalytic activity. At very high polymer:protein ratios (>or=10:1), PEG increased aggregation of heat-denatured HEWL and BSA, consistent with its known properties to promote macromolecular crowding and crystallization of proteins. At a polymer:protein ratio of 2:1, the tetra-block copolymer T1107 was the most effective of the three surfactant copolymers, completely suppressing aggregation of heat-denatured HEWL. At a T1107:BSA ratio of 10:1, the poloxamer suppressed aggregation of heat-denatured BSA by 50% compared to that observed in the absence of the polymer. We showed that the extent of suppression of aggregation of heat-denatured proteins by multi-block surfactant copolymers is dependent on the size of the protein and the copolymer:protein molar ratio. We also concluded that at least one of the tertiary nitrogens in the ethylene-1,2-diamine structural core of the T1107 copolymer is protonated, and that this electrostatic factor underlies its capacity to suppress aggregation of denatured proteins more effectively than nonionic, multi-block poloxamers. These results indicate that amphiphilic, surfactant, multi-block copolymers are efficient as additives to suppress aggregation and to facilitate refolding of denatured

  17. A block to pre-prepared movement in gait freezing, relieved by pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation.

    PubMed

    Thevathasan, Wesley; Pogosyan, Alek; Hyam, Jonathan A; Jenkinson, Ned; Bogdanovic, Marko; Coyne, Terry J; Silburn, Peter A; Aziz, Tipu Z; Brown, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Gait freezing and postural instability are disabling features of Parkinsonian disorders, treatable with pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. Both features are considered deficits of proximal and axial musculature, innervated predominantly by reticulospinal pathways and tend to manifest when gait and posture require adjustment. Adjustments to gait and posture are amenable to pre-preparation and rapid triggered release. Experimentally, such accelerated release can be elicited by loud auditory stimuli--a phenomenon known as 'StartReact'. We observed StartReact in healthy and Parkinsonian controls. However, StartReact was absent in Parkinsonian patients with severe gait freezing and postural instability. Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation restored StartReact proximally and proximal reaction times to loud stimuli correlated with gait and postural disturbance. These findings suggest a relative block to triggered, pre-prepared movement in gait freezing and postural instability, relieved by pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation.

  18. Observations of water movement in a block of fractured welded Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Thamir, F.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Hampson, D.; Anderton, S.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory water infiltration experiment through a block of fractured, moderately welded volcanic tuff was conducted at different boundary pressures. The block measured 47.5 cm long {times} 54.3 cm wide {times} 80.6 cm high. The purpose of the experiment was: (a) to test an instrumentation scheme for a field test, and (b) to make flow measurements through a fractured network at different boundary pressures to understand mechanisms that affect fracture flow. The upper boundary water pressure was decreased in steps; each step lasted several weeks where the pressure was kept steady. Water inflow and outflow rates were measured for each boundary condition. Entrapped air was found to impede water movement. The gas phase in the fracture network was found to not be continuous; its pressure within the network was not known. The matric potential values could not be measured with tensiometers alone since a known gas pressure is required. Long-term input and output flow rates were equal. Outflow rate did not stabilize during the test period; it continued to decrease, even when the upper boundary water pressure was kept steady. No relation between boundary pressure and flow rate was established. Bacteria, which was found in the outflow, possibly caused variations in the behavior. Trapped air caused the outflow to periodically decrease or stop; however, outflow rates following the interruptions did not change long-term flow trends.

  19. The systemic movement of a tobamovirus is inhibited by a cadmium-ion-induced glycine-rich protein.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Shoko; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2002-07-01

    Systemic movement is central to plant viral infection. Exposure of tobacco plants to low levels of cadmium ions blocks the systemic spread of turnip vein-clearing tobamovirus (TVCV). We identified a tobacco glycine-rich protein, cdiGRP, specifically induced by low concentrations of cadmium and expressed in the cell walls of plant vascular tissues. Constitutive cdiGRP expression inhibited systemic transport of TVCV, whereas suppression of cdiGRP production allowed TVCV movement in the presence of cadmium. cdiGRP exerted its inhibitory effect on TVCV transport by enhancing callose deposits in the vasculature. So cdiGRP may function to control plant viral systemic movement.

  20. Compatibility of the movement protein and the coat protein of cucumoviruses is required for cell-to-cell movement.

    PubMed

    Salánki, Katalin; Gellért, Akos; Huppert, Emese; Náray-Szabó, Gábor; Balázs, Ervin

    2004-04-01

    For the cell-to-cell movement of cucumoviruses both the movement protein (MP) and the coat protein (CP) are required. These are not reversibly exchangeable between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Tomato aspermy virus (TAV). The MP of CMV is able to function with the TAV CP (chimera RT), but TAV MP is unable to promote the cell-to-cell movement in the presence of CMV CP (chimera TR). To gain further insight into the non-infectious nature of the TR recombinant, RNA 3 chimeras were constructed with recombinant MPs and CPs. The chimeric MP and one of the CP recombinants were infectious. The other recombinant CP enabled virus movement only after the introduction of two point mutations (Glu-->Lys and Lys-->Arg at aa 62 and 65, respectively). The mutations served to correct the CP surface electrostatic potential that was altered by the recombination. The infectivity of the TR virus on different test plants was restored by replacing the sequence encoding the C-terminal 29 aa of the MP with the corresponding sequence of the CMV MP gene or by exchanging the sequence encoding the C-terminal 15 aa of the CP with the same region of TAV. The analysis of the recombinant clones suggests a requirement for compatibility between the C-terminal 29 aa of the MP and the C-terminal two-thirds of the CP for cell-to-cell movement of cucumoviruses.

  1. Protein Conjugation with Amphiphilic Block Copolymers for Enhanced Cellular Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xiang; Batrakova, Elena; Banks, William A.; Vinogradov, Serguei; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2008-01-01

    Modification of a model protein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), with amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic), was previously shown to enhance the transport of this protein across the blood—brain barrier in vivo and brain microvessel endothelial cells in vitro. This work develops procedures for synthesis and characterization of HRP with Pluronic copolymers, having different lengths of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) blocks. Four monoamine Pluronic derivatives (L81, P85, L121, P123) were synthesized and successfully conjugated to a model protein, HRP, via biodegradable or nondegradable linkers (dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (DSP), dimethyl 3,3′-dithiobispropionimidate (DTBP), and disuccinimidyl propionate (DSS)). The conjugation was confirmed by HRP amino group titration, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight spectroscopy, and cation-exchange chromatography. HRP conjugates containing an average of one to two Pluronic moieties and retaining in most cases over 70% of the activity were synthesized. Increased cellular uptake of these conjugates was demonstrated using the Mardin-Derby canine kidney cell line and primary bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells. The optimal modifications included Pluronic L81 and P85. These copolymers have shorter PPO chains compared to Pluronic P123 and L121, which were less efficient. There was little if any dependence of the uptake on the length of the hydrophilic PEO block for the optimal modifications. The proposed modifications may be used to increase cellular uptake of other proteins. PMID:18447367

  2. Turnip vein clearing virus movement protein nuclear activity: Do Tobamovirus movement proteins play a role in immune response suppression?

    PubMed

    Levy, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses' cell-to-cell movement requires the function of virally encoded movement proteins (MPs). The Tobamovirus, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has served as the model virus to study the activities of single MPs. However, since TMV does not infect the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana I have used a related Tobamovirus, Turnip vein-clearing virus (TVCV). I recently showed that, despite belonging to the same genus, the behavior of the 2 viruses MPs differ significantly during infection. Most notably, MP(TVCV), but not MP(TMV), targets the nucleus and induces the formation of F actin-containing filaments that associate with chromatin. Mutational analyses showed that nuclear localization of MP(TVCV) was necessary for TVCV local and systemic infection in both Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis. In this addendum, I propose possible targets for the MP(TVCV) nuclear activity, and suggest viewing MPs as viral effector-like proteins, playing a role in the inhibition of plant defense.

  3. The nucleocapsid protein of measles virus blocks host interferon response

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, Ikuyo; Sato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Akira; Omi-Furutani, Mio; Sugai, Akihiro; Kanki, Keita; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2012-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. A number of paramyxoviruses inhibit host interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in host immune systems by various mechanisms. Inhibition mechanisms have been described for many paramyxoviruses. Although there are inconsistencies among previous reports concerning MV, it appears that P/V/C proteins interfere with the pathways. In this study, we confirmed the effects of MV P gene products of a wild MV strain on IFN pathways and examined that of other viral proteins on it. Interestingly, we found that N protein acts as an IFN-{alpha}/{beta} and {gamma}-antagonist as strong as P gene products. We further investigated the mechanisms of MV-N inhibition, and revealed that MV-N blocks the nuclear import of activated STAT without preventing STAT and Jak activation or STAT degradation, and that the nuclear translocation of MV-N is important for the inhibition. The inhibitory effect of the N protein was observed as a common feature of other morbilliviruses. The results presented in this report suggest that N protein of MV as well as P/V/C proteins is involved in the inhibition of host IFN signaling pathways.

  4. Fluctuation analysis of motor protein movement and single enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, K; Mitra, P P; Block, S M

    1994-01-01

    We studied fluctuations in the displacement of silica beads driven by single molecules of the motor protein kinesin, moving under low mechanical loads at saturating ATP concentrations. The variance in position was significantly smaller than expected for the case of stepwise movement along a regular lattice of positions with exponentially distributed intervals. The small variance suggests that two or more sequential processes with comparable reaction rates dominate the biochemical cycle. The low value is inconsistent with certain recently proposed thermal ratchet models for motor movement as well as with scenarios where the hydrolysis of a single ATP molecule leads to a cluster of several steps. Fluctuation analysis is a potential powerful tool for studying kinetic behavior whenever the output of a single enzyme can be monitored. PMID:7991536

  5. Subcellular distribution of mutant movement proteins of Cucumber mosaic virus fused to green fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Canto, Tomas; Palukaitis, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The subcellular distribution of the movement proteins (MPs) of nine alanine-scanning mutants of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expressed from CMV, was determined by confocal microscopy of infected epidermal cells of Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana benthamiana, as well as infected N. benthamiana protoplasts. Only those mutant MPs that were functional for movement in all host species tested localized to plasmodesmata of infected epidermal cells and to tubules extending from the surface of infected protoplasts, as for wild-type CMV 3a MP. Various mutant MPs that were either conditionally functional for movement or dysfunctional for movement did not localize to plasmodesmata and did not form tubules on the surface of infected protoplasts. Rather, they showed distribution to different extents throughout the infected cells, including the cytoplasm, nucleus or the plasma membrane. The CMV 3a MP also did not associate with microtubules.

  6. Experimental and bioinformatic evidence that raspberry leaf blotch emaravirus P4 is a movement protein of the 30K superfamily.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chulang; Karlin, David G; Lu, Yuwen; Wright, Kathryn; Chen, Jianping; MacFarlane, Stuart

    2013-09-01

    Emaravirus is a recently described genus of negative-strand RNA plant viruses. Emaravirus P4 protein localizes to plasmodesmata, suggesting that it could be a viral movement protein (MP). In the current study, we showed that the P4 protein of raspberry leaf blotch emaravirus (RLBV) rescued the cell-to-cell movement of a defective potato virus X (PVX) that had a deletion mutation in the triple gene block 1 movement-associated protein. This demonstrated that RLBV P4 is a functional MP. Sequence analyses revealed that P4 is a distant member of the 30K superfamily of MPs. All MPs of this family contain two highly conserved regions predicted to form β-strands, namely β1 and β2. We explored by alanine mutagenesis the role of two residues of P4 (Ile106 and Asp127) located in each of these strands. We also made the equivalent substitutions in the 29K MP of tobacco rattle virus, another member of the 30K superfamily. All substitutions abolished the ability to complement PVX movement, except for the I106A substitution in the β1 region of P4. This region has been shown to mediate membrane association of 30K MPs; our results show that it is possible to make non-conservative substitutions of a well-conserved aliphatic residue within β1 without preventing the membrane association or movement function of P4.

  7. A plant virus movement protein regulates the Gcn2p kinase in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Frederic; Aparicio-Sanchis, Rafael; Gadea, José; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús Ángel; Pallás, Vicente; Murguía, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Virus life cycle heavily depends on their ability to command the host machinery in order to translate their genomes. Animal viruses have been shown to interfere with host translation machinery by expressing viral proteins that either maintain or inhibit eIF2α function by phosphorylation. However, this interference mechanism has not been described for any plant virus yet. Prunnus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a serious pathogen of cultivated stone fruit trees. The movement protein (MP) of PNRSV is necessary for the cell-to-cell movement of the virus. By using a yeast-based approach we have found that over-expression of the PNRSV MP caused a severe growth defect in yeast cells. cDNA microarrays analysis carried out to characterise at the molecular level the growth interference phenotype reported the induction of genes related to amino acid deprivation suggesting that expression of MP activates the GCN pathway in yeast cells. Accordingly, PNRSV MP triggered activation of the Gcn2p kinase, as judged by increased eIF2α phosphorylation. Activation of Gcn2p by MP expression required a functional Tor1p kinase, since rapamycin treatment alleviated the yeast cell growth defect and blocked eIF2α phosphorylation triggered by MP expression. Overall, these findings uncover a previously uncharacterised function for PNRSV MP viral protein, and point out at Tor1p and Gcn2p kinases as candidate susceptibility factors for plant viral infections.

  8. Protein Crystal Movements and Fluid Flows During Microgravity Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggon, Titus J.; Chayen, Naomi E.; Snell, Edward H.; Dong, Jun; Lautenschlager, Peter; Potthast, Lothar; Siddons, D. Peter; Stojanoff, Vivian; Gordon, Elspeth; Thompson, Andrew W.; Zagalsky, Peter F.; Bi, Ru-Chang; Helliwell, John R.

    1998-01-01

    The growth of protein crystals suitable for x-ray crystal structure analysis is an important topic. The quality (perfection) of protein crystals is now being evaluated by mosaicity analysis (rocking curves) and x-ray topographic images as well as the diffraction resolution limit and overall data quality. In yet another study, use of hanging drop vapour diffusion geometry on the IML-2 shuttle mission showed, again via CCD video monitoring, growing apocrustacyanin C(sub 1) protein crystal executing near cyclic movement, reminiscent of Marangoni convection flow of fluid, the crystals serving as "markers" of the fluid flow. A review is given here of existing results and experience over several microgravity missions. Some comment is given on gel protein crystal growth in attempts to 'mimic' the benefits of microgravity on Earth. Finally, the recent new results from our experiments on the shuttle mission LMS are described. These results include CCD video as well as interferometry during the mission, followed, on return to Earth, by reciprocal space mapping at the NSLS, Brookhaven, and full X-ray data collection on LMS and Earth control lysozyme crystals. Diffraction data recorded from LMS and ground control apocrustacyanin C(sub 1) crystals are also described.

  9. Assessing the Utility of Photoswitchable Fluorescent Proteins for Tracking Intercellular Protein Movement in the Arabidopsis Root

    PubMed Central

    MacRae-Crerar, Aurora; Gallagher, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    One way in which cells communicate is through the direct transfer of proteins. In plants, many of these proteins are transcription factors, which are made by one cell type and traffic into another. In order to understand how this movement occurs and its role in development, we would like to track this movement in live, intact plants in real-time. Here we examine the utility of the photoconvertible proteins, Dendra2 and (to a lesser extent) EosFP as tags for studying intracellular and intercellular protein movement in the Arabidopsis root. To this end, we made fusions between Dendra2 and six mobile transcription factors. Our results show that Dendra2 is an effective tool for studying protein movement between plant cells. Interestingly, we found that Dendra2 could not simply be swapped into existing constructs that had originally contained GFP. Most of the fusions made in this way failed to produce a fluorescent fusion. In addition we found that the optimal settings for photoconversion of Dendra2 in stably transformed roots were different from what has been published for photoconversion in transient assays in plants or in animal cells. By modifying the confocal setting, we were able to photoconvert Dendra2 in all cell layers in the root. However the efficiency of photoconversion was affected by the position of the cell layer within the root, with more internal tissues requiring more energy. By examining the Dendra2 fusions, we confirmed the mobility of the SHORT-ROOT (SHR) and CAPRICE (CPC) transcription factors between cells and we further discovered that SHR movement in stele and CPC movement in the epidermis are non-directional. PMID:22132108

  10. A family of plasmodesmal proteins with receptor-like properties for plant viral movement proteins.

    PubMed

    Amari, Khalid; Boutant, Emmanuel; Hofmann, Christina; Schmitt-Keichinger, Corinne; Fernandez-Calvino, Lourdes; Didier, Pascal; Lerich, Alexander; Mutterer, Jérome; Thomas, Carole L; Heinlein, Manfred; Mély, Yves; Maule, Andrew J; Ritzenthaler, Christophe

    2010-09-23

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are essential but poorly understood structures in plant cell walls that provide symplastic continuity and intercellular communication pathways between adjacent cells and thus play fundamental roles in development and pathogenesis. Viruses encode movement proteins (MPs) that modify these tightly regulated pores to facilitate their spread from cell to cell. The most striking of these modifications is observed for groups of viruses whose MPs form tubules that assemble in PDs and through which virions are transported to neighbouring cells. The nature of the molecular interactions between viral MPs and PD components and their role in viral movement has remained essentially unknown. Here, we show that the family of PD-located proteins (PDLPs) promotes the movement of viruses that use tubule-guided movement by interacting redundantly with tubule-forming MPs within PDs. Genetic disruption of this interaction leads to reduced tubule formation, delayed infection and attenuated symptoms. Our results implicate PDLPs as PD proteins with receptor-like properties involved the assembly of viral MPs into tubules to promote viral movement.

  11. 21 CFR 520.2380a - Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... protein block feeding for 3 days. Milk taken from animals during treatment and within 96 hours (8 milkings... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein... § 520.2380a Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block. (a) Chemical name....

  12. 21 CFR 520.2380a - Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protein block feeding for 3 days. Milk taken from animals during treatment and within 96 hours (8 milkings... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein... § 520.2380a Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block. (a) Chemical name....

  13. 21 CFR 520.2380a - Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... protein block feeding for 3 days. Milk taken from animals during treatment and within 96 hours (8 milkings... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein... § 520.2380a Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block. (a) Chemical name....

  14. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Lynda S.

    This document summarizes 20 articles and books which stress the importance of movement in the overall development of the human species. Each summary ranges in length from 100 to 200 words and often includes direct quotations. A wide range of movement activities suitable for people of all ages (from infants to adults) are discussed. Many summaries…

  15. A protein block based fold recognition method for the annotation of twilight zone sequences.

    PubMed

    Suresh, V; Ganesan, K; Parthasarathy, S

    2013-03-01

    The description of protein backbone was recently improved with a group of structural fragments called Structural Alphabets instead of the regular three states (Helix, Sheet and Coil) secondary structure description. Protein Blocks is one of the Structural Alphabets used to describe each and every region of protein backbone including the coil. According to de Brevern (2000) the Protein Blocks has 16 structural fragments and each one has 5 residues in length. Protein Blocks fragments are highly informative among the available Structural Alphabets and it has been used for many applications. Here, we present a protein fold recognition method based on Protein Blocks for the annotation of twilight zone sequences. In our method, we align the predicted Protein Blocks of a query amino acid sequence with a library of assigned Protein Blocks of 953 known folds using the local pair-wise alignment. The alignment results with z-value ≥ 2.5 and P-value ≤ 0.08 are predicted as possible folds. Our method is able to recognize the possible folds for nearly 35.5% of the twilight zone sequences with their predicted Protein Block sequence obtained by pb_prediction, which is available at Protein Block Export server.

  16. Offline Optimization of the Relative Timing of Movements in a Sequence Is Blocked by Retroactive Behavioral Interference

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jason; Korman, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of motor skills often involves the concatenation of single movements into sequences. Along the course of learning, sequential performance becomes progressively faster and smoother, presumably by optimization of both motor planning and motor execution. Following its encoding during training, “how-to” memory undergoes consolidation, reflecting transformations in performance and its neurobiological underpinnings over time. This offline post-training memory process is characterized by two phenomena: reduced sensitivity to interference and the emergence of delayed, typically overnight, gains in performance. Here, using a training protocol that effectively induces motor sequence memory consolidation, we tested temporal and kinematic parameters of performance within (online) and between (offline) sessions, and their sensitivity to retroactive interference. One group learned a given finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS), and showed robust delayed (consolidation) gains in the number of correct sequences performed at 24 h. A second group learned an additional (interference) FOS shortly after the first and did not show delayed gains. Reduction of touch times and inter-movement intervals significantly contributed to the overall offline improvement of performance overnight. However, only the offline inter-movement interval shortening was selectively blocked by the interference experience. Velocity and amplitude, comprising movement time, also significantly changed across the consolidation period but were interference –insensitive. Moreover, they paradoxically canceled out each other. Current results suggest that shifts in the representation of the trained sequence are subserved by multiple processes: from distinct changes in kinematic characteristics of individual finger movements to high-level, temporal reorganization of the movements as a unit. Each of these processes has a distinct time course and a specific susceptibility to retroactive interference

  17. Cell-mediated immune response to unrelated proteins and unspecific inflammation blocked by orally tolerated proteins.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gustavo C; Rodrigues, Claudiney M; Azevedo, Geraldo M; Pinho, Vanessa; Carvalho, Cláudia R; Vaz, Nelson M

    2009-03-01

    Oral tolerance promotes a generalized decrease in specific immune responsiveness to proteins previously encountered via the oral route. In addition, parenteral immunization with a tolerated protein also triggers a significant reduction in the primary responsiveness to a second unrelated antigen. This is generally explained by 'innocent bystander suppression', suggesting that the transient and episodic effects of inhibitory cytokines released by contact with the tolerated antigen would block responses to the second antigen. In disagreement with this view, we have previously shown that: (i) these inhibitory effects do not require concomitance or contiguity of the injections of the two proteins; (ii) that intravenous or intragastric exposures to the tolerated antigen are not inhibitory; and (iii) that the inhibitory effect, once triggered, persists in the absence of further contact with the tolerated protein, possibly by inhibition of secondary responsiveness (immunological memory). The present work confirms that immunological memory of the second unrelated antigen is hindered by exposure to the tolerated antigen and, in addition, shows that this exposure: (i) inhibits the inflammation triggered by an unrelated antigen through the double effect of inhibiting production of leucocytes in the bone marrow and blocking their migration to inflammed sites; and (ii) significantly blocks footpaw swelling triggered by carrageenan. Taken together, these results conclusively demonstrate that inhibitory effects of parenteral injection of tolerated antigens are much more general than suggested by the 'innocent bystander suppression' hypothesis.

  18. Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on movement: movable art, relocating families, human rights, and trains and cars. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books, additional resources and activities (PEN)

  19. Bromovirus movement protein genes play a crucial role in host specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Mise, K; Allison, R F; Janda, M; Ahlquist, P

    1993-01-01

    Monocot-adapted brome mosaic virus (BMV) and dicot-adapted cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) are closely related bromoviruses with tripartite RNA genomes. Although RNAs 1 and 2 together are sufficient for RNA replication in protoplasts, systemic infection also requires RNA3, which encodes the coat protein and the nonstructural 3a movement protein. We have previously shown with bromoviral reassortants that host specificity determinants in both viruses are encoded by RNA3 as well as by RNA1 and/or RNA2. Here, to test their possible role in host specificity, the 3a movement protein genes were precisely exchanged between BMV and CCMV. The hybrid viruses, but not 3a deletion mutants, systemically infected Nicotiana benthamiana, a permissive host for both parental viruses. The hybrids thus retain basic competence for replication, packaging, cell-to-cell spread, and long-distance (vascular) spread. However, the hybrids failed to systemically infect either barley or cowpea, selective hosts for parental viruses. Thus, the 3a gene and/or its encoded 3a protein contributes to host specificity of both monocot- and dicot-adapted bromoviruses. Tests of inoculated cowpea leaves showed that the spread of the CCMV hybrid containing the BMV 3a gene was blocked at a very early stage of infection. Moreover, the BMV hybrid containing the CCMV 3a gene appeared to spread farther than wt BMV in inoculated cowpea leaves. Several pseudorevertants directing systemic infection in cowpea leaves were obtained from plants inoculated with the CCMV(BMV 3a) hybrid, suggesting that the number of mutations required to adapt the hybrid to dicots is small. Images PMID:7682628

  20. A Working Model of Protein Synthesis Using Lego(TM) Building Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Mark A.; Fetters, Marcia K.

    2002-01-01

    Uses Lego building blocks to improve the effectiveness of teaching about protein synthesis. Provides diagrams and pictures for a 2-3 day student activity. Discusses mRNA, transfer RNA, and a protein synthesis model. (MVL)

  1. Effects of brefeldin A on the localization of Tobamovirus movement protein and cell-to-cell movement of the virus.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Yuko; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2007-04-25

    It has been demonstrated that the subcellular location of Tobamovirus movement protein (MP) which was fused with green fluorescent protein (MP:GFP) changed during the infection process. However, the intracellular route through which MP is transported and its biological meaning are still obscure. Treatment with brefeldin A (BFA), which disrupts ER-to-Golgi transport, inhibited the formation of irregularly shaped and filamentous structures of MP. In this condition, MP was still targeted to plasmodesmata in leaf cells. Furthermore, the viral cell-to-cell movement was not inhibited by BFA treatment. These data indicated that the targeting of viral replication complexes (VRCs) to plasmodesmata is mediated by a BFA-insensitive pathway and that the ER-to-Golgi transport pathway is not involved in viral intercellular movement.

  2. Design and construction of self-assembling supramolecular protein complexes using artificial and fusion proteins as nanoscale building blocks.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Arai, Ryoichi

    2017-02-01

    The central goal of nanobiotechnology is to design and construct novel biomaterials of nanometer sizes. In this short review, we describe recent progress of several approaches for designing and creating artificial self-assembling protein complexes and primarily focus on the following biotechnological strategies for using artificial and fusion proteins as nanoscale building blocks: fusion proteins designed for symmetrical self-assembly; three-dimensional domain-swapped oligomers; self-assembling designed coiled-coil peptide modules; metal-directed self-assembling engineered proteins; computationally designed self-assembling de novo proteins; and self-assembling protein nanobuilding blocks (PN-Blocks) using an intermolecularly folded dimeric de novo protein. These state-of-the-art nanobiotechnologies for designing supramolecular protein complexes will facilitate the development of novel functional nanobiomaterials.

  3. Adaptivity via mesh movement with three-dimensional block-structured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Catherall, D.

    1996-12-31

    The method described here is one in which grid nodes are redistributed so that they are attracted towards regions of high solution activity. The major difficulty in attempting this arises from the degree of grid smoothness and orthogonality required by the flow solver. These requirements are met by suitable choice of grid equations, to be satisfied by the adapted grid, and by the inclusion of certain source terms, for added control in regions where grid movement is limited by the local geometry. The method has been coded for multiblock grids, so that complex configurations may be treated. It is demonstrated here for inviscid supercritical flow with two test cases: an ONERA M6 wing with a rounded tip, and a forward-swept wing/fuselage configuration (M151).

  4. Two kinesin-like proteins mediate actin-based chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Yamada, Noboru; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Yonekura, Hisashi; Uyeda, Taro Q P; Kadota, Akeo; Wada, Masamitsu

    2010-05-11

    Organelle movement is essential for efficient cellular function in eukaryotes. Chloroplast photorelocation movement is important for plant survival as well as for efficient photosynthesis. Chloroplast movement generally is actin dependent and mediated by blue light receptor phototropins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, phototropins mediate chloroplast movement by regulating short actin filaments on chloroplasts (cp-actin filaments), and the chloroplast outer envelope protein CHUP1 is necessary for cp-actin filament accumulation. However, other factors involved in cp-actin filament regulation during chloroplast movement remain to be determined. Here, we report that two kinesin-like proteins, KAC1 and KAC2, are essential for chloroplasts to move and anchor to the plasma membrane. A kac1 mutant showed severely impaired chloroplast accumulation and slow avoidance movement. A kac1kac2 double mutant completely lacked chloroplast photorelocation movement and showed detachment of chloroplasts from the plasma membrane. KAC motor domains are similar to those of the kinesin-14 subfamily (such as Ncd and Kar3) but do not have detectable microtubule-binding activity. The C-terminal domain of KAC1 could interact with F-actin in vitro. Instead of regulating microtubules, KAC proteins mediate chloroplast movement via cp-actin filaments. We conclude that plants have evolved a unique mechanism to regulate actin-based organelle movement using kinesin-like proteins.

  5. Effects of movement protein mutations on the formation of tubules in plant protoplasts expressing a fusion between the green fluorescent protein and Cauliflower mosaic virus movement protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Han, Y; Howell, S H

    2001-08-01

    Fusions between the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) movement protein (MP) induce the formation of fluorescent foci and surface tubules in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf mesophyll protoplasts. Tubules elongate coordinately and progressively in an assembly process approximately 6 to 12 h following transfection of protoplasts with GFP-MP constructs. Tubules are not formed in protoplasts transfected by GFP-MP(ER2A), a MP mutation that renders CaMV noninfectious. A small number of short tubules are formed on protoplasts transfected by GFP-MP(N6) and GFP-MP(N13), two second-site revertants of ER2A that partially restore infectivity. Protoplasts cotransfected with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-MP(WT) and GFP-MP(ER2A) form tubules containing both MP fusions, indicating that although the GFP-MP(ER2A) cannot induce tubule formation, GFP-MP(ER2A) can coassemble or colocalize with CFP-MP(WT) in tubules. Thus, CaMV MP-induced tubule formation in protoplasts correlates closely with the infectivity of mutation ER2A and its revertants, suggesting that tubule-forming capacity in plant protoplasts reflects a process required for virus infection or movement.

  6. QuaBingo: A Prediction System for Protein Quaternary Structure Attributes Using Block Composition

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Chi-Hua; Chen, Chi-Wei; Guo, Ren-Chao; Ng, Hui-Fuang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Quaternary structures of proteins are closely relevant to gene regulation, signal transduction, and many other biological functions of proteins. In the current study, a new method based on protein-conserved motif composition in block format for feature extraction is proposed, which is termed block composition. Results. The protein quaternary assembly states prediction system which combines blocks with functional domain composition, called QuaBingo, is constructed by three layers of classifiers that can categorize quaternary structural attributes of monomer, homooligomer, and heterooligomer. The building of the first layer classifier uses support vector machines (SVM) based on blocks and functional domains of proteins, and the second layer SVM was utilized to process the outputs of the first layer. Finally, the result is determined by the Random Forest of the third layer. We compared the effectiveness of the combination of block composition, functional domain composition, and pseudoamino acid composition of the model. In the 11 kinds of functional protein families, QuaBingo is 23% of Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) higher than the existing prediction system. The results also revealed the biological characterization of the top five block compositions. Conclusions. QuaBingo provides better predictive ability for predicting the quaternary structural attributes of proteins. PMID:27610389

  7. Reconstitution of the membrane protein OmpF into biomimetic block copolymer–phospholipid hybrid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bieligmeyer, Matthias; Artukovic, Franjo; Hirth, Thomas; Schiestel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary Structure and function of many transmembrane proteins are affected by their environment. In this respect, reconstitution of a membrane protein into a biomimetic polymer membrane can alter its function. To overcome this problem we used membranes formed by poly(1,4-isoprene-block-ethylene oxide) block copolymers blended with 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. By reconstituting the outer membrane protein OmpF from Escherichia coli into these membranes, we demonstrate functionality of this protein in biomimetic lipopolymer membranes, independent of the molecular weight of the block copolymers. At low voltages, the channel conductance of OmpF in 1 M KCl was around 2.3 nS. In line with these experiments, integration of OmpF was also revealed by impedance spectroscopy. Our results indicate that blending synthetic polymer membranes with phospholipids allows for the reconstitution of transmembrane proteins under preservation of protein function, independent of the membrane thickness. PMID:27547605

  8. Reconstitution of the membrane protein OmpF into biomimetic block copolymer-phospholipid hybrid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bieligmeyer, Matthias; Artukovic, Franjo; Nussberger, Stephan; Hirth, Thomas; Schiestel, Thomas; Müller, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Structure and function of many transmembrane proteins are affected by their environment. In this respect, reconstitution of a membrane protein into a biomimetic polymer membrane can alter its function. To overcome this problem we used membranes formed by poly(1,4-isoprene-block-ethylene oxide) block copolymers blended with 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. By reconstituting the outer membrane protein OmpF from Escherichia coli into these membranes, we demonstrate functionality of this protein in biomimetic lipopolymer membranes, independent of the molecular weight of the block copolymers. At low voltages, the channel conductance of OmpF in 1 M KCl was around 2.3 nS. In line with these experiments, integration of OmpF was also revealed by impedance spectroscopy. Our results indicate that blending synthetic polymer membranes with phospholipids allows for the reconstitution of transmembrane proteins under preservation of protein function, independent of the membrane thickness.

  9. Amphiphilic block copolymer-based photonic platform towards efficient protein detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, Afroditi; Gibson, Thomas J.; Themistou, Efrosyni; Pispas, Stergios; Riziotis, Christos

    2016-11-01

    The development of a low complexity fiber optic based protein sensor by functionalizing the surface of silica optical fibers using block copolymers having both hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and hydrophilic poly[2- (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) blocks is presented here. The amphiphilic thiol-functionalized PMMA117-b-P(DMAEMA17-st-TEMA2) and vinyl-sulfone PMMA117-b-P(DMAEMA17-st-VSTEMA2) block copolymers designed and synthesized in this work contain a cationic hydrophilic PDMAEMA block that can electrostatically bind selected oppositely charged proteins and also appropriate functional groups for reversible or non-reversible protein binding, respectively, leading to a refractive index change of the overlayer and hence, enabling the sensing. The developed PMMA117-b-PDMAEMA16-based platform has been evaluated for bovine serum albumin (BSA) sensing, exhibiting linear response to detected BSA concentrations.

  10. Morbillivirus V Proteins Exhibit Multiple Mechanisms to Block Type 1 and Type 2 Interferon Signalling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chinnakannan, Senthil K.; Nanda, Sambit K.; Baron, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins V, W and C in their P gene. Previous studies with rinderpest virus (RPV) and measles virus (MeV) have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type I (IFNα/β) and type II (IFNγ) interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. We have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (RPV), measles virus (MeV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). These viruses and their V proteins could all block type I IFN action. However, the viruses and their V proteins had varying abilities to block type II IFN action. The ability to block type II IFN-induced gene transcription correlated with co-precipitation of STAT1 with the respective V protein, but there was no correlation between co-precipitation of either STAT1 or STAT2 and the abilities of the V proteins to block type I IFN-induced gene transcription or the creation of the antiviral state. Further study revealed that the V proteins of RPV, MeV, PPRV and CDV could all interfere with phosphorylation of the interferon-receptor-associated kinase Tyk2, and the V protein of highly virulent RPV could also block the phosphorylation of another such kinase, Jak1. Co-precipitation studies showed that morbillivirus V proteins all form a complex containing Tyk2 and Jak1. This study highlights the ability of morbillivirus V proteins to target multiple components of the IFN signalling pathways to control both type I and type II IFN action. PMID:23431397

  11. The design and characterization of protein based block polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghpanah, Jennifer Shorah

    Over the past decades, protein engineering has provided noteworthy advances in basic science as well as in medicine and industry. Protein engineers are currently focusing their efforts on developing elementary rules to design proteins with a specific structure and function. Proteins derived from natural sources have been used generate a plethora of materials with remarkable structural and functional properties. In the first chapter, we show how we can fabricate protein polymers comprised of two different self-assembling domains (SADs). From our studies, we discover that SADs in different orientations have a large impact on their overall microscopic and macroscopic features. In the second chapter, we explore the impact of cellulose (Tc) on the diblocks EC and CE. We discover that Tc is able to selectively impact the mechanical propertied of CE because CE has smaller particle sizes and more E domain exposed on its surface at RT. In the third chapter, we appended an extra C domain to CE to generate CEC with improved mechanical properties, structure and small molecule recognition.

  12. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  13. An ent-kaurene that inhibits mitotic chromosome movement and binds the kinetochore protein ran-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Natalie T; Nelson, Jim; Flory, Mark R; Joseph, Jomon; Th'ng, John; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dasso, Mary; Andersen, Raymond J; Roberge, Michel

    2006-08-22

    Using a chemical genetics screen, we have identified ent-15-oxokaurenoic acid (EKA) as a chemical that causes prolonged mitotic arrest at a stage resembling prometaphase. EKA inhibits the association of the mitotic motor protein centromeric protein E with kinetochores and inhibits chromosome movement. Unlike most antimitotic agents, EKA does not inhibit the polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin. To identify EKA-interacting proteins, we used a cell-permeable biotinylated form that retains biological activity to isolate binding proteins from living cells. Mass spectrometric analysis identified six EKA-binding proteins, including Ran-binding protein 2, a kinetochore protein whose depletion by small interfering RNA causes a similar mitotic arrest phenotype.

  14. Bromovirus movement protein conditions for the host specificity of virus movement through the vascular system and affects pathogenicity in cowpea.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Y; Fujita, M; Mise, K; Kobori, T; Osaki, T; Furusawa, I

    2000-11-01

    Previously, we reported that CCMV(B3a), a hybrid of bromovirus Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) with the 3a cell-to-cell movement protein (MP) gene replaced by that of cowpea-nonadapted bromovirus Brome mosaic virus (BMV), can form small infection foci in inoculated cowpea leaves, but that expansion of the foci stops between 1 and 2 days postinoculation. To determine whether the lack of systemic movement of CCMV(B3a) is due to restriction of local spread at specific leaf tissue interfaces, we conducted more detailed analyses of infection in inoculated leaves. Tissue-printing and leaf press-blotting analyses revealed that CCMV(B3a) was confined to the inoculated cowpea leaves and exhibited constrained movement into leaf veins. Immunocytochemical analyses to examine the infected cell types in inoculated leaves indicated that CCMV(B3a) was able to reach the bundle sheath cells through the mesophyll cells and successfully infected the phloem cells of 50% of the examined veins. Thus, these data demonstrate that the lack of long-distance movement of CCMV(B3a) is not due to an inability to reach the vasculature, but results from failure of the virus to move through the vascular system of cowpea plants. Further, a previously identified 3a coding change (A776C), which is required for CCMV(B3a) systemic infection of cowpea plants, suppressed formation of reddish spots, mediated faster spread of infection, and enabled the virus to move into the veins of inoculated cowpea leaves. From these data, and the fact that CCMV(B3a) directs systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana, a permissive systemic host for both BMV and CCMV, we conclude that the bromovirus 3a MP engages in multiple activities that contribute substantially to host-specific long-distance movement through the phloem.

  15. 21 CFR 520.2380a - Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein... § 520.2380a Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block. (a) Chemical name. 2-(4-Thiazolyl...) Conditions of use. It is used as follows: (1) Horses—(i) Route of administration. In feed, as a top...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2380a - Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein... § 520.2380a Thiabendazole top dressing and mineral protein block. (a) Chemical name. 2-(4-Thiazolyl...) Conditions of use. It is used as follows: (1) Horses—(i) Route of administration. In feed, as a top...

  17. Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein interacts with green fluorescent protein-tagged microtubule end-binding protein 1.

    PubMed

    Brandner, Katrin; Sambade, Adrian; Boutant, Emmanuel; Didier, Pascal; Mély, Yves; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Heinlein, Manfred

    2008-06-01

    The targeting of the movement protein (MP) of Tobacco mosaic virus to plasmodesmata involves the actin/endoplasmic reticulum network and does not require an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. Nevertheless, the ability of MP to facilitate the cell-to-cell spread of infection is tightly correlated with interactions of the protein with microtubules, indicating that the microtubule system is involved in the transport of viral RNA. While the MP acts like a microtubule-associated protein able to stabilize microtubules during late infection stages, the protein was also shown to cause the inactivation of the centrosome upon expression in mammalian cells, thus suggesting that MP may interact with factors involved in microtubule attachment, nucleation, or polymerization. To further investigate the interactions of MP with the microtubule system in planta, we expressed the MP in the presence of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused microtubule end-binding protein 1a (EB1a) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtEB1a:GFP). The two proteins colocalize and interact in vivo as well as in vitro and exhibit mutual functional interference. These findings suggest that MP interacts with EB1 and that this interaction may play a role in the associations of MP with the microtubule system during infection.

  18. Inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus movement by expression of an actin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Christina; Niehl, Annette; Sambade, Adrian; Steinmetz, André; Heinlein, Manfred

    2009-04-01

    The tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) required for the cell-to-cell spread of viral RNA interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as with the cytoskeleton during infection. Whereas associations of MP with ER and microtubules have been intensely investigated, research on the role of actin has been rather scarce. We demonstrate that Nicotiana benthamiana plants transgenic for the actin-binding domain 2 of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) fimbrin (AtFIM1) fused to green fluorescent protein (ABD2:GFP) exhibit a dynamic ABD2:GFP-labeled actin cytoskeleton and myosin-dependent Golgi trafficking. These plants also support the movement of TMV. In contrast, both myosin-dependent Golgi trafficking and TMV movement are dominantly inhibited when ABD2:GFP is expressed transiently. Inhibition is mediated through binding of ABD2:GFP to actin filaments, since TMV movement is restored upon disruption of the ABD2:GFP-labeled actin network with latrunculin B. Latrunculin B shows no significant effect on the spread of TMV infection in either wild-type plants or ABD2:GFP transgenic plants under our treatment conditions. We did not observe any binding of MP along the length of actin filaments. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that TMV movement does not require an intact actomyosin system. Nevertheless, actin-binding proteins appear to have the potential to exert control over TMV movement through the inhibition of myosin-associated protein trafficking along the ER membrane.

  19. A plant-specific protein essential for blue-light-induced chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    DeBlasio, Stacy L; Luesse, Darron L; Hangarter, Roger P

    2005-09-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), light-dependent chloroplast movements are induced by blue light. When exposed to low fluence rates of light, chloroplasts accumulate in periclinal layers perpendicular to the direction of light, presumably to optimize light absorption by exposing more chloroplast area to the light. Under high light conditions, chloroplasts become positioned parallel to the incoming light in a response that can reduce exposure to light intensities that may damage the photosynthetic machinery. To identify components of the pathway downstream of the photoreceptors that mediate chloroplast movements (i.e. phototropins), we conducted a mutant screen that has led to the isolation of several Arabidopsis mutants displaying altered chloroplast movements. The plastid movement impaired1 (pmi1) mutant exhibits severely attenuated chloroplast movements under all tested fluence rates of light, suggesting that it is a necessary component for both the low- and high-light-dependant chloroplast movement responses. Analysis of pmi1 leaf cross sections revealed that regardless of the light condition, chloroplasts are more evenly distributed in leaf mesophyll cells than in the wild type. The pmi1-1 mutant was found to contain a single nonsense mutation within the open reading frame of At1g42550. This gene encodes a plant-specific protein of unknown function that appears to be conserved among angiosperms. Sequence analysis of the protein suggests that it may be involved in calcium-mediated signal transduction, possibly through protein-protein interactions.

  20. Protein Crystal Movements and Fluid Flows During Microgravity Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggon, Titus J.; Chayen, Naomi E.; Snell, Edward H.; Dong, Jun; Lautenschlager, Peter; Potthast, Lothar; Siddons, D. Peter; Stojanoff, Vivian; Gordon, Elspeth; Thompson, Andrew W.; Zagalsky, Peter F.; Bi, Ru-Chang; Helliwell, John R.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of protein crystals suitable for X-ray crystal structure analysis is an important topic. The methods of protein crystal growth are under increasing study whereby different methods are being compared via diagnostic monitoring including Charge Coupled Device (CCD) video and interferometry. The quality (perfection) of protein crystals is now being evaluated by mosaicity analysis (rocking curves) and X-ray topographic images as well as the diffraction resolution limit and overall data quality. Choice of a liquid-liquid linear crystal growth geometry and microgravity can yield a spatial stability of growing crystals and fluid, as seen in protein crystallization experiments on the unmanned platform EURICA. A review is given here of existing results and experience over several microgravity missions. The results include CCD video as well as interferometry during the mission, followed, on return to earth, by rocking curve experiments and full X-ray data collection on LMS and earth control lysozyme crystals. Diffraction data recorded from LMS and ground control apocrustacyanin C(sub 1) crystals are also described.

  1. Cell-to-cell movement of potato virus X involves distinct functions of the coat protein.

    PubMed

    Fedorkin, O; Solovyev, A; Yelina, N; Zamyatnin, A; Zinovkin, R; Mäkinen, K; Schiemann, J; Yu Morozov, S

    2001-02-01

    Complementation of movement-deficient potato virus X (PVX) coat protein (CP) mutants, namely PVX.CP-Xho lacking the 18 C-terminal amino acid residues and PVX.DeltaCP lacking the entire CP gene, was studied by transient co-expression with heterologous proteins. These data demonstrated that the potyvirus CPs and both the major and minor CPs of beet yellows closterovirus could complement cell-to-cell movement of PVX.CP-Xho but not PVX.DeltaCP. These data also indicated that the C-terminally truncated PVX CP lacked a movement function which could be provided in trans by the CPs of other filamentous viruses, whereas another movement determinant specified by some region outside the most C-terminal part of the PVX CP could not be complemented either by potyvirus or closterovirus CPs. Surprisingly, the CP of spherical cocksfoot mottle sobemovirus rescued all of the PVX CP movement functions, complementing the spread of PVX.CP-Xho and, to a lesser extent, PVX.DeltaCP. Both these mutants were also rescued by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP). To shed light on the movement function of PVX CP, attempts were made to complement PVX.CP-Xho by a series of TMV MP mutants. An internal deletion abolished complementation, suggesting that the internal region of TMV MP, which includes a number of overlapping functional domains important for cell-to-cell transport, provides an activity complementing movement determinant(s) specified by the C-terminal region of PVX CP.

  2. Role of cucumovirus capsid protein in long-distance movement within the infected plant.

    PubMed Central

    Taliansky, M E; García-Arenal, F

    1995-01-01

    Direct evidence is presented for a host-specific role of the cucumovirus capsid protein in long-distance movement within infected plants. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a systemic host for cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV). Tomato aspermy cucumovirus, strain 1 (1-TAV), multiplied to the levels of CMV (i.e., replicated, moved from cell to cell, and formed infectious particles) in the inoculated leaves of cucumbers but was completely unable to spread systemically. The defective long-distance systemic movement of 1-TAV was complemented by CMV in mixed infections. Coinfection of cucumbers with 1-TAV RNA with various combinations of transcripts from full-length cDNA clones of CMV genomic RNA 1, RNA2, and RNA3 showed that CMV RNA3 alone complemented 1-TAV long-distance movement. We obtained mutants containing mutations in the two open reading frames in CMV RNA3 encoding the 3a protein and the capsid protein (CP), both of which are necessary for cell-to-cell movement of CMV. Complementation experiments with mutant CMV RNA3 showed that only 3a protein mutants, i.e., those with an intact CP, complemented the long-distance movement of 1-TAV in cucumbers. Since CMV and TAV have common systemic host plants, the results presented here are strong evidence for an active, host-specific function of the CPs of these two cucumoviruses for long-distance spread in the phloem. The results also suggest that the plasmodesmata in the vascular system and/or at the boundary between the mesophyll and the vascular system, involved in long-distance movement through the phloem, and those in the mesophyll, involved in cell-to-cell movement, differ functionally. PMID:7815560

  3. Low-Temperature Processable Block Copolymers That Preserve the Function of Blended Proteins.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Takemoto, Kyohei; Tanaka, Shinya; Taniguchi, Ikuo

    2016-07-11

    Low-temperature processable polymers have attracted increasing interest as ecological materials because of their reduced energy consumption during processing and suitability for making composites with heat-sensitive biomolecules at ambient temperature. In the current study, low-temperature processable biodegradable block copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide (LLA) using polyphosphoester as a macroinitiator. The polymer films could be processed under a hydraulic pressure of 35 MPa. The block copolymer films swelled in water because the polyphosphoester block was partially hydrated. Interestingly, the swelling ratio of the films changed with temperature. The pressure-induced order-to-disorder transition of the block copolymers was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering; a crystallinity reduction in the block copolymers was observed after application of pressure. The crystallinity of the block copolymers was recovered after removing the applied pressure. The Young's modulus of the block copolymer films increased as the LLA unit content increased. Moreover, the modulus did not change after multiple processing cycles and the recyclability of the block copolymers was also confirmed. Finally, polymer films with embedded proteinase K as a model protein were prepared. The activity of catalase loaded into the polymer films was evaluated after processing at different temperatures. The activity of catalase was preserved when the polymer films were processed at room temperature but was significantly reduced after high-temperature processing. The suitability of low-temperature processable biodegradable polymers for making biofunctional composites without reducing protein activity was clarified. These materials will be useful for biomedical and therapeutic applications.

  4. Designed, Helical Protein Nanotubes with Variable Diameters from a Single Building Block.

    PubMed

    Brodin, Jeffrey D; Smith, Sarah J; Carr, Jessica R; Tezcan, F Akif

    2015-08-26

    Due to their structural and mechanical properties, 1D helical protein assemblies represent highly attractive design targets for biomolecular engineering and protein design. Here we present a designed, tetrameric protein building block, Zn8R4, which assembles via Zn coordination interactions into a series of crystalline, helical nanotubes whose widths can be controlled by solution conditions. X-ray crystallography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements indicate that all classes of protein nanotubes are constructed through the same 2D arrangement of Zn8R4 tetramers held together by Zn coordination. The mechanical properties of these nanotubes are correlated with their widths. All Zn8R4 nanotubes are found to be highly flexible despite possessing crystalline order, owing to their minimal interbuilding-block interactions mediated solely by metal coordination.

  5. Stability and movement of mRNAs and their encoded proteins in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The stability and movement of several polyadenylated (poly A+) and nonpolyadenylated (poly A-) mRNAs in Xenopus oocytes have been examined. At least 50% of the poly A+ mRNA molecules (9S rabbit globin mRNA, chicken ovalbumin, and lysozyme) were stable in oocytes over a 48- h period, irrespective of the amount injected. About 50% of injected poly A- reovirus mRNAs was degraded within the first 24 h of injection, irrespective of the amount injected, although no further degradation was observed over an additional 24 h. The movement of all poly A+ mRNAs injected at either the animal or vegetal pole of the oocyte was very slow. Little movement of RNA from the animal half to the vegetal half was observed even 48 h after injection. In contrast, similar amounts of mRNA were present in both halves 48 h after vegetal pole injection. Similar results were obtained after injection of poly A- reovirus mRNAs. The movement of the proteins encoded by the poly A+ mRNAs was studied in the 6-h period after injection when little mRNA movement had occurred. 85% of the globin synthesized accumulated in the animal half irrespective of injection site. The movement of the sequestered secretory proteins ovalbumin and lysozyme in the same oocytes as globin was much slower; very little lysozyme appeared in the half of the oocyte opposite the site of injection. PMID:2858488

  6. Antibodies to plant-produced Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage protein Pfs25 exhibit transmission blocking activity.

    PubMed

    Farrance, Christine E; Chichester, Jessica A; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Shamloul, Moneim; Rhee, Amy; Manceva, Slobodanka D; Jones, R Mark; Mamedov, Tarlan; Sharma, Satish; Mett, Vadim; Streatfield, Stephen J; Roeffen, Will; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Sauerwein, Robert W; Wu, Yimin; Muratova, Olga; Miller, Louis; Duffy, Patrick; Sinden, Robert; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal mosquito-borne disease caused by a protozoan parasite. Each year, it is estimated that over one million people are killed by malaria, yet the disease is preventable and treatable. Developing vaccines against the parasite is a critical component in the fight against malaria and these vaccines can target different stages of the pathogen's life cycle. We are targeting sexual stage proteins of P. falciparum which are found on the surface of the parasite reproductive cells present in the mosquito gut. Antibodies against these proteins block the progression of the parasite's life cycle in the mosquito, and thus block transmission to the next human host. Transmission blocking vaccines are essential to the malaria eradication program to ease the disease burden at the population level. We have successfully produced multiple versions of the Pfs25 antigen in a plant virus-based transient expression system and have evaluated these vaccine candidates in an animal model. The targets are expressed in plants at a high level, are soluble and most importantly, generate strong transmission blocking activity as determined by a standard membrane feeding assay. These data demonstrate the feasibility of expressing Plasmodium antigens in a plant-based system for the economic production of a transmission blocking vaccine against malaria.

  7. Production in Pichia pastoris of protein-based polymers with small heterodimer-forming blocks.

    PubMed

    Domeradzka, Natalia E; Werten, Marc W T; de Vries, Renko; de Wolf, Frits A

    2016-05-01

    Some combinations of leucine zipper peptides are capable of forming α-helical heterodimeric coiled coils with very high affinity. These can be used as physical cross-linkers in the design of protein-based polymers that form supramolecular structures, for example hydrogels, upon mixing solutions containing the complementary blocks. Such two-component physical networks are of interest for many applications in biomedicine, pharmaceutics, and diagnostics. This article describes the efficient secretory production of A and B type leucine zipper peptides fused to protein-based polymers in Pichia pastoris. By adjusting the fermentation conditions, we were able to significantly reduce undesirable proteolytic degradation. The formation of A-B heterodimers in mixtures of the purified products was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography. Our results demonstrate that protein-based polymers incorporating functional heterodimer-forming blocks can be produced with P. pastoris in sufficient quantities for use in future supramolecular self-assembly studies and in various applications.

  8. TYLCV-Is movement in planta does not require V2 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hak, Hagit; Levy, Yael; Chandran, Sam A.; Belausov, Eduard; Loyter, Abraham; Lapidot, Moshe; Gafni, Yedidya

    2015-03-15

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a major tomato pathogen causing extensive crop losses, is a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus. V2 mutants of TYLCV-Is and related viruses tend to induce symptomless infection with attenuated viral DNA levels, while accumulating close to wild-type DNA levels in protoplasts, suggesting V2 as a movement protein. The discovery of plant-silencing mechanisms and viral silencing suppressors, V2 included, led us to reconsider V2's involvement in viral movement. We studied two mutant versions of the virus, one impaired in V2 silencing-suppression activity, and another carrying a non-translatable V2. While both mutant viruses spread in the infected plant to newly emerged leaves at the same rate as the wild-type virus, their DNA-accumulation levels were tenfold lower than in the wild-type virus. Thus, we suggest that the setback in virus proliferation, previously ascribed to a movement impediment, is due to lack of silencing-suppression activity. - Highlights: • TYLCV-Is V2 protein is localized in distinct microbodies throughout the cell cytoplasm, around the nucleus and in association with cytoplasmic strands but is not associated with the plasmodesmata. • Disruption of RNA-silencing suppression activity of TYLCV-Is V2 protein causes low titer of the virus in the infected plants. • The movement of TYLCV-Is in planta does not require a functional V2 protein.

  9. Cytorhabdovirus P3 genes encode 30K-like cell-to-cell movement proteins.

    PubMed

    Mann, Krin S; Bejerman, Nicolas; Johnson, Karyn N; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2016-02-01

    Plant viruses encode movement proteins (MP) to facilitate cell-to-cell transport through plasmodesmata. In this study, using trans-complementation of a movement-defective turnip vein-clearing tobamovirus (TVCV) replicon, we show for the first time for cytorhabdoviruses (lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) and alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV)) that their P3 proteins function as MP similar to the TVCV P30 protein. All three MP localized to plasmodesmata when ectopically expressed. In addition, we show that these MP belong to the 30K superfamily since movement was inhibited by mutation of an aspartic acid residue in the critical 30K-specific LxD/N50-70G motif. We also report that Nicotiana benthamiana microtubule-associated VOZ1-like transcriptional activator interacts with LNYV P3 and TVCV P30 but not with ADV P3 or any of the MP point mutants. This host protein, which is known to interact with P3 of sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus, may be involved in aiding the cell-to-cell movement of LNYV and TVCV.

  10. FERM family proteins and their importance in cellular movements and wound healing (review).

    PubMed

    Bosanquet, David C; Ye, Lin; Harding, Keith G; Jiang, Wen G

    2014-07-01

    Motility is a requirement for a number of biological processes, including embryonic development, neuronal development, immune responses, cancer progression and wound healing. Specific to wound healing is the migration of endothelial cells, fibroblasts and other key cellular players into the wound space. Aberrations in wound healing can result in either chronic wounds or abnormally healed wounds. The protein 4.1R, ezrin, radixin, moesin (FERM) superfamily consists of over 40 proteins all containing a three lobed N-terminal FERM domain which binds a variety of cell-membrane associated proteins and lipids. The C-terminal ends of these proteins typically contain an actin-binding domain (ABD). These proteins therefore mediate the linkage between the cell membrane and the actin cytoskeleton, and are involved in cellular movements and migration. Certain FERM proteins have been shown to promote cancer metastasis via this very mechanism. Herein we review the effects of a number of FERM proteins on wound healing and cancer. We show how these proteins typically aid wound healing through their effects on increasing cellular migration and movements, but also typically promote metastasis in cancer. We conclude that FERM proteins play important roles in cellular migration, with markedly different outcomes in the context of cancer and wound healing.

  11. Human rhinovirus 16 causes Golgi apparatus fragmentation without blocking protein secretion.

    PubMed

    Mousnier, Aurelie; Swieboda, Dawid; Pinto, Anaïs; Guedán, Anabel; Rogers, Andrew V; Walton, Ross; Johnston, Sebastian L; Solari, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The replication of picornaviruses has been described to cause fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus that blocks the secretory pathway. The inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class I upregulation and cytokine, chemokine and interferon secretion may have important implications for host defense. Previous studies have shown that disruption of the secretory pathway can be replicated by expression of individual nonstructural proteins; however the situation with different serotypes of human rhinovirus (HRV) is unclear. The expression of 3A protein from HRV14 or HRV2 did not cause Golgi apparatus disruption or a block in secretion, whereas other studies showed that infection of cells with HRV1A did cause Golgi apparatus disruption which was replicated by the expression of 3A. HRV16 is the serotype most widely used in clinical HRV challenge studies; consequently, to address the issue of Golgi apparatus disruption for HRV16, we have systematically and quantitatively examined the effect of HRV16 on both Golgi apparatus fragmentation and protein secretion in HeLa cells. First, we expressed each individual nonstructural protein and examined their cellular localization and their disruption of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus architecture. We quantified their effects on the secretory pathway by measuring secretion of the reporter protein Gaussia luciferase. Finally, we examined the same outcomes following infection of cells with live virus. We demonstrate that expression of HRV16 3A and 3AB and, to a lesser extent, 2B caused dispersal of the Golgi structure, and these three nonstructural proteins also inhibited protein secretion. The infection of cells with HRV16 also caused significant Golgi apparatus dispersal; however, this did not result in the inhibition of protein secretion. Importance: The ability of replicating picornaviruses to influence the function of the secretory pathway has important implications for host defense. However, there appear to be

  12. Protein-mediated transbilayer movement of lipids in eukaryotes and prokaryotes: the relevance of ABC transporters.

    PubMed

    Tannert, Astrid; Pohl, Antje; Pomorski, Thomas; Herrmann, Andreas

    2003-09-01

    Lipid distribution across cellular membranes is regulated by specific membrane proteins controlling transbilayer movement of lipids. Flippases facilitate flip-flop of lipids and allow them to equilibrate between the two membrane leaflets independent of ATP. Distinct P-Type-ATPases transport specific lipids unidirectionally across the membrane at the expense of ATP. A group of ATP-dependent lipid transporters, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, was identified in studies originally related to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. Meanwhile, lipid transport activity has been shown for full and half size ABC proteins in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This activity may not only modify the organisation of lipids in membranes, but could also be of significant consequence for cell homeostasis. The various types of lipid movement mediating proteins and their cellular localisation in eukaryotes and prokaryotes are reviewed.

  13. Repeat protein engineering: creating functional nanostructures/biomaterials from modular building blocks.

    PubMed

    Main, Ewan R G; Phillips, Jonathan J; Millership, Charlotte

    2013-10-01

    There is enormous interest in molecular self-assembly and the development of biological systems to form smart nanostructures for biotechnology (so-called 'bottom-up fabrications'). Repeat proteins are ideal choices for development of such systems as they: (i) possess a relatively simple relationship between sequence, structure and function; (ii) are modular and non-globular in structure; (iii) act as diverse scaffolds for the mediation of a diverse range of protein-protein interactions; and (iv) have been extensively studied and successfully engineered and designed. In the present review, we summarize recent advances in the use of engineered repeat proteins in the self-assembly of novel materials, nanostructures and biosensors. In particular, we show that repeat proteins are excellent monomeric programmable building blocks that can be triggered to associate into a range of morphologies and can readily be engineered as stimuli-responsive biofunctional materials.

  14. Insulin/poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) Complexes: Physicochemical Properties and Protein Encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Pippa, Natassa; Kalinova, Radostina; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Pispas, Stergios; Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-04

    Insulin (INS) was encapsulated into complexes with poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-b-PLys), which is a polypeptide-based block copolymer (a neutral-cationic block polyelectrolyte). The particular cationic-neutral block copolymer can complex INS molecules in aqueous media via electrostatic interactions. Light-scattering techniques are used to study the complexation process and structure of the hybrid nanoparticles in a series of buffers, as a function of protein concentration. The physicochemical and structural characteristics of the complexes depend on the ionic strength of the aqueous medium, while the concentration of PEG-b-PLys was constant through the series of solutions. As INS concentration increased the size distribution of the complexes decreased, especially at the highest ionic strength. The size/structure of complexes diluted in biological medium indicated that the copolymer imparts stealth properties and colloidal and biological stability to the complexes, features that could in turn affect the clearance properties in vivo. Therefore, these studies could be a rational roadmap for designing the optimum complexes/effective nanocarriers for proteins and peptides.

  15. Control of Protein Affinity of Bioactive Nanocellulose and Passivation Using Engineered Block and Random Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Vuoriluoto, Maija; Orelma, Hannes; Zhu, Baolei; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-03-02

    We passivated TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF) toward human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) by modification with block and random copolymers of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA). The block copolymers reversibly adsorbed on TOCNF and were highly effective in preventing nonspecific interactions with hIgG, especially if short PDMAEMA blocks were used. In such cases, total protein rejection was achieved. This is in contrast to typical blocking agents, which performed poorly. When an anti-human IgG biointerface was installed onto the passivated TOCNF, remarkably high affinity antibody-antigen interactions were observed (0.90 ± 0.09 mg/m(2)). This is in contrast to the nonpassivated biointerface, which resulted in a significant false response. In addition, regeneration of the biointerface was possible by low pH aqueous wash. Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus was also utilized to successfully increase the sensitivity for human IgG recognition (1.28 ± 0.11 mg/m(2)). Overall, the developed system based on TOCNF modified with multifunctional polymers can be easily deployed as bioactive material with minimum fouling and excellent selectivity.

  16. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments.

    PubMed

    Huber, Matthias C; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally 'program' the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

  17. Designer amphiphilic proteins as building blocks for the intracellular formation of organelle-like compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Matthias C.; Schreiber, Andreas; von Olshausen, Philipp; Varga, Balázs R.; Kretz, Oliver; Joch, Barbara; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf; Eimer, Stefan; Kele, Péter; Schiller, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale biological materials formed by the assembly of defined block-domain proteins control the formation of cellular compartments such as organelles. Here, we introduce an approach to intentionally ‘program’ the de novo synthesis and self-assembly of genetically encoded amphiphilic proteins to form cellular compartments, or organelles, in Escherichia coli. These proteins serve as building blocks for the formation of artificial compartments in vivo in a similar way to lipid-based organelles. We investigated the formation of these organelles using epifluorescence microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The in vivo modification of these protein-based de novo organelles, by means of site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids, allows the introduction of artificial chemical functionalities. Co-localization of membrane proteins results in the formation of functionalized artificial organelles combining artificial and natural cellular function. Adding these protein structures to the cellular machinery may have consequences in nanobiotechnology, synthetic biology and materials science, including the constitution of artificial cells and bio-based metamaterials.

  18. Potato virus X movement in Nicotiana benthamiana: new details revealed by chimeric coat protein variants.

    PubMed

    Betti, Camilla; Lico, Chiara; Maffi, Dario; D'Angeli, Simone; Altamura, Maria Maddalena; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Faoro, Franco; Baschieri, Selene

    2012-02-01

    Potato virus X coat protein is necessary for both cell-to-cell and phloem transfer, but it has not been clarified definitively whether it is needed in both movement phases solely as a component of the assembled particles or also of differently structured ribonucleoprotein complexes. To clarify this issue, we studied the infection progression of a mutant carrying an N-terminal deletion of the coat protein, which was used to construct chimeric virus particles displaying peptides selectively affecting phloem transfer or cell-to-cell movement. Nicotiana benthamiana plants inoculated with expression vectors encoding the wild-type, mutant and chimeric viral genomes were examined by microscopy techniques. These experiments showed that coat protein-peptide fusions promoting cell-to-cell transfer only were not competent for virion assembly, whereas long-distance movement was possible only for coat proteins compatible with virus particle formation. Moreover, the ability of the assembled PVX to enter and persist into developing xylem elements was revealed here for the first time.

  19. The Alzheimer Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and Fe65, an APP-Binding Protein, Regulate Cell Movement

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Shasta L.; Ikin, Annat F.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Greengard, Paul

    2001-01-01

    FE65 binds to the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP), but the function of this interaction has not been identified. Here, we report that APP and FE65 are involved in regulation of cell movement. APP and FE65 colocalize with actin and Mena, an Abl-associated signaling protein thought to regulate actin dynamics, in lamellipodia. APP and FE65 specifically concentrate with β1-integrin in dynamic adhesion sites known as focal complexes, but not in more static adhesion sites known as focal adhesions. Overexpression of APP accelerates cell migration in an MDCK cell wound–healing assay. Coexpression of APP and FE65 dramatically enhances the effect of APP on cell movement, probably by regulating the amount of APP at the cell surface. These data are consistent with a role for FE65 and APP, possibly in a Mena-containing macromolecular complex, in regulation of actin-based motility. PMID:11425871

  20. Hydrophobic Blocks Facilitate Lipid Compatibility and Translocon Recognition of Transmembrane Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biophysical hydrophobicity scales suggest that partitioning of a protein segment from an aqueous phase into a membrane is governed by its perceived segmental hydrophobicity but do not establish specifically (i) how the segment is identified in vivo for translocon-mediated insertion or (ii) whether the destination lipid bilayer is biochemically receptive to the inserted sequence. To examine the congruence between these dual requirements, we designed and synthesized a library of Lys-tagged peptides of a core length sufficient to span a bilayer but with varying patterns of sequence, each composed of nine Leu residues, nine Ser residues, and one (central) Trp residue. We found that peptides containing contiguous Leu residues (Leu-block peptides, e.g., LLLLLLLLLWSSSSSSSSS), in comparison to those containing discontinuous stretches of Leu residues (non-Leu-block peptides, e.g., SLSLLSLSSWSLLSLSLLS), displayed greater helicity (circular dichroism spectroscopy), traveled slower during sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, had longer reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times on a C-18 column, and were helical when reconstituted into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, each observation indicating superior lipid compatibility when a Leu-block is present. These parameters were largely paralleled in a biological membrane insertion assay using microsomal membranes from dog pancreas endoplasmic reticulum, where we found only the Leu-block sequences successfully inserted; intriguingly, an amphipathic peptide (SLLSSLLSSWLLSSLLSSL; Leu face, Ser face) with biophysical properties similar to those of Leu-block peptides failed to insert. Our overall results identify local sequence lipid compatibility rather than average hydrophobicity as a principal determinant of transmembrane segment potential, while demonstrating that further subtleties of hydrophobic and helical patterning, such as circumferential hydrophobicity

  1. Hydrophobic blocks facilitate lipid compatibility and translocon recognition of transmembrane protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Stone, Tracy A; Schiller, Nina; von Heijne, Gunnar; Deber, Charles M

    2015-02-24

    Biophysical hydrophobicity scales suggest that partitioning of a protein segment from an aqueous phase into a membrane is governed by its perceived segmental hydrophobicity but do not establish specifically (i) how the segment is identified in vivo for translocon-mediated insertion or (ii) whether the destination lipid bilayer is biochemically receptive to the inserted sequence. To examine the congruence between these dual requirements, we designed and synthesized a library of Lys-tagged peptides of a core length sufficient to span a bilayer but with varying patterns of sequence, each composed of nine Leu residues, nine Ser residues, and one (central) Trp residue. We found that peptides containing contiguous Leu residues (Leu-block peptides, e.g., LLLLLLLLLWSSSSSSSSS), in comparison to those containing discontinuous stretches of Leu residues (non-Leu-block peptides, e.g., SLSLLSLSSWSLLSLSLLS), displayed greater helicity (circular dichroism spectroscopy), traveled slower during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, had longer reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times on a C-18 column, and were helical when reconstituted into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, each observation indicating superior lipid compatibility when a Leu-block is present. These parameters were largely paralleled in a biological membrane insertion assay using microsomal membranes from dog pancreas endoplasmic reticulum, where we found only the Leu-block sequences successfully inserted; intriguingly, an amphipathic peptide (SLLSSLLSSWLLSSLLSSL; Leu face, Ser face) with biophysical properties similar to those of Leu-block peptides failed to insert. Our overall results identify local sequence lipid compatibility rather than average hydrophobicity as a principal determinant of transmembrane segment potential, while demonstrating that further subtleties of hydrophobic and helical patterning, such as circumferential hydrophobicity in

  2. Genetic deficiency of the mitochondrial protein PGAM5 causes a Parkinson's-like movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Springer, Danielle A; Allen, Michele D; Zheng, Lixin; Chao, Brittany; Zhang, Yan; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Lenardo, Michael

    2014-09-15

    Mitophagy is a specialized form of autophagy that selectively disposes of dysfunctional mitochondria. Delineating the molecular regulation of mitophagy is of great importance because defects in this process lead to a variety of mitochondrial diseases. Here we report that mice deficient for the mitochondrial protein, phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5), displayed a Parkinson's-like movement phenotype. We determined biochemically that PGAM5 is required for the stabilization of the mitophagy-inducing protein PINK1 on damaged mitochondria. Loss of PGAM5 disables PINK1-mediated mitophagy in vitro and leads to dopaminergic neurodegeneration and mild dopamine loss in vivo. Our data indicate that PGAM5 is a regulator of mitophagy essential for mitochondrial turnover and serves a cytoprotective function in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Moreover, PGAM5 may provide a molecular link to study mitochondrial homeostasis and the pathogenesis of a movement disorder similar to Parkinson's disease.

  3. Genetic deficiency of the mitochondrial protein PGAM5 causes a Parkinson’s-like movement disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Springer, Danielle A.; Allen, Michele D.; Zheng, Lixin; Chao, Brittany; Zhang, Yan; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Lenardo, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mitophagy is a specialized form of autophagy that selectively disposes of dysfunctional mitochondria. Delineating the molecular regulation of mitophagy is of great importance because defects in this process lead to a variety of mitochondrial diseases. Here we report that mice deficient for the mitochondrial protein, phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5), displayed a Parkinson’s-like movement phenotype. We determined biochemically that PGAM5 is required for the stabilization of the mitophagy-inducing protein PINK1 on damaged mitochondria. Loss of PGAM5 disables PINK1-mediated mitophagy in vitro and leads to dopaminergic neurodegeneration and mild dopamine loss in vivo. Our data indicate that PGAM5 is a regulator of mitophagy essential for mitochondrial turnover and serves a cytoprotective function in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Moreover, PGAM5 may provide a molecular link to study mitochondrial homeostasis and the pathogenesis of a movement disorder similar to Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25222142

  4. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2015-12-08

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR.

  5. The functional analysis of distinct tospovirus movement proteins (NSM) reveals different capabilities in tubule formation, cell-to-cell and systemic virus movement among the tospovirus species.

    PubMed

    Leastro, Mikhail O; Pallás, Vicente; Resende, Renato O; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús A

    2017-01-02

    The lack of infectious tospovirus clones to address reverse genetic experiments has compromised the functional analysis of viral proteins. In the present study we have performed a functional analysis of the movement proteins (NSM) of four tospovirus species Bean necrotic mosaic virus (BeNMV), Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV), Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which differ biologically and molecularly, by using the Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) model system. All NSM proteins were competent to: i) support the cell-to-cell and systemic transport of AMV, ii) generate tubular structures on infected protoplast and iii) transport only virus particles. However, the NSM of BeNMV (one of the most phylogenetically distant species) was very inefficient to support the systemic transport. Deletion assays revealed that the C-terminal region of the BeNMV NSM, but not that of the CSNV, TCSV and TSWV NSM proteins, was dispensable for cell-to-cell transport, and that all the non-functional C-terminal NSM mutants were unable to generate tubular structures. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis revealed that the C-terminus of the BeNMV NSM was not required for the interaction with the cognate nucleocapsid protein, showing a different protein organization when compared with other movement proteins of the '30K family'. Overall, our results revealed clearly differences in functional aspects among movement proteins from divergent tospovirus species that have a distinct biological behavior.

  6. Movement and self-control in protein assemblies: quasi-equivalence revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Caspar, D.L.D.

    1980-10-01

    Purposeful switching among different conformational states exerts self-control in the construction and action of protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence, conceived to explain icosahedral virus structure, arises by differentiation of identical protein subunits into different conformations that conserve essential bonding specificity. Mechanical models designed to represent the energy distribution in the structure, rather than just the arrangement of matter, are used to explore flexibility and self-controlled movements in virus particles. Information about the assembly of bacterial flagella, actin, tobacco mosaic virus and the T4 from an inactive, unsociable form to an active, associable form. Energy to drive this change is provided by the intersubunit bonding in the growing structure; this self-control of assembly by conformational switching is called autostery, by homology with allostery. A mechanical model of the contractile T4 tail sheath has been constructed to demonstrate how self-controlled activation of latent bonding potential can drive a purposeful movement. The gradient of quasi-equivalent conformations modelled in the contracting tail sheath has suggested a workable mechanism for self-determination of tail tube length. Concerted action by assembles of identical proteins may often depend on individually differentiated movements.

  7. Movement and self-control in protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, D L

    1980-01-01

    Purposeful switching among different conformational states exerts self-control in the construction and action of protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence, conceived to explain icosahedral virus structure, arises by differentiation of identical protein subunits into different conformations that conserve essential bonding specificity. Mechanical models designed to represent the energy distribution in the structure, rather than just the arrangement of matter, are used to explore flexibility and self-controlled movements in virus particles. Information about the assembly of bacterial flagella, actin, tobacco mosaic virus and the T4 bacteriophage tail structure show that assembly can be controlled by switching the subunits from an inactive, unsociable form to an active, associable form. Energy to drive this change is provided by the intersubunit bonding in the growing structure; this self-control of assembly by conformational switching is called "autostery", by homology with allostery. A mechanical model of the contractile T4 tail sheath has been constructed to demonstrate how self-controlled activation of a latent bonding potential can drive a purposeful movement. The gradient of quasi-equivalent conformations modelled in the contracting tail sheath has suggested a workable mechanism for self-determination of tail tube length. Concerted action by assemblies of identical proteins may often depend on individually differentiated movements. Images Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6894706

  8. Exploring the stochastic dynamics of correlated movement of receptor proteins in plasma membranes in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jung Y.; Lin, Chien Y.

    2015-12-14

    Ligand-induced receptor dimerization plays a crucial role in the signaling process of living cells. In this study, we developed a theoretical model and performed single-molecule tracking to explore the correlated diffusion processes of liganded epidermal growth factor receptors prior to dimer formation. We disclosed that both an attractive potential between liganded receptor proteins in proximity and correlated fluctuations in the local environments of the proteins play an important role to produce the observed correlated movement of the receptors. This result can serve as the foundation to shed light on the way in which receptor functions are regulated in plasma membranes in vivo.

  9. The tomato mosaic tobamovirus movement protein interacts with a putative transcriptional coactivator KELP.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Y; Deguchi, M; Youda, M; Nishiguchi, M; Nyunoya, H

    2001-08-31

    Viral movement through plasmodesmata in host plants likely depends on the interaction between virus-encoded movement protein (MP) and host proteins. In order to search for MP-interacting protein (MIP), we carried out far-western screening of a Brassica campestris cDNA library using a recombinant MP of tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) as a probe. One of the positive clones, designated MIP102, was found to be a putative orthologue for a transcriptional coactivator KELP of Arabidopsis thaliana. In vitro analysis with recombinant proteins revealed that ToMV MP could bind to KELP proteins that are derived from different plant species. At least 31 amino acids from the carboxyl-terminus of ToMV MP were dispensable for the interaction with KELP. Other MPs, derived from crucifer tobamovirus CTMV-W and cucumber mosaic cucumovirus, also exhibited comparable binding abilities. This suggests that these MPs could commonly interact with KELP, possibly to modulate the host gene expression.

  10. Iron regulatory proteins control a mucosal block to intestinal iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Galy, Bruno; Ferring-Appel, Dunja; Becker, Christiane; Gretz, Norbert; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Schümann, Klaus; Hentze, Matthias W

    2013-03-28

    Mammalian iron metabolism is regulated systemically by the hormone hepcidin and cellularly by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that orchestrate a posttranscriptional regulatory network. Through ligand-inducible genetic ablation of both IRPs in the gut epithelium of adult mice, we demonstrate that IRP deficiency impairs iron absorption and promotes mucosal iron retention via a ferritin-mediated "mucosal block." We show that IRP deficiency does not interfere with intestinal sensing of body iron loading and erythropoietic iron need, but rather alters the basal expression of the iron-absorption machinery. IRPs thus secure sufficient iron transport across absorptive enterocytes by restricting the ferritin "mucosal block" and define a basal set point for iron absorption upon which IRP-independent systemic regulatory inputs are overlaid.

  11. Cooperation in Viral Movement: The Geminivirus BL1 Movement Protein Interacts with BR1 and Redirects It from the Nucleus to the Cell Periphery.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderfoot, A. A.; Lazarowitz, S. G.

    1995-01-01

    For plant viruses to systemically infect a host requires the active participation of viral-encoded movement proteins. It has been suggested that BL1 and BR1, the two movement proteins encoded by the bipartite geminivirus squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV), act cooperatively to facilitate movement of the viral single-stranded DNA genome from its site of replication in the nucleus to the cell periphery and across the cell wall to adjacent uninfected cells. To better understand the mechanism of SqLCV movement, we investigated the ability of BL1 and BR1 to interact specifically with each other using transient expression assays in insect cells and Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi protoplasts. In this study, we showed that when individually expressed, BL1 is localized to the periphery and BR1 to nuclei in both cell systems. However, when coexpressed in either cell type, BL1 relocalized BR1 from the nucleus to the cell periphery. This interaction was found to be specific for BL1 and BR1, because BL1 did not relocalize the SqLCV nuclear-localized AL2 or coat protein. In addition, mutations in BL1 known to affect viral infectivity and pathogenicity were found to be defective in either their subcellular localization or their ability to relocalize BR1, and, thus, identified regions of BL1 required for correct subcellular targeting or interaction with BR1. These findings extend our model for SqLCV movement, demonstrating that BL1 and BR1 appear to interact directly with each other to facilitate movement cooperatively and that BL1 is responsible for providing directionality to movement of the viral genome. PMID:12242403

  12. Movement Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Associates with Apoplastic Ascorbate Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Reenu; Kumar, Surender; Singh, Lakhmir; Hallan, Vipin

    Plant viral movement proteins facilitate virion movement mainly through interaction with a number of factors from the host. We report the association of a cell wall localized ascorbate oxidase (CsAO4) from Cucumis sativus with the movement protein (MP) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). This was identified first in a yeast two-hybrid screen and validated by in vivo pull down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. The BiFC assay showed localization of the bimolecular complexes of these proteins around the cell wall periphery as punctate spots. The expression of CsAO4 was induced during the initial infection period (up to 72 h) in CMV infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. To functionally validate its role in viral spread, we analyzed the virus accumulation in CsAO4 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and transiently silenced N. benthamiana plants (through a Tobacco rattle virus vector). Overexpression had no evident effect on virus accumulation in upper non-inoculated leaves of transgenic lines in comparison to WT plants at 7 days post inoculation (dpi). However, knockdown resulted in reduced CMV accumulation in systemic (non-inoculated) leaves of NbΔAO-pTRV2 silenced plants as compared to TRV inoculated control plants at 5 dpi (up to 1.3 fold difference). In addition, functional validation supported the importance of AO in plant development. These findings suggest that AO and viral MP interaction helps in early viral movement; however, it had no major effect on viral accumulation after 7 dpi. This study suggests that initial induction of expression of AO on virus infection and its association with viral MP helps both towards targeting of the MP to the apoplast and disrupting formation of functional AO dimers for spread of virus to nearby cells, reducing the redox defense of the plant during initial stages of infection.

  13. Movement Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Associates with Apoplastic Ascorbate Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Reenu; Kumar, Surender; Singh, Lakhmir; Hallan, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral movement proteins facilitate virion movement mainly through interaction with a number of factors from the host. We report the association of a cell wall localized ascorbate oxidase (CsAO4) from Cucumis sativus with the movement protein (MP) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). This was identified first in a yeast two-hybrid screen and validated by in vivo pull down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. The BiFC assay showed localization of the bimolecular complexes of these proteins around the cell wall periphery as punctate spots. The expression of CsAO4 was induced during the initial infection period (up to 72 h) in CMV infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. To functionally validate its role in viral spread, we analyzed the virus accumulation in CsAO4 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and transiently silenced N. benthamiana plants (through a Tobacco rattle virus vector). Overexpression had no evident effect on virus accumulation in upper non-inoculated leaves of transgenic lines in comparison to WT plants at 7 days post inoculation (dpi). However, knockdown resulted in reduced CMV accumulation in systemic (non-inoculated) leaves of NbΔAO-pTRV2 silenced plants as compared to TRV inoculated control plants at 5 dpi (up to 1.3 fold difference). In addition, functional validation supported the importance of AO in plant development. These findings suggest that AO and viral MP interaction helps in early viral movement; however, it had no major effect on viral accumulation after 7 dpi. This study suggests that initial induction of expression of AO on virus infection and its association with viral MP helps both towards targeting of the MP to the apoplast and disrupting formation of functional AO dimers for spread of virus to nearby cells, reducing the redox defense of the plant during initial stages of infection. PMID:27668429

  14. Local activation of protein kinase A inhibits morphogenetic movements during Xenopus gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Song, Byung-Ho; Choi, Sun-Cheol; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2003-05-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has various biological roles in many organisms. However, little is known about its role in the developmental processes of vertebrates. In this study, we describe the functional analysis of PKA during gastrulation movements in Xenopus laevis. Overexpression of constitutively active PKA (cPKA) in the dorsal equatorial region of the embryo affects morphogenetic movement during gastrulation. We also show that intrinsic differences of PKA activities along the dorsoventral axis are set up and the level of PKA activity on the dorsal region is lower than that on the ventral region from late blastula to gastrula stages. In addition, PKA activation in animal explants inhibits activin-induced elongation. In cPKA-injected embryos, there were no changes in the expressions of markers involved in mesoderm specification, although the correct expression domains of these genes were altered. The effects of PKA activation can be restored by coexpression of PKI, a pseudosubstrate of PKA. We further analyzed the effects of PKA activation on the behavior of migratory gastrulating cells in vitro. Expression of cPKA in head mesoderm cells causes less polarized and/or randomized migration as demonstrated by a directional cell migration assay. Finally, we show that RhoA GTPase lies downstream of PKA, affecting activin-induced convergent extension movements. Taken together, these results suggest that overexpressed PKA can modulate a pathway responsible for morphogenetic movements during Xenopus gastrulation.

  15. SVM-PB-Pred: SVM based protein block prediction method using sequence profiles and secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Suresh, V; Parthasarathy, S

    2014-01-01

    We developed a support vector machine based web server called SVM-PB-Pred, to predict the Protein Block for any given amino acid sequence. The input features of SVM-PB-Pred include i) sequence profiles (PSSM) and ii) actual secondary structures (SS) from DSSP method or predicted secondary structures from NPS@ and GOR4 methods. There were three combined input features PSSM+SS(DSSP), PSSM+SS(NPS@) and PSSM+SS(GOR4) used to test and train the SVM models. Similarly, four datasets RS90, DB433, LI1264 and SP1577 were used to develop the SVM models. These four SVM models developed were tested using three different benchmarking tests namely; (i) self consistency, (ii) seven fold cross validation test and (iii) independent case test. The maximum possible prediction accuracy of ~70% was observed in self consistency test for the SVM models of both LI1264 and SP1577 datasets, where PSSM+SS(DSSP) input features was used to test. The prediction accuracies were reduced to ~53% for PSSM+SS(NPS@) and ~43% for PSSM+SS(GOR4) in independent case test, for the SVM models of above two same datasets. Using our method, it is possible to predict the protein block letters for any query protein sequence with ~53% accuracy, when the SP1577 dataset and predicted secondary structure from NPS@ server were used. The SVM-PB-Pred server can be freely accessed through http://bioinfo.bdu.ac.in/~svmpbpred.

  16. The Aspergillus FlbA RGS domain protein antagonizes G protein signaling to block proliferation and allow development.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J H; Wieser, J; Adams, T H

    1996-01-01

    flbA encodes an Aspergillus nidulans RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) domain protein that is required for control of mycelial proliferation and activation of asexual sporulation. We identified a dominant mutation in a second gene, fadA, that resulted in a very similar phenotype to flbA loss-of-function mutants. Analysis of fadA showed that it encodes the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein, and the dominant phenotype resulted from conversion of glycine 42 to arginine (fadA(G42R)). This mutation is predicted to result in a loss of intrinsic GTPase activity leading to constitutive signaling, indicating that activation of this pathway leads to proliferation and blocks sporulation. By contrast, a fadA deletion and a fadA dominant-interfering mutation (fadA(G203R)) resulted in reduced growth without impairing sporulation. In fact, the fadA(G203R) mutant was a hyperactive asexual sporulator and produced elaborate sporulation structures, called conidiophores, under environmental conditions that blocked wild-type sporulation. Both the fadA(G203R) and the fadA deletion mutations suppressed the flbA mutant phenotype as predicted if the primary role of FlbA in sporulation is in blocking activation of FadA signaling. Because overexpression of flbA could not suppress the fadA(G42R) mutant phenotype, we propose that FlbA's role in modulating the FadA proliferation signal is dependent upon the intrinsic GTPase activity of wild-type FadA. Images PMID:8895563

  17. Physiological effects of constitutive expression of Oilseed Rape Mosaic Tobamovirus (ORMV) movement protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Carmen; Aguilar, Isabel; Martínez-Herrera, David; Sánchez, Flora; Ponz, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Movement proteins (MPs) are non-cell autonomous viral-encoded proteins that assist viruses in their cell-to-cell movement. The MP encoded by Tobamoviruses is the best characterized example among MPs of non-tubule-inducing plant RNA viruses. The MP of Oilseed Rape Mosaic Tobamovirus (ORMV) was transgenically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, ecotype RLD, under the expression of the 35S promoter from Cauliflower Mosaic Virus. Transgenic lines were obtained in sense and antisense orientations. One of the sense transgenic lines was further characterized turning out to carry one copy of the transgene inserted in the terminal region of the right arm of chromosome 1. The constitutive expression of ORMV-MP induced mild physiological effects in Arabidopsis. Plants of the transgenic line allowed a faster systemic movement of the phloem tracer carboxyfluorescein. The tracer was unloaded differentially in different flower parts, revealing differential effects of ORMV-MP on phloem unloading in sink organs. On the other hand, transgenic Arabidopsis did not show any effect on biomass partitioning or sugar availability, effects reported for equivalent transgenic solanaceous plants expressing the MP of Tobacco Mosaic Virus, another Tobamovirus. Finally, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were susceptible to ORMV infection, although showing milder overall symptoms than non-transgenic controls. The results highlight the relevance of the specific host-virus system, in the physiological outcome of the molecular interactions established by MPs.

  18. Evidence for proteolytic processing of tobacco mosaic virus movement protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R K; Perbal, M C; Maule, A J; Hull, R

    1995-01-01

    Two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana were transformed with the gene encoding tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (P30). P30 accumulated largely in a subcellular fraction containing cell wall components and as a soluble protein. The protein migrated in denaturing gels with an M(r) of 30K, significantly faster than P30 (M(r) approximately 34K) accumulating after expression in transgenic tobacco, Escherichia coli or Spodoptera frugiperda cells, or after virus multiplication in tobacco. The P30 from A. thaliana infected with TMV for 14 days comigrated with that from E. coli, but that from A. thaliana infected for 49 days was of the smaller size. The use of antisera specific for the N- or C-termini of P30 showed that in A. thaliana P30 was proteolytically processed at the N-terminus, a region essential for P30 function. The failure of these plants to complement a TMV P30 mutant indicated that processed P30 was nonfunctional, although the processing was not so rapid that it prevented the development of systemic infections with wild type TMV. The absence of detectable P30 phosphorylation in A. thaliana demonstrated that phosphorylation was not essential for movement protein function and suggested that this species may use proteolytic cleavage of the N-terminus as an alternative strategy to tobacco for deactivating P30.

  19. Test of a non-physical barrier consisting of light, sound, and bubble screen to block upstream movement of sea lamprey in an experimental raceway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Hrodey, Pete J.

    2017-01-01

    Control of the invasive Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is critical for management of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Blocking Sea Lamprey from spawning habitat with physical barriers is a major component of the control program. However, the resulting interruption of natural stream flow and blockage of nontarget species present substantial challenges. Development of an effective nonphysical barrier would aid the control of Sea Lamprey by eliminating access to Sea Lamprey spawning locations while maintaining natural stream flow. We tested the effect of a nonphysical barrier consisting of strobe lights, low-frequency sound, and a bubble screen on the movement of Sea Lamprey in an experimental raceway designed as a two-choice maze with a single main channel fed by two identical inflow channels (one control and one blocked). Sea Lamprey were more likely to move upstream during trials when the strobe light and low-frequency sound were active compared with control trials and trials with the bubble screen alone. For those Sea Lamprey that did move upstream to the confluence of inflow channels, no combination of stimuli or any individual stimulus significantly influenced the likelihood of Sea Lamprey entering the blocked inflow channel, the control channel, or returning downstream.

  20. Caulimoviridae Tubule-Guided Transport Is Dictated by Movement Protein Properties ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fajardo, Thor; Zicca, Stefania; Pallás, Vicente; Stavolone, Livia

    2010-01-01

    Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata (PD) either as nucleoprotein complexes (NPCs) or as tubule-guided encapsidated particles with the help of movement proteins (MPs). To explore how and why MPs specialize in one mechanism or the other, we tested the exchangeability of MPs encoded by DNA and RNA virus genomes by means of an engineered alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) system. We show that Caulimoviridae (DNA genome virus) MPs are competent for RNA virus particle transport but are unable to mediate NPC movement, and we discuss this restriction in terms of the evolution of DNA virus MPs as a means of mediating DNA viral genome entry into the RNA-trafficking PD pathway. PMID:20130061

  1. An antiviral disulfide compound blocks interaction between arenavirus Z protein and cellular promyelocytic leukemia protein

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, C.C.; Topisirovic, I.; Djavani, M.; Borden, K.L.B.; Damonte, E.B.; Salvato, M.S.

    2010-03-19

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) forms nuclear bodies (NB) that can be redistributed by virus infection. In particular, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) influences disruption of PML NB through the interaction of PML with the arenaviral Z protein. In a previous report, we have shown that the disulfide compound NSC20625 has antiviral and virucidal properties against arenaviruses, inducing unfolding and oligomerization of Z without affecting cellular RING-containing proteins such as the PML. Here, we further studied the effect of the zinc-finger-reactive disulfide NSC20625 on PML-Z interaction. In HepG2 cells infected with LCMV or transiently transfected with Z protein constructs, treatment with NSC20625 restored PML distribution from a diffuse-cytoplasmic pattern to punctate, discrete NB which appeared identical to NB found in control, uninfected cells. Similar results were obtained in cells transfected with a construct expressing a Z mutant in zinc-binding site 2 of the RING domain, confirming that this Z-PML interaction requires the integrity of only one zinc-binding site. Altogether, these results show that the compound NSC20625 suppressed Z-mediated PML NB disruption and may be used as a tool for designing novel antiviral strategies against arenavirus infection.

  2. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    SciTech Connect

    Carmen Herranz, Ma; Mingarro, Ismael; Pallas, Vicente . E-mail: vpallas@ibmcp.upv.es

    2005-08-15

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed.

  3. Systemic spread of an RNA insect virus in plants expressing plant viral movement protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Ranjit; Garcia, Bradley H.; Goodman, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Flock house virus (FHV), a single-stranded RNA insect virus, has previously been reported to cross the kingdom barrier and replicate in barley protoplasts and in inoculated leaves of several plant species [Selling, B. H., Allison, R. F. & Kaesberg, P. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87, 434–438]. There was no systemic movement of FHV in plants. We tested the ability of movement proteins (MPs) of plant viruses to provide movement functions and cause systemic spread of FHV in plants. We compared the growth of FHV in leaves of nontransgenic and transgenic plants expressing the MP of tobacco mosaic virus or red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV). Both MPs mobilized cell-to-cell and systemic movement of FHV in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The yield of FHV was more than 100-fold higher in the inoculated leaves of transgenic plants than in the inoculated leaves of nontransgenic plants. In addition, FHV accumulated in the noninoculated upper leaves of both MP-transgenic plants. RCNMV MP was more efficient in mobilizing FHV to noninoculated upper leaves. We also report here that FHV replicates in inoculated leaves of six additional plant species: alfalfa, Arabidopsis, Brassica, cucumber, maize, and rice. Our results demonstrate that plant viral MPs cause cell-to-cell and long-distance movement of an animal virus in plants and offer approaches to the study of the evolution of viruses and mechanisms governing mRNA trafficking in plants as well as to the development of promising vectors for transient expression of foreign genes in plants. PMID:11296259

  4. Detection of conserved segments in proteins: iterative scanning of sequence databases with alignment blocks.

    PubMed Central

    Tatusov, R L; Altschul, S F; Koonin, E V

    1994-01-01

    We describe an approach to analyzing protein sequence databases that, starting from a single uncharacterized sequence or group of related sequences, generates blocks of conserved segments. The procedure involves iterative database scans with an evolving position-dependent weight matrix constructed from a coevolving set of aligned conserved segments. For each iteration, the expected distribution of matrix scores under a random model is used to set a cutoff score for the inclusion of a segment in the next iteration. This cutoff may be calculated to allow the chance inclusion of either a fixed number or a fixed proportion of false positive segments. With sufficiently high cutoff scores, the procedure converged for all alignment blocks studied, with varying numbers of iterations required. Different methods for calculating weight matrices from alignment blocks were compared. The most effective of those tested was a logarithm-of-odds, Bayesian-based approach that used prior residue probabilities calculated from a mixture of Dirichlet distributions. The procedure described was used to detect novel conserved motifs of potential biological importance. Images PMID:7991589

  5. Light scattering evidence of selective protein fouling on biocompatible block copolymer micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, Fernando C.; Stepánek, Petr; Schmidt, Vanessa; Jäger, Eliézer; Jäger, Alessandro; Giacomelli, Cristiano

    2012-07-01

    Selective protein fouling on block copolymer micelles with well-known potential for tumour-targeting drug delivery was evidenced by using dynamic light scattering measurements. The stability and interaction of block copolymer micelles with model proteins (BSA, IgG, lysozyme and CytC) is reported for systems featuring a hydrophobic (poly[2-(diisopropylamino)-ethyl methacrylate]) (PDPA) core and hydrophilic coronas comprising poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PEO-b-PG2MA) or poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine] (PMPC). The results revealed that protein size and hydrophilic chain density play important roles in the observed interactions. The PEO113-b-PG2MA30-b-PDPA50 nanoparticles are stable and protein adsorption is prevented at all investigated protein environments. The successful protein-repellent characteristic of these nanoparticles is attributed to a high hydrophilic surface chain density (>0.1 chains per nm2) and to the length of the hydrophilic chains. On the other hand, although PMPC also has protein-repellent characteristics, the low surface chain density of the hydrophilic shell is supposed to enable interactions with small proteins. The PMPC40-b-PDPA70 micelles are stable in BSA and IgG environments due to weak repulsion forces between PMPC and the proteins, to the hydration layer, and particularly to a size-effect where the large BSA (RH = 4.2 nm) and IgG (RH = 7.0 nm) do not easily diffuse within the PMPC shell. Conversely, a clear interaction was observed with the 2.1 nm radius lysozyme. The lysozyme protein can diffuse within the PMPC micellar shell towards the PDPA hydrophobic core in a process favored by its smaller size and the low hydrophilic PMPC surface chain density (~0.049 chains per nm2) as compared to PEO-b-PG2MA (~0.110 chains per nm2). The same behavior was not evidenced with the 2.3 nm radius positively charged CytC, probably due to its higher surface hydrophilicity and the consequent chemical

  6. Nanoporous membrane based on block copolymer thin film for protein drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung Yun; Yang, Jeong-A.; Kim, Eung-Sam; Jeon, Gumhye; Oh, Eun Ju; Choi, Kwan Yong; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Kim, Jin Kon

    2010-03-01

    We studied long term and controlled release of protein drugs by using nanoporous membranes with various pore sizes. Nanoporous membrane consists of the separation layer prepared by polystyrene-block-poly(methylmethacrylate) copolymer thin film and conventional microfiltration membrane as a support. We demonstrate a long-term constant in vitro release of bovine serum albumin (BSA)and human growth hormone ) (hGH) without their denaturation up to 2 months. A nearly constant serum concentration of hGH was maintained up to 3 weeks in SD rats. The long-term constant delivery based on this membrane for protein drugs within the therapeutic range can be highly appreciated for the patients with hormone- deficiency.

  7. Biomimetic block copolymer particles with gated nanopores and ultrahigh protein sorption capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haizhou; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Nunes, Suzana P.; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-06-01

    The design of micro- or nanoparticles that can encapsulate sensitive molecules such as drugs, hormones, proteins or peptides is of increasing importance for applications in biotechnology and medicine. Examples are micelles, liposomes and vesicles. The tiny and, in most cases, hollow spheres are used as vehicles for transport and controlled administration of pharmaceutical drugs or nutrients. Here we report a simple strategy to fabricate microspheres by block copolymer self-assembly. The microsphere particles have monodispersed nanopores that can act as pH-responsive gates. They contain a highly porous internal structure, which is analogous to the Schwarz P structure. The internal porosity of the particles contributes to their high sorption capacity and sustained release behaviour. We successfully separated similarly sized proteins using these particles. The ease of particle fabrication by macrophase separation and self-assembly, and the robustness of the particles makes them ideal for sorption, separation, transport and sustained delivery of pharmaceutical substances.

  8. The conundrum of a unique protein encoded by citrus tristeza virus that is dispensable for infection of most hosts yet shows characteristics of a viral movement protein.

    PubMed

    Bak, Aurélie; Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2015-11-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), one of the most economically important viruses, produces a unique protein, p33, which is encoded only in the genomes of isolates of CTV. Recently, we demonstrated that membrane association of the p33 protein confers virus ability to extend its host range. In this work we show that p33 shares characteristics of viral movement proteins. Upon expression in a host cell, the protein localizes to plasmodesmata and displays the ability to form extracellular tubules. Furthermore, p33 appears to traffic via the cellular secretory pathway and the actin network to plasmodesmata locations and is likely being recycled through the endocytic pathway. Finally, our study reveals that p33 colocalizes with a putative movement protein of CTV, the p6 protein. These results suggest a potential role of p33 as a noncanonical viral movement protein, which mediates virus translocation in the specific hosts.

  9. Heterogeneous patterns on block copolymer thin film via solvent annealing: Effect on protein adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Zhu, Jintao; Liang, Haojun

    2015-03-01

    Heterogeneous patterns consisting of nanometer-scaled hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains were generated by self-assembly of poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PHEMA) block copolymer thin film. The effect of the heterogeneity of the polymer film surface on the nonspecific adsorption of the protein human plasma fibrinogen (FBN, 5.0 × 5.0 × 47.5 nm3) was investigated. The kinetics of the FBN adsorption varies from a single-component Langmuir model on homogeneous hydrophilic PHEMA to a two-stage spreading relaxation model on homogeneous hydrophobic PS surface. On a heterogeneous PS-b-PHEMA surface with majority PS part, the initial FBN adsorption rate remains the same as that on the homogeneous PS surface. However, hydrophilic PHEMA microdomains on the heterogeneous surface slow down the second spreading stage of the FBN adsorption process, leading to a surface excess of adsorbed FBN molecules less than the presumed one simply calculated as adsorption onto multiple domains. Importantly, when the PS-b-PHEMA surface is annealed to form minority domelike PS domains (diameter: ˜50-100 nm) surrounded by a majority PHEMA matrix, such surface morphology proves to be strongly protein-repulsive. These interesting findings can be attributed to the enhancement of the spread FBN molecule in a mobile state by the heterogeneity of polymer film surface before irreversible adsorption occurs.

  10. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-01-01

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17769.001 PMID:27919318

  11. Roles of Replication Protein-a Subunits 2 and 3 in DNA Replication Fork Movement in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Maniar, H. S.; Wilson, R.; Brill, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    Replication Protein-A, the eukaryotic SSB, consists of a large subunit (RPA1) with strong ssDNA binding activity and two smaller subunits (RPA2 and 3) that may cooperate with RPA1 to bind ssDNA in a higher-order mode. To determine the in vivo function of the two smaller subunits and the potential role of higher-order ssDNA binding, we isolated an assortment of heat-lethal mutations in the genes encoding RPA2 and RPA3. At the permissive temperature, the mutants show a range of effects on DNA replication fidelity and sensitivities to UV and MMS. At the nonpermissive temperature, four out of five RPA2 mutants show a fast-stop DNA synthesis phenotype typical of a replication fork block. In contrast, the fifth RPA2 mutant and all RPA3 mutants are able to complete at least one round of DNA replication at the nonpermissive temperature. The effect of these mutations on the stability of the RPA complex was tested using a coprecipitation assay. At the nonpermissive temperature, we find that RPA1 and RPA2 are dissociated in the fast-stop mutants, but not in the slow-stop mutants. Thus, replication fork movement in vivo requires the association of at least two subunits of RPA. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that RPA functions in vivo by binding ssDNA in a higher-order mode. PMID:9093844

  12. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S.

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  13. Newcastle Disease Virus V Protein Targets Phosphorylated STAT1 to Block IFN-I Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xusheng; Fu, Qiang; Meng, Chunchun; Yu, Shengqing; Zhan, Yuan; Dong, Luna; Song, Cuiping; Sun, Yingjie; Tan, Lei; Hu, Shunlin; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Xiufan; Ding, Chan

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) V protein is considered as an effector for IFN antagonism, however, the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, the expression of STAT1 and phospho-STAT1 in cells infected with NDV or transfected with V protein-expressing plasmids were analyzed. Our results showed that NDV V protein targets phospho-STAT1 reduction in the cells depends on the stimulation of IFN-α. In addition, a V-deficient genotype VII recombinant NDV strain rZJ1-VS was constructed using reverse genetic technique to confirm the results. The rZJ1-VS lost the ability to reduce phospho-STAT1 and induced higher expression of IFN-responsive genes in infected cells. Furthermore, treatment with an ubiquitin E1 inhibitor PYR-41 demonstrated that phospho-STAT1 reduction was caused by degradation, but not de-phosphorylation. We conclude that NDV V protein targets phospho-STAT1 degradation to block IFN-α signaling, which adds novel knowledge to the strategies used by paramyxoviruses to evade IFN. PMID:26859759

  14. In vitro phosphorylation of the movement protein of tomato mosaic tobamovirus by a cellular kinase.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Y; Hanazawa, K; Yoshioka, K; Oguchi, T; Kawakami, S; Watanabe, Y; Nishiguchi, M; Nyunoya, H

    2000-08-01

    The movement protein (MP) of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was produced in E. coli as a soluble fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase. When immobilized on glutathione affinity beads, the recombinant protein was phosphorylated in vitro by incubating with cell extracts of Nicotiana tabacum and tobacco suspension culture cells (BY-2) in the presence of [gamma-(32)P]ATP. Phosphorylation occurred even after washing the beads with a detergent-containing buffer, indicating that the recombinant MP formed a stable complex with some protein kinase(s) during incubation with the cell extract. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that the MP was phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. Phosphorylation of the MP was decreased by addition of kinase inhibitors such as heparin, suramin and quercetin, which are known to be effective for casein kinase II (CK II). The phosphorylation level was not changed by other types of inhibitor. In addition, as shown for animal and plant CK II, [gamma-(32)P]GTP was efficiently used as a phosphoryl donor. Phosphorylation was not affected by amino acid replacements at serine-37 and serine-238, but was completely inhibited by deletion of the carboxy-terminal 9 amino acids, including threonine-256, serine-257, serine-261 and serine-263. These results suggest that the MP of ToMV could be phosphorylated in plant cells by a host protein kinase that is closely related to CK II.

  15. Localization of Barley yellow dwarf virus Movement Protein Modulating Programmed Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jiwon; Kim, Kangmin; Lee, Kui-Jae; Lee, Wang Hu; Ju, Ho-Jong

    2017-02-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) belongs to Luteovirus and is limited only at phloem related tissues. An open reading frame (ORF) 4 of BYDV codes for the movement protein (MP) of BYDV gating plasmodesmata (PD) to facilitate virus movement. Like other Luteoviruses, ORF 4 of BYDV is embedded in the ORF3 but expressed from the different reading frame in leaky scanning manner. Although MP is a very important protein for systemic infection of BYDV, there was a little information. In this study, MP was characterized in terms of subcellular localization and programmed cell death (PCD). Gene of MP or its mutant (ΔMP) was expressed by Agroinfiltration method. MP was clearly localized at the nucleus and the PD, but ΔMP which was deleted distal N-terminus of MP showed no localization to PD exhibited the different target with original MP. In addition to PD localization, MP appeared associated with small granules in cytoplasm whereas ΔMP did not. MP associated with PD and small granules induced PCD, but ΔMP showed no association with PD and small granules did not exhibit PCD. Based on this study, the distal N-terminal region within MP is seemingly responsible for the localization of PD and the induction small granules and PCD induction. These results suggest that subcellular localization of BYDV MP may modulate the PCD in Nicotiana benthamiana.

  16. Localization of Barley yellow dwarf virus Movement Protein Modulating Programmed Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jiwon; Kim, Kangmin; Lee, Kui-Jae; Lee, Wang Hu; Ju, Ho-Jong

    2017-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) belongs to Luteovirus and is limited only at phloem related tissues. An open reading frame (ORF) 4 of BYDV codes for the movement protein (MP) of BYDV gating plasmodesmata (PD) to facilitate virus movement. Like other Luteoviruses, ORF 4 of BYDV is embedded in the ORF3 but expressed from the different reading frame in leaky scanning manner. Although MP is a very important protein for systemic infection of BYDV, there was a little information. In this study, MP was characterized in terms of subcellular localization and programmed cell death (PCD). Gene of MP or its mutant (ΔMP) was expressed by Agroinfiltration method. MP was clearly localized at the nucleus and the PD, but ΔMP which was deleted distal N-terminus of MP showed no localization to PD exhibited the different target with original MP. In addition to PD localization, MP appeared associated with small granules in cytoplasm whereas ΔMP did not. MP associated with PD and small granules induced PCD, but ΔMP showed no association with PD and small granules did not exhibit PCD. Based on this study, the distal N-terminal region within MP is seemingly responsible for the localization of PD and the induction small granules and PCD induction. These results suggest that subcellular localization of BYDV MP may modulate the PCD in Nicotiana benthamiana. PMID:28167888

  17. Structure Activity Relationships of Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins in Complex with a Blocking Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Reid,C.; Rushe, M.; Jarpe, M.; Van Vlijmen, H.; Dolinski, B.; Qian, F.; Cachero, T.; Cuervo, H.; Yanachkova, M.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) are cytokines that direct immune cells bearing appropriate receptors to sites of inflammation or injury and are therefore attractive therapeutic targets for inhibitory molecules. 11K2 is a blocking mouse monoclonal antibody active against several human and murine MCPs. A 2.5 Angstroms structure of the Fab fragment of this antibody in complex with human MCP-1 has been solved. The Fab blocks CCR2 receptor binding to MCP-1 through an adjacent but distinct binding site. The orientation of the Fab indicates that a single MCP-1 dimer will bind two 11K2 antibodies. Several key residues on the antibody and on human MCPs were predicted to be involved in antibody selectivity. Mutational analysis of these residues confirms their involvement in the antibody- chemokine interaction. In addition to mutations that decreased or disrupted binding, one antibody mutation resulted in a 70-fold increase in affinity for human MCP-2. A key residue missing in human MCP-3, a chemokine not recognized by the antibody, was identified and engineering the preferred residue into the chemokine conferred binding to the antibody.

  18. Dietary fish oil blocks carcinogen-induced down-regulation of colonic protein kinase C isozymes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y H; Lupton, J R; Chapkin, R S

    1997-02-01

    In order to elucidate the influence of dietary constituents on colonic intracellular signal transduction, the effect of different fats on rat colonic epithelial protein kinase C (PKC) alpha (classical), delta (novel) and lambda-zeta (atypical) expression was determined in carcinogen-treated animals. Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of two fats (corn oil and fish oil); plus or minus the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and killed at two time points (15 and 37 weeks) in a 2x2x2 factorial design. At 5 and 6 weeks of age, animals were injected s.c. with either AOM at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight or saline once a week for 2 weeks and continued on the same diet until termination of the study. At 15 and 37 weeks after the second injection, 10 rats from each treatment group were killed. Colonic PKC alpha, delta and lambda-zeta steady-state protein and mRNA levels were determined using immunoblotting and relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Colonic mucosa from rats injected with AOM had significantly suppressed membrane and cytosolic PKC alpha and cytosolic lambda-zeta protein levels (P < 0.05) as compared to saline-injected control animals at both time points. In contrast, rats fed fish oil diets had significantly higher (P < 0.05) cytosolic PKC delta and lambda-zeta protein levels relative to animals fed corn oil diets. However, the effect of diet and AOM on the steady-state expression of PKC alpha, delta and zeta mRNA was not consistent with changes in the respective isozyme protein levels, suggesting regulation at the post-transcriptional level. These data demonstrate that dietary fish oil blocks the carcinogen-induced decrease in the steady-state levels of colonic mucosal PKC delta and lambda-zeta, which may in part explain why this fat source protects against colon cancer development.

  19. Blocking rapid ice crystal growth through nonbasal plane adsorption of antifreeze proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Meister, Konrad; DeVries, Arthur L.; Duman, John G.; Guo, Shuaiqi; Bakker, Huib J.; Voets, Ilja K.

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the different classes of AFPs: blocking fast ice growth requires rapid nonbasal plane adsorption, whereas basal plane adsorption is only relevant at long annealing times and at small undercooling. These findings clearly demonstrate that biomimetic analogs of antifreeze (glyco)proteins should be tailored to the specific requirements of the targeted application. PMID:26936953

  20. Blocking rapid ice crystal growth through nonbasal plane adsorption of antifreeze proteins.

    PubMed

    Olijve, Luuk L C; Meister, Konrad; DeVries, Arthur L; Duman, John G; Guo, Shuaiqi; Bakker, Huib J; Voets, Ilja K

    2016-04-05

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a unique class of proteins that bind to growing ice crystal surfaces and arrest further ice growth. AFPs have gained a large interest for their use in antifreeze formulations for water-based materials, such as foods, waterborne paints, and organ transplants. Instead of commonly used colligative antifreezes such as salts and alcohols, the advantage of using AFPs as an additive is that they do not alter the physicochemical properties of the water-based material. Here, we report the first comprehensive evaluation of thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity of all major classes of AFPs using cryoscopy, sonocrystallization, and recrystallization assays. The results show that TH activities determined by cryoscopy and sonocrystallization differ markedly, and that TH and IRI activities are not correlated. The absence of a distinct correlation in antifreeze activity points to a mechanistic difference in ice growth inhibition by the different classes of AFPs: blocking fast ice growth requires rapid nonbasal plane adsorption, whereas basal plane adsorption is only relevant at long annealing times and at small undercooling. These findings clearly demonstrate that biomimetic analogs of antifreeze (glyco)proteins should be tailored to the specific requirements of the targeted application.

  1. The interaction of nitrous oxide and fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane blocking motor movement (MACNM) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Seddighi, Reza; Doherty, Thomas J; Kukanich, Butch; Egger, Christine M; Henn, Melissa A; Long, Whitney M; Rohrbach, Barton W

    2014-07-01

    The study objective was to determine the effects of 70% nitrous oxide (N2O) and fentanyl on the end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane necessary to prevent movement (MACNM) in response to noxious stimulation in dogs. Six healthy, adult, intact male, mixed-breed dogs were used on 3 occasions in a randomized crossover design. After induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, each of the following treatments was randomly administered: fentanyl loading dose (Ld) of 15 μg/kg and infusion of 6 μg/kg per hour [treatment 1 (T1)], 70% N2O (T2), or fentanyl (Ld of 15 μg/kg and infusion of 6 μg/kg per hour) combined with 70% N2O (T3). Each dog received each of the 3 treatments once during the 3-week period. Determination of MACNM was initiated 90 min after the start of each treatment. The values were compared using the baseline MACNM, which had been determined in a previous study on the same group of dogs. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey-Kramer tests, and expressed as least squares mean ± SEM. The baseline MACNM decreased by 36.6 ± 4.0%, 15.0 ± 4.0%, and 46.0 ± 4.0% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively (P < 0.05), and differed (P < 0.05) among treatments. Mean fentanyl plasma concentrations did not differ (P ≥ 0.05) between T1 (3.70 ± 0.56 ng/mL) and T3 (3.50 ± 0.56 ng/mL). The combination of fentanyl and N2O resulted in a greater sevoflurane MACNM sparing effect than either treatment alone.

  2. Gene I, a potential cell-to-cell movement locus of cauliflower mosaic virus, encodes an RNA-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Citovsky, V.; Knorr, D.; Zambryski, P. )

    1991-03-15

    Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) pararetrovirus capable of cell-to-cell movement presumably through intercellular connections, the plasmodesmata, of the infected plant. This movement is likely mediated by a specific viral protein encoded by the gene I locus. Here we report that the purified gene I protein binds RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) but not dsDNA regardless of nucleotide sequence specificity. The binding is highly cooperative, and the affinity of the gene I protein for RNA is 10-fold higher than for ssDNA. CaMV replicates by reverse transcription of a 35S RNA that is homologous to the entire genome. The authors propose that the 35S RNA may be involved in cell-to-cell movement of CaMV as an intermediate that is transported through plasmodesmata as an RNA-gene I protein complex.

  3. Production of Polyclonal Antibody against Grapevine fanleaf virus Movement Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Koolivand, Davoud; Bashir, Nemat Sokhandan; Behjatnia, Seyed Aliakbar; Joozani, Raziallah Jafari

    2016-01-01

    The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) encoding the movement protein (MP) was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM) each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blotting. The expressed 41 kDa protein was purified under denaturing condition by affinity chromatography, reconfirmed by Western blotting and plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA) before being used as a recombinant antigen to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified anti-GFLV MP immunoglobulines (IgGs) and conjugated IgGs detected the expressed MP and GFLV virions in infected grapevines when used in PTA-ELISA, double antibody sandwich-ELISA, and Western blotting. This is the first report on the production of anti-GFLV MP polyclonal antibodies and application for the virus detection. PMID:27721695

  4. Actin-crosslinking protein regulation of filament movement in motility assays: a theoretical model.

    PubMed Central

    Janson, L W; Taylor, D L

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of single actin filaments on a myosin-coated coverslip has been modeled by several authors. One model adds a component of "frictional drag" by myosin heads that oppose movement of the actin filaments. We have extended this concept by including the resistive drag from actin crosslinking proteins to understand better the relationship among crosslinking number, actin-myosin force generation, and motility. The validity of this model is supported by agreement with the experimental results from a previous study in which crosslinking proteins were added with myosin molecules under otherwise standard motility assay conditions. The theoretical relationship provides a means to determine many physical parameters that characterize the interaction between a single actin filament and a single actin-crosslinking molecule (various types). In particular, the force constant of a single filamin molecule is calculated as 1.105 pN, approximately 3 times less than a driving myosin head (3.4 pN). Knowledge of this parameter and others derived from this model allows a better understanding of the interaction between myosin and the actin/actin-binding protein cytoskeleton and the role of actin-binding proteins in the regulation and modulation of motility. PMID:7811954

  5. Development of a blocking ELISA for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection based on a monoclonal antibody against protein P65

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Maojun; DU, Gaimei; ZHANG, Yue; WU, Yuzi; WANG, Haiyan; LI, Bin; BAI, Yun; FENG, Zhixin; XIONG, Qiyan; BAI, Fangfang; BROWNING, Glenn F; SHAO, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes porcine enzootic pneumonia, an economically important disease of swine. A more sensitive and reliable method for detection of serum antibodies is needed for epidemiological investigations and to evaluate the effect of immunization. We expressed the M. hyopneumoniae protein P65 in Escherichia coli and produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that bound specifically to recombinant P65. Using this mAb, a blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. The blocking ELISA had similar specificity to and sensitivity with the commercial ELISA produced by IDEXX. Thus, this blocking ELISA is a useful test for serological confirmation of M. hyopneumoniae infection. PMID:27075114

  6. Interaction of Sesbania Mosaic Virus Movement Protein with VPg and P10: Implication to Specificity of Genome Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Roy Chowdhury, Soumya; Savithri, Handanahal S.

    2011-01-01

    Sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV) is a single strand positive-sense RNA plant virus that belongs to the genus Sobemovirus. The mechanism of cell-to-cell movement in sobemoviruses has not been well studied. With a view to identify the viral encoded ancillary proteins of SeMV that may assist in cell-to-cell movement of the virus, all the proteins encoded by SeMV genome were cloned into yeast Matchmaker system 3 and interaction studies were performed. Two proteins namely, viral protein genome linked (VPg) and a 10-kDa protein (P10) c v gft encoded by OFR 2a, were identified as possible interacting partners in addition to the viral coat protein (CP). Further characterization of these interactions revealed that the movement protein (MP) recognizes cognate RNA through interaction with VPg, which is covalently linked to the 5′ end of the RNA. Analysis of the deletion mutants delineated the domains of MP involved in the interaction with VPg and P10. This study implicates for the first time that VPg might play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by MP in SeMV and shed light on the possible role of P10 in the viral movement. PMID:21246040

  7. The PIKfyve Inhibitor YM201636 Blocks the Continuous Recycling of the Tight Junction Proteins Claudin-1 and Claudin-2 in MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Tight junctions mediate the intercellular diffusion barrier found in epithelial tissues but they are not static complexes; instead there is rapid movement of individual proteins within the junctions. In addition some tight junction proteins are continuously being endocytosed and recycled back to the plasma membrane. Understanding the dynamic behaviour of tight junctions is important as they are altered in a range of pathological conditions including cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. In this study we investigate the effect of treating epithelial cells with a small molecule inhibitor (YM201636) of the lipid kinase PIKfyve, a protein which is involved in endocytic trafficking. We show that MDCK cells treated with YM201636 accumulate the tight junction protein claudin-1 intracellularly. In contrast YM201636 did not alter the localization of other junction proteins including ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin. A biochemical trafficking assay was used to show that YM201636 inhibited the endocytic recycling of claudin-1, providing an explanation for the intracellular accumulation. Claudin-2 was also found to constantly recycle in confluent MDCK cells and treatment with YM201636 blocked this recycling and caused accumulation of intracellular claudin-2. However, claudin-4 showed negligible endocytosis and no detectable intracellular accumulation occurred following treatment with YM201636, suggesting that not all claudins show the same rate of endocytic trafficking. Finally, we show that, consistent with the defects in claudin trafficking, incubation with YM201636 delayed formation of the epithelial permeability barrier. Therefore, YM201636 treatment blocks the continuous recycling of claudin-1/claudin-2 and delays epithelial barrier formation. PMID:22396724

  8. Movement Protein Pns6 of Rice dwarf phytoreovirus Has Both ATPase and RNA Binding Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chunhong; Ye, Gongyin; Zhang, Zhongkai; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui; Li, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Cell-to-cell movement is essential for plant viruses to systemically infect host plants. Plant viruses encode movement proteins (MP) to facilitate such movement. Unlike the well-characterized MPs of DNA viruses and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, knowledge of the functional mechanisms of MPs encoded by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses is very limited. In particular, many studied MPs of DNA and ssRNA viruses bind non-specifically ssRNAs, leading to models in which ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) move from cell to cell. Thus, it will be of special interest to determine whether MPs of dsRNA viruses interact with genomic dsRNAs or their derivative sRNAs. To this end, we studied the biochemical functions of MP Pns6 of Rice dwarf phytoreovirus (RDV), a member of Phytoreovirus that contains a 12-segmented dsRNA genome. We report here that Pns6 binds both dsRNAs and ssRNAs. Intriguingly, Pns6 exhibits non-sequence specificity for dsRNA but shows preference for ssRNA sequences derived from the conserved genomic 5′- and 3′- terminal consensus sequences of RDV. Furthermore, Pns6 exhibits magnesium-dependent ATPase activities. Mutagenesis identified the RNA binding and ATPase activity sites of Pns6 at the N- and C-termini, respectively. Our results uncovered the novel property of a viral MP in differentially recognizing dsRNA and ssRNA and establish a biochemical basis to enable further studies on the mechanisms of dsRNA viral MP functions. PMID:21949821

  9. (S)-α-Chlorohydrin Inhibits Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation through Blocking Cyclic AMP - Protein Kinase A Pathway in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Yang, Bei; Pi, Jingbo; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2012-01-01

    α-Chlorohydrin is a common contaminant in food. Its (S)-isomer, (S)-α-chlorohydrin (SACH), is known for causing infertility in animals by inhibiting glycolysis of spermatozoa. The aim of present work was to examine the relationship between SACH and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP), which plays a critical role in regulating mammalian sperm capacitation. In vitro exposure of SACH 50 µM to isolated rat epididymal sperm inhibited PTP. Sperm-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) activities, the intracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) levels, 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) substrates in rat sperm were diminished dramatically, indicating that both glycolysis and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway were impaired by SACH. The inhibition of both PTP and phosphorylation of PKA substrates by SACH could be restored by addition of cAMP analog dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP) and phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Moreover, addition of glycerol protected glycolysis, ATP levels, phosphorylation of PKA substrates and PTP against the influence of SACH. These results suggested SACH inhibited PTP through blocking cAMP/PKA pathway in sperm, and PTP inhibition may play a role in infertility associated with SACH. PMID:22916194

  10. Fluconazole inhibits hERG K(+) channel by direct block and disruption of protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Han, Shengna; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Qiu; Duan, Yanyan; Zheng, Tenghao; Hu, Xiangjie; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Lirong

    2011-01-10

    Fluconazole, a commonly used azole antifungal drug, can induce QT prolongation, which may lead to Torsades de Pointes and sudden death. To investigate the arrhythmogenic side effects of fluconazole, we studied the effect of fluconazole on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K(+) channels (wild type, Y652A and F656C) expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells using a whole-cell patch clamp technique, Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. Fluconazole inhibited wild type hERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a half-maximum block concentration (IC(50)) of 48.2±9.4μM. Fluconazole did not change other channel kinetics (activation and steady-state inactivation) of hERG channel. Mutations in drug- binding sites (Y652A or F656C) of the hERG channel significantly attenuated the hERG current blockade by fluconazole. In addition, fluconazole inhibited the trafficking of hERG protein by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy, respectively. These findings indicate that fluconazole may cause acquired long QT syndrome (LQTS) via a direct inhibition of hERG current and by disrupting hERG protein trafficking, and the mutations Y652 and F656 may be obligatory determinants in inhibition of hERG current for fluconazole.

  11. Lithium blocks ethanol-induced modulation of protein kinases in the developing brain

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Saito, Mitsuo; Mao, Rui-Fen; Wang, Ray; Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mariko

    2008-03-14

    Lithium has been shown to be neuroprotective against various insults including ethanol exposure. We previously reported that ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (P7) mice is associated with decreases in phosphorylation levels of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and alteration in lipid profiles in the brain. Here, P7 mice were injected with ethanol and lithium, and the effects of lithium on ethanol-induced alterations in phosphorylation levels of protein kinases and lipid profiles in the brain were examined. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that lithium significantly blocked ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction in phosphorylation levels of Akt, GSK-3{beta}, and AMPK. Further, lithium inhibited accumulation of cholesterol ester (ChE) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) triggered by ethanol in the brain. These results suggest that Akt, GSK-3{beta}, and AMPK are involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and the neuroprotective effects of lithium by modulating both apoptotic and survival pathways.

  12. Selective inhibition of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 blocks initiation and maintenance of B-cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Alinari, Lapo; Mahasenan, Kiran V.; Yan, Fengting; Karkhanis, Vrajesh; Chung, Ji-Hyun; Smith, Emily M.; Quinion, Carl; Smith, Porsha L.; Kim, Lisa; Patton, John T.; Lapalombella, Rosa; Yu, Bo; Wu, Yun; Roy, Satavisha; De Leo, Alessandra; Pileri, Stefano; Agostinelli, Claudio; Ayers, Leona; Bradner, James E.; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Elemento, Olivier; Motiwala, Tasneem; Majumder, Sarmila; Byrd, John C.; Jacob, Samson; Sif, Said; Li, Chenglong

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic events that are essential drivers of lymphocyte transformation remain incompletely characterized. We used models of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–induced B-cell transformation to document the relevance of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) to regulation of epigenetic-repressive marks during lymphomagenesis. EBV+ lymphomas and transformed cell lines exhibited abundant expression of PRMT5, a type II PRMT enzyme that promotes transcriptional silencing of target genes by methylating arginine residues on histone tails. PRMT5 expression was limited to EBV-transformed cells, not resting or activated B lymphocytes, validating it as an ideal therapeutic target. We developed a first-in-class, small-molecule PRMT5 inhibitor that blocked EBV-driven B-lymphocyte transformation and survival while leaving normal B cells unaffected. Inhibition of PRMT5 led to lost recruitment of a PRMT5/p65/HDAC3-repressive complex on the miR96 promoter, restored miR96 expression, and PRMT5 downregulation. RNA-sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments identified several tumor suppressor genes, including the protein tyrosine phosphatase gene PTPROt, which became silenced during EBV-driven B-cell transformation. Enhanced PTPROt expression following PRMT5 inhibition led to dephosphorylation of kinases that regulate B-cell receptor signaling. We conclude that PRMT5 is critical to EBV-driven B-cell transformation and maintenance of the malignant phenotype, and that PRMT5 inhibition shows promise as a novel therapeutic approach for B-cell lymphomas. PMID:25742700

  13. Intercellular signaling through secreted proteins induces free-energy gradient-directed cell movement

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Shin, Young Shik; Sutherland, Alex; Levine, R. D.; Heath, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling cell migration is important in tissue engineering and medicine. Cell motility depends on factors such as nutrient concentration gradients and soluble factor signaling. In particular, cell–cell signaling can depend on cell–cell separation distance and can influence cellular arrangements in bulk cultures. Here, we seek a physical-based approach, which identifies a potential governed by cell–cell signaling that induces a directed cell–cell motion. A single-cell barcode chip (SCBC) was used to experimentally interrogate secreted proteins in hundreds of isolated glioblastoma brain cancer cell pairs and to monitor their relative motions over time. We used these trajectories to identify a range of cell–cell separation distances where the signaling was most stable. We then used a thermodynamics-motivated analysis of secreted protein levels to characterize free-energy changes for different cell–cell distances. We show that glioblastoma cell–cell movement can be described as Brownian motion biased by cell–cell potential. To demonstrate that the free-energy potential as determined by the signaling is the driver of motion, we inhibited two proteins most involved in maintaining the free-energy gradient. Following inhibition, cell pairs showed an essentially random Brownian motion, similar to the case for untreated, isolated single cells. PMID:27140641

  14. Intercellular signaling through secreted proteins induces free-energy gradient-directed cell movement.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Shin, Young Shik; Sutherland, Alex; Levine, R D; Heath, James R

    2016-05-17

    Controlling cell migration is important in tissue engineering and medicine. Cell motility depends on factors such as nutrient concentration gradients and soluble factor signaling. In particular, cell-cell signaling can depend on cell-cell separation distance and can influence cellular arrangements in bulk cultures. Here, we seek a physical-based approach, which identifies a potential governed by cell-cell signaling that induces a directed cell-cell motion. A single-cell barcode chip (SCBC) was used to experimentally interrogate secreted proteins in hundreds of isolated glioblastoma brain cancer cell pairs and to monitor their relative motions over time. We used these trajectories to identify a range of cell-cell separation distances where the signaling was most stable. We then used a thermodynamics-motivated analysis of secreted protein levels to characterize free-energy changes for different cell-cell distances. We show that glioblastoma cell-cell movement can be described as Brownian motion biased by cell-cell potential. To demonstrate that the free-energy potential as determined by the signaling is the driver of motion, we inhibited two proteins most involved in maintaining the free-energy gradient. Following inhibition, cell pairs showed an essentially random Brownian motion, similar to the case for untreated, isolated single cells.

  15. Force-dependent switch in protein unfolding pathways and transition-state movements.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, Pavel I; Hinczewski, Michael; Chakrabarti, Shaon; Marqusee, Susan; Thirumalai, D

    2016-02-09

    Although it is known that single-domain proteins fold and unfold by parallel pathways, demonstration of this expectation has been difficult to establish in experiments. Unfolding rate, [Formula: see text], as a function of force f, obtained in single-molecule pulling experiments on src SH3 domain, exhibits upward curvature on a [Formula: see text] plot. Similar observations were reported for other proteins for the unfolding rate [Formula: see text]. These findings imply unfolding in these single-domain proteins involves a switch in the pathway as f or [Formula: see text] is increased from a low to a high value. We provide a unified theory demonstrating that if [Formula: see text] as a function of a perturbation (f or [Formula: see text]) exhibits upward curvature then the underlying energy landscape must be strongly multidimensional. Using molecular simulations we provide a structural basis for the switch in the pathways and dramatic shifts in the transition-state ensemble (TSE) in src SH3 domain as f is increased. We show that a single-point mutation shifts the upward curvature in [Formula: see text] to a lower force, thus establishing the malleability of the underlying folding landscape. Our theory, applicable to any perturbation that affects the free energy of the protein linearly, readily explains movement in the TSE in a β-sandwich (I27) protein and single-chain monellin as the denaturant concentration is varied. We predict that in the force range accessible in laser optical tweezer experiments there should be a switch in the unfolding pathways in I27 or its mutants.

  16. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mushegian, Arcady R.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2015-02-15

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, and positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts. - Highlights: • Sequence region shared by plant virus “30K” movement proteins has an all-beta fold. • Most euphyllophyte genomes contain integrated copies of pararetroviruses. • These integrated virus genomes often include intact movement protein genes. • Molecular evidence suggests that these “30K” genes may be selected for function.

  17. Probing the mechanisms underlying modulation of quinidine sensitivity to cardiac IKs block by protein kinase A-mediated IKs phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Kanki, Hideaki; Zhang, Wei; Roden, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cardiac IKs is enhanced by protein kinase A (PKA) stimulation. And PKA-stimulated IKs is about threefold less sensitive to quinidine block than basal current. In this study, we further tested two competing hypotheses: IKs phosphorylation either (i) modulates access of blocking drugs to a binding site; or (ii) destabilizes the drug–channel interaction. Experimental approach: To distinguish between these hypotheses, we studied quinidine block of IKs channels in which three PKA site residues of the α-subunit KCNQ1 were mutated with a bulky negative charged aspartic acid (D). To study alleviation of IKs block by quinidine, we compared activating current at +60 mV, either with or without 5 s hyperpolarizing prepulses to −120 mV. Key results: Without PKA stimulation, quinidine (100 µM) blocked wild-type current to a similar extent with and without the prepulse (93 ± 2% of pre-drug current at +60 mV vs. 95 ± 1%). With PKA-stimulated wild-type channels, however, there was less block with the hyperpolarization to −120 mV: at +60 mV, block was 71 ± 2% (−prepulse) versus 58 ± 3% (+prepulse). Individual D-mutations and the triple-D mutant were resistant to quinidine block similar to that seen with PKA-stimulated wild-type IKs. Conclusions and implications: We conclude that phosphorylation-induced insertion of bulky negative charges alleviates quinidine block and that PKA-induced stimulation, by conferring negative charges to the channels, blunts IKs block as the interaction between the channels and blockers becomes destabilized. These effects would be of clinical significance in providing protective mechanisms against pro-arrhythmias caused by drug-induced inhibition of IKs and IKr. PMID:19522859

  18. Protein disulfide isomerase inhibition blocks thrombin generation in humans by interfering with platelet factor V activation

    PubMed Central

    Stopa, Jack D.; Neuberg, Donna; Puligandla, Maneka; Furie, Bruce; Zwicker, Jeffrey I.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is required for thrombus formation. We previously demonstrated that glycosylated quercetin flavonoids such as isoquercetin inhibit PDI activity and thrombus formation in animal models, but whether extracellular PDI represents a viable anticoagulant target in humans and how its inhibition affects blood coagulation remain unknown. METHODS: We evaluated effects of oral administration of isoquercetin on platelet-dependent thrombin generation in healthy subjects and patients with persistently elevated anti-phospholipid antibodies. RESULTS: Following oral administration of 1,000 mg isoquercetin to healthy adults, the measured peak plasma quercetin concentration (9.2 μM) exceeded its IC50 for inhibition of PDI by isoquercetin in vitro (2.5 ± 0.4 μM). Platelet-dependent thrombin generation decreased by 51% in the healthy volunteers compared with baseline (P = 0.0004) and by 64% in the anti-phospholipid antibody cohort (P = 0.015) following isoquercetin ingestion. To understand how PDI affects thrombin generation, we evaluated substrates of PDI identified using an unbiased mechanistic-based substrate trapping approach. These studies identified platelet factor V as a PDI substrate. Isoquercetin blocked both platelet factor Va and thrombin generation with an IC50 of ~5 μM. Inhibition of PDI by isoquercetin ingestion resulted in a 53% decrease in the generation of platelet factor Va (P = 0.001). Isoquercetin-mediated inhibition was reversed with addition of exogenous factor Va. CONCLUSION: These studies show that oral administration of isoquercetin inhibits PDI activity in plasma and diminishes platelet-dependent thrombin generation predominantly by blocking the generation of platelet factor Va. These pharmacodynamic and mechanistic observations represent an important step in the development of a novel class of antithrombotic agents targeting PDI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01722669) FUNDING: National Heart

  19. Novel Mutant AAV2 Rep Proteins Support AAV2 Replication without Blocking HSV-1 Helpervirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Seyffert, Michael; Glauser, Daniel L.; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; de Oliveira, Anna-Paula; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Vogt, Bernd; Büning, Hildegard; Linden, R. Michael; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    As their names imply, parvoviruses of the genus Dependovirus rely for their efficient replication on the concurrent presence of a helpervirus, such as herpesvirus, adenovirus, or papilloma virus. Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is such an example, which in turn can efficiently inhibit the replication of each helpervirus by distinct mechanisms. In a previous study we have shown that expression of the AAV2 rep gene is not compatible with efficient replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In particular, the combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities of the Rep68/78 proteins have been shown to exert opposite effects on the replication of AAV2 and HSV-1. While essential for AAV2 DNA replication these protein activities account for the Rep-mediated inhibition of HSV-1 replication. Here, we describe a novel Rep mutant (Rep-D371Y), which displayed an unexpected phenotype. Rep-D371Y did not block HSV-1 replication, but still supported efficient AAV2 replication, at least when a double-stranded AAV2 genome template was used. We also found that the capacity of Rep-D371Y to induce apoptosis and a Rep-specific DNA damage response was significantly reduced compared to wild-type Rep. These findings suggest that AAV2 Rep-helicase subdomains exert diverging activities, which contribute to distinct steps of the AAV2 life cycle. More important, the novel AAV2 mutant Rep-D371Y may allow deciphering yet unsolved activities of the AAV2 Rep proteins such as DNA second-strand synthesis, genomic integration or packaging, which all involve the Rep-helicase activity. PMID:28125695

  20. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  1. Highly protein-resistant coatings and suspension cell culture thereon from amphiphilic block copolymers prepared by RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Kazutoshi; Kubota, Kazuomi; Takada, Tetsuo; Mahara, Saori

    2014-06-09

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers composed of hydrophobic (poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate): M) and hydrophilic (poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide): D) segments were synthesized by living radical polymerization: a reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Two types of amphiphilic block copolymers, triblock (MDM) and 4-arm block ((MD)4) copolymers with specific compositions (D/M = (750-1500)/250), were prepared by a versatile one-pot synthesis. These copolymers show good adhesion to various types of substrates (e.g., polystyrene, polycarbonate, polypropylene, Ti, and glass), and the surface coating showed high protein repellency and a low contact angle for water, regardless of the substrate. The two opposing characteristics of high protein repellency and good substrate adhesion were achieved by the combined effects of the molecular architecture of the block copolymers, the high molecular weight, and the characteristics of each segment, that is, low protein adsorption capability of both segments and low glass transition temperature of the hydrophobic segment. Further, a polystyrene dish coated with the MDM block copolymer could be sterilized by γ-ray irradiation and used as a good substrate for a suspension cell culture that exhibits low cell adhesion and good cell growth.

  2. Hibiscus virus S is a new subgroup II tobamovirus: evidence from its unique coat protein and movement protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K G; Narendrakumar, R; Wong, S M

    2002-08-01

    The coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP) sequences of a new tobamovirus infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L were determined. The CP gene encodes 163 amino acid (aa) residues and with a theoretical molecular weight of 18.19 kDa. The MP gene encodes 282 amino acids and its theoretical molecular weight is 30.36 kDa. The nucleotide (nt) and aa sequences of the CP were 46.88 % to 51.63 % and 45.34 % to 57.06 % identical to other tobamoviruses, respectively. The nt and aa sequence identities of MP ranged from 38.81 % to 43.90 % and 30.85 % to 37.88 %, respectively. The predicted virion origin of assembly (OAS) was located in the CP gene. Phylogenetic trees generated based on the nt and aa sequences of both CP and MP genes indicate that this new virus clusters with members of subgroup II of tobamoviruses. Although this hibiscus virus shared a high nt and aa sequence identity with Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV), Western analysis showed that it is serologically unrelated to SHMV. We propose the name Hibiscus virus S (HVS) for this Singapore isolate. This is the first report on partial nt sequence of a tobamovirus that infects hibiscus.

  3. Phthalocyanines as Molecular Scaffolds to Block Disease-Associated Protein Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Valiente-Gabioud, Ariel A; Miotto, Marco C; Chesta, María E; Lombardo, Verónica; Binolfi, Andres; Fernández, Claudio O

    2016-05-17

    amyloidogenic proteins. Analysis of the structure-activity relationship in phthalocyanines revealed that their anti-amyloid activity is highly dependent on the type of metal ion coordinated to the tetrapyrrolic system but is not sensitive to the number of peripheral charged substituents. The tendency of phthalocyanines to oligomerize (self-association) via aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions correlates precisely with their binding capabilities to target proteins and, more importantly, determines their efficiency as anti-amyloid agents. The ability to block different types of disease-associated protein aggregation raises the possibility that these cyclic tetrapyrrole compounds have a common mechanism of action to impair the formation of a variety of pathological aggregates. Because the structural and molecular basis for the anti-amyloid effects of these molecules is starting to emerge, combined efforts from the fields of structural, cellular, and animal biology will result critical for the rational design and discovery of new drugs for the treatment of amyloid related neurological disorders.

  4. RVMAB: Using the Relevance Vector Machine Model Combined with Average Blocks to Predict the Interactions of Proteins from Protein Sequences.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Yong; You, Zhu-Hong; Meng, Fan-Rong; Xu, Shu-Juan; Wang, Yin

    2016-05-18

    Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) play essential roles in most cellular processes. Knowledge of PPIs is becoming increasingly more important, which has prompted the development of technologies that are capable of discovering large-scale PPIs. Although many high-throughput biological technologies have been proposed to detect PPIs, there are unavoidable shortcomings, including cost, time intensity, and inherently high false positive and false negative rates. For the sake of these reasons, in silico methods are attracting much attention due to their good performances in predicting PPIs. In this paper, we propose a novel computational method known as RVM-AB that combines the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model and Average Blocks (AB) to predict PPIs from protein sequences. The main improvements are the results of representing protein sequences using the AB feature representation on a Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM), reducing the influence of noise using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and using a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) based classifier. We performed five-fold cross-validation experiments on yeast and Helicobacter pylori datasets, and achieved very high accuracies of 92.98% and 95.58% respectively, which is significantly better than previous works. In addition, we also obtained good prediction accuracies of 88.31%, 89.46%, 91.08%, 91.55%, and 94.81% on other five independent datasets C. elegans, M. musculus, H. sapiens, H. pylori, and E. coli for cross-species prediction. To further evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier on the yeast dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our RVM-AB method is obviously better than the SVM-based method. The promising experimental results show the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed method, which can be an automatic decision support tool. To facilitate extensive studies for future proteomics research, we developed a freely

  5. Two homologous host proteins interact with potato virus X RNAs and CPs and affect viral replication and movement.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-06-29

    Because viruses encode only a small number of proteins, all steps of virus infection rely on specific interactions between viruses and hosts. We previously screened several Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) proteins that interact with the stem-loop 1 (SL1) RNA structure located at the 5' end of the potato virus X (PVX) genome. In this study, we characterized two of these proteins (NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b), which are homologous and are induced upon PVX infection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that both proteins bind to either SL1(+) or SL1(-) RNAs of PVX. The two proteins also interact with the PVX capsid protein (CP) in planta. Overexpression of NbCPIP2a positively regulated systemic movement of PVX in N. benthamiana, whereas NbCPIP2b overexpression did not affect systemic movement of PVX. Transient overexpression and silencing experiments demonstrated that NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b are positive regulators of PVX replication and that the effect on replication was greater for NbCPIP2a than for NbCPIP2b. Although these two host proteins are associated with plasma membranes, PVX infection did not affect their subcellular localization. Taken together, these results indicate that NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b specifically bind to PVX SL1 RNAs as well as to CP and enhance PVX replication and movement.

  6. Aplotaxene blocks T cell activation by modulation of protein kinase C-θ-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Na, Bo-Ra; Kim, Hye-Ran; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Hyun-Su; Piragyte, Indre; Choi, Eun-Ju; Choi, Hyun-Kyu; Han, Weon-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Ho; Jun, Chang-Duk

    2013-12-01

    Aplotaxene, (8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-heptadeca-1, 8, 11, 14-tetraene, is one of the major components of essential oil obtained from Inula helenium root, which is used in Oriental medicine. However, the effects of aplotaxene on immunity have not been investigated. Here, we show that aplotaxene inhibits T cell activation in terms of IL-2 and CD69 expression. Aplotaxene, at a concentration that optimally inhibits IL-2 production, has little effect on apoptotic or necrotic cell death, suggesting that apoptosis is not a mechanism for aplotaxene-mediated inhibition of T cell activation. Aplotaxene affects neither superantigeninduced conjugate formation between Jurkat T cells and Raji B cells nor clustering of CD3 and LFA-1 at the immunological synapse. Aplotaxene significantly inhibits PKC-θ phosphorylation and translocation to the immunological synapse, and blocks PMA-induced T-cell receptor internalization. Furthermore, aplotaxene leads to inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK, ERK and p38) phosphorylation and NF-κB, NF-AT, and AP-1 promoter activities in Jurkat T cells. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the immunosuppressive effect of aplotaxene on activated T cells through the modulation of the PKC-θ and MAPK pathways, suggesting that aplotaxene may be a novel immunotherapeutic agent for immunological diseases related to the overactivation of T cells.

  7. Identification of domains of the Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein involved in tubule formation, movement and symptomatology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deletion and alanine-substitution mutants of the Tomato spotted wilt virus NSm protein were generated to identify domains involved in tubule formation, movement and symptomatology, using a heterologous expression system derived from Tobacco mosaic virus. Two regions of NSm were required for both tub...

  8. Conformational distributions of denatured and unstructured proteins are similar to those of 20 × 20 blocked dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Im; Jung, Young-Sang; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Cho, Minhaeng

    2012-05-01

    Understanding intrinsic conformational preferences of amino-acids in unfolded proteins is important for elucidating the underlying principles of their stability and re-folding on biological timescales. Here, to investigate the neighbor interaction effects on the conformational propensities of amino-acids, we carried out (1)H NMR experiments for a comprehensive set of blocked dipeptides and measured the scalar coupling constants between alpha protons and amide protons as well as their chemical shifts. Detailed inspection of these NMR properties shows that, irrespective of amino-acid side-chain properties, the distributions of the measured coupling constants and chemical shifts of the dipeptides are comparatively narrow, indicating small variances of their conformation distributions. They are further compared with those of blocked amino-acids (Ac-X-NHMe), oligopeptides (Ac-GGXGG-NH(2)), and native (lysozyme), denatured (lysozyme and outer membrane protein X from Escherichia coli), unstructured (Domain 2 of the protein 5A of Hepatitis C virus), and intrinsically disordered (hNlg3cyt: intracellular domain of human NL3) proteins. These comparative investigations suggest that the conformational preferences and local solvation environments of the blocked dipeptides are quite similar to not only those of other short oligopeptides but also those of denatured and natively unfolded proteins.

  9. Soybean protein as a cost-effective lignin-blocking additive for the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Florencio, Camila; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-12-01

    Addition of surfactants, polymers, and non-catalytic proteins can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by blocking the exposed lignin surfaces, but involves extra expense. Here, soybean protein, one of the cheapest proteins available, was evaluated as an alternative additive for the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The effect of the enzyme source was investigated using enzymatic cocktails from A. niger and T. reesei cultivated under solid-state, submerged, and sequential fermentation. The use of soybean protein led to approximately 2-fold increases in hydrolysis, relative to the control, for both A. niger and T. reesei enzymatic cocktails from solid-state fermentation. The effect was comparable to that of BSA. Moreover, the use of soybean protein and a 1:1 combination of A. niger and T. reesei enzymatic cocktails resulted in 54% higher glucose release, compared to the control. Soybean protein is a potential cost-effective additive for use in the biomass conversion process.

  10. Malakite: an automatic tool for characterisation of structure of reliable blocks in multiple alignments of protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Burkov, Boris; Nagaev, Boris; Spirin, Sergei; Alexeevski, Andrei

    2010-06-01

    It makes sense to speak of alignment of protein sequences only within the regions, where the sequences are related to each other. This simple consideration is often disregarded by programs of multiple alignment construction. A package for alignment analysis MAlAKiTE (Multiple Alignment Automatic Kinship Tiling Engine) is introduced. It aims to find the blocks of reliable alignment, which contain related regions only, within the whole alignment and allows for dealing with them. The validity of the detection of reliable blocks' was verified by comparison with structural data.

  11. Functional analysis of a DNA-shuffled movement protein reveals that microtubules are dispensable for the cell-to-cell movement of tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Trudi; Boevink, Petra; Haupt, Sophie; Roberts, Alison G; Toth, Rachel; Valentine, Tracy; Chapman, Sean; Oparka, Karl J

    2002-06-01

    Microtubules interact strongly with the viral movement protein (MP) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and are thought to transport the viral genome between plant cells. We describe a functionally enhanced DNA-shuffled movement protein (MP(R3)) that remained bound to the vertices of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum, showing limited affinity for microtubules. A single amino acid change was shown to confer the MP(R3) phenotype. Disruption of the microtubule cytoskeleton in situ with pharmacological agents, or by silencing of the alpha-tubulin gene, had no significant effect on the spread of TMV vectors expressing wild-type MP (MP(WT)) and did not prevent the accumulation of MP(WT) in plasmodesmata. Thus, cell-to-cell trafficking of TMV can occur independently of microtubules. The MP(R3) phenotype was reproduced when infection sites expressing MP(WT) were treated with a specific proteasome inhibitor, indicating that the degradation of MP(R3) is impaired. We suggest that the improved viral transport functions of MP(R3) arise from evasion of a host degradation pathway.

  12. The Potato virus X TGBp3 protein associates with the ER network for virus cell-to-cell movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Heppler, Marty; Mitra, Ruchira; Blancaflor, Elison; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Richard S.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie

    2003-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp3 is required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Cell-to-cell movement of TGBp3 was studied using biolistic bombardment of plasmids expressing GFP:TGBp3. TGBp3 moves between cells in Nicotiana benthamiana, but requires TGBp1 to move in N. tabacum leaves. In tobacco leaves GFP:TGBp3 accumulated in a pattern resembling the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To determine if the ER network is important for GFP:TGBp3 and for PVX cell-to-cell movement, a single mutation inhibiting membrane binding of TGBp3 was introduced into GFP:TGBp3 and into PVX. This mutation disrupted movement of GFP:TGBp3 and PVX. Brefeldin A, which disrupts the ER network, also inhibited GFP:TGBp3 movement in both Nicotiana species. Two deletion mutations, that do not affect membrane binding, hindered GFP:TGBp3 and PVX cell-to-cell movement. Plasmids expressing GFP:TGBp2 and GFP:TGBp3 were bombarded to several other PVX hosts and neither protein moved between adjacent cells. In most hosts, TGBp2 or TGBp3 cannot move cell-to-cell.

  13. The Movement of Coiled Bodies Visualized in Living Plant Cells by the Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Boudonck, Kurt; Dolan, Liam; Shaw, Peter J.

    1999-01-01

    Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that contain components of at least three RNA-processing pathways: pre-mRNA splicing, histone mRNA 3′- maturation, and pre-rRNA processing. Their function remains unknown. However, it has been speculated that coiled bodies may be sites of splicing factor assembly and/or recycling, play a role in histone mRNA 3′-processing, or act as nuclear transport or sorting structures. To study the dynamics of coiled bodies in living cells, we have stably expressed a U2B"–green fluorescent protein fusion in tobacco BY-2 cells and in Arabidopsis plants. Time-lapse confocal microscopy has shown that coiled bodies are mobile organelles in plant cells. We have observed movements of coiled bodies in the nucleolus, in the nucleoplasm, and from the periphery of the nucleus into the nucleolus, which suggests a transport function for coiled bodies. Furthermore, we have observed coalescence of coiled bodies, which suggests a mechanism for the decrease in coiled body number during the cell cycle. Deletion analysis of the U2B" gene construct has shown that the first RNP-80 motif is sufficient for localization to the coiled body. PMID:10397766

  14. Purification of scatter factor, a fibroblast-derived basic protein that modulates epithelial interactions and movement.

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, E; Gray, J; Stoker, M; Perryman, M; Furlong, R

    1989-01-01

    Scatter factor is a fibroblast-derived protein that causes separation of contiguous epithelial cells and increased local mobility of unanchored cells. Highly purified scatter factor has been obtained by a combination of ion-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography from serum-free medium conditioned by a ras-transformed clone (D4) of mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Under nonreducing conditions scatter factor has a pI of approximately 9.5 and migrates in SDS/polyacrylamide gels as a single band at approximately 62 kDa from which epithelial scatter activity can be recovered. Treatment with reducing agents destroys biological activity and is associated with the appearance of two major bands at approximately 57 and approximately 30 kDa. Whether both the 57-kDa and 30-kDa polypeptides are required for biological activity remains to be established. All the activities observed in crude medium conditioned by cells producing scatter factor are retained by highly purified preparations of scatter factor. These include (i) increased local movement, modulation of morphology, and inhibition of junction formation by single epithelial cells and (ii) disruption of epithelial interactions and cell scattering from preformed epithelial sheets. These changes occur with picomolar concentrations of purified scatter factor and without an effect on cell growth. Images PMID:2527367

  15. An auxilin-like J-domain protein, JAC1, regulates phototropin-mediated chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu

    2005-09-01

    The ambient-light conditions mediate chloroplast relocation in plant cells. Under the low-light conditions, chloroplasts accumulate in the light (accumulation response), while under the high-light conditions, they avoid the light (avoidance response). In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the accumulation response is mediated by two blue-light receptors, termed phototropins (phot1 and phot2) that act redundantly, and the avoidance response is mediated by phot2 alone. A mutant, J-domain protein required for chloroplast accumulation response 1 (jac1), lacks the accumulation response under weak blue light but shows a normal avoidance response under strong blue light. In dark-adapted wild-type cells, chloroplasts accumulate on the bottom of cells. Both the jac1 and phot2 mutants are defective in this chloroplast movement in darkness. Positional cloning of JAC1 reveals that this gene encodes a J-domain protein, resembling clathrin-uncoating factor auxilin at its C terminus. The amounts of JAC1 transcripts and JAC1 proteins are not regulated by light and by phototropins. A green fluorescent protein-JAC1 fusion protein showed a similar localization pattern to green fluorescent protein alone in a transient expression assay using Arabidopsis mesophyll cells and onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells, suggesting that the JAC1 protein may be a soluble cytosolic protein. Together, these results suggest that JAC1 is an essential component of phototropin-mediated chloroplast movement.

  16. Influence of Block Copolymerization on the Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Congdon, Thomas R; Notman, Rebecca; Gibson, Matthew I

    2016-09-12

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins are produced by many cold-acclimatized species to enable them to survive subzero temperatures. These proteins have multiple macroscopic effects on ice crystal growth which makes them appealing for low-temperature applications-from cellular cryopreservation to food storage. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity, but its mode of action is uncertain as is the extent at which it can be incorporated into other high-order structures. Here the synthesis and characterization of well-defined block copolymers containing poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by RAFT/MADIX polymerization is reported, as new antifreeze protein mimetics. The effect of adding a large second hydrophilic block is studied across a range of compositions, and it is found to be a passive component in ice recrystallization inhibition assays, enabling retention of all activity. In the extreme case, a block copolymer with only 10% poly(vinyl alcohol) was found to retain all activity, where statistical copolymers of PVA lose all activity with very minor changes to composition. These findings present a new method to increase the complexity of antifreeze protein mimetic materials, while retaining activity, and also to help understand the underlying mechanisms of action.

  17. Influence of Block Copolymerization on the Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins are produced by many cold-acclimatized species to enable them to survive subzero temperatures. These proteins have multiple macroscopic effects on ice crystal growth which makes them appealing for low-temperature applications—from cellular cryopreservation to food storage. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity, but its mode of action is uncertain as is the extent at which it can be incorporated into other high-order structures. Here the synthesis and characterization of well-defined block copolymers containing poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by RAFT/MADIX polymerization is reported, as new antifreeze protein mimetics. The effect of adding a large second hydrophilic block is studied across a range of compositions, and it is found to be a passive component in ice recrystallization inhibition assays, enabling retention of all activity. In the extreme case, a block copolymer with only 10% poly(vinyl alcohol) was found to retain all activity, where statistical copolymers of PVA lose all activity with very minor changes to composition. These findings present a new method to increase the complexity of antifreeze protein mimetic materials, while retaining activity, and also to help understand the underlying mechanisms of action. PMID:27476873

  18. The tubule-forming NSm protein from Tomato spotted wilt virus complements cell-to-cell and long-distance movement of Tobacco mosaic virus hybrids.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Dennis J; Adkins, Scott

    2005-11-10

    A Florida isolate of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was able to complement cell-to-cell movement of a movement-defective Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector expressing the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP). To test for complementation of movement in the absence of other TSWV proteins, the open reading frame for the NSm protein was expressed from TMV constructs encoding only the TMV replicase proteins. NSm was expressed from either the coat protein or movement protein subgenomic promoter, creating virus hybrids that moved cell to cell in inoculated leaves of tobacco, providing the first functional demonstration that NSm is the TSWV movement protein. Furthermore, these CP-deficient hybrids moved into upper leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, demonstrating that NSm can support long-distance movement of viral RNAs. Tubules, characteristic of the NSm protein, were also formed in tobacco protoplasts infected with the TMV-TSWV hybrids. The C-terminus of the NSm protein was shown to be required for movement. TMV-TSWV hybrids expressing NSm and GFP moved within inoculated leaves. Our combination of single-cell and intact plant experiments to examine multiple functions of a heterologous viral protein provides a generalized strategy with wider application to other viruses also lacking a reverse genetic system.

  19. Chromosome Movements Promoted by the Mitochondrial Protein SPD-3 Are Required for Homology Search during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Labrador, Leticia; Barroso, Consuelo; Lightfoot, James; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Flibotte, Stephane; Taylor, Jon; Moerman, Donald G.; Villeneuve, Anne M.; Martinez-Perez, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Pairing of homologous chromosomes during early meiosis is essential to prevent the formation of aneuploid gametes. Chromosome pairing includes a step of homology search followed by the stabilization of homolog interactions by the synaptonemal complex (SC). These events coincide with dramatic changes in nuclear organization and rapid chromosome movements that depend on cytoskeletal motors and are mediated by SUN-domain proteins on the nuclear envelope, but how chromosome mobility contributes to the pairing process remains poorly understood. We show that defects in the mitochondria-localizing protein SPD-3 cause a defect in homolog pairing without impairing nuclear reorganization or SC assembly, which results in promiscuous installation of the SC between non-homologous chromosomes. Preventing SC assembly in spd-3 mutants does not improve homolog pairing, demonstrating that SPD-3 is required for homology search at the start of meiosis. Pairing center regions localize to SUN-1 aggregates at meiosis onset in spd-3 mutants; and pairing-promoting proteins, including cytoskeletal motors and polo-like kinase 2, are normally recruited to the nuclear envelope. However, quantitative analysis of SUN-1 aggregate movement in spd-3 mutants demonstrates a clear reduction in mobility, although this defect is not as severe as that seen in sun-1(jf18) mutants, which also show a stronger pairing defect, suggesting a correlation between chromosome-end mobility and the efficiency of pairing. SUN-1 aggregate movement is also impaired following inhibition of mitochondrial respiration or dynein knockdown, suggesting that mitochondrial function is required for motor-driven SUN-1 movement. The reduced chromosome-end mobility of spd-3 mutants impairs coupling of SC assembly to homology recognition and causes a delay in meiotic progression mediated by HORMA-domain protein HTP-1. Our work reveals how chromosome mobility impacts the different early meiotic events that promote homolog pairing and

  20. Chromosome movements promoted by the mitochondrial protein SPD-3 are required for homology search during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis.

    PubMed

    Labrador, Leticia; Barroso, Consuelo; Lightfoot, James; Müller-Reichert, Thomas; Flibotte, Stephane; Taylor, Jon; Moerman, Donald G; Villeneuve, Anne M; Martinez-Perez, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    Pairing of homologous chromosomes during early meiosis is essential to prevent the formation of aneuploid gametes. Chromosome pairing includes a step of homology search followed by the stabilization of homolog interactions by the synaptonemal complex (SC). These events coincide with dramatic changes in nuclear organization and rapid chromosome movements that depend on cytoskeletal motors and are mediated by SUN-domain proteins on the nuclear envelope, but how chromosome mobility contributes to the pairing process remains poorly understood. We show that defects in the mitochondria-localizing protein SPD-3 cause a defect in homolog pairing without impairing nuclear reorganization or SC assembly, which results in promiscuous installation of the SC between non-homologous chromosomes. Preventing SC assembly in spd-3 mutants does not improve homolog pairing, demonstrating that SPD-3 is required for homology search at the start of meiosis. Pairing center regions localize to SUN-1 aggregates at meiosis onset in spd-3 mutants; and pairing-promoting proteins, including cytoskeletal motors and polo-like kinase 2, are normally recruited to the nuclear envelope. However, quantitative analysis of SUN-1 aggregate movement in spd-3 mutants demonstrates a clear reduction in mobility, although this defect is not as severe as that seen in sun-1(jf18) mutants, which also show a stronger pairing defect, suggesting a correlation between chromosome-end mobility and the efficiency of pairing. SUN-1 aggregate movement is also impaired following inhibition of mitochondrial respiration or dynein knockdown, suggesting that mitochondrial function is required for motor-driven SUN-1 movement. The reduced chromosome-end mobility of spd-3 mutants impairs coupling of SC assembly to homology recognition and causes a delay in meiotic progression mediated by HORMA-domain protein HTP-1. Our work reveals how chromosome mobility impacts the different early meiotic events that promote homolog pairing and

  1. Distribution pattern of versican, link protein and hyaluronic acid in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Sato, R; Yamamoto, H; Kasai, K; Yamauchi, M

    2002-02-01

    The ability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) to rapidly remodel is the basis of orthodontic tooth movement. During the tooth movement, matrix proteoglycans (PGs) may play important roles in spatial, mechanical and biological aspects for the maintenance and repair of the PDL. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of a large hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding proteoglycan, versican, link protein (LP) and HA in the rat molar PDL during experimental tooth movement by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Experimental tooth movement was performed according to Waldo's method. Histologically, regressive changes, such as decrease of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and exudative change of edema were observed in the compressive side and progressive changes, such as proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers, in the strain side one day after treatment. By 3 days after tooth movement, regressive or progressive changes were not observed in either side. Using monoclonal antibodies specific to versican core protein or LP, the positive immunoreactivity for both molecules was constantly observed throughout the PDL. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, however, the immunostainings of versican and LP became significantly intense only in the compressive side but decreased in the strain side. The intensity in the compressive side was strongest one day after the force was applied and gradually diminished thereafter. HA of both sides did not change during experimental tooth movement. Since HA is present in the PDL, large amounts of versican and LP expressed in the compressive side may create large hydrated aggregates via their association with HA that dissipates the compressive force applied to this tissue.

  2. Selective inhibition of virus protein synthesis by prostaglandin A1: a translational block associated with HSP70 synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Amici, C; Giorgi, C; Rossi, A; Santoro, M G

    1994-01-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins are potent inhibitors of virus replication. The antiviral activity has been associated with the induction of 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) synthesis. In this report, we describe that in African green monkey kidney cells infected with Sendai virus (SV) and treated with prostaglandin A1 (PGA1), SV protein synthesis was selectively blocked as long as HSP70 was being synthesized by the host cell. The block appeared to be at the translational level, as indicated by the following (i) PGA1 had no effect on SV primary transcription, and a dramatic decrease in the abundance of SV mRNA occurred only at later stages of infection; and (ii) treatment with PGA1 started at 6 h postinfection, at which time SV mRNA had already accumulated in infected cells, did not suppress the levels of NP mRNA, but it reduced the amount of ribosome-bound NP mRNA and caused a dramatic decrease in the level of genomic RNA. The PGA1-induced block of SV protein synthesis appeared to be cell mediated, since it was prevented by actinomycin D, while PGA1 had no effect on SV mRNA translation in vitro. The possibility that HSP70 could be a mediator of the antiviral effect is suggested by the fact that treatment with other classical inducers of HSP70, including sodium arsenite, cadmium, and heat shock at 42 degrees C for 5 h, also selectively prevented SV protein synthesis as long as heat shock protein synthesis occurred. Moreover, SV protein synthesis was not inhibited by PGA1 in murine Friend erythroleukemic cells, which lack the ability to induce HSP70 expression in response to PGA1. Images PMID:7933069

  3. Forebrain deletion of the dystonia protein torsinA causes dystonic-like movements and loss of striatal cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Samuel S; Darr, Katherine; Holley, Sandra M; Cepeda, Carlos; Mabrouk, Omar S; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; LeWitt, Tessa M; Paudel, Reema; Houlden, Henry; Kennedy, Robert T; Levine, Michael S; Dauer, William T

    2015-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction plays an important role in dystonia, but the striatal cell types that contribute to abnormal movements are poorly defined. We demonstrate that conditional deletion of the DYT1 dystonia protein torsinA in embryonic progenitors of forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons causes dystonic-like twisting movements that emerge during juvenile CNS maturation. The onset of these movements coincides with selective degeneration of dorsal striatal large cholinergic interneurons (LCI), and surviving LCI exhibit morphological, electrophysiological, and connectivity abnormalities. Consistent with the importance of this LCI pathology, murine dystonic-like movements are reduced significantly with an antimuscarinic agent used clinically, and we identify cholinergic abnormalities in postmortem striatal tissue from DYT1 dystonia patients. These findings demonstrate that dorsal LCI have a unique requirement for torsinA function during striatal maturation, and link abnormalities of these cells to dystonic-like movements in an overtly symptomatic animal model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08352.001 PMID:26052670

  4. Barley stripe mosaic virus-encoded proteins triple-gene block 2 and gammab localize to chloroplasts in virus-infected monocot and dicot plants, revealing hitherto-unknown roles in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Torrance, L; Cowan, G H; Gillespie, T; Ziegler, A; Lacomme, C

    2006-08-01

    Replication of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), genus Hordeivirus, is thought to be associated with vesicles in proplastids and chloroplasts, but the molecular details of the process and identity of virus proteins involved in establishing the virus replication complexes are unknown. In addition, BSMV encodes a triple-gene block of movement proteins (TGBs) that putatively share functional roles with their counterparts in other hordei-, pomo- and pecluviruses, but detailed information on the intracellular locations of the individual TGBs is lacking. Here, the subcellular localizations of BSMV-encoded proteins TGB2 and gammab fused to green or red fluorescent proteins were examined in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana and barley (Hordeum vulgare 'Black Hulless'). The fusion proteins were expressed from a BSMV vector or under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The subcellular localizations were studied by confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM studies showed that both proteins were recruited to chloroplasts in the presence of viral RNA and that virus RNA, coat protein and gammab protein were detected in plastid preparations from infected leaves. Electron microscope images of thin sections of virus-infected leaves revealed abnormal chloroplasts with cytoplasmic inclusions containing virus-like particles. In addition, cellular localizations of BSMV TGB2 suggest subtle differences in function between the hordei-like TGB2 proteins. The results indicate that TGB2 and gammab proteins play a previously unknown functional role at the site of virus replication.

  5. Two interacting coiled-coil proteins, WEB1 and PMI2, maintain the chloroplast photorelocation movement velocity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yutaka; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2010-11-09

    Chloroplasts move toward weak light (accumulation response) and away from strong light (avoidance response). The fast and accurate movement of chloroplasts in response to ambient light conditions is essential for efficient photosynthesis and photodamage prevention in chloroplasts. Here, we report that two Arabidopsis mutants, weak chloroplast movement under blue light 1 (web1) and web2, are defective in both the avoidance and the accumulation responses. Map-based cloning revealed that both genes encode coiled-coil proteins and that WEB2 is identical to the plastid movement impaired 2 (PMI2) gene. The velocities of chloroplast movement in web1 and pmi2 were approximately threefold lower than that in the wild type. Defects in the avoidance response of web1 and pmi2 were suppressed by mutation of the J-domain protein required for chloroplast accumulation response 1 (JAC1) gene, which is essential for the accumulation response; these results indicate that WEB1 and PMI2 play a role in suppressing JAC1 under strong light conditions. A yeast two-hybrid analysis and a nuclear recruitment assay identified a physical interaction between WEB1 and PMI2, and transient expression analysis of CFP-WEB1 and YFP-PMI2 revealed that they colocalized in the cytosol. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis confirmed the interaction of these proteins in the cytosol. Blue light-induced changes in short chloroplast actin filaments (cp-actin filaments) were impaired in both web1 and pmi2. Our findings suggest that a cytosolic WEB1-PMI2 complex maintains the velocity of chloroplast photorelocation movement via cp-actin filament regulation.

  6. Frequencies of amino acid strings in globular protein sequences indicate suppression of blocks of consecutive hydrophobic residues

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Russell; Istrail, Sorin; King, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Patterns of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues play a major role in protein folding and function. Long, predominantly hydrophobic strings of 20–22 amino acids each are associated with transmembrane helices and have been used to identify such sequences. Much less attention has been paid to hydrophobic sequences within globular proteins. In prior work on computer simulations of the competition between on-pathway folding and off-pathway aggregate formation, we found that long sequences of consecutive hydrophobic residues promoted aggregation within the model, even controlling for overall hydrophobic content. We report here on an analysis of the frequencies of different lengths of contiguous blocks of hydrophobic residues in a database of amino acid sequences of proteins of known structure. Sequences of three or more consecutive hydrophobic residues are found to be significantly less common in actual globular proteins than would be predicted if residues were selected independently. The result may reflect selection against long blocks of hydrophobic residues within globular proteins relative to what would be expected if residue hydrophobicities were independent of those of nearby residues in the sequence. PMID:11316883

  7. Chloroplast photorelocation movement mediated by phototropin family proteins in green plants.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Wada, Masamitsu

    2007-09-01

    Chloroplasts gather in areas irradiated with weak light to maximize photosynthesis (the accumulation response). They move away from areas irradiated with strong light to minimize damage of the photosynthetic apparatus (the avoidance response). The processes underlying these chloroplast movements can be divided into three parts: photoperception, signal transduction, and chloroplast movement. Photoreceptors for chloroplast movement have been identified recently in various plant species. A blue light receptor phototropin (phot) mediates chloroplast photorelocation movement in the seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris, the moss Physcomitrella patens and possibly the green alga Mougeotia scalaris. A chimeric photoreceptor between phytochrome and phototropin, neochrome (neo), was found in some advanced ferns and in the green alga M. scalaris. While the mechanism of chloroplast movement is not well understood, it is known that actin filaments play an important role in this process. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with chloroplast movement, several mutants were isolated in A. thaliana (jac1 and chup1) and the corresponding genes were cloned. In this review, recent progress in photoreceptor research into chloroplast movement in various plant species and the possible factors functioning in signal transduction or the regulation of actin filaments identified in A. thaliana is discussed.

  8. Complete resolution of myoclonus-like involuntary movements under subarachnoid block after midazolam administration in a patient undergoing cesarean section: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Takahiro; Hirota, Kiichi; Iwai, Teppei; Shingu, Koh

    2015-04-01

    Involuntary movement during and after neuraxial anesthesia, such as spinal and epidural anesthesia, is rarely observed. In this report, we describe a case of myoclonus-like involuntary movement of the upper extremities in a patient undergoing a planned repeat cesarean section under spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine that completely subsided after administration of 2 mg of midazolam. The myoclonus-like movement did not recur or cause any apparent neurological side effects.

  9. Transmembrane movement of a water-soluble analogue of mannosylphosphoryldolichol is mediated by an endoplasmic reticulum protein

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Based on topological studies mannosylphosphoryldolichol (Man-P-Dol) is synthesized on the cytoplasmic face of the RER, but functions as a mannosyl donor in Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-P-P-dolichol biosynthesis after the mannosyl-phosphoryl headgroup diffuses transversely to the luminal compartment. The transport of mannosylphosphorylcitronellol (Man-P- Cit), a water-soluble analogue of Man-P-Dol, by microsomal vesicles from mouse liver, has been investigated as a potential experimental approach to determine if a membrane protein(s) mediates the transbilayer movement of Man-P-Dol. For these studies beta-[3H]Man-P- Cit was synthesized enzymatically with a partially purified preparation of Man-P-undecaprenol synthase from Micrococcus luteus. The uptake of the radiolabeled water-soluble analogue was found to be (a) time dependent; (b) stereoselective; (c) dependent on an intact permeability barrier; (d) saturable; (e) protease-sensitive; and (f) highest in ER- enriched vesicles relative to Golgi complex-enriched vesicles and intact mitochondria. Consistent with the involvement of a membrane protein, the analogue did not enter synthetic phosphatidylcholine- liposomes. [3H]Man-P-Cit also was not transported by human erythrocytes. These results indicate that the transport of Man-P-Cit by sealed microsomal vesicles from mouse liver is mediated by a membrane protein transport system. It is possible that the same membrane protein(s) participates in the transbilayer movement of Man-P-Dol in the ER. PMID:7622555

  10. AtTCTP2 mRNA and protein movement correlates with formation of adventitious roots in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Martínez-Navarro, Angélica Concepción; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Translationally Controlled Tumor Proteins, or TCTP, is a superfamily of exclusively eukaryotic proteins essential in the regulation of proliferation and general growth. However, it is clear that these are multifunctional proteins given (1) the pleiotropic effects of its mutations, and (2), the multiple processes in which this protein is involved. TCTP function in general is conserved, since Arabidopsis AtTCTP1 can rescue a Drosophila mutant, and vice versa. It has become clear, however, that these proteins may have “taxon-specific” functions. In the case of plants, mRNA and/or proteins have been found in the phloem translocation stream of different species, suggesting a role in long-distance signaling. We have found that a second Arabidopsis TCTP gene, AtTCTP2, codes for a protein that moves long-distance through a graft union in tobacco. Interestingly, the mRNA is also transported long-distance. Both mRNA and protein move long-distance; interestingly, the movement, while more efficient from source to sink tissues, also occurs in the opposite direction. The protein reaches the nuclei of parenchyma cells and adventitious roots. Furthermore, it is clear that the long-distance delivery of AtTCTP2 protein and mRNA is required for the induction of adventitious roots. A model is presented that accounts for these observations. PMID:26237533

  11. CAMELOT: A machine learning approach for coarse-grained simulations of aggregation of block-copolymeric protein sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, Kiersten M.; Harmon, Tyler S.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2015-12-28

    We report the development and deployment of a coarse-graining method that is well suited for computer simulations of aggregation and phase separation of protein sequences with block-copolymeric architectures. Our algorithm, named CAMELOT for Coarse-grained simulations Aided by MachinE Learning Optimization and Training, leverages information from converged all atom simulations that is used to determine a suitable resolution and parameterize the coarse-grained model. To parameterize a system-specific coarse-grained model, we use a combination of Boltzmann inversion, non-linear regression, and a Gaussian process Bayesian optimization approach. The accuracy of the coarse-grained model is demonstrated through direct comparisons to results from all atom simulations. We demonstrate the utility of our coarse-graining approach using the block-copolymeric sequence from the exon 1 encoded sequence of the huntingtin protein. This sequence comprises of 17 residues from the N-terminal end of huntingtin (N17) followed by a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. Simulations based on the CAMELOT approach are used to show that the adsorption and unfolding of the wild type N17 and its sequence variants on the surface of polyQ tracts engender a patchy colloid like architecture that promotes the formation of linear aggregates. These results provide a plausible explanation for experimental observations, which show that N17 accelerates the formation of linear aggregates in block-copolymeric N17-polyQ sequences. The CAMELOT approach is versatile and is generalizable for simulating the aggregation and phase behavior of a range of block-copolymeric protein sequences.

  12. CAMELOT: A machine learning approach for coarse-grained simulations of aggregation of block-copolymeric protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Kiersten M.; Harmon, Tyler S.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2015-01-01

    We report the development and deployment of a coarse-graining method that is well suited for computer simulations of aggregation and phase separation of protein sequences with block-copolymeric architectures. Our algorithm, named CAMELOT for Coarse-grained simulations Aided by MachinE Learning Optimization and Training, leverages information from converged all atom simulations that is used to determine a suitable resolution and parameterize the coarse-grained model. To parameterize a system-specific coarse-grained model, we use a combination of Boltzmann inversion, non-linear regression, and a Gaussian process Bayesian optimization approach. The accuracy of the coarse-grained model is demonstrated through direct comparisons to results from all atom simulations. We demonstrate the utility of our coarse-graining approach using the block-copolymeric sequence from the exon 1 encoded sequence of the huntingtin protein. This sequence comprises of 17 residues from the N-terminal end of huntingtin (N17) followed by a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. Simulations based on the CAMELOT approach are used to show that the adsorption and unfolding of the wild type N17 and its sequence variants on the surface of polyQ tracts engender a patchy colloid like architecture that promotes the formation of linear aggregates. These results provide a plausible explanation for experimental observations, which show that N17 accelerates the formation of linear aggregates in block-copolymeric N17-polyQ sequences. The CAMELOT approach is versatile and is generalizable for simulating the aggregation and phase behavior of a range of block-copolymeric protein sequences. PMID:26723608

  13. CAMELOT: A machine learning approach for coarse-grained simulations of aggregation of block-copolymeric protein sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, Kiersten M.; Harmon, Tyler S.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2015-12-01

    We report the development and deployment of a coarse-graining method that is well suited for computer simulations of aggregation and phase separation of protein sequences with block-copolymeric architectures. Our algorithm, named CAMELOT for Coarse-grained simulations Aided by MachinE Learning Optimization and Training, leverages information from converged all atom simulations that is used to determine a suitable resolution and parameterize the coarse-grained model. To parameterize a system-specific coarse-grained model, we use a combination of Boltzmann inversion, non-linear regression, and a Gaussian process Bayesian optimization approach. The accuracy of the coarse-grained model is demonstrated through direct comparisons to results from all atom simulations. We demonstrate the utility of our coarse-graining approach using the block-copolymeric sequence from the exon 1 encoded sequence of the huntingtin protein. This sequence comprises of 17 residues from the N-terminal end of huntingtin (N17) followed by a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. Simulations based on the CAMELOT approach are used to show that the adsorption and unfolding of the wild type N17 and its sequence variants on the surface of polyQ tracts engender a patchy colloid like architecture that promotes the formation of linear aggregates. These results provide a plausible explanation for experimental observations, which show that N17 accelerates the formation of linear aggregates in block-copolymeric N17-polyQ sequences. The CAMELOT approach is versatile and is generalizable for simulating the aggregation and phase behavior of a range of block-copolymeric protein sequences.

  14. EGF-like peptide-enhanced cell movement in Dictyostelium is mediated by protein kinases and the activity of several cytoskeletal proteins.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert J; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-09-01

    DdEGFL1, a synthetic epidermal growth factor-like (EGFL) peptide based on the first EGFL repeat of the extracellular matrix, cysteine-rich, calmodulin-binding protein CyrA, has previously been shown to sustain the threonine phosphorylation of a 210kDa protein during the starvation of Dictyostelium cells. Immunoprecipitation coupled with a LC/MS/MS analysis identified the 210kDa protein as vinculin B (VinB). VinB shares sequence similarity with mammalian vinculin, a protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. Both threonine phosphorylated VinB (P-VinB) and VinB-GFP localized to the cytoplasm and cytoskeleton of Dictyostelium amoebae. VinB-GFP was also shown to be threonine phosphorylated and co-immunoprecipitated with established vinculin-binding cytoskeletal proteins (e.g. myosin II heavy chain, actin, alpha-actinin, talin). P-VinB and VinB-GFP were detected in DdEGFL1 pull-down assays, which also identified a 135kDa phosphothreonine protein and two phosphotyrosine proteins (35 and 32kDa) as potential components of the DdEGFL1 signaling pathway. DdEGFL1-enhanced cell movement required the cytoskeletal proteins talin B and paxillin B and tyrosine kinase activity mediated by PKA signaling, however VinB threonine phosphorylation was shown to be independent of PI3K/PLA2 signaling and PI3K and PKA kinase activity. Finally, VinB-GFP over-expression suppressed DdEGFL1-enhanced random cell movement, but not folic acid-mediated chemotaxis. Together, this study provides the first evidence for VinB function plus new insight into the signaling pathway(s) mediating EGFL repeat/peptide-enhanced cell movement in Dictyostelium. This information is integrated into an emerging model that summarizes existing knowledge.

  15. Non-Targeted and Targeted Protein Movement through Plasmodesmata in Leaves in Different Developmental and Physiological States1

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Katrina M.; Zambryski, Patricia C.

    2001-01-01

    Plant cells rely on plasmodesmata for intercellular transport of small signaling molecules as well as larger informational macromolecules such as proteins. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter and low-pressure microprojectile bombardment were used to quantify the degree of symplastic continuity between cells of the leaf at different developmental stages and under different growth conditions. Plasmodesmata were observed to be closed to the transport of GFP or dilated to allow the traffic of GFP. In sink leaves, between 34% and 67% of the cells transport GFP (27 kD), and between 30% and 46% of the cells transport double GFP (54 kD). In leaves in transition transport was reduced; between 21% and 46% and between 2% and 9% of cells transport single and double GFP, respectively. Thus, leaf age dramatically affects the ability of cells to exchange proteins nonselectively. Further, the number of cells allowing GFP or double GFP movement was sensitive to growth conditions because greenhouse-grown plants exhibited higher diffusion rates than culture-grown plants. These studies reveal that leaf cell plasmodesmata are dynamic and do not have a set size exclusion limit. We also examined targeted movement of the movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus fused to GFP, P30::GFP. This 58-kD fusion protein localizes to plasmodesmata, consistently transits from up to 78% of transfected cells, and was not sensitive to developmental age or growth conditions. The relative number of cells containing dilated plasmodesmata varies between different species of tobacco, with Nicotiana clevelandii exhibiting greater diffusion of proteins than Nicotiana tabacum. PMID:11299360

  16. The Tomato mosaic virus 30 kDa movement protein interacts differentially with the resistance genes Tm-2 and Tm-2(2).

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Ohnesorge, S; Silber, M V; Pfitzner, A J P

    2004-08-01

    In tomato plants ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the genes Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) confer resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). Sequence analysis of ToMV strains able to break the Tm-2 or Tm-2(2) resistance revealed distinct amino acid exchanges in the viral 30 kDa protein, suggesting that the movement protein is recognized by both resistance genes to induce the plant defense reaction. To analyze the interactions between the ToMV movement protein and the Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) genes in detail, we generated transgenic tomato lines expressing various movement protein gene constructs. Crosses of the transgenic tomato lines with cultivars containing either the Tm-2 or the Tm-2(2) gene demonstrated that both genes are able to elicit a hypersensitive reaction in response to movement proteins from resistance inducing ToMV strains. However, the domains and the structural requirements for induction of the necrotic response by the ToMV movement protein are completely different for either resistance gene. In the context of the Tm-2 gene, the resistance determinant lies within the N-terminal 188 amino acids of the ToMV movement protein. Interaction of the 30 kDa protein with the Tm-2(2) gene requires two distinct domains localized at the C-terminus and in a different region of the protein, respectively.

  17. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NANT blocks acetaminophen toxicity and protein nitration in freshly isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sudip; Melnyk, Stepan B; Krager, Kimberly J; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet; Letzig, Lynda G; James, Laura P; Hinson, Jack A

    2015-12-01

    3-Nitrotyrosine (3NT) in liver proteins of mice treated with hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen (APAP) has been postulated to be causative in toxicity. Nitration is by a reactive nitrogen species formed from nitric oxide (NO). The source of the NO is unclear. iNOS knockout mice were previously found to be equally susceptible to APAP toxicity as wildtype mice and iNOS inhibitors did not decrease toxicity in mice or in hepatocytes. In this work we examined the potential role of nNOS in APAP toxicity in hepatocytes using the specific nNOS inhibitor NANT (10 µM)(N-[(4S)-4-amino-5-[(2-aminoethyl)amino]pentyl]-N'-nitroguanidinetris (trifluoroacetate)). Primary hepatocytes (1 million/ml) from male B6C3F1 mice were incubated with APAP (1mM). Cells were removed and assayed spectrofluorometrically for reactive nitrogen and oxygen species using diaminofluorescein (DAF) and Mitosox red, respectively. Cytotoxicity was determined by LDH release into media. Glutathione (GSH, GSSG), 3NT, GSNO, acetaminophen-cysteine adducts, NAD, and NADH were measured by HPLC. APAP significantly increased cytotoxicity at 1.5-3.0 h. The increase was blocked by NANT. NANT did not alter APAP mediated GSH depletion or acetaminophen-cysteine adducts in proteins which indicated that NANT did not inhibit metabolism. APAP significantly increased spectroflurometric evidence of reactive nitrogen and oxygen formation at 0.5 and 1.0 h, respectively, and increased 3NT and GSNO at 1.5-3.0 h. These increases were blocked by NANT. APAP dramatically increased NADH from 0.5-3.0 h and this increase was blocked by NANT. Also, APAP decreased the Oxygen Consumption Rate (OCR), decreased ATP production, and caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were all blocked by NANT.

  18. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Mushegian, Arcady R; Elena, Santiago F

    2015-02-01

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, and positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts.

  19. Cathepsin D-mediated yolk protein degradation is blocked by acid phosphatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Eliane; Nakamura, Angelica; Juliano, Luiz; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Silva-Neto, Mário A C

    2005-04-15

    Vitellin (VT) is a lipoglycophosphoprotein stored inside the eggs of every oviparous organism during oogenesis. In the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus, VT is deposited inside growing oocytes together with two acid hydrolases: acid phosphatase (AP) and cathepsin D (CD). Egg fertilization triggers AP activity and VT proteolysis in vivo [Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2002 (32) 847]. Here, we show that CD is the main protease targeting VT proteolysis during egg development. CD activity in total egg homogenates is blocked by the classical aspartyl protease inhibitor, pepstatin A. Surprisingly, AP inhibitors such as NaF, Na+/K+ tartrate, and inorganic phosphate also block VT proteolysis, whereas this effect is not observed when tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors such as vanadate and phenylarsine oxide or an inhibitor of alkaline phosphatases such as levamisole are used in a VT proteolysis assay. NaF concentrations that block isolated AP activity do not affect the activity of partially purified CD. Therefore, a specific repressor of VT proteolysis must be dephosphorylated by AP in vivo. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for the first time that acid hydrolases act cooperatively to promote yolk degradation during egg development in arthropods.

  20. Protease substrate profiling using bacterial display of self-blocking affinity proteins and flow-cytometric sorting.

    PubMed

    Sandersjöö, Lisa; Jonsson, Andreas; Löfblom, John

    2017-01-01

    Proteases are involved in fundamental biological processes and are important tools in both biotechnological and biomedical research. An important property of proteases is to discriminate among potential substrates. Here, a new method for substrate profiling of proteases is presented. The substrates are displayed between two anti-idiotypic affinity domains on the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus. The first domain functions as a reporter tag and has affinity for a labeled reporter protein, whereas the second domain blocks the reporter tag from interacting with the reporter protein. Site-specific proteolysis of the substrate results in release of the blocking domain, enabling the reporter tag to bind the labeled reporter protein. Proteolysis is therefore reflected in reporter binding, which is quantified by flow cytometry. First, the method with tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) is evaluated and then the substrate preference of matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) is determined using two libraries of around three million substrates each. Identified substrate peptides contained the previously reported motif (PXXXHy ) and on-cell determination of apparent kcat /KM revealed that the enriched substrate peptides are hydrolyzed six to eight-fold more efficiently than a previously reported substrate peptide. The method thus works as intended and the authors believe it has potential as an efficient tool for substrate profiling.

  1. Equine Tetherin Blocks Retrovirus Release and Its Activity Is Antagonized by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism. PMID:24227834

  2. Chloroplast outer envelope protein CHUP1 is essential for chloroplast anchorage to the plasma membrane and chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Kazusato; Yamasato, Akihiro; Kong, Sam-Geun; Kasahara, Masahiro; Nakai, Masato; Takahashi, Fumio; Ogura, Yasunobu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu

    2008-10-01

    Chloroplasts change their intracellular distribution in response to light intensity. Previously, we isolated the chloroplast unusual positioning1 (chup1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This mutant is defective in normal chloroplast relocation movement and shows aggregation of chloroplasts at the bottom of palisade mesophyll cells. The isolated gene encodes a protein with an actin-binding motif. Here, we used biochemical analyses to determine the subcellular localization of full-length CHUP1 on the chloroplast outer envelope. A CHUP1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion, which was detected at the outermost part of mesophyll cell chloroplasts, complemented the chup1 phenotype, but GFP-CHUP1, which was localized mainly in the cytosol, did not. Overexpression of the N-terminal hydrophobic region (NtHR) of CHUP1 fused with GFP (NtHR-GFP) induced a chup1-like phenotype, indicating a dominant-negative effect on chloroplast relocation movement. A similar pattern was found in chloroplast OUTER ENVELOPE PROTEIN7 (OEP7)-GFP transformants, and a protein containing OEP7 in place of NtHR complemented the mutant phenotype. Physiological analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing truncated CHUP1 in a chup1 mutant background and cytoskeletal inhibitor experiments showed that the coiled-coil region of CHUP1 anchors chloroplasts firmly on the plasma membrane, consistent with the localization of coiled-coil GFP on the plasma membrane. Thus, CHUP1 localization on chloroplasts, with the N terminus inserted into the chloroplast outer envelope and the C terminus facing the cytosol, is essential for CHUP1 function, and the coiled-coil region of CHUP1 prevents chloroplast aggregation and participates in chloroplast relocation movement.

  3. Expression of Robo protein in bladder cancer tissues and its effect on the growth of cancer cells by blocking Robo protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Cheng, Hepeng; Xu, Weibo; Tian, Xin; Li, Xiaodong; Zhu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the expression of Slit signaling protein ligand Robo protein in human bladder cancer and para-carcinoma tissue, and observe the tumor cell survival and growth by inoculating the bladder cancer cells with the blocked signaling protein into the subcutaneous tissue of nude mice. The expression of Robo protein was detected in T24 cells in human bladder uroepithelium carcinoma and cultivated human bladder uroepithelium carcinoma confirmed by pathological diagnosis. The cultivated T24 cells were coated by the protein antibody and human bladder uroepithelium carcinoma T24 tumor-bearing mice model was established. The tumor cell survival and growth were observed in the antibody coating group and non-coating group. The tumor body size was measured. The immunohistochemical detection showed that Robo protein isoforms Robo1 and Robo 4 were expressed in T24 cells of cancer tissues, paracarcinoma tissues and cultured human uroepithelium carcinoma. The expression of Robo1 was significantly higher than that of Robo4 (P<0.05). The cancer cells could be detected in nodular tumor of mice in each group. The volume of the tumor-bearing mice in the nodular tumor of the non-coating group was larger than that of anti-Robol antibody coating group and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in tumor volume between anti-Robo4 antibody coating group and non-coating group (P>0.05); The difference was statistically significant compared with the anti-Robo1 antibody coating group (P<0.01). In conclusion, Robo protein isoforms Robo1 and Robo4 were expressed in human bladder cancer T24 cells. To block Robo4 signal protein had little effect on the survival and growth of the transplantation tumor and to block Robo1 signal protein would seriously affect the survival and growth of the transplantation tumor, suggesting that Robo1 might play an important role in the growth and metastasis of bladder cancer, and might become a

  4. A versatile building block: the structures and functions of negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuna; Guo, Yu; Lou, Zhiyong

    2012-12-01

    Nucleocapsid protein (NPs) of negative-sense single-stranded RNA (-ssRNA) viruses function in different stages of viral replication, transcription, and maturation. Structural investigations show that -ssRNA viruses that encode NPs preliminarily serve as structural building blocks that encapsidate and protect the viral genomic RNA and mediate the interaction between genomic RNA and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. However, recent structural results have revealed other biological functions of -ssRNA viruses that extend our understanding of the versatile roles of virally encoded NPs.

  5. Identification of a Functional Plasmodesmal Localization Signal in a Plant Viral Cell-To-Cell-Movement Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Cheng; Lazarowitz, Sondra G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our fundamental knowledge of the protein-sorting pathways required for plant cell-to-cell trafficking and communication via the intercellular connections termed plasmodesmata has been severely limited by the paucity of plasmodesmal targeting sequences that have been identified to date. To address this limitation, we have identified the plasmodesmal localization signal (PLS) in the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) cell-to-cell-movement protein (MP), which has emerged as the paradigm for dissecting the molecular details of cell-to-cell transport through plasmodesmata. We report here the identification of a bona fide functional TMV MP PLS, which encompasses amino acid residues between positions 1 and 50, with residues Val-4 and Phe-14 potentially representing critical sites for PLS function that most likely affect protein conformation or protein interactions. We then demonstrated that this PLS is both necessary and sufficient for protein targeting to plasmodesmata. Importantly, as TMV MP traffics to plasmodesmata by a mechanism that is distinct from those of the three plant cell proteins in which PLSs have been reported, our findings provide important new insights to expand our understanding of protein-sorting pathways to plasmodesmata. PMID:26787834

  6. The silver lining of a viral agent: increasing seed yield and harvest index in Arabidopsis by ectopic expression of the potato leaf roll virus movement protein.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, Kristin; Vogel, Florian; Rutten, Twan; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Sonnewald, Uwe; Hofius, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    Ectopic expression of viral movement proteins (MPs) has previously been shown to alter plasmodesmata (PD) function and carbon partitioning in transgenic plants, giving rise to the view of PD being dynamic and highly regulated structures that allow resource allocation to be adapted to environmental and developmental needs. However, most work has been restricted to solanaceous species and the potential use of MP expression to improve biomass and yield parameters has not been addressed in detail. Here we demonstrate that MP-mediated modification of PD function can substantially alter assimilate allocation, biomass production, and reproductive growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These effects were achieved by constitutive expression of the potato leaf roll virus 17-kD MP (MP17) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in different Arabidopsis ecotypes. The resulting transgenic plants were analyzed for PD localization of the MP17:GFP fusion protein and different lines with low to high expression levels were selected for further analysis. Low-level accumulation of MP17 resulted in enhanced sucrose efflux from source leaves and a considerably increased vegetative biomass production. In contrast, high MP17 levels impaired sucrose export, resulting in source leaf-specific carbohydrate accumulation and a strongly reduced vegetative growth. Surprisingly, later during development the MP17-mediated inhibition of resource allocation was reversed, and final seed yield increased in average up to 30% in different transgenic lines as compared to wild-type plants. This resulted in a strongly improved harvest index. The release of the assimilate export block was paralleled by a reduced PD binding of MP17 in senescing leaves, indicating major structural changes of PD during leaf senescence.

  7. RING finger protein PLR-1 blocks Wnt signaling by altering trafficking of Wnt Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ryan E.

    Secreted Wnt proteins control a wide range of essential developmental processes, including axon guidance and establishment of anteroposterior neuronal polarity. We identified a transmembrane RING finger protein, PLR-1, that governs the response to Wnts by reducing the cell surface levels of Wnt receptors Frizzled, CAM-1 and LIN-18 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Frizzled, CAM-1 and LIN-18 are normally enriched at the plasma membrane where they are capable of detecting and responding to extracellular Wnts. However, when PLR-1 is expressed Frizzled, CAM-1 and LIN-18 are no longer detected at the cell surface and instead colocalize with PLR-1 in endosomes and Golgi. PLR-1 is related to a broad family of transmembrane proteins that contain a lumenal protease associated domain and a cytosolic RING finger. The RING finger is a hallmark of one type of E3 ubiquitin ligase and monoubiquitination is commonly used to regulate protein trafficking. Protease associated domains are largely thought to mediate interactions between proteins. To identify the domains responsible for PLR-1 regulation of Frizzled from the cell surface we utilized a series of fluorescently tagged fusion proteins and protein truncations containing various domains from PLR-1 and Frizzled. Our data suggests that PLR-1 and Frizzled interact and form a complex via their respective extracellular/lumenal domains, and that ubiqiuitination of Frizzled by PLR-1 targets the Frizzled/PLR-1 complex to the endosome.

  8. Creating functional sophistication from simple protein building blocks, exemplified by factor H and the regulators of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Makou, Elisavet; Herbert, Andrew P; Barlow, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    Complement control protein modules (CCPs) occur in numerous functionally diverse extracellular proteins. Also known as short consensus repeats (SCRs) or sushi domains each CCP contains approximately 60 amino acid residues, including four consensus cysteines participating in two disulfide bonds. Varying in length and sequence, CCPs adopt a β-sandwich type fold and have an overall prolate spheroidal shape with N- and C-termini lying close to opposite poles of the long axis. CCP-containing proteins are important as cytokine receptors and in neurotransmission, cell adhesion, blood clotting, extracellular matrix formation, haemoglobin metabolism and development, but CCPs are particularly well represented in the vertebrate complement system. For example, factor H (FH), a key soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation, is made up entirely from a chain of 20 CCPs joined by short linkers. Collectively, therefore, the 20 CCPs of FH must mediate all its functional capabilities. This is achieved via collaboration and division of labour among these modules. Structural studies have illuminated the dynamic architectures that allow FH and other CCP-rich proteins to perform their biological functions. These are largely the products of a highly varied set of intramolecular interactions between CCPs. The CCP can act as building block, spacer, highly versatile recognition site or dimerization mediator. Tandem CCPs may form composite binding sites or contribute to flexible, rigid or conformationally 'switchable' segments of the parent proteins.

  9. O-GlcNAc modification blocks the aggregation and toxicity of the protein α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marotta, Nicholas P.; Lin, Yu Hsuan; Lewis, Yuka E.; Ambroso, Mark R.; Zaro, Balyn W.; Roth, Maxwell T.; Arnold, Don B.; Langen, Ralf; Pratt, Matthew R.

    2015-11-01

    Several aggregation-prone proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases can be modified by O-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in vivo. One of these proteins, α-synuclein, is a toxic aggregating protein associated with synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease. However, the effect of O-GlcNAcylation on α-synuclein is not clear. Here, we use synthetic protein chemistry to generate both unmodified α-synuclein and α-synuclein bearing a site-specific O-GlcNAc modification at the physiologically relevant threonine residue 72. We show that this single modification has a notable and substoichiometric inhibitory effect on α-synuclein aggregation, while not affecting the membrane binding or bending properties of α-synuclein. O-GlcNAcylation is also shown to affect the phosphorylation of α-synuclein in vitro and block the toxicity of α-synuclein that was exogenously added to cells in culture. These results suggest that increasing O-GlcNAcylation may slow the progression of synucleinopathies and further support a general function for O-GlcNAc in preventing protein aggregation.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of the Contact and Complement Systems Is Blocked by SIC, a Protein Secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes*

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Inga-Maria; Shannon, Oonagh; Åkesson, Per; Mörgelin, Matthias; Collin, Mattias; Schmidtchen, Artur; Björck, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that activation of complement and contact systems results in the generation of antibacterial peptides. Streptococcus pyogenes, a major bacterial pathogen in humans, exists in >100 different serotypes due to sequence variation in the surface-associated M protein. Cases of invasive and life-threatening S. pyogenes infections are commonly associated with isolates of the M1 serotype, and in contrast to the large majority of M serotypes, M1 isolates all secrete the SIC protein. Here, we show that SIC interferes with the activation of the contact system and blocks the activity of antibacterial peptides generated through complement and contact activation. This effect promotes the growth of S. pyogenes in human plasma, and in a mouse model of S. pyogenes sepsis, SIC enhances bacterial dissemination, results which help explain the high frequency of severe S. pyogenes infections caused by isolates of the M1 serotype. PMID:21068386

  11. Virtual screening and selection of drug-like compounds to block noggin interaction with bone morphogenetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shaila; Metpally, Raghu Prasad Rao; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B

    2010-04-01

    Noggin is a major natural extracellular antagonist to bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) which binds to BMPs and blocks binding of them to BMP-specific receptors and thus negatively regulates BMP-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signal through heteromeric protein complexes composed of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. Preventing the BMP-2/noggin interaction will preserve free BMP-2 and enhance the efficacy of BMP-2 to induce bone formation. This work is an attempt to use the current understanding of BMP-2, and its interaction with its receptors and antagonist to design an inhibitor of BMP-2/noggin interaction with the goal of lowering the dose of BMP-2 required in clinical applications. The crystal structure of the BMP-7/noggin complex, the BMP-2/BMP receptor IA ectodomain complex and the extracellular domain of BMP receptor II monomer are known. We modeled the BMP-2 based on the structure of its homologue BMP-7 and its binding complex with noggin. We also modeled a complex of BMP-2/BMPRIA/BMPRII by modeling BMPRII and replacing ActRIIB in the BMP-2/BMPRIA/ActRIIB complex. We then identified the binding region of noggin with BMP-2 and the receptors with BMP-2. From the analysis of structures of these complexes and modeling we identified the key amino acids present in the entire interacting surfaces among these proteins that play important physiological role in the regulation of cell differentiation and bone metabolism. By in silico screening we selected and ranked several compounds that have high theoretical scores to bind to noggin to block BMP-noggin interaction.

  12. Interaction of the trans-frame potyvirus protein P3N-PIPO with host protein PCaP1 facilitates potyvirus movement.

    PubMed

    Vijayapalani, Paramasivan; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Nagasaki-Takekuchi, Nahoko; Miller, W Allen

    2012-01-01

    A small open reading frame (ORF), pipo, overlaps with the P3 coding region of the potyviral polyprotein ORF. Previous evidence suggested a requirement for pipo for efficient viral cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide immunoblotting evidence that the protein PIPO is expressed as a trans-frame protein consisting of the amino-terminal half of P3 fused to PIPO (P3N-PIPO). P3N-PIPO of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) fused to GFP facilitates its own cell-to-cell movement. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, we found that P3N-PIPO interacts with host protein PCaP1, a cation-binding protein that attaches to the plasma membrane via myristoylation. BiFC revealed that it is the PIPO domain of P3N-PIPO that binds PCaP1 and that myristoylation of PCaP1 is unnecessary for interaction with P3N-PIPO. In PCaP1 knockout mutants (pcap1) of Arabidopsis, accumulation of TuMV harboring a GFP gene (TuMV-GFP) was drastically reduced relative to the virus level in wild-type plants, only small localized spots of GFP were visible, and the plants showed few symptoms. In contrast, TuMV-GFP infection in wild-type Arabidopsis yielded large green fluorescent patches, and caused severe stunting. However, viral RNA accumulated to high level in protoplasts from pcap1 plants indicating that PCaP1 is not required for TuMV RNA synthesis. In contrast to TuMV, the tobamovirus Oilseed rape mosaic virus did not require PCaP1 to infect Arabidopsis plants. We conclude that potyviral P3N-PIPO interacts specifically with the host plasma membrane protein PCaP1 to participate in cell-to-cell movement. We speculate that PCaP1 links a complex of viral proteins and genomic RNA to the plasma membrane by binding P3N-PIPO, enabling localization to the plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell movement. The PCaP1 knockout may contribute to a new strategy for recessive resistance to potyviruses.

  13. Interaction of the Trans-Frame Potyvirus Protein P3N-PIPO with Host Protein PCaP1 Facilitates Potyvirus Movement

    PubMed Central

    Vijayapalani, Paramasivan; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Nagasaki-Takekuchi, Nahoko; Miller, W. Allen

    2012-01-01

    A small open reading frame (ORF), pipo, overlaps with the P3 coding region of the potyviral polyprotein ORF. Previous evidence suggested a requirement for pipo for efficient viral cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide immunoblotting evidence that the protein PIPO is expressed as a trans-frame protein consisting of the amino-terminal half of P3 fused to PIPO (P3N-PIPO). P3N-PIPO of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) fused to GFP facilitates its own cell-to-cell movement. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, we found that P3N-PIPO interacts with host protein PCaP1, a cation-binding protein that attaches to the plasma membrane via myristoylation. BiFC revealed that it is the PIPO domain of P3N-PIPO that binds PCaP1 and that myristoylation of PCaP1 is unnecessary for interaction with P3N-PIPO. In PCaP1 knockout mutants (pcap1) of Arabidopsis, accumulation of TuMV harboring a GFP gene (TuMV-GFP) was drastically reduced relative to the virus level in wild-type plants, only small localized spots of GFP were visible, and the plants showed few symptoms. In contrast, TuMV-GFP infection in wild-type Arabidopsis yielded large green fluorescent patches, and caused severe stunting. However, viral RNA accumulated to high level in protoplasts from pcap1 plants indicating that PCaP1 is not required for TuMV RNA synthesis. In contrast to TuMV, the tobamovirus Oilseed rape mosaic virus did not require PCaP1 to infect Arabidopsis plants. We conclude that potyviral P3N-PIPO interacts specifically with the host plasma membrane protein PCaP1 to participate in cell-to-cell movement. We speculate that PCaP1 links a complex of viral proteins and genomic RNA to the plasma membrane by binding P3N-PIPO, enabling localization to the plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell movement. The PCaP1 knockout may contribute to a new strategy for recessive resistance to potyviruses. PMID:22511869

  14. Long distance movement of an Arabidopsis Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (AtTCTP2) mRNA and protein in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is an almost ubiquitous protein found in eukaryotes, fundamental for the regulation of development and general growth. The multiple functions of TCTP have been inferred from its involvement in several cell pathways, but the specific function of TCTP is still not known in detail. On the other hand, TCTP seems to respond to a plethora of external signals, and appears to be regulated at the transcriptional and/or translational levels by mechanisms yet to be determined. In the present work, we analyzed the capacity of AtTCTP2 gene products (mRNA and protein) to translocate long distance through tobacco heterografts (transgenic/WT and WT/transgenic). The results indicate that both AtTCTP2 mRNA and protein are capable of moving long distance in both directions (stock-scion and scion-stock) with a tendency for movement from source to sink tissue (stock to scion). Interestingly, aerial roots emerged only in heterografts where the protein was detected in both stock and scion, suggesting a correlation between the presence of AtTCTP2 and aerial root appearance. More detailed analysis showed that these aerial roots harbored the transgene and expressed both transcript and protein. In addition, the protein localization pattern in transgenic aerial and primary roots was basically the same, indicating specific nuclear destination in roots, but also in leaves. These findings provide an approach to understand the role of long-distance movement in the function of plant TCTPs, supporting the notion that some of these act in a non-cell autonomous manner, as the human counterpart, the Histamine Releasing Factor (HRF). PMID:25566280

  15. Synthesis of histone proteins by CPE ligation using a recombinant peptide as the C-terminal building block.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Toru; Yoshikawa, Ryo; Fujiyoshi, Yuki; Mishima, Yuichi; Hojo, Hironobu; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2015-11-01

    The post-translational modification of histones plays an important role in gene expression. We report herein on a method for synthesizing such modified histones by ligating chemically prepared N-terminal peptides and C-terminal recombinant peptide building blocks. Based on their chemical synthesis, core histones can be categorized as two types; histones H2A, H2B and H4 which contain no Cys residues, and histone H3 which contains a Cys residue(s) in the C-terminal region. A combination of native chemical ligation and desulphurization can be simply used to prepare histones without Cys residues. For the synthesis of histone H3, the endogenous Cys residue(s) must be selectively protected, while keeping the N-terminal Cys residue of the C-terminal building block that is introduced for purposes of chemical ligation unprotected. To this end, a phenacyl group was successfully utilized to protect endogenous Cys residue(s), and the recombinant peptide was ligated with a peptide containing a Cys-Pro ester (CPE) sequence as a thioester precursor. Using this approach it was possible to prepare all of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 with any modifications. The resulting proteins could then be used to prepare a core histone library of proteins that have been post-translationally modified.

  16. A subset of yeast vacuolar protein sorting mutants is blocked in one branch of the exocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Harsay, Edina; Schekman, Randy

    2002-01-21

    Exocytic vesicles that accumulate in a temperature-sensitive sec6 mutant at a restrictive temperature can be separated into at least two populations with different buoyant densities and unique cargo molecules. Using a sec6 mutant background to isolate vesicles, we have found that vacuolar protein sorting mutants that block an endosome-mediated route to the vacuole, including vps1, pep12, vps4, and a temperature-sensitive clathrin mutant, missort cargo normally transported by dense exocytic vesicles, such as invertase, into light exocytic vesicles, whereas transport of cargo specific to the light exocytic vesicles appears unaffected. Immunoisolation experiments confirm that missorting, rather than a changed property of the normally dense vesicles, is responsible for the altered density gradient fractionation profile. The vps41Delta and apl6Delta mutants, which block transport of only the subset of vacuolar proteins that bypasses endosomes, sort exocytic cargo normally. Furthermore, a vps10Delta sec6 mutant, which lacks the sorting receptor for carboxypeptidase Y (CPY), accumulates both invertase and CPY in dense vesicles. These results suggest that at least one branch of the yeast exocytic pathway transits through endosomes before reaching the cell surface. Consistent with this possibility, we show that immunoisolated clathrin-coated vesicles contain invertase.

  17. Rice ragged stunt virus segment S6-encoded nonstructural protein Pns6 complements cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus-based chimeric virus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zujian; Wu, Jianguo; Adkins, Scott; Xie, Lianhui; Li, Weimin

    2010-09-01

    The protein(s) that support intercellular movement of Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) have not yet been identified. In this study, the role of three nonstructural proteins Pns6, Pns7 and Pns10 in cell-to-cell movement were determined with a movement-deficient Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector. The results showed that only the Pns6 could complement the cell-to-cell movement of the movement-deficient TMV in Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi nc and N. benthamiana plants, and both N- and C-terminal 50 amino acids of Pns6 were essential for the cell-to-cell movement. Transient expression in epidermal cells from N. benthamiana showed that the Pns6-eGFP fusion protein was present predominantly along the cell wall as well as a few punctate sites perhaps indicating plasmodesmata. Taken together with previous finding that the Pns6 has nucleic acid-binding activity (Shao et al., 2004), the possible role of Pns6 in cell-to-cell movement of RRSV were discussed.

  18. DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEIN of Nicotiana benthamiana Contributes to Potyvirus Movement and Transports to Plasmodesmata via the Early Secretory Pathway and the Actomyosin System1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Chao; Cong, Qian-Qian; Li, Xiang-Dong; Mou, An-Li; Gao, Rui; Liu, Jin-Liang; Tian, Yan-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The intercellular movement of plant viruses requires both viral and host proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated that the frame-shift protein P3N-PIPO (for the protein encoded by the open reading frame [ORF] containing 5′-terminus of P3 and a +2 frame-shift ORF called Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF and embedded in the P3) and CYLINDRICAL INCLUSION (CI) proteins were required for potyvirus cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide genetic evidence showing that a Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV; genus Potyvirus) mutant carrying a truncated PIPO domain of 58 amino acid residues could move between cells and induce systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants; mutants carrying a PIPO domain of seven, 20, or 43 amino acid residues failed to move between cells and cause systemic infection in this host plant. Interestingly, the movement-defective mutants produced progeny that eliminated the previously introduced stop codons and thus restored their systemic movement ability. We also present evidence showing that a developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein of N. benthamiana (referred to as NbDREPP) interacted with both P3N-PIPO and CI of the movement-competent TVBMV. The knockdown of NbDREPP gene expression in N. benthamiana impeded the cell-to-cell movement of TVBMV. NbDREPP was shown to colocalize with TVBMV P3N-PIPO and CI at plasmodesmata (PD) and traffic to PD via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system. We also show that myosin XI-2 is specially required for transporting NbDREPP to PD. In conclusion, NbDREPP is a key host protein within the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system that interacts with two movement proteins and influences virus movement. PMID:25540331

  19. DEVELOPMENTALLY REGULATED PLASMA MEMBRANE PROTEIN of Nicotiana benthamiana contributes to potyvirus movement and transports to plasmodesmata via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin system.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chao; Cong, Qian-Qian; Li, Xiang-Dong; Mou, An-Li; Gao, Rui; Liu, Jin-Liang; Tian, Yan-Ping

    2015-02-01

    The intercellular movement of plant viruses requires both viral and host proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated that the frame-shift protein P3N-PIPO (for the protein encoded by the open reading frame [ORF] containing 5'-terminus of P3 and a +2 frame-shift ORF called Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF and embedded in the P3) and CYLINDRICAL INCLUSION (CI) proteins were required for potyvirus cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide genetic evidence showing that a Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus (TVBMV; genus Potyvirus) mutant carrying a truncated PIPO domain of 58 amino acid residues could move between cells and induce systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants; mutants carrying a PIPO domain of seven, 20, or 43 amino acid residues failed to move between cells and cause systemic infection in this host plant. Interestingly, the movement-defective mutants produced progeny that eliminated the previously introduced stop codons and thus restored their systemic movement ability. We also present evidence showing that a developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein of N. benthamiana (referred to as NbDREPP) interacted with both P3N-PIPO and CI of the movement-competent TVBMV. The knockdown of NbDREPP gene expression in N. benthamiana impeded the cell-to-cell movement of TVBMV. NbDREPP was shown to colocalize with TVBMV P3N-PIPO and CI at plasmodesmata (PD) and traffic to PD via the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system. We also show that myosin XI-2 is specially required for transporting NbDREPP to PD. In conclusion, NbDREPP is a key host protein within the early secretory pathway and the actomyosin motility system that interacts with two movement proteins and influences virus movement.

  20. The potato virus X TGBp2 protein association with the endoplasmic reticulum plays a role in but is not sufficient for viral cell-to-cell movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitra, Ruchira; Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Blancaflor, Elison; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Richard S.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie

    2003-01-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and coat protein are required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Plasmids expressing GFP fused to TGBp2 were bombarded to leaf epidermal cells and GFP:TGBp2 moved cell to cell in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves but not in Nicotiana tabacum leaves. GFP:TGBp2 movement was observed in TGBp1-transgenic N. tabacum, indicating that TGBp2 requires TGBp1 to promote its movement in N. tabacum. In this study, GFP:TGBp2 was detected in a polygonal pattern that resembles the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed TGBp2 has two putative transmembrane domains. Two mutations separately introduced into the coding sequences encompassing the putative transmembrane domains within the GFP:TGBp2 plasmids and PVX genome, disrupted membrane binding of GFP:TGBp2, inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in N. benthamiana and TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum, and inhibited PVX movement. A third mutation, lying outside the transmembrane domains, had no effect on GFP:TGBp2 ER association or movement in N. benthamiana but inhibited GFP:TGBp2 movement in TGBp1-expressing N. tabacum and PVX movement in either Nicotiana species. Thus, ER association of TGBp2 may be required but not be sufficient for virus movement. TGBp2 likely provides an activity for PVX movement beyond ER association.

  1. Osh proteins regulate membrane sterol organization but are not required for sterol movement between the ER and PM

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander; Sullivan, David P.; Kersting, Michael C.; Dittman, Jeremy S.; Beh, Christopher T.; Menon, Anant K.

    2011-01-01

    Sterol transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM) occurs by an ATP-dependent, non-vesicular mechanism that is presumed to require sterol transport proteins (STPs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homologues of the mammalian oxysterol-binding protein (Osh1–7) have been proposed to function as STPs. To evaluate this proposal we took two approaches. First we used dehydroergosterol (DHE) to visualize sterol movement in living cells by fluorescence microscopy. DHE was introduced into the PM under hypoxic conditions and observed to redistribute to lipid droplets on growing the cells aerobically. Redistribution required ATP and the sterol acyltransferase Are2, but did not require PM-derived transport vesicles. DHE redistribution occurred robustly in a conditional yeast mutant (oshΔ osh4-1ts) that lacks all functional Osh proteins at 37°C. In a second approach we used a pulse-chase protocol to analyze the movement of metabolically radiolabeled ergosterol from the ER to the PM. Arrival of radiolabeled ergosterol at the PM was assessed in isolated PM-enriched fractions as well by extracting sterols from intact cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. These experiments revealed that whereas ergosterol is transported effectively from the ER to the PM in Osh-deficient cells, the rate at which it moves within the PM to equilibrate with the methyl-β-cyclodextrin extractable sterol pool is slowed. We conclude (i) that the role of Osh proteins in nonvesicular sterol transport between the PM, ER and lipid droplets is either minimal, or subsumed by other mechanisms and (ii) that Osh proteins regulate the organization of sterols at the PM. PMID:21689253

  2. Limitations on geminivirus genome size imposed by plasmodesmata and virus-encoded movement protein: insights into DNA trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Robert L; Sudarshana, Mysore; Jiang, Hao; Rojas, Maria R; Lucas, William J

    2003-11-01

    Animals and plants evolved systems to permit non-cell-autonomous trafficking of RNA, whereas DNA plays a cell-autonomous role. In plants, plasmodesmata serve as the conduit for this phenomenon, and viruses have evolved to use this pathway for the spread of infectious nucleic acids. In this study, a plant DNA virus was used to explore the constraints imposed on the movement of DNA through this endogenous RNA trafficking pathway. The combined properties of the geminivirus-encoded movement protein and plasmodesmata were shown to impose a strict limitation on the size of the viral genome at the level of cell-to-cell movement. Size-increased viral genome components underwent homologous and nonhomologous recombination to overcome this strict limitation. Our results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms that underlie viral evolution and provide a likely explanation for why relatively few types of plant DNA viruses have evolved: they would have had to overcome the constraints imposed by an endogenous system operating to ensure that DNA acts in a cell-autonomous manner.

  3. Limitations on Geminivirus Genome Size Imposed by Plasmodesmata and Virus-Encoded Movement Protein: Insights into DNA Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Robert L.; Sudarshana, Mysore; Jiang, Hao; Rojas, Maria R.; Lucas, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Animals and plants evolved systems to permit non-cell-autonomous trafficking of RNA, whereas DNA plays a cell-autonomous role. In plants, plasmodesmata serve as the conduit for this phenomenon, and viruses have evolved to use this pathway for the spread of infectious nucleic acids. In this study, a plant DNA virus was used to explore the constraints imposed on the movement of DNA through this endogenous RNA trafficking pathway. The combined properties of the geminivirus-encoded movement protein and plasmodesmata were shown to impose a strict limitation on the size of the viral genome at the level of cell-to-cell movement. Size-increased viral genome components underwent homologous and nonhomologous recombination to overcome this strict limitation. Our results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms that underlie viral evolution and provide a likely explanation for why relatively few types of plant DNA viruses have evolved: they would have had to overcome the constraints imposed by an endogenous system operating to ensure that DNA acts in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:14555695

  4. Photosynthetic protein complexes as bio-photovoltaic building blocks retaining a high internal quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Muhammad; Delgado, Juan D; Friebe, Vincent; Aartsma, Thijs J; Frese, Raoul N

    2014-08-11

    Photosynthetic compounds have been a paradigm for biosolar cells and biosensors and for application in photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices. However, the interconnection of proteins and protein complexes with electrodes, in terms of electronic contact, structure, alignment and orientation, remains a challenge. Here we report on a deposition method that relies on the self-organizing properties of these biological protein complexes to produce a densely packed monolayer by using Langmuir-Blodgett technology. The monolayer is deposited onto a gold electrode with defined orientation and produces the highest light-induced photocurrents per protein complex to date, 45 μA/cm(2) (with illumination power of 23 mW/cm(2) at 880 nm), under ambient conditions. Our work shows for the first time that a significant portion of the intrinsic quantum efficiency of primary photosynthesis can be retained outside the biological cell, leading to an internal quantum efficiency (absorbed photon to electron injected into the electrode) of the metal electrode-protein complex system of 32%.

  5. BriX: a database of protein building blocks for structural analysis, modeling and design.

    PubMed

    Vanhee, Peter; Verschueren, Erik; Baeten, Lies; Stricher, Francois; Serrano, Luis; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution structures of proteins remain the most valuable source for understanding their function in the cell and provide leads for drug design. Since the availability of sufficient protein structures to tackle complex problems such as modeling backbone moves or docking remains a problem, alternative approaches using small, recurrent protein fragments have been employed. Here we present two databases that provide a vast resource for implementing such fragment-based strategies. The BriX database contains fragments from over 7000 non-homologous proteins from the Astral collection, segmented in lengths from 4 to 14 residues and clustered according to structural similarity, summing up to a content of 2 million fragments per length. To overcome the lack of loops classified in BriX, we constructed the Loop BriX database of non-regular structure elements, clustered according to end-to-end distance between the regular residues flanking the loop. Both databases are available online (http://brix.crg.es) and can be accessed through a user-friendly web-interface. For high-throughput queries a web-based API is provided, as well as full database downloads. In addition, two exciting applications are provided as online services: (i) user-submitted structures can be covered on the fly with BriX classes, representing putative structural variation throughout the protein and (ii) gaps or low-confidence regions in these structures can be bridged with matching fragments.

  6. Proteins in aggregates functionally impact multiple neurodegenerative disease models by forming proteasome-blocking complexes

    PubMed Central

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Li-Rong; Alla, Ramani; Shmookler Reis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases progressively form aggregates containing both shared components (e.g., TDP-43, phosphorylated tau) and proteins specific to each disease. We investigated whether diverse neuropathies might have additional aggregation-prone proteins in common, discoverable by proteomics. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing unc-54p/Q40::YFP, a model of polyglutamine array diseases such as Huntington's, accrues aggregates in muscle 2–6 days posthatch. These foci, isolated on antibody-coupled magnetic beads, were characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Three Q40::YFP-associated proteins were inferred to promote aggregation and cytotoxicity, traits reduced or delayed by their RNA interference knockdown. These RNAi treatments also retarded aggregation/cytotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease models, nematodes with muscle or pan-neuronal Aβ1–42 expression and behavioral phenotypes. The most abundant aggregated proteins are glutamine/asparagine-rich, favoring hydrophobic interactions with other random-coil domains. A particularly potent modulator of aggregation, CRAM-1/HYPK, contributed < 1% of protein aggregate peptides, yet its knockdown reduced Q40::YFP aggregates 72–86% (P < 10−6). In worms expressing Aβ1–42, knockdown of cram-1 reduced β-amyloid 60% (P < 0.002) and slowed age-dependent paralysis > 30% (P < 10−6). In wild-type worms, cram-1 knockdown reduced aggregation and extended lifespan, but impaired early reproduction. Protection against seeded aggregates requires proteasome function, implying that normal CRAM-1 levels promote aggregation by interfering with proteasomal degradation of misfolded proteins. Molecular dynamic modeling predicts spontaneous and stable interactions of CRAM-1 (or human orthologs) with ubiquitin, and we verified that CRAM-1 reduces degradation of a tagged-ubiquitin reporter. We propose that CRAM-1 exemplifies a class of primitive chaperones that are initially protective and highly

  7. The movement protein of cucumber mosaic virus traffics into sieve elements in minor veins of nicotiana clevelandii

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, LM; Boevink, P; Cruz, SS; Palukaitis, P; Oparka, KJ

    1998-01-01

    The location of the 3a movement protein (MP) of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by quantitative immunogold labeling of the wild-type 3a MP in leaves of Nicotiana clevelandii infected by CMV as well as by using a 3a-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion expressed from a potato virus X (PVX) vector. Whether expressed from CMV or PVX, the 3a MP targeted plasmodesmata and accumulated in the central cavity of the pore. Within minor veins, the most extensively labeled plasmodesmata were those connecting sieve elements and companion cells. In addition to targeting plasmodesmata, the 3a MP accumulated in the parietal layer of mature sieve elements. Confocal imaging of cells expressing the 3a-GFP fusion protein showed that the 3a MP assembled into elaborate fibrillar formations in the sieve element parietal layer. The ability of 3a-GFP, expressed from PVX rather than CMV, to enter sieve elements demonstrates that neither the CMV RNA nor the CMV coat protein is required for trafficking of the 3a MP into sieve elements. CMV virions were not detected in plasmodesmata from CMV-infected tissue, although large CMV aggregates were often found in the parietal layer of sieve elements and were usually surrounded by 3a MP. These data suggest that CMV traffics into minor vein sieve elements as a ribonucleoprotein complex that contains the viral RNA, coat protein, and 3a MP, with subsequent viral assembly occurring in the sieve element parietal layer. PMID:9548980

  8. Molecular modeling of the elastomeric properties of repeating units and building blocks of resilin, a disordered elastic protein.

    PubMed

    Khandaker, Md Shahriar K; Dudek, Daniel M; Beers, Eric P; Dillard, David A; Bevan, David R

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the properties of disordered elastomeric proteins are not well known. To better understand the relationship between elastomeric behavior and amino acid sequence, we investigated resilin, a disordered rubber-like protein, found in specialized regions of the cuticle of insects. Resilin of Drosophila melanogaster contains Gly-rich repetitive motifs comprised of the amino acids, PSSSYGAPGGGNGGR, which confer elastic properties to resilin. The repetitive motifs of insect resilin can be divided into smaller partially conserved building blocks: PSS, SYGAP, GGGN and GGR. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the relative roles of SYGAP, and its less common variants SYSAP and TYGAP, on the elastomeric properties of resilin. Results showed that SYGAP adopts a bent structure that is one-half to one-third the end-to-end length of the other motifs having an equal number of amino acids but containing SYSAP or TYGAP substituted for SYGAP. The bent structure of SYGAP forms due to conformational freedom of glycine, and hydrogen bonding within the motif apparently plays a role in maintaining this conformation. These structural features of SYGAP result in higher extensibility compared to other motifs, which may contribute to elastic properties at the macroscopic level. Overall, the results are consistent with a role for the SYGAP building block in the elastomeric properties of these disordered proteins. What we learned from simulating the repetitive motifs of resilin may be applicable to the biology and mechanics of other elastomeric biomaterials, and may provide us the deeper understanding of their unique properties.

  9. The tobamovirus Turnip Vein Clearing Virus 30-kilodalton movement protein localizes to novel nuclear filaments to enhance virus infection.

    PubMed

    Levy, Amit; Zheng, Judy Y; Lazarowitz, Sondra G

    2013-06-01

    Plant viruses overcome the barrier of the plant cell wall by encoding cell-to-cell movement proteins (MPs), which direct newly replicated viral genomes to, and across, the wall. The paradigm for how a single MP regulates and coordinates these activities is the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 30-kDa protein (MP(TMV)). Detailed studies demonstrate that TMV multiplies exclusively in the cytoplasm and have documented associations of MP(TMV) with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, microtubules, and plasmodesmata throughout the course of infection. As TMV poorly infects Arabidopsis thaliana, Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV) is the tobamovirus of choice for studies in this model plant. A key problem, which has contributed to confusion in the field, is the unproven assumption that the TVCV and TMV life cycles are identical. We engineered an infectious TVCV replicon that expressed a functional fluorescence-tagged MP(TVCV) and report here the unexpected discovery that MP(TVCV), beyond localizing to ER membrane and plasmodesmata, targeted to the nucleus in a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-dependent manner, where it localized to novel F-actin-containing filaments that associated with chromatin. The MP(TVCV) NLS appeared to be conserved in the subgroup 3 tobamoviruses, and our mutational analyses showed that nuclear localization of MP(TVCV) was necessary for efficient TVCV cell-to-cell movement and systemic infection in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our studies identify a novel nuclear stage in TVCV infection and suggest that nuclear MP encoded by TVCV and other subgroup 3 tobamoviruses interacts with F-actin and chromatin to modulate host defenses or cellular physiology to favor virus movement and infection.

  10. The Role of Aquaporin and Tight Junction Proteins in the Regulation of Water Movement in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Raymond W. M.; Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F.

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fish living in freshwater are challenged by passive water influx; however the molecular mechanisms regulating water influx in fish are not well understood. The potential involvement of aquaporins (AQP) and epithelial tight junction proteins in the regulation of transcellular and paracellular water movement was investigated in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). We observed that the half-time for saturation of water influx (Ku) was 4.3±0.9 min, and reached equilibrium at approximately 30 min. These findings suggest a high turnover rate of water between the fish and the environment. Water influx was reduced by the putative AQP inhibitor phloretin (100 or 500 μM). Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that AQP1a1 protein was expressed in cells on the yolk sac epithelium. A substantial number of these AQP1a1-positive cells were identified as ionocytes, either H+-ATPase-rich cells or Na+/K+-ATPase-rich cells. AQP1a1 appeared to be expressed predominantly on the basolateral membranes of ionocytes, suggesting its potential involvement in regulating ionocyte volume and/or water flux into the circulation. Additionally, translational gene knockdown of AQP1a1 protein reduced water influx by approximately 30%, further indicating a role for AQP1a1 in facilitating transcellular water uptake. On the other hand, incubation with the Ca2+-chelator EDTA or knockdown of the epithelial tight junction protein claudin-b significantly increased water influx. These findings indicate that the epithelial tight junctions normally act to restrict paracellular water influx. Together, the results of the present study provide direct in vivo evidence that water movement can occur through transcellular routes (via AQP); the paracellular routes may become significant when the paracellular permeability is increased. PMID:23967101

  11. The role of aquaporin and tight junction proteins in the regulation of water movement in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Kumai, Yusuke; Perry, Steve F

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fish living in freshwater are challenged by passive water influx; however the molecular mechanisms regulating water influx in fish are not well understood. The potential involvement of aquaporins (AQP) and epithelial tight junction proteins in the regulation of transcellular and paracellular water movement was investigated in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). We observed that the half-time for saturation of water influx (K(u)) was 4.3±0.9 min, and reached equilibrium at approximately 30 min. These findings suggest a high turnover rate of water between the fish and the environment. Water influx was reduced by the putative AQP inhibitor phloretin (100 or 500 μM). Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that AQP1a1 protein was expressed in cells on the yolk sac epithelium. A substantial number of these AQP1a1-positive cells were identified as ionocytes, either H⁺-ATPase-rich cells or Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase-rich cells. AQP1a1 appeared to be expressed predominantly on the basolateral membranes of ionocytes, suggesting its potential involvement in regulating ionocyte volume and/or water flux into the circulation. Additionally, translational gene knockdown of AQP1a1 protein reduced water influx by approximately 30%, further indicating a role for AQP1a1 in facilitating transcellular water uptake. On the other hand, incubation with the Ca²⁺-chelator EDTA or knockdown of the epithelial tight junction protein claudin-b significantly increased water influx. These findings indicate that the epithelial tight junctions normally act to restrict paracellular water influx. Together, the results of the present study provide direct in vivo evidence that water movement can occur through transcellular routes (via AQP); the paracellular routes may become significant when the paracellular permeability is increased.

  12. The nine C-terminal residues of the grapevine fanleaf nepovirus movement protein are critical for systemic virus spread.

    PubMed

    Belin, C; Schmitt, C; Gaire, F; Walter, B; Demangeat, G; Pinck, L

    1999-06-01

    The grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) RNA2-encoded polyprotein P2 is proteolytically cleaved by the RNA1-encoded proteinase to yield protein 2A, 2B(MP) movement protein and 2C(CP) coat protein. To further investigate the role of the 2B(MP) and 2C(CP) proteins in virus movement, RNA2 was engineered by alternatively replacing the GFLV 2B(MP) and 2C(CP) genes with their counterparts from the closely related Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV). Transcripts of all chimeric RNA2s were able to replicate in Chenopodium quinoa protoplasts and form tubules in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts in the presence of the infectious transcript of GFLV RNA1. Virus particles were produced when the GFLV 2C(CP) gene was replaced with its ArMV counterpart, but systemic virus spread did not occur in C. quinoa plants. In addition, chimeric RNA2 containing the complete ArMV 2B(MP) gene was neither encapsidated nor infectious on plants, probably because polyprotein P2 was incompletely processed. However, chimeric RNA2 encoding ArMV 2B(MP), in which the nine C-terminal residues were those of GFLV 2B(MP), formed virus particles and were infectious in the presence of GFLV but not ArMV 2C(CP). These results suggest that the nine C-terminal residues of 2B(MP) must be of the same virus origin as the proteinase for efficient proteolytic processing of polyprotein P2 and from the same virus origin as the 2C(CP) for systemic virus spread.

  13. A Novel Approach To Improve the Efficiency of Block Freeze Concentration Using Ice Nucleation Proteins with Altered Ice Morphology.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jue; Yurkow, Edward J; Adler, Derek; Lee, Tung-Ching

    2017-03-09

    Freeze concentration is a separation process with high success in product quality. The remaining challenge is to achieve high efficiency with low cost. This study aims to evaluate the potential of using ice nucleation proteins (INPs) as an effective method to improve the efficiency of block freeze concentration while also exploring the related mechanism of ice morphology. Our results show that INPs are able to significantly improve the efficiency of block freeze concentration in a desalination model. Using this experimental system, we estimate that approximately 50% of the energy cost can be saved by the inclusion of INPs in desalination cycles while still meeting the EPA standard of drinking water (<500 ppm). Our investigative tools for ice morphology include optical microscopy and X-ray computed tomography imaging analysis. Their use indicates that INPs promote the development of a lamellar structured ice matrix with larger hydraulic diameters, which facilitates brine drainage and contains less brine entrapment as compared to control samples. These results suggest great potential for applying INPs to develop an energy-saving freeze concentration method via the alteration of ice morphology.

  14. Overproduction of the regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase blocks the differentiation of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, M N; Driscoll, D; Mutzel, R; Part, D; Williams, J; Véron, M

    1989-01-01

    During the aggregation of Dictyostelium discoideum extracellular cAMP is known to act as a chemotractant and as an inducer of cellular differentiation. However, its intracellular role as a second messenger remains obscure. We have constructed a fusion gene consisting of the cDNA encoding the regulatory subunit (R) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase fused to the promoter and N-terminal-proximal sequences of a Dictyostelium actin gene. Stable transformants, containing multiple copies of this gene, overproduce the R subunit which accumulates prematurely relative to the endogenous protein. These transformants fail to aggregate. Detailed analysis has shown that they are blocked at interphase, the period prior to aggregation, and that they are severely defective in most responses to cAMP including the induction of gene expression. Our observations suggest that intracellular cAMP acts, presumably by activation of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, to facilitate early development. Images PMID:2551673

  15. Structural and functional diversity among amyloid proteins: Agents of disease, building blocks of biology, and implications for molecular engineering.

    PubMed

    Bleem, Alissa; Daggett, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Amyloids have long been associated with protein dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases, but recent research has demonstrated that some organisms utilize the unique properties of the amyloid fold to create functional structures with important roles in biological processes. Additionally, new engineering approaches have taken advantage of amyloid structures for implementation in a wide variety of materials and devices. In this review, the role of amyloid in human disease is discussed and compared to the functional amyloids, which serve a largely structural purpose. We then consider the use of amyloid constructs in engineering applications, including their utility as building blocks for synthetic biology and molecular engineering. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 7-20. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Surveillance-activated defenses block the ROS-induced mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Runkel, Eva D; Liu, Shu; Baumeister, Ralf; Schulze, Ekkehard

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance of cellular functions results in the activation of stress-signaling pathways that aim at restoring homeostasis. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify components of the signal transduction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) to a nuclear chaperone promoter. We used the ROS generating complex I inhibitor paraquat to induce the UPR(mt), and we employed RNAi exposure post-embryonically to allow testing genes whose knockdown results in embryonic lethality. We identified 54 novel regulators of the ROS-induced UPR(mt). Activation of the UPR(mt), but not of other stress-signaling pathways, failed when homeostasis of basic cellular mechanisms such as translation and protein transport were impaired. These mechanisms are monitored by a recently discovered surveillance system that interprets interruption of these processes as pathogen attack and depends on signaling through the JNK-like MAP-kinase KGB-1. Mutation of kgb-1 abrogated the inhibition of ROS-induced UPR(mt), suggesting that surveillance-activated defenses specifically inhibit the UPR(mt) but do not compromise activation of the heat shock response, the UPR of the endoplasmic reticulum, or the SKN-1/Nrf2 mediated response to cytosolic stress. In addition, we identified PIFK-1, the orthologue of the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive (FWD), and found that it is the only known factor so far that is essential for the unfolded protein responses of both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. This suggests that both UPRs may share a common membrane associated mechanism.

  17. The V Protein of Tioman Virus Is Incapable of Blocking Type I Interferon Signaling in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Caignard, Grégory; Lucas-Hourani, Marianne; Dhondt, Kevin P.; Labernardière, Jean-Louis; Petit, Thierry; Jacob, Yves; Horvat, Branka; Tangy, Frédéric; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of a virus to cross species barriers is determined by the development of bona fide interactions with cellular components of new hosts, and in particular its ability to block IFN-α/β antiviral signaling. Tioman virus (TioV), a close relative of mumps virus (MuV), has been isolated in giant fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Nipah and Hendra viruses, which are present in the same bat colonies, are highly pathogenic in human. Despite serological evidences of close contacts between TioV and human populations, whether TioV is associated to some human pathology remains undetermined. Here we show that in contrast to the V protein of MuV, the V protein of TioV (TioV-V) hardly interacts with human STAT2, does not degrade STAT1, and cannot block IFN-α/β signaling in human cells. In contrast, TioV-V properly binds to human STAT3 and MDA5, and thus interferes with IL-6 signaling and IFN-β promoter induction in human cells. Because STAT2 binding was previously identified as a host restriction factor for some Paramyxoviridae, we established STAT2 sequence from giant fruit bats, and binding to TioV-V was tested. Surprisingly, TioV-V interaction with STAT2 from giant fruit bats is also extremely weak and barely detectable. Altogether, our observations question the capacity of TioV to appropriately control IFN-α/β signaling in both human and giant fruit bats that are considered as its natural host. PMID:23342031

  18. The V protein of Tioman virus is incapable of blocking type I interferon signaling in human cells.

    PubMed

    Caignard, Grégory; Lucas-Hourani, Marianne; Dhondt, Kevin P; Labernardière, Jean-Louis; Petit, Thierry; Jacob, Yves; Horvat, Branka; Tangy, Frédéric; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of a virus to cross species barriers is determined by the development of bona fide interactions with cellular components of new hosts, and in particular its ability to block IFN-α/β antiviral signaling. Tioman virus (TioV), a close relative of mumps virus (MuV), has been isolated in giant fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Nipah and Hendra viruses, which are present in the same bat colonies, are highly pathogenic in human. Despite serological evidences of close contacts between TioV and human populations, whether TioV is associated to some human pathology remains undetermined. Here we show that in contrast to the V protein of MuV, the V protein of TioV (TioV-V) hardly interacts with human STAT2, does not degrade STAT1, and cannot block IFN-α/β signaling in human cells. In contrast, TioV-V properly binds to human STAT3 and MDA5, and thus interferes with IL-6 signaling and IFN-β promoter induction in human cells. Because STAT2 binding was previously identified as a host restriction factor for some Paramyxoviridae, we established STAT2 sequence from giant fruit bats, and binding to TioV-V was tested. Surprisingly, TioV-V interaction with STAT2 from giant fruit bats is also extremely weak and barely detectable. Altogether, our observations question the capacity of TioV to appropriately control IFN-α/β signaling in both human and giant fruit bats that are considered as its natural host.

  19. A blocking ELISA for detection of antibody to a subgroup-reactive epitope of African horsesickness viral protein 7 (VP7) using a novel gamma-irradiated antigen.

    PubMed

    House, J A; Stott, J L; Blanchard, M T; LaRocco, M; Llewellyn, M E

    1996-07-23

    A novel gamma irradiated inactivated cell culture derived African horsesickness viral (AHSV) antigen was used in a blocking ELISA (B-ELISA) for detecting antibody to a subgroup-reactive epitope of AHSV. A monoclonal antibody (MAB), class IgM, against an epitope on African horsesickness (AHS) viral protein 7 (VP7) was developed in BALBc mice and used in the B-ELISA. The MAB, designated F9H, was blocked by 69 serums from equidae with antibody to AHS, but its binding activity was not appreciably affected by 301 serums that did not contain antibodies to AHS virus. An ELISA protocol using a blocking format is described.

  20. Protein-engineered block-copolymers as stem cell delivery vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilshorn, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapy for a myriad of debilitating diseases and injuries; however, current delivery protocols are inadequate. Transplantation by direct injection, which is clinically preferred for its minimal invasiveness, commonly results in less than 5% cell viability, greatly inhibiting clinical outcomes. We demonstrate that mechanical membrane disruption results in significant acute loss of viability at clinically relevant injection rates. As a strategy to protect cells from these damaging forces, we show that cell encapsulation within hydrogels of specific mechanical properties will significantly improve viability. Building on these fundamental studies, we have designed a reproducible, bio-resorbable, customizable hydrogel using protein-engineering technology. In our Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH), network assembly is driven by specific and stoichiometric peptide-peptide binding interactions. By integrating protein science methodologies with simple polymer physics models, we manipulate the polypeptide chain interactions and demonstrate the direct ability to tune the network crosslinking density, sol-gel phase behavior, and gel mechanics. This is in contrast to many other physical hydrogels, where predictable tuning of bulk mechanics from the molecular level remains elusive due to the reliance on non-specific and non-stoichiometric chain interactions for network formation. Furthermore, the hydrogel network can be easily modified to deliver a variety of bioactive payloads including growth factors, peptide drugs, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Through a series of in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate that these materials may significantly improve transplanted stem cell retention and function.

  1. RNF17 blocks promiscuous activity of PIWI proteins in mouse testes

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, Kaja A.; Tam, Oliver H.; Knott, Simon R.; Falciatori, Ilaria; Hammell, Molly; Vagin, Vasily V.; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    PIWI proteins and their associated piRNAs protect germ cells from the activity of mobile genetic elements. Two classes of piRNAs—primary and secondary—are defined by their mechanisms of biogenesis. Primary piRNAs are processed directly from transcripts of piRNA cluster loci, whereas secondary piRNAs are generated in an adaptive amplification loop, termed the ping-pong cycle. In mammals, piRNA populations are dynamic, shifting as male germ cells develop. Embryonic piRNAs consist of both primary and secondary species and are mainly directed toward transposons. In meiotic cells, the piRNA population is transposon-poor and largely restricted to primary piRNAs derived from pachytene piRNA clusters. The transition from the embryonic to the adult piRNA pathway is not well understood. Here we show that RNF17 shapes adult meiotic piRNA content by suppressing the production of secondary piRNAs. In the absence of RNF17, ping-pong occurs inappropriately in meiotic cells. Ping-pong initiates piRNA responses against not only transposons but also protein-coding genes and long noncoding RNAs, including genes essential for germ cell development. Thus, the sterility of Rnf17 mutants may be a manifestation of a small RNA-based autoimmune reaction. PMID:26115953

  2. Ultraviolet-induced movement of the human DNA repair protein, xeroderma pigmentosum type G, in the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M.S.; Knauf, J.A.; Pendergrass, S.H.

    1996-08-06

    Xeroderma pigmentosum type G (XPG) is a human genetic disease exhibiting extreme sensitivity to sunlight. XPG patients are defective XPG endonuclease, which is an enzyme essential for DNA repair of the major kinds of solar ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damages. Here we describe a novel dynamics of this protein within the cell nucleus after UV irradiation of human cells. USing confocal microscopy, we have localized the immunofluorescent, antigenic signal of XPG protein to foci throughout the cell nucleus. Our biochemical studies also established that XPG protein forms a tight association with nuclear structure(s). In human skin fibroblast cells, the number of XPG foci decreased within 2 h after UV irradiation, whereas total nuclear XPG fluorescence intensity remained constant, suggesting redistribution of XPG from a limited number of nuclear foci to the nucleus overall. Within 8 h after UV, most XPG antigenic signal was found as foci. Using {beta}-galactosidase-XPG fusion constructs ({beta}-gal-XPG) transfected into HeLa cells, we have identified a single region of XPG that is evidently responsible both for foci formation and for the UV dynamic response. The fusion protein carrying the C terminus of XPG (amino acids 1146-1185) localized {beta}-gal specific antigenic signal to foci and to the nucleolus regions. After UV irradiation, antigenic {beta}-gal translocated reversibly from the subnuclear structures to the whole nucleus with kinetics very similar to the movements of XPG protein. These findings lead us to propose a model in which distribution of XPG protein may regulate the rate of DNA repair within transcriptionally active and inactive compartments of the cell nucleus. 50 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cis-acting element (SL1) of Potato virus X controls viral movement by interacting with the NbMPB2Cb and viral proteins.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Yun; Cho, Won Kyong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-06-05

    A number of candidate tobacco proteins that bind to cis-acting elements (SL1 RNAs) of Potato virus X (PVX) have been identified in previous studies. We further characterized TMV-MP30 binding protein 2C (MPB2C) homologous protein. We isolated NbMPB2Cb from Nicotiana benthamiana and confirmed the interaction of NbMPB2Cb with SL1 RNAs in vitro. The mRNA level of NbMPB2Cb was increased upon infection by PVX and Tobacco mosaic virus. The movement of PVX was reduced by overexpression of NbMPB2Cb and increased by silenced of NbMPB2Cb. In contrast, PVX RNA accumulation was not significantly altered in protoplasts. Protein-protein interaction assays showed that NbMPB2Cb interacts with PVX movement-associated proteins. PVX infection altered the subcellular localization of NbMPB2Cb from microtubules to endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest that the NbMPB2Cb negatively affects PVX movement by interacting with SL1 RNAs and movement-associated proteins of PVX and by re-localizing in response to PVX infection.

  4. Influence of host chloroplast proteins on Tobacco mosaic virus accumulation and intercellular movement.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sumana; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Cole, Anthony B; Ballard, Kimberly D; Lei, Zhentian; Watson, Bonnie S; Sumner, Lloyd W; Nelson, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) forms dense cytoplasmic bodies containing replication-associated proteins (virus replication complexes [VRCs]) upon infection. To identify host proteins that interact with individual viral components of VRCs or VRCs in toto, we isolated viral replicase- and VRC-enriched fractions from TMV-infected Nicotiana tabacum plants. Two host proteins in enriched fractions, ATP-synthase γ-subunit (AtpC) and Rubisco activase (RCA) were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Through pull-down analysis, RCA bound predominantly to the region between the methyltransferase and helicase domains of the TMV replicase. Tobamovirus, but not Cucumber mosaic virus or Potato virus X, infection of N. tabacum plants resulted in 50% reductions in Rca and AtpC messenger RNA levels. To investigate the role of these host proteins in TMV accumulation and plant defense, we used a Tobacco rattle virus vector to silence these genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants prior to challenge with TMV expressing green fluorescent protein. TMV-induced fluorescent lesions on Rca- or AtpC-silenced leaves were, respectively, similar or twice the size of those on leaves expressing these genes. Silencing Rca and AtpC did not influence the spread of Tomato bushy stunt virus and Potato virus X. In AtpC- and Rca-silenced leaves TMV accumulation and pathogenicity were greatly enhanced, suggesting a role of both host-encoded proteins in a defense response against TMV. In addition, silencing these host genes altered the phenotype of the TMV infection foci and VRCs, yielding foci with concentric fluorescent rings and dramatically more but smaller VRCs. The concentric rings occurred through renewed virus accumulation internal to the infection front.

  5. Augmentation of CAR T-cell Trafficking and Antitumor Efficacy by Blocking Protein Kinase A Localization.

    PubMed

    Newick, Kheng; O'Brien, Shaun; Sun, Jing; Kapoor, Veena; Maceyko, Steven; Lo, Albert; Puré, Ellen; Moon, Edmund; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-06-01

    Antitumor treatments based on the infusion of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) are still relatively ineffective for solid tumors, due to the presence of immunosuppressive mediators [such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and adenosine] and poor T-cell trafficking. PGE2 and adenosine activate protein kinase A (PKA), which then inhibits T-cell receptor (TCR) activation. This inhibition process requires PKA to localize to the immune synapse via binding to the membrane protein ezrin. We generated CAR T cells that expressed a small peptide called the "regulatory subunit I anchoring disruptor" (RIAD) that inhibits the association of PKA with ezrin, thus blunting the negative effects of PKA on TCR activation. After exposure to PGE2 or adenosine in vitro, CAR-RIAD T cells showed increased TCR signaling, released more cytokines, and showed enhanced killing of tumor cells compared with CAR T cells. When injected into tumor-bearing mice, the antitumor efficacy of murine and human CAR-RIAD T cells was enhanced compared with that of CAR T cells, due to resistance to tumor-induced hypofunction and increased T-cell infiltration of established tumors. Subsequent in vitro assays showed that both mouse and human CAR-RIAD cells migrated more efficiently than CAR cells did in response to the chemokine CXCL10 and also had better adhesion to various matrices. Thus, the intracellular addition of the RIAD peptide to adoptively transferred CAR T cells augments their efficacy by increasing their effector function and by improving trafficking into tumor sites. This treatment strategy, therefore, shows potential clinical application for treating solid tumors. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 541-51. ©2016 AACR.

  6. Loss of Ribosomal Protein L11 Blocks Stress Activation of the Bacillus subtilis Transcription Factor ςB

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyu; Scott, Janelle M.; Haldenwang, W. G.

    2001-01-01

    ςB, the general stress response sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis, is activated when the cell's energy levels decline or the bacterium is exposed to environmental stress (e.g., heat shock, ethanol). Physical stress activates ςB through a collection of regulatory kinases and phosphatases (the Rsb proteins) which catalyze the release of ςB from an anti-ςB factor inhibitor. The means by which diverse stresses communicate with the Rsb proteins is unknown; however, a role for the ribosome in this process was suggested when several of the upstream members of the ςB stress activation cascade (RsbR, -S, and -T) were found to cofractionate with ribosomes in crude B. subtilis extracts. We now present evidence for the involvement of a ribosome-mediated process in the stress activation of ςB. B. subtilis strains resistant to the antibiotic thiostrepton, due to the loss of ribosomal protein L11 (RplK), were found to be blocked in the stress activation of ςB. Neither the energy-responsive activation of ςB nor stress-dependent chaperone gene induction (a ςB-independent stress response) was inhibited by the loss of L11. The Rsb proteins required for stress activation of ςB are shown to be active in the RplK− strain but fail to be triggered by stress. The data demonstrate that the B. subtilis ribosomes provide an essential input for the stress activation of ςB and suggest that the ribosomes may themselves be the sensors for stress in this system. PMID:11244072

  7. Hitching a Ride on Vesicles: Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Movement Protein Trafficking in the Endomembrane System1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Carluccio, Anna Vittoria; Zicca, Stefania; Stavolone, Livia

    2014-01-01

    The transport of a viral genome from cell to cell is enabled by movement proteins (MPs) targeting the cell periphery to mediate the gating of plasmodesmata. Given their essential role in the development of viral infection, understanding the regulation of MPs is of great importance. Here, we show that cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) MP contains three tyrosine-based sorting signals that interact with an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) μA-adaptin subunit. Fluorophore-tagged MP is incorporated into vesicles labeled with the endocytic tracer N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(6-(4-(diethylamino)phenyl)hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide. The presence of at least one of the three endocytosis motifs is essential for internalization of the protein from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, for tubule formation, and for CaMV infection. In addition, we show that MP colocalizes in vesicles with the Rab GTPase AtRAB-F2b, which is resident in prevacuolar late endosomal compartments that deliver proteins to the vacuole for degradation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that CaMV MP traffics in the endocytic pathway and that virus viability depends on functional host endomembranes. PMID:24477592

  8. Dityromycin and GE82832 bind protein S12 and block EF-G catalyzed translocation

    PubMed Central

    Bulkley, David; Brandi, Letizia; Polikanov, Yury S.; Fabbretti, Attilio; O’Connor, Michael; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The translocation of messenger RNA and transfer RNA through the ribosome is catalyzed by EF-G, a universally conserved GTPase. The mechanism by which the closely related decapeptide antibiotics dityromycin and GE82832 inhibit EF-G-catalyzed translocation is elucidated in this study. Using crystallographic and biochemical experiments we demonstrate that these antibiotics bind to ribosomal protein S12 in solution as well as within the small ribosomal subunit, inducing long-range effects on the ribosomal head. The crystal structure of the antibiotic in complex with the 70S ribosome reveals that the binding involves conserved amino acid residues of S12 whose mutations result in in vitro and in vivo antibiotic resistance and loss of antibiotic binding. The data also suggest that GE82832/dityromycin inhibits EF-G-catalyzed translocation by disrupting a critical contact between EF-G and S12 that is required to stabilize the post-translocational conformation of EF-G, thereby preventing the ribosome-EF-G complex from entering a conformation productive for translocation. PMID:24412368

  9. A single amino acid substitution in movement protein of tomato torrado virus influences ToTV infectivity in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Przemysław; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2016-02-02

    Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), which is a tomato-infecting member of the genus Torradovirus, induces severe systemic necrosis in Solanum lycopersicum cv. Beta Lux as well as leaf malformation and chlorosis in Nicotiana benthamiana. To date, neither the tomato gene conferring resistance to the pathogen nor the ToTV-encoded necrosis determinant have been characterized. We herein revealed that the phenylalanine 210 residue in the movement protein domain encoded by ToTV RNA2 is a necrosis-inducing pathogenicity determinant during tomato infection. Using a ToTV infectious RNA2 clone, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of the phenylalanine 210 residue, confirming its importance during ToTV infection and symptom manifestation in S. lycopersicum cv. Beta Lux, but not in N. benthamiana.

  10. Blocking the Interactions between Calcium-Bound S100A12 Protein and the V Domain of RAGE Using Tranilast

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Jian Wei; Fu, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a transmembrane receptor in the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in several inflammatory processes. RAGE induces cellular signaling pathways upon binding with various ligands, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), β-amyloids, and S100 proteins. The solution structure of S100A12 and the V ligand-binding region of RAGE have been reported previously. Using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy to conduct 1H–15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) titration experiments, we identified and mapped the binding interface between S100A12 and the V domain of RAGE. The NMR chemical shift data were used as the constraints for the High Ambiguity Driven biomolecular DOCKing (HADDOCK) calculation to generate a structural model of the S100A12–V domain complex. In addition, tranilast (an anti-allergic drug) showed strong interaction with S100A12 in the 1H–15N HSQC titration, fluorescence experiments, and WST-1 assay. The results also indicated that tranilast was located at the binding site between S100A12 and the V domain, blocking interaction between these two proteins. Our results provide the mechanistic details for a structural model and reveal a potential precursor for an inhibitor for pro-inflammatory diseases, which could be useful for the development of new drugs. PMID:27598566

  11. Correctly folded Pfs48/45 protein of Plasmodium falciparum elicits malaria transmission-blocking immunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Outchkourov, Nikolay S.; Roeffen, Will; Kaan, Anita; Jansen, Josephine; Luty, Adrian; Schuiffel, Danielle; van Gemert, Geert Jan; van de Vegte-Bolmer, Marga; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.

    2008-01-01

    Malaria kills >1 million people each year, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa. Although asexual forms are directly responsible for disease and death, sexual stages account for the transmission of Plasmodium parasites from human to the mosquito vector and therefore the spread of the parasite in the population. Development of a malaria vaccine is urgently needed to reduce morbidity and mortality. Vaccines against sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum are meant to decrease the force of transmission and consequently reduce malaria burden. Pfs48/45 is specifically expressed in sexual stages and is a well established transmission-blocking (TB) vaccine candidate. However, production of correctly folded recombinant Pfs48/45 protein with display of its TB epitopes has been a major challenge. Here, we show the production of a properly folded Pfs48/45 C-terminal fragment by simultaneous coexpression with four periplasmic folding catalysts in Escherichia coli. This C-terminal fragment fused to maltose binding protein was produced at medium scale with >90% purity and a stability over at least a 9-month period. It induces uniform and high antibody titers in mice and elicits functional TB antibodies in standard membrane feeding assays in 90% of the immunized mice. Our data provide a clear perspective on the clinical development of a Pfs48/45-based TB malaria vaccine. PMID:18332422

  12. An integral membrane protein (LMP2) blocks reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus from latency following surface immunoglobulin crosslinking.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C L; Lee, J H; Kieff, E; Longnecker, R

    1994-01-01

    The role of latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was evaluated by using latently infected primary B lymphocytes that had been growth transformed by wild-type or specifically mutated EBV recombinants. LMP2 null mutant recombinant EBV-infected cells were similar to normal B lymphocytes in their rapid increase in intracellular free calcium after surface immunoglobulin crosslinking. These cells also became more permissive for lytic EBV replication. In sharp contrast, wild-type control infected cells had little or no increase in intracellular free calcium or in permissivity for EBV replication. The block to surface immunoglobulin crosslinking-induced permissivity in cells expressing wild-type LMP2 could be bypassed by raising intracellular free calcium levels with an ionophore and by activating protein kinase C with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. LMP2A, not LMP2B, mediates this effect on calcium mobilization. Genetic and biochemical data are consistent with these effects being due to the interaction of the LMP2A N-terminal cytoplasmic domain with B lymphocyte src family tyrosine kinases. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8290598

  13. A self-perpetuating repressive state of a viral replication protein blocks superinfection by the same virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Rong; Guo, Qin; Zhang, Shaoyan; Li, Dawei

    2017-01-01

    Diverse animal and plant viruses block the re-infection of host cells by the same or highly similar viruses through superinfection exclusion (SIE), a widely observed, yet poorly understood phenomenon. Here we demonstrate that SIE of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is exclusively determined by p28, one of the two replication proteins encoded by this virus. p28 expressed from a TCV replicon exerts strong SIE to a different TCV replicon. Transiently expressed p28, delivered simultaneously with, or ahead of, a TCV replicon, largely recapitulates this repressive activity. Interestingly, p28-mediated SIE is dramatically enhanced by C-terminally fused epitope tags or fluorescent proteins, but weakened by N-terminal modifications, and it inversely correlates with the ability of p28 to complement the replication of a p28-defective TCV replicon. Strikingly, p28 in SIE-positive cells forms large, mobile punctate inclusions that trans-aggregate a non-coalescing, SIE-defective, yet replication-competent p28 mutant. These results support a model postulating that TCV SIE is caused by the formation of multimeric p28 complexes capable of intercepting fresh p28 monomers translated from superinfector genomes, thereby abolishing superinfector replication. This model could prove to be applicable to other RNA viruses, and offer novel targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:28267773

  14. Infected Cell Protein (ICP)47 Enhances Herpes Simplex Virus Neurovirulence by Blocking the CD8+ T Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Kim; Chen, Wei; Johnson, David C.; Hendricks, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) infected cell protein (ICP)47 blocks CD8+ T cell recognition of infected cells by inhibiting the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP). In vivo, HSV-1 replicates in two distinct tissues: in epithelial mucosa or epidermis, where the virus enters sensory neurons; and in the peripheral and central nervous system, where acute and subsequently latent infections occur. Here, we show that an HSV-1 ICP47− mutant is less neurovirulent than wild-type HSV-1 in mice, but replicates normally in epithelial tissues. The reduced neurovirulence of the ICP47− mutant was due to a protective CD8+ T cell response. When compared with wild-type virus, the ICP47− mutant expressed reduced neurovirulence in immunologically normal mice, and T cell–deficient nude mice after reconstitution with CD8+ T cells. However, the ICP47− mutant exhibited normal neurovirulence in mice that were acutely depleted of CD8+ T cells, and in nude mice that were not reconstituted, or were reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. In contrast, CD8+ T cell depletion did not increase the neurovirulence of an unrelated, attenuated HSV-1 glycoprotein (g)E− mutant. ICP47 is the first viral protein shown to influence neurovirulence by inhibiting CD8+ T cell protection. PMID:9449714

  15. Natural peptides as building blocks for the synthesis of large protein-like molecules with hydrazone and oxime linkages.

    PubMed

    Rose, K; Zeng, W; Regamey, P O; Chernushevich, I V; Standing, K G; Gaertner, H F

    1996-01-01

    Methods are known for the production of synthetic protein-like molecules of nonlinear architecture with molecular masses in the 10-20 kDa range. To synthesize such compounds of higher molecular mass and complexity, chemoselective ligation of natural (as opposed to synthetic) peptide building blocks was studied. In preliminary experiments with model peptides, conditions for the formation of peptide oximes were investigated, and their stability at alkaline pH was examined, to resolve a literature controversy. It was found that low pH (down to 2.1) was suitable for polyoxime formation and that the oxime bond was stable for up to 65 h at pH 8 and for more than 2 h at pH 9. Then, using natural peptides, it was found to be possible to synthesize, and characterize by mass spectrometry, nine-component species with molecular masses > 48 kDa. This is about twice the size of homogeneous artificial proteins previously described. Such complex molecules of defined structure are beginning to find applications as vaccine candidates, as radioimmunodiagnostic agents, and as nonviral gene therapy delivery vehicles.

  16. Effect of 60 minutes exposure to electromagnetic field on fecundity, learning and memory, speed of movement and whole body protein of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    El Kholy, Samar E; El Husseiny, Eman M

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of four different electrical devices as source of electromagnetic field on fecundity, learning and memory function, speed of movement, in addition to the whole body proteins of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The results showed that exposure to EMF has no significant effect on adult fecundity (ANOVA and Duncan's test) but alters learning and memory function in Drosophila larvae, especially those exposed to mobile phone. Highly significant differences occurred in the larval speed of movement after exposure to EMF, with maximal effect occurred for larvae exposed to mobile phone (their speed of movement increased 2.5 times of wild type). Some protein bands serve as characters for exposure to certain electrical devices which suggest that exposure to EMF may affect the whole body proteins.

  17. Willed-movement training reduces brain damage and enhances synaptic plasticity related proteins synthesis after focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaosu; Tang, Qingping; Shen, Qin; Li, Simin

    2016-01-01

    It has been wildly accepted that willed movement(WM) training promotes neurological rehabilitation in patients with stroke. However, it was not clear whether the effect of WM is better than other forms of exercise. The purpose of this study is to assess different effects of WM and other forms of exercise on rats with focal ischemia. The subjects are all had right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery and randomly allocated to three groups of training and one control group with no training. Infarct volume by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) dye, expression of PICK1 and synaptophysin in cerebral cortex and striatum of injured side by western blotting and immunofluorescence performed are analyzed. Exercise has done respectively on rats in each group for 15 days and 30 days. Compared with the control group, the brain damage is reduced in other groups after 15 days exercise. The protein expressions levels of synaptophysin and PICK1 are upregulated after exercise. Concentration of PICK1 protein in WM is greater than other exercise groups, and the expression of synaptophysin in WM and SM groups are higher than EM groups. The number of PICK1 positive cells, synaptophysin and PICK1 co-positive cells are increased by exercise. Synaptophysin is widely distributed in cortex surrounding the injury area in WM and EM. It is indicated in our result that willed-movement training is the most effective intervention in enhancing the PICK1-mediated synaptic plasticity in the area adjacent to the damage region of ischemic rats.

  18. Yeast ribosomal protein L10 helps coordinate tRNA movement through the large subunit

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Alexey N.; Meskauskas, Arturas; Roshwalb, Sara C.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2008-01-01

    Yeast ribosomal protein L10 (E. coli L16) is located at the center of a topological nexus that connects many functional regions of the large subunit. This essential protein has previously been implicated in processes as diverse as ribosome biogenesis, translational fidelity and mRNA stability. Here, the inability to maintain the yeast Killer virus was used as a proxy for large subunit defects to identify a series of L10 mutants. These mapped to roughly four discrete regions of the protein. A detailed analysis of mutants located in the N-terminal ‘hook’ of L10, which inserts into the bulge of 25S rRNA helix 89, revealed strong effects on rRNA structure corresponding to the entire path taken by the tRNA 3′ end as it moves through the large subunit during the elongation cycle. The mutant-induced structural changes are wide-ranging, affecting ribosome biogenesis, elongation factor binding, drug resistance/hypersensitivity, translational fidelity and virus maintenance. The importance of L10 as a potential transducer of information through the ribosome, and of a possible role of its N-terminal domain in switching between the pre- and post-translocational states are discussed. PMID:18824477

  19. Developmental Block and Programmed Cell Death in Bos indicus Embryos: Effects of Protein Supplementation Source and Developmental Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sheila Merlo; Marinho, Luciana Simões Rafagnin; Lunardelli, Paula Alvares; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if the protein source of the medium influences zebu embryo development and if developmental kinetics, developmental block and programmed cell death are related. The culture medium was supplemented with either fetal calf serum or bovine serum albumin. The embryos were classified as Fast (n = 1,235) or Slow (n = 485) based on the time required to reach the fourth cell cycle (48 h and 90 h post insemination - hpi -, respectively). The Slow group was further separated into two groups: those presenting exactly 4 cells at 48 hpi (Slow/4 cells) and those that reached the fourth cell cycle at 90 hpi (Slow). Blastocyst quality, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential and signs of apoptosis or necrosis were evaluated. The Slow group had higher incidence of developmental block than the Fast group. The embryos supplemented with fetal calf serum had lower quality. DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential were absent in embryos at 48 hpi but present at 90 hpi. Early signs of apoptosis were more frequent in the Slow and Slow/4 cell groups than in the Fast group. We concluded that fetal calf serum reduces blastocyst development and quality, but the mechanism appears to be independent of DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic cells detected at 48 hpi reveal a possible mechanism of programmed cell death activation prior to genome activation. The apoptotic cells observed in the slow-developing embryos suggested a relationship between programmed cell death and embryonic developmental kinetics in zebu in vitro-produced embryos. PMID:25760989

  20. Glucocorticoid block of protein kinase C signalling in mouse pituitary corticotroph AtT20 D16:16 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lijun; Philp, Janet A C; Shipston, Michael J

    1999-01-01

    The regulation of large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) currents by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) and glucocorticoid signalling pathways was investigated in AtT20 D16:16 clonal mouse anterior pituitary corticotroph cells. Maximal activation of PKC using the phorbol esters, 4β-phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate (PDBu) and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate (dPPA) elicited a rapid, and sustained, inhibition of the outward steady-state voltage- and calcium- dependent potassium current predominantly carried through BK channels. The effect of PMA was blocked by the PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I (BIS; 100 nM) and chelerythrine chloride (CHE; 25 μM) and was not mimicked by the inactive phorbol ester analogue 4α-PMA. PMA had no significant effect on the 1 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA)-insensitive outward current or pharmacologically isolated, high voltage-activated calcium current. PMA had no significant effect on steady-state outward current in cells pre-treated for 2 h with 1 μM of the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone. Dexamethasone had no significant effect on steady-state outward current amplitude or sensitivity to 1 mM TEA and did not block PMA-induced translocation of the phorbol ester-sensitive PKC isoforms, PKCα and PKCε, to membrane fractions. Taken together these data suggest that in AtT20 D16:16 corticotroph cells BK channels are important targets for PKC action and that glucocorticoids inhibit PKC signalling downstream of PKC activation. PMID:10200423

  1. Glucocorticoid block of protein kinase C signalling in mouse pituitary corticotroph AtT20 D16:16 cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, L; Philp, J A; Shipston, M J

    1999-05-01

    1. The regulation of large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) currents by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) and glucocorticoid signalling pathways was investigated in AtT20 D16:16 clonal mouse anterior pituitary corticotroph cells. 2. Maximal activation of PKC using the phorbol esters, 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate (PDBu) and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate (dPPA) elicited a rapid, and sustained, inhibition of the outward steady-state voltage- and calcium- dependent potassium current predominantly carried through BK channels. 3. The effect of PMA was blocked by the PKC inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide I (BIS; 100 nM) and chelerythrine chloride (CHE; 25 microM) and was not mimicked by the inactive phorbol ester analogue 4alpha-PMA. 4. PMA had no significant effect on the 1 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA)-insensitive outward current or pharmacologically isolated, high voltage-activated calcium current. 5. PMA had no significant effect on steady-state outward current in cells pre-treated for 2 h with 1 microM of the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone. Dexamethasone had no significant effect on steady-state outward current amplitude or sensitivity to 1 mM TEA and did not block PMA-induced translocation of the phorbol ester-sensitive PKC isoforms, PKCalpha and PKCepsilon, to membrane fractions. 6. Taken together these data suggest that in AtT20 D16:16 corticotroph cells BK channels are important targets for PKC action and that glucocorticoids inhibit PKC signalling downstream of PKC activation.

  2. Treatment with the matricellular protein CCN3 blocks and/or reverses fibrosis development in obesity with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Riser, Bruce L; Najmabadi, Feridoon; Garchow, Kendra; Barnes, Jeffrey L; Peterson, Darryl R; Sukowski, Ernest J

    2014-11-01

    Fibrosis is at the core of the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with the complications of diabetes and obesity, including diabetic nephropathy (DN), without any US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs with this specific target. We recently provided the first evidence that the matricellular protein CCN3 (official symbol NOV) functions in a reciprocal manner, acting on the profibrotic family member CCN2 to inhibit fibrosis in a mesangial cell model of DN. Herein, we used the BT/BR ob/ob mouse as a best model of human obesity and DN progression to determine whether recombinant human CCN3 could be used therapeutically, and the mechanisms involved. Eight weeks of thrice-weekly i.p. injections (0.604 and 6.04 μg/kg of recombinant human CCN3) beginning in early-stage DN completely blocked and/or reversed the up-regulation of mRNA expression of kidney cortex fibrosis genes (CCN2, Col1a2, TGF-β1, and PAI-1) seen in placebo-treated diabetic mice. The treatment completely blocked glomerular fibrosis, as determined by altered mesangial expansion and deposition of laminin. Furthermore, it protected against, or reversed, podocyte loss and kidney function reduction (rise in plasma creatinine concentration); albuminuria was also greatly reduced. This study demonstrates the potential efficacy of recombinant human CCN3 treatment in DN and points to mechanisms operating at multiple levels or pathways, upstream (eg, protecting against cell injury) and downstream (eg, regulating CCN2 activity and extracellular matrix metabolism).

  3. Constitutively Expressed IFITM3 Protein in Human Endothelial Cells Poses an Early Infection Block to Human Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangjie; Zeng, Hui; Kumar, Amrita; Belser, Jessica A; Maines, Taronna R; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2016-12-15

    A role for pulmonary endothelial cells in the orchestration of cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment during influenza virus infection, leading to severe lung damage, has been recently identified. As the mechanistic pathway for this ability is not fully known, we extended previous studies on influenza virus tropism in cultured human pulmonary endothelial cells. We found that a subset of avian influenza viruses, including potentially pandemic H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2 viruses, could infect human pulmonary endothelial cells (HULEC) with high efficiency compared to human H1N1 or H3N2 viruses. In HULEC, human influenza viruses were capable of binding to host cellular receptors, becoming internalized and initiating hemifusion but failing to uncoat the viral nucleocapsid and to replicate in host nuclei. Unlike numerous cell types, including epithelial cells, we found that pulmonary endothelial cells constitutively express a high level of the restriction protein IFITM3 in endosomal compartments. IFITM3 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) could partially rescue H1N1 virus infection in HULEC, suggesting IFITM3 proteins were involved in blocking human influenza virus infection in endothelial cells. In contrast, selected avian influenza viruses were able to escape IFITM3 restriction in endothelial cells, possibly by fusing in early endosomes at higher pH or by other, unknown mechanisms. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the human pulmonary endothelium possesses intrinsic immunity to human influenza viruses, in part due to the constitutive expression of IFITM3 proteins. Notably, certain avian influenza viruses have evolved to escape this restriction, possibly contributing to virus-induced pneumonia and severe lung disease in humans.

  4. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Brown, R. Lane; Fujimoto, Zui; Morita, Takashi; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn{sup 2+}-bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn{sup 2+} ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn{sup 2+} binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels.

  5. Regulator of G Protein Signaling 6 (RGS6) Protein Ensures Coordination of Motor Movement by Modulating GABAB Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Biswanath; Stewart, Adele; Yang, Jianqi; Loo, Lipin; Sheff, David; Shepherd, Andrew J.; Mohapatra, Durga P.; Fisher, Rory A.

    2012-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) release from inhibitory interneurons located within the cerebellar cortex limits the extent of neuronal excitation in part through activation of metabotropic GABAB receptors. Stimulation of these receptors triggers a number of downstream signaling events, including activation of GIRK channels by the Gβγ dimer resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and inhibition of neurotransmitter release from presynaptic sites. Here, we identify RGS6, a member of the R7 subfamily of RGS proteins, as a key regulator of GABABR signaling in cerebellum. RGS6 is enriched in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum along with neuronal GIRK channel subunits 1 and 2 where RGS6 forms a complex with known binding partners Gβ5 and R7BP. Mice lacking RGS6 exhibit abnormal gait and ataxia characterized by impaired rotarod performance improved by treatment with a GABABR antagonist. RGS6−/− mice administered baclofen also showed exaggerated motor coordination deficits compared with their wild-type counterparts. Isolated cerebellar neurons natively expressed RGS6, GABABR, and GIRK channel subunits, and cerebellar granule neurons from RGS6−/− mice showed a significant delay in the deactivation kinetics of baclofen-induced GIRK channel currents. These results establish RGS6 as a key component of GABABR signaling and represent the first demonstration of an essential role for modulatory actions of RGS proteins in adult cerebellum. Dysregulation of RGS6 expression in human patients could potentially contribute to loss of motor coordination and, thus, pharmacological manipulation of RGS6 levels might represent a viable means to treat patients with ataxias of cerebellar origin. PMID:22179605

  6. Defective tobamovirus movement protein lacking wild-type phosphorylation sites can be complemented by substitutions found in revertants.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Shigeki; Hori, Koichi; Hosokawa, Daijiro; Okada, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Yuichiro

    2003-01-01

    We reported previously that the movement protein (MP) of tomato mosaic tobamovirus is phosphorylated, and we proposed that MP phosphorylation is important for viral pathogenesis. Experimental data indicated that phosphorylation enhances the stability of MP in vivo and enables the protein to assume the correct intracellular location to perform its function. A mutant virus designated 37A238A was constructed; this virus lacked two serine residues within the MP, which prevented its phosphorylation. In the present study, we inoculated plants with the 37A238A mutant, and as expected, it was unable to produce local lesions on the leaves. However, after an extended period, we found that lesions did occur, which were due to revertant viruses. Several revertants were isolated, and the genetic changes in their MPs were examined together with any changes in their in vivo characteristics. We found that reversion to virulence was associated first with increased MP stability in infected cells and second with a shift in MP intracellular localization over time. In one case, the revertant MP was not phosphorylated in vivo, but it was functional.

  7. Visualization by atomic force microscopy of tobacco mosaic virus movement protein-RNA complexes formed in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kiselyova, O I; Yaminsky, I V; Karger, E M; Frolova, O Y; Dorokhov, Y L; Atabekov, J G

    2001-06-01

    The structure of complexes formed in vitro by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-coded movement protein (MP) with TMV RNA and short (890 nt) synthetic RNA transcripts was visualized by atomic force microscopy on a mica surface. MP molecules were found to be distributed along the chain of RNA and the structure of MP-RNA complexes depended on the molar MP:RNA ratios at which the complexes were formed. A rise in the molar MP:TMV RNA ratio from 20:1 to 60-100:1 resulted in an increase in the density of the MP packaging on TMV RNA and structural conversion of complexes from RNase-sensitive 'beads-on-a-string' into a 'thick string' form that was partly resistant to RNAse. The 'thick string'-type RNase-resistant complexes were also produced by short synthetic RNA transcripts at different MP:RNA ratios. The 'thick string' complexes are suggested to represent clusters of MP molecules cooperatively bound to discrete regions of TMV RNA and separated by protein-free RNA segments.

  8. Efficacy of the Salmonella siderophore receptor protein vaccine against lymph node carriage and fecal shedding of Samonella in commercial feedlot cattle: A randomized complete block design study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of the Salmonella Newport siderophore receptor protein (SRP)® vaccine for reducing lymph node (LN) carriage and fecal shedding of Salmonella at harvest was investigated in a study of commercial feedlot cattle. The study was designed as a randomized complete block with pen as the experi...

  9. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  10. A High-Throughput Screening Strategy to Identify Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors That Block the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway.

    PubMed

    Voter, Andrew F; Manthei, Kelly A; Keck, James L

    2016-07-01

    Induction of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway is a common mechanism by which tumors evolve resistance to DNA crosslinking chemotherapies. Proper execution of the FA pathway requires interaction between the FA complementation group M protein (FANCM) and the RecQ-mediated genome instability protein (RMI) complex, and mutations that disrupt FANCM/RMI interactions sensitize cells to DNA crosslinking agents. Inhibitors that block FANCM/RMI complex formation could be useful therapeutics for resensitizing tumors that have acquired chemotherapeutic resistance. To identify such inhibitors, we have developed and validated high-throughput fluorescence polarization and proximity assays that are sensitive to inhibitors that disrupt interactions between the RMI complex and its binding site on FANCM (a peptide referred to as MM2). A pilot screen of 74,807 small molecules was performed using the fluorescence polarization assay. Hits from the primary screen were further tested using the proximity assay, and an orthogonal proximity assay was used to assess inhibitor selectivity. Direct physical interaction between the RMI complex and the most selective inhibitor identified through the screening process was measured by surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. Observation of direct binding by this small molecule validates the screening protocol.

  11. Cefradine blocks solar-ultraviolet induced skin inflammation through direct inhibition of T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Changshu; Zhang, Guiping; Xiao, Juanjuan; Wu, Dan; Zeng, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jingwen; Guo, Jinguang; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Skin inflammation, and skin cancer induced by excessive solar ultraviolet (SUV) is a great threat to human health. SUV induced skin inflammation through activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and c-Jun N-termeinal kinases (JNKs). T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) plays an important role in this process. Herein, the clinical data showed TOPK, phospho-p38, phospho-JNKs were highly expressed in human solar dermatitis. Ex vivo studies showed that SUV induced the phosphorylation of p38 and JNKs in HaCat and JB6 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Molecule docking model indicated cefradine, an FDA-approved cephalosporin antibiotic, directly binds with TOPK. The result of in vitro binding assay verified cefradine can directly bind with TOPK. In vitro kinase results showed cefradine can inhibit TOPK activity. Ex vivo studies further showed cefradine inhibited SUV-induced the phosphorylation level of p38, JNKs and H2AX through inhibiting TOPK activity in a dose and time dependent manner, and cefradine inhibited the secretion of IL6 and TNF-α in HaCat and JB6 cells. In vivo studies showed that cefradine down-regulated SUV-induced the phosphorylation of p38, JNKs and H2AX and inhibited the secretion of IL6 and TNF-α in Babl/c mice. These results indicated that cefradine can inhibit SUV-induced skin inflammation by blocking TOPK signaling pathway, and TOPK is an effective target for suppressing inflammation induced by SUV irradiation. PMID:27016423

  12. Plasmodesmata-located protein overexpression negatively impacts the manifestation of systemic acquired resistance and the long-distance movement of Defective in Induced Resistance1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Carella, P; Isaacs, M; Cameron, R K

    2015-03-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant defence response that provides immunity to distant uninfected leaves after an initial localised infection. The lipid transfer protein (LTP) Defective in Induced Resistance1 (DIR1) is an essential component of SAR that moves from induced to distant leaves following a SAR-inducing local infection. To understand how DIR1 is transported to distant leaves during SAR, we analysed DIR1 movement in transgenic Arabidopsis lines with reduced cell-to-cell movement caused by the overexpression of Plasmodesmata-Located Proteins PDLP1 and PDLP5. These PDLP-overexpressing lines were defective for SAR, and DIR1 antibody signals were not observed in phloem sap-enriched petiole exudates collected from distant leaves. Our data support the idea that cell-to-cell movement of DIR1 through plasmodesmata is important during long-distance SAR signalling in Arabidopsis.

  13. Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa reverses acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis through blocking sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 maturation.

    PubMed

    Lian, Li-Hua; Wu, Yan-Ling; Song, Shun-Zong; Wan, Ying; Xie, Wen-Xue; Li, Xin; Bai, Ting; Ouyang, Bing-Qing; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2010-12-22

    This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa (GM) on acute alcohol-induced fatty liver. Mice were treated with ethanol (5 g/kg of body weight) by gavage every 12 h for a total of three doses to induce acute fatty liver. Methanol extract of GM (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or silymarin (100 mg/kg) was gavaged simultaneously with ethanol for three doses. GM administration significantly reduced the increases in serum ALT and AST levels, the serum and hepatic triglyceride levels, at 4 h after the last ethanol administration. GM was also found to prevent ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and necrosis, as indicated by liver histopathological studies. Additionally, GM suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, restored the glutathione (GSH) levels, and enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities. The concurrent administration of GM efficaciously abrogated cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction. Moreover, GM significantly reduced the nuclear translocation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (nSREBP-1) in ethanol-treated mice. These data indicated that GM possessed the ability to prevent ethanol-induced acute liver steatosis, possibly through blocking CYP2E1-mediated free radical scavenging effects and SREBP-1-regulated fatty acid synthesis. Especially, GM may be developed as a potential therapeutic candidate for ethanol-induced oxidative damage in liver.

  14. Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor (PEDF) Blocks Wnt3a Protein-induced Autophagy in Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingjing; Belinsky, Glenn; Sagheer, Usman; Zhang, Xuchen; Grippo, Paul J; Chung, Chuhan

    2016-10-14

    An increase in autophagy characterizes pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the signals that regulate this process are incompletely understood. Because canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for the transition from early to advanced pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions, we assessed whether Wnt ligands and endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling modulate autophagy. In this study, canonical Wnt3a ligand induced autophagy markers and vacuoles in murine PanIN cells. Furthermore, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted glycoprotein known for its anti-tumor properties, blocked Wnt3a-directed induction of autophagy proteins. Autophagy inhibition was complemented by reciprocal regulation of the oxidative stress enzymes, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase. Transcriptional control of Sod2 expression was mediated by PEDF-induced NFκB nuclear translocation. PEDF-dependent SOD2 expression in PanIN lesions was recapitulated in a murine model of PanIN formation where PEDF was deleted. In human PanIN lesions, co-expression of PEDF and SOD2 was observed in the majority of early PanIN lesions (47/50, 94%), whereas PEDF and SOD2 immunolocalization in high-grade human PanIN-2/3 was uncommon (7/50, 14%). These results indicate that PEDF regulates autophagy through coordinate Wnt signaling blockade and NFκB activation.

  15. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.

  16. Preparation of non-aggregated fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) by non-covalent coating with a block copolymer and proteins for enhancement of intracellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Woo; Lee, Seonju; Jang, Sangmok; Han, Kyu Young; Kim, Younggyu; Hyun, Jaekyung; Kim, Seong Keun; Lee, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are very promising fluorophores for use in biosystems due to their high biocompatibility and photostability. To overcome their tendency to aggregate in physiological solutions, which severely limits the biological applications of FNDs, we developed a new non-covalent coating method using a block copolymer, PEG-b-P(DMAEMA-co-BMA), or proteins such as BSA and HSA. By simple mixing of the block copolymer with FNDs, the cationic DMAEMA and hydrophobic BMA moieties can strongly interact with the anionic and hydrophobic moieties on the FND surface, while the PEG block can form a shell to prevent the direct contact between FNDs. The polymer-coated FNDs, along with BSA- and HSA-coated FNDs, showed non-aggregation characteristics and maintained their size at the physiological salt concentration. The well-dispersed, polymer- or protein-coated FNDs in physiological solutions showed enhanced intracellular uptake, which was confirmed by CLSM. In addition, the biocompatibility of the coated FNDs was expressly supported by a cytotoxicity assay. Our simple non-covalent coating with the block copolymer, which can be easily modified by various chemical methods, projects a very promising outlook for future biomedical applications, especially in comparison with covalent coating or protein-based coating.

  17. A protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit modulates blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements through regulating actin cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Feng; Wang, Jinqian; Xing, Da

    2012-08-01

    Chloroplast avoidance movements mediated by phototropin 2 (phot2) are one of most important physiological events in the response to high-fluence blue light (BL), which reduces damage to the photosynthetic machinery under excess light. Protein phosphatase 2A-2 (PP2A-2) is an isoform of the catalytic subunit of PP2A, which regulates a number of developmental processes. To investigate whether PP2A-2 was involved in high-fluence BL-induced chloroplast avoidance movements, we first analyzed chloroplast migration in the leaves of the pp2a-2 mutant in response to BL. The data showed that PP2A-2 might act as a positive regulator in phot2-mediated chloroplast avoidance movements, but not in phot1-mediated chloroplast accumulation movements. Then, the effect of okadaic acid (OA) and cantharidin (selective PP2A inhibitors) on high-fluence BL response was further investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll cells. Within a certain concentration range, exogenously applied OA or cantharidin inhibited the high-fluence BL-induced chloroplast movements in a concentration-dependent manner. Actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin phosphorylation assays demonstrated that PP2A-2 can activate/dephosphorylate ADF/cofilin, an actin-binding protein, in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells. Consistent with this observation, the experiments showed that OA could inhibit ADF1 binding to the actin and suppress the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton after high-fluence BL irradiation. The adf1 and adf3 mutants also exhibited reduced high-fluence BL-induced chloroplast avoidance movements. In conclusion, we identified that PP2A-2 regulated the activation of ADF/cofilin, which, in turn, regulated actin cytoskeleton remodeling and was involved in phot2-mediated chloroplast avoidance movements.

  18. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  19. Expression dynamics and ultrastructural localization of epitope-tagged Abutilon mosaic virus nuclear shuttle and movement proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinow, Tatjana; Tanwir, Fariha; Kocher, Cornelia; Krenz, Bjoern; Wege, Christina; Jeske, Holger

    2009-09-01

    The geminivirus Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) encodes two proteins which are essential for viral spread within plants. The nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) transfers viral DNA between the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas the movement protein (MP) facilitates transport between cells through plasmodesmata and long-distance via phloem. An inducible overexpression system for epitope-tagged NSP and MP in plants yielded unprecedented amounts of both proteins. Western blots revealed extensive posttranslational modification and truncation for MP, but not for NSP. Ultrastructural examination of Nicotiana benthamiana tissues showed characteristic nucleopathic alterations, including fibrillar rings, when epitope-tagged NSP and MP were simultaneously expressed in leaves locally infected with an AbMV DNA A in which the coat protein gene was replaced by a green fluorescent protein encoding gene. Immunogold labelling localized NSP in the nucleoplasm and in the fibrillar rings. MP appeared at the cell periphery, probably the plasma membrane, and plasmodesmata.

  20. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation decreases long-term potentiation stability and affects some glutamatergic signaling proteins during hippocampal development.

    PubMed

    Lopez, J; Roffwarg, H P; Dreher, A; Bissette, G; Karolewicz, B; Shaffery, J P

    2008-04-22

    Development of the mammalian CNS requires formation and stabilization of neuronal circuits and synaptic connections. Sensory stimulation provided by the environment orchestrates neuronal circuit formation in the waking state. Endogenous sources of activation are also implicated in these processes. Accordingly we hypothesized that sleep, especially rapid eye movement sleep (REMS), the stage characterized by high neuronal activity that is more prominent in development than adulthood, provides endogenous stimulation, which, like sensory input, helps to stabilize and refine neuronal circuits during CNS development. Young (Y: postnatal day (PN) 16) and adolescent (A: PN44) rats were rapid eye movement sleep-deprived (REMSD) by gentle cage-shaking for only 4 h on 3 consecutive days (total 12 h). The effect of REMS deprivation in Y and A rats was tested 3-7 days after the last deprivation session (Y, PN21-25; A, PN49-53) and was compared with younger (immature, I, PN9-12) untreated, age-matched, treated and normal control groups. REMS deprivation negatively affected the stability of long-term potentiation (LTP) in Y but not A animals. LTP instability in Y-REMSD animals was similar to the instability in even the more immature, untreated animals. Utilizing immunoblots, we identified changes in molecular components of glutamatergic synapses known to participate in mechanisms of synaptic refinement and plasticity. Overall, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 2A, AMPA receptor subunit 1 (GluR1), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and calcium/calmodulin kinase II tended to be lower in Y REMSD animals (NR2B, GluR1 and PSD-95 were significantly lower) compared with controls, an effect not present in the A animals. Taken together, these data indicate that early-life REMS deprivation reduces stability of hippocampal neuronal circuits, possibly by hindering expression of mature glutamatergic synaptic components. The findings

  1. Conversion of S–phenylsulfonylcysteine residues to mixed disulfides at pH 4.0: utility in protein thiol blocking and in protein–S–nitrosothiol detection

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, B. D.; Joshi, N.; Campanello, G. C.; Hilmer, J. K.; Chetia, L.; Vance, J. A.; Reinschmidt, J. N.; Miller, C. G.; Giedroc, D. P.; Dratz, E. A.; Singel, D. J.; Grieco, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    A three step protocol for protein S-nitrosothiol conversion to fluorescent mixed disulfides with purified proteins, referred to as the thiosulfonate switch, is explored which involves: 1) thiol blocking at pH 4.0 using S-phenylsulfonylcysteine (SPSC); 2) trapping of protein S-nitrosothiols as their S-phenylsulfonylcysteines employing sodium benzenesulfinate; and 3) tagging the protein thiosulfonate with a fluorescent rhodamine based probe bearing a reactive thiol (Rhod-SH), which forms a mixed disulfide between the probe and the formerly S-nitrosated cysteine residue. S-nitrosated bovine serum albumin and the S-nitrosated C-terminally truncated form of AdhR-SH (alcohol dehydrogenase regulator) designated as AdhR*-SNO were selectively labelled by the thiosulfonate switch both individually and in protein mixtures containing free thiols. This protocol features the facile reaction of thiols with S-phenylsulfonylcysteines forming mixed disulfides at mild acidic pH (pH = 4.0) in both the initial blocking step as well as in the conversion of protein-S-sulfonylcysteines to form stable fluorescent disulfides. Labelling was monitored by TOF-MS and gel electrophoresis. Proteolysis and peptide analysis of the resulting digest identified the cysteine residues containing mixed disulfides bearing the fluorescent probe, Rhod-SH. PMID:24986430

  2. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J; Høier, Birgitte; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2008-03-01

    The present study used passive limb movement as an experimental model to study the effect of increased blood flow and passive stretch, without enhanced metabolic demand, in young healthy male subjects. The model used was 90 min of passive movement of the leg leading to a 2.8-fold increase (P < 0.05) in blood flow without a significant enhancement in oxygen uptake. Muscle interstitial fluid was sampled with microdialysis technique and analyzed for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and for the effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Biopsies obtained from the musculus vastus lateralis were analyzed for mRNA content of VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The passive leg movement caused an increase (P < 0.05) in interstitial VEGF protein concentration above rest (73 +/- 21 vs. 344 +/- 83 pg/ml). Addition of muscle dialysate to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P < 0.05) than dialysate obtained at rest. Passive movement also enhanced (P < 0.05) the eNOS mRNA level fourfold above resting levels. VEGF mRNA and MMP-2 mRNA levels were unaffected. The results show that a session of passive leg movement, elevating blood flow and causing passive stretch, augments the interstitial concentrations of VEGF, the proliferative effect of interstitial fluid, and eNOS mRNA content in muscle tissue. We propose that enhanced blood flow and passive stretch are positive physiological stimulators of factors associated with capillary growth in human muscle.

  3. Deletion of the C-terminal 33 amino acids of cucumber mosaic virus movement protein enables a chimeric brome mosaic virus to move from cell to cell.

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, H; Okuno, T; Mise, K; Furusawa, I

    1997-01-01

    The movement protein (MP) gene of brome mosaic virus (BMV) was precisely replaced with that of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Infectivity tests of the chimeric BMV on Chenopodium quinoa, a permissive host for cell-to-cell movement of both BMV and CMV, showed that the chimeric BMV failed to move from cell to cell even though it replicated in protoplasts. A spontaneous mutant of the chimeric BMV that displayed cell-to-cell movement was subsequently obtained from a local lesion during one of the experiments. A cloned cDNA representing the genomic RNA encoding the MP of the chimeric BMV mutant was analyzed and found to contain a mutation in the CMV MP gene resulting in deletion of the C-terminal 33 amino acids of the MP. Directed mutagenesis of the CMV MP gene showed that the C-terminal deletion was responsible for the movement capability of the mutant. When the mutation was introduced into CMV, the CMV mutant moved from cell to cell in C. quinoa, though the movement was less efficient than that of the wild-type CMV. These results indicate that the CMV MP, except the C-terminal 33 amino acids, potentiates cell-to-cell movement of both BMV and CMV in C. quinoa. In addition, since C. quinoa is a common host for both BMV and CMV, these results suggest that the CMV MP has specificity for the viral genomes during cell-to-cell movement of the virus and that the C-terminal 33 amino acids of the CMV MP are involved in that specificity. PMID:9032362

  4. Improvement of crystal solubility and increasing toxicity against Caenorhabditis elegans by asparagine substitution in block 3 of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5Ba.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenshan; Liu, Yingying; Zhang, Fengjuan; Chai, Lujun; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2012-10-01

    The crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are widely used for their specific toxicity against insects and nematodes. The highly conserved sequence blocks play an important role in Cry protein stability and flexibility, the basis of toxicity. The block 3 in Cry5Ba subfamily has a shorter sequence (only 12 residues) and more asparagine residues than that of others which harbor about 48 residues but only one asparagine. Based on the theoretical structure model of Cry5Ba, all three asparagines in block 3 are closely located in the interface of putative three domains, implying their probable importance in structure and function. In this study, all three asparagines in Cry5Ba2 block 3 were individually substituted with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The wild-type and mutant proteins were overexpressed and crystallized in acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain BMB171. However, the crystals formed in one of the mutants, designated N586A, abnormally disappeared and dissolved into the culture supernatant once the sporulation cells lysed, whereas the Cry5Ba crystal and the other mutant crystals were stable. The mutant N586A crystal, isolated from sporulation cells by the ultrasonic process, was found to be easily dissolved at wide range of pH value (5.0 to 10.0). Moreover, the toxicity assays showed that the mutant N586A exhibited nearly 9-fold-higher activity against nematodes and damaged the host's intestine more efficiently than the native Cry5Ba2. These data support the presumption that the amide residue Asn586 at the interface of domains might adversely affect the protein flexibility, solubility and resultant toxicity of Cry5Ba.

  5. Comparison of the Oilseed rape mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus movement proteins (MP) reveals common and dissimilar MP functions for tobamovirus spread.

    PubMed

    Niehl, Annette; Pasquier, Adrien; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Mély, Yves; Heinlein, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a longstanding model for studying virus movement and macromolecular transport through plasmodesmata (PD). Its movement protein (MP) interacts with cortical microtubule (MT)-associated ER sites (C-MERs) to facilitate the formation and transport of ER-associated viral replication complexes (VRCs) along the ER-actin network towards PD. To investigate whether this movement mechanism might be conserved between tobamoviruses, we compared the functions of Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) MP with those of MP(TMV). We show that MP(ORMV) supports TMV movement more efficiently than MP(TMV). Moreover, MP(ORMV) localizes to C-MERs like MP(TMV) but accumulates to lower levels and does not localize to larger inclusions/VRCs or along MTs, patterns regularly seen for MP(TMV). Our findings extend the role of C-MERs in viral cell-to-cell transport to a virus commonly used for functional genomics in Arabidopsis. Moreover, accumulation of tobamoviral MP in inclusions or along MTs is not required for virus movement.

  6. Two basic (hydrophilic) regions in the movement protein of Parietaria mottle virus have RNA binding activity and are required for cell-to-cell transport.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carolina; Coll-Bonfill, Nuria; Aramburu, Jose; Pallás, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic; Galipienso, Luis

    2014-05-12

    The movement protein (MP) of parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) is required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Bioinformatics analysis identified two hydrophilic non-contiguous regions (R1 and R2) rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine and with the predicted secondary structure of an α-helix. Different approaches were used to determine the implication of the R1 and R2 regions in RNA binding, plasmodesmata (PD) targeting and cell-to-cell movement. EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay) showed that both regions have RNA-binding activity whereas that mutational analysis reported that either deletion of any of these regions, or loss of the basic amino acids, interfered with the viral intercellular movement. Subcellular localization studies showed that PMoV MP locates at PD. Mutants designed to impeded cell-to-cell movement failed to accumulate at PD indicating that basic residues in both R1 and R2 are critical for binding the MP at PD.

  7. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of congenital heart block occurs in babies whose mothers have autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. People who have these diseases make proteins called antibodies that attack and damage the body's tissues or ...

  8. Blocking effect and crystal structure of natrin toxin, a cysteine-rich secretory protein from Naja atra venom that targets the BKCa channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Shen, Bing; Guo, Min; Lou, Xiaohua; Duan, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Xin Ping; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Liu, Qun; Huang, Qingqiu; Hao, Quan

    2005-08-02

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are widespread in snake venoms. Some members of these CRISPs recently have been found to block L-type Ca(2+) channels or cyclic nucleotide-gated ion (CNG) channels. Here, natrin purified from Naja atra venom, a member of the CRISP family, can induce a further contractile response in the endothelium-denuded thoracic aorta of mouse which has been contracted by a high-K(+) solution. Further experiments show it can block the high-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channel in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 34.4 nM and a Hill coefficient of 1.02, which suggests that only a single natrin molecule is required to bind an ion channel to block BK(Ca) current. The crystal structure of natrin displaying two domains in tandem shows its cysteine-rich domain (CRD) has relatively independent flexibility, especially for the C-terminal long loop (loop I) of CRD to participate in the interface of two domains. On the basis of previous studies of CNG channel and L-Ca(2+) channel blockers, and the sequence and structural comparison of natrin and stecrisp, the deviation of the vital loop I of CRD is suggested to contribute to different effects of some CRISPs in protein-protein interaction.

  9. Membrane fusion triggers rapid degradation of two gamete-specific, fusion-essential proteins in a membrane block to polygamy in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjie; Misamore, Michael J; Snell, William J

    2010-05-01

    The plasma membranes of gametes are specialized for fusion, yet, once fusion occurs, in many organisms the new zygote becomes incapable of further membrane fusion reactions. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this loss of fusion capacity (block to polygamy) remain unknown. During fertilization in the green alga Chlamydomonas, the plus gamete-specific membrane protein FUS1 is required for adhesion between the apically localized sites on the plasma membranes of plus and minus gametes that are specialized for fusion, and the minus-specific membrane protein HAP2 is essential for completion of the membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 (GCS1) family members are also required for fertilization in Arabidopsis, and for the membrane fusion reaction in the malaria organism Plasmodium berghei. Here, we tested whether Chlamydomonas gamete fusion triggers alterations in FUS1 and HAP2 and renders the plasma membranes of the cells incapable of subsequent fusion. We find that, even though the fusogenic sites support multi-cell adhesions, triploid zygotes are rare, indicating a fusion-triggered block to the membrane fusion reaction. Consistent with the extinction of fusogenic capacity, both FUS1 and HAP2 are degraded upon fusion. The rapid, fusion-triggered cleavage of HAP2 in zygotes is distinct from degradation occurring during constitutive turnover in gametes. Thus, gamete fusion triggers specific degradation of fusion-essential proteins and renders the zygote incapable of fusion. Our results provide the first molecular explanation for a membrane block to polygamy in any organism.

  10. Membrane fusion triggers rapid degradation of two gamete-specific, fusion-essential proteins in a membrane block to polygamy in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Misamore, Michael J.; Snell, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma membranes of gametes are specialized for fusion, yet, once fusion occurs, in many organisms the new zygote becomes incapable of further membrane fusion reactions. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this loss of fusion capacity (block to polygamy) remain unknown. During fertilization in the green alga Chlamydomonas, the plus gamete-specific membrane protein FUS1 is required for adhesion between the apically localized sites on the plasma membranes of plus and minus gametes that are specialized for fusion, and the minus-specific membrane protein HAP2 is essential for completion of the membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 (GCS1) family members are also required for fertilization in Arabidopsis, and for the membrane fusion reaction in the malaria organism Plasmodium berghei. Here, we tested whether Chlamydomonas gamete fusion triggers alterations in FUS1 and HAP2 and renders the plasma membranes of the cells incapable of subsequent fusion. We find that, even though the fusogenic sites support multi-cell adhesions, triploid zygotes are rare, indicating a fusion-triggered block to the membrane fusion reaction. Consistent with the extinction of fusogenic capacity, both FUS1 and HAP2 are degraded upon fusion. The rapid, fusion-triggered cleavage of HAP2 in zygotes is distinct from degradation occurring during constitutive turnover in gametes. Thus, gamete fusion triggers specific degradation of fusion-essential proteins and renders the zygote incapable of fusion. Our results provide the first molecular explanation for a membrane block to polygamy in any organism. PMID:20335357

  11. Analysis of polypeptide movement in the SecY channel during SecA-mediated protein translocation.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Karl J; Or, Eran; Osborne, Andrew R; Rapoport, Tom A

    2008-06-06

    In bacteria most secretory proteins are transported across the plasma membrane by the interplay of the ATPase SecA with the translocation channel formed by the SecY complex; SecA uses cycles of ATP hydrolysis to "push" consecutive segments of a polypeptide substrate through the channel. Here we have addressed the mechanism of this process by following the fate of stalled translocation intermediates. These were generated by using a polypeptide substrate containing a bulky disulfide-bonded loop, thus preventing the final residues from passing through the channel. Protease protection experiments showed that the intermediates were stable in the presence of ATP and could complete translocation once the block was removed. The translocation intermediate was also stable when SecA associated with ATPgammaS, a poorly hydrolyzable ATP analog, or ADP plus AlF(4), which mimics the transition state during ATP hydrolysis. In contrast, when SecA was in its ADP-bound state, the translocating polypeptide moved back into the cytosol, as indicated by the disappearance of the protected fragment. Backsliding was not significantly altered by deletion of the plug domain, a short helix in the center of the SecY channel, but it was slowed down when changes were introduced into the pore ring, the constriction of the hourglass-shaped channel. In all cases, backsliding was significantly slower than forward translocation. Together, these data suggest that SecA binds the polypeptide chain in its ATP state and releases it in the ADP state. The channel itself does not bind the polypeptide chain but provides "friction" that minimizes backsliding when ADP-bound SecA resets to "grab" the next segment of the substrate.

  12. A Single Amino Acid Change in Turnip Crinkle Virus Movement Protein p8 Affects RNA Binding and Virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wobbe, Kristin K.; Akgoz, Muslum; Dempsey, D’Maris Amick; Klessig, Daniel F.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the symptoms caused by turnip crinkle virus strain M (TCV-M) and TCV-B infection of a resistant Arabidopsis thaliana line termed Di-17 demonstrates that TCV-B has a greater ability to spread in planta. This ability is due to a single amino acid change in the viral movement protein p8 and inversely correlates with p8 RNA binding affinity. PMID:9621099

  13. Impact of post-synaptic block of neuromuscular transmission, muscle unloading and mechanical ventilation on skeletal muscle protein and mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Norman, H; Nordquist, J; Andersson, P; Ansved, T; Tang, X; Dworkin, B; Larsson, L

    2006-10-01

    To analyse mechanisms of muscle wasting in intensive care unit patients, we developed an experimental model where rats were pharmacologically paralysed by post-synaptic block of neuromuscular transmission (NMB) and mechanically ventilated for 9+/-2 days. Specific interest was focused on the effects on protein and mRNA expression of sarcomeric proteins, i.e., myosin heavy chain (MyHC), actin, myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) and myosin-binding protein H (MyBP-H) in fast- and slow-twitch limb, respiratory and masticatory muscles. Muscle-specific differences were observed in response to NMB at both the protein and mRNA levels. At the protein level, a decreased MyHC-to-actin ratio was observed in all muscles excluding the diaphragm, whereas at the mRNA level a decreased expression of the dominating MyHC isoform(s) was observed in the hind limb and intercostal muscles, but not in the diaphragm and masseter muscles. MyBP-C mRNA expression was decreased in the limb muscles, but it otherwise remained unaffected. MyBP-H conversely increased in all muscles. Furthermore, we found myofibrillar protein and mRNA expression to be affected differently when comparing NMB animals with peripherally denervated (DEN) ambulatory rats. We report that NMB has both a larger and different impact on muscle, at the protein and mRNA levels, than DEN has.

  14. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... not used to treat first-degree heart block. All types of heart block may increase your risk for other arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fih-brih-LA-shun). Talk with your doctor ...

  15. Organic solvent-free low temperature method of preparation for self assembled amphiphilic poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer based nanocarriers for protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Payyappilly, Sanal Sebastian; Panja, Sudipta; Mandal, Pijush; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2015-11-01

    Degradation and denaturation of labile biomolecules during preparation of micelles by organic solvent at high temperature are some of the limitations for fabrication of advanced polymer based protein delivery systems. In this paper, effectiveness of heat-chill method for preparation of micelles containing large labile biomolecules was investigated using insulin as a model protein molecule. Micelles (average size, <120 nm) were prepared using amphiphilic diblock and triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL). Micelles were prepared by heating PEG-PCL block copolymers with distilled water at 60 °C followed by sudden chilling in an ice-water bath. Effects of molecular architecture on morphology, stability and protein loading capacity of micelles were investigated. Micelles prepared using high molecular weight block copolymers exhibited good colloidal stability, encapsulation efficiency and insulin release characteristics. Insulin retained its secondary structure after micelles preparation as confirmed by CD spectroscopic study. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity test suggested that the prepared micellar nanoparticles possessed biocompatibility. In a nut shell, heat-chill method of micellar nanoparticles preparation is well suited for encapsulating labile proteins and other allied biomolecules which degrade in presence of toxic organic solvents and at elevated temperatures.

  16. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  17. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis but Not ß-Adrenergic Receptors Blocks Reconsolidation of a Cocaine-Associated Cue Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Amber B.; Taylor, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    Previously consolidated memories have the potential to enter a state of lability upon memory recall, during which time the memory can be altered before undergoing an additional consolidation-like process and being stored again as a long-term memory. Blocking reconsolidation of aberrant memories has been proposed as a potential treatment for…

  18. Measles virus V protein blocks Jak1-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 to escape IFN-{alpha}/{beta} signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Caignard, Gregory; Guerbois, Mathilde; Labernardiere, Jean-Louis; Jacob, Yves; Jones, Louis M.; Wild, Fabian; Tangy, Frederic Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier

    2007-11-25

    Viruses have evolved various strategies to escape the antiviral activity of type I interferons (IFN-{alpha}/{beta}). For measles virus, this function is carried by the polycistronic gene P that encodes, by an unusual editing strategy, for the phosphoprotein P and the virulence factor V (MV-V). MV-V prevents STAT1 nuclear translocation by either sequestration or phosphorylation inhibition, thereby blocking IFN-{alpha}/{beta} pathway. We show that both the N- and C-terminal domains of MV-V (PNT and VCT) contribute to the inhibition of IFN-{alpha}/{beta} signaling. Using the two-hybrid system and co-affinity purification experiments, we identified STAT1 and Jak1 as interactors of MV-V and demonstrate that MV-V can block the direct phosphorylation of STAT1 by Jak1. A deleterious mutation within the PNT domain of MV-V (Y110H) impaired its ability to interact and block STAT1 phosphorylation. Thus, MV-V interacts with at least two components of IFN-{alpha}/{beta} receptor complex to block downstream signaling.

  19. Wheat streak mosaic virus Infects Systemically despite Extensive Coat Protein Deletions: Identification of Virion Assembly and Cell-to-Cell Movement Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Frank; French, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Viral coat proteins function in virion assembly and virus biology in a tightly coordinated manner with a role for virtually every amino acid. In this study, we demonstrated that the coat protein (CP) of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) is unusually tolerant of extensive deletions, with continued virion assembly and/or systemic infection found after extensive deletions are made. A series of deletion and point mutations was created in the CP cistron of wild-type and/or green fluorescent protein-tagged WSMV, and the effects of these mutations on cell-to-cell and systemic transport and virion assembly of WSMV were examined. Mutants with overlapping deletions comprising N-terminal amino acids 6 to 27, 36 to 84, 85 to 100, 48 to 100, and 36 to 100 or the C-terminal 14 or 17 amino acids systemically infected wheat with different efficiencies. However, mutation of conserved amino acids in the core domain, which may be involved in a salt bridge, abolished virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement. N-terminal amino acids 6 to 27 and 85 to 100 are required for efficient virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement, while the C-terminal 65 amino acids are dispensable for virion assembly but are required for cell-to-cell movement, suggesting that the C terminus of CP functions as a dedicated cell-to-cell movement determinant. In contrast, amino acids 36 to 84 are expendable, with their deletion causing no obvious effects on systemic infection or virion assembly. In total, 152 amino acids (amino acids 6 to 27 and 36 to 100 and the 65 amino acids at the C-terminal end) of 349 amino acids of CP are dispensable for systemic infection and/or virion assembly, which is rare for multifunctional viral CPs. PMID:24227854

  20. Microinjection of 70-kDal heat shock protein into the oral reticular nucleus of the pons suppresses rapid eye movement sleep in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Gusel'nikova, E A; Pastukhov, Yu F

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that increases in the duration of slow-wave sleep and decreases in somatovisceral measures in response to microinjections of 70-kDal heat shock protein (Hsp70) into the third ventricle in pigeons may be due to activation of GABAA receptors in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. With the aim of identifying the transmitter mechanisms whose activation is temporally (2-3 h) linked with suppression of rapid eye movement sleep, the present studies were based on injection of Hsp70 into the oral reticular pontine nucleus (nucleus reticularis pontis oralis, NRPO), whose cholinergic neurons are critical for generating rapid eye movement sleep. Hsp70 was found to induce earlier (within the first 2 h) decreases in the number of episodes and the total duration of rapid eye movement sleep, with decreases in electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power in the range 9-14 Hz, the level of muscle contractile activity, and brain temperature. It is hypothesized that the effects of Hsp70 are mediated by activation of GABAA receptors in the NRPO, evoking suppression of the cholinergic mechanisms initiating rapid eye movement sleep. The increase in the total duration of slow-wave sleep occurring with a long latent period (8-12 h after injection of Hsp70 into the NRPO) may be due to the influence of Hsp70 on the population of neurons responsible for maintaining slow-wave sleep outside the NRPO.

  1. Rare earth ions block the ion pores generated by the class II fusion proteins of alphaviruses and allow analysis of the biological functions of these pores.

    PubMed

    Koschinski, Andreas; Wengler, Gerd; Wengler, Gisela; Repp, Holger

    2005-12-01

    Recently, class II fusion proteins have been identified on the surface of alpha- and flaviviruses. These proteins have two functions besides membrane fusion: they generate an isometric lattice on the viral surface and they form ion-permeable pores at low pH. An attempt was made to identify inhibitors for the ion pores generated by the fusion proteins of the alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus. These pores can be detected and analysed in three situations: (i) in the target membrane during virus entry, by performing patch-clamp measurements of membrane currents; (ii) in the virus particle, by studying the entry of propidium iodide; and (iii) in the plasma membrane of infected cells, by Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of Ca2+ entry into infected cells. It is shown here that, at a concentration of 0.1 mM, rare earth ions block the ion permeability of alphavirus ion pores in all three situations. Even at a concentration of 0.5 mM, these ions do not block formation of the viral fusion pore, as they do not inhibit entry or multiplication of alphaviruses. The data indicate that ions flow through the ion pores into the virus particle in the endosome and from the endosome into the cytoplasm after fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane. These ion flows, however, are not necessary for productive infection. The possibility that the ability of class II fusion proteins to form ion-permeable pores reflects their origin from protein toxins that form ion-permeable pores, and that entry via class II fusion proteins may resemble the entry of non-enveloped viruses, is discussed.

  2. The extracellular adherence protein from Staphylococcus aureus inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement by blocking formation of the C3 proconvertase.

    PubMed

    Woehl, Jordan L; Stapels, Daphne A C; Garcia, Brandon L; Ramyar, Kasra X; Keightley, Andrew; Ruyken, Maartje; Syriga, Maria; Sfyroera, Georgia; Weber, Alexander B; Zolkiewski, Michal; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2014-12-15

    The pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus actively evades many aspects of human innate immunity by expressing a series of small inhibitory proteins. A number of these proteins inhibit the complement system, which labels bacteria for phagocytosis and generates inflammatory chemoattractants. Although the majority of staphylococcal complement inhibitors act on the alternative pathway to block the amplification loop, only a few proteins act on the initial recognition cascades that constitute the classical pathway (CP) and lectin pathway (LP). We screened a collection of recombinant, secreted staphylococcal proteins to determine whether S. aureus produces other molecules that inhibit the CP and/or LP. Using this approach, we identified the extracellular adherence protein (Eap) as a potent, specific inhibitor of both the CP and LP. We found that Eap blocked CP/LP-dependent activation of C3, but not C4, and that Eap likewise inhibited deposition of C3b on the surface of S. aureus cells. In turn, this significantly diminished the extent of S. aureus opsonophagocytosis and killing by neutrophils. This combination of functional properties suggested that Eap acts specifically at the level of the CP/LP C3 convertase (C4b2a). Indeed, we demonstrated a direct, nanomolar-affinity interaction of Eap with C4b. Eap binding to C4b inhibited binding of both full-length C2 and its C2b fragment, which indicated that Eap disrupts formation of the CP/LP C3 proconvertase (C4b2). As a whole, our results demonstrate that S. aureus inhibits two initiation routes of complement by expression of the Eap protein, and thereby define a novel mechanism of immune evasion.

  3. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shengniao; Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Samales, Ashwin Kuppusamy; Johnson, John; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Wong, Sek-Man

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP) functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G) in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G) in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G) were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G) was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G) inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  4. Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Coat Protein Is Essential for Cell-to-Cell and Long-Distance Movement but Not for Viral RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shengniao; Gil-Salas, Francisco M.; Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Samales, Ashwin Kuppusamy; Johnson, John; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Wong, Sek-Man

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP) functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G) in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G) in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G) were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G) was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G) inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro. PMID:25402344

  5. Bowel Movement

    MedlinePlus

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out ... rectum and anus. Another name for stool is feces. It is made of what is left after ...

  6. Movement - uncontrollable

    MedlinePlus

    ... peripheral nervous system References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders: diagnosis and assessment. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  7. Antibodies Directed against Shiga-Toxin Producing Escherichia coli Serotype O103 Type III Secreted Proteins Block Adherence of Heterologous STEC Serotypes to HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Desin, Taseen S.; Townsend, Hugh G.; Potter, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O103 is a zoonotic pathogen that is capable of causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. The main animal reservoir for STEC is ruminants and hence reducing the levels of this pathogen in cattle could ultimately lower the risk of STEC infection in humans. During the process of infection, STECO103 uses a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) to secrete effector proteins (T3SPs) that result in the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Vaccination of cattle with STEC serotype O157 T3SPs has previously been shown to be effective in reducing shedding of STECO157 in a serotype-specific manner. In this study, we tested the ability of rabbit polyclonal sera against individual STECO103 T3SPs to block adherence of the organism to HEp-2 cells. Our results demonstrate that pooled sera against EspA, EspB, EspF, NleA and Tir significantly lowered the adherence of STECO103 relative to pre-immune sera. Likewise, pooled anti-STECO103 sera were also able to block adherence by STECO157. Vaccination of mice with STECO103 recombinant proteins induced strong IgG antibody responses against EspA, EspB, NleA and Tir but not against EspF. However, the vaccine did not affect fecal shedding of STECO103 compared to the PBS vaccinated group over the duration of the experiment. Cross reactivity studies using sera against STECO103 recombinant proteins revealed a high degree of cross reactivity with STECO26 and STECO111 proteins implying that sera against STECO103 proteins could potentially provide neutralization of attachment to epithelial cells by heterologous STEC serotypes. PMID:26451946

  8. The GAPs, GEFs, GDIs and…now, GEMs: New kids on the heterotrimeric G protein signaling block.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Rangamani, Padmini; Kufareva, Irina

    2017-03-13

    The canonical process of activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is well studied. Recently, a rapidly emerging paradigm has revealed the existence of a new, non-canonical set of cytosolic G protein modulators, guanine exchange modulators (GEMs). Among G proteins regulators, GEMs are uniquely capable of initiating pleiotropic signals: these bifunctional modulators can activate cAMP inhibitory (Gi) proteins and inhibit cAMP-stimulatory (Gs) proteins through a single short evolutionarily conserved module. A prototypical member of the GEM family, GIV/Girdin, integrates signals downstream of a myriad of cell surface receptors, e.g., growth factor RTKs, integrins, cytokine, GPCRs, etc., and translates these signals into G protein activation or inhibition. By their pleiotropic action, GIV and other GEMs modulate several key pathways within downstream signaling network. Unlike canonical G protein signaling that is finite and is triggered directly and exclusively by GPCRs, the temporal and spatial features of non-canonical activation of G protein via GIV-family of cytosolic GEMs are unusually relaxed. GIV uses this relaxed circuitry to integrate, reinforce and compartmentalize signals downstream of both growth factors and G proteins in a way that enables it to orchestrate cellular phenotypes in a sustained manner. Mounting evidence suggests the importance of GIV and other GEMs as disease modulators and their potential to serve as therapeutic targets; however, a lot remains unknown within the layers of the proverbial onion that must be systematically peeled. This perspective summarizes the key concepts of the GEM-dependent G protein signaling paradigm and discusses the multidisciplinary approaches that are likely to revolutionize our understanding of this paradigm from the atomic level to systems biology.

  9. Infusion of protein synthesis inhibitors in the entorhinal cortex blocks consolidation but not reconsolidation of object recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ramón H; Rossato, Janine I; Furini, Cristiane R; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2009-05-01

    Memory consolidation and reconsolidation require the induction of protein synthesis in some areas of the brain. Here, we show that infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitors anisomycin, emetine and cycloheximide in the entorhinal cortex immediately but not 180 min or 360 min after training in an object recognition learning task hinders long-term memory retention without affecting short-term memory or behavioral performance. Inhibition of protein synthesis in the entorhinal cortex after memory reactivation involving either a combination of familiar and novel objects or two familiar objects does not affect retention. Our data suggest that protein synthesis in the entorhinal cortex is necessary early after training for consolidation of object recognition memory. However, inhibition of protein synthesis in this cortical region after memory retrieval does not seem to affect the stability of the recognition trace.

  10. Development of Potent and Selective Plasmodium falciparum Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 4 (PfCDPK4) Inhibitors that Block the Transmission of Malaria to Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Vidadala, Rama Subba Rao; Ojo, Kayode K.; Johnson, Steven M.; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Leonard, Stephen E.; Mitra, Arinjay; Choi, Ryan; Reid, Molly C.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Fox, Anna M.W.; Kennedy, Mark; Silver-Brace, Tiffany; Hume, Jen C. C.; Kappe, Stefan; Verlinde, Christophe L.M.J.; Fan, Erkang; Merritt, Ethan A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Maly, Dustin J.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria remains a major health concern for a large percentage of the world’s population. While great strides have been made in reducing mortality due to malaria, new strategies and therapies are still needed. Therapies that are capable of blocking the transmission of Plasmodium parasites are particularly attractive, but only primaquine accomplishes this, and toxicity issues hamper its widespread use. In this study, we describe a series of pyrazolopyrimidine- and imidazopyrazine-based compounds that are potent inhibitors of PfCDPK4, which is a calcium-activated Plasmodium protein kinase that is essential for exflagellation of male gametocytes. Thus, PfCDPK4 is essential for the sexual development of Plasmodium parasites and their ability to infect mosquitos. We demonstrate that two structural features in the ATP-binding site of PfCDPK4 can be exploited in order to obtain potent and selective inhibitors of this enzyme. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pyrazolopyrimidine-based inhibitors that are potent inhibitors of the in vitro activity of PfCDPK4 are also able to block P. falciparum exflagellation with no observable toxicity to human cells. This medicinal chemistry effort serves as a valuable starting point in the development of safe, transmission-blocking agents for the control of malaria. PMID:24531197

  11. Mutation of a Shc binding site tyrosine residue in ErbB3/HER3 blocks heregulin-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Vijapurkar, U; Cheng, K; Koland, J G

    1998-08-14

    The ErbB2 and ErbB3 proteins together constitute a functional coreceptor for heregulin (neuregulin). Heregulin stimulates the phosphorylation of both coreceptor constituents and initiates a variety of other signaling events, which include phosphorylation of the Shc protein. The role of Shc in heregulin-stimulated signal transduction through the ErbB2.ErbB3 coreceptor was investigated here. Heregulin was found to promote ErbB3/Shc association in NIH-3T3 cells expressing endogenous ErbB2 and recombinant ErbB3. A mutant ErbB3 protein was generated in which Tyr-1325 in a consensus Shc phosphotyrosine-binding domain recognition site was mutated to Phe (ErbB3-Y/F). This mutation abolished the association of Shc with ErbB3 and blocked the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by heregulin. Whereas heregulin induced mitogenesis in NIH-3T3 cells transfected with wild-type ErbB3 cDNA, this mitogenic response was markedly attenuated in NIH-3T3 cells transfected with the ErbB3-Y/F cDNA. These results showed a specific interaction of Shc with the ErbB3 receptor protein and demonstrated the importance of this interaction in the activation of mitogenic responses by the ErbB2. ErbB3 heregulin coreceptor complex.

  12. The NS1 protein of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus blocks host interferon and lipid metabolism pathways.

    PubMed

    Billharz, Rosalind; Zeng, Hui; Proll, Sean C; Korth, Marcus J; Lederer, Sharon; Albrecht, Randy; Goodman, Alan G; Rosenzweig, Elizabeth; Tumpey, Terrence M; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Katze, Michael G

    2009-10-01

    The "Spanish influenza" of 1918 claimed an unprecedented number of lives, yet the determinants of virulence for this virus are still not fully understood. Here, we used functional genomics and an in vitro human lung epithelial cell infection model to define the global host transcriptional response to the eight-gene 1918 virus. To better understand the role of the 1918 virus NS1 gene, we also evaluated the host response to a reassortant 1918 virus containing the NS1 gene from A/Texas/36/91 (a seasonal isolate of human influenza virus), as well as the host response to a reassortant of A/Texas/36/91 containing the 1918 NS1 gene. Genomic analyses revealed that the 1918 virus blocked the transcription of multiple interferon-stimulated genes and also downregulated a network of genes associated with lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expression of genes encoding chemokines and cytokines, which serve to attract infiltrating immune cells, was upregulated. Viruses containing the NS1 gene from A/Texas/36/91 induced a significant increase in type I interferon signaling but did not repress lipid metabolism. The 1918 NS1 gene may therefore have contributed to the virulence of the 1918 pandemic virus by disrupting the innate immune response, inducing hypercytokinemia, and by blocking the transcription of certain lipid-based proinflammatory mediators that function as part of the host antiviral response.

  13. Mutation of the dengue virus type 2 envelope protein heparan sulfate binding sites or the domain III lateral ridge blocks replication in Vero cells prior to membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Roehrig, John T.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Liss, Nathan M.; Bennett, Susan L.; Luy, Betty E.; Childers, Thomas; Boroughs, Karen L.; Stovall, Janae L.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Blair, Carol D.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.

    2013-07-05

    Using an infectious cDNA clone we engineered seven mutations in the putative heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of the envelope protein of dengue virus serotype 2, strain 16681. Four mutant viruses, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, and KKK305/307/310EEE, were recovered following transfection of C6/36 cells. A fifth mutant, KK291/295EE, was recovered from C6/36 cells with a compensatory E295V mutation. All mutants grew in and mediated fusion of virus-infected C6/36 cells, but three of the mutants, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, did not grow in Vero cells without further modification. Two Vero cell lethal mutants, KK291/295EV and KKK307/307/310EEE, failed to replicate in DC-SIGN-transformed Raji cells and did not react with monoclonal antibodies known to block DENV attachment to Vero cells. Additionally, both mutants were unable to initiate negative-strand vRNA synthesis in Vero cells by 72 h post-infection, suggesting that the replication block occurred prior to virus-mediated membrane fusion. - Highlights: • Heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of DENV2 envelope protein were mutated. • Four mutant viruses were isolated—all could fuse C6/36 cells. • Two of these mutants were lethal in Vero cells without further modification. • Lethal mutations were KK291/295EV and KKK305/307/310EEE. • Cell attachment was implicated as the replication block for both mutants.

  14. Heat-precipitation allows the efficient purification of a functional plant-derived malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Beiss, Veronique; Spiegel, Holger; Boes, Alexander; Kapelski, Stephanie; Scheuermayer, Matthias; Edgue, Gueven; Sack, Markus; Fendel, Rolf; Reimann, Andreas; Schillberg, Stefan; Pradel, Gabriele; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne disease affecting more than two million people and accounting for more than 600,000 deaths each year, especially in developing countries. The most serious form of malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The complex life cycle of this parasite, involving pre-erythrocytic, asexual and sexual stages, makes vaccine development cumbersome but also offers a broad spectrum of vaccine candidates targeting exactly those stages. Vaccines targeting the sexual stage of P. falciparum are called transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs). They do not confer protection for the vaccinated individual but aim to reduce or prevent the transmission of the parasite within a population and are therefore regarded as an essential tool in the fight against the disease. Malaria predominantly affects large populations in developing countries, so TBVs need to be produced in large quantities at low cost. Combining the advantages of eukaryotic expression with a virtually unlimited upscaling potential and a good product safety profile, plant-based expression systems represent a suitable alternative for the production of TBVs. We report here the high level (300 μg/g fresh leaf weight (FLW)) transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves of an effective TBV candidate based on a fusion protein F0 comprising Pfs25 and the C0-domain of Pfs230, and the implementation of a simple and cost-effective heat treatment step for purification that yields intact recombinant protein at >90% purity with a recovery rate of >70%. The immunization of mice clearly showed that antibodies raised against plant-derived F0 completely blocked the formation of oocysts in a malaria transmission-blocking assay (TBA) making F0 an interesting TBV candidate or a component of a multi-stage malaria vaccine cocktail.

  15. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  16. Expression of green fluorescent protein in pollen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its utility for assessing pollen movement in the field.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Halfhill, Matthew D; Hudson, Laura C; Millwood, Reginald J; Stewart, C Neal

    2006-10-01

    Transgene movement via pollen is an important component of gene flow from transgenic plants. Here, we present proof-of-concept studies that demonstrate the monitoring of short distant movement of pollen expressing a genetically encoded fluorescent tag in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Westar). Transgenic oilseed rape plants were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method with the pBINDC1 construct containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant, mGFP5-ER, under the control of the pollen-specific LAT59 promoter from tomato. Transgenic pollen was differentiated from non-transgenic pollen in vivo by a unique spectral signature, and was shown to be an effective tool to monitor pollen movement in the greenhouse and field. GFP-tagged pollen also served as a practical marker to determine the zygosity of plants. In a greenhouse pollen flow study, more pollen was captured at closer distances from the source plant plot with consistent wind generated by a fan. Under field conditions, GFP transgenic pollen grains were detected up to a distance of 15 m, the farthest distance from source plants assayed. GFP-tagged pollen was easily distinguishable from non-transgenic pollen using an epifluorescence microscope.

  17. [Tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Dakang; An, Xinye; Ji, Bing; Cheng, Yanli; Gao, Honglian; Tian, Mingming

    2016-06-01

    Objective To examine whether tripartite motif-containing protein 34 (TRIM34) is colocalized with micronuclei and investigate the influence on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis. Methods The eukaryotic expression vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed, identified and then transfected into HEK293T cells. With 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole 2HCI (DAPI) staining, the colocalization between TRIM34 and micronuclei was observed under a fluorescence microscope. Moreover, MitoTracker(R)Deep Red was used to identify the colocalization between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria under a confocal microscope. Finally, the effect of TRIM34 on the movement of micronuclei chromosome in mitosis was examined. Results DNA sequencing confirmed that the vector TRIM34-pEGFP-N3 was constructed successfully. A fluorescence microscope revealed that TRIM34 could be colocalized with micronuclei in HEK293T cells transfected with TRIM34-pEGFP-N3. In the same manner, a confocal microscope distinctly showed that TRIM34 was colocalized with micronuclei similarly in appearance. However, there was no distinguished colocalization relationship between the complex of TRIM34-micronulei and mitochondria. Interestingly, the micronuclei chromosome conjugated with TRIM34 was hardly transferred to equatorial plate during the metaphase stage of mitosis. Conclusion TRIM34 is colocalized with micronuclei chromosome and hampers its movement to equatorial plate in mitosis.

  18. EspL is a bacterial cysteine protease effector that cleaves RHIM proteins to block necroptosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jaclyn S; Giogha, Cristina; Mühlen, Sabrina; Nachbur, Ueli; Pham, Chi L L; Zhang, Ying; Hildebrand, Joanne M; Oates, Clare V; Lung, Tania Wong Fok; Ingle, Danielle; Dagley, Laura F; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Petrie, Emma J; Schroeder, Gunnar N; Crepin, Valerie F; Frankel, Gad; Masters, Seth L; Vince, James; Murphy, James M; Sunde, Margaret; Webb, Andrew I; Silke, John; Hartland, Elizabeth L

    2017-01-13

    Cell death signalling pathways contribute to tissue homeostasis and provide innate protection from infection. Adaptor proteins such as receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and Z-DNA-binding protein 1 (ZBP1)/DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) that contain receptor-interacting protein (RIP) homotypic interaction motifs (RHIM) play a key role in cell death and inflammatory signalling(1-3). RHIM-dependent interactions help drive a caspase-independent form of cell death termed necroptosis(4,5). Here, we report that the bacterial pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector EspL to degrade the RHIM-containing proteins RIPK1, RIPK3, TRIF and ZBP1/DAI during infection. This requires a previously unrecognized tripartite cysteine protease motif in EspL (Cys47, His131, Asp153) that cleaves within the RHIM of these proteins. Bacterial infection and/or ectopic expression of EspL leads to rapid inactivation of RIPK1, RIPK3, TRIF and ZBP1/DAI and inhibition of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C))-induced necroptosis and inflammatory signalling. Furthermore, EPEC infection inhibits TNF-induced phosphorylation and plasma membrane localization of mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL). In vivo, EspL cysteine protease activity contributes to persistent colonization of mice by the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. The activity of EspL defines a family of T3SS cysteine protease effectors found in a range of bacteria and reveals a mechanism by which gastrointestinal pathogens directly target RHIM-dependent inflammatory and necroptotic signalling pathways.

  19. Peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates as nanoscale building blocks for assembly of an artificial three-helix protein mimic

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chenguang; Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C.; Madsen, Charlotte S.; Thomsen, Rasmus P.; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Christensen, Niels Johan; Kjems, Jørgen; Thulstrup, Peter W.; Wengel, Jesper; Jensen, Knud J.

    2016-01-01

    Peptide-based structures can be designed to yield artificial proteins with specific folding patterns and functions. Template-based assembly of peptide units is one design option, but the use of two orthogonal self-assembly principles, oligonucleotide triple helix and a coiled coil protein domain formation have never been realized for de novo protein design. Here, we show the applicability of peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates for self-assembly of higher-ordered protein-like structures. The resulting nano-assemblies were characterized by ultraviolet-melting, gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. These studies revealed the formation of the desired triple helix and coiled coil domains at low concentrations, while a dimer of trimers was dominating at high concentration. CD spectroscopy showed an extraordinarily high degree of α-helicity for the peptide moieties in the assemblies. The results validate the use of orthogonal self-assembly principles as a paradigm for de novo protein design. PMID:27464951

  20. Peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates as nanoscale building blocks for assembly of an artificial three-helix protein mimic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Chenguang; Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C.; Madsen, Charlotte S.; Thomsen, Rasmus P.; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Christensen, Niels Johan; Kjems, Jørgen; Thulstrup, Peter W.; Wengel, Jesper; Jensen, Knud J.

    2016-07-01

    Peptide-based structures can be designed to yield artificial proteins with specific folding patterns and functions. Template-based assembly of peptide units is one design option, but the use of two orthogonal self-assembly principles, oligonucleotide triple helix and a coiled coil protein domain formation have never been realized for de novo protein design. Here, we show the applicability of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates for self-assembly of higher-ordered protein-like structures. The resulting nano-assemblies were characterized by ultraviolet-melting, gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. These studies revealed the formation of the desired triple helix and coiled coil domains at low concentrations, while a dimer of trimers was dominating at high concentration. CD spectroscopy showed an extraordinarily high degree of α-helicity for the peptide moieties in the assemblies. The results validate the use of orthogonal self-assembly principles as a paradigm for de novo protein design.

  1. Peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates as nanoscale building blocks for assembly of an artificial three-helix protein mimic.

    PubMed

    Lou, Chenguang; Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C; Madsen, Charlotte S; Thomsen, Rasmus P; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Christensen, Niels Johan; Kjems, Jørgen; Thulstrup, Peter W; Wengel, Jesper; Jensen, Knud J

    2016-07-28

    Peptide-based structures can be designed to yield artificial proteins with specific folding patterns and functions. Template-based assembly of peptide units is one design option, but the use of two orthogonal self-assembly principles, oligonucleotide triple helix and a coiled coil protein domain formation have never been realized for de novo protein design. Here, we show the applicability of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates for self-assembly of higher-ordered protein-like structures. The resulting nano-assemblies were characterized by ultraviolet-melting, gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. These studies revealed the formation of the desired triple helix and coiled coil domains at low concentrations, while a dimer of trimers was dominating at high concentration. CD spectroscopy showed an extraordinarily high degree of α-helicity for the peptide moieties in the assemblies. The results validate the use of orthogonal self-assembly principles as a paradigm for de novo protein design.

  2. RGD-grafted poly-L-lysine-graft-(polyethylene glycol) copolymers block non-specific protein adsorption while promoting cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    VandeVondele, Stephanie; Vörös, Janos; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2003-06-30

    A novel class of surface-active copolymers is described, designed to protect surfaces from nonspecific protein adsorption while still inducing specific cell attachment and spreading. A graft copolymer was synthesized, containing poly-(L-lysine) (PLL) as the backbone and substrate binding and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as protein adsorption-resistant pendant side chains. A fraction of the grafted PEG was pendantly functionalized by covalent conjugation to the peptide motif RGD to induce cell binding. The graft copolymer spontaneously adsorbs from dilute aqueous solution onto negatively charged surfaces. The performance of RGD-modified PLL-g-PEG copolymers was analyzed in protein adsorption and cell culture assays. These coatings efficiently blocked the adsorption of serum proteins to Nb(2)O(5) and tissue culture polystyrene while specifically supporting attachment and spreading of human dermal fibroblasts. This surface functionalization technology is expected to be valuable in both the biomaterial and biosensor fields, because different signals can easily be combined, and sterilization and application are straightforward and cost-effective.

  3. Loss of the Sec1/Munc18-family proteins VPS-33.2 and VPS-33.1 bypasses a block in endosome maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Solinger, Jachen A.; Spang, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The end of the life of a transport vesicle requires a complex series of tethering, docking, and fusion events. Tethering complexes play a crucial role in the recognition of membrane entities and bringing them into close opposition, thereby coordinating and controlling cellular trafficking events. Here we provide a comprehensive RNA interference analysis of the CORVET and HOPS tethering complexes in metazoans. Knockdown of CORVET components promoted RAB-7 recruitment to subapical membranes, whereas in HOPS knockdowns, RAB-5 was found also on membrane structures close to the cell center, indicating the RAB conversion might be impaired in the absence of these tethering complexes. Unlike in yeast, metazoans have two VPS33 homologues, which are Sec1/Munc18 (SM)-family proteins involved in the regulation of membrane fusion. We assume that in wild type, each tethering complex contains a specific SM protein but that they may be able to substitute for each other in case of absence of the other. Of importance, knockdown of both SM proteins allowed bypass of the endosome maturation block in sand-1 mutants. We propose a model in which the SM proteins in tethering complexes are required for coordinated flux of material through the endosomal system. PMID:25273556

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Movement of the Wpd Flexible Loop of Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B in Complex with Halide Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Aline; Saenz-Méndez, Patricia; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Podjarny, Alberto D.; Ventura, Oscar N.

    2012-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a post-translational modification mechanism, crucial for the regulation of nearly all aspects of cell life. This dynamic, reversible process is regulated by the balanced opposing activity of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases. In particular, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated in the regulation of the insulin-receptor activity, leptin-stimulated signal transduction pathways and other clinically relevant metabolic routes, and it has been found overexpressed or overregulated in human breasts, colon and ovary cancers. The WPD loop of the enzyme presents an inherent flexibility, and it plays a fundamental role in the enzymatic catalysis, turning it into a potential target in the design of new efficient PTP1B inhibitors. In order to determine the interactions that control the spatial conformation adopted by the WPD loop, complexes between the enzyme and halide ions (Br- and I- in particular) were crystallized and their crystallographic structure determined, and the collective movements of the aforementioned complexes were studied through Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Both studies yielded concordant results, indicating the existence of a relationship between the identity of the ion present in the complex and the strength of the interactions it establishes with the surrounding protein residues.

  5. Bioinformatic analysis reveals genome size reduction and the emergence of tyrosine phosphorylation site in the movement protein of New World bipartite begomoviruses.

    PubMed

    Ho, Eric S; Kuchie, Joan; Duffy, Siobain

    2014-01-01

    Begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infection is devastating to a wide variety of agricultural crops including tomato, squash, and cassava. Thus, understanding the replication and adaptation of begomoviruses has important translational value in alleviating substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries. The bipartite genome of begomoviruses prevalent in the New World and their counterparts in the Old World share a high degree of genome homology except for a partially overlapping reading frame encoding the pre-coat protein (PCP, or AV2). PCP contributes to the essential functions of intercellular movement and suppression of host RNA silencing, but it is only present in the Old World viruses. In this study, we analyzed a set of non-redundant bipartite begomovirus genomes originating from the Old World (N = 28) and the New World (N = 65). Our bioinformatic analysis suggests ∼ 120 nucleotides were deleted from PCP's proximal promoter region that may have contributed to its loss in the New World viruses. Consequently, genomes of the New World viruses are smaller than the Old World counterparts, possibly compensating for the loss of the intercellular movement functions of PCP. Additionally, we detected substantial purifying selection on a portion of the New World DNA-B movement protein (MP, or BC1). Further analysis of the New World MP gene revealed the emergence of a putative tyrosine phosphorylation site, which likely explains the increased purifying selection in that region. These findings provide important information about the strategies adopted by bipartite begomoviruses in adapting to new environment and suggest future in planta experiments.

  6. Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals Genome Size Reduction and the Emergence of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Site in the Movement Protein of New World Bipartite Begomoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Eric S.; Kuchie, Joan; Duffy, Siobain

    2014-01-01

    Begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) infection is devastating to a wide variety of agricultural crops including tomato, squash, and cassava. Thus, understanding the replication and adaptation of begomoviruses has important translational value in alleviating substantial economic loss, particularly in developing countries. The bipartite genome of begomoviruses prevalent in the New World and their counterparts in the Old World share a high degree of genome homology except for a partially overlapping reading frame encoding the pre-coat protein (PCP, or AV2). PCP contributes to the essential functions of intercellular movement and suppression of host RNA silencing, but it is only present in the Old World viruses. In this study, we analyzed a set of non-redundant bipartite begomovirus genomes originating from the Old World (N = 28) and the New World (N = 65). Our bioinformatic analysis suggests ∼120 nucleotides were deleted from PCP’s proximal promoter region that may have contributed to its loss in the New World viruses. Consequently, genomes of the New World viruses are smaller than the Old World counterparts, possibly compensating for the loss of the intercellular movement functions of PCP. Additionally, we detected substantial purifying selection on a portion of the New World DNA-B movement protein (MP, or BC1). Further analysis of the New World MP gene revealed the emergence of a putative tyrosine phosphorylation site, which likely explains the increased purifying selection in that region. These findings provide important information about the strategies adopted by bipartite begomoviruses in adapting to new environment and suggest future in planta experiments. PMID:25383632

  7. Balancing Arc synthesis, mRNA decay, and proteasomal degradation: maximal protein expression triggered by rapid eye movement sleep-like bursts of muscarinic cholinergic receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Soulé, Jonathan; Alme, Maria; Myrum, Craig; Schubert, Manja; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Bramham, Clive R

    2012-06-22

    Cholinergic signaling induces Arc/Arg3.1, an immediate early gene crucial for synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms that dictate Arc mRNA and protein dynamics during and after cholinergic epochs are little understood. Using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, we show that muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAchR) stimulation triggers Arc synthesis, whereas translation-dependent RNA decay and proteasomal degradation strictly limit the amount and duration of Arc expression. Chronic application of the mAchR agonist, carbachol (Cch), induces Arc transcription via ERK signaling and release of calcium from IP(3)-sensitive stores. Arc translation requires ERK activation, but not changes in intracellular calcium. Proteasomal degradation of Arc (half-life ∼37 min) was enhanced by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic calcium-ATPase pump. Similar mechanisms of Arc protein regulation were observed in cultured rat hippocampal slices. Functionally, we studied the impact of cholinergic epoch duration and temporal pattern on Arc protein expression. Acute Cch treatment (as short as 2 min) induces transient, moderate Arc expression, whereas continuous treatment of more than 30 min induces maximal expression, followed by rapid decline. Cholinergic activity associated with rapid eye movement sleep may function to facilitate long term synaptic plasticity and memory. Employing a paradigm designed to mimic intermittent rapid eye movement sleep epochs, we show that application of Cch in a series of short bursts generates persistent and maximal Arc protein expression. The results demonstrate dynamic, multifaceted control of Arc synthesis during mAchR signaling, and implicate cholinergic epoch duration and repetition as critical determinants of Arc expression and function in synaptic plasticity and behavior.

  8. The movement protein (NSm) of Tomato spotted wilt virus is the avirulence determinant in the tomato Sw-5 gene-based resistance.

    PubMed

    Peiró, Ana; Cañizares, M Carmen; Rubio, Luis; López, Carmelo; Moriones, Enrique; Aramburu, José; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2014-10-01

    The avirulence determinant triggering the resistance conferred by the tomato gene Sw-5 against Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is still unresolved. Sequence comparison showed two substitutions (C118Y and T120N) in the movement protein NSm present only in TSWV resistance-breaking (RB) isolates. In this work, transient expression of NSm of three TSWV isolates [RB1 (T120N), RB2 (C118Y) and non-resistance-breaking (NRB)] in Nicotiana benthamiana expressing Sw-5 showed a hypersensitive response (HR) only with NRB. Exchange of the movement protein of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) with NSm supported cell-to-cell and systemic transport of the chimeric AMV RNAs into N. tabacum with or without Sw-5, except for the constructs with NBR when Sw-5 was expressed, although RB2 showed reduced cell-to-cell transport. Mutational analysis revealed that N120 was sufficient to avoid the HR, but the substitution V130I was required for systemic transport. Finally, co-inoculation of RB and NRB AMV chimeric constructs showed different prevalence of RB or NBR depending on the presence or absence of Sw-5. These results indicate that NSm is the avirulence determinant for Sw-5 resistance, and mutations C118Y and T120N are responsible for resistance breakdown and have a fitness penalty in the context of the heterologous AMV system.

  9. Identification of a heparin-binding protein using monoclonal antibodies that block heparin binding to porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, W A; Granzow, C A; Getts, L A; Thomas, S C; Zotter, L M; Gunzel, K A; Lowe-Krentz, L J

    1995-01-01

    The binding of heparin or heparan sulphate to a variety of cell types results in specific changes in cell function. Endothelial cells treated with heparin alter their synthesis of heparan sulphate proteoglycans and extracellular matrix proteins. In order to identify a putative endothelial cell heparin receptor that could be involved in heparin signalling, anti-(endothelial cell) monoclonal antibodies that significantly inhibit heparin binding to endothelial cells were prepared. Four of these antibodies were employed in affinity-chromatographic isolation of a heparin-binding protein from detergent-solubilized endothelial cells. The heparin-binding protein isolated from porcine aortic endothelial cells using four different monoclonal antibodies has an M(r) of 45,000 assessed by SDS/PAGE. The 45,000-M(r) heparin-binding polypeptide is isolated as a multimer. The antibody-isolated protein binds to heparin-affinity columns as does the pure 45,000-M(r) polypeptide, consistent with its identification as a putative endothelial heparin receptor. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7487882

  10. Rapamycin blocks leucine-induced protein synthesis by suppressing mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle in the neonate grows at a rapid rate due in part to an enhanced sensitivity to the postprandial rise in amino acids, particularly leucine (Leu). To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which Leu stimulates protein synthesis in neonatal muscle, overnight fasted 7-day-old piglets were...

  11. [Stereotypic movements].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  12. Blocking of G1/S transition and cell death in the regenerating liver of Hepatitis B virus X protein transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, B.-K.; Li, C.-C.; Chen, H.-J.; Chang, J.-L.; Jeng, K.-S.; Chou, C.-K.; Hsu, M.-T.; Tsai, T.-F. . E-mail: tftsai@ym.edu.tw

    2006-02-17

    The Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has been strongly implicated in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, effects of the HBx protein on cell proliferation and cell death are controversial. This study investigates the effects of the HBx protein on liver regeneration in two independent lines of HBx transgenic mice, which developed HCC at around 14 to 16 months of age. High mortality, lower liver mass restoration, and impaired liver regeneration were found in the HBx transgenic mice post-hepatectomy. The levels of alanine aminotransferase and {alpha}-fetoprotein detected post-hepatectomy increased significantly in the HBx transgenic livers, indicating that they were more susceptible to damage during the regenerative process. Prolonged activation of the immediate-early genes in the HBx transgenic livers suggested that the HBx protein creates a strong effect by promoting the transition of the quiescent hepatocytes from G0 to G1 phase. However, impaired DNA synthesis and mitosis, as well as inhibited activation of G1, S, and G2/M markers, were detected. These results indicated that HBx protein exerted strong growth arrest on hepatocytes and imbalanced cell-cycle progression resulting in the abnormal cell death; this was accompanied by severe fat accumulation and impaired glycogen storage in the HBx transgenic livers. In conclusion, this study provides First physiological evidence that HBx protein blocks G1/S transition of the hepatocyte cell-cycle progression and causes both a failure of liver functionality and cell death in the regenerating liver of the HBx transgenic mice.

  13. Activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase blocks cumulus cell expansion through inhibition of protein synthesis during in vitro maturation in Swine.

    PubMed

    Santiquet, Nicolas; Sasseville, Maxime; Laforest, Martin; Guillemette, Christine; Gilchrist, Robert B; Richard, François J

    2014-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric protein known as a metabolic switch, is involved in oocyte nuclear maturation in mice, cattle, and swine. The present study analyzed AMPK activation in cumulus cell expansion during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) is a well-known activator of AMPK. It inhibited oocyte meiotic resumption in COC. Moreover, cumulus cell expansion did not occur in the presence of AICAR, demonstrating its marked impact on cumulus cells. Activation of AMPK was supported by AICAR-mediated phosphorylation of alpha AMPK subunits. Furthermore, the presence of AICAR increased glucose uptake, a classical response to activation of this metabolic switch in response to depleted cellular energy levels. Neither nuclear maturation nor cumulus expansion was reversed by glucosamine, an alternative substrate in hyaluronic acid synthesis, through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which ruled out possible depletion of substrates. Both increased gap junction communication and phosphodiesterase activity in COC are dependent on protein synthesis during the initial hours of IVM; however, both were inhibited in the presence of AICAR, which supports the finding that activation of AMPK by AICAR mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. Moreover, this protein synthesis inhibition was equivalent to that of the well-known protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, as observed on cumulus expansion and protein concentration. Finally, the phosphorylation level of selected kinases was investigated. The pattern of raptor phosphorylation is supportive of activation of AMPK-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. In conclusion, AICAR-mediated AMPK activation in porcine COC inhibited cumulus cell expansion and protein synthesis. These results bring new considerations to the importance of this kinase in ovarian

  14. Analysis of parainfluenza virus-5 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein mutants that are blocked in internalization and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Robach, Jessica G.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2010-10-25

    The PIV-5 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein is a multifunctional protein with sialic acid binding, neuraminidase and fusion promotion activity. HN is internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and degraded. HN lacks internalization signals in its cytoplasmic tail but a single glutamic acid present at residue 37 at the putative transmembrane/ectodomain boundary is critical. We rescued rPIV-5 with mutations E37D or E37K, which have been shown to impair or abolish HN internalization, respectively. These viruses exhibited growth properties similar to wild-type (wt) virus but are impaired for fitness in tissue culture. Biochemical analysis of HN activities showed differences between HN E37D and HN E37K in fusion promotion and incorporation of HN and F into virions. Furthermore, oligomeric analyses indicate that HN E37 mutants perturb the tetrameric organization of HN, probably by destabilizing the dimer-of-dimers interface.

  15. A Staphylococcus aureus TIR domain protein virulence factor blocks TLR2-mediated NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Askarian, Fatemeh; van Sorge, Nina M; Sangvik, Maria; Beasley, Federico C; Henriksen, Jørn R; Sollid, Johanna U E; van Strijp, Jos A G; Nizet, Victor; Johannessen, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), crucial molecules in the induction of host defense responses, requires adaptor proteins that contain a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces several innate immune-evasion molecules that interfere with the host's innate immune response. A database search analysis suggested the presence of a gene encoding a homologue of the human TIR domain in S. aureus MSSA476 which was named staphylococcal TIR domain protein (TirS). Ectopic expression of TirS in human embryonic kidney, macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines interfered with signaling through TLR2, including MyD88 and TIRAP, NF-κB and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Moreover, the presence of TirS reduced the levels of cytokines MCP-1 and G-CSF secreted in response to S. aureus. The effects on NF-κB pathway were confirmed using S. aureus MSSA476 wild type, an isogenic mutant MSSA476ΔtirS, and complemented MSSA476ΔtirS +pTirS in a Transwell system where bacteria and host cells were physically separated. Finally, in a systematic mouse infection model, TirS promoted bacterial accumulation in several organs 4 days postinfection. The results of this study reveal a new S. aureus virulence factor that can interfere with PAMP-induced innate immune signaling in vitro and bacterial survival in vivo.

  16. Transforming Growth Factor-β Regulation of Epithelial Tight Junction Proteins Enhances Barrier Function and Blocks Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-Induced Increased Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kathryn L.; Reardon, Colin; Wang, Arthur; Nazli, Aisha; McKay, Derek M.

    2005-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is an enteric pathogen that causes potentially fatal symptoms after intimate adhesion, modulation of intestinal epithelial signal transduction, and alteration of epithelial function (eg, barrier disruption). Although the epithelial barrier is critical to gut homeostasis, only a few agents, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, can enhance or protect epithelial barrier function. Our aims were to delineate the mechanism(s) behind TGF-β-induced barrier enhancement and to determine whether TGF-β could prevent EHEC-induced barrier disruption. Using monolayers of the human T84 colonic epithelial cell line, we found that TGF-β induced a significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (a measure of paracellular permeability) through activation of ERK MAPK and SMAD signaling pathways and up-regulation of the tight junction protein claudin-1. Additionally, TGF-β pretreatment of epithelia blocked the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in transepithelial passage of [3H]-mannitol caused by EHEC infection. EHEC infection was associated with reduced expression of zonula occludens-1, occludin, and claudin-2 (but not claudin-1 or claudin-4); TGF-β pretreatment prevented these changes. These studies provide insight into EHEC pathogenesis by illustrating the mechanisms underlying TGF-β-induced epithelial barrier enhancement and identifying TGF-β as an agent capable of blocking EHEC-induced increases in epithelial permeability via maintenance of claudin-2, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 levels. PMID:16314472

  17. Mutation of the dengue virus type 2 envelope protein heparan sulfate binding sites or the domain III lateral ridge blocks replication in Vero cells prior to membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Roehrig, John T; Butrapet, Siritorn; Liss, Nathan M; Bennett, Susan L; Luy, Betty E; Childers, Thomas; Boroughs, Karen L; Stovall, Janae L; Calvert, Amanda E; Blair, Carol D; Huang, Claire Y-H

    2013-07-05

    Using an infectious cDNA clone we engineered seven mutations in the putative heparan sulfate- and receptor-binding motifs of the envelope protein of dengue virus serotype 2, strain 16681. Four mutant viruses, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, and KKK305/307/310EEE, were recovered following transfection of C6/36 cells. A fifth mutant, KK291/295EE, was recovered from C6/36 cells with a compensatory E295V mutation. All mutants grew in and mediated fusion of virus-infected C6/36 cells, but three of the mutants, KK122/123EE, E202K, G304K, did not grow in Vero cells without further modification. Two Vero cell lethal mutants, KK291/295EV and KKK307/307/310EEE, failed to replicate in DC-SIGN-transformed Raji cells and did not react with monoclonal antibodies known to block DENV attachment to Vero cells. Additionally, both mutants were unable to initiate negative-strand vRNA synthesis in Vero cells by 72h post-infection, suggesting that the replication block occurred prior to virus-mediated membrane fusion.

  18. Ask1 gene deletion blocks maternal diabetes-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in the developing embryo by disrupting the unfolded protein response signalosome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Yanqing; Gu, Hui; Reece, E Albert; Fang, Shengyun; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Aberdeen, Graham; Yang, Peixin

    2015-03-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is activated by various stresses. The link between ASK1 activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, two causal events in diabetic embryopathy, has not been determined. We sought to investigate whether ASK1 is involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) that leads to ER stress. Deleting Ask1 abrogated diabetes-induced UPR by suppressing phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) blocked the mitochondrial translocation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 members and ER stress. ASK1 participated in the IRE1α signalosome, and removing ASK1 abrogated the proapoptotic kinase activity of IRE1α. Ask1 deletion suppressed diabetes-induced IRE1α endoriboneclease activities, which led to X-box binding protein 1 mRNA cleavage, an ER stress marker, decreased expression of microRNAs, and increased expression of a miR-17 target, thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), a thioredoxin binding protein, which enhanced ASK1 activation by disrupting the thioredoxin-ASK1 complexes. ASK1 is essential for the assembly and function of the IRE1α signalosome, which forms a positive feedback loop with ASK1 through Txnip. ASK1 knockdown in C17.2 neural stem cells diminished high glucose- or tunicamycin-induced IRE1α activation, which further supports our hypothesis that ASK1 plays a causal role in diabetes-induced ER stress and apoptosis.

  19. Ask1 Gene Deletion Blocks Maternal Diabetes–Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Developing Embryo by Disrupting the Unfolded Protein Response Signalosome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Yanqing; Gu, Hui; Reece, E. Albert; Fang, Shengyun; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat; Aberdeen, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis signal–regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is activated by various stresses. The link between ASK1 activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, two causal events in diabetic embryopathy, has not been determined. We sought to investigate whether ASK1 is involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR) that leads to ER stress. Deleting Ask1 abrogated diabetes-induced UPR by suppressing phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) blocked the mitochondrial translocation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 members and ER stress. ASK1 participated in the IRE1α signalosome, and removing ASK1 abrogated the proapoptotic kinase activity of IRE1α. Ask1 deletion suppressed diabetes-induced IRE1α endoriboneclease activities, which led to X-box binding protein 1 mRNA cleavage, an ER stress marker, decreased expression of microRNAs, and increased expression of a miR-17 target, thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), a thioredoxin binding protein, which enhanced ASK1 activation by disrupting the thioredoxin-ASK1 complexes. ASK1 is essential for the assembly and function of the IRE1α signalosome, which forms a positive feedback loop with ASK1 through Txnip. ASK1 knockdown in C17.2 neural stem cells diminished high glucose– or tunicamycin-induced IRE1α activation, which further supports our hypothesis that ASK1 plays a causal role in diabetes-induced ER stress and apoptosis. PMID:25249581

  20. Induction of androgen formation in the male by a TAT-VDAC1 fusion peptide blocking 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor and mitochondrial VDAC1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-10-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production.

  1. Dominant-negative cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein E2-C/UbcH10 blocks cells in metaphase

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Fiona M.; Aristarkhov, Alexander; Beck, Sharon; Hershko, Avram; Ruderman, Joan V.

    1997-01-01

    Destruction of mitotic cyclins by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is required for cells to complete mitosis and enter interphase of the next cell cycle. In clam eggs, this process is catalyzed by a cyclin-selective ubiquitin carrier protein, E2-C, and the cyclosome/anaphase promoting complex (APC), a 20S particle containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity. Here we report cloning a human homolog of E2-C, UbcH10, which shares 61% amino acid identity with clam E2-C and can substitute for clam E2-C in vitro. Dominant-negative clam E2-C and human UbcH10 proteins, created by altering the catalytic cysteine to serine, inhibit the in vitro ubiquitination and destruction of cyclin B in clam oocyte extracts. When transfected into mammalian cells, mutant UbcH10 inhibits the destruction of both cyclin A and B, arrests cells in M phase, and inhibits the onset of anaphase, presumably by blocking the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of proteins responsible for sister chromatid separation. Thus, E2-C/UbcH10-mediated ubiquitination is involved in both cdc2 inactivation and sister chromatid separation, processes that are normally coordinated during exit from mitosis. PMID:9122200

  2. Discovery of a novel class of targeted kinase inhibitors that blocks protein kinase C signaling and ameliorates retinal vascular leakage in a diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stephan; Tran, Phong; Zhang, Qin; Zou, Aihua; Dinh, Dac; Jensen, Jordan; Zhou, Sue; Kang, Xiaolin; Zachwieja, Joseph; Lippincott, John; Liu, Kevin; Johnson, Sarah Ludlum; Scales, Stephanie; Yin, Chunfeng; Nukui, Seiji; Stoner, Chad; Prasanna, Ganesh; Lafontaine, Jennifer; Wells, Peter; Li, Hui

    2010-02-10

    Protein kinase C (PKC) family members such as PKCbetaII may become activated in the hyperglycemic state associated with diabetes. Preclinical and clinical data implicate aberrant PKC activity in the development of diabetic microvasculature abnormalities. Based on this potential etiological role for PKC in diabetic complications, several therapeutic PKC inhibitors have been investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic patients. In this report, we present the discovery and preclinical evaluation of a novel class of 3-amino-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole derivatives as inhibitors of PKC that are structurally distinct from the prototypical indolocarbazole and bisindolylmaleimide PKC inhibitors. From this pyrrolo-pyrazole series, several compounds were identified from biochemical assays as potent, ATP-competitive inhibitors of PKC activity with high specificity for PKC over other protein kinases. These compounds were also found to block PKC signaling activity in multiple cellular functional assays. PF-04577806, a representative from this series, inhibited PKC activity in retinal lysates from diabetic rats stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. When orally administered, PF-04577806 showed good exposure in the retina of diabetic Long-Evans rats and ameliorated retinal vascular leakage in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. These novel PKC inhibitors represent a promising new class of targeted protein kinase inhibitors with potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with diabetic microvascular complications.

  3. Induction of Androgen Formation in the Male by a TAT-VDAC1 Fusion Peptide Blocking 14-3-3ɛ Protein Adaptor and Mitochondrial VDAC1 Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B; Fan, Jinjiang; Culty, Martine; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    Low testosterone (T), a major cause of male hypogonadism and infertility, is linked to mood changes, fatigue, osteoporosis, reduced bone-mass index, and aging. The treatment of choice, T replacement therapy, has been linked with increased risk for prostate cancer and luteinizing hormone (LH) suppression, and shown to lead to infertility, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. Alternate methods to induce T with lower side effects are desirable. In search of the mechanisms regulating T synthesis in the testes, we identified the 14-3-3ɛ protein adaptor as a negative regulator of steroidogenesis. Steroidogenesis begins in mitochondria. 14-3-3ɛ interacts with the outer mitochondrial membrane voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein, forming a scaffold that limits the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis. We report the development of a tool able to induce endogenous T formation. Peptides able to penetrate testes conjugated to 14-3-3ɛ site of interaction with VDAC1 blocked 14-3-3ɛ-VDAC1 interactions while at the same time increased VDAC1-translocator protein (18 kDa) interactions that induced steroid formation in rat testes, leading to increased serum T levels. These peptides rescued intratesticular and serum T formation in adult male rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, which dampened LH and T production. PMID:24947306

  4. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Prevents TNF-α-Induced Gene Expression by Blocking Amino Acid Transport and Cellular Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Morimoto, Kyoko; Oshima, Nana; Yamada, Yuriko; Fu, Liwei; Taketani, Shigeru; Ando, Masayoshi; Kataoka, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and NF-κB signaling pathway were decreased only partially by ursolic acid. In line with these findings, ursolic acid prevented cellular protein synthesis as well as amino acid uptake, but did not obviously affect nucleoside uptake and the subsequent DNA/RNA syntheses. This inhibitory profile of ursolic acid was similar to that of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, but not the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide. Consistent with this notion, ursolic acid was found to inhibit the catalytic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, our present study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which ursolic acid inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase activity and prevents the TNF-α-induced gene expression by blocking amino acid transport and cellular protein synthesis. PMID:24970122

  5. Chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Wada, Masamitsu; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Sato, Yoshikatsu

    2003-01-01

    The study of chloroplast movement made a quantum leap at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Research based on reverse-genetic approaches using targeted mutants has brought new concepts to this field. One of the most exciting findings has been the discovery of photoreceptors for both accumulation and avoidance responses in Arabidopsis and in the fern Adiantum. Evidence for the adaptive advantage of chloroplast avoidance movements in plant survival has also been found. Additional discoveries include mechano-stress-induced chloroplast movement in ferns and mosses, and microtubule-mediated chloroplast movement in the moss Physcomitrella. The possible ecological significance of chloroplast movement is discussed in the final part of this review.

  6. Human autoantibodies against the 54 kDa protein of the signal recognition particle block function at multiple stages

    PubMed Central

    Römisch, Karin; Miller, Frederick W; Dobberstein, Bernhard; High, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The 54 kDa subunit of the signal recognition particle (SRP54) binds to the signal sequences of nascent secretory and membrane proteins and it contributes to the targeting of these precursors to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). At the ER membrane, the binding of the signal recognition particle (SRP) to its receptor triggers the release of SRP54 from its bound signal sequence and the nascent polypeptide is transferred to the Sec61 translocon for insertion into, or translocation across, the ER membrane. In the current article, we have characterized the specificity of anti-SRP54 autoantibodies, which are highly characteristic of polymyositis patients, and investigated the effect of these autoantibodies on the SRP function in vitro. We found that the anti-SRP54 autoantibodies had a pronounced and specific inhibitory effect upon the translocation of the secretory protein preprolactin when analysed using a cell-free system. Our mapping studies showed that the anti-SRP54 autoantibodies bind to the amino-terminal SRP54 N-domain and to the central SRP54 G-domain, but do not bind to the carboxy-terminal M-domain that is known to bind ER signal sequences. Nevertheless, anti-SRP54 autoantibodies interfere with signal-sequence binding to SRP54, most probably by steric hindrance. When the effect of anti-SRP autoantibodies on protein targeting the ER membrane was further investigated, we found that the autoantibodies prevent the SRP receptor-mediated release of ER signal sequences from the SRP54 subunit. This observation supports a model where the binding of the homologous GTPase domains of SRP54 and the α-subunit of the SRP receptor to each other regulates the release of ER signal sequences from the SRP54 M-domain. PMID:16469117

  7. F-actin asymmetry and the endoplasmic reticulum-associated TCC-1 protein contribute to stereotypic spindle movements in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Berends, Christian W H; Muñoz, Javier; Portegijs, Vincent; Schmidt, Ruben; Grigoriev, Ilya; Boxem, Mike; Akhmanova, Anna; Heck, Albert J R; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2013-07-01

    The microtubule spindle apparatus dictates the plane of cell cleavage in animal cells. During development, dividing cells control the position of the spindle to determine the size, location, and fate of daughter cells. Spindle positioning depends on pulling forces that act between the cell periphery and astral microtubules. This involves dynein recruitment to the cell cortex by a heterotrimeric G-protein α subunit in complex with a TPR-GoLoco motif protein (GPR-1/2, Pins, LGN) and coiled-coil protein (LIN-5, Mud, NuMA). In this study, we searched for additional factors that contribute to spindle positioning in the one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. We show that cortical actin is not needed for Gα-GPR-LIN-5 localization and pulling force generation. Instead, actin accumulation in the anterior actually reduces pulling forces, possibly by increasing cortical rigidity. Examining membrane-associated proteins that copurified with GOA-1 Gα, we found that the transmembrane and coiled-coil domain protein 1 (TCC-1) contributes to proper spindle movements. TCC-1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and interacts with UNC-116 kinesin-1 heavy chain in yeast two-hybrid assays. RNA interference of tcc-1 and unc-116 causes similar defects in meiotic spindle positioning, supporting the concept of TCC-1 acting with kinesin-1 in vivo. These results emphasize the contribution of membrane-associated and cortical proteins other than Gα-GPR-LIN-5 in balancing the pulling forces that position the spindle during asymmetric cell division.

  8. Potential use of G protein-coupled receptor-blocking monoclonal antibodies as therapeutic agents for cancers.

    PubMed

    Herr, Deron R

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is the fastest growing area of pharmaceutical development and has enjoyed significant clinical success since approval of the first mAb drug in1984. However, despite significant effort, there are still no approved therapeutic mAbs directed against the largest and most attractive family of drug targets: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs regulate essentially all cellular processes, including those that are fundamental to cancer pathology, such as proliferation, survival/drug resistance, migration, differentiation, tissue invasion, and angiogenesis. Many different GPCR isoforms are enhanced or dysregulated in multiple tumor types, and several GPCRs have known oncogenic activity. With approximately 350 distinct GPCRs in the genome, these receptors provide a rich landscape for the design of effective, targeted therapies for cancer, a uniquely heterogeneous disease family. While the generation of selective, efficacious mAbs has been problematic for these structurally complex integral membrane proteins, progress in the development of immunotherapeutics has been made by several independent groups. This chapter provides an overview of the roles of GPCRs in cancer and describes the current state of the art of GPCR-targeted mAb drugs.

  9. Neuromuscular block

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  10. Neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors.

  11. The Potato Virus X TGBp2 Movement Protein Associates with Endoplasmic Reticulum-Derived Vesicles during Virus Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Ho-Jong; Samuels, Timmy D.; Wang, Yuh-Shuh; Blancaflor, Elison; Payton, Mark; Mitra, Ruchira; Krishnamurthy, Konduru; Nelson, Richard S.; Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie

    2005-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was fused to the potato virus X (PVX) TGBp2 gene, inserted into either the PVX infectious clone or pRTL2 plasmids, and used to study protein subcellular targeting. In protoplasts and plants inoculated with PVX-GFP:TGBp2 or transfected with pRTL2-GFP:TGBp2, fluorescence was mainly in vesicles and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During late stages of virus infection, fluorescence became increasingly cytosolic and nuclear. Protoplasts transfected with PVX-GFP:TGBp2 or pRTL2-GFP:TGBp2 were treated with cycloheximide and the decline of GFP fluorescence was greater in virus-infected protoplasts than in pRTL2-GFP:TGBp2-transfected protoplasts. Thus, protein instability is enhanced in virus-infected protoplasts, which may account for the cytosolic and nuclear fluorescence during late stages of infection. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopy were used to further characterize the GFP:TGBp2-induced vesicles. Label was associated with the ER and vesicles, but not the Golgi apparatus. The TGBp2-induced vesicles appeared to be ER derived. For comparison, plasmids expressing GFP fused to TGBp3 were transfected to protoplasts, bombarded to tobacco leaves, and studied in transgenic leaves. The GFP:TGBp3 proteins were associated mainly with the ER and did not cause obvious changes in the endomembrane architecture, suggesting that the vesicles reported in GFP:TGBp2 studies were induced by the PVX TGBp2 protein. In double-labeling studies using confocal microscopy, fluorescence was associated with actin filaments, but not with Golgi vesicles. We propose a model in which reorganization of the ER and increased protein degradation is linked to plasmodesmata gating. PMID:16055678

  12. Influence of Host Chloroplast Proteins on Tobacco mosaic virus Accumulation and Intercellular Movement1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sumana; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Cole, Anthony B.; Ballard, Kimberly D.; Lei, Zhentian; Watson, Bonnie S.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Nelson, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) forms dense cytoplasmic bodies containing replication-associated proteins (virus replication complexes [VRCs]) upon infection. To identify host proteins that interact with individual viral components of VRCs or VRCs in toto, we isolated viral replicase- and VRC-enriched fractions from TMV-infected Nicotiana tabacum plants. Two host proteins in enriched fractions, ATP-synthase γ-subunit (AtpC) and Rubisco activase (RCA) were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Through pull-down analysis, RCA bound predominantly to the region between the methyltransferase and helicase domains of the TMV replicase. Tobamovirus, but not Cucumber mosaic virus or Potato virus X, infection of N. tabacum plants resulted in 50% reductions in Rca and AtpC messenger RNA levels. To investigate the role of these host proteins in TMV accumulation and plant defense, we used a Tobacco rattle virus vector to silence these genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants prior to challenge with TMV expressing green fluorescent protein. TMV-induced fluorescent lesions on Rca- or AtpC-silenced leaves were, respectively, similar or twice the size of those on leaves expressing these genes. Silencing Rca and AtpC did not influence the spread of Tomato bushy stunt virus and Potato virus X. In AtpC- and Rca-silenced leaves TMV accumulation and pathogenicity were greatly enhanced, suggesting a role of both host-encoded proteins in a defense response against TMV. In addition, silencing these host genes altered the phenotype of the TMV infection foci and VRCs, yielding foci with concentric fluorescent rings and dramatically more but smaller VRCs. The concentric rings occurred through renewed virus accumulation internal to the infection front. PMID:23096159

  13. Long-distance movement factor: a transport function of the potyvirus helper component proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, S; Verchot, J; Haldeman-Cahill, R; Schaad, M C; Carrington, J C

    1995-01-01

    Transport of viruses from cell to cell in plants typically involves one or more viral proteins that supply dedicated movement functions. Transport from leaf to leaf through phloem, or long-distance transport, is a poorly understood process with requirements differing from those of cell-to-cell movement. Through genetic analysis of tobacco etch virus (TEV; potyvirus group), a novel long-distance movement factor was identified that facilitates vascular-associated movement in tobacco. A mutation in the central region of the helper component proteinase (HC-Pro), a TEV-encoded protein with previously described activities in aphid-mediated transmission and polyprotein processing, inactivated long-distance movement. This mutant virus exhibited only minor defects in genome amplification and cell-to-cell movement functions. In situ histochemical analysis revealed that the mutant was capable of infecting mesophyll, bundle sheath, and phloem cells within inoculated leaves, suggesting that the long-distance movement block was associated with entry into or exit from sieve elements. The long-distance movement defect was specifically complemented by HC-Pro supplied in trans by a transgenic host. The data indicate that HC-Pro functions in one or more steps unique to long-distance transport. PMID:7780307

  14. Immediate Protein Dietary Effects on Movement and the Generalised Immunocompetence of Migrating Mormon Crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Mormon crickets form large migratory bands that march over rangeland in the western United States seeking salt and protein. Immune defense is particularly relevant to survival in migratory bands, but little is known about the role of nutrition in insect immunocompetence. We hypothesized that imm...

  15. Identification of distinct functions of Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein in virion assembly and virus movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is the type member of Tritimovirus genus of the family Potyviridae. The WSMV coat protein (CP) was subjected to point and deletion mutation analyses. WSMV mutants changing aspartic acid residues at amino acid (aa) positions 289, 290, 326, 333, and 334 to alanine elic...

  16. Orofacial movements in phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein-1/2 double knockout mice: Effect of the GABAergic agent diazepam and the D(1) dopamine receptor agonist SKF 83959.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Katsunori; Song, Liqiu; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Kinsella, Anthony; Kanematsu, Takashi; Hirata, Masato; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Waddington, John L

    2010-09-01

    Orofacial movements are regulated by D(1)-like dopamine receptors interacting with additional mechanisms. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) regulates cell surface expression of GABA(A) receptors containing a gamma2 subunit. Mutant mice with double knockout of PRIP-1 and PRIP-2 were used to investigate aspects of GABAergic regulation of orofacial movements and interactions with D(1) mechanisms. Vertical jaw movements, tongue protrusions and movements of the head and vibrissae were reduced in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. The GABA(A)ergic agent diazepam reduced movements of the head and vibrissae; these effects were unaltered in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. The D(1)-like agonist SKF 83959 induced vertical jaw movements, incisor chattering, and movements of the head and vibrissae that were unaltered in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. However, SKF 83959-induced tongue protrusions were reduced in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. PRIP-mediated regulation of GABA(A)ergic receptor mechanisms influences topographically distinct aspects of orofacial movement and interacts with D(1) receptor systems.

  17. Cell-to-cell movement of green fluorescent protein reveals post-phloem transport in the outer integument and identifies symplastic domains in Arabidopsis seeds and embryos.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Ruth; Lauterbach, Christian; Sauer, Norbert

    2005-10-01

    Developing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds and embryos represent a complex set of cell layers and tissues that mediate the transport and partitioning of carbohydrates, amino acids, hormones, and signaling molecules from the terminal end of the funicular phloem to and between these seed tissues and eventually to the growing embryo. This article provides a detailed analysis of the symplastic domains and the cell-to-cell connectivity from the end of the funiculus to the embryo, and within the embryo during its maturation. The cell-to-cell movement of the green fluorescent protein or of mobile and nonmobile green fluorescent protein fusions was monitored in seeds and embryos of plants expressing the corresponding cDNAs under the control of various promoters (SUC2, SUC3, TT12, and GL2) shown to be active in defined seed or embryo cell layers (SUC3, TT12, and GL2) or only outside the developing Arabidopsis seed (AtSUC2). Cell-to-cell movement was also analyzed with the low-molecular-weight fluorescent dye 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate. The analyses presented identify a phloem-unloading domain at the end of the funicular phloem, characterize the entire outer integument as a symplastic extension of the phloem, and describe the inner integument and the globular stage embryo plus the suspensor as symplastic domains. The results also show that, at the time of hypophysis specification, the symplastic connectivity between suspensor and embryo is reduced or interrupted and that the embryo develops from a single symplast (globular and heart stage) to a mature embryo with new symplastic domains.

  18. Transporter Protein-Coupled DPCPX Nanoconjugates Induce Diaphragmatic Recovery after SCI by Blocking Adenosine A1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zeljka; Zhang, Yanhua; Mao, Guangzhao

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory complications in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are common and have a negative impact on the quality of patients' lives. Systemic administration of drugs that improve respiratory function often cause deleterious side effects. The present study examines the applicability of a novel nanotechnology-based drug delivery system, which induces recovery of diaphragm function after SCI in the adult rat model. We developed a protein-coupled nanoconjugate to selectively deliver by transsynaptic transport small therapeutic amounts of an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist to the respiratory centers. A single administration of the nanoconjugate restored 75% of the respiratory drive at 0.1% of the systemic therapeutic drug dose. The reduction of the systemic dose may obviate the side effects. The recovery lasted for 4 weeks (the longest period studied). These findings have translational implications for patients with respiratory dysfunction after SCI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The leading causes of death in humans following SCI are respiratory complications secondary to paralysis of respiratory muscles. Systemic administration of methylxantines improves respiratory function but also leads to the development of deleterious side effects due to actions of the drug on nonrespiratory sites. The importance of the present study lies in the novel drug delivery approach that uses nanotechnology to selectively deliver recovery-inducing drugs to the respiratory centers exclusively. This strategy allows for a reduction in the therapeutic drug dose, which may reduce harmful side effects and markedly improve the quality of life for SCI patients. PMID:27013674

  19. Movement - uncoordinated

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of coordination; Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... are passed through families (such as congenital cerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia , ataxia - telangiectasia , or Wilson disease ) Multiple ...

  20. Blocking protein phosphatase 2A signaling prevents endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis: a peptide-based drug therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yuanjun; Guo, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zeng, Rui; Ning, Yong; Pei, Guangchang; Li, Yueqiang; Chen, Meixue; Guo, Shuiming; Li, Xiaoqing; Han, Min; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to the emergence of fibroblasts and plays a significant role in renal interstitial fibrosis. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase in eukaryotic cells and regulates many signaling pathways. However, the significance of PP2A in EndMT is poorly understood. In present study, the role of PP2A in EndMT was evaluated. We demonstrated that PP2A activated in endothelial cells (EC) during their EndMT phenotype acquisition and in the mouse model of obstructive nephropathy (i.e., UUO). Inhibition of PP2A activity by its specific inhibitor prevented EC undergoing EndMT. Importantly, PP2A activation was dependent on tyrosine nitration at 127 in the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac). Our renal-protective strategy was to block tyrosine127 nitration to inhibit PP2A activation by using a mimic peptide derived from PP2Ac conjugating a cell penetrating peptide (CPP: TAT), termed TAT-Y127WT. Pretreatment withTAT-Y127WT was able to prevent TGF-β1-induced EndMT. Administration of the peptide to UUO mice significantly ameliorated renal EndMT level, with preserved density of peritubular capillaries and reduction in extracellular matrix deposition. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibiting PP2Ac nitration using a mimic peptide is a potential preventive strategy for EndMT in renal fibrosis.

  1. Protein kinase C activity blocks neuropeptide Y-mediated inhibition of glutamate release and contributes to excitability of the hippocampus in status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana P; Lourenço, Joana; Xapelli, Sara; Ferreira, Raquel; Kristiansen, Heidi; Woldbye, David P D; Oliveira, Catarina R; Malva, João O

    2007-03-01

    The unbalanced excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter function in the neuronal network afflicted by seizures is the main biochemical and biophysical hallmark of epilepsy. The aim of this work was to identify changes in the signaling mechanisms associated with neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated inhibition of glutamate release that may contribute to hyperexcitability. Using isolated rat hippocampal nerve terminals, we showed that the KCl-evoked glutamate release is inhibited by NPY Y2 receptor activation and is potentiated by the stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC). Moreover, we observed that immediately after status epilepticus (6 h postinjection with kainate, 10 mg/kg), the functional inhibition of glutamate release by NPY Y2 receptors was transiently blocked concomitantly with PKC hyperactivation. The pharmacological blockade of seizure-activated PKC revealed again the Y2 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release. The functional activity of PKC immediately after status epilepticus was assessed by evaluating phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 (Ser-831), a substrate for PKC. Moreover, NPY-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS autoradiographic binding studies indicated that the common target for Y2 receptor and PKC on the inhibition/potentiation of glutamate release was located downstream of the Y2 receptor, or its interacting G-protein, and involves voltage-gated calcium channels.

  2. Chemical Screens Against A Reconstituted Multi-Protein Complex: Myricetin Blocks DnaJ Regulation of DnaK through an Allosteric Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lyra; Miyata, Yoshinari; Ung, Peter M. U.; Bertelsen, Eric B.; McQuade, Thomas J.; Carlson, Heather A.; Zuiderweg, Erik R. P.; Gestwicki, Jason E.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY DnaK is a molecular chaperone responsible for multiple aspects of proteostasis. The intrinsically slow ATPase activity of DnaK is stimulated by its co-chaperone, DnaJ, and these proteins often work in concert. To identify inhibitors, we screened plant-derived extracts against a re-constituted mixture of DnaK and DnaJ. This approach resulted in the identification of flavonoids, including myricetin, which inhibited activity by up to 75%. Interestingly, myricetin prevented DnaJ-mediated stimulation of ATPase activity, with minimal impact on either DnaK’s intrinsic turnover rate or its stimulation by another co-chaperone, GrpE. Using NMR, we found that myricetin binds DnaK at an unanticipated site between the IB and IIB subdomains and that it allosterically blocked binding of DnaJ. Together, these results highlight a “gray box” screening approach, which approximates a limited amount of the complexity expected in physiological, multi-protein systems. PMID:21338918

  3. Absence of SUN-domain protein Slp1 blocks karyogamy and switches meiotic recombination and synapsis from homologs to sister chromatids

    PubMed Central

    Vasnier, Christelle; de Muyt, Arnaud; Zhang, Liangran; Tessé, Sophie; Kleckner, Nancy E.; Zickler, Denise; Espagne, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Karyogamy, the process of nuclear fusion is required for two haploid gamete nuclei to form a zygote. Also, in haplobiontic organisms, karyogamy is required to produce the diploid nucleus/cell that then enters meiosis. We identify sun like protein 1 (Slp1), member of the mid–Sad1p, UNC-84–domain ubiquitous family, as essential for karyogamy in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora, thus uncovering a new function for this protein family. Slp1 is required at the last step, nuclear fusion, not for earlier events including nuclear movements, recognition, and juxtaposition. Correspondingly, like other family members, Slp1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and also to its extensions comprising the nuclear envelope. Remarkably, despite the absence of nuclear fusion in the slp1 null mutant, meiosis proceeds efficiently in the two haploid “twin” nuclei, by the same program and timing as in diploid nuclei with a single dramatic exception: the normal prophase program of recombination and synapsis between homologous chromosomes, including loading of recombination and synaptonemal complex proteins, occurs instead between sister chromatids. Moreover, the numbers of recombination-initiating double-strand breaks (DSBs) and ensuing recombinational interactions, including foci of the essential crossover factor Homo sapiens enhancer of invasion 10 (Hei10), occur at half the diploid level in each haploid nucleus, implying per-chromosome specification of DSB formation. Further, the distribution of Hei10 foci shows interference like in diploid meiosis. Centromere and spindle dynamics, however, still occur in the diploid mode during the two meiotic divisions. These observations imply that the prophase program senses absence of karyogamy and/or absence of a homolog partner and adjusts the interchromosomal interaction program accordingly. PMID:25210014

  4. Absence of SUN-domain protein Slp1 blocks karyogamy and switches meiotic recombination and synapsis from homologs to sister chromatids.

    PubMed

    Vasnier, Christelle; de Muyt, Arnaud; Zhang, Liangran; Tessé, Sophie; Kleckner, Nancy E; Zickler, Denise; Espagne, Eric

    2014-09-23

    Karyogamy, the process of nuclear fusion is required for two haploid gamete nuclei to form a zygote. Also, in haplobiontic organisms, karyogamy is required to produce the diploid nucleus/cell that then enters meiosis. We identify sun like protein 1 (Slp1), member of the mid-Sad1p, UNC-84-domain ubiquitous family, as essential for karyogamy in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora, thus uncovering a new function for this protein family. Slp1 is required at the last step, nuclear fusion, not for earlier events including nuclear movements, recognition, and juxtaposition. Correspondingly, like other family members, Slp1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and also to its extensions comprising the nuclear envelope. Remarkably, despite the absence of nuclear fusion in the slp1 null mutant, meiosis proceeds efficiently in the two haploid "twin" nuclei, by the same program and timing as in diploid nuclei with a single dramatic exception: the normal prophase program of recombination and synapsis between homologous chromosomes, including loading of recombination and synaptonemal complex proteins, occurs instead between sister chromatids. Moreover, the numbers of recombination-initiating double-strand breaks (DSBs) and ensuing recombinational interactions, including foci of the essential crossover factor Homo sapiens enhancer of invasion 10 (Hei10), occur at half the diploid level in each haploid nucleus, implying per-chromosome specification of DSB formation. Further, the distribution of Hei10 foci shows interference like in diploid meiosis. Centromere and spindle dynamics, however, still occur in the diploid mode during the two meiotic divisions. These observations imply that the prophase program senses absence of karyogamy and/or absence of a homolog partner and adjusts the interchromosomal interaction program accordingly.

  5. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Deficiency Blocks the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response and Thus Precipitates Hypoventilation and Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Amira D.; Lewis, Sophronia; Juričić, Lara; Udoh, Utibe-Abasi; Hartmann, Sandy; Jansen, Maurits A.; Ogunbayo, Oluseye A.; Puggioni, Paolo; Holmes, Andrew P.; Kumar, Prem; Navarro-Dorado, Jorge; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Dutia, Mayank B.; Marshall, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Modulation of breathing by hypoxia accommodates variations in oxygen demand and supply during, for example, sleep and ascent to altitude, but the precise molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon remain controversial. Among the genes influenced by natural selection in high-altitude populations is one for the adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1-catalytic subunit, which governs cell-autonomous adaptations during metabolic stress. Objectives: We investigated whether AMPK-α1 and/or AMPK-α2 are required for the hypoxic ventilatory response and the mechanism of ventilatory dysfunctions arising from AMPK deficiency. Methods: We used plethysmography, electrophysiology, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and immediate early gene (c-fos) expression to assess the hypoxic ventilatory response of mice with conditional deletion of the AMPK-α1 and/or AMPK-α2 genes in catecholaminergic cells, which compose the hypoxia-responsive respiratory network from carotid body to brainstem. Measurements and Main Results: AMPK-α1 and AMPK-α2 deletion virtually abolished the hypoxic ventilatory response, and ventilatory depression during hypoxia was exacerbated under anesthesia. Rather than hyperventilating, mice lacking AMPK-α1 and AMPK-α2 exhibited hypoventilation and apnea during hypoxia, with the primary precipitant being loss of AMPK-α1 expression. However, the carotid bodies of AMPK-knockout mice remained exquisitely sensitive to hypoxia, contrary to the view that the hypoxic ventilatory response is determined solely by increased carotid body afferent input to the brainstem. Regardless, functional magnetic resonance imaging and c-fos expression revealed reduced activation by hypoxia of well-defined dorsal and ventral brainstem nuclei. Conclusions: AMPK is required to coordinate the activation by hypoxia of brainstem respiratory networks, and deficiencies in AMPK expression precipitate hypoventilation and apnea, even when carotid body

  6. [Involvement of protein kinase C in enhancement of vascular calcium sensitivity by blocking mesenteric lymph return in hemorrhagic shock rats].

    PubMed

    Niu, Chun-Yu; Zhao, Zi-Gang; Wei, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Jing

    2012-04-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether protein kinase C (PKC) was involved in the effect of mesenteric lymph duct ligation or mesenteric lymph drainage on vascular calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic shock rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into Sham, Shock (hemorrhagic shock), Shock+Ligation (mesenteric lymph duct ligation plus shock) and Shock+Drainage (mesenteric lymph drainage plus shock) groups. After being in shock (hypotension 40 mmHg) for 3 h, the tissue of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was taken out for detecting the PKC expression and phospho-PKC (p-PKC) activity, and the vascular rings of SMA were prepared and used to measure the response to gradient calcium concentration for assaying the calcium sensitivity, the parameters of which including tension, maximum tension (E(max)) and negative logarithm of EC(50), called the pD(2). Other vascular rings from Shock+Ligation and Shock+Drainage groups were incubated with PKC regulator PMA or Staurosporine before the measurement of calcium sensitivity. The results showed that, PKC expression, p-PKC activity and calcium sensitivity of SMA in Shock group was significantly lower than that of Sham group, whereas the above-mentioned indexes were significantly elevated in Shock+Ligation and Shock+Drainage groups compared with those in Shock group. PKC agonist PMA enhanced the contractile activity of vascular rings to gradient calcium ions, and increased E(max) of SMA in Shock+Ligation and Shock+Drainage groups. On the contrary, PKC inhibitor Staurosporine significantly decreased the response to gradient calcium ions and E(max) of SMA in Shock+Ligation and Shock+Drainage groups. These results suggest that PKC plays a role in the improvement of vascular calcium sensitivity by blockade of mesenteric lymph return in hemorrhagic shock rats.

  7. Effects of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Foiklang, Suban; Wanapat, Metha; Toburan, Wetchasit

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to determine effect of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four kinds of plant protein sources (coarse rice bran (CRB), cassava hay (CH), Phaseolus calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay (MH)) were mixed in the HQFB. HQFBs were allowed to be licked at free choice, and urea-lime-treated rice straw (ULRS) were fed ad libitum. It was found that bacterial population and fungal zoospores in CH-fed group tended to be higher than those in other groups. Moreover, protozoal population in CH, P. calcaratus hay, and MH were lower than those in CRB supplemented group (P < 0.05). Cellulolytic bacterial population was highest in CH-fed group while proteolytic bacteria population was highest in P. calcaratus hay-fed group (P < 0.05). CH-fed group had higher ULRS intake than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility of CP, NDF, and ADF in CH-fed group was significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Total VFA was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). N absorption was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that cassava hay, P. calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay are potential to be used as protein sources in the HQFBs especially cassava hay.

  8. Phosphorylation and/or presence of serine 37 in the movement protein of tomato mosaic tobamovirus is essential for intracellular localization and stability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, S; Padgett, H S; Hosokawa, D; Okada, Y; Beachy, R N; Watanabe, Y

    1999-08-01

    The P30 movement protein (MP) of tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) is synthesized in the early stages of infection and is phosphorylated in vivo. Here, we determined that serine 37 and serine 238 in the ToMV MP are sites of phosphorylation. MP mutants in which serine was replaced by alanine at positions 37 and 238 (LQ37A238A) or at position 37 only (LQ37A) were not phosphorylated, and mutant viruses did not infect tobacco or tomato plants. By contrast, mutation of serine 238 to alanine did not affect the infectivity of the virus (LQ238A). To investigate the subcellular localization of mutant MPs, we constructed viruses that expressed each mutant MP fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of Aequorea victoria. Wild-type and mutant LQ238A MP fusion proteins showed distinct temporally regulated patterns of MP-GFP localization in protoplasts and formation of fluorescent ring-shaped infection sites on Nicotiana benthamiana. However mutant virus LQ37A MP-GFP did not show a distinct pattern of localization or formation of fluorescent rings. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that MP produced by mutant virus LQ37A was less stable than wild-type and LQ238A MPs. MP which contained threonine at position 37 was phosphorylated, but the stability of the MP in vivo was very low. These studies suggest that the presence of serine at position 37 or phosphorylation of serine 37 is essential for intracellular localization and stability of the MP, which is necessary for the protein to function.

  9. Nonstructural protein 3 of hepatitis C virus blocks the distribution of the free catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, P; Oehlmann, K; Heiland, M; Laufs, R

    1997-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis resulting from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection develops into cirrhosis in at least half of infected patients and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenic effects of a number of viruses result from the disturbance of intracellular signal cascades caused by viral antigens. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of HCV with the cyclic AMP-dependent signal pathway. We found a similarity between the HCV sequence Arg-Arg-Gly-Arg-Thr-Gly-Arg-Gly-Arg-Arg-Gly-Ile-Tyr-Arg localized in NS3 and the general consensus sequence of protein kinase A (PKA). Consequently, the catalytic (C) subunit of PKA bound to a bacterially expressed fragment of HCV polyprotein containing amino acid residues 1189 to 1525. When this fragment was introduced into cells, it inhibited the translocation of the C subunit into the nucleus after stimulation with forskolin. The result of this inhibition was significantly reduced histone phosphorylation. Therefore, the presence of NS3 in the cytoplasm of infected cells may affect a wide range of PKA functions and contribute to the pathogenesis of the diseases caused by HCV. PMID:9060639

  10. Small deletions in the potato leafroll virus readthrough protein affect particle morphology, aphid transmission, virus movement and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Peter, Kari A; Liang, Delin; Palukaitis, Peter; Gray, Stewart M

    2008-08-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) capsid comprises 180 coat protein (CP) subunits, with some percentage containing a readthrough domain (RTD) extension located on the particle's surface. The RTD N terminus is highly conserved in luteovirids and this study sought to identify biologically active sites within this region of the PLRV RTD. Fourteen three-amino-acid-deletion mutants were generated from a cloned infectious PLRV cDNA and delivered to plants by Agrobacterium inoculations. All mutant viruses accumulated locally in infiltrated tissues and expressed the readthrough protein (RTP) containing the CP and RTD sequences in plant tissues; however, when purified, only three mutant viruses incorporated the RTP into the virion. None of the mutant viruses were aphid transmissible, but the viruses persisted in aphids for a period sufficient to allow for virus transmission. Several mutant viruses were examined further for systemic infection in four host species. All mutant viruses, regardless of RTP incorporation, moved systemically in each host, although they accumulated at different rates in systemically infected tissues. The biological properties of the RTP are sensitive to modifications in both the RTD conserved and variable regions.

  11. Analysis of cell-to-cell and long-distance movement of apple latent spherical virus in infected plants using green, cyan, and yellow fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tsubasa; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) expressing green, cyan, and yellow fluorescent proteins (GFP, CFP, and YFP) was constructed and used to analyze the local and systemic movement of the virus in infected plants. In Chenopodium quinoa plants inoculated with GFP-ALSV, the infection foci first appeared as small fluorescent spots 2-3 days post inoculation (dpi). The GFP spots expanded as rings from 5 dpi, then fused to each other, and most fluorescence faded out at 10-12 dpi. In upper uninoculated leaves, GFP fluorescence was first observed 6-7 dpi on the basal area of mature leaves and on the entire area of young developing leaves. The appearance of fluorescent flecks on young leaves was first found on and near the class III and IV veins. ALSV labeled with two different fluorescent proteins (CFP-ALSV and YFP-ALSV) were used to investigate the distribution of identical, but differently labeled viruses in mixed infection. Fluorescence from CFP and YFP was in each case observed in separate areas in both inoculated and upper uninoculated leaves, indicating that populations of identical, but differently labeled viruses were replicated and distributed in discrete areas of infected leaves.

  12. Changing patterns of localization of the tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and replicase to the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules during infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, M.; Padgett, H. S.; Gens, J. S.; Pickard, B. G.; Casper, S. J.; Epel, B. L.; Beachy, R. N.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) derivatives that encode movement protein (MP) as a fusion to the green fluorescent protein (MP:GFP) were used in combination with antibody staining to identify host cell components to which MP and replicase accumulate in cells of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and in infected BY-2 protoplasts. MP:GFP and replicase colocalized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; especially the cortical ER) and were present in large, irregularly shaped, ER-derived structures that may represent "viral factories." The ER-derived structures required an intact cytoskeleton, and microtubules appeared to redistribute MP:GFP from these sites during late stages of infection. In leaves, MP:GFP accumulated in plasmodesmata, whereas in protoplasts, the MP:GFP was targeted to distinct, punctate sites near the plasma membrane. Treating protoplasts with cytochalasin D and brefeldin A at the time of inoculation prevented the accumulation of MP:GFP at these sites. It is proposed that the punctate sites anchor the cortical ER to plasma membrane and are related to sites at which plasmodesmata form in walled cells. Hairlike structures containing MP:GFP appeared on the surface of some of the infected protoplasts and are reminiscent of similar structures induced by other plant viruses. We present a model that postulates the role of the ER and cytoskeleton in targeting the MP and viral ribonucleoprotein from sites of virus synthesis to the plasmodesmata through which infection is spread.

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis studies of arabinogalactan-protein structure from Acacia gum: the self-similarity hypothesis of assembly from a common building block.

    PubMed

    Renard, D; Lavenant-Gourgeon, L; Lapp, A; Nigen, M; Sanchez, C

    2014-11-04

    particles differing in dimensions. The secondary structures content of control and enzyme-treated AGPs were similar, highlighting both the high rigidity of the protein backbone and the overall symmetry of AGP. This conclusion was reinforced by the more compact structures found when AGP was intact compare to the more elongated structures found when AGP was enzymatically cleaved. Finally, the structural similarities found in enzyme-treated AGP together with the theoretical calculations to analytically probe the type of branching would suggest that AGP would be made of a self-similar assembly of two types of building blocks, the second being a five-fold repetition of the first one, for which palindromic amino acid sequence would ensure a self-ordering of carbohydrate moieties along the polypeptide chains. The cleavage would therefore lead to hydrolysed building blocks with similar secondary structures and conformations whatever the enzyme used.

  14. Movement of coat protein genes from a commercial virus-resistant transgenic squash into a wild relative.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Marc; Chirco, Ellen M; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    We monitored pollen-mediated transgene dissemination from commercial transgenic squash CZW-3 into its wild relative Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera var. texana (C. texana). Transgenic squash CZW-3 expresses the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the coat protein (CP) genes of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV); thereby, it is resistant to these three aphid-borne viruses. The rate of NPT II and CP transgene introgression increased with overlapping flowering patterns and a high ratio of transgenic F1 hybrids (C. texana x CZW-3) to C. texana. Transgene transfer also readily occurred from transgenic F1 hybrids into C. texana over three generations in field settings where test plants grew sympatrically and viruses were not severely limiting the growth, and fruit and seed production of C. texana. In contrast, introgression of the transgenes into C. texana was not sustained under conditions of high viral disease pressure. As expected, C. texana progeny that acquired the CP transgenes exhibited resistance to CMV, ZYMV, and WMV. This is the first report on transgene dissemination from a transgenic crop that exhibits disease resistance and hybridizes with a wild plant species without loss of fertility.

  15. The G‐protein biased partial κ opioid receptor agonist 6′‐GNTI blocks hippocampal paroxysmal discharges without inducing aversion

    PubMed Central

    Zangrandi, Luca; Burtscher, Johannes; MacKay, James P; Colmers, William F

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose With a prevalence of 1–2%, epilepsies belong to the most frequent neurological diseases worldwide. Although antiepileptic drugs are available since several decades, the incidence of patients that are refractory to medication is still over 30%. Antiepileptic effects of κ opioid receptor (κ receptor) agonists have been proposed since the 1980s. However, their clinical use was hampered by dysphoric side effects. Recently, G‐protein biased κ receptor agonists were developed, suggesting reduced aversive effects. Experimental Approach We investigated the effects of the κ receptor agonist U‐50488H and the G‐protein biased partial κ receptor agonist 6′‐GNTI in models of acute seizures and drug‐resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and in the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) test. Moreover, we performed slice electrophysiology to understand the functional mechanisms of 6′‐GNTI. Key Results As previously shown for U‐50488H, 6′‐GNTI markedly increased the threshold for pentylenetetrazole‐induced seizures. All treated mice displayed reduced paroxysmal activity in response to U‐50488H (20 mg·kg−1) or 6′‐GNTI (10–30 nmoles) treatment in the mouse model of intra‐hippocampal injection of kainic acid. Single cell recordings on hippocampal pyramidal cells revealed enhanced inhibitory signalling as potential mechanisms causing the reduction of paroxysmal activity. Effects of 6′‐GNTI were blocked in both seizure models by the κ receptor antagonist 5′‐GNTI. Moreover, 6′‐GNTI did not induce CPA, a measure of aversive effects, while U‐50488H did. Conclusions and Implications Our data provide the proof of principle that anticonvulsant/antiseizure and aversive effects of κ receptor activation can be pharmacologically separated in vivo. PMID:26928671

  16. Blocking protein phosphatase 2A signaling prevents endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis: a peptide-based drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yuanjun; Guo, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zeng, Rui; Ning, Yong; Pei, Guangchang; Li, Yueqiang; Chen, Meixue; Guo, Shuiming; Li, Xiaoqing; Han, Min; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to the emergence of fibroblasts and plays a significant role in renal interstitial fibrosis. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase in eukaryotic cells and regulates many signaling pathways. However, the significance of PP2A in EndMT is poorly understood. In present study, the role of PP2A in EndMT was evaluated. We demonstrated that PP2A activated in endothelial cells (EC) during their EndMT phenotype acquisition and in the mouse model of obstructive nephropathy (i.e., UUO). Inhibition of PP2A activity by its specific inhibitor prevented EC undergoing EndMT. Importantly, PP2A activation was dependent on tyrosine nitration at 127 in the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac). Our renal-protective strategy was to block tyrosine127 nitration to inhibit PP2A activation by using a mimic peptide derived from PP2Ac conjugating a cell penetrating peptide (CPP: TAT), termed TAT-Y127WT. Pretreatment withTAT-Y127WT was able to prevent TGF-β1-induced EndMT. Administration of the peptide to UUO mice significantly ameliorated renal EndMT level, with preserved density of peritubular capillaries and reduction in extracellular matrix deposition. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibiting PP2Ac nitration using a mimic peptide is a potential preventive strategy for EndMT in renal fibrosis. PMID:26805394

  17. Arctigenin induces cell cycle arrest by blocking the phosphorylation of Rb via the modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Hong, Se Chul; Jeong, Hyung Jin; Koo, Jin Suk

    2011-10-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, worldwide being second only to lung cancer as a cause of death. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms of arctigenin for anti-tumor effect on gastric cancer have not been examined. This study examined the biological effects of arctigenin on the human gastric cancer cell line SNU-1 and AGS. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. In MTT assay, the proliferation of SNU-1 and AGS cells was significantly inhibited by arctigenin in a time and dose dependent manner, as compared with SNU-1 and AGS cells cultured in the absence of arctigenin. Inhibition of cell proliferation by arctigenin was in part associated with apoptotic cell death, as shown by changes in the expression ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax by arctigenin. Also, arctigenin blocked cell cycle arrest from G(1) to S phase by regulating the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Rb, cyclin D1, cyclin E, CDK4, CDK2, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p15 INK4b. The antiproliferative effect of arctigenin on SNU-1 and AGS gastric cancer cells revealed in this study suggests that arctigenin has intriguing potential as a chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent.

  18. The ER-Membrane Transport System Is Critical for Intercellular Trafficking of the NSm Movement Protein and Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhike; Xue, Fan; Xu, Min; Chen, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Wenyang; Garcia-Murria, Maria J.; Mingarro, Ismael; Liu, Yong; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Lei; Zhu, Min; Tao, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata to infect new cells. The plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is interconnected among cells via the ER desmotubule in the plasmodesma across the cell wall, forming a continuous ER network throughout the entire plant. This ER continuity is unique to plants and has been postulated to serve as a platform for the intercellular trafficking of macromolecules. In the present study, the contribution of the plant ER membrane transport system to the intercellular trafficking of the NSm movement protein and Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) is investigated. We showed that TSWV NSm is physically associated with the ER membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. An NSm-GFP fusion protein transiently expressed in single leaf cells was trafficked into neighboring cells. Mutations in NSm that impaired its association with the ER or caused its mis-localization to other subcellular sites inhibited cell-to-cell trafficking. Pharmacological disruption of the ER network severely inhibited NSm-GFP trafficking but not GFP diffusion. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant rhd3 with an impaired ER network, NSm-GFP trafficking was significantly reduced, whereas GFP diffusion was not affected. We also showed that the ER-to-Golgi secretion pathway and the cytoskeleton transport systems were not involved in the intercellular trafficking of TSWV NSm. Importantly, TSWV cell-to-cell spread was delayed in the ER-defective rhd3 mutant, and this reduced viral infection was not due to reduced replication. On the basis of robust biochemical, cellular and genetic analysis, we established that the ER membrane transport system serves as an important direct route for intercellular trafficking of NSm and TSWV. PMID:26863622

  19. Identification of an amino acid residue required for differential recognition of a viral movement protein by the Tomato mosaic virus resistance gene Tm-2(2).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Yamamoto-Katou, Ayako; Katou, Shinpei; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    The Tm-2 gene of tomato and its allelic gene, Tm-2(2), confer resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and encode a member of the coiled-coil/nucleotide binding-ARC/leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein class of plant resistance (R) genes. Despite exhibiting only four amino acid differences between the products of Tm-2 and Tm-2(2), Tm-2(2) confers resistance to ToMV mutant B7, whereas Tm-2 is broken by ToMV-B7. An Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system was used to study the mechanism of differential recognition of the movement proteins (MPs), an avirulence factor for ToMV resistance, of ToMV-B7 by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2). Although resistance induced by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) is not usually accompanied by hypersensitive response (HR), Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) induced HR-like cell death by co-expression with MP of a wild-type ToMV, a strain that causes resistance for these R genes, and Tm-2(2) but not Tm-2 induced cell death with B7-MP in this system. Site-directed amino acid mutagenesis revealed that Tyr-767 in the LRR of Tm-2(2) is required for the specific recognition of the B7-MP. These results suggest that the Tyr residue in LRR contributes to the recognition of B7-MP, and that Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) are involved in HR cell death.

  20. Structure and Function of FS50, a salivary protein from the flea Xenopsylla cheopis that blocks the sodium channel NaV1.5

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xueqing; Zhang, Bei; Yang, Shilong; An, Su; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring toxins have been invaluable tools for the study of structural and functional relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). Few studies have been made of potential channel-modulating substances from blood-feeding arthropods. He we describe the characterization FS50, a salivary protein from the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, that exhibits an inhibitory activity against the NaV1.5 channel with an IC50 of 1.58 μM. The pore-blocking mechanism of this toxin is evident from the kinetics of activation and inactivation suggesting that FS50 does not interfere with the voltage sensor of NaV1.5. FS50 exhibits high specificity for NaV1.5, since 10 μM FS50 had no discernable effect on voltage-gated Na+, K+ and Ca2+ channels in rat dorsal root ganglia or VGSC forms individually expressed in HEK 293T cells. Furthermore, intravenous injection of FS50 into rats and monkeys elicited recovery from arrhythmia induced by BaCl2, as would be expected from a blockade of NaV1.5. The crystal structure of FS50 revealed a βαββ domain similar to that of scorpion β toxin and a small N-terminal βαβ domain. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments have implicated a basic surface including the side chains of Arg 6, His 11 and Lys 32 as potentially important in the FS50 NaV1.5 interaction. PMID:27819327

  1. Protein kinase A can block EphA2 receptor–mediated cell repulsion by increasing EphA2 S897 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Barquilla, Antonio; Lamberto, Ilaria; Noberini, Roberta; Heynen-Genel, Susanne; Brill, Laurence M.; Pasquale, Elena B.

    2016-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase plays key roles in tissue homeostasis and disease processes such as cancer, pathological angiogenesis, and inflammation through two distinct signaling mechanisms. EphA2 “canonical” signaling involves ephrin-A ligand binding, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and kinase activity; EphA2 “noncanonical” signaling involves phosphorylation of serine 897 (S897) by AKT and RSK kinases. To identify small molecules counteracting EphA2 canonical signaling, we developed a high-content screening platform measuring inhibition of ephrin-A1–induced PC3 prostate cancer cell retraction. Surprisingly, most hits from a screened collection of pharmacologically active compounds are agents that elevate intracellular cAMP by activating G protein–coupled receptors such as the β2-adrenoceptor. We found that cAMP promotes phosphorylation of S897 by protein kinase A (PKA) as well as increases the phosphorylation of several nearby serine/threonine residues, which constitute a phosphorylation hotspot. Whereas EphA2 canonical and noncanonical signaling have been viewed as mutually exclusive, we show that S897 phosphorylation by PKA can coexist with EphA2 tyrosine phosphorylation and block cell retraction induced by EphA2 kinase activity. Our findings reveal a novel paradigm in EphA2 function involving the interplay of canonical and noncanonical signaling and highlight the ability of the β2-adrenoceptor/cAMP/PKA axis to rewire EphA2 signaling in a subset of cancer cells. PMID:27385333

  2. Structure and Function of FS50, a salivary protein from the flea Xenopsylla cheopis that blocks the sodium channel NaV1.5.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xueqing; Zhang, Bei; Yang, Shilong; An, Su; Ribeiro, José M C; Andersen, John F

    2016-11-07

    Naturally occurring toxins have been invaluable tools for the study of structural and functional relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). Few studies have been made of potential channel-modulating substances from blood-feeding arthropods. He we describe the characterization FS50, a salivary protein from the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, that exhibits an inhibitory activity against the NaV1.5 channel with an IC50 of 1.58 μM. The pore-blocking mechanism of this toxin is evident from the kinetics of activation and inactivation suggesting that FS50 does not interfere with the voltage sensor of NaV1.5. FS50 exhibits high specificity for NaV1.5, since 10 μM FS50 had no discernable effect on voltage-gated Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) channels in rat dorsal root ganglia or VGSC forms individually expressed in HEK 293T cells. Furthermore, intravenous injection of FS50 into rats and monkeys elicited recovery from arrhythmia induced by BaCl2, as would be expected from a blockade of NaV1.5. The crystal structure of FS50 revealed a βαββ domain similar to that of scorpion β toxin and a small N-terminal βαβ domain. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments have implicated a basic surface including the side chains of Arg 6, His 11 and Lys 32 as potentially important in the FS50 NaV1.5 interaction.

  3. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

  4. Novel full‐spectral flow cytometry with multiple spectrally‐adjacent fluorescent proteins and fluorochromes and visualization of in vivo cellular movement

    PubMed Central

    Futamura, Koji; Sekino, Masashi; Hata, Akihiro; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Nakanishi, Yasutaka; Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji; Watanabe, Takeshi; Furuki, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Flow cytometric analysis with multicolor fluoroprobes is an essential method for detecting biological signatures of cells. Here, we present a new full‐spectral flow cytometer (spectral‐FCM). Unlike conventional flow cytometer, this spectral‐FCM acquires the emitted fluorescence for all probes across the full‐spectrum from each cell with 32 channels sequential PMT unit after dispersion with prism, and extracts the signals of each fluoroprobe based on the spectral shape of each fluoroprobe using unique algorithm in high speed, high sensitive, accurate, automatic and real‐time. The spectral‐FCM detects the continuous changes in emission spectra from green to red of the photoconvertible protein, KikGR with high‐spectral resolution and separates spectrally‐adjacent fluoroprobes, such as FITC (Emission peak (Em) 519 nm) and EGFP (Em 507 nm). Moreover, the spectral‐FCM can measure and subtract autofluorescence of each cell providing increased signal‐to‐noise ratios and improved resolution of dim samples, which leads to a transformative technology for investigation of single cell state and function. These advances make it possible to perform 11‐color fluorescence analysis to visualize movement of multilinage immune cells by using KikGR‐expressing mice. Thus, the novel spectral flow cytometry improves the combinational use of spectrally‐adjacent various FPs and multicolor fluorochromes in metabolically active cell for the investigation of not only the immune system but also other research and clinical fields of use. © 2015 The Authors. Cytometry Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC PMID:26217952

  5. Characterization of GABAergic neurons in rapid-eye-movement sleep controlling regions of the brainstem reticular formation in GAD67-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ritchie E; McKenna, James T; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Thakkar, Mahesh M; McCarley, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments suggest that brainstem GABAergic neurons may control rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, understanding their pharmacology/physiology has been hindered by difficulty in identification. Here we report that mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the GAD67 promoter (GAD67-GFP knock-in mice) exhibit numerous GFP-positive neurons in the central gray and reticular formation, allowing on-line identification in vitro. Small (10-15 microm) or medium-sized (15-25 microm) GFP-positive perikarya surrounded larger serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and reticular neurons, and > 96% of neurons were double-labeled for GFP and GABA, confirming that GFP-positive neurons are GABAergic. Whole-cell recordings in brainstem regions important for promoting REM sleep [subcoeruleus (SubC) or pontine nucleus oralis (PnO) regions] revealed that GFP-positive neurons were spontaneously active at 3-12 Hz, fired tonically, and possessed a medium-sized depolarizing sag during hyperpolarizing steps. Many neurons also exhibited a small, low-threshold calcium spike. GFP-positive neurons were tested with pharmacological agents known to promote (carbachol) or inhibit (orexin A) REM sleep. SubC GFP-positive neurons were excited by the cholinergic agonist carbachol, whereas those in the PnO were either inhibited or excited. GFP-positive neurons in both areas were excited by orexins/hypocretins. These data are congruent with the hypothesis that carbachol-inhibited GABAergic PnO neurons project to, and inhibit, REM-on SubC reticular neurons during waking, whereas carbachol-excited SubC and PnO GABAergic neurons are involved in silencing locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe aminergic neurons during REM sleep. Orexinergic suppression of REM during waking is probably mediated in part via excitation of acetylcholine-inhibited GABAergic neurons.

  6. The patient movement as an emancipation movement

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To suggest that the patient movement is an emancipation movement. Background  The patient movement is young and fragmented; and it can seem confusing because it lacks an explicit ideology with intellectual and theoretical underpinnings. Methods  Drawing mainly on the experiences and the published writings of patient activists, the author identified eight aspects of the patient movement that could be compared with aspects of recognized emancipation movements: the radicalization of activists; the creation of new knowledge; the identification of guiding principles; the sense of direction; the unmasking of new issues; schisms within the movement and allies outside it; and the gradual social acceptance of some of the ideas (here standards of health care) that activists work to promote. Results  Similarities between certain aspects of the patient movement and of the recognized emancipation movements were close. Conclusion  The patient movement can be regarded as an emancipation movement, albeit an immature one. PMID:18494955

  7. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  8. Herpes simplex virus 1-encoded tegument protein VP16 abrogates the production of beta interferon (IFN) by inhibiting NF-κB activation and blocking IFN regulatory factor 3 to recruit its coactivator CBP.

    PubMed

    Xing, Junji; Ni, Liwen; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Kezhen; Lin, Rongtuan; Zheng, Chunfu

    2013-09-01

    Host cells activate innate immune signaling pathways to defend against invading pathogens. To survive within an infected host, viruses have evolved intricate strategies to counteract host immune responses. Herpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), have large genomes and therefore have the capacity to encode numerous proteins that modulate host innate immune responses. Here we define the contribution of HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 in the inhibition of beta interferon (IFN-β) production. VP16 was demonstrated to significantly inhibit Sendai virus (SeV)-induced IFN-β production, and its transcriptional activation domain was not responsible for this inhibition activity. Additionally, VP16 blocked the activation of the NF-κB promoter induced by SeV or tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment and expression of NF-κB-dependent genes through interaction with p65. Coexpression analysis revealed that VP16 selectively blocked IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-mediated but not IRF-7-mediated transactivation. VP16 was able to bind to IRF-3 but not IRF-7 in vivo, based on coimmunoprecipitation analysis, but it did not affect IRF-3 dimerization, nuclear translocation, or DNA binding activity. Rather, VP16 interacted with the CREB binding protein (CBP) coactivator and efficiently inhibited the formation of the transcriptional complexes IRF-3-CBP in the context of HSV-1 infection. These results illustrate that VP16 is able to block the production of IFN-β by inhibiting NF-κB activation and interfering with IRF-3 to recruit its coactivator CBP, which may be important to the early events leading to HSV-1 infection.

  9. Movement - unpredictable or jerky

    MedlinePlus

    ... uncontrolled); Hyperkinetic movements References Jankovic J, Lang AE. Movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 21. Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  10. 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol can induce cell cycle arrest by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in benzo[a]pyrene-treated NIH3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Jeong, Hyung Jin

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} 2M4VP activated the expression of p21 and p15 protein, and down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. {yields} 2M4VP inhibited hyper-phosphorylation of Rb protein. {yields} 2M4VP induced cell cycle arrest from G1 to S. {yields} 2M4VP inhibited hyper-proliferation of the cells in BaP-treated cells. {yields} 2M4VP induces growth arrest of BaP-treated cells by blocking hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins. -- Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environment carcinogen that can enhance cell proliferation by disturbing the signal transduction pathways in cell cycle regulation. In this study, the effects of 2M4VP on cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell cycle regulatory proteins were studied in BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells to establish the molecular mechanisms of 2M4VP as anti-proliferative agents. 2M4VP exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell growth correlated with a G1 arrest. Analysis of G1 cell cycle regulators expression revealed 2M4VP increased expression of CDK inhibitor, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p15 INK4b, decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and inhibited kinase activities of CDK4 and CDK2. However, 2M4VP did not affect the expression of CDK4 and CDK2. Also, 2M4VP inhibited the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb induced by BaP. Our results suggest that 2M4VP induce growth arrest of BaP-treated NIH 3T3 cells by blocking the hyper-phosphorylation of Rb via regulating the expression of cell cycle-related proteins.

  11. FLAG tagging by CuAAC and nanogram-scale purification of the target protein for a bioactive metabolite involved in circadian rhythmic leaf movement in Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yoshiyuki; Mukai, Makoto; Ito, Satoko; Kato, Nobuki; Ueda, Minoru

    2010-01-21

    We report a stepwise FLAG-tagging strategy for the purification of target proteins for bioactive metabolites. This method realizes the microscale purification and identification of target protein from as few as 1 x 10(5) differentiated cells. Using this method, we isolated and identified MetE as a cytosolic target protein of potassium isolespedezate, a metabolite controlling plant nyctinasty.

  12. The 14-kDa Dynein Light Chain-Family Protein Dlc1 Is Required for Regular Oscillatory Nuclear Movement and Efficient Recombination during Meiotic Prophase in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Futaba; Okazaki, Koei; Shimanuki, Mizuki; Yamamoto, Ayumu; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Niwa, Osami

    2002-01-01

    A Schizosaccharomyces pombe spindle pole body (SPB) protein interacts in a two-hybrid system with Dlc1, which belongs to the 14-kDa Tctex-1 dynein light chain family. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Dlc1 accumulated at the SPB throughout the life cycle. During meiotic prophase, Dlc1 was present along astral microtubules and microtubule-anchoring sites on the cell cortex, reminiscent of the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain Dhc1. In a dlc1-null mutant, Dhc1-dependent nuclear movement in meiotic prophase became irregular in its duration and direction. Dhc1 protein was displaced from the cortex anchors and the formation of microtubule bundle(s) that guide nuclear movement was impaired in the mutant. Meiotic recombination in the dlc1 mutant was reduced to levels similar to that in the dhc1 mutant. Dlc1 and Dhc1 also have roles in karyogamy and rDNA relocation during the sexual phase. Strains mutated in both the dlc1 and dhc1 loci displayed more severe defects in recombination, karyogamy, and sporulation than in either single mutant alone, suggesting that Dlc1 is involved in nuclear events that are independent of Dhc1. S. pombe contains a homolog of the 8-kDa dynein light chain, Dlc2. This class of dynein light chain, however, is not essential in either the vegetative or sexual phases. PMID:11907273

  13. Development of a Blocking ELISA Using a Monoclonal Antibody to a Dominant Epitope in Non-Structural Protein 3A of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus, as a Matching Test for a Negative-Marker Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yuanfang; Li, Pinghua; Cao, Yimei; Wang, Na; Sun, Pu; Shi, Qian; Ji, Xincheng; Bao, Huifang; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Bai, Xingwen; Ma, Xueqing; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a devastating animal disease. Strategies for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) remain very important for controlling disease. Development of an epitope-deleted marker vaccine and accompanying diagnostic method will improve the efficiency of DIVA. Here, a monoclonal antibody (Mab) was found to recognize a conserved “AEKNPLE” epitope spanning amino acids 109–115 of non-structural protein (NSP) 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV; O/Tibet/CHA/99 strain), which could be deleted by a reverse-genetic procedure. In addition, a blocking ELISA was developed based on this Mab against NSP 3A, which could serve as a matching test for a negative-marker vaccine. The criterion of this blocking ELISA was determined by detecting panels of sera from different origins. The serum samples with a percentage inhibition (PI) equal or greater than 50% were considered to be from infected animals, and those with <50% PI were considered to be from non-infected animals. This test showed similar performance when compared with other 2 blocking ELISAs based on an anti-NSP 3B Mab. This is the first report of the DIVA test for an NSP antibody based on an Mab against the conserved and predominant “AEKNPLE” epitope in NSP 3A of FMDV. PMID:28107470

  14. MIBSA: Multi Interacting Blocks for Slope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattola, Giuseppe; Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; di Prisco, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    As it is well known, the slope instabilities have very important consequences in terms of human lives and activities. So predicting the evolution in time and space of slope mass movements becomes fundamental. This is even more relevant when we consider that the triggering mechanisms are a rising ground water level and the occurrence of earthquakes. Therefore, seasonal rainfall has a direct influence on the triggering of large rock and earthslide with a composite failure surface and causing differential behaviors within the sliding mass. In this contribution, a model describing the slope mass by means of an array of blocks that move on a prefixed failure surface, is defined. A shear band located at the base of each block, whose behavior is modelled via a viscous plastic model based on the Perzyna's approach, controls the slip velocity of the block. The motion of the blocks is obtained by solving the second balance equation in which the normal and tangential interaction forces are obtained by a specific interaction model. The model has been implemented in an original code and it is used to perform a parametric analysis that describes the effects of block interactions under a transient ground water oscillation. The numerical results confirm that the normal and tangential interactions between blocks can inhibit or induce the slope movements. The model is tested against some real case studies. This model is under development to add the dynamic effects generated by earthquake shaking.

  15. Professional Women and the Feminist Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Mary C.

    1974-01-01

    The professional aspirations of many young women in the 1970's are supported by the feminist movement. But there have been instances in which competition and jealousy between women outweighed feminist ideals. This review is an attempt to trace and understand the sources of these blocks to feminist support. (Author)

  16. Interactions of actin, myosin, and a new actin-binding protein of rabbit pulmonary macrophages. II. Role in cytoplasmic movement and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Stossel, T P; Hartwig, J H

    1976-03-01

    Actin and myosin of rabbit pulmonary macrophages are influenced by two other proteins. A protein cofactor is required for the actin activation of macrophage myosin Mg2 ATPase activity, and a high molecular weight actin-binding protein aggregates actin filaments (Stossel T.P., and J.H. Hartwig. 1975. J. Biol. Chem. 250:5706-5711)9 When warmed in 0.34 M sucrose solution containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol, these four proteins interact cooperatively. Acin-binding protein in the presence of actin causes the actin to form a gel, which liquifies when cooled. The myosin contracts the gel into an aggregate, and the rate of aggregation is accelerated by the cofactor. Therefore, we believe that these four proteins also effec the temperature-dependent gelation and aggregation of crude sucrose extracts pulmonary macrophages containing Mg2-ATP and dithiothreitol. The gelled extracts are composed of tangled filaments. Relative to homogenates of resting macrophages, the distribution of actin-binding protein in homogenates of phagocytizing macrophages is altered such that 2-6 times more actin-binding protein is soluble. Sucrose extracts of phagocytizing macrophages gel more rapidly than extracts of resting macrophages. Phagocytosis by pulmonary macrophages involves the formation of peripheral pseudopods containing filaments. The findings suggest that the actin-binding protein initiates a cooperative interaction of contractile proteins to generate cytoplasmic gelation, and that phagocytosis influences the behavior of the actin-binding protein.

  17. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  18. The inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 in the rat skeletal muscle cell line L6 is blocked by wortmannin, but not by rapamycin: evidence that wortmannin blocks activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in L6 cells between Ras and Raf.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, D A; Alessi, D R; Vandenheede, J R; McDowell, H E; Hundal, H S; Cohen, P

    1994-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is inactivated in vitro by p70 S6 kinase or MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-1 beta (MAPKAP kinase-1 beta; also known as Rsk-2). Here we show that GSK3 isoforms are inhibited by 40% within minutes after stimulation of the rat skeletal-muscle cell line L6 with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or insulin. GSK3 was similarly inhibited in rabbit skeletal muscle after an intravenous injection of insulin. Inhibition resulted from increased phosphorylation of GSK3, probably at a serine/threonine residue(s), because it was reversed by incubation with protein phosphatase-2A. Rapamycin blocked the activation of p70 S6 kinase by IGF-1 in L6 cells, but had no effect on the inhibition of GSK3 or the activation of MAPKAP kinase-1 beta. In contrast, wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of PtdIns 3-kinase, prevented the inactivation of GSK3 and the activation of MAPKAP kinase-1 beta and p70 S6 kinase by IGF-1 or insulin. Wortmannin also blocked the activation of p74raf-1. MAP kinase kinase and p42 MAP kinase, but not the formation of GTP-Ras by IGF-1. The results suggest that the stimulation of glycogen synthase by insulin/IGF-1 in skeletal muscle involves the MAP-KAP kinase-1-catalysed inhibition of GSK3, as well as the previously described activation of the glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase-1. Images Figure 1 PMID:7945242

  19. Osa Protein Constitutes a Strong Oncogenic Suppression System That Can Block vir-Dependent Transfer of IncQ Plasmids between Agrobacterium Cells and the Establishment of IncQ Plasmids in Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2004-01-01

    The osa (oncogenic suppressive activity) gene of the IncW group plasmid pSa is sufficient to suppress tumorigenesis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. osa confers oncogenic suppression by inhibiting VirE2 protein export. This result is similar, but not identical, to that of oncogenic suppression by the IncQ plasmid RSF1010. We conducted a series of experiments to compare oncogenic suppression by these two systems. Agrobacterium strains harboring plasmids containing osa are more able to effect oncogenic suppression than are similar strains containing various RSF1010 derivatives. When osa is present within a donor Agrobacterium strain that also carries a derivative of RSF1010, the transfer of RSF1010 derivatives to recipient bacteria and their establishment in plants are blocked. Oncogenic suppression is still effected when the osa gene is integrated into the Agrobacterium chromosome, suggesting that it is the osa gene product that is active in suppression and that suppression does not require a protein-nucleic acid intermediate like that described for IncQ plasmids. Extracellular complementation experiments with tobacco leaf disks indicated that Osa blocks stable transfer of RSF1010 to plant cells by inhibiting transfer of VirE2, which is essential for the transfer of RSF1010 into plant cells, and not by inhibiting the actual transfer of RSF1010 itself. Our results suggest that Osa and RSF1010 cause oncogenic suppression by using different mechanisms. PMID:15489437

  20. Cues to Intention: The Role of Movement Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Castiello, Umberto

    2011-01-01

    Body movement provides a rich source of cues about other people's goals and intentions. In the present research, we investigate how well people can distinguish between different social intentions on the basis of movement information. Participants observed a model reaching toward and grasping a wooden block with the intent to cooperate with a…

  1. Movement disorders and sleep.

    PubMed

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  2. PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 and PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED1 Mediate Photorelocation Movements of Both Chloroplasts and Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Higa, Takeshi; Kong, Sam-Geun; Wada, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Organelle movement and positioning play important roles in fundamental cellular activities and adaptive responses to environmental stress in plants. To optimize photosynthetic light utilization, chloroplasts move toward weak blue light (the accumulation response) and escape from strong blue light (the avoidance response). Nuclei also move in response to strong blue light by utilizing the light-induced movement of attached plastids in leaf cells. Blue light receptor phototropins and several factors for chloroplast photorelocation movement have been identified through molecular genetic analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1 (PMI1) is a plant-specific C2-domain protein that is required for efficient chloroplast photorelocation movement. There are two PLASTID MOVEMENT IMPAIRED1-RELATED (PMIR) genes, PMIR1 and PMIR2, in the Arabidopsis genome. However, the mechanism in which PMI1 regulates chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements and the involvement of PMIR1 and PMIR2 in these organelle movements remained unknown. Here, we analyzed chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mutant lines of PMI1, PMIR1, and PMIR2. In mesophyll cells, the pmi1 single mutant showed severe defects in both chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements resulting from the impaired regulation of chloroplast-actin filaments. In pavement cells, pmi1 mutant plants were partially defective in both plastid and nuclear photorelocation movements, but pmi1pmir1 and pmi1pmir1pmir2 mutant lines lacked the blue light-induced movement responses of plastids and nuclei completely. These results indicated that PMI1 is essential for chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements in mesophyll cells and that both PMI1 and PMIR1 are indispensable for photorelocation movements of plastids and thus, nuclei in pavement cells.

  3. Suppression of local RNA silencing is not sufficient to promote cell-to-cell movement of Turnip crinkle virus in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Ryabov, Eugene V; van Wezel, Rene; Li, Chunyang; Jin, Mingfei; Wang, Wenjing; Fan, Zaifeng

    2009-01-01

    The biological relationship between suppression of RNA silencing and virus movement poses an intriguing question in virus-plant interactions. Here, we have used a local RNA silencing assay, based on a movement-deficient Turnip crinkle virus TCV/GFPΔCP, to investigate the influence of silencing suppression by three different viral suppressors: the TCV 38K coat protein (CP), the 126K protein of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and P19 of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) on cell-to-cell movement and long-distance spread of TCV/GFPΔCP. First, we found that TCV CP blocked the induction of local RNA silencing, but failed to support virus trafficking in silencing-suppressed transgenic plants, although it acted as a functional movement protein in non-transformed plants. Second, we demonstrated that the TMV 126K suppressor inhibited TCV/GFPΔCP-mediated RNA silencing, but did not facilitate intercellular spread of the chimaeric carmovirus. However, TMV and TMVΔCP prevented the initiation of RNA silencing by TCV/GFPΔCP and caused TCV/GFPΔCP to move between cells, although only TMV supported its long-distance spread. Third, TBSV P19 functioned as a movement protein for TCV/GFPΔCP and as a silencing suppressor in non-transformed and silencing-suppressed transgenic plants. We further identified three types of mutant P19 proteins that possessed no or varied functionality in silencing suppression and in the facilitation of carmovirus movement. These results suggest that, although suppression of local RNA silencing is essential for the maintenance of viral RNA, recovery of cell-to-cell movement and long-distance spread of movement-deficient carmoviruses is not a direct consequence of such silencing suppression. PMID:19568335

  4. Preparation of the cortical reaction: maturation-dependent migration of SNARE proteins, clathrin, and complexin to the porcine oocyte's surface blocks membrane traffic until fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Shiue; van Haeften, Theo; Gadella, Bart M

    2011-02-01

    The cortical reaction is a calcium-dependent exocytotic process in which the content of secretory granules is released into the perivitellin space immediately after fertilization, which serves to prevent polyspermic fertilization. In this study, we investigated the involvement and the organization of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins in the docking and fusion of the cortical granule membrane with the oolemma in porcine oocytes. During meiotic maturation, secretory vesicles that were labeled with a granule-specific binding lectin, peanut agglutinin (PNA), migrated toward the oocyte's surface. This surface-orientated redistribution behavior was also observed for the oocyte-specific SNARE proteins SNAP23 and VAMP1 that colocalized with the PNA-labeled structures in the cortex area just under the oolemma and with the exclusive localization area of complexin (a trans-SNARE complex-stabilizing protein). The coming together of these proteins serves to prevent the spontaneous secretion of the docked cortical granules and to prepare the oocyte's surface for the cortical reaction, which should probably be immediately compensated for by a clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In vitro fertilization resulted in the secretion of the cortical granule content and the concomitant release of complexin and clathrin into the oocyte's cytosol, and this is considered to stimulate the observed endocytosis of SNARE-containing membrane vesicles.

  5. Blocking protein farnesylation improves nuclear shape abnormalities in keratinocytes of mice expressing the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexia; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J

    2010-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and "blinded" electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials.

  6. Wheat streak mosaic virus infects systemically despite extensive coat protein deletions: identification of virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement determinants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral coat proteins function in virion assembly and virus biology in a tightly coordinated manner with a role for virtually every amino acid. In this study, we demonstrated that the coat protein (CP) of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) (genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae) is unusually tolerant o...

  7. Biomechanics of foetal movement.

    PubMed

    Nowlan, N C

    2015-01-02

    Foetal movements commence at seven weeks of gestation, with the foetal movement repertoire including twitches, whole body movements, stretches, isolated limb movements, breathing movements, head and neck movements, jaw movements (including yawning, sucking and swallowing) and hiccups by ten weeks of gestational age. There are two key biomechanical aspects to gross foetal movements; the first being that the foetus moves in a dynamically changing constrained physical environment in which the freedom to move becomes increasingly restricted with increasing foetal size and decreasing amniotic fluid. Therefore, the mechanical environment experienced by the foetus affects its ability to move freely. Secondly, the mechanical forces induced by foetal movements are crucial for normal skeletal development, as evidenced by a number of conditions and syndromes for which reduced or abnormal foetal movements are implicated, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, arthrogryposis and foetal akinesia deformation sequence. This review examines both the biomechanical effects of the physical environment on foetal movements through discussion of intrauterine factors, such as space, foetal positioning and volume of amniotic fluid, and the biomechanical role of gross foetal movements in human skeletal development through investigation of the effects of abnormal movement on the bones and joints. This review also highlights computational simulations of foetal movements that attempt to determine the mechanical forces acting on the foetus as it moves. Finally, avenues for future research into foetal movement biomechanics are highlighted, which have potential impact for a diverse range of fields including foetal medicine, musculoskeletal disorders and tissue engineering.

  8. Chloroplast and nuclear photorelocation movements

    PubMed Central

    WADA, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts move toward weak light to increase photosynthetic efficiency, and migrate away from strong light to protect chloroplasts from photodamage and eventual cell death. These chloroplast behaviors were first observed more than 100 years ago, but the underlying mechanism has only recently been identified. Ideal plant materials, such as fern gametophytes for photobiological and cell biological approaches, and Arabidopsis thaliana for genetic analyses, have been used along with sophisticated methods, such as partial cell irradiation and time-lapse video recording under infrared light to study chloroplast movement. These studies have revealed precise chloroplast behavior, and identified photoreceptors, other relevant protein components, and novel actin filament structures required for chloroplast movement. In this review, our findings regarding chloroplast and nuclear movements are described. PMID:27840388

  9. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... 314. This combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in ...

  10. Direct visualization of cell movement in the embryonic olfactory bulb using green fluorescent protein transgenic mice: evidence for rapid tangential migration of neural cell precursors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Okabe, Shigeo

    2005-02-01

    We analyzed motile behavior of neuronal precursor cells in the intact olfactory bulbs (OBs) using transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of T alpha 1 tubulin promoter. In the olfactory bulbs at the embryonic days 12.5-14.5, a large number of immature neurons expressed GFP in this transgenic line. Embryonic OBs were maintained in an organ culture system and the migratory behavior of GFP-positive cells was analyzed by time-lapse confocal microscopy. We observed rapid tangential movement of GFP-positive cells in the ventral olfactory bulb. In contrast to the typical bipolar morphology of translocating immature neurons within the developing cortex, the motile cells had neither leading nor trailing processes and changed their overall shape frequently. Comparison of the behavior of cells expressing GFP under the control of T alpha 1 tubulin or nestin promoter revealed that rapid motility was specific to cells in the neuronal lineage. The rapid movement was sensitive to an actin perturbing reagent and also dependent on the calcium influx through L-type calcium channels. These results indicate the presence of a specific form of precursor cell migration in the embryonic olfactory bulb.

  11. Creating biomolecular motors based on dynein and actin-binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Akane; Amino, Misako; Yoshio, Maki; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Kojima, Hiroaki; Furuta, Ken'ya

    2016-11-01

    Biomolecular motors such as myosin, kinesin and dynein are protein machines that can drive directional movement along cytoskeletal tracks and have the potential to be used as molecule-sized actuators. Although control of the velocity and directionality of biomolecular motors has been achieved, the design and construction of novel biomolecular motors remains a challenge. Here we show that naturally occurring protein building blocks from different cytoskeletal systems can be combined to create a new series of biomolecular motors. We show that the hybrid motors—combinations of a motor core derived from the microtubule-based dynein motor and non-motor actin-binding proteins—robustly drive the sliding movement of an actin filament. Furthermore, the direction of actin movement can be reversed by simply changing the geometric arrangement of these building blocks. Our synthetic strategy provides an approach to fabricating biomolecular machines that work along artificial tracks at nanoscale dimensions.

  12. Effect of post-exercise protein-leucine feeding on neutrophil function, immunomodulatory plasma metabolites and cortisol during a 6-day block of intense cycling.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andre R; Jackson, Lara; Clarke, Jim; Stellingwerff, Trent; Broadbent, Suzanne; Rowlands, David S

    2013-09-01

    Whey protein and leucine ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and could influence neutrophil function during recovery from prolonged intense exercise. We examined the effects of whey protein and leucine ingestion post-exercise on neutrophil function and immunomodulators during a period of intense cycling. In a randomized double-blind crossover, 12 male cyclists ingested protein/leucine/carbohydrate/fat (LEUPRO 20/7.5/89/22 g h(-1), respectively) or isocaloric carbohydrate/fat control (CON 119/22 g h(-1)) beverages for 1-3 h post-exercise during 6 days of high-intensity training. Blood was taken pre- and post-exercise on days 1, 2, 4 and 6 for phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated neutrophil superoxide (O2 (-)) production, immune cell counts, amino acid and lipid metabolism via metabolomics, hormones (cortisol, testosterone) and cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-10). During recovery on day 1, LEUPRO ingestion increased mean concentrations of plasma amino acids (glycine, arginine, glutamine, leucine) and myristic acid metabolites (acylcarnitines C14, myristoylcarnitine; and C14:1-OH, hydroxymyristoleylcarnitine) with neutrophil priming capacity, and reduced neutrophil O2 production (15-17 mmol O2 (-) cell(-1) ± 90 % confidence limits 20 mmol O2 (-) cell(-1)). On day 2, LEUPRO increased pre-exercise plasma volume (6.6 ± 3.8 %) but haematological effects were trivial. LEUPRO supplementation did not substantially alter neutrophil elastase, testosterone, or cytokine concentrations. By day 6, however, LEUPRO reduced pre-exercise cortisol 21 % (±15 %) and acylcarnitine C16 (palmitoylcarnitine) during exercise, and increased post-exercise neutrophil O2 (-) (33 ± 20 mmol O2 (-) cell(-1)), relative to control. Altered plasma amino acid and acylcarnitine concentrations with protein-leucine feeding might partly explain the acute post-exercise reduction in neutrophil function and increased exercise-stimulated neutrophil oxidative burst on

  13. Blocked Tear Duct

    MedlinePlus

    Blocked tear duct Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff When you have a blocked tear duct, your tears can't drain normally, leaving you ... in the tear drainage system. A blocked tear duct is common in newborns. The condition usually gets ...

  14. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB. PMID:27366387

  15. Coordinateendonucleolytic 5' and 3' trimming of terminally blocked blunt DNA double-strand break ends by Artemis nuclease and DNA-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Povirk, Lawrence; Yannone, Steven M.; Khan, Imran S.; Zhou, Rui-Zhe; Zhou, Tong; Valerie, Kristoffer; F., Lawrence

    2008-02-18

    Previous work showed that, in the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis slowly trims 3'-phosphoglycolate-terminated blunt ends. To examine the trimming reaction in more detail, long internally labeled DNA substrates were treated with Artemis. In the absence of DNA-PK, Artemis catalyzed extensive 5' {yields} 3' exonucleolytic resection of double-stranded DNA. This resection required a 5'-phosphate but did not require ATP, and was accompanied by endonucleolytic cleavage of the resulting 3' overhang. In the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis-mediated trimming was more limited, was ATP-dependent, and did not require a 5'-phosphate. For a blunt end with either a 3'-phosphoglycolate or 3'-hydroxyl terminus, endonucleolytic trimming of 2-4 nucleotides from the 3'-terminal strand was accompanied by trimming of 6 nucleotides from the 5'-terminal strand. The results suggest that autophosphorylated DNA-PK suppresses the exonuclease activity of Artemis toward blunt-ended DNA, and promotes slow and limited endonucleolytic trimming of the 5'-terminal strand, resulting in short 3' overhangs that are trimmed endonucleolytically. Thus, Artemis and DNA-PK can convert terminally blocked DNA ends of diverse geometry and chemical structure to a form suitable for polymerase mediated patching and ligation, with minimal loss of terminal sequence. Such processing could account for the very small deletions often found at DNA double-strand break repair sites.

  16. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus latency associated nuclear antigen protein release the G2/M cell cycle blocks by modulating ATM/ATR mediated checkpoint pathway.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Maji, Santanu; Reddy, R Rajendra; Jha, Asutosh K; Goswami, Chandan; Kundu, Chanakya N; Rajasubramaniam, Shanmugam; Verma, Subhash C; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects the human population and maintains latency stage of viral life cycle in a variety of cell types including cells of epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial origin. The establishment of latent infection by KSHV requires the expression of an unique repertoire of genes among which latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome. LANA regulates the transcription of a number of viral and cellular genes essential for the survival of the virus in the host cell. The present study demonstrates the disruption of the host G2/M cell cycle checkpoint regulation as an associated function of LANA. DNA profile of LANA expressing human B-cells demonstrated the ability of this nuclear antigen in relieving the drug (Nocodazole) induced G2/M checkpoint arrest. Caffeine suppressed nocodazole induced G2/M arrest indicating involvement of the ATM/ATR. Notably, we have also shown the direct interaction of LANA with Chk2, the ATM/ATR signalling effector and is responsible for the release of the G2/M cell cycle block.

  17. Manassantin A isolated from Saururus chinensis inhibits 5-lipoxygenase-dependent leukotriene C4 generation by blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jeong; Lu, Yue; Kwon, Okyun; Hwangbo, Kyoung; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Chang, Young-Chae; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, manassantin A (Man A), an herbal medicine isolated from Saururus chinensis (S. chinensis), markedly inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)-dependent leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) generation in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) in a concentration-dependent manner. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibition of LTC(4) generation by Man A, we assessed the effects of Man A on phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Inhibition of LTC(4) generation by Man A was accompanied by a decrease in cPLA(2) phosphorylation, which occurred via the MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) as well as p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. Taken together, the present study suggests the Man A represents a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of airway allergic-inflammatory diseases.

  18. The Space Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation's "Space Block," technically known as TDT-177-51 Ren Shape epoxy model block, is a two-foot by two-foot by five- inch plastic block from which master models of the Space Shuttle protective tiles are cut by NC machines. Space Block is made of epoxy resin with low viscosity and slow curing time, enabling the large block to cure uniformly without cracking. Rockwell International uses master models of Shuttle tiles to check accuracy of NC machines accurately by comparing model dimensions with specifications. New epoxy resins are attracting broad interest as a replacement for traditional materials used in modeling auto, aerospace or other parts.

  19. Salidroside stimulates the accumulation of HIF-1α protein resulted in the induction of EPO expression: a signaling via blocking the degradation pathway in kidney and liver cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ken Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Zhen-Xia; Guo, Ava Jiang-Yang; Bi, Cathy Wen-Chuang; Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Lau, David Tai-Wei; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-03-15

    Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma (Rhodiola), the root and rhizome of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to increase the body resistance to mountain sickness in preventing hypoxia; however, the functional ingredient responsible for this adaptogenic effect has not been revealed. Here, we have identified salidroside, a glycoside predominantly found in Rhodiola, is the chemical in providing such anti-hypoxia effect. Cultured human embryonic kidney fibroblast (HEK293T) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) were used to reveal the mechanism of this hematopoietic function mediated by salidroside. The application of salidroside in cultures induced the expression of erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA from its transcription regulatory element hypoxia response element (HRE), located on EPO gene. The application of salidroside stimulated the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein, but not HIF-2α protein: the salidroside-induced HIF-1α protein was via the reduction of HIF-1α degradation but not the mRNA induction. The increased HIF-1α could account for the activation of EPO gene. These results supported the notion that hematopoietic function of Rhodiola was triggered, at least partially, by salidroside.

  20. A peptide inhibitor of exportin1 blocks shuttling of the adenoviral E1B 55 kDa protein but not export of viral late mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S.J. . E-mail: sjflint@molbio.princeton.edu; Huang, Wenying; Goodhouse, Joseph; Kyin, Saw

    2005-06-20

    The human subgroup C adenoviral E1B 55 kDa and E4 Orf6 proteins are required for efficient nuclear export of viral late mRNAs, but the cellular pathway that mediates such export has not been identified. As a first step to develop a general approach to address this issue, we have assessed the utility of cell-permeable peptide inhibitors of cellular export receptors. As both E1B and E4 proteins have been reported to contain a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), we synthesized a cell-permeable peptide containing such an NES. This peptide induced substantial inhibition of export of the E1B protein, whereas a control, non-functional peptide did not. However, under the same conditions, the NES peptide had no effect on export of viral late mRNAs. These observations establish that viral late mRNAs are not exported by exportin1, as well as the value of peptide inhibitors in investigation of mRNA export regulation in adenovirus-infected cells.

  1. Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein PE-PGRS62 as a novel effector that functions to block phagosome maturation and inhibit iNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Thi, Emily P; Hong, Chris Joon Ho; Sanghera, Gaganjit; Reiner, Neil E

    2013-05-01

    Using a genetic screen in yeast we found that Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-PGRS62 was capable of disrupting yeast vacuolar protein sorting, suggesting effects on endosomal trafficking. To study the impact of PE-PGRS62 on macrophage function, we infected murine macrophages with Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing PE-PGRS62. Infected cells displayed phagosome maturation arrest. Phagosomes acquired Rab5, but displayed a significant defect in Rab7 and LAMP-1 acquisition. Macrophages infected with M. smegmatis expressing PE-PGRS62 also expressed two- to threefold less iNOS protein when compared with cells infected with wild-type bacteria. Consistent with this, cells infected with a Mycobacterium marinum transposon mutant for the PE-PGRS62 orthologue showed greater iNOS protein expression when compared to cells infected with wild-type organisms. Complementation restored the ability of the mutant to inhibit iNOS expression. No differences in iNOS transcript levels were observed, suggesting that PE-PGRS62 effects on iNOS expression occurred post-transcriptionally. Marked differences in colony morphology were also seen in M. smegmatis expressing PE-PGRS62 and in the M. marinum transposon mutant, suggesting that PE-PGRS62 may affect cell wall composition. These findings suggest that PE-PGRS62 supports virulence via inhibition of phagosome maturation and iNOS expression, and these phenotypes may be linked to effects on bacterial cell wall composition.

  2. Bacterial AvrRpt2-Like Cysteine Proteases Block Activation of the Arabidopsis Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, MPK4 and MPK111[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Jiang, Xiyuan; Elmore, James Mitch; Mackey, David; Shan, Libo

    2016-01-01

    To establish infection, pathogens deliver effectors into host cells to target immune signaling components, including elements of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades. The virulence function of AvrRpt2, one of the first identified Pseudomonas syringae effectors, involves cleavage of the plant defense regulator, RPM1-INTERACTING PROTEIN4 (RIN4), and interference with plant auxin signaling. We show now that AvrRpt2 specifically suppresses the flagellin-induced phosphorylation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MPK4 and MPK11 but not MPK3 or MPK6. This inhibition requires the proteolytic activity of AvrRpt2, is associated with reduced expression of some plant defense genes, and correlates with enhanced pathogen infection in AvrRpt2-expressing transgenic plants. Diverse AvrRpt2-like homologs can be found in some phytopathogens, plant-associated and soil bacteria. Employing these putative bacterial AvrRpt2 homologs and inactive AvrRpt2 variants, we can uncouple the inhibition of MPK4/MPK11 activation from the cleavage of RIN4 and related members from the so-called nitrate-induced family as well as from auxin signaling. Thus, this selective suppression of specific mitogen-activated protein kinases is independent of the previously known AvrRpt2 targets and potentially represents a novel virulence function of AvrRpt2. PMID:27208280

  3. A peptide inhibitor of exportin1 blocks shuttling of the adenoviral E1B 55 kDa protein but not export of viral late mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Flint, S J; Huang, Wenying; Goodhouse, Joseph; Kyin, Saw

    2005-06-20

    The human subgroup C adenoviral E1B 55 kDa and E4 Orf6 proteins are required for efficient nuclear export of viral late mRNAs, but the cellular pathway that mediates such export has not been identified. As a first step to develop a general approach to address this issue, we have assessed the utility of cell-permeable peptide inhibitors of cellular export receptors. As both E1B and E4 proteins have been reported to contain a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), we synthesized a cell-permeable peptide containing such an NES. This peptide induced substantial inhibition of export of the E1B protein, whereas a control, non-functional peptide did not. However, under the same conditions, the NES peptide had no effect on export of viral late mRNAs. These observations establish that viral late mRNAs are not exported by exportin1, as well as the value of peptide inhibitors in investigation of mRNA export regulation in adenovirus-infected cells.

  4. Congenital complete heart block.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, B.; Sheikh, Z.; Cibils, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital complete heart block in utero has become diagnosed more frequently with the clinical use of fetal echocardiography. The fetus with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic or may develop congestive heart failure. Congenital complete heart block is more frequently seen in infants of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus, both clinically manifested and subclinical systemic lupus erythematosus with positive antibodies (SS-A and SS-B antibodies). At birth, the neonate with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic and may not require a pacemaker to increase the heart rate. The indications for a pacemaker in neonates with complete heart block have been discussed. Both in-utero and neonatal management of congenital complete heart block are discussed to manage congestive heart failure in a fetus. Four patients with congenital complete heart block are presented covering a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management both in the fetal and neonatal period. Images Figure 1 PMID:8961692

  5. The hemagglutinin protein of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses overcomes an early block in the replication cycle to promote productive replication in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Cline, Troy D; Karlsson, Erik A; Seufzer, Bradley J; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are known to be one of the first lines of defense against influenza virus infection. However, they may also contribute to severe disease caused by the highly pathogenic avian (HPAI) H5N1 influenza viruses. One reason for this may be the ability of certain influenza virus strains to productively replicate in macrophages. However, studies investigating the productive replication of influenza viruses in macrophages have been contradictory, and the results may depend on both the type of macrophages used and the specific viral strain. In this work, we investigated the ability of H1 to H16 viruses to productively replicate in primary murine alveolar macrophages and RAW264.7 macrophages. We show that only a subset of HPAI H5N1 viruses, those that cause high morbidity and mortality in mammals, can productively replicate in macrophages, as measured by the release of newly synthesized virus particles into the cell supernatant. Mechanistically, we found that these H5 strains can overcome a block early in the viral life cycle leading to efficient nuclear entry, viral transcription, translation, and ultimately replication. Studies with reassortant viruses demonstrated that expression of the hemagglutinin gene from an H5N1 virus rescued replication of H1N1 influenza virus in macrophages. This study is the first to characterize H5N1 influenza viruses as the only subtype of influenza virus capable of productive replication in macrophages and establishes the viral gene that is required for this characteristic. The ability to productively replicate in macrophages is unique to H5N1 influenza viruses and may contribute to their increased pathogenesis.

  6. Cytosolic nucleotides block and regulate the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingbo; Martinoia, Enrico; De Angeli, Alexis

    2014-09-12

    The aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form a membrane protein family exhibiting different physiological roles in plants, varying from conferring tolerance to environmental Al(3+) to the regulation of stomatal movement. The regulation of the anion channels of the ALMT family is largely unknown. Identifying intracellular modulators of the activity of anion channels is fundamental to understanding their physiological functions. In this study we investigated the role of cytosolic nucleotides in regulating the activity of the vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9. We found that cytosolic nucleotides modulate the transport activity of AtALMT9. This modulation was based on a direct block of the pore of the channel at negative membrane potentials (open channel block) by the nucleotide and not by a phosphorylation mechanism. The block by nucleotides of AtALMT9-mediated currents was voltage dependent. The blocking efficiency of intracellular nucleotides increased with the number of phosphate groups and ATP was the most effective cellular blocker. Interestingly, the ATP block induced a marked modification of the current-voltage characteristic of AtALMT9. In addition, increased concentrations of vacuolar anions were able to shift the ATP block threshold to a more negative membrane potential. The block of AtALMT9-mediated anion currents by ATP at negative membrane potentials acts as a gate of the channel and vacuolar anion tune this gating mechanism. Our results suggest that anion transport across the vacuolar membrane in plant cells is controlled by cytosolic nucleotides and the energetic status of the cell.

  7. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  8. Functional Movement Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... that controls muscles during contraction and at rest. Electroencephalography (EEG) can correlate the movement and detect any ... that controls muscles during contraction and at rest. Electroencephalography (EEG) can correlate the movement and detect any ...

  9. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  10. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA targeted against the Mungbean yellow mosaic virus transcriptional activator protein gene efficiently block the viral DNA accumulation.

    PubMed

    Shanmugapriya, Gnanasekaran; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2015-06-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is a bipartite begomovirus that infects many pulse crops such as blackgram, mungbean, mothbean, Frenchbean, and soybean. We tested the efficacy of the transgenically expressed intron-spliced hairpin RNA gene of the transcriptional activator protein (hpTrAP) in reducing MYMV DNA accumulation. Tobacco plants transformed with the MYMV hpTrAP gene accumulated 21-22 nt siRNA. Leaf discs of the transgenic plants, agroinoculated with the partial dimers of MYMV, displayed pronounced reduction in MYMV DNA accumulation. Thus, silencing of the TrAP gene, a suppressor of gene silencing, emerged as an effective strategy to control MYMV.

  11. The Plasmodium falciparum Cell-Traversal Protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites as a Candidate for Preerythrocytic and Transmission-Blocking Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Diego A.; Vega-Rodriguez, Joel; Flores-Garcia, Yevel; Noe, Amy R.; Muñoz, Christian; Coleman, Russell; Bruck, Torben; Haney, Keith; Stevens, Alex; Retallack, Diane; Allen, Jeff; Vedvick, Thomas S.; Fox, Christopher B.; Reed, Steven G.; Howard, Randall F.; Salman, Ahmed M.; Janse, Chris J.; Khan, Shahid M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown that immune responses against the cell-traversal protein for Plasmodium ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS) can inhibit parasite infection. While these studies provide important evidence toward the development of vaccines targeting this protein, it remains unknown whether these responses could engage the Plasmodium falciparum CelTOS in vivo. Using a newly developed rodent malaria chimeric parasite expressing the P. falciparum CelTOS (PfCelTOS), we evaluated the protective effect of in vivo immune responses elicited by vaccination and assessed the neutralizing capacity of monoclonal antibodies specific against PfCelTOS. Mice immunized with recombinant P. falciparum CelTOS in combination with the glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion (GLA-SE) or glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-liposome-QS21 (GLA-LSQ) adjuvant system significantly inhibited sporozoite hepatocyte infection. Notably, monoclonal antibodies against PfCelTOS strongly inhibited oocyst development of P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei expressing PfCelTOS in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that anti-CelTOS responses elicited by vaccination or passive immunization can inhibit sporozoite and ookinete infection and impair vector transmission. PMID:27895131

  12. The p21Waf1 pathway is involved in blocking leukemogenesis by the t(8;21) fusion protein AML1-ETO

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Luke F.; Yan, Ming

    2007-01-01

    The 8;21 translocation is a major contributor to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of the M2 classification occurring in approximately 40% of these cases. Multiple mouse models using this fusion protein demonstrate that AML1-ETO requires secondary mutagenic events to promote leukemogenesis. Here, we show that the negative cell cycle regulator p21WAF1 gene is up-regulated by AML1-ETO at the protein, RNA, and promoter levels. Retroviral transduction and hematopoietic cell transplantation experiments with p21WAF1-deficient cells show that AML1-ETO is able to promote leukemogenesis in the absence of p21WAF1. Thus, loss of p21WAF1 facilitates AML1-ETO–induced leukemogenesis, suggesting that mutagenic events in the p21WAF1 pathway to bypass the growth inhibitory effect from AML1-ETO–induced p21WAF1 expression can be a significant factor in AML1-ETO–associated acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:17284535

  13. Inhibition of protein kinase C zeta subspecies blocks the activation of an NF-kappa B-like activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, I; Sanz, L; Arenzana-Seisdedos, F; Diaz-Meco, M T; Virelizier, J L; Moscat, J

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) plays a critical role in the regulation of a large variety of cellular genes. However, the mechanism whereby this nuclear factor is activated remains to be determined. In this report, we present evidence that in oocytes from Xenopus laevis, (i) ras p21- and phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis activates NF-kappa B and (ii) protein kinase C zeta subspecies is involved in the activation of NF-kappa B in response to insulin/ras p21/PC-PLC. Thus, the microinjection of either ras p21 or PC-PLC, or the exposure of oocytes to insulin, promotes a significant translocation to the nucleus of an NF-kappa B-like activity. This effect is not observed when oocytes are incubated with phorbol myristate acetate or progesterone, both of which utilize a ras p21-independent pathway for oocyte activation. These data strongly suggest a critical role of the insulin/ras p21/PC-PLC/protein kinase C zeta pathway in the control of NF-kappa B activation. Images PMID:8423794

  14. Vector and position coding in goal-directed movements.

    PubMed

    van der Graaff, Marieke C W; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2017-03-01

    Two different ways to code a goal-directed movement have been proposed in the literature: vector coding and position coding. Assuming that the code is fine-tuned if a movement is immediately repeated, one can predict that repeating movements to the same endpoint will increase precision if movements are coded in terms of the position of the endpoint. Repeating the same movement vector at slightly different positions will increase precision if movements are coded in terms of vectors. Following this reasoning, Hudson and Landy (J Neurophys 108(10):2708-2716, 2012) found evidence for both types of coding when participants moved their hand over a table while the target and feedback were provided on a vertical screen. Do we also see evidence for both types of coding if participants repeat movements within a more natural visuo-motor mapping? To find out, we repeated the study of Hudson and Landy (J Neurophys 108(10):2708-2716, 2012), but our participants made movements directly to the targets. We compared the same movements embedded in blocks of repetitions of endpoints and blocks of repetitions of movement vectors. Within blocks, the movements were presented in a random order. We found no benefit of repeating either a position or a vector. We subsequently repeated the experiment with a similar mapping between movements and images to those used by Hudson and Landy and found that participants only clearly benefit from repeating a position. We conclude that repeating a position is particularly useful when dealing with unusual visuo-motor mappings.

  15. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  16. Linking Literacy and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2010-01-01

    There are many links between literacy and movement. Movement and language are both forms of communication and self-expression. Rhythm is an essential component of both language and movement. While people may think of rhythm primarily in musical terms, there is a rhythm to words and sentences as well. Individuals develop an internal rhythm when…

  17. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  18. Mutation of a chloroplast-targeting signal in Alternanthera mosaic virus TGB3 impairs cell-to-cell movement and eliminates long-distance virus movement.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Vaira, Anna Maria; Bae, Hanhong; Bragg, Jennifer N; Ruzin, Steven E; Bauchan, Gary R; Dienelt, Margaret M; Owens, Robert A; Hammond, John

    2010-08-01

    Cell-to-cell movement of potexviruses requires coordinated action of the coat protein and triple gene block (TGB) proteins. The structural properties of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) TGB3 were examined by methods differentiating between signal peptides and transmembrane domains, and its subcellular localization was studied by Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and confocal microscopy. Unlike potato virus X (PVX) TGB3, AltMV TGB3 was not associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and accumulated preferentially in mesophyll cells. Deletion and site-specific mutagenesis revealed an internal signal VL(17,18) of TGB3 essential for chloroplast localization, and either deletion of the TGB3 start codon or alteration of the chloroplast-localization signal limited cell-to-cell movement to the epidermis, yielding a virus that was unable to move into the mesophyll layer. Overexpression of AltMV TGB3 from either AltMV or PVX infectious clones resulted in veinal necrosis and vesiculation at the chloroplast membrane, a cytopathology not observed in wild-type infections. The distinctive mesophyll and chloroplast localization of AltMV TGB3 highlights the critical role played by mesophyll targeting in virus long-distance movement within plants.

  19. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall...

  20. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall...

  1. 49 CFR 236.202 - Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal governing movements over hand-operated..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.202 Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch. Signal governing movements over hand-operated switch in the facing direction shall...

  2. Therapeutic intervention based on protein prenylation and associated modifications

    PubMed Central

    Gelb, Michael H; Brunsveld, Lucas; Hrycyna, Christine A; Michaelis, Susan; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Waldmann, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, a specific set of proteins are modified by C-terminal attachment of 15-carbon farnesyl groups or 20-carbon geranylgeranyl groups that function both as anchors for fixing proteins to membranes and as molecular handles for facilitating binding of these lipidated proteins to other proteins. Additional modification of these prenylated proteins includes C-terminal proteolysis and methylation, and attachment of a 16-carbon palmitoyl group; these modifications augment membrane anchoring and alter the dynamics of movement of proteins between different cellular membrane compartments. The enzymes in the protein prenylation pathway have been isolated and characterized. Blocking protein prenylation is proving to be therapeutically useful for the treatment of certain cancers, infection by protozoan parasites and the rare genetic disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. PMID:16983387

  3. Functional eye movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaski, D; Bronstein, A M

    2017-01-01

    Functional (psychogenic) eye movement disorders are perhaps less established in the medical literature than other types of functional movement disorders. Patients may present with ocular symptoms (e.g., blurred vision or oscillopsia) or functional eye movements may be identified during the formal examination of the eyes in patients with other functional disorders. Convergence spasm is the most common functional eye movement disorder, but functional gaze limitation, functional eye oscillations (also termed "voluntary nystagmus"), and functional convergence paralysis may be underreported. This chapter reviews the different types of functional eye movement abnormalities and provides a practical framework for their diagnosis and management.

  4. Structure-based rationale for the rescue of systemic movement of brome mosaic virus by spontaneous second-site mutations in the coat protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Flasinski, S; Dzianott, A; Speir, J A; Johnson, J E; Bujarski, J J

    1997-01-01

    We describe spontaneous second-site reversions within the coat protein open reading frame that rescue the systemic-spread phenotype and increase virion stability of a mutant of brome mosaic virus. Based on the crystal structure of the related cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, we show that the modified residues are spatially clustered to affect the formation of hexamers and pentamers and therefore virion stability. PMID:9032390

  5. Identification of cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons in the pons expressing phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein as a function of rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Datta, S; Siwek, D F; Stack, E C

    2009-09-29

    Recent studies have shown that in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), increased neuronal activity and kainate receptor-mediated activation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA) are important physiological and molecular steps for the generation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In the present study performed on rats, phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) immunostaining was used as a marker for increased intracellular PKA activation and as a reflection of increased neuronal activity. To identify whether activated cells were either cholinergic or noncholinergic, the PPT and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) cells were immunostained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in combination with pCREB or c-Fos. The results demonstrated that during high rapid eye movement sleep (HR, approximately 27%), significantly higher numbers of cells expressed pCREB and c-Fos in the PPT, of which 95% of pCREB-expressing cells were ChAT-positive. With HR, the numbers of pCREB-positive cells were also significantly higher in the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF), pontine reticular nucleus oral (PnO), and dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus (SubCD) but very few in the locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Conversely, with low rapid eye movement sleep (LR, approximately 2%), the numbers of pCREB expressing cells were very few in the PPT, mPRF, PnO, and SubCD but significantly higher in the LC and DRN. The results of regression analyses revealed significant positive relationships between the total percentages of REM sleep and numbers of ChAT+/pCREB+ (Rsqr=0.98) cells in the PPT and pCREB+ cells in the mPRF (Rsqr=0.88), PnO (Rsqr=0.87), and SubCD (Rsqr=0.84); whereas significantly negative relationships were associated with the pCREB+ cells in the LC (Rsqr=0.70) and DRN (Rsqr=0.60). These results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that during REM sleep, the PPT cholinergic neurons are active, whereas the LC and DRN neurons are

  6. Highly potent and specific GSK-3beta inhibitors that block tau phosphorylation and decrease alpha-synuclein protein expression in a cellular model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kozikowski, Alan P; Gaisina, Irina N; Petukhov, Pavel A; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; King, LaShaunda T; Blond, Sylvie Y; Duka, Tetyana; Rusnak, Milan; Sidhu, Anita

    2006-02-01

    Research by Klein and co-workers suggests that the inhibition of GSK-3beta by small molecules may offer an important strategy in the treatment of a number of central nervous system (CNS) disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and bipolar disorders. Based on results from kinase-screening assays that identified a staurosporine analogue as a modest inhibitor of GSK-3beta, a series of 3-indolyl-4-indazolylmaleimides was prepared for study in both enzymatic and cell-based assays. Most strikingly, whereas we identified ligands having poor to high potency for GSK-3beta inhibition, only ligands with a Ki value of less than 8 nM, namely maleimides 18 and 22, were found to inhibit Tau phosphorylation at a GSK-3beta-specific site (Ser 396/404). Accordingly, maleimides 18 and 22 may protect neuronal cells against cell death by decreasing the level of alpha-Syn protein expression. We conclude that the GSK-3beta inhibitors described herein offer promise in defending cells against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity and that such compounds will be valuable to explore in animal models of Parkinson's disease as well as in other Tau-related neurodegenerative disease states.

  7. Transbilayer movement of phosphatidylserine n erythrocytes: inhibition of transport and preferential labeling of a 31,000-dalton protein by sulfhydryl reactive reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J.; Schroit, A.J.

    1988-02-09

    A series of /sup 125/I-labeled thiolation reagents were synthesized on the basis of the parent structure pyridyldithioethylamine (PDA). These compounds specifically and reversibly inhibit the active intrabilayer transport of phosphatidylserine (PS) in human blood cells. The binding of PDA to cells can be quantified since the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction yields a chromophore. In addition, the presence of a primary amine makes it amenable to derivatization with a variety of compounds. An iodinated derivative of PDA preferentially labeled a 31,000-dalton red blood cell peptide. The labeled component, which may represent the PS transporter, comigrated with integral membrane protein band 7.

  8. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  9. Nanostructured particles from multi scale building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampsey, J. Eric

    Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the most exciting new and developing fields in science today. New nanoscale materials and devices such as nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanowires, and nanosensors could revolutionize the 21st century in the same way that the transistor and Internet led to the information age. One key component in developing these new technologies is to assemble individual atomic and molecular building blocks into larger structures with fundamentally new properties and functions. Nature is very efficient at assembling multi scale building blocks such as proteins, lipids, and minerals into nanostructured materials such as bone, teeth, diatoms, eggshells, seashells, cell membranes, and DNA. Surfactant and colloidal building block can also be assembled into different nanoscale materials and devices by utilizing hydrophobic/hydrophilic and other surface interactions. Using these concepts, this dissertation focuses on the syntheses and applications of nanostructured particles assembled from multi scale building blocks. Important factors in the synthesis of the particles include particle size, particle morphology, pore size and pore structure. Five different types of nanostructured particles assembled from different multi scale building blocks are demonstrated in this work: (1) Spherical metal/silica mesoporous particles with high surface areas and controllable pore sizes, pore structures, and metal content are synthesized from surfactant, silicate, and metal building blocks for catalytic applications; (2) Mesoporous hollow spheres with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are synthesized from surfactant, silica, and polystyrene building blocks; (3) Spherical mesoporous carbon particles with controllable pore sizes and pore structures are templated from silica particles assembled from silica and surfactant building blocks; (4) Spherical mesoporous, microporous, and bimodal carbon particles are synthesized from sucrose and silica building blocks

  10. The single N-glycan deletion mutant of soluble ErbB3 protein attenuates heregulin β1-induced tumor progression by blocking of the HIF-1 and Nrf2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Takamiya, Rina Takahashi, Motoko; Uehara, Yasuaki; Ariki, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Jiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Yoshio

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant blocks heregulin β1 induced nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant attenuates cancer cell migration induced by heregulin β1. • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant blocks heregulin β1 induced nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. • The sErbB3 N418Q mutant may be a potential therapeutic application for tumor. - Abstract: It has been well documented that activation of the ErbB3–PI3K–Akt pathway is implicated in tumor survival and progression. We previously demonstrated that the single N-glycan deletion mutant of soluble ErbB3 protein (sErbB3 N418Q) attenuates heregulin β1-induced ErbB3 signaling. The active PI3K–Akt pathway augments the nuclear accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which activates the transcription of many target genes and drives cancer progression. In this study, we focused on the effects of sErbB3 N418Q mutant on nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. Pretreatment with the sErbB3 N418Q mutant suppressed heregulin β1-induced HIF-1α activation in MCF7 cells. Similar results were also obtained in other breast cancer cell lines, T47D and BT474. Interestingly, these suppressive effects were not observed with the sErbB3 wild type. In addition, pretreatment with the sErbB3 N418Q mutant suppressed the cell migration of MCF7 cells induced by heregulin β1. Furthermore, incubation with heregulin β1 also induced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, and this effect was also reduced by the sErbB3 N418Q mutant, but not the sErbB3 wild type. These findings indicated that the sErbB3 N418Q mutant suppressed malignant formation of cancer cells by blocking of the HIF-1α and Nrf2 pathways.

  11. Geo-botanical evidence of Late Quaternary mass wasting in block field areas of Virginia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of block fields at Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, document and provide information on the magnitude and frequency of mass movement on these coarse-grained slopes. Although Pleistocene periglacial climate may have facilitated original formation of block fields, some block fields now continue to spread downslope during intense runoff events. Present block-field mass wasting may be the principal erosional process in these areas of resistant rock.-from Author

  12. Subsidence resistant repair of a block basement

    SciTech Connect

    Mahar, J.W.; Marino, G.G.; Murphy, E.; Farnetti, J.

    1998-12-31

    A one story house was damaged by mine subsidence movement. The house is located in a small subsidence sag and is experiencing differential settlement and compressive ground strains. Instead of waiting for the ground movements to eventually stop, The Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund developed a permanent repair scheme that was implemented at the same time damaging mine subsidence movement was affecting the structure. This repair provided a significant structural resistance against the anticipated residual mine subsidence movement and was aesthetically acceptable to the homeowners. The repair consisted of epoxying vertical and horizontal steel straps and then applying a cover coat of fiber-cement on the unreinforced concrete block basement walls. The repair scheme was relatively untried, but had been successfully researched. This paper provides information on the mine subsidence movement/damage, the design concepts of steel strap/fiber-cement repair, construction details, performance and costs. Other applications of the use of the steel strap repair method are also discussed for releveling of a building and/or correcting subsidence damage to structures located in the tension zone.

  13. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  14. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD.

  15. A mitogen-activated protein kinase NtMPK4 activated by SIPKK is required for jasmonic acid signaling and involved in ozone tolerance via stomatal movement in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Kenji; Ogawa, Daisuke; Katou, Shinpei; Kamada, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Saji, Hikaru; Soyano, Takashi; Sasabe, Michiko; Machida, Yasunori; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Ohashi, Yuko; Seo, Shigemi

    2005-12-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this study, we isolated a new MAPK, NtMPK4, which is a tobacco homolog of Arabidopsis MPK4 (AtMPK4). NtMPK4 was activated by wounding along with two other wound-responsive tobacco MAPKs, WIPK and SIPK. We found that NtMPK4 was activated by salicylic acid-induced protein kinase kinase (SIPKK), which has been isolated as an SIPK-interacting MAPK kinase. In NtMPK4 activity-suppressed tobacco, wound-induced expression of jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes was inhibited. NtMPK4-silenced plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ozone. Inversely, transgenic tobacco plants, in which SIPKK or the constitutively active type SIPKK(EE) was overexpressed, exhibited greater responsiveness to wounding with enhanced resistance to ozone. We further found that NtMPK4 was expressed preferentially in epidermis, and the enhanced sensitivity to ozone in NtMPK4-silenced plants was caused by an abnormal regulation of stomatal closure in an ABA-independent manner. These results suggest that NtMPK4 is involved in JA signaling and in stomatal movement.

  16. Bifunctional homodimeric triokinase/FMN cyclase: contribution of protein domains to the activities of the human enzyme and molecular dynamics simulation of domain movements.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joaquim Rui; Couto, Ana; Cabezas, Alicia; Pinto, Rosa María; Ribeiro, João Meireles; Canales, José; Costas, María Jesús; Cameselle, José Carlos

    2014-04-11

    Mammalian triokinase, which phosphorylates exogenous dihydroxyacetone and fructose-derived glyceraldehyde, is neither molecularly identified nor firmly associated to an encoding gene. Human FMN cyclase, which splits FAD and other ribonucleoside diphosphate-X compounds to ribonucleoside monophosphate and cyclic X-phosphodiester, is identical to a DAK-encoded dihydroxyacetone kinase. This bifunctional protein was identified as triokinase. It was modeled as a homodimer of two-domain (K and L) subunits. Active centers lie between K1 and L2 or K2 and L1: dihydroxyacetone binds K and ATP binds L in different subunits too distant (≈ 14 Å) for phosphoryl transfer. FAD docked to the ATP site with ribityl 4'-OH in a possible near-attack conformation for cyclase activity. Reciprocal inhibition between kinase and cyclase reactants confirmed substrate site locations. The differential roles of protein domains were supported by their individual expression: K was inactive, and L displayed cyclase but not kinase activity. The importance of domain mobility for the kinase activity of dimeric triokinase was highlighted by molecular dynamics simulations: ATP approached dihydroxyacetone at distances below 5 Å in near-attack conformation. Based upon structure, docking, and molecular dynamics simulations, relevant residues were mutated to alanine, and kcat and Km were assayed whenever kinase and/or cyclase activity was conserved. The results supported the roles of Thr(112) (hydrogen bonding of ATP adenine to K in the closed active center), His(221) (covalent anchoring of dihydroxyacetone to K), Asp(401) and Asp(403) (metal coordination to L), and Asp(556) (hydrogen bonding of ATP or FAD ribose to L domain). Interestingly, the His(221) point mutant acted specifically as a cyclase without kinase activity.

  17. MOVEMENT IN THE CYANOPHYCEAE

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Paul R.

    1933-01-01

    The effect of pH upon the velocity of translatory movement of Oscillatoria formosa Bory in inorganic culture solutions was determined. Unhindered movement occurred in the range of about pH 6.4 to 9.5. Above and below these limits inhibition was marked. In the unfavorable acid and alkaline ranges inhibition was progressive with exposure time; in the favorable range continuous movement was maintained for 24 hours. PMID:19872745

  18. The mathematics of movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  19. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  20. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  1. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  2. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  3. Resolving writer's block.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

  4. Mid-Career Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

  5. Block copolymer battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  6. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Yeast two-hybrid systems confirm the membrane- association and oligomerization of BC1 but do not detect an interaction of the movement proteins BC1 and BV1 of Abutilon mosaic geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Frischmuth, S; Kleinow, T; Aberle, H-J; Wege, C; Hülser, D; Jeske, H

    2004-12-01

    Most of the plant begomoviruses use two proteins to transport their DNA from cell to cell, BV1 to shuttle it between nucleus and cytoplasm and BC1 to facilitate movement across plasmodesmata. In order to analyse their interaction for Abutilon mosaic geminivirus (AbMV) in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae), BC1 and BV1 genes were cloned into various plasmid vectors suitable for two-hybrid analysis. BC1 was fused to the binding domain (GBD) and BV1 to the activation domain (GAD) of the GAL4 transcription factor to check for interactions in the nucleus. Additionally, BC1 as well as BV1 were integrated into pMyr or pSos vectors to analyze protein binding at the plasma membrane using the CytoTraptrade mark system. Using freeze-fracture immuno-labelling (FreeFI), singly-expressed GBD:BC1 was localized at the plasma membrane although it was fused to a nuclear localization signal provided by the construct. GAD:BV1 was found in the nucleus of transformed cells as expected. Upon co-transformation of both constructs, cells grew poorly and exhibited symptoms of autolysis without any detectable level of GBD:BC1 or GAD:BV1, as revealed by FreeFI. In conclusion, both fusion proteins did not meet in the same compartment and appeared to be harmful to yeast if constitutively co-expressed. When expressed from pSos vector, BC1 induced the CytoTrap detection signal in the absence of pMyr indicating that BC1 protein alone is able to target the effector protein to the inner face of the plasma membrane. A mutated form of BC1 (DeltaBC1) lacking the previously identified membrane-binding domain was no longer able to auto-induce the CytoTrap signal cascade. Using DeltaBC1, an N-terminal, or a C-terminal third of BC1 revealed a homo-oligomerization of the C-terminal region of BC1 in two-hybrid analysis, but no interaction of BC1 with BV1.

  9. Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements. II. Movement-related activity in the anterior striatum.

    PubMed

    Romo, R; Scarnati, E; Schultz, W

    1992-01-01

    In order to more comprehensively assess the role of the basal ganglia in the internal generation of movements, we studied the activity of neurons in the head of the caudate and in the rostral putamen in relation to the execution of movements. Monkeys performed self-initiated and stimulus-triggered arm reaching movements in separate blocks of trials. With stimulus-triggered movements, 217 striatal neurons increased their activity after the trigger stimulus (127 in caudate, 90 in putamen). Of these, 68 neurons showed time-locked responses to the trigger stimulus, with a median latency of 60 ms, that were independent of visual or auditory stimulus modalities. Three quarters of responses were conditional on a movement being performed. These responses may participate in neuronal processes through which the reception of a stimulus is translated into the execution of a behavioral reaction. Further, 44 neurons increased their activity before the earliest muscle activity without being clearly time-locked to the stimulus (148-324 ms before movement onset), 55 neurons were activated later before the movement, and 50 neurons were activated after movement onset. With self-initiated movements, 106 striatal neurons showed movement-related activity beginning up to 460 ms before movement onset (52 in caudate, 54 in putamen). Comparisons between the two types of movement were made on 53 neurons with premovement activity beginning more than 500 ms before self-initiated movements. Only one fifth of them also showed movement-related activity with stimulus-triggered movements, including trigger responses. Comparisons among 39 neurons with movement-related activity during self-initiated arm movements showed that about half of them also showed movement-related activity with stimulus-triggered movements. These data demonstrate a considerably segregated population of striatal neurons engaged in the internal generation of movements, whereas processes underlying the execution of movements

  10. Designing Preschool Movement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Stephen W.

    This guide contains developmentally appropriate movement activities designed to help teachers of children ages 3 through 5 plan and administer a successful movement education program. The book is organized into three parts. The first part presents a model upon which teachers can base their selection of physical activities for children, addresses…

  11. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  12. National CARES Mentoring Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Harsh and cruel experiences have led many of our young to believe that they are alone in the world and that no one cares. In this article, Martin L Mitchell introduces us to the "National CARES Mentoring Movement" founded by Susan L.Taylor. This movement provides young people with role models who help shape their positive development.…

  13. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  14. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  15. Research for a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Randy G.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the new era of the Religious Education Association (REA) and how it may be seen to function as a "movement" with purposes, scope, and connectivity that bring together diverse groups. The author contends that religious education as a movement needs: (1) Research that describes patterns and uniquenesses in the religious…

  16. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search for: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Email People Departments Calendar Careers Give my.harvard ... Nutrition Source Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > What Should I Eat? > Protein ...

  17. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Go lean with protein. • Choose lean meats and poultry. Lean beef cuts include round steaks (top loin, ... main dishes. • Use nuts to replace meat or poultry, not in addition to meat or poultry (i. ...

  18. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  19. Motifs and structural blocks retrieval by GHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoni, Virginio; Ferone, Alessio; Petrosino, Alfredo; Polat, Ozlem

    2014-06-01

    The structure of a protein gives more insight on the protein function than its amino acid sequence. Protein structure analysis and comparison are important for understanding the evolutionary relationships among proteins, predicting protein functions, and predicting protein folding. Proteins are formed by two basic regular 3D structural patterns, called Secondary Structures (SSs): helices and sheets. A structural motif is a compact 3D protein block referring to a small specific combination of secondary structural elements, which appears in a variety of molecules. In this paper we compare a few approaches for motif retrieval based on the Generalized Hough Transform (GHT). A primary technique is to adopt the single SS as structural primitives; alternatives are to adopt a SSs pair as primitive structural element, or a SSs triplet, and so on up-to an entire motif. The richer the primitive, the higher the time for pre-analysis and search, and the simpler the inspection process on the parameter space for analyzing the peaks. Performance comparisons, in terms of precision and computation time, are here presented considering the retrieval of motifs composed by three to five SSs for more than 15 million searches. The approach can be easily applied to the retrieval of greater blocks, up to protein domains, or even entire proteins.

  20. Discovery of a Small Non-AUG-Initiated ORF in Poleroviruses and Luteoviruses That Is Required for Long-Distance Movement

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Ekaterina; Firth, Andrew E.; Miller, W. Allen; Scheidecker, Danièle; Brault, Véronique; Reinbold, Catherine; Rakotondrafara, Aurélie M.; Chung, Betty Y.-W.; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Viruses in the family Luteoviridae have positive-sense RNA genomes of around 5.2 to 6.3 kb, and they are limited to the phloem in infected plants. The Luteovirus and Polerovirus genera include all but one virus in the Luteoviridae. They share a common gene block, which encodes the coat protein (ORF3), a movement protein (ORF4), and a carboxy-terminal extension to the coat protein (ORF5). These three proteins all have been reported to participate in the phloem-specific movement of the virus in plants. All three are translated from one subgenomic RNA, sgRNA1. Here, we report the discovery of a novel short ORF, termed ORF3a, encoded near the 5’ end of sgRNA1. Initially, this ORF was predicted by statistical analysis of sequence variation in large sets of aligned viral sequences. ORF3a is positioned upstream of ORF3 and its translation initiates at a non-AUG codon. Functional analysis of the ORF3a protein, P3a, was conducted with Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a polerovirus, for which translation of ORF3a begins at an ACG codon. ORF3a was translated from a transcript corresponding to sgRNA1 in vitro, and immunodetection assays confirmed expression of P3a in infected protoplasts and in agroinoculated plants. Mutations that prevent expression of P3a, or which overexpress P3a, did not affect TuYV replication in protoplasts or inoculated Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, but prevented virus systemic infection (long-distance movement) in plants. Expression of P3a from a separate viral or plasmid vector complemented movement of a TuYV mutant lacking ORF3a. Subcellular localization studies with fluorescent protein fusions revealed that P3a is targeted to the Golgi apparatus and plasmodesmata, supporting an essential role for P3a in viral movement. PMID:25946037

  1. Auxin and chloroplast movements.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Waligórski, Piotr; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is involved in a wide spectrum of physiological processes in plants, including responses controlled by the blue light photoreceptors phototropins: phototropic bending and stomatal movement. However, the role of auxin in phototropin-mediated chloroplast movements has never been studied. To address this question we searched for potential interactions between auxin and the chloroplast movement signaling pathway using different experimental approaches and two model plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. We observed that the disturbance of auxin homeostasis by shoot decapitation caused a decrease in chloroplast movement parameters, which could be rescued by exogenous auxin application. In several cases, the impairment of polar auxin transport, by chemical inhibitors or in auxin carrier mutants, had a similar negative effect on chloroplast movements. This inhibition was not correlated with changes in auxin levels. Chloroplast relocations were also affected by the antiauxin p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid and mutations in genes encoding some of the elements of the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA auxin receptor complex. The observed changes in chloroplast movement parameters are not prominent, which points to a modulatory role of auxin in this process. Taken together, the obtained results suggest that auxin acts indirectly to regulate chloroplast movements, presumably by regulating gene expression via the SCF(TIR1)-Aux/IAA-ARF pathway. Auxin does not seem to be involved in controlling the expression of phototropins.

  2. Eye movement tics.

    PubMed Central

    Shawkat, F; Harris, C M; Jacobs, M; Taylor, D; Brett, E M

    1992-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with opsoclonus-like eye movement and an 18 month history of intermittent facial tics. Investigations were all normal. Electro-oculography showed the eye movements to be of variable amplitude (10-40 degrees), with no intersaccadic interval, and with a frequency of 3-4 Hz. Saccades, smooth pursuit, optokinetic, and vestibular reflexes were all normal. These abnormal eye movements eventually disappeared. It is thought that they were a form of ocular tics. PMID:1477052

  3. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  4. A Parallel Multiblock Mesh Movement Scheme For Complex Aeroelastic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potsdam, Mark A.; Guruswamy, Guru P.

    2000-01-01

    A scheme has been developed for the movement of multiblock, structured grids due to surface deformation arising from aeroelastics, control surface movement, or design optimization. Elements of the method include a blending of a surface spline approximation and nearest surface point movement for block boundaries. Transfinite interpolation is employed for volume grid deformation. The scheme is demonstrated on a range of simple and complex aeroelastic aircraft applications using Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics and modal structural analyses on parallel processors. Results are robust and accurate, requiring only minimal user input specification.

  5. Sex Differences in Fundamental Movement Skills of a Selected Group of 6-Year-Old South African Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pienaar, Anita E.; van Reenen, Irma; Weber, Angelique M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motor competence is emerging as an important marker of health, while adequate basic movement patterns, body control and body awareness are important building blocks of more specialized body movements and scholastic adjustment during early childhood. This study examined fundamental movement skill competency and explored sex differences…

  6. Movement and Coordination

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Movement and Coordination Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  7. Proteins of Excitable Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nachmansohn, David

    1969-01-01

    Excitable membranes have the special ability of changing rapidly and reversibly their permeability to ions, thereby controlling the ion movements that carry the electric currents propagating nerve impulses. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the specific signal which is released by excitation and is recognized by a specific protein, the ACh-receptor; it induces a conformational change, triggering off a sequence of reactions resulting in increased permeability. The hydrolysis of ACh by ACh-esterase restores the barrier to ions. The enzymes hydrolyzing and forming ACh and the receptor protein are present in the various types of excitable membranes. Properties of the two proteins directly associated with electrical activity, receptor and esterase, will be described in this and subsequent lectures. ACh-esterase has been shown to be located within the excitable membranes. Potent enzyme inhibitors block electrical activity demonstrating the essential role in this function. The enzyme has been recently crystallized and some protein properties will be described. The monocellular electroplax preparation offers a uniquely favorable material for analyzing the properties of the ACh-receptor and its relation to function. The essential role of the receptor in electrical activity has been demonstrated with specific receptor inhibitors. Recent data show the basically similar role of ACh in the axonal and junctional membranes; the differences of electrical events and pharmacological actions are due to variations of shape, structural organization, and environment. PMID:19873642

  8. Quilt Block Symmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Matt B.; Zephyrs, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Geometric transformations have long been topics of middle school mathematics. Generations of middle school students have learned to reflect, rotate, and translate geometric objects. Historically, though, the mathematics of "movement" might have been considered a departure from other more central middle-grades geometric content areas,…

  9. Whey Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation (polymyalgia rheumatica). Taking whey protein in a dairy product twice daily for 8 weeks does not improve muscle function, walking speed, or other movement tests in people with polymyalgia rheumatica. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to rate whey protein for these uses.

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist inhibits asymmetric dimethylarginine generation in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by blocking advanced glycation end product-induced protein arginine methyltranferase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Ayako; Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Maeda, Sayaka; Nishino, Yuri; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Fukami, Kei; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play a role in diabetic nephropathy. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, contributes to diabetic nephropathy. We have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits the AGE-induced inflammatory reactions in endothelial cells. However, effects of GLP-1 on the AGE-RAGE-ADMA axis are unknown. This study examined the effects of GLP-1 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, gene expression of protein arginine methyltransfetase-1 (PRMT-1), an enzyme that mainly generates ADMA, and ADMA levels in human proximal tubular cells. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received continuous i.p. infusion of 0.3 μg of vehicle or 1.5 μg of the GLP-1 analog exendin-4 per kilogram of body weight for 2 weeks. We further investigated whether and how exendin-4 treatment reduced ADMA levels and renal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. GLP-1 inhibited the AGE-induced RAGE and PRMT-1 gene expression, ROS, and ADMA generation in tubular cells, which were blocked by small-interfering RNAs raised against GLP-1 receptor. Exendin-4 treatment decreased gene expression of Rage, Prmt-1, Icam-1, and Mcp-1 and ADMA level; reduced urinary excretions of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and albumin; and improved histopathologic changes of the kidney in diabetic rats. Our present study suggests that GLP-1 receptor agonist may inhibit the AGE-RAGE-mediated ADMA generation by suppressing PRMT-1 expression via inhibition of ROS generation, thereby protecting against the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Evaluation of In Vivo Osteogenic Potential of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2-Overexpressing Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Combined with Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Block Scaffolds in a Critical-Size Bone Defect Model.

    PubMed

    Yi, TacGhee; Jun, Choong-Man; Kim, Su Jin; Yun, Jeong-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) are considered potential cellular carriers for gene delivery in the field of tissue regeneration. This study tested the osseoregenerative potential of hPDLSCs transduced with replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus (rAd) containing the gene encoding bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2; hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2) in both in vivo and in vitro osteogenic environments. After the optimal condition for rAd-mediated transduction was determined, hPDLSCs were transduced to express BMP2. In vivo bone formation was evaluated in a critical-size rat calvarial bone defect model that more closely mimics the harsher in vivo milieu for bone regeneration than subcutaneous transplantation model. As support materials for bone regeneration, block-type biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds were combined with hPDLSCs and/or BMP2 and transplanted into critical-size bone defects in rats. Experimental groups were as follows: BCP scaffold control (group 1 [Gr1]), scaffold containing recombinant human BMP2 (rhBMP2; group 2 [Gr2]), scaffold loaded with normal hPDLSCs (group 3 [Gr3]), scaffold combined with both normal hPDLSCs and rhBMP2 (group 4 [Gr4]), and scaffold loaded with hPDLSCs transduced with rAd-BMP2 (hPDLSCs/rAd-BMP2; group 5 [Gr5]). Our data showed that new bone formation was highest in Gr2. Less mineralization was observed in Gr3, Gr4, and Gr5 in which hPDLSCs were transplanted. In vitro transwell assay demonstrated that hPDLSCs exert an inhibitory activity on BMP2-induced osteogenic differentiation. Our findings suggest that the in vivo bone regenerative potential of BMP2-overexpressing hPDLSCs could be compromised in a critical-size rat calvarial bone defect model. Thus, further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and to develop efficient techniques for improved tissue regeneration.

  12. Occupy's predicament: the moment and the prospects for the movement.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, Todd

    2013-03-01

    Occupy Wall Street has stalled in its attempt to make a transition from a moment to a movement. It had a sizable impact upon the presidential election, driving America's political centre of gravity toward the left, but has been unable or unwilling to evolve beyond its original core into a 'full-service movement' that welcomes contributions from a wide range of activists at varying levels of commitment and skill and plausibly campaigns for substantial reforms. In contrast to earlier American social movements of the twentieth century, the Occupy movement began with a large popular base of support. Propped up by that support, its 'inner movement' of core activists with strong anarchist and 'horizontalist' beliefs transformed the political environment even as they disdained formal reform demands and conducted decisions in a demanding, fully participatory manner. But the core was deeply suspicious of the 'cooptive' and 'hierarchical' tendencies of the unions and membership organizations - the 'outer movement' - whose supporters made up the bulk of the participants who turned out for Occupy's large demonstrations. The 'inner movement's' awkward fit with that 'outer movement' blocked transformation into an enduring structure capable of winning substantial reforms over time. When the encampments were dispersed by governmental authorities, the core lost its ability to convert electronic communications into the energy and community that derive from face-to-face contact. The outlook for the effectiveness of the movement is decidedly limited unless an alliance of disparate groups develops to press for reforms within the political system.

  13. Contribution of Host Intracellular Transport Machineries to Intercellular Movement of Turnip Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Richard S.; Zheng, Huanquan; Laliberté, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of different host cell transport systems in the intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was investigated. To discriminate between primary infections and secondary infections associated with the virus intercellular movement, a gene cassette expressing GFP-HDEL was inserted adjacent to a TuMV infectious cassette expressing 6K2:mCherry, both within the T-DNA borders of the binary vector pCambia. In this system, both gene cassettes were delivered to the same cell by a single binary vector and primary infection foci emitted green and red fluorescence while secondarily infected cells emitted only red fluorescence. Intercellular movement was measured at 72 hours post infiltration and was estimated to proceed at an average rate of one cell being infected every three hours over an observation period of 17 hours. To determine if the secretory pathway were important for TuMV intercellular movement, chemical and protein inhibitors that blocked both early and late secretory pathways were used. Treatment with Brefeldin A or Concanamycin A or expression of ARF1 or RAB-E1d dominant negative mutants, all of which inhibit pre- or post-Golgi transport, reduced intercellular movement by the virus. These treatments, however, did not inhibit virus replication in primary infected cells. Pharmacological interference assays using Tyrphostin A23 or Wortmannin showed that endocytosis was not important for TuMV intercellular movement. Lack of co-localization by endocytosed FM4-64 and Ara7 (AtRabF2b) with TuMV-induced 6K2-tagged vesicles further supported this conclusion. Microfilament depolymerizing drugs and silencing expression of myosin XI-2 gene, but not myosin VIII genes, also inhibited TuMV intercellular movement. Expression of dominant negative myosin mutants confirmed the role played by myosin XI-2 as well as by myosin XI-K in TuMV intercellular movement. Using this dual gene cassette expression system and transport inhibitors, components of the secretory

  14. A Place for Block Play.