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Sample records for blocks wnt processing

  1. Tumor Hypoxia Blocks Wnt Processing and Secretion through the Induction of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress▿

    PubMed Central

    Verras, Meletios; Papandreou, Ioanna; Lim, Ai Lin; Denko, Nicholas C.

    2008-01-01

    Poorly formed tumor blood vessels lead to regions of microenvironmental stress due to depletion of oxygen and glucose and accumulation of waste products (acidosis). These conditions contribute to tumor progression and correlate with poor patient prognosis. Here we show that the microenvironmental stresses found in the solid tumor are able to inhibit the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, tumor cells harboring common β-catenin pathway mutations, such as loss of adenomatous polyposis coli, are insensitive to this novel hypoxic effect. The underlying mechanism responsible is hypoxia-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that inhibits normal Wnt protein processing and secretion. ER stress causes dissociation between GRP78/BiP and Wnt, an interaction essential for its correct posttranslational processing. Microenvironmental stress can therefore block autocrine and paracrine signaling of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and negatively affect tumor growth. This study provides a general paradigm relating oxygen status to ER function and growth factor signaling. PMID:18824543

  2. Epitope mapping by a Wnt-blocking antibody: evidence of the Wnt binding domain in heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Ho, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide known to modulate many important biological processes, including Wnt signaling. However, the biochemical interaction between HS and Wnt molecules is not well characterized largely due to the lack of suitable methods. To determine the Wnt binding domain in HS, we used a Wnt signaling-inhibitory antibody (HS20) and a panel of synthetic HS oligosaccharides with distinct lengths and sulfation modifications. We found that the binding of HS20 to heparan sulfate required sulfation at both the C2 position (2-O-sulfation) and C6 position (6-O-sulfation). The oligosaccharides with the greatest competitive effect for HS20 binding were between six and eight saccharide residues in length. Additionally, a four residue-long oligosaccharide could also be recognized by HS20 if an additional 3-O-sulfation modification was present. Furthermore, similar oligosaccharides with 2-O, 6-O and 3-O-sulfations showed inhibition for Wnt activation. These results have revealed that HS20 and Wnt recognize a HS structure containing IdoA2S and GlcNS6S, and that the 3-O-sulfation in GlcNS6S3S significantly enhances the binding of both HS20 and Wnt. This study provides the evidence for identifying the Wnt binding domain in HS and suggests a therapeutic approach to target the interaction of Wnt and HS in cancer and other diseases. PMID:27185050

  3. RING finger protein PLR-1 blocks Wnt signaling by altering trafficking of Wnt Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ryan E.

    Secreted Wnt proteins control a wide range of essential developmental processes, including axon guidance and establishment of anteroposterior neuronal polarity. We identified a transmembrane RING finger protein, PLR-1, that governs the response to Wnts by reducing the cell surface levels of Wnt receptors Frizzled, CAM-1 and LIN-18 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Frizzled, CAM-1 and LIN-18 are normally enriched at the plasma membrane where they are capable of detecting and responding to extracellular Wnts. However, when PLR-1 is expressed Frizzled, CAM-1 and LIN-18 are no longer detected at the cell surface and instead colocalize with PLR-1 in endosomes and Golgi. PLR-1 is related to a broad family of transmembrane proteins that contain a lumenal protease associated domain and a cytosolic RING finger. The RING finger is a hallmark of one type of E3 ubiquitin ligase and monoubiquitination is commonly used to regulate protein trafficking. Protease associated domains are largely thought to mediate interactions between proteins. To identify the domains responsible for PLR-1 regulation of Frizzled from the cell surface we utilized a series of fluorescently tagged fusion proteins and protein truncations containing various domains from PLR-1 and Frizzled. Our data suggests that PLR-1 and Frizzled interact and form a complex via their respective extracellular/lumenal domains, and that ubiqiuitination of Frizzled by PLR-1 targets the Frizzled/PLR-1 complex to the endosome.

  4. Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor (PEDF) Blocks Wnt3a Protein-induced Autophagy in Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingjing; Belinsky, Glenn; Sagheer, Usman; Zhang, Xuchen; Grippo, Paul J; Chung, Chuhan

    2016-10-14

    An increase in autophagy characterizes pancreatic carcinogenesis, but the signals that regulate this process are incompletely understood. Because canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for the transition from early to advanced pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions, we assessed whether Wnt ligands and endogenous inhibitors of Wnt signaling modulate autophagy. In this study, canonical Wnt3a ligand induced autophagy markers and vacuoles in murine PanIN cells. Furthermore, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted glycoprotein known for its anti-tumor properties, blocked Wnt3a-directed induction of autophagy proteins. Autophagy inhibition was complemented by reciprocal regulation of the oxidative stress enzymes, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase. Transcriptional control of Sod2 expression was mediated by PEDF-induced NFκB nuclear translocation. PEDF-dependent SOD2 expression in PanIN lesions was recapitulated in a murine model of PanIN formation where PEDF was deleted. In human PanIN lesions, co-expression of PEDF and SOD2 was observed in the majority of early PanIN lesions (47/50, 94%), whereas PEDF and SOD2 immunolocalization in high-grade human PanIN-2/3 was uncommon (7/50, 14%). These results indicate that PEDF regulates autophagy through coordinate Wnt signaling blockade and NFκB activation.

  5. Axitinib blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling and directs asymmetric cell division in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yi; Gharbi, Naouel; Yuan, Xing; Olsen, Jan Roger; Blicher, Pernille; Dalhus, Bjørn; Brokstad, Karl A.; Lin, Biaoyang; Øyan, Anne Margrete; Zhang, Weidong; Kalland, Karl-Henning; Ke, Xisong

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations of the Wnt (wingless)/β-catenin pathway are frequently observed in major cancer types. Thus far, however, no therapeutic agent targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling is available for clinical use. Here we demonstrate that axitinib, a clinically approved drug, strikingly blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer cells, zebrafish, and Apcmin/+ mice. Notably, axitinib dramatically induces Wnt asymmetry and nonrandom DNA segregation in cancer cells by promoting nuclear β-catenin degradation independent of the GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase3β)/APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) complex. Using a DARTS (drug affinity-responsive target stability) assay coupled to 2D-DIGE (2D difference in gel electrophoresis) and mass spectrometry, we have identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase SHPRH (SNF2, histone-linker, PHD and RING finger domain-containing helicase) as the direct target of axitinib in blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Treatment with axitinib stabilizes SHPRH and thereby increases the ubiquitination and degradation of β-catenin. Our findings suggest a previously unreported mechanism of nuclear β-catenin regulation and indicate that axitinib, a clinically approved drug, would provide therapeutic benefits for cancer patients with aberrant nuclear β-catenin activation. PMID:27482107

  6. Stearoyl CoA desaturase is required to produce active, lipid-modified Wnt proteins.

    PubMed

    Rios-Esteves, Jessica; Resh, Marilyn D

    2013-09-26

    Wnt proteins contain palmitoleic acid, an unusual lipid modification. Production of an active Wnt signal requires the acyltransferase Porcupine and depends on the attachment of palmitoleic acid to Wnt. The source of this monounsaturated fatty acid has not been identified, and it is not known how Porcupine recognizes its substrate and whether desaturation occurs before or after fatty acid transfer to Wnt. Here, we show that stearoyl desaturase (SCD) generates a monounsaturated fatty acid substrate that is then transferred by Porcupine to Wnt. Treatment of cells with SCD inhibitors blocked incorporation of palmitate analogs into Wnt3a and Wnt5a and reduced Wnt secretion as well as autocrine and paracrine Wnt signaling. The SCD inhibitor effects were rescued by exogenous addition of monounsaturated fatty acids. We propose that SCD is a key molecular player responsible for Wnt biogenesis and processing and that SCD inhibition provides an alternative mechanism for blocking Wnt pathway activation.

  7. PTH1–34 Blocks Radiation-induced Osteoblast Apoptosis by Enhancing DNA Repair through Canonical Wnt Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lin, Tiao; Zhu, Ji; Tong, Wei; Huo, Yanying; Jia, Haoruo; Zhang, Yejia; Liu, X. Sherry; Cengel, Keith; Xia, Bing; Qin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Focal radiotherapy for cancer patients has detrimental effects on bones within the radiation field and the primary clinical signs of bone damage include the loss of functional osteoblasts. We reported previously that daily injection of parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1–34) alleviates radiation-induced osteopenia in a preclinical radiotherapy model by improving osteoblast survival. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms, we irradiated osteoblastic UMR 106-01 cells and calvarial organ culture and demonstrated an anti-apoptosis effect of PTH1–34 on these cultures. Inhibitor assay indicated that PTH exerts its radioprotective action mainly through protein kinase A/β-catenin pathway. γ-H2AX foci staining and comet assay revealed that PTH efficiently promotes the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in irradiated osteoblasts via activating the β-catenin pathway. Interestingly, Wnt3a alone also blocked cell death and accelerated DNA repair in primary osteoprogenitors, osteoblastic and osteocytic cells after radiation through the canonical signaling. Further investigations revealed that both Wnt3a and PTH increase the amount of Ku70, a core protein for initiating the assembly of DSB repair machinery, in osteoblasts after radiation. Moreover, down-regulation of Ku70 by siRNA abrogated the prosurvival effect of PTH and Wnt3a on irradiated osteoblasts. In summary, our results identify a novel role of PTH and canonical Wnt signaling in regulating DSB repair machinery and apoptosis in osteoblasts and shed light on using PTH1–34 or Wnt agonist as possible therapy for radiation-induced osteoporosis. PMID:25336648

  8. Insulin receptor substrate 1/2 (IRS1/2) regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling through blocking autophagic degradation of dishevelled2.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yongtao; Ju, Yanfang; Ren, Fangli; Qiu, Ying; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Tomoeda, Miki; Kishida, Mioka; Wang, Yinyin; Jin, Lian; Su, Fuqin; Wei, Chunhong; Jia, Baoqing; Li, Yi; Chang, Zhijie

    2014-04-18

    Wnt signaling plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Dishevelled (Dvl) is a central node of Wnt signaling. Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs), as a critical component of insulin signaling, are involved in cell proliferation, metabolism, and cancer development. In this study, we report that IRS1/2 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling by stabilizing Dvl2. We found that IRS1/2 interacts with Dvl2. Overexpression of IRS1/2 increased the protein level of Dvl2 and promoted canonical Wnt signaling, as evidenced by the increased T cell-specific factor 4 transcriptional activity and the up-regulation of expression of CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, two Wnt target genes critical for cell growth, whereas depletion of IRS1/2 reduced the level of Dvl2 and attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Biochemical analyses revealed that IRS1/2 decreased Lys-63-linked ubiquitination of Dvl2 and stabilized Dvl2 protein via suppressing its autophagy-mediated degradation. We further revealed that IRS1/2 blocks autophagy-induced formation of the Dvl2-p62/SQSTM1 complex, resulting in disabled association of Dvl2 to autophagosomes. We demonstrated that IRS1/2 promoted the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell proliferation in response to Wnt stimulation, whereas depletion of Dvl2 impaired the IRS1/2-mediated EMT and cell growth. Our findings revealed that IRS1/2 promotes EMT and cell proliferation through stabilizing Dvl2.

  9. Insulin Receptor Substrate 1/2 (IRS1/2) Regulates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling through Blocking Autophagic Degradation of Dishevelled2*

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yongtao; Ju, Yanfang; Ren, Fangli; Qiu, Ying; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Tomoeda, Miki; Kishida, Mioka; Wang, Yinyin; Jin, Lian; Su, Fuqin; Wei, Chunhong; Jia, Baoqing; Li, Yi; Chang, Zhijie

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Dishevelled (Dvl) is a central node of Wnt signaling. Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs), as a critical component of insulin signaling, are involved in cell proliferation, metabolism, and cancer development. In this study, we report that IRS1/2 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling by stabilizing Dvl2. We found that IRS1/2 interacts with Dvl2. Overexpression of IRS1/2 increased the protein level of Dvl2 and promoted canonical Wnt signaling, as evidenced by the increased T cell-specific factor 4 transcriptional activity and the up-regulation of expression of CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, two Wnt target genes critical for cell growth, whereas depletion of IRS1/2 reduced the level of Dvl2 and attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Biochemical analyses revealed that IRS1/2 decreased Lys-63-linked ubiquitination of Dvl2 and stabilized Dvl2 protein via suppressing its autophagy-mediated degradation. We further revealed that IRS1/2 blocks autophagy-induced formation of the Dvl2-p62/SQSTM1 complex, resulting in disabled association of Dvl2 to autophagosomes. We demonstrated that IRS1/2 promoted the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell proliferation in response to Wnt stimulation, whereas depletion of Dvl2 impaired the IRS1/2-mediated EMT and cell growth. Our findings revealed that IRS1/2 promotes EMT and cell proliferation through stabilizing Dvl2. PMID:24616100

  10. Long-Lasting WNT-TCF Response Blocking and Epigenetic Modifying Activities of Withanolide F in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Chandan; Mas, Christophe; Conod, Arwen; Mueller, Jens; Siems, Karsten; Kuciak, Monika; Borges, Isabel; Ruiz i Altaba, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The WNT-TCF signaling pathway participates in adult tissue homeostasis and repair, and is hyperactive in a number of human diseases including cancers of the colon. Whereas to date there are no antagonists approved for patient use, a potential problem for their sustained use is the blockade of WNT signaling in healthy tissues, thus provoking potentially serious co-lateral damage. Here we have screened a library of plant and microorganism small molecules for novel WNT signaling antagonists and describe withanolide F as a potent WNT-TCF response blocker. This steroidal lactone inhibits TCF-dependent colon cancer xenograft growth and mimics the effects of genetic blockade of TCF and of ivermectin, a previously reported WNT-TCF blocker. However, withanolide F is unique in that it imposes a long-lasting repression of tumor growth, WNT-TCF targets and cancer stem cell clonogenicity after drug treatment. These findings are paralleled by its modulation of chromatin regulators and its alteration of overall H3K4me1 levels. Our results open up the possibility to permanently repress essential signaling responses in cancer cells through limited treatments with small molecules. PMID:27973612

  11. Updating the Wnt pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jia; Virshup, David M.

    2014-01-01

    In the three decades since the discovery of the Wnt1 proto-oncogene in virus-induced mouse mammary tumours, our understanding of the signalling pathways that are regulated by the Wnt proteins has progressively expanded. Wnts are involved in an complex signalling network that governs multiple biological processes and cross-talk with multiple additional signalling cascades, including the Notch, FGF (fibroblast growth factor), SHH (Sonic hedgehog), EGF (epidermal growth factor) and Hippo pathways. The Wnt signalling pathway also illustrates the link between abnormal regulation of the developmental processes and disease manifestation. Here we provide an overview of Wnt-regulated signalling cascades and highlight recent advances. We focus on new findings regarding the dedicated Wnt production and secretion pathway with potential therapeutic targets that might be beneficial for patients with Wnt-related diseases. PMID:25208913

  12. Secreted and Transmembrane Wnt Inhibitors and Activators

    PubMed Central

    Cruciat, Cristina-Maria; Niehrs, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins plays important roles in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signaling is modulated by a number of evolutionarily conserved inhibitors and activators. Wnt inhibitors belong to small protein families, including sFRP, Dkk, WIF, Wise/SOST, Cerberus, IGFBP, Shisa, Waif1, APCDD1, and Tiki1. Their common feature is to antagonize Wnt signaling by preventing ligand–receptor interactions or Wnt receptor maturation. Conversely, the Wnt activators, R-spondin and Norrin, promote Wnt signaling by binding to Wnt receptors or releasing a Wnt-inhibitory step. With few exceptions, these antagonists and agonists are not pure Wnt modulators, but also affect additional signaling pathways, such as TGF-β and FGF signaling. Here we discuss their interactions with Wnt ligands and Wnt receptors, their role in developmental processes, as well as their implication in disease. PMID:23085770

  13. Process-Accessible States of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, De-Wen; Müller, Marcus

    2017-02-01

    Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers refers to thermodynamic processes that reproducibly direct the kinetics of structure formation from a starting, unstable state into a selected, metastable mesostructure. We investigate the kinetics of self-assembly of linear A C B triblock copolymers after a rapid transformation of the middle C block from B to A . This prototypical process (e.g., photochemical transformation) converts the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer into a well-defined but unstable, starting state of the A A B copolymer. The spontaneous structure formation that ensues from this unstable state becomes trapped in a metastable mesostructure, and we systematically explore which metastable mesostructures can be fabricated by varying the block copolymer composition of the initial and final states. In addition to the equilibrium mesophases of linear A B diblock copolymers, this diagram of process-accessible states includes 7 metastable periodic mesostructures, inter alia, Schoen's F-RD periodic minimal surface. Generally, we observe that the final, metastable mesostructure of the A A B copolymer possesses the same symmetry as the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the A B B copolymer.

  14. Processing of IN-718 Lattice Block Castings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a low cost casting method known as lattice block casting has been developed by JAM Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts for engineering materials such as aluminum and stainless steels that has shown to provide very high stiffness and strength with only a fraction of density of the alloy. NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated research to investigate lattice block castings of high temperature Ni-base superalloys such as the model system Inconel-718 (IN-718) for lightweight nozzle applications. Although difficulties were encountered throughout the manufacturing process , a successful investment casting procedure was eventually developed. Wax formulation and pattern assembly, shell mold processing, and counter gravity casting techniques were developed. Ten IN-718 lattice block castings (each measuring 15-cm wide by 30-cm long by 1.2-cm thick) have been successfully produced by Hitchiner Gas Turbine Division, Milford, New Hampshire, using their patented counter gravity casting techniques. Details of the processing and resulting microstructures are discussed in this paper. Post casting processing and evaluation of system specific mechanical properties of these specimens are in progress.

  15. Process-Accessible States of Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Sun, De-Wen; Müller, Marcus

    2017-02-10

    Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers refers to thermodynamic processes that reproducibly direct the kinetics of structure formation from a starting, unstable state into a selected, metastable mesostructure. We investigate the kinetics of self-assembly of linear ACB triblock copolymers after a rapid transformation of the middle C block from B to A. This prototypical process (e.g., photochemical transformation) converts the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the ABB copolymer into a well-defined but unstable, starting state of the AAB copolymer. The spontaneous structure formation that ensues from this unstable state becomes trapped in a metastable mesostructure, and we systematically explore which metastable mesostructures can be fabricated by varying the block copolymer composition of the initial and final states. In addition to the equilibrium mesophases of linear AB diblock copolymers, this diagram of process-accessible states includes 7 metastable periodic mesostructures, inter alia, Schoen's F-RD periodic minimal surface. Generally, we observe that the final, metastable mesostructure of the AAB copolymer possesses the same symmetry as the initial, equilibrium mesophase of the ABB copolymer.

  16. WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Regulates Multiple Steps of Myogenesis by Regulating Step-Specific Targets

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akiko; Pelikan, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Molecules involved in WNT/β-catenin signaling show specific spatiotemporal expression and play vital roles in myogenesis; however, it is still largely unknown how WNT/β-catenin signaling regulates each step of myogenesis. Here, we show that WNT/β-catenin signaling can control diverse biological processes of myogenesis by regulating step-specific molecules. In order to identify the temporally specific roles of WNT/β-catenin signaling molecules in muscle development and homeostasis, we used in vitro culture systems for both primary mouse myoblasts and C2C12 cells, which can differentiate into myofibers. We found that a blockade of WNT/β-catenin signaling in the proliferating cells decreases proliferation activity, but does not induce cell death, through the regulation of genes cyclin A2 (Ccna2) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25c). During muscle differentiation, the inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling blocks myoblast fusion through the inhibition of the Fermitin family homolog 2 (Fermt2) gene. Blocking WNT/β-catenin signaling in the well-differentiated myofibers results in the failure of maintenance of their structure by disruption of cadherin/β-catenin/actin complex formation, which plays a crucial role in connecting a myofiber's cytoskeleton to the surrounding extracellular matrix. Thus, our results indicate that WNT/β-catenin signaling can regulate multiple steps of myogenesis, including cell proliferation, myoblast fusion, and homeostasis, by targeting step-specific molecules. PMID:25755281

  17. WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Regulates Multiple Steps of Myogenesis by Regulating Step-Specific Targets.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akiko; Pelikan, Richard C; Iwata, Junichi

    2015-05-01

    Molecules involved in WNT/β-catenin signaling show specific spatiotemporal expression and play vital roles in myogenesis; however, it is still largely unknown how WNT/β-catenin signaling regulates each step of myogenesis. Here, we show that WNT/β-catenin signaling can control diverse biological processes of myogenesis by regulating step-specific molecules. In order to identify the temporally specific roles of WNT/β-catenin signaling molecules in muscle development and homeostasis, we used in vitro culture systems for both primary mouse myoblasts and C2C12 cells, which can differentiate into myofibers. We found that a blockade of WNT/β-catenin signaling in the proliferating cells decreases proliferation activity, but does not induce cell death, through the regulation of genes cyclin A2 (Ccna2) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25c). During muscle differentiation, the inhibition of WNT/β-catenin signaling blocks myoblast fusion through the inhibition of the Fermitin family homolog 2 (Fermt2) gene. Blocking WNT/β-catenin signaling in the well-differentiated myofibers results in the failure of maintenance of their structure by disruption of cadherin/β-catenin/actin complex formation, which plays a crucial role in connecting a myofiber's cytoskeleton to the surrounding extracellular matrix. Thus, our results indicate that WNT/β-catenin signaling can regulate multiple steps of myogenesis, including cell proliferation, myoblast fusion, and homeostasis, by targeting step-specific molecules.

  18. Wnt Signaling and Injury Repair

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Jemima L.; Smith, Andrew A.; Helms, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling is activated by wounding and participates in every subsequent stage of the healing process from the control of inflammation and programmed cell death, to the mobilization of stem cell reservoirs within the wound site. In this review we summarize recent data elucidating the roles that the Wnt pathway plays in the injury repair process. These data provide a foundation for potential Wnt-based therapeutic strategies aimed at stimulating tissue regeneration. PMID:22723493

  19. A clinically relevant model of osteoinduction: a process requiring calcium phosphate and BMP/Wnt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Eyckmans, J; Roberts, S J; Schrooten, J; Luyten, F P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we investigated a clinically relevant model of in vivo ectopic bone formation utilizing human periosteum derived cells (HPDCs) seeded in a Collagraft™ carrier and explored the mechanisms by which this process is driven. Bone formation occurred after eight weeks when a minimum of one million HPDCs was loaded on Collagraft™ carriers and implanted subcutaneously in NMRI nu/nu mice. De novo bone matrix, mainly secreted by the HPDCs, was found juxta-proximal of the calcium phosphate (CaP) granules suggesting that CaP may have triggered the ‘osteoinductive program’. Indeed, removal of the CaP granules by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid decalcification prior to cell seeding and implantation resulted in loss of bone formation. In addition, inhibition of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt signalling by overexpression of the secreted antagonists Noggin and Frzb, respectively, also abrogated osteoinduction. Proliferation of the engrafted HPDCs was strongly reduced in the decalcified scaffolds or when seeded with adenovirus-Noggin/Frzb transduced HPDCs indicating that cell division of the engrafted HPDCs is required for the direct bone formation cascade. These data suggest that this model of bone formation is similar to that observed during physiological intramembranous bone development and may be of importance when investigating tissue engineering strategies. PMID:19538476

  20. Wnt5a attenuates Wnt3a-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in dental follicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakisaka, Yukihiko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Nemoto, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathways. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling can promote the differentiation of dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament cells, toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype during root formation, but little is known about the biological significance of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process. We identified the expression of Wnt5a, a representative noncanonical Wnt ligand, in tooth root lining cells (i.e. precementoblasts/cementoblasts) and dental follicle cells during mouse tooth root development, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Silencing expression of the Wnt5a gene in a dental follicle cell line resulted in enhancement of the Wnt3a (a representative canonical Wnt ligand)-mediated increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Conversely, treatment with recombinant Wnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression, suggesting that Wnt5a signaling functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. Wnt5a did not affect the nuclear translocation of β-catenin as well as β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of T-cell factor (Tcf) triggered by Wnt3a, suggesting that Wnt5a inhibits the downstream part of the β-catenin-Tcf pathway. These findings suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism between canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling during the differentiation of dental follicle cells. - Highlights: • Dental follicle cells express Wnt5a during tooth root development. • Silencing of Wnt5a enhances Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. • Conversely, treatment with rWnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression. • Wnt5a functions as a negative regulator of Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression.

  1. Microphase Separated Block Copolymers in Pervaporation Membranes for Biofuels Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Douglas; Shin, Chae-Young; Ozcam, Evren; Skerker, Jeffrey; Basso, Thalita; Leon, Dacia; Bauer, Stefan; Balsara, Nitash; Energy Biosciences Institute Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The production of transportation biofuels requires numerous continuous separation processes. We designed block copolymer membranes for pervaporation as a means to achieve these separations. These block copolymers contain a glassy structure block for support and a rubbery transport block for sorption and diffusion. We create membranes with nanoscale conducting channels using the unique trait of block copolymers to assemble into ordered morphologies. We have previously used nanostructured membranes to separate ethanol/water binary mixtures [J. Membr. Sci. 373, 112 (2011)], [J. Membr. Sci. 401, 125 (2012)]. We report this type of membranes is effective in other, more complex separations important to biofuel production. These separations increase yield and decrease process time.

  2. Inhibition of Wnt signaling induces amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein and the production and aggregation of Amyloid-β (Aβ)42 peptides.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Burgos, Patricia V; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most frequent cause of dementia in the aged population. According to the amyloid hypothesis, the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ is generated from the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein and can aggregate to form oligomers, which have been described as a major synaptotoxic agent in neurons. Dysfunction of Wnt signaling has been linked to increased Aβ formation; however, several other studies have argued against this possibility. Herein, we use multiple experimental approaches to confirm that the inhibition of Wnt signaling promoted the amyloidogenic proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein. We also demonstrate that inhibiting Wnt signaling increases the production of the Aβ42 peptide, the Aβ42 /Aβ40 ratio, and the levels of Aβ oligomers such as trimers and tetramers. Moreover, we show that activating Wnt signaling reduces the levels of Aβ42 and its aggregates, increases Aβ40 levels, and reduces the Aβ42 /Aβ40 ratio. Finally, we show that the protective effects observed in response to activation of the Wnt pathway rely on β-catenin-dependent transcription, which is demonstrated experimentally via the expression of various 'mutant forms of β-catenin'. Together, our findings indicate that loss of the Wnt signaling pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  3. Convergence to Diagonal Form of Block Jacobi-type Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari, Vjeran

    2008-09-01

    The main result of recent research on convergence to diagonal form of block Jacobi-type processes is presented. For this purpose, all notions needed to describe the result are introduced. In particular, elementary block transformation matrices, simple and non-simple algorithms, block pivot strategies together with the appropriate equivalence relations are defined. The general block Jacobi-type process considered here can be specialized to take the form of almost any known Jacobi-type method for solving the ordinary or the generalized matrix eigenvalue and singular value problems. The assumptions used in the result are satisfied by many concrete methods.

  4. WNT10A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    WNT10A, a probable developmental protein, is a ligand for members of the frizzled family of seven transmembrane receptors. It may be a signaling molecule important in CNS development. WNT10A is a member of the WNT family. The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis.

  5. The antidepressant roles of Wnt2 and Wnt3 in stress-induced depression-like behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, W-J; Xu, N; Kong, L; Sun, S-C; Xu, X-F; Jia, M-Z; Wang, Y; Chen, Z-Y

    2016-01-01

    Wnts-related signaling pathways have been reported to play roles in the pathogenesis of stress-induced depression-like behaviors. However, there is relatively few direct evidence to indicate the effect of Wnt ligands on this process. Here, we investigated the role of Wnts in mediating chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression-like behaviors. We found that CRS induced a significant decrease in the expression of Wnt2 and Wnt3 in the ventral hippocampus (VH) but not in the dorsal hippocampus. Knocking down Wnt2 or Wnt3 in the VH led to impaired Wnt/β-catenin signaling, neurogenesis deficits and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, overexpression of Wnt2 or Wnt3 reversed CRS-induced depression-like behaviors. Moreover, Wnt2 and Wnt3 activated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and there was CREB-dependent positive feedback between Wnt2 and Wnt3. Finally, fluoxetine treatment increased Wnt2 and Wnt3 levels in the VH and knocking down Wnt2 or Wnt3 abolished the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine. Taken together, our study indicates essential roles for Wnt2 and Wnt3 in CRS-induced depression-like behaviors and antidepressant. PMID:27622936

  6. Deletion of mouse Porcn blocks Wnt ligand secretion and reveals an ectodermal etiology of human focal dermal hypoplasia/Goltz syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Barrott, Jared J.; Cash, Gabriela M.; Smith, Aaron P.; Barrow, Jeffery R.; Murtaugh, L. Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila porcupine gene is required for secretion of wingless and other Wnt proteins, and sporadic mutations in its unique human ortholog, PORCN, cause a pleiotropic X-linked dominant disorder, focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH, also known as Goltz syndrome). We generated a conditional allele of the X-linked mouse Porcn gene and analyzed its requirement in Wnt signaling and embryonic development. We find that Porcn-deficient cells exhibit a cell-autonomous defect in Wnt ligand secretion but remain responsive to exogenous Wnts. Consistent with the female-specific inheritance pattern of FDH, Porcn hemizygous male embryos arrest during early embryogenesis and fail to generate mesoderm, a phenotype previously associated with loss of Wnt activity. Heterozygous Porcn mutant females exhibit a spectrum of limb, skin, and body patterning abnormalities resembling those observed in human patients with FDH. Many of these defects are recapitulated by ectoderm-specific deletion of Porcn, substantiating a long-standing hypothesis regarding the etiology of human FDH and extending previous studies that have focused on downstream elements of Wnt signaling, such as β-catenin. Conditional deletion of Porcn thus provides an experimental model of FDH, as well as a valuable tool to probe Wnt ligand function in vivo. PMID:21768372

  7. Light-emitting block copolymers composition, process and use

    DOEpatents

    Ferraris, John P.; Gutierrez, Jose J.

    2006-11-14

    Generally, and in one form, the present invention is a composition of light-emitting block copolymer. In another form, the present invention is a process producing a light-emitting block copolymers that intends polymerizing a first di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound in the presence of an anionic initiator and a base to form a polymer and contacting a second di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound with the polymer to form a homopolymer or block copolymer wherein the block copolymer is a diblock, triblock, or star polymer. In yet another form, the present invention is an electroluminescent device comprising a light-emitting block copolymer, wherein the electroluminescent device is to be used in the manufacturing of optical and electrical devices.

  8. Signal transduction by the Wnt family of ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Dale, T C

    1998-01-01

    The Wnt genes encode a large family of secreted polypeptides that mediate cell-cell communication in diverse developmental processes. The loss or inappropriate activation of Wnt expression has been shown to alter cell fate, morphogenesis and mitogenesis. Recent progress has identified Wnt receptors and components of an intracellular signalling pathway that mediate Wnt-dependent transcription. This review will highlight this 'core' Wnt signal-transduction pathway, but also aims to reveal the potential diversity of Wnt signalling targets. Particular attention will be paid to the overlap between developmental biology and oncogenesis, since recent progress shows Wnt signalling forms a paradigm for an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:9425102

  9. Loss of Bone and Wnt10b Expression in Male Type 1 Diabetic Mice Is Blocked by the Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Motyl, Katherine J.; Irwin, Regina; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Britton, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D)–induced osteoporosis is characterized by a predominant suppression of osteoblast number and activity, as well as increased bone marrow adiposity but no change in osteoclast activity. The fundamental mechanisms and alternative anabolic treatments (with few side effects) for T1D bone loss remain undetermined. Recent studies by our laboratory and others indicate that probiotics can benefit bone health. Here, we demonstrate that Lactobacillus reuteri, a probiotic with anti-inflammatory and bone health properties, prevents T1D-induced bone loss and marrow adiposity in mice. We further found that L. reuteri treatment prevented the suppression of Wnt10b in T1D bone. Consistent with a role for attenuated bone Wnt10b expression in T1D osteoporosis, we observed that bone-specific Wnt10b transgenic mice are protected from T1D bone loss. To examine the mechanisms of this protection, we focused on TNF-α, a cytokine up-regulated in T1D that causes suppression of osteoblast Wnt10b expression in vitro. Addition of L. reuteri prevented TNF-α–mediated suppression of Wnt10b and osteoblast maturation markers. Taken together, our findings reveal a mechanism by which T1D causes bone loss and open new avenues for use of probiotics to benefit the bone. PMID:26135835

  10. Wnt/Ryk signaling contributes to neuropathic pain by regulating sensory neuron excitability and spinal synaptic plasticity in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Liu, Yue-Peng; Huang, Zhi-Jiang; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Song, Angela A; Ma, Ping-Chuan; Song, Xue-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Treating neuropathic pain continues to be a major clinical challenge and underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain remain elusive. We have recently demonstrated that Wnt signaling, which is important in developmental processes of the nervous systems, plays critical roles in the development of neuropathic pain through the β-catenin-dependent pathway in the spinal cord and the β-catenin-independent pathway in primary sensory neurons after nerve injury. Here, we report that Wnt signaling may contribute to neuropathic pain through the atypical Wnt/Ryk signaling pathway in rats. Sciatic nerve injury causes a rapid-onset and long-lasting expression of Wnt3a, Wnt5b, and Ryk receptors in primary sensory neurons, and dorsal horn neurons and astrocytes. Spinal blocking of the Wnt/Ryk receptor signaling inhibits the induction and persistence of neuropathic pain without affecting normal pain sensitivity and locomotor activity. Blocking activation of the Ryk receptor with anti-Ryk antibody, in vivo or in vitro, greatly suppresses nerve injury-induced increased intracellular Ca and hyperexcitability of the sensory neurons, and also the enhanced plasticity of synapses between afferent C-fibers and the dorsal horn neurons, and activation of the NR2B receptor and the subsequent Ca-dependent signals CaMKII, Src, ERK, PKCγ, and CREB in sensory neurons and the spinal cord. These findings indicate a critical mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and suggest that targeting the Wnt/Ryk signaling may be an effective approach for treating neuropathic pain.

  11. Wnt5a Signaling in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asem, Marwa S.; Buechler, Steven; Wates, Rebecca Burkhalter; Miller, Daniel L.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Wnt5a is involved in activating several non-canonical WNT signaling pathways, through binding to different members of the Frizzled- and Ror-family receptors. Wnt5a signaling is critical for regulating normal developmental processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, adhesion and polarity. However, the aberrant activation or inhibition of Wnt5a signaling is emerging as an important event in cancer progression, exerting both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects. Recent studies show the involvement of Wnt5a in regulating cancer cell invasion, metastasis, metabolism and inflammation. In this article, we review findings regarding the molecular mechanisms and roles of Wnt5a signaling in various cancer types, and highlight Wnt5a in ovarian cancer. PMID:27571105

  12. A Wnt5a signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 gp120-induced pain

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Su-Bo; Ji, Guangchen; Li, Bei; Andersson, Tommy; Neugebauer, Volker; Tang, Shao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Pathological pain is one of the most common neurological complications in HIV-1/AIDS patients. However, the pathogenic process is unclear. Our recent studies show that Wnt5a is up-regulated in the spinal cord dorsal horn of the HIV patients who develop pain and that HIV-1 gp120, a potential causal factor of the HIV-associated pain, rapidly up-regulates Wnt5a in the mouse SDH. Using a mouse model, we show here that a specific Wnt5a antagonist, Box-5, attenuated gp120-induced mechanical allodynia. Conversely, a Wnt5a agonist, Foxy5, facilitated the allodynia. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates gp120-induced allodynia, we tested the role of the JNK/TNF-α pathway. We observed that the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 blocked either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. Similarly, the TNF-α-specific antagonist Enbrel also reversed either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. These data suggest that JNK and TNF-α mediate the biological effects of Wnt5a in regulating gp120-induced allodynia. To investigate the cellular mechanism, we performed extracellular single-unit recording from SDH neurons in anesthetized mice. Both Box5 and SP600125 negated gp120-induced potentiation of SDH neuron spiking evoked by mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw. Furthermore, while Foxy5 potentiated spike frequency of SDH neurons, either SP600125 or Enbrel blocked the potentiation. The data indicate that Wnt5a potentiates the activity of SDH neurons via the JNK-TNF-α pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that Wnt5a regulates the pathogenesis of gp120-induced pain, likely by sensitizing pain-processing SDH neurons via JNK/TNF-α signaling. PMID:25840108

  13. A Wnt5a signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 gp120-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Su-Bo; Ji, Guangchen; Li, Bei; Andersson, Tommy; Neugebauer, Volker; Tang, Shao-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Pathological pain is one of the most common neurological complications in patients with HIV-1/AIDS. However, the pathogenic process is unclear. Our recent studies show that Wnt5a is upregulated in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SDH) of the patients with HIV who develop pain and that HIV-1 gp120, a potential causal factor of the HIV-associated pain, rapidly upregulates Wnt5a in the mouse SDH. Using a mouse model, we show here that a specific Wnt5a antagonist, Box-5, attenuated gp120-induced mechanical allodynia. Conversely, a Wnt5a agonist, Foxy5, facilitated the allodynia. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates gp120-induced allodynia, we tested the role of the JNK/TNF-α pathway. We observed that the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 blocked either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. Similarly, the TNF-α-specific antagonist Enbrel also reversed either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. These data suggest that JNK and TNF-α mediate the biological effects of Wnt5a in regulating gp120-induced allodynia. To investigate the cellular mechanism, we performed extracellular single-unit recording from SDH neurons in anesthetized mice. Both Box-5 and SP600125 negated gp120-induced potentiation of SDH neuron spiking evoked by mechanical stimulation of the hind paw. Furthermore, while Foxy5 potentiated spike frequency of SDH neurons, either SP600125 or Enbrel blocked the potentiation. The data indicate that Wnt5a potentiates the activity of SDH neurons through the JNK-TNF-α pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that Wnt5a regulates the pathogenesis of gp120-induced pain, likely by sensitizing pain-processing SDH neurons through JNK/TNF-α signaling.

  14. Wnt signaling in kidney tubulointerstitium during disease.

    PubMed

    Maarouf, Omar H; Ikeda, Yoichiro; Humphreys, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    The evolutionary conserved Wnt signaling transduction pathway plays essential roles in a wide array of biologic processes including embryonic development, branching morphogenesis, proliferation and carcinogenesis. Over the past ten years it has become increasingly clear that Wnt signaling also regulates the response of adult organs to disease processes, including kidney disease. This review will focus on the growing literature implicating important roles for Wnt signaling during disease in two separate kidney compartments: the tubular epithelium and the interstitium.

  15. Wnt trafficking: new insights into Wnt maturation, secretion and spreading.

    PubMed

    Port, Fillip; Basler, Konrad

    2010-10-01

    Proteins of the Wnt family are secreted signaling molecules that regulate multiple processes in animal development and control tissue homeostasis in the adult. Wnts spread over considerable distances to regulate gene expression in cells located at distant sites. Paradoxically, Wnts are poorly mobile because of their posttranslational modification with lipids. Recent evidence suggests that several pathways exist that are capable of transforming hydrophobic, insoluble Wnts into long-range signaling molecules. Furthermore, the discovery of Wntless as a protein specifically required for the secretion of Wnt suggests that Wnt trafficking through the secretory pathway is already under special scrutiny. Here, we review recent data on the molecular machinery that controls Wnt secretion and discuss how Wnts can be mobilized for long-range signaling.

  16. Wnt signaling in axial patterning and regeneration: lessons from planaria.

    PubMed

    De Robertis, Edward M

    2010-06-22

    Wnt signal transduction plays a crucial role in stem cell proliferation and regeneration. When canonical Wnt signaling is low, heads develop, and when it is high, tails are formed. In planarians, Wnt transcription is activated by wounding in a beta-catenin-independent way. Hedgehog is one of the signals involved, because it induces regeneration of tails (instead of heads) through the activation of Wnt transcription. Depletion of Smad4 blocks regeneration entirely, which suggests that the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway and the Wnt pathway are required for regeneration and body patterning.

  17. Flamingo, a cadherin-type receptor involved in the Drosophila planar polarity pathway, can block signaling via the canonical wnt pathway in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Richard; El-Kadi, Ali-Morsi; Theokli, Christopher

    2003-05-01

    The Flamingo gene encodes a seven-pass transmembrane receptor of the cadherin super family and is one of a growing number of components identified as being necessary for the establishment of planar polarity in the Drosophila wing. Although vertebrate homologues of Flamingo have been identified in both man and mice, no function has as yet been ascribed to them. Here, we report the cloning of the Xenopus homologue of Flamingo (XFmi). XFmi is expressed in the dorsal ectoderm during gastrulation and in the forebrain and midbrain subsequently. We show that ectopic expression of the murine Flamingo gene can prevent the wnt mediated posteriorisation of the neural plate by interfering with the canonical wnt signalling pathway.

  18. Role of Wnt signaling in fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiyun; Duan, Jing; Ning, Dandan; Li, Jingbao; Liu, Ruofei; Yang, Ruixin; Jiang, Jean X; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is well known to play major roles in skeletal development and homeostasis. In certain aspects, fracture repair mimics the process of bone embryonic development. Thus, the importance of Wnt signaling in fracture healing has become more apparent in recent years. Here, we summarize recent research progress in the area, which may be conducive to the development of Wnt-based therapeutic strategies for bone repair.

  19. Inhibition of tumorigenesis driven by different Wnt proteins requires blockade of distinct ligand-binding regions by LRP6 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ettenberg, Seth A.; Charlat, Olga; Daley, Michael P.; Liu, Shanming; Vincent, Karen J.; Stuart, Darrin D.; Schuller, Alwin G.; Yuan, Jing; Ospina, Beatriz; Green, John; Yu, Qunyan; Walsh, Renee; Schmitz, Rita; Heine, Holger; Bilic, Sanela; Ostrom, Lance; Mosher, Rebecca; Hartlepp, K. Felix; Zhu, Zhenping; Fawell, Stephen; Yao, Yung-Mae; Stover, David; Finan, Peter M.; Porter, Jeffery A.; Sellers, William R.; Klagge, Ingo M.; Cong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Disregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been linked to various human diseases, including cancers. Inhibitors of oncogenic Wnt signaling are likely to have a therapeutic effect in cancers. LRP5 and LRP6 are closely related membrane coreceptors for Wnt proteins. Using a phage-display library, we identified anti-LRP6 antibodies that either inhibit or enhance Wnt signaling. Two classes of LRP6 antagonistic antibodies were discovered: one class specifically inhibits Wnt proteins represented by Wnt1, whereas the second class specifically inhibits Wnt proteins represented by Wnt3a. Epitope-mapping experiments indicated that Wnt1 class-specific antibodies bind to the first propeller and Wnt3a class-specific antibodies bind to the third propeller of LRP6, suggesting that Wnt1- and Wnt3a-class proteins interact with distinct LRP6 propeller domains. This conclusion is further supported by the structural functional analysis of LRP5/6 and the finding that the Wnt antagonist Sclerostin interacts with the first propeller of LRP5/6 and preferentially inhibits the Wnt1-class proteins. We also show that Wnt1 or Wnt3a class-specific anti-LRP6 antibodies specifically block growth of MMTV-Wnt1 or MMTV-Wnt3 xenografts in vivo. Therapeutic application of these antibodies could be limited without knowing the type of Wnt proteins expressed in cancers. This is further complicated by our finding that bivalent LRP6 antibodies sensitize cells to the nonblocked class of Wnt proteins. The generation of a biparatopic LRP6 antibody blocks both Wnt1- and Wnt3a-mediated signaling without showing agonistic activity. Our studies provide insights into Wnt-induced LRP5/6 activation and show the potential utility of LRP6 antibodies in Wnt-driven cancer. PMID:20713706

  20. Hematopoietic stem cell fate decisions are regulated by Wnt antagonists: comparisons and current controversies.

    PubMed

    Cain, Corey J; Manilay, Jennifer O

    2013-01-01

    Wingless and int (Wnt) proteins are secreted proteins that are important for regulating hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment in mice. The mechanisms by which Wnt signaling regulates these hematopoietic cell fate decisions are not fully understood. Secreted Wnt antagonists, which are expressed in bone and bone marrow stromal cells, either bind to Wnt ligands directly or block Wnt receptors and co-receptors to halt Wnt-mediated signal transduction in both osteolineage and hematopoietic cell types. Secreted frizzled related proteins-1 and -2, Wnt inhibitory factor-1, Dickkopf-1, and Sclerostin are Wnt antagonists that influence hematopoietic cell fate decisions in the bone marrow niche. In this review, we compare and contrast the roles of these Wnt antagonists and their effects on hematopoietic development in mice, and also discuss the clinical significance of targeting Wnt antagonists within the context of hematopoietic disease.

  1. Experimental inhibition of porcupine-mediated Wnt O-acylation attenuates kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Madan, Babita; Patel, Mehul B; Zhang, Jiandong; Bunte, Ralph M; Rudemiller, Nathan P; Griffiths, Robert; Virshup, David M; Crowley, Steven D

    2016-05-01

    Activated Wnt signaling is critical in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis, a final common pathway for most forms of chronic kidney disease. Therapeutic intervention by inhibition of individual Wnts or downstream Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been proposed, but these approaches do not interrupt the functions of all Wnts nor block non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. Alternatively, an orally bioavailable small molecule, Wnt-C59, blocks the catalytic activity of the Wnt-acyl transferase porcupine, and thereby prevents secretion of all Wnt isoforms. We found that inhibiting porcupine dramatically attenuates kidney fibrosis in the murine unilateral ureteral obstruction model. Wnt-C59 treatment similarly blunts collagen mRNA expression in the obstructed kidney. Consistent with its actions to broadly arrest Wnt signaling, porcupine inhibition reduces expression of Wnt target genes and bolsters nuclear exclusion of β-catenin in the kidney following ureteral obstruction. Importantly, prevention of Wnt secretion by Wnt-C59 blunts expression of inflammatory cytokines in the obstructed kidney that otherwise provoke a positive feedback loop of Wnt expression in collagen-producing fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Thus, therapeutic targeting of porcupine abrogates kidney fibrosis not only by overcoming the redundancy of individual Wnt isoforms but also by preventing upstream cytokine-induced Wnt generation. These findings reveal a novel therapeutic maneuver to protect the kidney from fibrosis by interrupting a pathogenic crosstalk loop between locally generated inflammatory cytokines and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  2. Wnt3-frizzled 1 chimera as a model to study canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh A; Stauffer, Barbara; Della Pietra, Anthony; Bodine, Peter V N

    2010-04-01

    Wnt proteins initiate signaling by binding to seven transmembrane spanning receptors of the frizzled (Fz) family together with the members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 5 and 6. A chimera of human Wnt3 and Fz1 receptor was developed that efficiently activated the TCF-luciferase reporter. Deletion of the cytoplasmic tail and point mutations in the PDZ binding region in the chimera resulted in the loss of Wnt signaling, suggesting a critical role for the Fz cytoplasmic region in Wnt signaling. The Fz CRD is also critical for Wnt signaling, as a deletion of 29 amino acids in the 2nd cysteine loop resulted in the total loss of TCF-luciferase activation. DKK-1 protein blocks upregulation of the TCF-luciferase reporter by the Wnt3-Fz1 chimera, suggesting involvement of LRP in Wnt3-Fz1 signaling. Expression of a Wnt3-Fz1 chimera in C3H10T1/2 cells resulted in the upregulation of alkaline phosphatase activity and inhibition of adipocyte formation, demonstrating that the Wnt3-Fz1 chimera is a potent activator of differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells into osteoblasts and an inhibitor of their differentiation into the adipocyte lineage. In summary, the Wnt-Fz chimera approach has the potential to better our understanding of the mechanism of Wnt action and its role, particularly in stem cell differentiation. In addition, this methodology can be utilized to identify inhibitors of either Wnt, Fz or interactors of the canonical pathway, which may have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of cancers and other diseases.

  3. Purified Wnt-5a increases differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic cells and dishevelled phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Gunnar; Bryja, Vítezslav; Rawal, Nina; Castelo-Branco, Goncalo; Sousa, Kyle M; Arenas, Ernest

    2005-03-01

    The Wnt family of lipoproteins regulates several aspects of the development of the nervous system. Recently, we reported that Wnt-3a enhances the proliferation of midbrain dopaminergic precursors and that Wnt-5a promotes their differentiation into dopaminergic neurones. Here we report the purification of hemagglutinin-tagged Wnt-5a using a three-step purification method similar to that previously described for Wnt-3a. Haemagglutinin-tagged Wnt-5a was biologically active and induced the differentiation of immature primary midbrain precursors into tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopaminergic neurones. Using a substantia nigra-derived dopaminergic cell line (SN4741), we found that Wnt-5a, unlike Wnt-3a, did not promote beta-catenin phosphorylation or stabilization. However, both Wnt-5a and Wnt-3a activated dishevelled, as assessed by a phosphorylation-dependent mobility shift. Moreover, the activity of Wnt-5a on dishevelled was blocked by pre-treatment with acyl protein thioesterase-1, indicating that palmitoylation of Wnt-5a is necessary for its function. Thus, our results suggest that Wnt-3a and Wnt-5a, respectively, activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling pathways in ventral midbrain dopaminergic cells. Furthermore, we identify dishevelled as a key player in transducing both Wnt canonical and non-canonical signals in dopaminergic cells.

  4. Induction of Wnt5a-expressing mesenchymal cells adjacent to the cloacal plate is an essential process for its proximodistal elongation and subsequent anorectal development.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Mitsuyuki; Takada, Yuki; Hishiki, Tomoro; Saito, Takeshi; Terui, Keita; Sato, Yoshiharu; Koseki, Haruhiko; Yoshida, Hideo

    2009-08-01

    Anorectal malformations encompass a broad spectrum of congenital defects and are related to the development of the genital tubercle, including the cloacal plate and urorectal septum. To explore the cellular and molecular basis of anorectal malformations, we analyzed the pathogenetic process using two mouse models: Danforth's short tail (Sd) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated mice. Embryologically, the cloacal plate may be divided into distal and proximal parts, with the distal part subdivided into ventral and dorsal parts. In the two mouse models, anorectal malformations occur due to improper development of the proximal part of the cloacal plate. At 10.5 days postcoitus (dpc), in Sd homozygotes, there was a lack of Shh expression only in the cloacal plate and the endoderm around the cloacal plate. In addition, Wnt5a was not expressed in the mesoderm adjacent to the cloacal plate in the two mouse models, and Axin2, which is regulated by Wnt signaling, was not expressed in the dorsal part of the cloacal plate at 12.5 dpc. Based on these results, we suggest that Wnt5a, which is downstream of Shh signaling, and Axin2 affect the development of the proximal part of the cloacal plate.

  5. Wnt signaling: role in LTP, neural networks and memory.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Carolina A; Vargas, Jessica Y; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2013-06-01

    Wnt components are key regulators of a variety of developmental processes, including embryonic patterning, cell specification, and cell polarity. The Wnt signaling pathway participates in the development of the central nervous system and growing evidence indicates that Wnts also regulates the function of the adult nervous system. In fact, most of the key components including Wnts and Frizzled receptors are expressed in the adult brain. Wnt ligands have been implicated in the regulation of synaptic assembly as well as in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Deregulation of Wnt signaling has been associated with several pathologies, and more recently has been related to neurodegenerative diseases and to mental and mood disorders. In this review, we focus our attention on the Wnt signaling cascade in postnatal life and we review in detail the presence of Wnt signaling components in pre- and postsynaptic regions. Due to the important role of Wnt proteins in wiring neural circuits, we discuss recent findings about the role of Wnt pathways both in basal spontaneous activities as well as in activity-dependent processes that underlie synaptic plasticity. Finally, we review the role of Wnt in vivo and we finish with the most recent data in literature that involves the effect of components of the Wnt signaling pathway in neurological and mental disorders, including a special emphasis on in vivo studies that relate behavioral abnormalities to deficiencies in Wnt signaling, as well as the data that support a neuroprotective role of Wnt proteins in relation to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Wnt your brain be inflamed? Yes, it Wnt!

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Bianca; Pluchino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The roles of Wnts in neural development, synaptogenesis, and cancer are generally well characterized. Nonetheless, evidence exists that interactions between the immune and nervous systems control major brain regenerative processes ranging from physiological or pathological (reparative) regeneration to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies describe deregulated Wnt-Fzd signaling in degenerative and inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and the expression of Wnt signaling components in the immune system, and in immune-like cells of the mammalian CNS. This would suggest a likely involvement of Wnts in inflammation-driven brain damage and inflammation-directed brain repair. Here, we review how Wnts modulate neuroimmune interactions and offer a perspective on the most challenging therapeutic opportunities for those CNS diseases where injury-reactive Wnt-flavored inflammation precedes secondary neurodegeneration. PMID:23312954

  7. Tankyrase is necessary for canonical Wnt signaling during kidney development

    PubMed Central

    Karner, Courtney M.; Merkel, Calli E; Dodge, Michael; Ma, Zhiqiang; Lu, Jianming; Chen, Chuo; Lum, Lawrence; Carroll, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies utilizing small molecule antagonists have revealed that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) Tankyrase 1 and 2 are critical regulators of canonical Wnt signaling in some cellular contexts. However, the absence of any activity during zebrafish embryogenesis suggested that the tankyrases may not be general/core components of the Wnt pathway. Here we show that Tnks1 and 2 are broadly expressed during mouse development and are essential during kidney and lung development. In the kidney, blockage of tankyrase activity phenocopies the effect of blocking production of all Wnt ligands. Tankyrase inhibition can be rescued by activation of β-catenin demonstrating its specificity for the Wnt pathway. In addition, treatment with tankyrase inhibitors appears to be completely reversible in some cell types. These studies suggest that the tankyrases are core components of the canonical Wnt pathway and their inhibitors should enjoy broad usage as antagonists of Wnt signaling. PMID:20549720

  8. CSN5/JAB1 suppresses the WNT inhibitor DKK1 in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jumpertz, Sandra; Hennes, Thomas; Asare, Yaw; Schütz, Anke K; Bernhagen, Jürgen

    2017-02-14

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a multi-protein complex that is highly conserved in eukaryotes. Due to its regulatory impact on processes such as cell cycle, DNA damage response and apoptosis, the CSN is essential for mammalian cells. One of the best-studied functions of the CSN is the deNEDDylation of cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) via its catalytically active subunit CSN5/JAB1, thereby triggering the degradation of various target proteins. CSN5 was found to be overexpressed in many human cancer entities, including colon adenocarcinoma. Overactivation of WNT signaling is known as a key step in colon cancer development. Recently, we found that depletion of CSN5 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells affects WNT signaling by downregulation of β-catenin. To investigate changes in gene expression associated with the CSN5 knockdown, we performed a microarray using cDNA from the CRC cell line SW480. We found the WNT ligand WNT6 and the WNT inhibitors DKK1 and DKK4 differentially regulated in CSN5 knockdown cells. DKK1 expression and DKK1 protein levels depended on CSN5 in different CRC cell lines. In addition, DKK1 secretion was increased following CSN5 knockdown, affecting WNT signaling in SW480 cells. Consequently, blocking of secreted DKK1 in cell-conditioned media abolished β-catenin downregulation in SW480 cells, while treatment with recombinant DKK1 mimicked the CSN5 knockdown effect. Furthermore, knockdown of DKK1 was able to rescue the proliferative deficiency of CSN5 knockdown cells. We conclude that downregulation of WNT signaling in colorectal cancer cells resulting from CSN5 knockdown is mediated, at least in part, by elevated DKK1 secretion. Moreover, experiments with the NEDDylation inhibitor MLN-4924 indicated that DKK1 expression is regulated by a so far unidentified repressor, the stability of which could be controlled by a CSN-regulated CRL.

  9. Developing Signal Processing Blocks for Software-defined Radios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    report is an updated and expanded presentation of the material found in http://www.gnu.org/software/ gnuradio /doc/howto-write-a-block.html. 2...what follows, we strongly urge the reader to download the file gr-howto-write-a-block-3.3.0.tar.gz from ftp.gnu.org/gnu/ gnuradio / and extract the... gnuradio import newModule ..... block = newModule.newBlock_cc () .... 5.2 Debugging The challenge of debugging our new block is that we are not

  10. Roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng; Li, Yan; Qin, Jizheng; Han, Xiaodong

    2009-12-25

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3{alpha} can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of {beta}-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated {beta}-catenin expression and subsequently decreased {beta}-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

  11. Wnt signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, T; Rindtorff, N; Boutros, M

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signaling is one of the key cascades regulating development and stemness, and has also been tightly associated with cancer. The role of Wnt signaling in carcinogenesis has most prominently been described for colorectal cancer, but aberrant Wnt signaling is observed in many more cancer entities. Here, we review current insights into novel components of Wnt pathways and describe their impact on cancer development. Furthermore, we highlight expanding functions of Wnt signaling for both solid and liquid tumors. We also describe current findings how Wnt signaling affects maintenance of cancer stem cells, metastasis and immune control. Finally, we provide an overview of current strategies to antagonize Wnt signaling in cancer and challenges that are associated with such approaches. PMID:27617575

  12. WNT signaling in neuronal maturation and synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Silvana B.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a role in the development of the central nervous system and growing evidence indicates that Wnts also regulates the structure and function of the adult nervous system. Wnt components are key regulators of a variety of developmental processes, including embryonic patterning, cell specification, and cell polarity. In the nervous system, Wnt signaling also regulates the formation and function of neuronal circuits by controlling neuronal differentiation, axon outgrowth and guidance, dendrite development, synaptic function, and neuronal plasticity. Wnt factors can signal through three very well characterized cascades: canonical or β-catenin pathway, planar cell polarity pathway and calcium pathway that control different processes. However, divergent downstream cascades have been identified to control neuronal morphogenesis. In the nervous system, the expression of Wnt proteins is a highly controlled process. In addition, deregulation of Wnt signaling has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we will review different aspects of neuronal and dendrite maturation, including spinogenesis and synaptogenesis. Finally, the role of Wnt pathway components on Alzheimer’s disease will be revised. PMID:23847469

  13. Distinct Wnt signaling pathways have opposing roles in appendage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stoick-Cooper, Cristi L; Weidinger, Gilbert; Riehle, Kimberly J; Hubbert, Charlotte; Major, Michael B; Fausto, Nelson; Moon, Randall T

    2007-02-01

    In contrast to mammals, lower vertebrates have a remarkable capacity to regenerate complex structures damaged by injury or disease. This process, termed epimorphic regeneration, involves progenitor cells created through the reprogramming of differentiated cells or through the activation of resident stem cells. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates progenitor cell fate and proliferation during embryonic development and stem cell function in adults, but its functional involvement in epimorphic regeneration has not been addressed. Using transgenic fish lines, we show that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in the regenerating zebrafish tail fin and is required for formation and subsequent proliferation of the progenitor cells of the blastema. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling appears to act upstream of FGF signaling, which has recently been found to be essential for fin regeneration. Intriguingly, increased Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is sufficient to augment regeneration, as tail fins regenerate faster in fish heterozygous for a loss-of-function mutation in axin1, a negative regulator of the pathway. Likewise, activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by overexpression of wnt8 increases proliferation of progenitor cells in the regenerating fin. By contrast, overexpression of wnt5b (pipetail) reduces expression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes, impairs proliferation of progenitors and inhibits fin regeneration. Importantly, fin regeneration is accelerated in wnt5b mutant fish. These data suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes regeneration, whereas a distinct pathway activated by wnt5b acts in a negative-feedback loop to limit regeneration.

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of Wnt4, Wnt5, Wnt6, Wnt7, Wnt10 and Wnt16 from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Chao-Zheng; Yang, Qi-Hui; Dong, Xiao-Hui; Chi, Shu-Yan; Liu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Li-Li; Tan, Bei-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The Wnt (Wg-type MMTV integration site) signaling represents as the negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses. Wnt genes act as ligands to activate the Wnt signaling. To know more about the information of Wnt genes in invertebrates, Litopenaeus vannamei Wnt genes (LvWnts) were identified and characterized. In this study, Six Wnt genes (LvWnt4, LvWnt5, LvWnt6, LvWnt7, LvWnt10 and LvWnt16) were obtained in L. vannamei. The complete cDNAs open reading frames (ORF) of LvWnt4, LvWnt5, LvWnt6, LvWnt7, LvWnt10 and LvWnt16 were 1077 bp, 1107 bp, 1350 bp, 1047 bp, 1509 bp and 1158 bp (GenBank accession no. KU169896, KU169897, KU169898, KU169899, KU169900 and KU169901), encoding 358, 368, 449, 348, 502 and 385 amino acid (aa) residues respectively. All the six members of LvWnts contain a Wnt1 domain, which is considered as an important feature of Wnt gene family. ClustalW analysis with amino acid sequences revealed that the proportion of identity with other species was more than 48% for all the LvWnts except LvWnt10 (36-41%). The phylogenetic relationship analysis illustrated that different subtype of Wnts formed their own separate branches and were placed in branch of invertebrates respectively with strong bootstrap support. The constitutive expressions of LvWnts were confirmed by RT-PCR in all the examined five developmental stages and eleven tissues of L. vannamei with different express patterns. LvWnt4, LvWnt5 and LvWnt10 were expressed highest in nerve while LvWnt6, LvWnt7 and LvWnt16 were expressed highest in intestine, stomach and gill, respectively. In addition, all the LvWnts were regulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges at different levels in hepatopancreas, gill and hemocytes, suggesting that Wnt genes may play a role in the defense against pathogenic virus infection in innate immune of L. vannamei.

  15. Expression of Wnt Signaling Components during Xenopus Pronephros Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Tran, Uyen; Wessely, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Background The formation of the vertebrate kidney is tightly regulated and relies on multiple evolutionarily conserved inductive events. These are present in the complex metanephric kidney of higher vertebrates, but also in the more primitive pronephric kidney functional in the larval stages of amphibians and fish. Wnts have long been viewed as central in this process. Canonical β-Catenin-dependent Wnt signaling establishes kidney progenitors and non-canonical β-Catenin-independent Wnt signaling participate in the morphogenetic processes that form the highly sophisticated nephron structure. While some individual Wnt signaling components have been studied extensively in the kidney, the overall pathway has not yet been analyzed in depth. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a detailed expression analysis of all Wnt ligands, receptors and several downstream Wnt effectors during pronephros development in Xenopus laevis using in situ hybridization. Out of 19 Wnt ligands, only three, Wnt4, Wnt9a and Wnt11, are specifically expressed in the pronephros. Others such as Wnt8a are present, but in a broader domain comprising adjacent tissues in addition to the kidney. The same paradigm is observed for the Wnt receptors and its downstream signaling components. Fzd1, Fzd4, Fzd6, Fzd7, Fzd8 as well as Celsr1 and Prickle1 show distinct expression domains in the pronephric kidney, whereas the non-traditional Wnt receptors, Ror2 and Ryk, as well as the majority of the effector molecules are rather ubiquitous. In addition to this spatial regulation, the timing of expression is also tightly regulated. In particular, non-canonical Wnt signaling seems to be restricted to later stages of pronephros development. Conclusion/Significance Together these data suggest a complex cross talk between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling is required to establish a functional pronephric kidney. PMID:22028899

  16. Wnt family proteins are secreted and associated with the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Smolich, B D; McMahon, J A; McMahon, A P; Papkoff, J

    1993-01-01

    Members of the Wnt gene family are proposed to function in both normal development and differentiation as well as in mammary tumorigenesis. To understand the function of Wnt proteins in these two processes, we present here a biochemical characterization of seven Wnt family members. For these studies, AtT-20 cells, a neuroendocrine cell line previously shown to efficiently process and secrete Wnt-1, was transfected with expression vectors encoding Wnt family members. All of the newly characterized Wnt proteins are glycosylated, secreted proteins that are tightly associated with the cell surface or extracellular matrix. We have also identified native Wnt proteins in retinoic acid-treated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, and they exhibit the same biochemical characteristics as the recombinant proteins. These data suggest that Wnt family members function in cell to cell signaling in a fashion similar to Wnt-1. Images PMID:8167409

  17. Secretion and extracellular space travel of Wnt proteins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Julia Christina; Boutros, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Wnt signaling pathways control many processes during development, stem cell maintenance and homeostasis, and their aberrant regulation has been linked to diseases in man including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer. Wnts are hydrophobic proteins, however, quite paradoxically, they can travel over distances to induce cell-type specific responses. While there has been an initial focus on elucidating the intracellular signaling cascade, discoveries in the past few years have shed light on a highly complex, and regulated secretory process that guides Wnt proteins through the exocytic pathway. Wnt proteins are at least in portion packaged onto extracellular carriers such as exosomes. Similar to dysregulation of components in the Wnt receiving cell, failure to regulate Wnt secretion has been linked to cancer. Here, we review recent discoveries on factors and processes implicated in Wnt secretion.

  18. A Block-Asynchronous Relaxation Method for Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Antz, Hartwig; Tomov, Stanimire; Dongarra, Jack; Heuveline, Vincent

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, we analyze the potential of asynchronous relaxation methods on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). For this purpose, we developed a set of asynchronous iteration algorithms in CUDA and compared them with a parallel implementation of synchronous relaxation methods on CPU-based systems. For a set of test matrices taken from the University of Florida Matrix Collection we monitor the convergence behavior, the average iteration time and the total time-to-solution time. Analyzing the results, we observe that even for our most basic asynchronous relaxation scheme, despite its lower convergence rate compared to the Gauss-Seidel relaxation (that we expected), the asynchronous iteration running on GPUs is still able to provide solution approximations of certain accuracy in considerably shorter time then Gauss- Seidel running on CPUs. Hence, it overcompensates for the slower convergence by exploiting the scalability and the good fit of the asynchronous schemes for the highly parallel GPU architectures. Further, enhancing the most basic asynchronous approach with hybrid schemes – using multiple iterations within the ”subdomain” handled by a GPU thread block and Jacobi-like asynchronous updates across the ”boundaries”, subject to tuning various parameters – we manage to not only recover the loss of global convergence but often accelerate convergence of up to two times (compared to the effective but difficult to parallelize Gauss-Seidel type of schemes), while keeping the execution time of a global iteration practically the same. This shows the high potential of the asynchronous methods not only as a stand alone numerical solver for linear systems of equations fulfilling certain convergence conditions but more importantly as a smoother in multigrid methods. Due to the explosion of parallelism in todays architecture designs, the significance and the need for asynchronous methods, as the ones described in this work, is expected to grow.

  19. Large and various shapes block processing in HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il-Koo; Min, Junghye; Lee, Tammy; Han, Woo-Jin; Park, JeongHoon

    2012-10-01

    Recently, Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) which is joint team by ITU-T SG 16 Q.6 (VCEG) and ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 (MPEG) was established and started to define new video coding standard called as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). This paper introduces block partitioning structure of HEVC standard and presents its analysis results. Among many technical aspects of HEVC, the block partitioning structure has been considered as a key factor of its significant coding efficiency improvement. Compared with the macroblock structure of the fixed size 16x16 in H.264/AVC, HEVC defines three flexible size units according to their functionalities. Coding unit (CU) defines a region sharing the same prediction scheme between spatial and temporal predictions and it is represented by the leaf node of the quadtree structure. Moreover, prediction unit (PU) defines a region sharing the same prediction information and transform unit (TU), which is specified by another quadtree, defines a region sharing the same transformation. This paper introduces technical details of the block partitioning structure of HEVC with emphasis on the consistently designed framework by combining three different units together. Provided experimental results justifies each component of the block partitioning structure.

  20. Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Determines the Vasculogenic Fate of Postnatal Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaocheng; Nör, Felipe; Oh, Min; Cucco, Carolina; Shi, Songtao; Nör, Jacques E

    2016-06-01

    Vasculogenesis is the process of de novo blood vessel formation observed primarily during embryonic development. Emerging evidence suggest that postnatal mesenchymal stem cells are capable of recapitulating vasculogenesis when these cells are engaged in tissue regeneration. However, the mechanisms underlining the vasculogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells remain unclear. Here, we used stem cells from human permanent teeth (dental pulp stem cells [DPSC]) or deciduous teeth (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth [SHED]) as models of postnatal primary human mesenchymal stem cells to understand mechanisms regulating their vasculogenic fate. GFP-tagged mesenchymal stem cells seeded in human tooth slice/scaffolds and transplanted into immunodeficient mice differentiate into human blood vessels that anastomize with the mouse vasculature. In vitro, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced the vasculogenic differentiation of DPSC and SHED via potent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Further, activation of Wnt signaling is sufficient to induce the vasculogenic differentiation of postnatal mesenchymal stem cells, while Wnt inhibition blocked this process. Notably, β-catenin-silenced DPSC no longer differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro, and showed impaired vasculogenesis in vivo. Collectively, these data demonstrate that VEGF signaling through the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway defines the vasculogenic fate of postnatal mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells 2016;34:1576-1587.

  1. Targeting the WNT Signaling Pathway in Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tai, David; Wells, Keith; Arcaroli, John; Vanderbilt, Chad; Aisner, Dara L; Messersmith, Wells A; Lieu, Christopher H

    2015-10-01

    The WNT signaling cascade is integral in numerous biological processes including embryonic development, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, and cancer. Hyperactivation of WNT signaling secondary to alterations to varying nodes of the pathway have been identified in multiple tumor types. These alterations converge into increased tumorigenicity, sustained proliferation, and enhanced metastatic potential. This review seeks to evaluate the evidence supporting the WNT pathway in cancer, the therapeutic strategies in modulating this pathway, and potential challenges in drug development.

  2. Wnt5a Regulates Midbrain Dopaminergic Axon Growth and Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Brette D.; Bye, Christopher R.; Fernando, Chathurini V.; Horne, Malcolm K.; Macheda, Maria L.; Stacker, Steven A.; Arenas, Ernest; Parish, Clare L.

    2011-01-01

    During development, precise temporal and spatial gradients are responsible for guiding axons to their appropriate targets. Within the developing ventral midbrain (VM) the cues that guide dopaminergic (DA) axons to their forebrain targets remain to be fully elucidated. Wnts are morphogens that have been identified as axon guidance molecules. Several Wnts are expressed in the VM where they regulate the birth of DA neurons. Here, we describe that a precise temporo-spatial expression of Wnt5a accompanies the development of nigrostriatal projections by VM DA neurons. In mice at E11.5, Wnt5a is expressed in the VM where it was found to promote DA neurite and axonal growth in VM primary cultures. By E14.5, when DA axons are approaching their striatal target, Wnt5a causes DA neurite retraction in primary cultures. Co-culture of VM explants with Wnt5a-overexpressing cell aggregates revealed that Wnt5a is capable of repelling DA neurites. Antagonism experiments revealed that the effects of Wnt5a are mediated by the Frizzled receptors and by the small GTPase, Rac1 (a component of the non-canonical Wnt planar cell polarity pathway). Moreover, the effects were specific as they could be blocked by Wnt5a antibody, sFRPs and RYK-Fc. The importance of Wnt5a in DA axon morphogenesis was further verified in Wnt5a−/− mice, where fasciculation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) as well as the density of DA neurites in the MFB and striatal terminals were disrupted. Thus, our results identify a novel role of Wnt5a in DA axon growth and guidance. PMID:21483795

  3. A double-negative feedback loop between Wnt-β-catenin signaling and HNF4α regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Li, Sheng-Nan; Anjum, Khalid M; Gui, Long-Xin; Zhu, Shan-Shan; Liu, Jun; Chen, Jia-Kun; Liu, Qing-Feng; Ye, Guo-Dong; Wang, Wen-Jie; Wu, Jia-Fa; Cai, Wang-Yu; Sun, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jia; Liu, Rong-Fu; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Li, Bo-An

    2013-12-15

    Wnt-β-catenin signaling participates in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a variety of cancers; however, its involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and downstream molecular events is largely undefined. HNF4α is the most prominent and specific factor maintaining the differentiation of hepatic lineage cells and a potential EMT regulator in HCC cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which HNF4α maintains the differentiated liver epithelium and inhibits EMT have not been completely defined. In this study, we systematically explored the relationship between Wnt-β-catenin signaling and HNF4α in the EMT process of HCC cells. Our results indicated that HNF4α expression was negatively regulated during Wnt-β-catenin signaling-induced EMT through Snail and Slug in HCC cells. In contrast, HNF4α was found to directly associate with TCF4 to compete with β-catenin but facilitate transcription co-repressor activities, thus inhibiting expression of EMT-related Wnt-β-catenin targets. Moreover, HNF4α may control the switch between the transcriptional and adhesion functions of β-catenin. Overexpression of HNF4α was found to completely compromise the Wnt-β-catenin-signaling-induced EMT phenotype. Finally, we determined the regulation pattern between Wnt-β-catenin signaling and HNF4α in rat tumor models. Our studies have identified a double-negative feedback mechanism controlling Wnt-β-catenin signaling and HNF4α expression in vitro and in vivo, which sheds new light on the regulation of EMT in HCC. The modulation of these molecular processes may be a method of inhibiting HCC invasion by blocking Wnt-β-catenin signaling or restoring HNF4α expression to prevent EMT.

  4. Chemical activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling inhibits innervation and causes skeletal tissue malformations during axolotl limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wischin, Sabina; Castañeda-Patlán, Cristina; Robles-Flores, Martha; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2017-02-03

    Limb regeneration involves several interrelated physiological processes in which a particular signalling pathway may play a variety of functions. Blocking the function of Wnt/β-catenin signalling during limb regeneration inhibits regeneration in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). Limb development shares many features with limb regeneration, and Wnt/β-catenin activation has different effects depending on the developmental stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling activation during axolotl limb regeneration has different effects when activated at different stages of regeneration. To evaluate this hypothesis, we treated amputated axolotls with a Wnt agonist chemical at different stages of limb regeneration. The results showed that limb regeneration was inhibited when the treatment began before blastema formation. Under these conditions, blastema formation was hindered, possibly due to the lack of innervation. On the other hand, when axolotls were treated after blastema formation and immediately before the onset of morphogenesis, we observed structural disorganization in skeletal formation. In conclusion, we found that limb regeneration was differentially affected depending on the stage at which the Wnt signalling pathway was activated.

  5. Mesodermal Wnt signaling organizes the neural plate via Meis3.

    PubMed

    Elkouby, Yaniv M; Elias, Sarah; Casey, Elena S; Blythe, Shelby A; Tsabar, Nir; Klein, Peter S; Root, Heather; Liu, Karen J; Frank, Dale

    2010-05-01

    In vertebrates, canonical Wnt signaling controls posterior neural cell lineage specification. Although Wnt signaling to the neural plate is sufficient for posterior identity, the source and timing of this activity remain uncertain. Furthermore, crucial molecular targets of this activity have not been defined. Here, we identify the endogenous Wnt activity and its role in controlling an essential downstream transcription factor, Meis3. Wnt3a is expressed in a specialized mesodermal domain, the paraxial dorsolateral mesoderm, which signals to overlying neuroectoderm. Loss of zygotic Wnt3a in this region does not alter mesoderm cell fates, but blocks Meis3 expression in the neuroectoderm, triggering the loss of posterior neural fates. Ectopic Meis3 protein expression is sufficient to rescue this phenotype. Moreover, Wnt3a induction of the posterior nervous system requires functional Meis3 in the neural plate. Using ChIP and promoter analysis, we show that Meis3 is a direct target of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. This suggests a new model for neural anteroposterior patterning, in which Wnt3a from the paraxial mesoderm induces posterior cell fates via direct activation of a crucial transcription factor in the overlying neural plate.

  6. The role of the Wnt/β-catenin-Annexin A1 pathway in the process of sevoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Wang, Chao; Zheng, Yuxin; Ao, Jiying; Zhang, Chao; Xie, Keliang; Li, Yize; Wang, Haiyun; Yu, Yonghao; Wang, Guolin

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) is a common geriatric complication, and sevoflurane is a widely accepted inducer of POCD. Although the aetiology of POCD is not clear, a breach in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in early POCD. Annexin A1 has shown protective effects on BBB function. The objective of this study was to investigate both the effects of sevoflurane on the components of the BBB and the underlying mechanism. In vivo treatment with 3.6% sevoflurane for 6 h disrupted BBB components led to fibrinogen invasion and down-regulation of Annexin A1 expression at 24 h after inhalation. The administration of human recombinant Annexin A1 (hr Annexin A1) attenuated the disruption of BBB components, thereby reducing fibrinogen invasion. In addition, the administration of hr Annexin A1 improved cognitive function after the inhalation of 3.6% sevoflurane for 6 h. Moreover, in cultured endothelial cells, 3.6% sevoflurane for 6 h increased GSK-3β and decreased β-catenin levels at 24 h after inhalation. The activation/inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway attenuated/worsened the sevoflurane-induced decrease in Annexin A1. Our findings indicate that in endothelial cells, treatment with 3.6% sevoflurane for 6 h inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, thereby increasing GSK-3β and decreasing β-catenin. By inhibiting this pathway, the gas anaesthetic sevoflurane down-regulated Annexin A1, which consequently breached the BBB and induced POCD. We propose the following cascade for sevoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction: in microvascular endothelial cells, treatment with 3.6% sevoflurane for 6 h inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, increasing GSK-3β and decreasing β-catenin, which down-regulates the expression of Annexin A1. This cascade leads to a breach in the blood-brain barrier, a process which is involved in the occurrence of early postoperative cognitive decline. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13314.

  7. Initiation of Wnt signaling: control of Wnt coreceptor Lrp6 phosphorylation/activation via frizzled, dishevelled and axin functions

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xin; Huang, He; Tamai, Keiko; Zhang, Xinjun; Harada, Yuko; Yokota, Chika; Almeida, Karla; Wang, Jianbo; Doble, Brad; Woodgett, Jim; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Hsieh, Jen-Chieh; He, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling has central roles in development and diseases, and is initiated by the action of the frizzled (Fz) receptor, its coreceptor LDL receptor-related protein 6 (Lrp6), and the cytoplasmic dishevelled (Dvl) protein. The functional relationships among Fz, Lrp6 and Dvl have long been enigmatic. We demonstrated previously that Wnt-induced Lrp6 phosphorylation via glycogen synthase kinase 3 (Gsk3) initiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Here we show that both Fz and Dvl functions are critical for Wnt-induced Lrp6 phosphorylation through Fz-Lrp6 interaction. We also show that axin, a key scaffolding protein in the Wnt pathway, is required for Lrp6 phosphorylation via its ability to recruit Gsk3, and inhibition of Gsk3 at the plasma membrane blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our results suggest a model that upon Wnt-induced Fz-Lrp6 complex formation, Fz recruitment of Dvl in turn recruits the axin-Gsk3 complex, thereby promoting Lrp6 phosphorylation to initiate β-catenin signaling. We discuss the dual roles of the axin-Gsk3 complex and signal amplification by Lrp6-axin interaction during Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:18077588

  8. Adipocytes WNT5a mediated dedifferentiation: a possible target in pancreatic cancer microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zoico, Elena; Darra, Elena; Rizzatti, Vanni; Budui, Simona; Franceschetti, Guido; Mazzali, Gloria; Rossi, Andrea P; Fantin, Francesco; Menegazzi, Marta; Cinti, Saverio; Zamboni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    A significant epidemiological association between obesity and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has previously been described, as well as a correlation between the degree of pancreatic steatosis, PDAC risk and prognosis. The underlying mechanisms are still not completely known. After co-culture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and MiaPaCa2 with an in vitro transwell system we observed the appearance of fibroblast-like cells, along with a decrease in number and size of remaining adipocytes. RT-PCR analyses of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in co-culture showed a decrease in gene expression of typical markers of mature adipocytes, in parallel with an increased expression of fibroblast-specific and reprogramming genes. We found an increased WNT5a gene and protein expression early in MiaPaCa2 cells in co-culture. Additionally, EMSA of c-Jun and AP1 in 3T3-L1 demonstrated an increased activation in adipocytes after co-culture. Treatment with WNT5a neutralizing antibody completely reverted the activation of c-Jun and AP1 observed in co-cultured adipocytes. Increasing doses of recombinant SFRP-5, a competitive inhibitor for WNT5a receptor, added to the co-culture medium, were able to block the dedifferentiation of adipocytes in co-culture. These data support a WNT5a-mediated dedifferentiation process with adipocytes reprogramming toward fibroblast-like cells that might profoundly influence cancer microenvironment. PMID:26958939

  9. Wnt signaling regulates homeostasis of the periodontal ligament

    PubMed Central

    Lim, W.H.; Liu, B.; Cheng, D.; Williams, B.O.; Mah, S.J.; Helms, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective In health, the periodontal ligament maintains a constant width throughout an organism’s lifetime. The molecular signals responsible for maintaining homeostatic control over the periodontal ligament are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in this process by removing an essential chaperone protein, Wntless (Wls) from odontoblasts and cementoblasts, and observing the effects of Wnt depletion on cells of the periodontal complex. Material and Methods The Wnt responsive status of the periodontal complex was assessed using two strains of Wnt reporter mice, Axin2LacZ/+ mice and Lgr5LacZ/+. The function of this endogenous Wnt signal was evaluated by conditionally eliminating the Wntless (Wls) gene using an Osteocalcin Cre driver. The resulting OCN-Cre;Wlsfl/fl mice were examined using micro-CT and histology, immunohistochemical analyses for Osteopontin, Runx2 and Fibromodulin, in situ hybridization for Osterix, and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results The adult periodontal ligament is Wnt responsive. Elimination of Wnt signaling in the periodontal complex of OCN-Cre;Wlsfl/fl mice results in a wider periodontal ligament space. This pathologically increased periodontal width is due to a reduction in the expression of osteogenic genes and proteins, which results in thinner alveolar bone. A concomitant increase in fibrous tissue occupying the periodontal space was observed along with a disruption in the orientation of the periodontal ligament. Conclusion The periodontal ligament is a Wnt dependent tissue. Cells in the periodontal complex are Wnt responsive and eliminating an essential component of the Wnt signaling network leads to a pathological widening of the periodontal ligament space. Osteogenic stimuli are reduced and a disorganized fibrillary matrix results from depletion of Wnt signaling. Collectively, these data underscore the importance of Wnt signaling in homeostasis of the periodontal ligament

  10. Wnt proteins can direct planar cell polarity in vertebrate ectoderm

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chih-Wen; Sokol, Sergei Y

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated orientation of cells across the tissue plane, known as planar cell polarity (PCP), is manifested by the segregation of core PCP proteins to different sides of the cell. Secreted Wnt ligands are involved in many PCP-dependent processes, yet whether they act as polarity cues has been controversial. We show that in Xenopus early ectoderm, the Prickle3/Vangl2 complex was polarized to anterior cell edges and this polarity was disrupted by several Wnt antagonists. In midgastrula embryos, Wnt5a, Wnt11, and Wnt11b, but not Wnt3a, acted across many cell diameters to orient Prickle3/Vangl2 complexes away from their sources regardless of their positions relative to the body axis. The planar polarity of endogenous Vangl2 in the neuroectoderm was similarly redirected by an ectopic Wnt source and disrupted after depletion of Wnt11b in the presumptive posterior region of the embryo. These observations provide evidence for the instructive role of Wnt ligands in vertebrate PCP. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16463.001 PMID:27658614

  11. LPS-induced inflammatory response is suppressed by Wnt inhibitors, Dickkopf-1 and LGK974

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jaewoong; Jung, Yoonju; Kim, Youngeun; Jho, Eek-hoon; Yoon, Yoosik

    2017-01-01

    In this study, LPS-induced inflammatory responses in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)s were found to be prevented by Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), a secreted Wnt antagonist, and LGK974, a small molecular inhibitor of the Wnt secretion. LPS-induced IκB degradation and NF-κB nuclear translocation as well as the expressions of pro-inflammatory genes including IL-6, IL-8, TNF- α, IL-1β, MCP-1, MMP-9, COX-2 and iNOS, were all suppressed by DKK-1 and LGK974 in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effects of LGK974 on NF-κB, IκB, and pro-inflammatory gene expression were rescued by ectopic expression of β-catenin, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory activity of LGK974 is mediated by modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and not by unrelated side effects. When Wnt recombinant proteins were treated to cells, Wnt3a and Wnt5a significantly induced pro-inflammatory gene expressions, while Wnt7a and Wnt10b showed little effects. It was also found that Wnt3a and Wnt5a expressions were significantly induced by LPS treatment. Consistently, knockdown of Wnt3a and Wnt5a blocked LPS-induced inflammatory responses, while treatment of recombinant Wnt3a and Wnt5a proteins rescued the inhibition of inflammatory responses by LGK974. Findings of this study showed that DKK-1 and LGK974 suppress LPS-induced inflammatory response by modulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:28128299

  12. GEC-derived SFRP5 inhibits Wnt5a-induced macrophage chemotaxis and activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenghai; Bu, Xianmin; Wang, Wei; Ma, Tingxian; Ma, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant macrophage infiltration and activation has been implicated in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis. Overexpression of Wnt5a and downregulation of SFRP5, a Wnt5a antagonist, were both observed in gastric cancers recently. This study attempted to explore whether Wnt5a/SFRP5 axis was involved in macrophage chemotaxis and activation. It was found that both Wnt5a transfection and recombinant Wnt5a (rWnt5a) treatment upregulated CCL2 expression in macrophages, involving JNK and NFκB signals. Conditioned medium from Wnt5a-treated macrophages promoted macrophage chemotaxis mainly dependent on CCL2. SFRP5 from gastric epithelial cells (GECs) inhibited Wnt5a-induced CCL2 expression and macrophage chemotaxis. In addition, Wnt5a treatment stimulated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines and COX-2/PGE2, which was also suppressed by SFRP5 from GECs. These results demonstrate that Wnt5a induces macrophage chemotaxis and activation, which can be blocked by GEC-derived SFRP5, suggesting that Wnt5a overproduction and SFRP5 deficiency in gastric mucosa may together play an important role in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis.

  13. Wnt5a through Noncanonical Wnt/JNK or Wnt/PKC Signaling Contributes to the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shixia; Dong, Liang; Liu, Le; Yang, Yi; Guo, Fengmei; Lu, Xiaomin; He, Hongli; Chen, Qihong; Hu, Shuling; Qiu, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into type II alveolar epithelial (AT II) cells is critical for reepithelization and recovery in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and Wnt signaling was considered to be the underlying mechanisms. In our previous study, we found that canonical Wnt pathway promoted the differentiation of MSCs into AT II cells, however the role of the noncanonical Wnt pathway in this process is unclear. It was disclosed in this study that noncanonical Wnt signaling in mouse bone marrow–derived MSCs (mMSCs) was activated during the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells in a modified co-culture system with murine lung epithelial-12 cells and small airway growth media. The levels of surfactant protein (SP) C, SPB and SPD, the specific markers of AT II cells, increased in mMSCs when Wnt5a was added to activate noncanonical Wnt signaling, while pretreatment with JNK or PKC inhibitors reversed the promotion of Wnt5a. The differentiation rate of mMSCs also depends on their abilities to accumulate and survive in inflammatory tissue. We found that the Wnt5a supplement promoted the vertical and horizontal migration of mMSCs, ameliorated the cell death and the reduction of Bcl-2/Bax induced by H2O2. The effect of Wnt5a on the migration of mMSCs and their survival after H2O2 exposure were partially inhibited with PKC or JNK blockers. In conclusion, Wnt5a through Wnt/JNK signaling alone or both Wnt/JNK and Wnt/PKC signaling promoted the differentiation of mMSCs into AT II cells and the migration of mMSCs; through Wnt/PKC signaling, Wnt5a increased the survival of mMSCs after H2O2 exposure in vitro. PMID:24658098

  14. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  15. A rare human syndrome provides genetic evidence that WNT signaling is required for reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jason; Busch, Julia; Mintz, Ellen; Ng, Damian; Stanley, Alexandra; Brafman, David; Sutton, V Reid; Van den Veyver, Ignatia; Willert, Karl

    2014-12-11

    WNT signaling promotes the reprogramming of somatic cells to an induced pluripotent state. We provide genetic evidence that WNT signaling is a requisite step during the induction of pluripotency. Fibroblasts from individuals with focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), a rare genetic syndrome caused by mutations in the essential WNT processing enzyme PORCN, fail to reprogram with standard methods. This blockade in reprogramming is overcome by ectopic WNT signaling and PORCN overexpression, thus demonstrating that WNT signaling is essential for reprogramming. The rescue of reprogramming is critically dependent on the level of WNT signaling: steady baseline activation of the WNT pathway yields karyotypically normal iPSCs, whereas daily stimulation with Wnt3a produces FDH-iPSCs with severely abnormal karyotypes. Therefore, although WNT signaling is required for cellular reprogramming, inappropriate activation of WNT signaling induces chromosomal instability, highlighting the precarious nature of ectopic WNT activation and its tight relationship with oncogenic transformation.

  16. Glypican-5 suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of the lung adenocarcinoma by competitively binding to Wnt3a

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Youtao; Mao, Qixing; Wang, Jie; Dong, Gaochao; Xu, Lin; Yang, Xin; Yin, Rong

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Glypican-5 (GPC5), one of the members of heparan sulfate proteoglycan, was a novel tumor metastasis suppressor in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). However, it remains unclear how GPC5 suppresses lung cancer metastasis. Here, we found over-expression GPC5 induced significant Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) process of A549 cells in vitro. Bioinformatic analysis of RNA sequencing data indicated that GPC5 was co-expressed with EMT related markers, E-cadherin and Vimentin. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was also significantly enriched after overexpressing GPC5. Further in vitro experiments demonstrated that overexpressing GPC5 could block the translocation of β-catenin from cytoplasm to nucleus and therefore inactivate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by competitively binding to Wnt3a. Subsequent rescue experiments demonstrated that GPC5-induced metastatic phenotype and EMT process suppression were significantly reversed when cells cultured in Wnt3a conditioned media. By establishing the metastatic model in severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mice, we also demonstrated that overexpressing GPC5 suppressed LAC migration and accordingly alerted EMT related markers, which including up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated Vimentin in both lung and liver metastasis. Finally, clinical samples of LAC further validated that GPC5 expression was positively correlated with E-cadherin, and negatively correlated with both Twist1 and MMP2. Taken together, these data suggested that GPC5 is able to suppress the LAC metastasis by competitively binding to Wnt3a and inactivating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings expanded the role and the molecular mechanism of GPC5 on malignant bionomics of LAC. PMID:27806326

  17. Low-Temperature Processable Block Copolymers That Preserve the Function of Blended Proteins.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Takemoto, Kyohei; Tanaka, Shinya; Taniguchi, Ikuo

    2016-07-11

    Low-temperature processable polymers have attracted increasing interest as ecological materials because of their reduced energy consumption during processing and suitability for making composites with heat-sensitive biomolecules at ambient temperature. In the current study, low-temperature processable biodegradable block copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide (LLA) using polyphosphoester as a macroinitiator. The polymer films could be processed under a hydraulic pressure of 35 MPa. The block copolymer films swelled in water because the polyphosphoester block was partially hydrated. Interestingly, the swelling ratio of the films changed with temperature. The pressure-induced order-to-disorder transition of the block copolymers was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering; a crystallinity reduction in the block copolymers was observed after application of pressure. The crystallinity of the block copolymers was recovered after removing the applied pressure. The Young's modulus of the block copolymer films increased as the LLA unit content increased. Moreover, the modulus did not change after multiple processing cycles and the recyclability of the block copolymers was also confirmed. Finally, polymer films with embedded proteinase K as a model protein were prepared. The activity of catalase loaded into the polymer films was evaluated after processing at different temperatures. The activity of catalase was preserved when the polymer films were processed at room temperature but was significantly reduced after high-temperature processing. The suitability of low-temperature processable biodegradable polymers for making biofunctional composites without reducing protein activity was clarified. These materials will be useful for biomedical and therapeutic applications.

  18. Reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177/mouse Wntless is required for embryonic axis formation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Jiang, Ming; Mirando, Anthony J; Yu, Hsiao-Man Ivy; Hsu, Wei

    2009-11-03

    Members of the Wnt family are secreted glycoproteins that trigger cellular signals essential for proper development of organisms. Cellular signaling induced by Wnt proteins is involved in diverse developmental processes and human diseases. Previous studies have generated an enormous wealth of knowledge on the events in signal-receiving cells. However, relatively little is known about the making of Wnt in signal-producing cells. Here, we describe that Gpr177, the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wls, is expressed during formation of embryonic axes. Embryos with deficient Gpr177 exhibit defects in establishment of the body axis, a phenotype highly reminiscent to the loss of Wnt3. Although many different mammalian Wnt proteins are required for a wide range of developmental processes, the Wnt3 ablation exhibits the earliest developmental abnormality. This suggests that the Gpr177-mediated Wnt production cannot be substituted. As a direct target of Wnt, Gpr177 is activated by beta-catenin and LEF/TCF-dependent transcription. This activation alters the cellular distributions of Gpr177 which binds to Wnt proteins and assists their sorting and secretion in a feedback regulatory mechanism. Our findings demonstrate that the loss of Gpr177 affects Wnt production in the signal-producing cells, leading to alterations of Wnt signaling in the signal-receiving cells. A reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the patterning of the anterior-posterior axis during mammalian development.

  19. [Wnt signalling pathway and cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Álvarez-Zavala, Monserrat; García-Castro, Beatriz; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a pathology that arises in the cervical epithelium, whose major cause of risk is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Due to the fact that HPV infection per se is not enough to generate a carcinogenic process, it has been proposed that alterations in the Wnt signaling pathway are involved in cervical carcinogenesis. The Wnt family consists of 13 receptors and 19 ligands, and it is highly conserved phylogenetically due to its contribution in different biological processes, such as embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Additionally, this signaling pathway modulates various cellular functions, for instance: cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell polarity. This paper describes the Wnt signaling pathways and alterations that have been found in members of this family in different cancer types and, especially, in CC.

  20. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M.; Eldering, Eric; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. {yields} Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc{sup Min/+} mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. {yields} APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. {yields} Blocking of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or {beta}-catenin causes constitutively active {beta}-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc{sup Min/+} mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of {beta}-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which

  1. Carboxypeptidase Z (CPZ) links thyroid hormone and Wnt signaling pathways in growth plate chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Shao, Yvonne Y; Ballock, R Tracy

    2009-02-01

    Carboxypeptidase Z (CPZ) removes carboxyl-terminal basic amino acid residues, particularly arginine residues, from proteins. CPZ contains a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) similar to the CRD found in the frizzled family of Wnt receptors. We have previously shown that thyroid hormone regulates terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes through activation of Wnt-4 expression and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. The Wnt-4 protein contains a C-terminal arginine residue and binds to CPZ through the CRD. The objective of this study was to determine whether CPZ modulates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Our results show that CPZ and Wnt-4 mRNA are co-expressed throughout growth plate cartilage. In primary pellet cultures of rat growth plate chondrocytes, thyroid hormone increases both Wnt-4 and CPZ expression, as well as CPZ enzymatic activity. Knockdown of either Wnt-4 or CPZ mRNA levels using an RNA interference technique or blocking CPZ enzymatic activity with the carboxypeptidase inhibitor GEMSA reduces the thyroid hormone effect on both alkaline phosphatase activity and Col10a1 mRNA expression. Adenoviral overexpression of CPZ activates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and promotes the terminal differentiation of growth plate cells. Overexpression of CPZ in growth plate chondrocytes also removes the C-terminal arginine residue from a synthetic peptide consisting of the carboxyl-terminal 16 amino acids of the Wnt-4 protein. Removal of the C-terminal arginine residue of Wnt-4 by site-directed mutagenesis enhances the positive effect of Wnt-4 on terminal differentiation. These data indicate that thyroid hormone may regulate terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes in part by modulating Wnt signaling pathways through the induction of CPZ and subsequent CPZ-enhanced activation of Wnt-4.

  2. Multiple Wnt genes are required for posterior patterning in the short germ embryo of Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Bolognesi, Renata; Farzana, Laila; Fischer, Tamara D.; Brown, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary wingless (wg)/Wnt family genes encode secreted glycoproteins essential for the development of virtually all metazoans. In short germ insects, including the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the segment-polarity function of wg is conserved [1]. Wnt signalling is also implicated in posterior patterning and germband elongation [2–4], but despite its expression in the posterior growth zone, Wnt1/wg alone is not responsible for these functions; [1–3]. Tribolium contains additional Wnt family genes of unknown function that are also expressed in the growth zone [5]. After depleting one of these, Tc-WntD/8, we found a small percentage of embryos lacking abdominal segments. Additional removal of Tc-Wnt1 significantly enhanced this phenotype, suggesting functional redundancy. Seeking alternative methods to deplete Wnt signal, we performed RNAi with other components of the Wnt pathway including wntless (wls) and porcupine (porc), which process Wnt ligands, and pangolin (pan), which transduces the signal to the nucleus. Tc-wls RNAi caused segmentation defects similar to Tc-Wnt1, but not Tc-WntD/8 RNAi, indicating that the effects of Tc-WntD/8 depletion are Tc-wls-independent. In contrast, depletion of Tc-porc and Tc-pan resulted in embryos resembling those of double Tc-Wnt1,Tc-WntD/8 RNAi, suggesting Tc-porc is essential for the function of both ligands and that they signal through the canonical pathway. Our results provide the first evidence of functional redundancy between Wnt ligands in posterior patterning in short germ insects. This Wnt function appears to be conserved in other arthropods [6] and vertebrates [7–9]. PMID:18926702

  3. Gpr177/mouse Wntless is essential for Wnt-mediated craniofacial and brain development.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiang; Ivy Yu, Hsiao-Man; Maruyama, Takamitsu; Mirando, Anthony J; Hsu, Wei

    2011-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177, the mouse orthologue of Drosophila Wls/Evi/Srt, is required for establishment of the anterior-posterior axis. The Gpr177 null phenotype is highly reminiscent to the loss of Wnt3, the earliest abnormality among all Wnt knockouts in mice. The expression of Gpr177 in various cell types and tissues lead us to hypothesize that reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the Wnt-dependent developmental and pathogenic processes. Here, we create a new mouse strain permitting conditional inactivation of Gpr177. The loss of Gpr177 in the Wnt1-expressing cells causes mid/hindbrain and craniofacial defects which are far more severe than the Wnt1 knockout, but resemble the double knockout of Wnt1 and Wnt3a as well as β-catenin deletion in the Wnt1-expressing cells. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Gpr177 in Wnt1-mediated development of the mouse embryo, suggesting an overlapping function of Wnt family members in the Wnt1-expressing cells.

  4. The role of the Wnt canonical signaling in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Libro, Rosaliana; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-08-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt canonical pathway controls multiple biological processes throughout development and adult life. Growing evidences have suggested that deregulation of the Wnt canonical pathway could be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The Wnt canonical signaling is a pathway tightly regulated, which activation results in the inhibition of the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK-3β) function and in increased β-catenin activity, that migrates into the nucleus, activating the transcription of the Wnt target genes. Conversely, when the Wnt canonical pathway is turned off, increased levels of GSK-3β promote β-catenin degradation. Hence, GSK-3β could be considered as a key regulator of the Wnt canonical pathway. Of note, GSK-3β has also been involved in the modulation of inflammation and apoptosis, determining the delicate balance between immune tolerance/inflammation and neuronal survival/neurodegeneration. In this review, we have summarized the current acknowledgements about the role of the Wnt canonical pathway in the pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with particular regard to the main in vitro and in vivo studies in this field, by reviewing 85 research articles about.

  5. Wnt signalling in neuronal differentiation and development.

    PubMed

    Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Varela-Nallar, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that play multiple roles in early development, including the differentiation of precursor cells. During this period, gradients of Wnts and other morphogens are formed and regulate the differentiation and migration of neural progenitor cells. Afterwards, Wnt signalling cascades participate in the formation of neuronal circuits, playing roles in dendrite and axon development, dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis. Finally, in the adult brain, Wnts control hippocampal plasticity, regulating synaptic transmission and neurogenesis. In this review, we summarize the reported roles of Wnt signalling cascades in these processes with a particular emphasis on the role of Wnts in neuronal differentiation and development.

  6. Induced Wnt5a expression perturbs embryonic outgrowth and intestinal elongation, but is well-tolerated in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Elvira R M; Raghoebir, Lalini; Franken, Patrick F; Helvensteijn, Werner; van Gurp, Léon; Meijlink, Frits; van der Valk, Martin A; Rottier, Robbert J; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Veelen, Wendy; Smits, Ron

    2012-09-01

    Wnt5a is essential during embryonic development, as indicated by mouse Wnt5a knockout embryos displaying outgrowth defects of multiple structures including the gut. The dynamics of Wnt5a involvement in these processes is unclear, and perinatal lethality of Wnt5a knockout embryos has hampered investigation of Wnt5a during postnatal stages in vivo. Although in vitro studies have suggested a relevant role for Wnt5a postnatally, solid evidence for a significant impact of Wnt5a within the complexity of an adult organism is lacking. We generated a tightly-regulated inducible Wnt5a transgenic mouse model and investigated the effects of Wnt5a induction during different time-frames of embryonic development and in adult mice, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract. When induced in embryos from 10.5 dpc onwards, Wnt5a expression led to severe outgrowth defects affecting the gastrointestinal tracts, limbs, facial structures and tails, closely resembling the defects observed in Wnt5a knockout mice. However, Wnt5a induction from 13.5 dpc onwards did not cause this phenotype, indicating that the most critical period for Wnt5a in embryonic development is prior to 13.5 dpc. In adult mice, induced Wnt5a expression did not reveal abnormalities, providing the first in vivo evidence that Wnt5a has no major impact on mouse intestinal homeostasis postnatally. Protein expression of Wnt5a receptor Ror2 was strongly reduced in adult intestine compared to embryonic stages. Moreover, we uncovered a regulatory process where induction of Wnt5a causes downregulation of its receptor Ror2. Taken together, our results indicate a role for Wnt5a during a restricted time-frame of embryonic development, but suggest no impact during homeostatic postnatal stages.

  7. The Extracellular Domain of Lrp5/6 Inhibits Noncanonical Wnt Signaling In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Emma R.; Schambony, Alexandra; Esner, Milan; Bryjová, Lenka; Biris, Kristin K.; Hall, Anita C.; Kraft, Bianca; Cajanek, Lukas; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Buckingham, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Lrp5/6 are crucial coreceptors for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a pathway biochemically distinct from noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways. Here, we examined the possible participation of Lrp5/6 in noncanonical Wnt signaling. We found that Lrp6 physically interacts with Wnt5a, but that this does not lead to phosphorylation of Lrp6 or activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Overexpression of Lrp6 blocks activation of the Wnt5a downstream target Rac1, and this effect is dependent on intact Lrp6 extracellular domains. These results suggested that the extracellular domain of Lrp6 inhibits noncanonical Wnt signaling in vitro. In vivo, Lrp6−/− mice exhibited exencephaly and a heart phenotype. Surprisingly, these defects were rescued by deletion of Wnt5a, indicating that the phenotypes resulted from noncanonical Wnt gain-of-function. Similarly, Lrp5 and Lrp6 antisense morpholino-treated Xenopus embryos exhibited convergent extension and heart phenotypes that were rescued by knockdown of noncanonical XWnt5a and XWnt11. Thus, we provide evidence that the extracellular domains of Lrp5/6 behave as physiologically relevant inhibitors of noncanonical Wnt signaling during Xenopus and mouse development in vivo. PMID:19056682

  8. Canonical Wnt signaling protects hippocampal neurons from Aβ oligomers: role of non-canonical Wnt-5a/Ca(2+) in mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Arrázola, Macarena S; Godoy, Juan A; Ordenes, Daniela; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of age-related dementia. The disease is characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive abilities, severe neurodegeneration, synaptic loss and mitochondrial dysfunction. The Wnt signaling pathway participates in the development of the central nervous system and growing evidence indicates that Wnts also regulate the function of the adult nervous system. We report here, that indirect activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling using Bromoindirubin-30-Oxime (6-BIO), an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, protects hippocampal neurons from amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers with the concomitant blockade of neuronal apoptosis. More importantly, activation with Wnt-5a, a non-canonical Wnt ligand, results in the modulation of mitochondrial dynamics, preventing the changes induced by Aβ oligomers (Aβo) in mitochondrial fission-fusion dynamics and modulates Bcl-2 increases induced by oligomers. The canonical Wnt-3a ligand neither the secreted Frizzled-Related Protein (sFRP), a Wnt scavenger, did not prevent these effects. In contrast, some of the Aβ oligomer effects were blocked by Ryanodine. We conclude that canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls neuronal survival, and that non-canonical Wnt/Ca(2+)signaling modulates mitochondrial dysfunction. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is present in neurodegenerative diseases, the therapeutic possibilities of the activation of Wnt signaling are evident.

  9. Canonical Wnt signaling protects hippocampal neurons from Aβ oligomers: role of non-canonical Wnt-5a/Ca2+ in mitochondrial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Arrázola, Macarena S.; Godoy, Juan A.; Ordenes, Daniela; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of age-related dementia. The disease is characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive abilities, severe neurodegeneration, synaptic loss and mitochondrial dysfunction. The Wnt signaling pathway participates in the development of the central nervous system and growing evidence indicates that Wnts also regulate the function of the adult nervous system. We report here, that indirect activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling using Bromoindirubin-30-Oxime (6-BIO), an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, protects hippocampal neurons from amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers with the concomitant blockade of neuronal apoptosis. More importantly, activation with Wnt-5a, a non-canonical Wnt ligand, results in the modulation of mitochondrial dynamics, preventing the changes induced by Aβ oligomers (Aβo) in mitochondrial fission-fusion dynamics and modulates Bcl-2 increases induced by oligomers. The canonical Wnt-3a ligand neither the secreted Frizzled-Related Protein (sFRP), a Wnt scavenger, did not prevent these effects. In contrast, some of the Aβ oligomer effects were blocked by Ryanodine. We conclude that canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls neuronal survival, and that non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+signaling modulates mitochondrial dysfunction. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is present in neurodegenerative diseases, the therapeutic possibilities of the activation of Wnt signaling are evident. PMID:23805073

  10. Wnt signaling and the evolution of embryonic posterior development.

    PubMed

    Martin, Benjamin L; Kimelman, David

    2009-03-10

    During vertebrate embryogenesis, most of the mesodermal tissue posterior to the head forms from a progenitor population that continuously adds blocks of muscles (the somites) from the back end of the embryo. Recent work in less commonly studied arthropods--the flour beetle Tribolium and the common house spider--provides evidence suggesting that this posterior growth process might be evolutionarily conserved, with canonical Wnt signaling playing a key role in vertebrates and invertebrates. We discuss these findings as well as other evidence that suggests that the genetic network controlling posterior growth was already present in the last common ancestor of the Bilateria. We also highlight other interesting commonalities as well as differences between posterior growth in vertebrates and invertebrates, suggest future areas of research, and hypothesize that posterior growth may facilitate evolution of animal body plans.

  11. Wnt signaling: role in Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Fuenzalida, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Wnt signaling function starts during the development of the nervous system and is crucial for synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Clearly Wnt effects in synaptic and plastic processes are relevant, however the implication of this pathway in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases that produce synaptic impairment, is even more interesting. Several years ago our laboratory found a relationship between the loss of Wnt signaling and the neurotoxicity of the amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ), one of the main players in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, the activation of the Wnt signaling cascade prevents Aβ-dependent cytotoxic effects. In fact, disrupted Wnt signaling may be a direct link between Aβ-toxicity and tau hyperphosphorylation, ultimately leading to impaired synaptic plasticity and/or neuronal degeneration, indicating that a single pathway can account for both neuro-pathological lesions and altered synaptic function. These observations, suggest that a sustained loss of Wnt signaling function may be a key relevant factor in the pathology of AD. On the other hand, Schizophrenia remains one of the most debilitating and intractable illness in psychiatry. Since Wnt signaling is important in organizing the developing brain, it is reasonable to propose that defects in Wnt signaling could contribute to Schizophrenia, particularly since the neuro-developmental hypothesis of the disease implies subtle dys-regulation of brain development, including some core components of the Wnt signaling pathways such as GSK-3β or Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 (DISC-1). This review focuses on the relationship between Wnt signaling and its potential relevance for the treatment of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases including AD and Schizophrenia.

  12. Rapidly Solidified Alloys Made by Chill Block Melt-spinning Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebermann, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Chill block melt-spinning (CBMS) processes are used to make rapidly solidified microcrystalline and amorphous alloy ribbon, flakes, etc. Fundamentals of CBMS processes are discussed in light of recent advances. Special regard is given to ribbon geometric defects (edge serrations, surface asperities, etc.). Photomicrographs of CBMS ribbon solidification microstructures are used to compare local solidification rates, especially in the vicinity of ribbon defects.

  13. Gpr177-mediated Wnt Signaling Is Required for Secondary Palate Development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Wang, M; Zhao, W; Yuan, X; Yang, X; Li, Y; Qiu, M; Zhu, X-J; Zhang, Z

    2015-07-01

    Cleft palate represents one of the major congenital birth defects in humans. Despite the essential roles of ectodermal canonical Wnt and mesenchymal Wnt signaling in the secondary palate development, the function of mesenchymal canonical Wnt activity in secondary palate development remains elusive. Here we show that Gpr177, a highly conserved transmembrane protein essential for Wnt trafficking, is required for secondary palate development. Gpr177 is expressed in both epithelium and mesenchyme of palatal shelves during mouse development. Wnt1(Cre)-mediated deletion of Gpr177 in craniofacial neural crest cells leads to a complete cleft secondary palate, which is formed mainly due to aberrant cell proliferation and increased cell death in palatal shelves. By BATGAL staining, we reveal an intense canonical Wnt activity in the anterior palate mesenchyme of E12.5 wild-type embryos but not in Gpr177(Wnt1-Cre) embryos, suggesting that mesenchymal canonical Wnt signaling activated by Gpr177-mediated mesenchymal Wnts is critical for secondary palate development. Moreover, phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun is impaired in the Gpr177(Wnt1-Cre) palate and is restored by implantation of Wnt5a-soaked beads in the in vitro palate explants, suggesting that Gpr177 probably regulates palate development via the Wnt5a-mediated noncanonical Wnt pathway in which c-Jun and JNK are involved. Importantly, certain cellular processes and the altered gene expression in palates lacking Gpr177 are distinct from that of the Wnt5a mutant, further demonstrating involvement of other mesenchymal Wnts in the process of palate development. Together, these results suggest that mesenchymal Gpr177 is required for secondary palate development by regulating and integrating mesenchymal canonical and noncanonical Wnt signals.

  14. Wnt Signaling and Its Contribution to Craniofacial Tissue Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yin, X; Li, J; Salmon, B; Huang, L; Lim, W H; Liu, B; Hunter, D J; Ransom, R C; Singh, G; Gillette, M; Zou, S; Helms, J A

    2015-11-01

    A new field of dental medicine seeks to exploit nature's solution for repairing damaged tissues, through the process of regeneration. Most adult mammalian tissues have limited regenerative capacities, but in lower vertebrates, the molecular machinery for regeneration is an elemental part of their genetic makeup. Accumulating data suggest that the molecular pathways responsible for the regenerative capacity of teleosts, amphibians, and reptiles have fallen into disuse in mammals but that they can be "jumpstarted" by the selective activation of key molecules. The Wnt family of secreted proteins constitutes one such critical pathway: Wnt proteins rank among the most potent and ubiquitous stem cell self-renewing factors, with tremendous potential for promoting human tissue regeneration. Wnt reporter and lineage-tracing strains of mice have been employed to create molecular maps of Wnt responsiveness in the craniofacial tissues, and these patterns of Wnt signaling colocalize with stem/progenitor populations in the rodent incisor apex, the dental pulp, the alveolar bone, the periodontal ligament, the cementum, and oral mucosa. The importance of Wnt signaling in both the maintenance and healing of these craniofacial tissues is summarized, and the therapeutic potential of Wnt-based strategies to accelerate healing through activation of endogenous stem cells is highlighted.

  15. Involvement of Wnt, Eda and Shh at defined stages of sweat gland development

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Yin, Mingzhu; Sima, Jian; Childress, Victoria; Michel, Marc; Piao, Yulan; Schlessinger, David

    2014-01-01

    To maintain body temperature, sweat glands develop from embryonic ectoderm by a poorly defined mechanism. We demonstrate a temporal cascade of regulation during mouse sweat gland formation. Sweat gland induction failed completely when canonical Wnt signaling was blocked in skin epithelium, and was accompanied by sharp downregulation of downstream Wnt, Eda and Shh pathway genes. The Wnt antagonist Dkk4 appeared to inhibit this induction: Dkk4 was sharply downregulated in β-catenin-ablated mice, indicating that it is induced by Wnt/β-catenin; however, its overexpression repressed Wnt target genes and significantly reduced gland numbers. Eda signaling succeeded Wnt. Wnt signaling was still active and nascent sweat gland pre-germs were still seen in Eda-null mice, but the pre-germs failed to develop further and the downstream Shh pathway was not activated. When Wnt and Eda were intact but Shh was ablated, germ induction and subsequent duct formation occurred normally, but the final stage of secretory coil formation failed. Thus, sweat gland development shows a relay of regulatory steps initiated by Wnt/β-catenin – itself modulated by Dkk4 – with subsequent participation of Eda and Shh pathways. PMID:25249463

  16. Wnt-5a increases NO and modulates NMDA receptor in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Francisco J; Godoy, Juan A; Cerpa, Waldo; Poblete, Inés M; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-02-07

    Wnt signaling has a crucial role in synaptic function at the central nervous system. Here we evaluate whether Wnts affect nitric oxide (NO) generation in hippocampal neurons. We found that non-canonical Wnt-5a triggers NO production; however, Wnt-3a a canonical ligand did not exert the same effect. Co-administration of Wnt-5a with the soluble Frizzled related protein-2 (sFRP-2) a Wnt antagonist blocked the NO production. Wnt-5a activates the non-canonical Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling through a mechanism that depends on Ca(2+) release from Ryanodine-sensitive internal stores. The increase in NO levels evoked by Wnt-5a promotes the insertion of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) into the neuronal cell surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Wnt-5a signaling is related to NO production, which in turn increases NMDARs trafficking to the cell surface.

  17. Analysis of the Wnt gene repertoire in an onychophoran provides new insights into the evolution of segmentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Onychophora are a probable sister group to Arthropoda, one of the most intensively studied animal phyla from a developmental perspective. Pioneering work on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and subsequent investigation of other arthropods has revealed important roles for Wnt genes during many developmental processes in these animals. Results We screened the embryonic transcriptome of the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis and found that at least 11 Wnt genes are expressed during embryogenesis. These genes represent 11 of the 13 known subfamilies of Wnt genes. Conclusions Many onychophoran Wnt genes are expressed in segment polarity gene-like patterns, suggesting a general role for these ligands during segment regionalization, as has been described in arthropods. During early stages of development, Wnt2, Wnt4, and Wnt5 are expressed in broad multiple segment-wide domains that are reminiscent of arthropod gap and Hox gene expression patterns, which suggests an early instructive role for Wnt genes during E. kanangrensis segmentation. PMID:24708787

  18. Psychological Aspects of Aging. Module A-7. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on psychological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Six sections present…

  19. Physiological Aspects of Aging. Module A-5. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on physiological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Nine sections present…

  20. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Block VII, Classroom Course 13-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the fourth section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block VII deals with heat treating, hardness…

  1. Nutrition and the Older Adult. Module A-9. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on nutrition and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Five sections present…

  2. Social Aspects of Aging. Module A-4. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on social aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Four sections present informative…

  3. Wnt1 neuroprotection translates into improved neurological function during oxidant stress and cerebral ischemia through AKT1 and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Hou, Jinling; Maiese, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Although essential for the development of the nervous system, Wnt1 also has been associated with neurodegenerative disease and cognitive loss during periods of oxidative stress. Here we show that endogenous expression of Wnt1 is suppressed during oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Loss of endogenous Wnt1 signaling directly correlates with neuronal demise and increased functional deficit, illustrating that endogenous neuronal Wnt1 offers a vital level of intrinsic cellular protection against oxidative stress. Furthermore, transient overexpression of Wnt1 or application of exogenous Wnt1 recombinant protein is necessary to preserve neurological function and rescue neurons from apoptotic membrane phosphatidylserine externalization and genomic DNA degradation, since blockade of Wnt1 signaling with a Wnt1 antibody or dickkopf related protein 1 abrogates neuronal protection by Wnt1. Wnt1 ultimately relies upon the activation of Akt1, the modulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability, and the release of cytochrome c to control the apoptotic cascade, since inhibition of Wnt1 signaling, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, or Akt1 activity abrogates the ability of Wnt1 to block these apoptotic components. Our work identifies Wnt1 and its downstream signaling as cellular targets with high clinical potential for novel treatment strategies for multiple disorders precipitated by oxidative stress.

  4. Evolutionary Dynamics of the wnt Gene Family: A Lophotrochozoan Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Vallès, Yvonne; Giani, Vincent C.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The wnt gene family encodes a set of secreted glycoproteins involved in key developmental processes, including cell fate specification and regulation of posterior growth (Cadigan KM, Nusse R. 1997. Wnt signaling: a common theme in animal development. Genes Dev. 11:3286–3305.; Martin BL, Kimelman D. 2009. Wnt signaling and the evolution of embryonic posterior development. Curr Biol. 19:R215–R219.). As for many other gene families, evidence for expansion and/or contraction of the wnt family is available from deuterostomes (e.g., echinoderms and vertebrates [Nusse R, Varmus HE. 1992. Wnt genes. Cell. 69:1073–1087.; Schubert M, Holland LZ, Holland ND, Jacobs DK. 2000. A phylogenetic tree of the Wnt genes based on all available full-length sequences, including five from the cephalochordate amphioxus. Mol Biol Evol. 17:1896–1903.; Croce JC, Wu SY, Byrum C, Xu R, Duloquin L, Wikramanayake AH, Gache C, McClay DR. 2006. A genome-wide survey of the evolutionarily conserved Wnt pathways in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Biol. 300:121–131.]) and ecdysozoans (e.g., arthropods and nematodes [Eisenmann DM. 2005. Wnt signaling. WormBook. 1–17.; Bolognesi R, Farzana L, Fischer TD, Brown SJ. 2008. Multiple Wnt genes are required for segmentation in the short-germ embryo of Tribolium castaneum. Curr Biol. 18:1624–1629.]), but little is known from the third major bilaterian group, the lophotrochozoans (e.g., mollusks and annelids [Prud'homme B, Lartillot N, Balavoine G, Adoutte A, Vervoort M. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of the Wnt gene family. Insights from lophotrochozoan members. Curr Biol. 12:1395.]). To obtain a more comprehensive scenario of the evolutionary dynamics of this gene family, we exhaustively mined wnt gene sequences from the whole genome assemblies of a mollusk (Lottia gigantea) and two annelids (Capitella teleta and Helobdella robusta) and examined them by phylogenetic, genetic linkage, intron–exon structure, and embryonic

  5. Block Copolymer Modified Epoxy Amine System for Reactive Rotational Molding: Structures, Properties and Processability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Eva; Nony, Fabien; Tcharkhtchi, Abbas; Gérard, Jean-François

    2011-05-01

    Poly(styrene-butadiene-methylmethacrylate) (SBM) and poly(methylmethacrylate-butyle-acrylate-methylmethacrylate) (MAM) triblock copolymers have been dissolved in liquid DGEBA epoxy resin which is subsequently polymerized by meta-xylene diamine (MXDA) or Jeffamine EDR-148. A chemorheology study of these formulations by plate-plate rheology and by thermal analysis has allowed to conclude that the addition of these copolymer blocks improve the reactive rotational moulding processability without affecting the processing time. Indeed, it prevents the pooling of the formulation at the bottom of the mould and a too rapid build up of resin viscosity of these thermosetting systems. The morphology of the cured blends examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows an increase of fracture surface area and thereby a potential increase of the toughness with the modification of epoxy system. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMA) and opalescence of final material show that the block PMMA, initially miscible, is likely to induce phase separation from the epoxy-amine matrix. Thereby, the poor compatibilisation between the toughener and the matrix has a detrimental effect on the tensile mechanical properties. The compatibilisation has to be increased to improve in synergy the processability and the final properties of these block copolymer modified formulations. First attempts could be by adapting the length and ratio of each block.

  6. WNT5A signaling contributes to Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei; Zhong, Ling; Yang, Xiangling; Andersson, Tommy; Huang, Min; Tang, Shao-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Neurodegenration is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we present evidence that reveals a crucial role of Wnt5a signaling in this process. We showed that Wnt5a and its receptor Frizzled-5 (Fz5) were up-regulated in the AD mouse brain, and that beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ), a major constituent of amyloid plaques, stimulated Wnt5a and Fz5 expression in primary cortical cultures; these observations indicate that Wnt5a signaling could be aberrantly activated during AD pathogenesis. In support of such a possibility, we observed that inhibition of Wnt5a signaling attenuated while activation of Wnt5a signaling enhanced Aβ-evoked neurotoxicity, suggesting a role of Wnt5a signaling in AD-related neurodegeneration. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that Aβ-induced neurotoxicity depends on inflammatory processes, and that activation of Wnt5a signaling elicited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α whereas inhibition of Wnt5a signaling attenuated the Aβ-induced expression of the cytokines in cortical cultures. Our findings collectively suggest that aberrantly up-regulated Wnt5a signaling is a crucial pathological step that contributes to AD-related neurodegeneration by regulating neuroinflammation.

  7. Ectodermal Wnt Controls Nasal Pit Morphogenesis Through Modulation of the BMP/FGF/JNK Signaling Axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, Yudong; Yuan, Xueyan; Wang, Min; Zhao, Wanxin; Yang, Xueqin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Hsu, Wei; Qiu, Mengsheng; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Zunyi

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations of WNT3, WNT5A, WNT9B, and WNT11 genes are associated with orofacial birth defects, including non-syndromic cleft lip with cleft palate in humans. However, the source of Wnt ligands and their signaling effects on the orofacial morphogenetic process remain elusive. Results Using Foxg1-Cre to impair Wnt secretion through the inactivation of Gpr177/mWls, we investigate the relevant regulation of Wnt production and signaling in nasal–facial development. Ectodermal ablation of Gpr177 leads to severe facial deformities resulting from dramatically reduced cell proliferation and increased cell death due to a combined loss of WNT, FGF and BMP signaling in the developing facial prominence. In the invaginating nasal pit, the Gpr177 disruption also causes a detrimental effect on migration of the olfactory epithelial cells into the mesenchymal region. The blockage of Wnt secretion apparently impairs the olfactory epithelial cells through modulation of JNK signaling. Conclusions Our study thus suggests the head ectoderm, including the facial ectoderm and the neuroectoderm, as the source of canonical as well as noncanonical Wnt ligands during early development of the nasal–facial prominence. Both β-catenin–dependent and –independent signaling pathways are required for proper development of these morphogenetic processes. PMID:26661618

  8. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    and Decitabine attenuated SE (Figure 4) Background. Green tea and EGCG. Green tea is the world’s second most popular beverage after water and is... tea compound EGCG [(-) epigallocatechin gallate] is the main catechin component in dry green tea (about 30%). Green tea is about 0.1% EGCG solution...w/v), or 2 mM. Green tea and EGCG (4~8 U.S. cups/day) has no appreciable side effects in humans 33,34 35. We showed that EGCG blocks Wnt signaling

  9. The apical and basolateral secretion of Wnt11 and Wnt3a in polarized epithelial cells is regulated by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Awada, Chihiro; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sakane, Hiroshi; Tsujimoto, Ikuko; Takahashi, Yuko; Takao, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Wnts are glycan- and lipid-modified morphogens that are important for cellular responses, but how Wnts are secreted in polarized epithelial cells remains unclear. Although Wntless (Wls) has been shown to interact with Wnts and support their secretion, the role of Wls in the sorting of Wnts to the final destination in polarized epithelial cells have not been clarified. Glycosylation was shown to be important for the sorting of some transmembrane and secreted proteins, but glycan profiles and their roles in the polarized secretion of Wnts has not yet been demonstrated. Here we show the apical and basolateral secretion of Wnts is regulated by different mechanisms. Wnt11 and Wnt3a were secreted apically and basolaterally, respectively, in polarized epithelial cells. Wls was localized to the basolateral membrane. Mass-spectrometric analyses revealed that Wnt11 is modified with complex/hybrid(Asn40)-, high-mannose(Asn90)- and high-mannose/hybrid(Asn300)-type glycans and that Wnt3a is modified with two high-mannose-type glycans (Asn87 and Asn298). Glycosylation processing at Asn40 and galectin-3 were required for the apical secretion of Wnt11, whereas clathrin and adaptor protein-1 were required for the basolateral secretion of Wnt3a. By the fusion of the Asn40 glycosylation site of Wnt11, Wnt3a was secreted apically. The recycling of Wls by AP-2 was necessary for the basolateral secretion of Wnt3a but not for the apical secretion of Wnt11. These results suggest that Wls has different roles in the polarized secretion of Wnt11 and Wnt3a and that glycosylation processing of Wnts decides their secretory routes.

  10. A wound-induced Wnt expression program controls planarian regeneration polarity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Christian P; Reddien, Peter W

    2009-10-06

    Regeneration requires specification of the identity of new tissues to be made. Whether this process relies only on intrinsic regulative properties of regenerating tissues or whether wound signaling provides input into tissue repatterning is not known. The head-versus-tail regeneration polarity decision in planarians, which requires Wnt signaling, provides a paradigm to study the process of tissue identity specification during regeneration. The Smed-wntP-1 gene is required for regeneration polarity and is expressed at the posterior pole of intact animals. Surprisingly, wntP-1 was expressed at both anterior- and posterior-facing wounds rapidly after wounding. wntP-1 expression was induced by all types of wounds examined, regardless of whether wounding prompted tail regeneration. Regeneration polarity was found to require new expression of wntP-1. Inhibition of the wntP-2 gene enhanced the polarity phenotype due to wntP-1 inhibition, with new expression of wntP-2 in regeneration occurring subsequent to expression of wntP-1 and localized only to posterior-facing wounds. New expression of wntP-2 required wound-induced wntP-1. Finally, wntP-1 and wntP-2 expression changes occurred even in the absence of neoblast stem cells, which are required for regeneration, suggesting that the role of these genes in polarity is independent of and instructive for tail formation. These data indicate that wound-induced input is involved in resetting the normal polarized features of the body axis during regeneration.

  11. Determination of thermal process schedule for emulsion type buffalo meat block in retort pouch.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-11-01

    The process temperature for buffalo met blocks processed in retort pouches calculated based on the heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 in Phosphate buffer saline (PBS- Ph 7.0) as reference medium and in buffalo meat block (pH 6.28) was in the range of 110-121°C. The D values and Z values calculated for C.sporogenes PA 3679 confirmed that the suspension was best suited for conducting thermal resistance studies. The experiment for indirect confirmation of microbial safety of the products involving inoculating the buffalo meat emulsion filled in pouches with C.sporogenes PA 3679 and processed at Fo 12.13 min showed no growth of microorganisms.

  12. WNT/β-Catenin Signaling in Vertebrate Eye Development

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate eye is a highly specialized sensory organ, which is derived from the anterior neural plate, head surface ectoderm, and neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The single central eye field, generated from the anterior neural plate, divides to give rise to the optic vesicle, which evaginates toward the head surface ectoderm. Subsequently, the surface ectoderm, in conjunction with the optic vesicle invaginates to form the lens vesicle and double-layered optic cup, respectively. This complex process is controlled by transcription factors and several intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways including WNT/β-catenin signaling. This signaling pathway plays an essential role in multiple developmental processes and has a profound effect on cell proliferation and cell fate determination. During eye development, the activity of WNT/β-catenin signaling is tightly controlled. Faulty regulation of WNT/β-catenin signaling results in multiple ocular malformations due to defects in the process of cell fate determination and differentiation. This mini-review summarizes recent findings on the role of WNT/β-catenin signaling in eye development. Whilst this mini-review focuses on loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutants of WNT/β-catenin signaling components, it also highlights some important aspects of β-catenin-independent WNT signaling in the eye development at later stages. PMID:27965955

  13. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways.

  14. Comminution and sizing processes of concrete block waste as recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P C C; Ulsen, C; Pereira, F A; Quattrone, M; Angulo, S C

    2015-11-01

    Due to the environmental impact of construction and demolition waste (CDW), recycling is mandatory. It is also important that recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are used in concrete to meet market demands. In the literature, the influence of RCAs on concrete has been investigated, but very limited studies have been conducted on how the origin of concrete waste and comminution processes influence RCA characteristics. This paper aims to investigate the influence of three different comminution and sizing processes (simple screening, crushing and grinding) on the composition, shape and porosity characteristics of RCA obtained from concrete block waste. Crushing and grinding implies a reduction of RCA porosity. However, due to the presence of coarse quartz rounded river pebbles in the original concrete block mixtures, the shape characteristics deteriorated. A large amount of powder (<0.15 mm) without detectable anhydrous cement was also generated.

  15. Wnt signaling during tooth replacement in zebrafish (Danio rerio): pitfalls and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Huysseune, Ann; Soenens, Mieke; Elderweirdt, Fien

    2014-01-01

    The canonical (β-catenin dependent) Wnt signaling pathway has emerged as a likely candidate for regulating tooth replacement in continuously renewing dentitions. So far, the involvement of canonical Wnt signaling has been experimentally demonstrated predominantly in amniotes. These studies tend to show stimulation of tooth formation by activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of tooth formation when blocking the pathway. Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1) in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) tooth germs, suggesting an active repression of Wnt signaling during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of a tooth, and derepression of Wnt signaling during start of replacement tooth formation. To further analyse the role of Wnt signaling, we used different gain-of-function approaches. These yielded disjunct results, yet none of them indicating enhanced tooth replacement. Thus, masterblind (mbl) mutants, defective in axin1, mimic overexpression of Wnt, but display a normally patterned dentition in which teeth are replaced at the appropriate times and positions. Activating the pathway with LiCl had variable outcomes, either resulting in the absence, or the delayed formation, of first-generation teeth, or yielding a regular dentition with normal replacement, but no supernumerary teeth or accelerated tooth replacement. The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i) potential technical pitfalls related to dose- or time-dependency, (ii) the complexity of the canonical Wnt pathway, and (iii) species-specific differences in the nature and activity of pathway components. Finally, we emphasize the importance of in-depth knowledge of the wild-type pattern for reliable interpretations. It is hoped that our analysis can be inspiring to critically assess and elucidate the role of Wnt signaling in tooth development in polyphyodonts. PMID

  16. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumya, I.; Zia Ur Rahman, M.; Rama Koti Reddy, D. V.; Lay-Ekuakille, A.

    2015-03-01

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence.

  17. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Soumya, I.; Zia Ur Rahman, M.; Rama Koti Reddy, D. V.; Lay-Ekuakille, A.

    2015-03-15

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence.

  18. Genetic interaction of PGE2 and Wnt signaling regulates developmental specification of stem cells and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Goessling, Wolfram; North, Trista E.; Loewer, Sabine; Lord, Allegra M.; Lee, Sang; Stoick-Cooper, Cristi L.; Weidinger, Gilbert; Puder, Mark; Daley, George Q.; Moon, Randall T.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Interactions between developmental signaling pathways govern the formation and function of stem cells. Prostaglandin (PG) E2 regulates vertebrate hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Similarly, the Wnt signaling pathway controls HSC self-renewal and bone marrow repopulation. Here, we show that wnt reporter activity in zebrafish HSCs is responsive to PGE2 modulation, demonstrating a direct interaction in vivo. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis blocked wnt-induced alterations in HSC formation. PGE2 modified the wnt signaling cascade at the level of β-catenin degradation through cAMP/PKA-mediated stabilizing phosphorylation events. The PGE2/Wnt interaction regulated murine stem and progenitor populations in vitro in hematopoietic ES cell assays and in vivo following transplantation. The relationship between PGE2 and Wnt was also conserved during regeneration of other organ systems. Our work provides the first in vivo evidence that Wnt activation in stem cells requires PGE2, and suggests the PGE2/Wnt interaction is a master regulator of vertebrate regeneration and recovery. PMID:19303855

  19. Salinomycin inhibits Wnt signaling and selectively induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Desheng; Choi, Michael Y; Yu, Jian; Castro, Januario E; Kipps, Thomas J; Carson, Dennis A

    2011-08-09

    Salinomycin, an antibiotic potassium ionophore, has been reported recently to act as a selective breast cancer stem cell inhibitor, but the biochemical basis for its anticancer effects is not clear. The Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway plays a central role in stem cell development, and its aberrant activation can cause cancer. In this study, we identified salinomycin as a potent inhibitor of the Wnt signaling cascade. In Wnt-transfected HEK293 cells, salinomycin blocked the phosphorylation of the Wnt coreceptor lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6) and induced its degradation. Nigericin, another potassium ionophore with activity against cancer stem cells, exerted similar effects. In otherwise unmanipulated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with constitutive Wnt activation nanomolar concentrations of salinomycin down-regulated the expression of Wnt target genes such as LEF1, cyclin D1, and fibronectin, depressed LRP6 levels, and limited cell survival. Normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes resisted salinomycin toxicity. These results indicate that ionic changes induced by salinomycin and related drugs inhibit proximal Wnt signaling by interfering with LPR6 phosphorylation, and thus impair the survival of cells that depend on Wnt signaling at the plasma membrane.

  20. Monitoring Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Amy T.; Miao, Qi; Nguyen, Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signaling through β-catenin plays a crucial role in skin development and homeostasis. Disruption or hyperactivation of this pathway results in skin defects and diseases (Lim and Nusse, Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 5(2), 2013). Monitoring Wnt signaling in skin under normal and abnormal conditions is therefore critical to understand the role of this pathway in development and homeostasis. In this chapter, we provide methods to detect Wnt/β-catenin (canonical) signaling in the skin. We present a comprehensive list of Wnt reporter mice and detail the processing of skin tissue to detect reporter genes. From this list, we focus on the three most recent lines that, according to reports, are the most sensitive in skin. Additionally, we describe a protocol to detect nuclear β-catenin, a hallmark of active Wnt signaling, although this technique should be used with caution due to its limited sensitivity. The techniques outlined below will be useful for detecting active Wnt signaling in skin. PMID:27590159

  1. Improved cost-effectiveness of the block co-polymer anneal process for DSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathangi, Hari; Stokhof, Maarten; Knaepen, Werner; Vaid, Varun; Mallik, Arindam; Chan, Boon Teik; Vandenbroeck, Nadia; Maes, Jan Willem; Gronheid, Roel

    2016-04-01

    This manuscript first presents a cost model to compare the cost of ownership of DSA and SAQP for a typical front end of line (FEoL) line patterning exercise. Then, we proceed to a feasibility study of using a vertical furnace to batch anneal the block co-polymer for DSA applications. We show that the defect performance of such a batch anneal process is comparable to the process of record anneal methods. This helps in increasing the cost benefit for DSA compared to the conventional multiple patterning approaches.

  2. Inhibition of Wnt signalling dose-dependently impairs the acquisition and expression of amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farhana; Xu, Kathleen; Beninger, Richard J

    2017-03-09

    The mechanisms by which dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in incentive learning produced by rewarding stimuli remain unclear. Recently, Wnt signalling has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Functional interactions between Wnt and dopamine (DA) signalling has been demonstrated using in vitro and tissue physiology approaches, however there remains a lack of in vivo research into the involvement of Wnt in DA-mediated learning in behaving animals. The present study assessed the role of Wnt signalling in DA-mediated incentive learning using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. We hypothesized that inhibition of Wnt with intra-NAc microinjections of Wnt palmitoylation inhibitor IWP-2 will dose-dependently block the acquisition and expression of amphetamine (AMPH)-induced CPP in rats. Intra-NAc IWP-2 (0.001, 0.05, 1.0 but not 0.0001μg/0.5μl/side) prior to conditioning with AMPH (20.0μg/0.5μl/side) blocked acquisition of CPP. Intra-NAc IWP-2 (0.05, 0.5, 1.0 but not 0.001μg/0.5μl/side) during test following conditioning with AMPH blocked expression but at a higher dose than was need to block acquisition. Sensitization of locomotor activity to AMPH was observed during conditioning and this effect was blocked in groups given IWP-2 prior to AMPH. However, intra-NAc IWP-2 during conditioning did not block the locomotor stimulant effects of AMPH. These results implicate Wnt in DA-mediated incentive learning and suggest that Wnt signalling may be more important for the acquisition of CPP then for its expression. However, mechanisms by which Wnt and DA signalling pathways interact to influence DA-mediated reward-related learning remain to be elucidated.

  3. Local and global processing in block design tasks in children with dyslexia or nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, Ramona; Mammarella, Irene C; Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-04-02

    Visuo-constructive and perceptual abilities have been poorly investigated in children with learning disabilities. The present study focused on local or global visuospatial processing in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) and dyslexia compared with typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants were presented with a modified block design task (BDT), in both a typical visuo-constructive version that involves reconstructing figures from blocks, and a perceptual version in which respondents must rapidly match unfragmented figures with a corresponding fragmented target figure. The figures used in the tasks were devised by manipulating two variables: the perceptual cohesiveness and the task uncertainty, stimulating global or local processes. Our results confirmed that children with NLD had more problems with the visuo-constructive version of the task, whereas those with dyslexia showed only a slight difficulty with the visuo-constructive version, but were in greater difficulty with the perceptual version, especially in terms of response times. These findings are interpreted in relation to the slower visual processing speed of children with dyslexia, and to the visuo-constructive problems and difficulty in using flexibly-experienced global vs local processes of children with NLD. The clinical and educational implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. All track directed self-assembly of block copolymers: process flow and origin of defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon Delgadillo, Paulina A.; Gronheid, Roel; Thode, Christopher J.; Wu, Hengpeng; Cao, Yi; Somervell, Mark; Nafus, Kathleen; Nealey, Paul F.

    2012-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is considered to be a potential lithographic solution to achieve higher feature densities than can be obtained by current lithographic techniques. However, it is still not well-established how amenable DSA of block copolymers is to an industrial fabrication environment in terms of defectivity and processing conditions. Beyond production-related challenges, precise manipulation of the geometrical and chemical properties over the substrate is essential to achieve high pattern fidelity upon the self-assembly process. Using our chemo-epitaxy DSA approach offers control over the surface properties of the slightly preferential brush material as well as those of the guiding structures. This allows for a detailed assessment of the critical material parameters for defect reduction. The precise control of environment afforded by industrial equipment allows for the selective analysis of material and process related boundary conditions and assessment of their effect on defect generation. In this study, the previously reported implementation of our feature multiplication process was used to investigate the origin of defects in terms of the geometry of the initial pre-patterns. Additionally, programmed defects were used to investigate the ability of the BCP to heal defects in the resist patterns and will aid to assess the capture capability of the inspection tool. Finally, the set-up of the infrastructure that will allow the study the generation of defects due to the interaction of the BCP with the boundary conditions has been accomplished at imec.

  5. A comprehensive survey of wnt and frizzled expression in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nicolas; Lhomond, Guy; Schubert, Michael; Croce, Jenifer C

    2014-03-01

    WNT signaling is, in all multicellular animals, an essential intercellular communication pathway that is critical for shaping the embryo. At the molecular level, WNT signals can be transmitted by several transduction cascades, all activated chiefly by the binding of WNT ligands to receptors of the FRIZZLED family. The first step in assessing the biological functions of WNT signaling during embryogenesis is thus the establishment of the spatiotemporal expression profiles of wnt and frizzled genes in the course of embryonic development. To this end, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Northern blot, and in situ hybridization assays, we report here the comprehensive expression patterns of all 11 wnt and 4 frizzled genes present in the genome of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus during its embryogenesis. Our findings indicate that the expression of these wnt ligands and frizzled receptors is highly dynamic in both time and space. We further establish that all wnt genes are chiefly transcribed in the vegetal hemisphere of the embryo, whereas expression of the frizzled genes is distributed more widely across the embryonic territories. Thus, in P. lividus, WNT ligands might act both as short- and long-range signaling molecules that may operate in all cell lineages and tissues to control various developmental processes during embryogenesis.

  6. Wnt5a inhibits K(+) currents in hippocampal synapses through nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Jorge; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Varas, Rodrigo; Alfaro, Iván E; Serrano, Felipe G; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Muñoz, Francisco J; Cerpa, Waldo; Godoy, Juan A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-09-01

    Hippocampal synapses play a key role in memory and learning processes by inducing long-term potentiation and depression. Wnt signaling is essential in the development and maintenance of synapses via several mechanisms. We have previously found that Wnt5a induces the production of nitric oxide (NO), which modulates NMDA receptor expression in the postsynaptic regions of hippocampal neurons. Here, we report that Wnt5a selectively inhibits a voltage-gated K(+) current (Kv current) and increases synaptic activity in hippocampal slices. Further supporting a specific role for Wnt5a, the soluble Frizzled receptor protein (sFRP-2; a functional Wnt antagonist) fully inhibits the effects of Wnt5a. We additionally show that these responses to Wnt5a are mediated by activation of a ROR2 receptor and increased NO production because they are suppressed by the shRNA-mediated knockdown of ROR2 and by 7-nitroindazole, a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS. Together, our results show that Wnt5a increases NO production by acting on ROR2 receptors, which in turn inhibit Kv currents. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which Wnt5a may regulate the excitability of hippocampal neurons.

  7. Failure of articular process (zygaphophyseal) joint development as a cause of vertebral fusion (blocked vertebrae).

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S

    1987-01-01

    Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327

  8. Analysis of backward error recovery for concurrent processes with recovery blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Lee, Y. H.

    1982-01-01

    Three different methods of implementing recovery blocks (RB's). These are the asynchronous, synchronous, and the pseudo recovery point implementations. Pseudo recovery points so that unbounded rollback may be avoided while maintaining process autonomy are proposed. Probabilistic models for analyzing these three methods under standard assumptions in computer performance analysis, i.e., exponential distributions for related random variables were developed. The interval between two successive recovery lines for asynchronous RB's mean loss in computation power for the synchronized method, and additional overhead and rollback distance in case PRP's are used were estimated.

  9. Process Controlled Multiscale Morphologies in Metal-containing Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Darling, Seth B.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (PS-b-PFS) is a metal-containing block copolymer that exhibits certain advantages as a mask for lithographic applications. These advantages include compatibility with a wide range of substrates, ease of control over domain morphologies and robust stability to etch plasma, which aid in the development of high-aspect-ratio patterns. An asymmetric cylinder-forming PS-b-PFS copolymer is subjected to different processing to manipulate the morphology of the phase-separated domains. Control of film structure and domain morphology is achieved by adjusting the film thickness, mode of annealing, and/or annealing time. Changing the process from thermal or solvent annealing to hybrid annealing (thermal and then solvent annealing in sequence) leads to the formation of mesoscale spherulitic and dendritic morphologies. In this communication, we show that reversing the order of the hybrid annealing (solvent annealing first and then thermal annealing) of relatively thick films (>100 nm) on homogeneously thick substrates develops disordered lamellar structure. Furthermore, the same processing applied on a substrate with a thin, mechanically flexible window in the center leads to the formation of sub-micron scale concentric ring patterns. Enhanced material mobility in the thick film during hybrid annealing along with dynamic rippling effects that may arise from the vibration of the thin window during spin casting are likely causes for these morphologies.

  10. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Krause, Mirja; Samoylenko, Anatoly; Vainio, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:27322325

  11. Bone Metastasis of Prostate Cancer Can Be Therapeutically Targeted at the TBX2-WNT Signaling Axis.

    PubMed

    Nandana, Srinivas; Tripathi, Manisha; Duan, Peng; Chu, Chia-Yi; Mishra, Rajeev; Liu, Chunyan; Jin, Renjie; Yamashita, Hironobu; Zayzafoon, Majd; Bhowmick, Neil A; Zhau, Haiyen E; Matusik, Robert J; Chung, Leland W K

    2017-03-15

    Identification of factors that mediate visceral and bone metastatic spread and subsequent bone remodeling events is highly relevant to successful therapeutic intervention in advanced human prostate cancer. TBX2, a T-box family transcription factor that negatively regulates cell-cycle inhibitor p21, plays critical roles during embryonic development, and recent studies have highlighted its role in cancer. Here, we report that TBX2 is overexpressed in human prostate cancer specimens and bone metastases from xenograft mouse models of human prostate cancer. Blocking endogenous TBX2 expression in PC3 and ARCaPM prostate cancer cell models using a dominant-negative construct resulted in decreased tumor cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion in vitro Blocking endogenous TBX2 in human prostate cancer mouse xenografts decreased invasion and abrogation of bone and soft tissue metastasis. Furthermore, blocking endogenous TBX2 in prostate cancer cells dramatically reduced bone-colonizing capability through reduced tumor cell growth and bone remodeling in an intratibial mouse model. TBX2 acted in trans by promoting transcription of the canonical WNT (WNT3A) promoter. Genetically rescuing WNT3A levels in prostate cancer cells with endogenously blocked TBX2 partially restored the TBX2-induced prostate cancer metastatic capability in mice. Conversely, WNT3A-neutralizing antibodies or WNT antagonist SFRP-2 blocked TBX2-induced invasion. Our findings highlight TBX2 as a novel therapeutic target upstream of WNT3A, where WNT3A antagonists could be novel agents for the treatment of metastasis and for skeletal complications in prostate cancer patients. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1331-44. ©2017 AACR.

  12. Wnt3a stimulates Mepe, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, expression directly by the activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and indirectly through the stimulation of autocrine Bmp-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Dan; Kim, Woo-Jin; Yoon, Won-Joon; Woo, Kyung-Mi; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Gene; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo

    2012-06-01

    Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) is a specific marker of mineralizing osteoblasts and osteocytes. Canonical BMP and Wnt signaling pathways are two of the strongest paracrine signals stimulating osteogenesis. Our previous results indicated that Mepe expression is stimulated by the BMP-2-signaling pathway. The specific aim of this study addressed whether Mepe expression is also controlled by Wnt signaling, and whether there is a cross-regulation between two major osteogenic signaling pathways. Treatment with Wnt3a, a canonical Wnt signaling stimulator, strongly enhanced Mepe mRNA expression. Knock-down of β-catenin with siRNA completely reversed Wnt3a-stimulated Mepe expression. The Mepe mRNA expression level was increased by overexpression of β-catenin and Lef-1, even in the absence of Wnt3a. Highly conserved Lef-1 response elements were identified in the mouse Mepe promoter. The direct binding of Lef-1 to these elements is critical for Mepe expression, indicating that Mepe is a direct target of canonical Wnt signaling. Meanwhile, we also found that Wnt3a treatment strongly stimulated Bmp-2 expression, and that the subsequent increase in Bmp-2 protein was determined in Wnt3a-treated conditioned medium (CM). Treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with CM stimulated phosphorylation of the Smad1/5 proteins and their downstream Dlx5 mRNA expression. The CM-mediated increases of phospho-Smad and Dlx5 expression were not blocked completely by a Wnt3a antagonist, Dkk-1, but were almost completely suppressed by the addition of a Bmp-2 antagonist, Noggin. Collectively, Wnt3a stimulates Mepe transcription directly by a canonical Wnt signaling pathway through β-catenin and Lef-1 and indirectly through the activation of a Bmp-2 autocrine loop.

  13. p15RS Attenuates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling by Disrupting β-Catenin·TCF4 Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yinyuan; Zhang, Yanquan; Zhang, Haiwei; Yang, Xi; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Liu, Huitu; Zhai, Yonggong; Jia, Baoqing; Yu, Jun; Chang, Zhijie

    2010-01-01

    The formation of a β-catenin·TCF4 complex in the nucleus of cells is well known as a prerequisite for the transcription of Wnt target genes. Although many co-factors have been identified to regulate the activity of the β-catenin·TCF4 complex, it remains unclear how the complex association is negatively regulated. In this study, we report that p15RS, a negative regulator of the cell cycle, blocks β-catenin·TCF4 complex formation and inhibits Wnt signaling. We observed that p15RS interacts with β-catenin and TCF4. Interestingly, whereas the interaction of p15RS with β-catenin is increased, its interaction with TCF4 is decreased upon Wnt1 stimulation. Moreover, overexpression of p15RS reduces the interaction of β-catenin with TCF4, whereas the depletion of p15RS enhances their interaction. We further demonstrate that overexpression of p15RS suppresses canonical Wnt signaling and results in retarded cell growth, whereas depletion of p15RS shows an enhanced effect on Wnt signaling. We analyzed that inhibition of Wnt signaling by p15RS leads to decreased expression of CYCLIN D1 and c-MYC, two Wnt targeted genes critical for cell growth. Our data suggest that p15RS inhibits Wnt signaling by interrupting β-catenin·TCF4 complex formation and that Wnt signaling initiates downstream gene expression by removing p15RS from promoters. PMID:20739273

  14. Wnt5a and Wnt11 are essential for second heart field progenitor development

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ethan David; Miller, Mayumi F.; Wang, Zichao; Moon, Randall T.; Morrisey, Edward E.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin has a biphasic effect on cardiogenesis, promoting the induction of cardiac progenitors but later inhibiting their differentiation. Second heart field progenitors and expression of the second heart field transcription factor Islet1 are inhibited by the loss of β-catenin, indicating that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for second heart field development. However, expressing a constitutively active β-catenin with Islet1-Cre also inhibits endogenous Islet1 expression, reflecting the inhibitory effect of prolonged Wnt/β-catenin signaling on second heart field development. We show that two non-canonical Wnt ligands, Wnt5a and Wnt11, are co-required to regulate second heart field development in mice. Loss of Wnt5a and Wnt11 leads to a dramatic loss of second heart field progenitors in the developing heart. Importantly, this loss of Wnt5a and Wnt11 is accompanied by an increase in Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and ectopic Wnt5a/Wnt11 inhibits β-catenin signaling and promotes cardiac progenitor development in differentiating embryonic stem cells. These data show that Wnt5a and Wnt11 are essential regulators of the response of second heart field progenitors to Wnt/β-catenin signaling and that they act by restraining Wnt/β-catenin signaling during cardiac development. PMID:22569553

  15. Tyrosine-based signal mediates LRP6 receptor endocytosis and desensitization of Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Roth, Barbara; Bu, Guojun

    2014-10-03

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling orchestrates a number of critical events including cell growth, differentiation, and cell survival during development. Misregulation of this pathway leads to various human diseases, specifically cancers. Endocytosis and phosphorylation of the LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), an essential co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, play a vital role in mediating Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction. However, its regulatory mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we define the mechanisms by which LRP6 endocytic trafficking regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation. We show that LRP6 mutant with defective tyrosine-based signal in its cytoplasmic tail has an increased cell surface distribution and decreased endocytosis rate. These changes in LRP6 endocytosis coincide with an increased distribution to caveolae, increased phosphorylation, and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We further demonstrate that treatment of Wnt3a ligands or blocking the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of LRP6 leads to a redistribution of wild-type receptor to lipid rafts. The LRP6 tyrosine mutant also exhibited an increase in signaling activation in response to Wnt3a stimulation when compared with wild-type LRP6, and this activation is suppressed when caveolae-mediated endocytosis is blocked. Our results reveal molecular mechanisms by which LRP6 endocytosis routes regulate its phosphorylation and the strength of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and have implications on how this pathway can be modulated in human diseases.

  16. Carrier recovery for M-QAM signals based on a block estimation process with Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi; Namiki, Shu

    2014-06-30

    A novel carrier recovery scheme for demodulating optical M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) signals is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed scheme treats a certain number of consecutive symbols as a processing block for which linear evolution of the carrier phases in time is assumed. The Kalman filter algorithm is employed to simultaneously estimate the carrier-frequency offset and carrier phases of the symbols in each block from the observation result. Consequently, an optimal carrier recovery operation with minimum mean squared error can be obtained, and large phase errors due to optical noise and large carrier-frequency offsets can be tolerated. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme in demodulating optical 16- and 64-QAM signals, confirming its stable operation for carrier-frequency offsets even larger than 10% of the symbol rate of the signal. We also demonstrate 160-km transmission of a single-channel, single-polarization 64-QAM signal by using the proposed scheme in the demodulation process.

  17. Wnt-5a Ligand Modulates Mitochondrial Fission-Fusion in Rat Hippocampal Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Juan A.; Arrázola, Macarena S.; Ordenes, Daniela; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Braidy, Nady; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in developmental processes, including embryonic patterning, cell specification, and cell polarity. Wnt components participate in the development of the central nervous system, and growing evidence indicates that this pathway also regulates the function of the adult nervous system. In this study, we report that Wnt-5a, a noncanonical Wnt ligand, is a potent activator of mitochondrial dynamics and induces acute fission and fusion events in the mitochondria of rat hippocampal neurons. The effect of Wnt-5a was inhibited in the presence of sFRP, a Wnt scavenger. Similarly, the canonical Wnt-3a ligand had no effect on mitochondrial fission-fusion events, suggesting that this effect is specific for Wnt-5a alone. We also show that the Wnt-5a effects on mitochondrial dynamics occur with an increase in both intracellular and mitochondrial calcium (Ca2+), which was correlated with an increased phosphorylation of Drp1(Ser-616) and a decrease of Ser-637 phosphorylation, both indicators of mitochondrial dynamics. Electron microscope analysis of hippocampal tissues in the CA1 region showed an increase in the number of mitochondria present in the postsynaptic region, and this finding correlated with a change in mitochondrial morphology. We conclude that Wnt-5a/Ca2+ signaling regulates the mitochondrial fission-fusion process in hippocampal neurons, a feature that might help to further understand the role of Wnt-related pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, and represents a potentially important link between impaired metabolic function and degenerative disorders. PMID:25336659

  18. Wnt-5a ligand modulates mitochondrial fission-fusion in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Juan A; Arrázola, Macarena S; Ordenes, Daniela; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Braidy, Nady; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-12-26

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in developmental processes, including embryonic patterning, cell specification, and cell polarity. Wnt components participate in the development of the central nervous system, and growing evidence indicates that this pathway also regulates the function of the adult nervous system. In this study, we report that Wnt-5a, a noncanonical Wnt ligand, is a potent activator of mitochondrial dynamics and induces acute fission and fusion events in the mitochondria of rat hippocampal neurons. The effect of Wnt-5a was inhibited in the presence of sFRP, a Wnt scavenger. Similarly, the canonical Wnt-3a ligand had no effect on mitochondrial fission-fusion events, suggesting that this effect is specific for Wnt-5a alone. We also show that the Wnt-5a effects on mitochondrial dynamics occur with an increase in both intracellular and mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)), which was correlated with an increased phosphorylation of Drp1(Ser-616) and a decrease of Ser-637 phosphorylation, both indicators of mitochondrial dynamics. Electron microscope analysis of hippocampal tissues in the CA1 region showed an increase in the number of mitochondria present in the postsynaptic region, and this finding correlated with a change in mitochondrial morphology. We conclude that Wnt-5a/Ca(2+) signaling regulates the mitochondrial fission-fusion process in hippocampal neurons, a feature that might help to further understand the role of Wnt-related pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, and represents a potentially important link between impaired metabolic function and degenerative disorders.

  19. WNT3 Inhibits Cerebellar Granule Neuron Progenitor Proliferation and Medulloblastoma Formation via MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ayrault, Olivier; Kim, Jee Hae; Zhu, Xiaodong; Murphy, David A.; Van Aelst, Linda; Roussel, Martine F.; Hatten, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    During normal cerebellar development, the remarkable expansion of granule cell progenitors (GCPs) generates a population of granule neurons that outnumbers the total neuronal population of the cerebral cortex, and provides a model for identifying signaling pathways that may be defective in medulloblastoma. While many studies focus on identifying pathways that promote growth of GCPs, a critical unanswered question concerns the identification of signaling pathways that block mitogenic stimulation and induce early steps in differentiation. Here we identify WNT3 as a novel suppressor of GCP proliferation during cerebellar development and an inhibitor of medulloblastoma growth in mice. WNT3, produced in early postnatal cerebellum, inhibits GCP proliferation by down-regulating pro-proliferative target genes of the mitogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and the bHLH transcription factor Atoh1. WNT3 suppresses GCP growth through a non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, activating prototypic mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the Ras-dependent extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and ERK5, instead of the classical β-catenin pathway. Inhibition of MAPK activity using a MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor reversed the inhibitory effect of WNT3 on GCP proliferation. Importantly, WNT3 inhibits proliferation of medulloblastoma tumor growth in mouse models by a similar mechanism. Thus, the present study suggests a novel role for WNT3 as a regulator of neurogenesis and repressor of neural tumors. PMID:24303070

  20. Novel surface treatment materials for aligning block-co-polymer in directed self-assembly processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Yasunobu; Wakayama, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takafumi; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2014-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) process is one of the attractive processes for creating the very fine pitch pattern. Especially, the contact hole shrink processes with block-co-polymer (BCP) or polymer blend materials were attractive processes for creating very small size hole patterns with better CD uniformity compare to general photo-lithography patterning. In general contact hole shrink process, the pattern of Spin-on Carbon Hardmask (SOC) or the photo Resist pattern created by Negative-Tone Development (NTD) process were selected for guide patterns. Since the alignment property of BCP was affected by the surface of these guide materials, it is important to control the surface condition of guide in order to obtain good shrunk contact hole patterns. In this study, we will report the surface treatment materials to control the surface condition of guide patterns such as SOC or NTD resist to achieve the better contact hole shrink performance. These materials were attached to guide pattern surface and controlled the surface energy.

  1. Autoplan: A self-processing network model for an extended blocks world planning environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dautrechy, C. Lynne; Reggia, James A.; Mcfadden, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Self-processing network models (neural/connectionist models, marker passing/message passing networks, etc.) are currently undergoing intense investigation for a variety of information processing applications. These models are potentially very powerful in that they support a large amount of explicit parallel processing, and they cleanly integrate high level and low level information processing. However they are currently limited by a lack of understanding of how to apply them effectively in many application areas. The formulation of self-processing network methods for dynamic, reactive planning is studied. The long-term goal is to formulate robust, computationally effective information processing methods for the distributed control of semiautonomous exploration systems, e.g., the Mars Rover. The current research effort is focusing on hierarchical plan generation, execution and revision through local operations in an extended blocks world environment. This scenario involves many challenging features that would be encountered in a real planning and control environment: multiple simultaneous goals, parallel as well as sequential action execution, action sequencing determined not only by goals and their interactions but also by limited resources (e.g., three tasks, two acting agents), need to interpret unanticipated events and react appropriately through replanning, etc.

  2. WASP-1, a canonical Wnt signaling potentiator, rescues hippocampal synaptic impairments induced by Aβ oligomers.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jessica Y; Ahumada, Juan; Arrázola, Macarena S; Fuenzalida, Marco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are a key factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated synaptic dysfunction. Aβ oligomers block the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rodents. The activation of Wnt signaling prevents Aβ oligomer-induced neurotoxic effects. The compound WASP-1 (Wnt-activating small molecule potentiator-1), has been described as a synergist of the ligand Wnt-3a, enhancing the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Herein, we report that WASP-1 administration successfully rescued Aβ-induced synaptic impairments both in vitro and in vivo. The activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by WASP-1 increased synaptic transmission and rescued hippocampal LTP impairments induced by Aβ oligomers. Additionally, intra-hippocampal administration of WASP-1 to the double transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD prevented synaptic protein loss and reduced tau phosphorylation levels. Moreover, we found that WASP-1 blocked Aβ aggregation in vitro and reduced pathological tau phosphorylation in vivo. These results indicate that targeting canonical Wnt signaling with WASP-1 could have value for treating AD.

  3. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of Wnt4 gene in metacestodes of Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-04-01

    Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium.

  4. Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Wnt4 Gene in Metacestodes of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Junling; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Yin, Cai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhu, Xueliang; Dou, Yongxi

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins are a family of secreted glycoproteins that are evolutionarily conserved and considered to be involved in extensive developmental processes in metazoan organisms. The characterization of wnt genes may improve understanding the parasite's development. In the present study, a wnt4 gene encoding 491amino acids was amplified from cDNA of metacestodes of Taenia solium using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Bioinformatics tools were used for sequence analysis. The conserved domain of the wnt gene family was predicted. The expression profile of Wnt4 was investigated using real-time PCR. Wnt4 expression was found to be dramatically increased in scolex evaginated cysticerci when compared to invaginated cysticerci. In situ hybridization showed that wnt4 gene was distributed in the posterior end of the worm along the primary body axis in evaginated cysticerci. These findings indicated that wnt4 may take part in the process of cysticerci evagination and play a role in scolex/bladder development of cysticerci of T. solium. PMID:24850959

  5. Activation of Wnt Signaling in Cortical Neurons Enhances Glucose Utilization through Glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Pedro; Salazar, Paulina; Silva-Álvarez, Carmen; Barros, L Felipe; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-12-09

    The Wnt signaling pathway is critical for a number of functions in the central nervous system, including regulation of the synaptic cleft structure and neuroprotection against injury. Deregulation of Wnt signaling has been associated with several brain pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease. In recent years, it has been suggested that the Wnt pathway might act as a central integrator of metabolic signals from peripheral organs to the brain, which would represent a new role for Wnt signaling in cell metabolism. Energy metabolism is critical for normal neuronal function, which mainly depends on glucose utilization. Brain energy metabolism is important in almost all neurological disorders, to which a decrease in the capacity of the brain to utilize glucose has been linked. However, little is known about the relationship between Wnt signaling and neuronal glucose metabolism in the cellular context. In the present study, we found that acute treatment with the Wnt3a ligand induced a large increase in glucose uptake, without changes in the expression or localization of glucose transporter type 3. In addition, we observed that Wnt3a treatment increased the activation of the metabolic sensor Akt. Moreover, we observed an increase in the activity of hexokinase and in the glycolytic rate, and both processes were dependent on activation of the Akt pathway. Furthermore, we did not observe changes in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or in the pentose phosphate pathway. The effect of Wnt3a was independent of both the transcription of Wnt target genes and synaptic effects of Wnt3a. Together, our results suggest that Wnt signaling stimulates glucose utilization in cortical neurons through glycolysis to satisfy the high energy demand of these cells.

  6. Conservation, loss, and redeployment of Wnt ligands in protostomes: implications for understanding the evolution of segment formation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Wnt genes encode secreted glycoprotein ligands that regulate a wide range of developmental processes, including axis elongation and segmentation. There are thirteen subfamilies of Wnt genes in metazoans and this gene diversity appeared early in animal evolution. The loss of Wnt subfamilies appears to be common in insects, but little is known about the Wnt repertoire in other arthropods, and moreover the expression and function of these genes have only been investigated in a few protostomes outside the relatively Wnt-poor model species Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. To investigate the evolution of this important gene family more broadly in protostomes, we surveyed the Wnt gene diversity in the crustacean Daphnia pulex, the chelicerates Ixodes scapularis and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata and the annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We also characterised Wnt gene expression in the latter three species, and further investigated expression of these genes in the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Results We found that Daphnia and Platynereis both contain twelve Wnt subfamilies demonstrating that the common ancestors of arthropods, ecdysozoans and protostomes possessed all members of all Wnt subfamilies except Wnt3. Furthermore, although there is striking loss of Wnt genes in insects, other arthropods have maintained greater Wnt gene diversity. The expression of many Wnt genes overlap in segmentally reiterated patterns and in the segment addition zone, and while these patterns can be relatively conserved among arthropods and the annelid, there have also been changes in the expression of some Wnt genes in the course of protostome evolution. Nevertheless, our results strongly support the parasegment as the primary segmental unit in arthropods, and suggest further similarities between segmental and parasegmental regulation by Wnt genes in annelids and arthropods respectively. Conclusions Despite frequent losses of Wnt gene

  7. Roles of blocking layer and anode bias in processes of impurity-band transition and transport for GaAs-based blocked-impurity-band detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bingbing; Chen, Xiaoyao; Chen, Yulu; Hou, Liwei; Xie, Wei; Pan, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Recently, GaAs-based BIB detector has attracted a lot of attention in the area of THz photovoltaic detection due to potential application values in security check and drug inspection. However, the physical mechanisms involving in carrier transition and transport are still unclear due to the poor material quality and immature processing technique. In this paper, the dark current and THz response characteristics have thus been numerically studied for GaAs-based blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors. The key parameters and physical models are constructed by simultaneously considering carrier freeze-out and impurity-band broadening effects. Roles of blocking layer and anode bias in processes of impurity-band transition and transport are intensively investigated, and the results can be well explained by numerical models. It is demonstrated that the effective electric field for the detector is only located in the absorbing layer, and can determine to a large extent the magnitude of the dark current and THz response. While the blocking layer not only can suppress dark current but also can attenuate responsivity due to its electric-field modulation effect.

  8. Transform methods for developing parallel algorithms for cyclic-block signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, T. G., Jr.

    A class of FIR and IIR single and multirate parallel filtering algorithms is introduced in which blocks of inputs and outputs are processed on-the-fly in a cyclic manner. There is no inherent latency introduced by the decomposition procedure giving the parallelism, the system latency being primarily due to the component processors. The structure is particularly well-suited for systems in which the component processors are the familiar DSP chips optimized for convolution although other component structures can be accommodated. In particular, the automatic data shifting feature of the TMS320 series processors can be utilized in these algorithms. A transform notation, introduced for digital filter banks, is recast in the desired form for this application. The resulting structure of the system, in this notation, is a circulant matrix for FIR filtering or a related matrix in other cases. The cyclic properties of the system and useful implementation flexibility result from this matrix structure.

  9. A Complete Image Compression Scheme Based on Overlapped Block Transform with Post-Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, C.; Li, B.; Xu, R.; Li, X.; Tran, T.; Nguyen, T.

    2006-12-01

    A complete system was built for high-performance image compression based on overlapped block transform. Extensive simulations and comparative studies were carried out for still image compression including benchmark images (Lena and Barbara), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, and color images. We have achieved consistently better results than three commercial products in the market (a Summus wavelet codec, a baseline JPEG codec, and a JPEG-2000 codec) for most images that we used in this study. Included in the system are two post-processing techniques based on morphological and median filters for enhancing the perceptual quality of the reconstructed images. The proposed system also supports the enhancement of a small region of interest within an image, which is of interest in various applications such as target recognition and medical diagnosis

  10. Process-directed self-assembly of block copolymers: a computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marcus; Sun, De-Wen

    2015-05-20

    The free-energy landscape of self-assembling block copolymer systems is characterized by a multitude of metastable minima and concomitant protracted relaxation times of the morphology. Tailoring rapid changes (quench) of thermodynamic conditions, one can reproducibly trap the ensuing kinetics of self-assembly in a specific metastable state. To this end, it is necessary to (1) control the generation of well-defined, highly unstable states and (2) design the unstable state such that the ensuing spontaneous kinetics of structure formation reaches the desired metastable morphology. This process-directed self-assembly provides an alternative to fine-tuning molecular architecture by synthesis or blending, for instance, in order to fabricate complex network structures. Comparing our simulation results to recently developed free-energy techniques, we highlight the importance of non-equilibrium molecular conformations in the starting state and motivate the significance of the local conservation of density.

  11. WNT-3A Regulates an Axin1/NRF2 Complex That Regulates Antioxidant Metabolism in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rada, Patricia; Rojo, Ana I.; Offergeld, Anika; Feng, Gui Jie; Velasco-Martín, Juan P.; González-Sancho, José Manuel; Valverde, Ángela M.; Dale, Trevor; Regadera, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a master regulator of oxidant and xenobiotic metabolism, but it is unknown how it is regulated to provide basal expression of this defense system. Here, we studied the putative connection between NRF2 and the canonical WNT pathway, which modulates hepatocyte metabolism. Results: WNT-3A increased the levels of NRF2 and its transcriptional signature in mouse hepatocytes and HEK293T cells. The use of short interfering RNAs in hepatocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts which are deficient in the redox sensor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) indicated that WNT-3A activates NRF2 in a β-Catenin- and KEAP1-independent manner. WNT-3A stabilized NRF2 by preventing its GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation and subsequent SCF/β-TrCP-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Axin1 and NRF2 were physically associated in a protein complex that was regulated by WNT-3A, involving the central region of Axin1 and the Neh4/Neh5 domains of NRF2. Axin1 knockdown increased NRF2 protein levels, while Axin1 stabilization with Tankyrase inhibitors blocked WNT/NRF2 signaling. The relevance of this novel pathway was assessed in mice with a conditional deletion of Axin1 in the liver, which showed upregulation of the NRF2 signature in hepatocytes and disruption of liver zonation of antioxidant metabolism. Innovation: NRF2 takes part in a protein complex with Axin1 that is regulated by the canonical WNT pathway. This new WNT-NRF2 axis controls the antioxidant metabolism of hepatocytes. Conclusion: These results uncover the participation of NRF2 in a WNT-regulated signalosome that participates in basal maintenance of hepatic antioxidant metabolism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 555–571. PMID:25336178

  12. Wnt signaling in the murine diastema

    PubMed Central

    Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Ohazama, Atsushi; Choi, Hong Y.; Herz, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The correct number and shape of teeth are critical factors for an aesthetic and functional dentition. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating tooth number and shape are therefore important in orthodontics. Mice have only one incisor and three molars in each jaw quadrant that are divided by a tooth-less region, the diastema. Although mice lost teeth in the diastema during evolution, the remnants of the evolutionary lost teeth are observed as transient epithelial buds in the wild-type diastema during early stages of development. Shh and Fgf signaling pathways that are essential for tooth development have been shown to be repressed in the diastema. It remains unclear however how Wnt signaling, that is also required for tooth development, is regulated in the diastema. In this study we found that in the embryonic diastema, Wnt5a expression was observed in mesenchyme, whereas Wnt4 and Wnt10b were expressed in epithelium. The expression of Wnt6 and Wnt11 was found in both tissues. The Wnt co-receptor, Lrp6, was weakly expressed in the diastema overlapping with weak Lrp4 expression, a co-receptor that inhibits Wnt signaling. Secreted Wnt inihibitors Dkk1, Dkk2, and Dkk3 were also expressed in the diastema. Lrp4 mutant mice develop supernumerary teeth in the diastema that is accompanied by upregulation of Wnt signaling and Lrp6 expression. Wnt signaling is thus usually attenuated in the diastema by these secreted and membrane bound Wnt inhibitors. PMID:21531785

  13. Cloning and characterization of wnt4a gene and evidence for positive selection in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiaomu; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Yang; Wang, Na; Chen, Songlin

    2014-11-01

    Wnt4 gene plays a role in developmental processes in mammals. However, little is known regarding its function in teleosts. We cloned and characterized the full-length half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) wnt4a gene (CS-wnt4a). CS-wnt4a cDNA was 1746 bp in length encoding 353aa. CS-wnt4a expression level was highest in the testis, and gradually increased in the developing gonads until 1 year of age. In situ hybridization revealed that CS-wnt4a expression level was highest in stage II oocytes and sperm in the adult ovary and testis, respectively. CS-wnt4a expression level was significantly up-regulated in the gonads after exposure to high temperature. The level of methylation of the CS-wnt4a first exon was negatively correlated with the expression of CS-wnt4a. The branch-site model suggested that vertebrate wnt4a differed significantly from that of wnt4b, and that the selective pressures differed between ancestral aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Two positively selected sites were found in the ancestral lineages of teleost fish, but none in the ancestral lineages of mammals. One positively selected site was located on the α-helices of the 3D structure, the other on the random coil. Our results are of value for further study of the function of wnt4 and the mechanism of selection.

  14. Cloning and characterization of wnt4a gene and evidence for positive selection in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiaomu; Zhu, Ying; Liu, Yang; Wang, Na; Chen, Songlin

    2014-11-24

    Wnt4 gene plays a role in developmental processes in mammals. However, little is known regarding its function in teleosts. We cloned and characterized the full-length half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) wnt4a gene (CS-wnt4a). CS-wnt4a cDNA was 1746 bp in length encoding 353aa. CS-wnt4a expression level was highest in the testis, and gradually increased in the developing gonads until 1 year of age. In situ hybridization revealed that CS-wnt4a expression level was highest in stage II oocytes and sperm in the adult ovary and testis, respectively. CS-wnt4a expression level was significantly up-regulated in the gonads after exposure to high temperature. The level of methylation of the CS-wnt4a first exon was negatively correlated with the expression of CS-wnt4a. The branch-site model suggested that vertebrate wnt4a differed significantly from that of wnt4b, and that the selective pressures differed between ancestral aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Two positively selected sites were found in the ancestral lineages of teleost fish, but none in the ancestral lineages of mammals. One positively selected site was located on the α-helices of the 3D structure, the other on the random coil. Our results are of value for further study of the function of wnt4 and the mechanism of selection.

  15. Expression of Gpr177, a Wnt trafficking regulator, in mouse embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsiao-Man Ivy; Jin, Ying; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2010-07-01

    Wls/Evi/Srt encoding a multipass transmembrane protein has been identified as a regulator for proper sorting and secretion of Wnt in flies. We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177 is the mouse ortholog required for axis determination. Gpr177 is a transcriptional target of Wnt that is activated to assist its subcellular distribution in a feedback regulatory loop. We, therefore, proposed that reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the Wnt-dependent developmental and pathogenic processes. Here, we examine the expression pattern of Gpr177 in mouse development. Gpr177 is expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types during organogenesis. Furthermore, Gpr177 is a glycoprotein primarily accumulating in the Golgi apparatus in signal-producing cells. The glycosylation of Gpr177 is necessary for proper transportation in the secretory pathway. Our findings suggest that the Gpr177-mediated regulation of Wnt is crucial for organogenesis in health and disease.

  16. Wnt5a Suppresses β-catenin Signaling during Hair Follicle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yizhan; Ma, Xiaogen; Guo, Haiying; Deng, Fang; Yang, Jin; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles display periodic growth. Wnt signaling is a critical regulator for hair follicle regeneration. Previously, we reported that Wnt5a inhibits the telogen-to-anagen transition of hair follicles, but the mechanism by which this process occurs has not yet been reported. Here, we determined the expression patterns of Wnt signaling pathway molecules by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry and found that β-catenin signaling was suppressed by Wnt5a. We then compared the phenotypes and expression patterns following β-catenin knockdown and Wnt5a overexpression during hair follicle regeneration induced by hair depilation and observed similar patterns. In addition, we performed a rescue experiment in the JB6 cell line and found that the inhibitory effect of Wnt5a on cell proliferation could be rescued by the addition of Wnt3a. Our data reveal that Wnt5a suppresses the activation of β-catenin signaling during hair follicle regeneration. PMID:27499692

  17. Wnt-5a/JNK Signaling Promotes the Clustering of PSD-95 in Hippocampal Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Farías, Ginny G.; Alfaro, Iván E.; Cerpa, Waldo; Grabowski, Catalina P.; Godoy, Juan A.; Bonansco, Christian; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2009-01-01

    During the formation of synapses, specific regions of pre- and postsynaptic cells associate to form a single functional transmission unit. In this process, synaptogenic factors are necessary to modulate pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. In mammals, different Wnt ligands operate through canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways, and their precise functions to coordinate synapse structure and function in the mature central nervous system are still largely unknown. Here, we studied the effect of different Wnt ligands on postsynaptic organization. We found that Wnt-5a induces short term changes in the clustering of PSD-95, without affecting its total levels. Wnt-5a promotes the recruitment of PSD-95 from a diffuse dendritic cytoplasmic pool to form new PSD-95 clusters in dendritic spines. Moreover, Wnt-5a acting as a non-canonical ligand regulates PSD-95 distribution through a JNK-dependent signaling pathway, as demonstrated by using the TAT-TI-JIP peptide in mature hippocampal neurons. Finally, using adult rat hippocampal slices, we found that Wnt-5a modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission through a postsynaptic mechanism. Our studies indicate that the Wnt-5a/JNK pathway modulates the postsynaptic region of mammalian synapse directing the clustering and distribution of the physiologically relevant scaffold protein, PSD-95. PMID:19332546

  18. Boehmenan, a lignan from Hibiscus ficulneus, showed Wnt signal inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Shono, Takumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir K; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-07-15

    The Wnt signal pathway modulates numerous biological processes, and its aberrant activation is related to various diseases. Therefore, inhibition of the Wnt signal may provide an effective (or efficient) strategy for these diseases. Cell-based luciferase assay targeting the Wnt signal (TOP assay) revealed that Hibiscus ficulneus extract inhibited the Wnt signal. The activity-guided isolation of the MeOH extract of H. ficulneus stems yielded four known (1-4) lignans along with myriceric acid (5). Compounds 1-4 potently inhibited the Wnt signal with TOPflash IC50 values of 1.0, 4.5, 6.3, and 1.9 μM, respectively. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against both Wnt-dependent (HCT116) and Wnt-independent (RKO) cells. Western blot analysis showed that 1 decreased the expression of full, cytosolic and nuclear β-catenin along with c-myc in STF/293 cells. Our results suggested that 1 may have inhibited the Wnt signal by decreasing β-catenin levels.

  19. Expression of secreted Wnt pathway components reveals unexpected complexity of the planarian amputation response.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Kyle A; Elliott, Sarah A; Simakov, Oleg; Schmidt, Heiko A; Holstein, Thomas W; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    Regeneration is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, but our molecular understanding of this process in adult animals remains poorly understood. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays crucial roles throughout animal life from early development to adulthood. In intact and regenerating planarians, the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling functions to maintain and specify anterior/posterior (A/P) identity. Here, we explore the expression kinetics and RNAi phenotypes for secreted members of the Wnt signaling pathway in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-wnt and sFRP expression during regeneration is surprisingly dynamic and reveals fundamental aspects of planarian biology that have been previously unappreciated. We show that after amputation, a wounding response precedes rapid re-organization of the A/P axis. Furthermore, cells throughout the body plan can mount this response and reassess their new A/P location in the complete absence of stem cells. While initial stages of the amputation response are stem cell independent, tissue remodeling and the integration of a new A/P address with anatomy are stem cell dependent. We also show that WNT5 functions in a reciprocal manner with SLIT to pattern the planarian mediolateral axis, while WNT11-2 patterns the posterior midline. Moreover, we perform an extensive phylogenetic analysis on the Smed-wnt genes using a method that combines and integrates both sequence and structural alignments, enabling us to place all nine genes into Wnt subfamilies for the first time.

  20. Dpr Acts as a molecular switch, inhibiting Wnt signaling when unphosphorylated, but promoting Wnt signaling when phosphorylated by casein kinase Idelta/epsilon.

    PubMed

    Teran, Evelyn; Branscomb, Aron D; Seeling, Joni M

    2009-01-01

    The Wnt pathway is a key regulator of development and tumorigenesis. Dpr (Dact/Frodo) influences Wnt signaling in part through the interaction of its PDZ-B domain with Dsh's PDZ domain. Studies have shown that XDpr1a and its close relative, Frodo, are involved in multiple steps of the Wnt pathway in either inhibitory or activating roles. We found that XDpr1a is phosphorylated by casein kinase Idelta/epsilon (CKIdelta/epsilon), an activator of Wnt signaling, in the presence of XDsh. Abrogating XDpr1a's ability to bind XDsh through mutation of XDpr1a's PDZ-B domain blocks CK1delta/epsilon's phosphorylation of XDpr1a. Conversely, XDsh possessing a mutation in its PDZ domain that is unable to bind XDpr1a does not promote XDpr1a phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of XDpr1a and XDsh by CKIdelta/epsilon decreases their interaction. Moreover, the phosphorylation of XDpr1a by CKIdelta/epsilon not only abrogates XDpr1a's promotion of beta-catenin degradation but blocks beta-catenin degradation. Our data suggest that XDpr1a phosphorylation by CKIdelta/epsilon is dependent on the interaction of XDpr1a's PDZ-B domain with XDsh's PDZ domain, and that the phosphorylation state of XDpr1a determines whether it inhibits or activates Wnt signaling.

  1. Crossroads of Wnt and Hippo in epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Bernascone, Ilenia; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial tissues undergo constant growth and differentiation during embryonic development and to replace damaged tissue in adult organs. These processes are governed by different signaling pathways that ultimately control the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, patterning, and death. One essential pathway is Wnt, which controls tubulogenesis in several epithelial organs. Recently, Wnt has been closely linked to other signaling pathways, such as Hippo, that orchestrate proliferation and apoptosis to control organ size. There is evidence that epithelial cell junctions may sequester the transcription factors that act downstream of these signaling pathways, which would represent an important aspect of their functional regulation and their influence on cell behavior. Here, we review the transcriptional control exerted by the Wnt and Hippo signaling pathways during epithelial growth, patterning, and differentiation and recent advances in understanding of the regulation and crosstalk of these pathways in epithelial tissues.

  2. Can we safely target the WNT pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    WNT–β-catenin signalling is involved in a multitude of developmental processes and the maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, genetic stability and apoptosis, as well as by maintaining adult stem cells in a pluripotent state. Not surprisingly, aberrant regulation of this pathway is therefore associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer, fibrosis and neurodegeneration. Despite this knowledge, therapeutic agents specifically targeting the WNT pathway have only recently entered clinical trials and none has yet been approved. This Review examines the problems and potential solutions to this vexing situation and attempts to bring them into perspective. PMID:24981364

  3. Technology Insertion-Engineering Services Process Characterization, Task Order Number 1 (Block 1) Database Documentation Book, MANPGB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-14

    ORCER NUMBER J. QUANTITY SETI./C IQJTO QsccSCME C DAT qeBlock 12 . MNPGB . . LA~1C _____ See :Bl~ock ൔ L.7.... See BldC Ia. Maori-0016116--U1IS it...assest availability. 8. ATE availability (saturates at 2 shifts). 9. Equipment modernization to Improve throughput on rate gyros. 10. Parts...reduce labor costs and increase throughput in AGMC GRU repair operations through implementation of modernized equipment, batch processing methods

  4. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for optic cup formation.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Anna-Carin; Berghard, Anna; Carlsson, Leif

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of signalling pathways are involved in the process of forming an eye. Here we demonstrate that β-catenin is essential for eye development as inactivation of β-catenin prior to cellular specification in the optic vesicle caused anophthalmia in mice. By achieving this early and tissue-specific β-catenin inactivation we find that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) commitment was blocked and eye development was arrested prior to optic cup formation due to a loss of canonical Wnt signalling in the dorsal optic vesicle. Thus, these results show that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is required earlier and play a more central role in eye development than previous studies have indicated. In our genetic model system a few RPE cells could escape β-catenin inactivation leading to the formation of a small optic rudiment. The optic rudiment contained several neural retinal cell classes surrounded by an RPE. Unlike the RPE cells, the neural retinal cells could be β-catenin-negative revealing that differentiation of the neural retinal cell classes is β-catenin-independent. Moreover, although dorsoventral patterning is initiated in the mutant optic vesicle, the neural retinal cells in the optic rudiment displayed almost exclusively ventral identity. Thus, β-catenin is required for optic cup formation, commitment to RPE cells and maintenance of dorsal identity of the retina.

  5. Apc bridges Wnt/{beta}-catenin and BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation of KS483 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miclea, Razvan L.; Horst, Geertje van der; Robanus-Maandag, Els C.; Loewik, Clemens W.G.M.; Oostdijk, Wilma; Wit, Jan M.; Karperien, Marcel

    2011-06-10

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway influences the differentiation of mesenchymal cell lineages in a quantitative and qualitative fashion depending on the dose of {beta}-catenin signaling. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is the critical intracellular regulator of {beta}-catenin turnover. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Apc in regulating the differentiation capacity of skeletal progenitor cells, we have knocked down Apc in the murine mesenchymal stem cell-like KS483 cells by stable expression of Apc-specific small interfering RNA. In routine culture, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells displayed a mesenchymal-like spindle shape morphology, exhibited markedly decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Apc knockdown resulted in upregulation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin and the BMP/Smad signaling pathways, but osteogenic differentiation was completely inhibited. This effect could be rescued by adding high concentrations of BMP-7 to the differentiation medium. Furthermore, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells showed no potential to differentiate into chondrocytes or adipocytes. These results demonstrate that Apc is essential for the proliferation, survival and differentiation of KS483 cells. Apc knockdown blocks the osteogenic differentiation of skeletal progenitor cells, a process that can be overruled by high BMP signaling.

  6. Wnt-3A/beta-catenin signaling induces transcription from the LEF-1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Filali, Mohammed; Cheng, Ningli; Abbott, Duane; Leontiev, Vladimir; Engelhardt, John F

    2002-09-06

    Members of the Wnt family of secreted molecules have been established as key factors in determining cell fate and morphogenic signaling. It has long been recognized that Wnt induces morphogenic signaling through the Tcf/LEF-1 cascade by regulating free intracellular levels of beta-catenin, a co-factor for Tcf/LEF-1 transcription factors. In the present study, we have demonstrated that Wnt-3A can also directly induce transcription from the LEF-1 promoter. This induction was dependent on glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inactivation, a rise in free intracellular beta-catenin, and a short 110-bp Wnt-responsive element (WRE) in the LEF-1 promoter. Linear and internal deletion of this WRE led to a dramatic increase in constitutive LEF-1 promoter activity and loss of Wnt-3A responsiveness. In isolation, the 110-bp WRE conferred context-independent Wnt-3A or beta-catenin(S37A) responsiveness to a heterologous SV40 promoter. Studies expressing dominant active and negative forms of LEF-1, beta-catenin, GSK-3beta, and beta-catenin/LEF-1 fusions suggest that Wnt-3A activates the LEF-1 promoter through a beta-catenin-dependent and LEF-1-independent process. Wnt-3A expression also induced multiple changes in the binding of factors to the WRE and suggests that regulatory mechanisms may involve modulation of a multiprotein complex. In summary, these results provide evidence for transcriptional regulation of the LEF-1 promoter by Wnt and enhance the mechanistic understanding of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the regulation of LEF-1-dependent developmental processes.

  7. Wnt addiction of genetically defined cancers reversed by PORCN inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Madan, B; Ke, Z; Harmston, N; Ho, S Y; Frois, A O; Alam, J; Jeyaraj, D A; Pendharkar, V; Ghosh, K; Virshup, I H; Manoharan, V; Ong, E H Q; Sangthongpitag, K; Hill, J; Petretto, E; Keller, T H; Lee, M A; Matter, A; Virshup, D M

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced sensitivity to Wnts is an emerging hallmark of a subset of cancers, defined in part by mutations regulating the abundance of their receptors. Whether these mutations identify a clinical opportunity is an important question. Inhibition of Wnt secretion by blocking an essential post-translational modification, palmitoleation, provides a useful therapeutic intervention. We developed a novel potent, orally available PORCN inhibitor, ETC-1922159 (henceforth called ETC-159) that blocks the secretion and activity of all Wnts. ETC-159 is remarkably effective in treating RSPO-translocation bearing colorectal cancer (CRC) patient-derived xenografts. This is the first example of effective targeted therapy for this subset of CRC. Consistent with a central role of Wnt signaling in regulation of gene expression, inhibition of PORCN in RSPO3-translocated cancers causes a marked remodeling of the transcriptome, with loss of cell cycle, stem cell and proliferation genes, and an increase in differentiation markers. Inhibition of Wnt signaling by PORCN inhibition holds promise as differentiation therapy in genetically defined human cancers. PMID:26257057

  8. Modulation of Inflammatory Responses by Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Dendritic Cells: A Novel Immunotherapy Target for Autoimmunity and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suryawanshi, Amol; Tadagavadi, Raghu K.; Swafford, Daniel; Manicassamy, Santhakumar

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway critical for several biological processes. An aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling is linked to several human diseases. Emerging studies have highlighted the regulatory role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in normal physiological processes of parenchymal and hematopoietic cells. Recent studies have shown that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in mucosal tolerance and suppression of chronic autoimmune pathologies. Alternatively, tumors activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway in DCs to induce immune tolerance and thereby evade antitumor immunity through suppression of effector T cell responses and promotion of regulatory T cell responses. Here, we review our work and current understanding of how Wnt/β-catenin signaling in DCs shapes the immune response in cancer and autoimmunity and discuss how Wnt/β-catenin pathway can be targeted for successful therapeutic interventions in various human diseases. PMID:27833613

  9. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells that are responsible for fueling tumor growth. As therapeutic targeting of these tumor stem cells is an intense area of investigation, a concise understanding on how Wnt activity relates to cancer stem cell traits is needed. This review attempts at summarizing the intricacies between Wnt signaling and cancer stem cell biology with a special emphasis on colorectal cancer. PMID:27355964

  10. Wingless-type family member 5A (Wnt-5a) stimulates synaptic differentiation and function of glutamatergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Alfaro, Iván E.; Serrano, Felipe G.; Parodi, Jorge; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling plays an important role in the maturation of the central nervous system. We report here that Wingless-type family member 5A (Wnt-5a) is expressed early in development and stimulates dendrite spine morphogenesis, inducing de novo formation of spines and increasing the size of the preexisting ones in hippocampal neurons. Wnt-5a increased intracellular calcium concentration in dendritic processes and the amplitude of NMDA spontaneous miniature currents. Acute application of Wnt-5a increased the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) in hippocampal slices, an effect that was prevented by calcium-channel blockers. The physiological relevance of our findings is supported by studies showing that Wnt scavengers decreased spine density, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, and fEPSP amplitude. We conclude that Wnt-5a stimulates different aspects of synaptic differentiation and plasticity in the mammalian central nervous system. PMID:21084636

  11. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical and {beta}-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent

  12. Strabismus-mediated primary archenteron invagination is uncoupled from Wnt/β-catenin-dependent endoderm cell fate specification in Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria): Implications for the evolution of gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastrulation is a uniquely metazoan character, and its genesis was arguably the key step that enabled the remarkable diversification within this clade. The process of gastrulation involves two tightly coupled events during embryogenesis of most metazoans. Morphogenesis produces a distinct internal epithelial layer in the embryo, and this epithelium becomes segregated as an endoderm/endomesodermal germ layer through the activation of a specific gene regulatory program. The developmental mechanisms that induced archenteron formation and led to the segregation of germ layers during metazoan evolution are unknown. But an increased understanding of development in early diverging taxa at the base of the metazoan tree may provide insights into the origins of these developmental mechanisms. Results In the anthozoan cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, initial archenteron formation begins with bottle cell-induced buckling of the blastula epithelium at the animal pole. Here, we show that bottle cell formation and initial gut invagination in Nematostella requires NvStrabismus (NvStbm), a maternally-expressed core component of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway. The NvStbm protein is localized to the animal pole of the zygote, remains asymmetrically expressed through the cleavage stages, and becomes restricted to the apical side of invaginating bottle cells at the blastopore. Antisense morpholino-mediated NvStbm-knockdown blocks bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination, but it has no effect on Wnt/ß-catenin signaling-mediated endoderm cell fate specification. Conversely, selectively blocking Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inhibits endoderm cell fate specification but does not affect bottle cell formation and initial archenteron invagination. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Wnt/PCP-mediated initial archenteron invagination can be uncoupled from Wnt/ß-catenin-mediated endoderm cell fate specification in Nematostella, and provides evidence

  13. Wnt antagonism initiates cardiogenesis in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Valerie A.; Mercola, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Heart induction in Xenopus occurs in paired regions of the dorsoanterior mesoderm in response to signals from the Spemann organizer and underlying dorsoanterior endoderm. These tissues together are sufficient to induce heart formation in noncardiogenic ventral marginal zone mesoderm. Similarly, in avians the underlying definitive endoderm induces cardiogenesis in precardiac mesoderm. Heart-inducing factors in amphibians are not known, and although certain BMPs and FGFs can mimic aspects of cardiogenesis in avians, neither can induce the full range of activities elicited by the inducing tissues. Here we report that the Wnt antagonists Dkk-1 and Crescent can induce heart formation in explants of ventral marginal zone mesoderm. Other Wnt antagonists, including the frizzled domain-containing proteins Frzb and Szl, lacked this activity. Unlike Wnt antagonism, inhibition of BMP signaling did not promote cardiogenesis. Ectopic expression of GSK3β, which inhibits β-catenin-mediated Wnt signaling, also induced cardiogenesis in ventral mesoderm. Analysis of Wnt proteins expressed during gastrulation revealed that Wnt3A and Wnt8, but not Wnt5A or Wnt11, inhibited endogenous heart induction. These results indicate that diffusion of Dkk-1 and Crescent from the organizer initiate cardiogenesis in adjacent mesoderm by establishing a zone of low Wnt3A and Wnt8 activity. PMID:11159911

  14. Fresh WNT into the regulation of mitosis.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Ailine; Bastians, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling triggering β-catenin-dependent gene expression contributes to cell cycle progression, in particular at the G1/S transition. Recently, however, it became clear that the cell cycle can also feed back on Wnt signaling at the G2/M transition. This is illustrated by the fact that mitosis-specific cyclin-dependent kinases can phosphorylate the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 to prime the pathway for incoming Wnt signals when cells enter mitosis. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that various Wnt pathway components might exert additional, Wnt-independent functions that are important for proper regulation of mitosis. The importance of Wnt pathways during mitosis was most recently enforced by the discovery of Wnt signaling contributing to the stabilization of proteins other than β-catenin, specifically at G2/M and during mitosis. This Wnt-mediated stabilization of proteins, now referred to as Wnt/STOP, might on one hand contribute to maintaining a critical cell size required for cell division and, on the other hand, for the faithful execution of mitosis itself. In fact, most recently we have shown that Wnt/STOP is required for ensuring proper microtubule dynamics within mitotic spindles, which is pivotal for accurate chromosome segregation and for the maintenance of euploidy.

  15. WNT5A Inhibits Hepatocyte Proliferation and Concludes β-Catenin Signaling in Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Cusimano, Antonella; Monga, Jappmann K.; Preziosi, Morgan E.; Pullara, Filippo; Calero, Guillermo; Lang, Richard; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Nejak-Bowen, Kari N.; Monga, Satdarshan P.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling during liver regeneration (LR) after partial hepatectomy (PH) is observed in several species. However, how this pathway is turned off when hepatocyte proliferation is no longer required is unknown. We assessed LR in liver-specific knockouts of Wntless (Wls-LKO), a protein required for Wnt secretion from a cell. When subjected to PH, Wls-LKO showed prolongation of hepatocyte proliferation for up to 4 days compared with littermate controls. This coincided with increased β-catenin–T-cell factor 4 interaction and cyclin-D1 expression. Wls-LKO showed decreased expression and secretion of inhibitory Wnt5a during LR. Wnt5a expression increased between 24 and 48 hours, and Frizzled-2 between 24 and 72 hours, after PH in normal mice. Treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes and liver tumor cells with Wnt5a led to a notable decrease in β-catenin–T-cell factor activity, cyclin-D1 expression, and cell proliferation. Intriguingly, Wnt5a-LKO did not display any prolongation of LR because of compensation by other cells. In addition, Wnt5a-LKO hepatocytes failed to respond to exogenous Wnt5a treatment in culture because of a compensatory decrease in Frizzled-2 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate Wnt5a to be, by default, a negative regulator of β-catenin signaling and hepatocyte proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. We also provide evidence that the Wnt5a/Frizzled-2 axis suppresses β-catenin signaling in hepatocytes in an autocrine manner, thereby contributing to timely conclusion of the LR process. PMID:26100214

  16. WNT5A inhibits hepatocyte proliferation and concludes β-catenin signaling in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Cusimano, Antonella; Monga, Jappmann K; Preziosi, Morgan E; Pullara, Filippo; Calero, Guillermo; Lang, Richard; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Nejak-Bowen, Kari N; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2015-08-01

    Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling during liver regeneration (LR) after partial hepatectomy (PH) is observed in several species. However, how this pathway is turned off when hepatocyte proliferation is no longer required is unknown. We assessed LR in liver-specific knockouts of Wntless (Wls-LKO), a protein required for Wnt secretion from a cell. When subjected to PH, Wls-LKO showed prolongation of hepatocyte proliferation for up to 4 days compared with littermate controls. This coincided with increased β-catenin-T-cell factor 4 interaction and cyclin-D1 expression. Wls-LKO showed decreased expression and secretion of inhibitory Wnt5a during LR. Wnt5a expression increased between 24 and 48 hours, and Frizzled-2 between 24 and 72 hours, after PH in normal mice. Treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes and liver tumor cells with Wnt5a led to a notable decrease in β-catenin-T-cell factor activity, cyclin-D1 expression, and cell proliferation. Intriguingly, Wnt5a-LKO did not display any prolongation of LR because of compensation by other cells. In addition, Wnt5a-LKO hepatocytes failed to respond to exogenous Wnt5a treatment in culture because of a compensatory decrease in Frizzled-2 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate Wnt5a to be, by default, a negative regulator of β-catenin signaling and hepatocyte proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. We also provide evidence that the Wnt5a/Frizzled-2 axis suppresses β-catenin signaling in hepatocytes in an autocrine manner, thereby contributing to timely conclusion of the LR process.

  17. Construction and Experimental Validation of a Petri Net Model of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heijmans, Nika; Verkaar, Folkert; Smit, Martine J.; Heringa, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is important for multiple developmental processes and tissue maintenance in adults. Consequently, deregulated signaling is involved in a range of human diseases including cancer and developmental defects. A better understanding of the intricate regulatory mechanism and effect of physiological (active) and pathophysiological (hyperactive) WNT signaling is important for predicting treatment response and developing novel therapies. The constitutively expressed CTNNB1 (commonly and hereafter referred to as β-catenin) is degraded by a destruction complex, composed of amongst others AXIN1 and GSK3. The destruction complex is inhibited during active WNT signaling, leading to β-catenin stabilization and induction of β-catenin/TCF target genes. In this study we investigated the mechanism and effect of β-catenin stabilization during active and hyperactive WNT signaling in a combined in silico and in vitro approach. We constructed a Petri net model of Wnt/β-catenin signaling including main players from the plasma membrane (WNT ligands and receptors), cytoplasmic effectors and the downstream negative feedback target gene AXIN2. We validated that our model can be used to simulate both active (WNT stimulation) and hyperactive (GSK3 inhibition) signaling by comparing our simulation and experimental data. We used this experimentally validated model to get further insights into the effect of the negative feedback regulator AXIN2 upon WNT stimulation and observed an attenuated β-catenin stabilization. We furthermore simulated the effect of APC inactivating mutations, yielding a stabilization of β-catenin levels comparable to the Wnt-pathway activities observed in colorectal and breast cancer. Our model can be used for further investigation and viable predictions of the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oncogenesis and development. PMID:27218469

  18. Age-dependent Wnt gene expression in bone and during the course of osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rauner, Martina; Sipos, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Wnt signaling is vital for osteoblast differentiation and recently has been associated with aging. Because impaired osteoblastogenesis is a cellular characteristic of age-induced bone loss, we investigated whether this process is associated with an altered expression of Wnt signaling-related proteins in bone and osteoblasts. Bone marrow cells were isolated from male C57BL/6 mice, aged 6 weeks, 6 months, and 18 months, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation was induced for 3 weeks and assessed using alizarin red staining. Gene expression of Wnt1, 3a, 4, 5a, 5b, 7b, 9b, 10b, lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)-5/6, as well as dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), sclerostin, and secreted frizzled related protein-1 (sFRP-1) was determined in bone tissue and osteoblasts on days 7, 14, and 21 by real-time RT-PCR. Osteoblast differentiation was significantly reduced in aged mice compared with young and adult mice. In bone tissue, expression levels of all genes assessed were decreased in adult and old mice, respectively, compared with young mice. Mature osteoblasts of aged compared with those of young mice showed enhanced expression of Wnt9b, LRP-6, and Dkk-1, and decreased expression of Wnt5a and 7b. In early osteoblasts, mRNA levels of Wnt1, 5a, 5b, and 7b were increased significantly in aged mice. The expression of Wnt3a, 4, LRP-5, and sclerostin was not altered in aged osteoblasts. In conclusion, osteoblastic expression of each Wnt-related protein is regulated individually by aging. The overall decreased expression of Wnt-related proteins in bone tissue of aged mice underlines the newly discovered association of Wnt signaling with aging. PMID:19424851

  19. Chronic exposure to nanoparticulate TiO2 causes renal fibrosis involving activation of the Wnt pathway in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fashui; Hong, Jie; Wang, Ling; Zhou, Yingjun; Liu, Dong; Xu, Bingqing; Yu, Xiaohong; Sheng, Lei

    2015-02-11

    Chronic exposure to nano-TiO2 may induce renal fibrosis, and the mechanism of this process is not well understood. Therefore, in this study, mice were administered nano-TiO2 by intragastric feeding for 9 months, and the urinary levels of nephrotoxicity biomarkers, activation of the Wnt pathway, and markers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the kidneys were investigated. The findings suggested that exposure to nano-TiO2 increased the level of renal titanium accumulation, urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (1.18 ± 0.13- to 3.60 ± 0.41-fold), clusterin (1.40 ± 0.16- to 5.14 ± 0.58-fold), and osteopontin (0.71 ± 0.08- to 2.41 ± 0.29-fold), and increased levels of renal inflammation and fibrosis. Furthermore, nano-TiO2 increased the level of expression of Wnt ligands (Wnt1, Wnt2, Wnt3, Wnt4, Wnt5a, Wnt6, Wnt7a, Wnt9a, Wnt10a, and Wnt11, 0.09 ± 0.02- to 4.84 ± 0.52-fold), Wnt receptors Frizzled (Fz1, Fz5, and Fz7, 0.37 ± 0.04- to 8.57 ± 0.91-fold), and coreceptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (0.73 ± 0.09- to 5.27 ± 0.56-fold) in the kidney. Wnt signaling components induced by nano-TiO2 were corroborated by decreased levels of expression of Wnt antagonist-related markers (Dkk1, Dkk2, Dkk3, Dkk4, and sFRP/FrzB, -0.06 ± 0.01- to -0.87 ± 0.09-fold) and increased levels of expression of Wnt target genes (Abcb1b, cyclin D1, and Myc, 0.03 ± 0.01- to 2.73 ± 0.28-fold) and EMT markers Colla1, Fn, Twist, and α-SMA (0.06 ± 0.02- to 5.80 ± 0.61-fold). These findings indicate that nano-TiO2 induced renal fibrosis that may be mediated via Wnt signaling.

  20. Disulfide Bond Requirements for Active Wnt Ligands*

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Bryan T.; Hien, Annie; Zhang, Xinjun; Iranloye, Oladoyin; Virshup, David M.; Waterman, Marian L.; He, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Secreted Wnt lipoproteins are cysteine-rich and lipid-modified morphogens that bind to the Frizzled (FZD) receptor and LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). Wnt engages FZD through protruding thumb and index finger domains, which are each assembled from paired β strands secured by disulfide bonds and grasp two sides of the FZD ectodomain. The importance of Wnt disulfide bonds has been assumed but uncharacterized. We systematically analyzed cysteines and associated disulfide bonds in the prototypic Wnt3a. Our data show that mutation of any individual cysteine of Wnt3a results in covalent Wnt oligomers through ectopic intermolecular disulfide bond formation and diminishes/abolishes Wnt signaling. Although individual cysteine mutations in the amino part of the saposin-like domain and in the base of the index finger are better tolerated and permit residual Wnt3a secretion/activity, those in the amino terminus, the thumb, and at the tip of the index finger are incompatible with secretion and/or activity. A few select double cysteine mutants based on the disulfide bond pattern restore Wnt secretion/activity. Further, a double cysteine mutation at the index finger tip results in a Wnt3a with normal secretion but minimal FZD binding and dominant negative properties. Our results experimentally validate predictions from the Wnt crystal structure and highlight critical but different roles of the saposin-like and cytokine-like domains, including the thumb and the index finger in Wnt folding/secretion and FZD binding. Finally, we modified existing expression vectors for 19 epitope-tagged human WNT proteins by removal of a tag-supplied ectopic cysteine, thereby generating tagged WNT ligands active in canonical and non-canonical signaling. PMID:24841207

  1. Wnt signalling is a bi-directional vulnerability of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzl, Thomas; Halasz, Melinda; Iljin, Kristiina; Fey, Dirk; Haley, Bridget; Whilde, Jenny; Haapa-Paananen, Saija; Fey, Vidal; Fischer, Matthias; Westermann, Frank; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Bannert, Steffen; Higgins, Desmond G.; Kolch, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Wnt signalling is involved in the formation, metastasis and relapse of a wide array of cancers. However, there is ongoing debate as to whether activation or inhibition of the pathway holds the most promise as a therapeutic treatment for cancer, with conflicting evidence from a variety of tumour types. We show that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is a bi-directional vulnerability of neuroblastoma, malignant melanoma and colorectal cancer, with hyper-activation or repression of the pathway both representing a promising therapeutic strategy, even within the same cancer type. Hyper-activation directs cancer cells to undergo apoptosis, even in cells oncogenically driven by β-catenin. Wnt inhibition blocks proliferation of cancer cells and promotes neuroblastoma differentiation. Wnt and retinoic acid co-treatments synergise, representing a promising combination treatment for MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. Additionally, we report novel cross-talks between MYCN and β-catenin signalling, which repress normal β-catenin mediated transcriptional regulation. A β-catenin target gene signature could predict patient outcome, as could the expression level of its DNA binding partners, the TCF/LEFs. This β-catenin signature provides a tool to identify neuroblastoma patients likely to benefit from Wnt-directed therapy. Taken together, we show that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is a bi-directional vulnerability of a number of cancer entities, and potentially a more broadly conserved feature of malignant cells. PMID:27531891

  2. Wnt-mediated reciprocal regulation between cartilage and bone development during endochondral ossification.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng; Wan, Yong; Cao, Jingjing; Zhu, Xuming; Yu, Jian; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Yiyun; Zhang, Lingling; Zhao, Haixia; Li, Hanjun; Zhao, Jianzhi; He, Lin; Ma, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Yao, Zhengju; Guo, Xizhi

    2013-04-01

    The role of Wnt signaling is extensively studied in skeletal development and postnatal bone remodeling, mostly based on the genetic approaches of β-catenin manipulation. However, given their independent function, a requirement for β-catenin is not the same as that for Wnt. Here, we investigated the effect of Wnt proteins in both tissues through generating cartilage- or bone-specific Wls null mice, respectively. Depletion of Wls by Col2-Cre, which would block Wnt secretion in the chondrocytes and perichondrium, delayed chondrocyte hypertrophy in the growth plate and impaired perichondrial osteogenesis. Loss of Wls in chondrocytes also disturbed the proliferating chondrocyte morphology and division orientation, which was similar to the defect observed in Wnt5a null mice. On the other hand, inactivation of Wls in osteoblasts by Col1-Cre resulted in a shorter hypertrophic zone and an increase of TRAP positive cell number in the chondro-osseous junction of growth plate, coupled with a decrease in bone mass. Taken together, our studies reveal that Wnt proteins not only modulate differentiation and cellular communication within populations of chondrocytes, but also mediate the cross regulation between the chondrocytes and osteoblasts in growth plate.

  3. Wnt-5a occludes Aβ oligomer-induced depression of glutamatergic transmission in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ;) oligomers have been recognized to be early and key intermediates in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related synaptic dysfunction. Aβ oligomers block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and impair rodent spatial memory. Wnt signaling plays an important role in neural development, including synaptic differentiation. Results We report here that the Wnt signaling activation prevents the synaptic damage triggered by Aβ oligomers. Electrophysiological analysis of Schaffer collaterals-CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices indicates that Wnt-5a increases the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and both AMPA and NMDA components of the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), without modifying the paired pulse facilitation (PPF). Conversely, in the presence of Aβ oligomers the fEPSP and EPSCs amplitude decreased without modification of the PPF, while the postsynaptic scaffold protein (PSD-95) decreased as well. Co-perfusion of hippocampal slices with Wnt-5a and Aβ oligomers occludes against the synaptic depression of EPSCs as well as the reduction of PSD-95 clusters induced by Aβ oligomers in neuronal cultures. Taken together these results indicate that Wnt-5a and Aβ oligomers inversely modulate postsynaptic components. Conclusion These results indicate that post-synaptic damage induced by Aβ oligomers in hippocampal neurons is prevented by non-canonical Wnt pathway activation. PMID:20205789

  4. Prodigiosin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and exerts anticancer activity in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongyuan; Li, Bo; Zhou, Liang; Yu, Shubin; Su, Zijie; Song, Jiaxing; Sun, Qi; Sha, Ou; Wang, Xiaomei; Jiang, Wenqi; Willert, Karl; Wei, Lei; Carson, Dennis A.; Lu, Desheng

    2016-01-01

    Prodigiosin, a natural red pigment produced by numerous bacterial species, has exhibited promising anticancer activity; however, the molecular mechanisms of action of prodigiosin on malignant cells remain unclear. Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade is associated with numerous human cancers. In this study, we identified prodigiosin as a potent inhibitor of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Prodigiosin blocked Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting multiple sites of this pathway, including the low-density lipoprotein-receptor-related protein (LRP) 6, Dishevelled (DVL), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). In breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells, nanomolar concentrations of prodigiosin decreased phosphorylation of LRP6, DVL2, and GSK3β and suppressed β-catenin–stimulated Wnt target gene expression, including expression of cyclin D1. In MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts and MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice, administration of prodigiosin slowed tumor progression and reduced the expression of phosphorylated LRP6, phosphorylated and unphosphorylated DVL2, Ser9 phosphorylated GSK3β, active β-catenin, and cyclin D1. Through its ability to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduce cyclin D1 levels, prodigiosin could have therapeutic activity in advanced breast cancers. PMID:27799526

  5. JNK signalling is necessary for a Wnt- and stem cell-dependent regeneration programme

    PubMed Central

    Tejada-Romero, Belen; Carter, Jean-Michel; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Neumann, Bjoern; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves the integration of new and old tissues in the context of an adult life history. It is clear that the core conserved signalling pathways that orchestrate development also play central roles in regeneration, and further study of conserved signalling pathways is required. Here we have studied the role of the conserved JNK signalling cascade during planarian regeneration. Abrogation of JNK signalling by RNAi or pharmacological inhibition blocks posterior regeneration and animals fail to express posterior markers. While the early injury-induced expression of polarity markers is unaffected, the later stem cell-dependent phase of posterior Wnt expression is not established. This defect can be rescued by overactivation of the Hh or Wnt signalling pathway to promote posterior Wnt activity. Together, our data suggest that JNK signalling is required to establish stem cell-dependent Wnt expression after posterior injury. Given that Jun is known to be required in vertebrates for the expression of Wnt and Wnt target genes, we propose that this interaction may be conserved and is an instructive part of planarian posterior regeneration. PMID:26062938

  6. A periodic freshwater patch detachment process from the Block Island Sound estuarine plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qianqian; Rothstein, Lewis M.; Luo, Yiyong

    2017-01-01

    Previous observations suggest periodic freshwater patches separating from the Block Island Sound (BIS) estuarine plume. In this study, the dynamics of the separation process is investigated through a series of numerical experiments using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). In addition, we explore the seasonal variability of the freshwater patches and their response to river discharge and ambient current. The model results indicate that episodic freshwater patches are triggered by small changes in tidal currents over the spring-neap tidal cycle. The spring-neap variation in tidal currents causes significant, monthly fluctuations in turbulent mixing and vertical stratification in BIS, modulating the freshwater discharge thereby generating episodic freshwater patches that move both downstream along the southern shore of Long Island and toward Rhode Island Sound (RIS). The realistically configured model shows that the freshwater patches experience strong seasonal variability. They are largest in spring when the river discharge peaks, and smallest in summer due to the weak river discharge and a robust upstream ambient current from RIS. According to the analysis of the freshwater transport out of BIS, we conclude that such detachment occurs at tidal mixing fronts.

  7. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  8. A multiscale modeling study of loss processes in block-copolymer-based solar cell nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Donets, Sergii; Pershin, Anton; Christlmaier, Martin J A; Baeurle, Stephan A

    2013-03-07

    Flexible photovoltaic devices possess promising perspectives in opto-electronic technologies, where high mobility and/or large-scale applicability are important. However, their usefulness in such applications is currently still limited due to the low level of optimization of their performance and durability. For the improvement of these properties, a better understanding and control of small-scale annihilation phenomena involved in the photovoltaic process, such as exciton loss and charge carrier loss, is necessary, which typically implicates multiple length- and time-scales. Here, we study the causes for their occurrence on the example of nanostructured diblock- and triblock-copolymer systems by making use of a novel solar-cell simulation algorithm and explore new routes to optimize their photovoltaic properties. A particular focus is set on the investigation of exciton and charge carrier loss phenomena and their dependence on the inter-monomeric interaction strength, chain architecture, and external mechanical loading. Our simulation results reveal that in the regime from low up to intermediate χ-parameters an increasing number of continuous percolation paths is created. In this parameter range, the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) increases up to a maximum, characterized by a minimum in the number of charge losses due to charge recombination. In the regime of high χ-parameters both block-copolymer systems form nanostructures with a large number of bottlenecks and dead ends. These lead to a large number of charge losses due to charge recombination, charge trapping, and a deteriorated exciton dissociation, resulting in a significant drop in the IQE. Moreover, we find that the photovoltaic performance of the triblock-copolymer material decreases with increasing mechanical loading, caused by a growing number of charge losses due to charge recombination and charge accumulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the process of charge trapping in defects can be reversed

  9. Coordination of kidney organogenesis by Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Halt, Kimmo; Vainio, Seppo

    2014-04-01

    Several Wnt proteins are expressed in the embryonic kidney during various stages of development. Gene knockout models and ex vivo studies have provided strong evidence that Wnt-mediated signals are essential in renal ontogeny. Perhaps the most critical factors, Wnt9b and Wnt4, function during the early phase when the cap mesenchyme is induced to undergo morphogenesis into a nephron. Wnt11 controls early ureteric bud branching and contributes to the final kidney size. In addition to its inductive role, later on Wnt9b plays a significant role in the convergent extension of the tubular epithelial cells, while Wnt4 signaling controls smooth muscle cell fates in the medulla. Wnt7b has a specific function together with its likely antagonist Dkk1 in controlling the morphogenesis of the renal medulla. The signal-transduction mechanisms of the Wnts in kidney ontogeny have not been resolved, but studies characterizing the downstream signaling pathways are emerging. Aberrant Wnt signaling may lead to kidney diseases ranging from fatal kidney agenesis to more benign phenotypes. Wnt-mediated signaling regulates several critical aspects of kidney development from the early inductive stages to later steps of tubular epithelial maturation.

  10. Role of Wnt Signaling in the Control of Adult Hippocampal Functioning in Health and Disease: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Matamoros, Abril; Salcedo-Tello, Pamela; Avila-Muñoz, Evangelina; Zepeda, Angélica; Arias, Clorinda

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized the role of the Wnt pathway in many developmental processes such as neuronal maturation, migration, neuronal connectivity and synaptic formation. Growing evidence is also demonstrating its function in the mature brain where is associated with modulation of axonal remodeling, dendrite outgrowth, synaptic activity, neurogenesis and behavioral plasticity. Proteins involved in Wnt signaling have been found expressed in the adult hippocampus suggesting that Wnt pathway plays a role in the hippocampal function through life. Indeed, Wnt ligands act locally to regulate neurogenesis, neuronal cell shape and pre- and postsynaptic assembly, events that are thought to underlie changes in synaptic function associated with long-term potentiation and with cognitive tasks such as learning and memory. Recent data have demonstrated the increased expression of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) in brains of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) patients suggesting that dysfunction of Wnt signaling could also contribute to AD pathology. We review here evidence of Wnt-associated molecules expression linked to physiological and pathological hippocampal functioning in the adult brain. The basic aspects of Wnt related mechanisms underlying hippocampal plasticity as well as evidence of how hippocampal dysfunction may rely on Wnt dysregulation is analyzed. This information would provide some clues about the possible therapeutic targets for developing treatments for neurodegenerative diseases associated with aberrant brain plasticity. PMID:24403870

  11. Therapeutic targets in the Wnt signaling pathway: Feasibility of targeting TNIK in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Mari; Sawa, Masaaki; Yamada, Tesshi

    2015-12-01

    The genetic and epigenetic alterations occurring during the course of multistage colorectal carcinogenesis have been extensively studied in the last few decades. One of the most notable findings is that the great majority of colorectal cancers (>80%) have mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene. Loss of functional APC protein results in activation of canonical Wnt/β-catanin signaling and initiates intestinal carcinogenesis. Mutational inactivation of APC is the first genetic event, but colorectal cancer cells retain their dependency on constitutive Wnt signal activation even after accumulation of other genetic events. Accordingly, pharmacological blocking of Wnt signaling has been considered an attractive therapeutic approach for colorectal cancer. Several therapeutics targeting various molecular components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including porcupine, frizzled receptors and co-receptor, tankyrases, and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP), have been developed, and some of those are currently being evaluated in early-phase clinical trials. Traf2- and Nck-interacting protein kinase (TNIK) has been identified as a regulatory component of the T-cell factor-4 and β-catenin transcriptional complex independently by two research groups. TNIK regulates Wnt signaling in the most downstream part of the pathway, and its inhibition is expected to block the signal even in colorectal cancer cells with APC gene mutation. Here we discuss some of the TNIK inhibitors under preclinical development.

  12. Block bootstrap methods for the estimation of the intensity of a spatial point process with confidence bounds.

    PubMed

    Mattfeldt, T; Häbel, H; Fleischer, F

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the intensity of a planar point process on the basis of a single point pattern, observed in a rectangular window. If the model assumptions of stationarity and isotropy hold, the method of block bootstrapping can be used to estimate the intensity of the process with confidence bounds. The results of two variants of block bootstrapping are compared with a parametric approximation based on the assumption of a Gaussian distribution of the numbers of points in deterministic subwindows of the original pattern. The studies were performed on patterns obtained by simulation of well-known point process models (Poisson process, two Matérn cluster processes, Matérn hardcore process, Strauss hardcore process). They were also performed on real histopathological data (point patterns of capillary profiles of 12 cases of prostatic cancer). The methods are presented as worked examples on two cases, where we illustrate their use as a check on stationarity (homogeneity) of a point process with respect to different fields of vision. The paper concludes with various methodological discussions and suggests possible extensions of the block bootstrap approach to other fields of spatial statistics.

  13. The Wnt Blows: On the Functional Role of Wnt Signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, Julius; Reiling, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that the Wnt signaling pathway, known for its essential functions in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, exerts immunomodulatory functions during inflammation and infection. Most functional studies indicate that Wnt5a exerts pro-inflammatory functions on its cellular targets, which include various types of immune and non-immune cells. Wnt5a expression has also been linked to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Activation of beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling, e.g., by Wnt3a, has however been shown to limit inflammation by interfering with the nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-kappaB) pathway. This review focuses on the regulation of Wnt5a, Wnt3a, and the recently identified Wnt6 and their functional role in bacterial infections with a primary focus on pulmonary tuberculosis, a leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. PMID:28082976

  14. Wnt5a regulates ventral midbrain morphogenesis and the development of A9-A10 dopaminergic cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Emma R; Prakash, Nilima; Cajanek, Lukas; Minina, Eleonora; Bryja, Vitezslav; Bryjova, Lenka; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Hall, Anita C; Wurst, Wolfgang; Arenas, Ernest

    2008-01-01

    Wnt5a is a morphogen that activates the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway and serves multiple functions during development. PCP signaling controls the orientation of cells within an epithelial plane as well as convergent extension (CE) movements. Wnt5a was previously reported to promote differentiation of A9-10 dopaminergic (DA) precursors in vitro. However, the signaling mechanism in DA cells and the function of Wnt5a during midbrain development in vivo remains unclear. We hereby report that Wnt5a activated the GTPase Rac1 in DA cells and that Rac1 inhibitors blocked the Wnt5a-induced DA neuron differentiation of ventral midbrain (VM) precursor cultures, linking Wnt5a-induced differentiation with a known effector of Wnt/PCP signaling. In vivo, Wnt5a was expressed throughout the VM at embryonic day (E)9.5, and was restricted to the VM floor and basal plate by E11.5-E13.5. Analysis of Wnt5a-/- mice revealed a transient increase in progenitor proliferation at E11.5, and a precociously induced NR4A2+ (Nurr1) precursor pool at E12.5. The excess NR4A2+ precursors remained undifferentiated until E14.5, when a transient 25% increase in DA neurons was detected. Wnt5a-/- mice also displayed a defect in (mid)brain morphogenesis, including an impairment in midbrain elongation and a rounded ventricular cavity. Interestingly, these alterations affected mostly cells in the DA lineage. The ventral Sonic hedgehog-expressing domain was broadened and flattened, a typical CE phenotype, and the domains occupied by Ngn2+ DA progenitors, NR4A2+ DA precursors and TH+ DA neurons were rostrocaudally reduced and laterally expanded. In summary, we hereby describe a Wnt5a regulation of Wnt/PCP signaling in the DA lineage and provide evidence for multiple functions of Wnt5a in the VM in vivo, including the regulation of VM morphogenesis, DA progenitor cell division, and differentiation of NR4A2+ DA precursors.

  15. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks V and VI, Classroom Course 13-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the third section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block V, Inert Gas Shielded Welding of High…

  16. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks III and IV, Classroom Course 13-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the second section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block III, Introduction to Metallic Arc Welding,…

  17. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Metals Processing Specialist, Blocks I and II, Classroom Course 13-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These curriculum materials are the first section of a four-part, secondary-postsecondary-level course in metals processing. The course is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. Block I, Introduction to Oxyacetylene Welding,…

  18. Isolation and characterization of Wnt pathway-related genes from Porifera.

    PubMed

    Adell, Teresa; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2007-09-01

    The Wnt signal acts by binding to Frizzled receptors, with the subsequent activation of two different signal transduction cascades, the canonical and the non-canonical Wnt pathways, involved in cell growth, differentiation, migration and fate. The canonical pathway functions through the translocation of beta-catenin to the nucleus and the activation of TCF/LEF transcription factors; it plays an important role in developmental patterning and cell fate decisions during embryogenesis. The non-canonical Wnt pathway is responsible for the planar cell polarity process in invertebrates, and for the convergent-extension movements during vertebrate gastrulation. The final effect of the non-canonical Wnt pathway is the rearrangement of the cell cytoskeleton, through the activation of the subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases. In a recent report we described for the first time the isolation of a Wnt-related gene, Sd-Frizzled, from the most basal animal phylum, the Porifera. In the present study we report the isolation and phylogenetic characterization of several Wnt pathway-related genes from the sponge Suberites domuncula: Sd-TCF/LEF, Sd-GSK3, a recently discovered molecule with a putative function as a Wnt regulator (Sd-LZIC), the small Rho GTPases Sd-RhoA, Sd-Cdc42, and their effector Sd-mrlc. Also the isolation of a secreted frizzled related protein sFRP from another sponge species (Lubomirskia baicalensis) is reported.

  19. Role of the Wnt receptor Frizzled-1 in presynaptic differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Wnt signaling pathway regulates several fundamental developmental processes and recently has been shown to be involved in different aspects of synaptic differentiation and plasticity. Some Wnt signaling components are localized at central synapses, and it is thus possible that this pathway could be activated at the synapse. Results We examined the distribution of the Wnt receptor Frizzled-1 in cultured hippocampal neurons and determined that this receptor is located at synaptic contacts co-localizing with presynaptic proteins. Frizzled-1 was found in functional synapses detected with FM1-43 staining and in synaptic terminals from adult rat brain. Interestingly, overexpression of Frizzled-1 increased the number of clusters of Bassoon, a component of the active zone, while treatment with the extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of Frizzled-1 decreased Bassoon clustering, suggesting a role for this receptor in presynaptic differentiation. Consistent with this, treatment with the Frizzled-1 ligand Wnt-3a induced presynaptic protein clustering and increased functional presynaptic recycling sites, and these effects were prevented by co-treatment with the CRD of Frizzled-1. Moreover, in synaptically mature neurons Wnt-3a was able to modulate the kinetics of neurotransmitter release. Conclusion Our results indicate that the activation of the Wnt pathway through Frizzled-1 occurs at the presynaptic level, and suggest that the synaptic effects of the Wnt signaling pathway could be modulated by local activation through synaptic Frizzled receptors. PMID:19883499

  20. Wnt ligands from the embryonic surface ectoderm regulate 'bimetallic strip' optic cup morphogenesis in mouse.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, April C; Smith, April N; Wagner, Heidi; Cohen-Tayar, Yamit; Rao, Sujata; Wallace, Valerie; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Lang, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin response pathway is central to many developmental processes. Here, we assessed the role of Wnt signaling in early eye development using the mouse as a model system. We showed that the surface ectoderm region that includes the lens placode expressed 12 out of 19 possible Wnt ligands. When these activities were suppressed by conditional deletion of wntless (Le-cre; Wls(fl/fl)) there were dramatic consequences that included a saucer-shaped optic cup, ventral coloboma, and a deficiency of periocular mesenchyme. This phenotype shared features with that produced when the Wnt/β-catenin pathway co-receptor Lrp6 is mutated or when retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the eye is compromised. Consistent with this, microarray and cell fate marker analysis identified a series of expression changes in genes known to be regulated by RA or by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Using pathway reporters, we showed that Wnt ligands from the surface ectoderm directly or indirectly elicit a Wnt/β-catenin response in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) progenitors near the optic cup rim. In Le-cre; Wls(fl/fl) mice, the numbers of RPE cells are reduced and this can explain, using the principle of the bimetallic strip, the curvature of the optic cup. These data thus establish a novel hypothesis to explain how differential cell numbers in a bilayered epithelium can lead to shape change.

  1. Wnt signaling-mediated redox regulation maintains the germ line stem cell differentiation niche

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Su; Gao, Yuan; Song, Xiaoqing; Ma, Xing; Zhu, Xiujuan; Mao, Ying; Yang, Zhihao; Ni, Jianquan; Li, Hua; Malanowski, Kathryn E; Anoja, Perera; Park, Jungeun; Haug, Jeff; Xie, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells continuously undergo self-renewal and generate differentiated cells. In the Drosophila ovary, two separate niches control germ line stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation processes. Compared to the self-renewing niche, relatively little is known about the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche. In this study, we show that the cellular redox state regulated by Wnt signaling is critical for the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche to promote GSC progeny differentiation. Defective Wnt signaling causes the loss of the differentiation niche and the upregulated BMP signaling in differentiated GSC progeny, thereby disrupting germ cell differentiation. Mechanistically, Wnt signaling controls the expression of multiple glutathione-S-transferase family genes and the cellular redox state. Finally, Wnt2 and Wnt4 function redundantly to maintain active Wnt signaling in the differentiation niche. Therefore, this study has revealed a novel strategy for Wnt signaling in regulating the cellular redox state and maintaining the differentiation niche. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08174.001 PMID:26452202

  2. Quality and shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in retort pouches.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Mendirtta, S K; Murthy, T R K

    2014-12-01

    The shelf life of buffalo meat blocks processed in 3-ply retort pouches at Fo = 12.13 in a stock sterilizer were evaluated at 15 days interval for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes for a period of 3 months. The pH of the product was 6.28 at 0 day and a gradual decline was noticed during storage. Texture of the product as indicated by shear force values had decreased slowly. The residual nitrite content had significantly declined from 82.67 ppm at 0 day to 45.00 ppm on 90th day of storage. The TBARS values were 0.24 and 0.67 mg malonaldehyde/kg, respectively at 0 day and 90 days of storage. Tyrosine value had significantly increased from 0.37 mg/100 g at 0 day to 0.58 mg/100 g during storage. Free aminoacid content increased gradually from an initial level of 124.32 to 217.51 at 90(th) day of storage. The SDS-PAGE hydrolysis pattern showed barely discernible 205 KDa protein and presence of subfragments in the molecular range of 63 KDa to 29 KDa protein. The sensory studies indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days. As the storage period increased pH, reidual nitrite, sensory attributes declined significantly and TBARS value, tyrosine value and free aminoacid content significantly increased. Mesophillic aerobes and anerobes were found to be absent. The shelf life study indicated that the products were well acceptable up to a period of 90 days based on the assessment of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes.

  3. Wnt3a expression is associated with MMP-9 expression in primary tumor and metastatic site in recurrent or stage IV colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is known to affect in cancer oncogenesis and progression by interacting with the tumor microenvironment. However, the roles of wnt3a and wnt5a in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been thoroughly studied. In the present study, we investigated the expression of wnt protein and the concordance rate in primary tumor and metastatic sites in CRC. To determine the relationship of wnt proteins with invasion related protein, we also analyzed the association between wnt protein expression and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Methods Tumor tissue was obtained from eighty-three paraffin- embedded blocks which were using resected tissue from both the primary tumor and metastatic sites for each patient. We performed immunohistochemical staining for wnt3a, wnt5a, β-catenin, MMP-9 and VEGFR-2. Results Wnt3a, wnt5a, β-catenin, and MMP-9 expression was high; the proteins were found in over 50% of the primary tumors, but the prevalence was lower in tissue from metastatic sites. The concordance rates between the primary tumor and metastatic site were 76.2% for wnt5a and 79.4% for wnt3a and β-catenin, but VEGFR-2 was expressed in 67.4% of the metastatic sites even when not found in the primary tumor. Wnt3a expression in primary tumors was significantly associated with lymph node involvement (p = 0.038) and MMP-9 expression in the primary tumor (p = 0.0387), mesenchyme adjacent to tumor (p = 0.022) and metastatic site (p = 0.004). There was no other relationship in the expression of these proteins. Vascular invasion in primary tumor tissue may be a potential prognostic marker for liver metastasis, but no significant association was observed among the wnt protein, MMP-9, and VEGFR-2 for peritoneal seeding. In survival analysis, β-catenin expression was significantly correlated with overall survival (p = 0.05). Conclusions Wnt3a and wnt5a

  4. Association Study of Wnt Signaling Pathway Genes in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Peter P.; Belmonte, Pamela L.; Willour, Virginia L.; Goes, Fernando S.; Badner, Judith A.; Simpson, Sylvia G.; Gershon, Elliot S.; McMahon, Francis J.; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Context The Wnt signaling pathways promote cell growth and are best known for their role in embryogenesis and cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest these pathways might also be involved in bipolar disorder (BP). Objective We tested for the association of candidate genes in the Wnt signaling pathways with disease susceptibility in a family-based BP study Design 227 tagSNPs from 34 genes were successfully genotyped. Initial results led us to focus on the gene PPARD, in which we genotyped an additional 13 SNPs for follow-up. Setting Nine academic medical centers in the United States. Participants 554 BP offspring and their parents from 317 families. Main Outcome Measures We tested for family-based association using FBAT and HBAT. Exploratory analyses testing for interactions of PPARD SNPs with clinical covariates and with other Wnt genes were conducted with GENASSOC. Results In the initial analysis, the most significantly associated SNP was rs2267665 in PPARD (nominal p=0.0003). This remained significant at p=0.05 by permutation after accounting for all SNPs tested. Additional genotyping in PPARD yielded four SNPs in one haplotype block that were significantly associated with BP at p<0.01, the most significant being rs9462082 (p=0.0001). Exploratory analyses revealed significant evidence (p<0.01) for interactions of rs9462082 with poor functioning on the Global Assessment Scale (OR = 3.36, 95% CI = 1.85–6.08), and with SNPs in WNT2B (rs3790606, OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.67–4.00) and WNT7A (rs4685048, OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.23–2.63). Conclusions We found evidence for association of BP with PPARD, a gene in the Wnt signaling pathway. The consistency of this result with one from the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium encourages further study. If the finding can be confirmed in additional samples, it may illuminate a new avenue for understanding the pathogenesis of severe BP and developing more effective treatments. PMID:18606951

  5. Wnt signaling in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    In the adult brain new neurons are continuously generated mainly in two regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. In the SGZ, radial neural stem cells (NSCs) give rise to granule cells that integrate into the hippocampal circuitry and are relevant for the plasticity of the hippocampus. Loss of neurogenesis impairs learning and memory, suggesting that this process is important for adult hippocampal function. Adult neurogenesis is tightly regulated by multiple signaling pathways, including the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This pathway plays important roles during the development of neuronal circuits and in the adult brain it modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we review current knowledge on the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade and the potential mechanisms involved in this regulation. Also we discuss the evidence supporting that the canonical Wnt pathway is part of the signaling mechanisms involved in the regulation of neurogenesis in different physiological conditions. Finally, some unsolved questions regarding the Wnt-mediated regulation of neurogenesis are discussed. PMID:23805076

  6. List blocking and longer retention intervals reveal an influence of gist processing for lexically ambiguous critical lures

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, Jaimie; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined veridical and false memory for lists of associates from two meanings (e.g., stumble, trip, harvest, pumpkin, etc.) that converged upon a single, lexically ambiguous critical lure (e.g., fall), in order to compare the activation-monitoring and fuzzy-trace false memory accounts. In Experiment 1, we presented study lists that were blocked or alternated by meaning (within subjects), followed by a free recall test completed immediately or after a 2.5-min delay. Correct recall was greater for blocked than for alternated lists. Critical-lure false recall was greater for blocked lists on an immediate test, whereas both list types produced equivalent false recall on a delayed test. In Experiment 2, lists blocked and alternated by meaning were presented via a between-subjects design, in order to eliminate possible list-type carryover effects. Correct recall replicated the result from Experiment 1; however, blocking lists increased false recall on delayed, but not on immediate, tests. Across the experiments, clustering correct recall by meaning increased across the delay selectively for the alternated lists. Our results suggest that thematic (i.e., gist) processes are influential for false recall, especially following a delay, a pattern consistent with fuzzy-trace theory. PMID:26105976

  7. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  8. Wnt signaling in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Freese, Jennifer L; Pino, Darya; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2010-05-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is one of the central morphogenic signaling pathways regulating early vertebrate development. In recent years, it has become clear that the Wnt pathway also regulates many aspects of nervous system development from the patterning stage through the regulation of neural plasticity. In this review, we first present an overview of the components of the Wnt signaling pathway and then go on to discuss the literature describing the multitude of roles of Wnts in nervous system. In the latter portion of the review, we turn to the ways that defects in Wnt signaling lead to neurologic disease.

  9. The Evolution of the Wnt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt genes are important regulators of embryogenesis and cell differentiation in vertebrates and insects. New data revealed by comparative genomics have now shown that members of the Wnt signaling pathway can be found in all clades of metazoans, but not in fungi, plants, or unicellular eukaryotes. This article focuses on new data from recent genomic analyses of several basal metazoan organisms, providing evidence that the Wnt pathway was a primordial signaling pathway during evolution. The formation of a Wnt signaling center at the site of gastrulation was instrumental for the formation of a primary, anterior–posterior body axis, which can be traced throughout animal evolution. PMID:22751150

  10. Epigenetic mediated transcriptional activation of WNT5A participates in arsenical-associated malignant transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Taylor J.; Wozniak, Ryan J.; Eblin, Kylee E.; Wnek, Sean M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2009-02-15

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen with exposure associated with cancer of the lung, skin, and bladder. Many potential mechanisms have been implicated as playing a role in the process of arsenical-induced malignancy including the perturbation of signaling pathways and aberrant epigenetic regulation. We initiated studies to examine the role of a member of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway, WNT5A, in UROtsa cells and arsenite [URO-ASSC] and monomethylarsonous acid [URO-MSC] malignantly transformed variants. We present data herein that suggest that WNT5A is transcriptionally activated during arsenical-induced malignant transformation. This WNT5A transcriptional activation is correlated with the enrichment of permissive histone modifications and the reduction of repressive modifications in the WNT5A promoter region. The epigenetic activation of WNT5A expression and acetylation of its promoter remain after the removal of the arsenical, consistent with the maintenance of an anchorage independent growth phenotype in these cells. Additionally, treatment with epigenetic modifying drugs supports a functional role for these epigenetic marks in controlling gene expression. Reduction of WNT5A using lentiviral shRNA greatly attenuated the ability of these cells to grow in an anchorage independent fashion. Extension of our model into human bladder cancer cell lines indicates that each of the cell lines examined also express WNT5A. Taken together, these data suggest that the epigenetic remodeling of the WNT5A promoter is correlated with its transcriptional activation and this upregulation likely participates in arsenical-induced malignant transformation.

  11. Functional analysis of centipede development supports roles for Wnt genes in posterior development and segment generation.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Luke; Schlosser, Gerhard; Arthur, Wallace

    2015-01-01

    The genes of the Wnt family play important and highly conserved roles in posterior growth and development in a wide range of animal taxa. Wnt genes also operate in arthropod segmentation, and there has been much recent debate regarding the relationship between arthropod and vertebrate segmentation mechanisms. Due to its phylogenetic position, body form, and possession of many (11) Wnt genes, the centipede Strigamia maritima is a useful system with which to examine these issues. This study takes a functional approach based on treatment with lithium chloride, which causes ubiquitous activation of canonical Wnt signalling. This is the first functional developmental study performed in any of the 15,000 species of the arthropod subphylum Myriapoda. The expression of all 11 Wnt genes in Strigamia was analyzed in relation to posterior development. Three of these genes, Wnt11, Wnt5, and WntA, were strongly expressed in the posterior region and, thus, may play important roles in posterior developmental processes. In support of this hypothesis, LiCl treatment of S. maritima embryos was observed to produce posterior developmental defects and perturbations in AbdB and Delta expression. The effects of LiCl differ depending on the developmental stage treated, with more severe effects elicited by treatment during germband formation than by treatment at later stages. These results support a role for Wnt signalling in conferring posterior identity in Strigamia. In addition, data from this study are consistent with the hypothesis of segmentation based on a "clock and wavefront" mechanism operating in this species.

  12. Epigenetic Mediated Transcriptional Activation of WNT5A Participates in Arsenical-Associated Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Taylor J.; Wozniak, Ryan J.; Eblin, Kylee E.; Wnek, Sean M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen with exposure associated with cancer of the lung, skin, and bladder. Many potential mechanisms have been implicated as playing a role in the process of arsenical-induced malignancy including the perturbation of signaling pathways and aberrant epigenetic regulation. We initiated studies to examine the role of a member of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway, WNT5A, in UROtsa cells and arsenite [URO-ASSC] and monomethylarsonous acid [URO-MSC] malignantly transformed variants. We present data herein that suggests that WNT5A is transcriptionally activated during arsenical-induced malignant transformation. This WNT5A transcriptional activation is correlated with the enrichment of permissive histone modifications and the reduction of repressive modifications in the WNT5A promoter region. The epigenetic activation of WNT5A expression and acetylation of its promoter remain after the removal of the arsenical, consistent with the maintenance of an anchorage independent growth phenotype in these cells. Additionally, treatment with epigenetic modifying drugs supports a functional role for these epigenetic marks in controlling gene expression. Reduction of WNT5A using lentiviral shRNA greatly attenuated the ability of these cells to grow in an anchorage independent fashion. Extension of our model into human bladder cancer cell lines indicate that each of the cell lines examined also express WNT5A. Taken together, these data suggest that the epigenetic remodeling of the WNT5A promoter is correlated with its transcriptional activation and this upregulation likely participates in arsenical-induced malignant transformation. PMID:19061910

  13. Epigenetic mediated transcriptional activation of WNT5A participates in arsenical-associated malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Taylor J; Wozniak, Ryan J; Eblin, Kylee E; Wnek, Sean M; Gandolfi, A Jay; Futscher, Bernard W

    2009-02-15

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen with exposure associated with cancer of the lung, skin, and bladder. Many potential mechanisms have been implicated as playing a role in the process of arsenical-induced malignancy including the perturbation of signaling pathways and aberrant epigenetic regulation. We initiated studies to examine the role of a member of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway, WNT5A, in UROtsa cells and arsenite [URO-ASSC] and monomethylarsonous acid [URO-MSC] malignantly transformed variants. We present data herein that suggest that WNT5A is transcriptionally activated during arsenical-induced malignant transformation. This WNT5A transcriptional activation is correlated with the enrichment of permissive histone modifications and the reduction of repressive modifications in the WNT5A promoter region. The epigenetic activation of WNT5A expression and acetylation of its promoter remain after the removal of the arsenical, consistent with the maintenance of an anchorage independent growth phenotype in these cells. Additionally, treatment with epigenetic modifying drugs supports a functional role for these epigenetic marks in controlling gene expression. Reduction of WNT5A using lentiviral shRNA greatly attenuated the ability of these cells to grow in an anchorage independent fashion. Extension of our model into human bladder cancer cell lines indicates that each of the cell lines examined also express WNT5A. Taken together, these data suggest that the epigenetic remodeling of the WNT5A promoter is correlated with its transcriptional activation and this upregulation likely participates in arsenical-induced malignant transformation.

  14. WNT4-like protein is a cortical granule component in mouse oocytes and functions in regulating preimplantation embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Yang, Huei-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cortical granules (CG) are membrane-bound organelles located in the cortex of the unfertilized oocytes. Upon fertilization, CG undergo exocytosis to function in blocking polyspermy. While cortical granules are important in fertilization, their exact biochemical composition and reproductive function have not been fully defined. In the present study, a 66 kDa wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4 (WNT4)-like protein, with mouse CG origin was identified. Oocytes that were double labeled with lectin Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) and WNT4 antibody showed colocalization of the WNT4 molecules and cortical granules. The disappearance of WNT4 molecules in the artificially activated oocytes that were devoid of cortical granules confirmed their granule origin. Following fertilization, WNT4 remained associated with zygotes and blastomeres of 2-cell and 8-cell embryos; however the amount of protein present was reduced more than 2-fold as embryos developed. Prior to implantation, WNT4 appeared to be detectable only in the trophoblast cells. Our functional study revealed that WNT4 molecules were involved in regulating zygotic cleavage and early embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating mammalian cortical granules contain signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of the first phase of embryonic development.

  15. A test of the opponent-process theory of motivation using lesions that selectively block morphine reward.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Perez, Hector; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan A; Heinmiller, Andrew; Sturgess, Jessica E; van der Kooy, Derek

    2007-06-01

    The opponent-process theory of motivation postulates that motivational stimuli activate a rewarding process that is followed by an opposed aversive process in a homeostatic control mechanism. Thus, an acute injection of morphine in nondependent animals should evoke an acute rewarding response, followed by a later aversive response. Indeed, the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP) mediates the rewarding effects of opiates in previously morphine-naive animals, but not other unconditioned effects of opiates, or learning ability. The aversive opponent process for acute morphine reward was revealed using a place-conditioning paradigm. The conditioned place aversion induced by 16-h spontaneous morphine withdrawal from an acute morphine injection in nondependent rats was abolished by TPP lesions performed prior to drug experience. However, TPP-lesioned rats did show conditioned aversions for an environment paired with the acute administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone, which blocks endogenous opioids. The results show that blocking the rewarding effects of morphine with TPP lesions also blocked the opponent aversive effects of acute morphine withdrawal in nondependent animals. Thus, this spontaneous withdrawal aversion (the opponent process) is induced by the acute rewarding effects of morphine and not by other unconditioned effects of morphine, the pharmacological effects of morphine or endogenous opioids being displaced from opiate receptors.

  16. Bite-Block Perturbation in People Who Stutter: Immediate Compensatory and Delayed Adaptive Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal; De Nil, Luc

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated sensory-motor mechanisms in five people who stutter (PWS) and five people who do not (PNS). Lip kinematic and coordination data were recorded as they produced bi-syllabic nonwords at two rates (normal and fast) in three conditions (jaw-free, immediately after insertion of a bite-block, and after a 10-min…

  17. Selective enhancement of wnt4 expression by cyclic AMP-associated cooperation between rat central astrocytes and microglia.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masatoshi; Urasaki, Tomoka; Ochiai, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Kohei; Takeo, Shin; Harada, Tomoki; Ohsugi, Yoshihito; Inoue, Atsuko

    2015-11-13

    The wnt protein family has important members involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and plasticity expression; however, little is known about its biosynthesis processes. On the other hand, an increase in the intracerebral cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) level leads to synaptic plasticity via the de novo synthesis of any protein. Here, the effect of dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), a membrane permeability cAMP analog, on the wnt family was investigated in rat primary-cultured glial cells containing astrocytes and microglia. Among wnt3a, 4, 5a, 7a and 11 mRNA, only wnt4 expression was increased by longer treatment (24 h), compared with short treatment (2 h), with dbcAMP in a concentration-dependent manner, and its effect reached statistical significance at 1 mM. In cultures of isolated astrocytes or microglia, wnt4 expression was not affected by 1 mM dbcAMP for 24 h, and microglial wnt4 protein was undetectable even when cells were treated with the drug. Mixed glial cells treated for 24 h with 1 mM dbcAMP showed significantly increased wnt4 protein, as well as mRNA. Immunofluorescence manifested that cells that expressed wnt4 protein were astrocytes, but not microglia. Intraperitoneal injection of 1.25 mg/kg rolipram, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) IV inhibitor that can pass through the blood brain barrier and inhibits cAMP degradation specifically, showed a tendency to increase wnt4 expression in the adult rat brain after 24 h, and the increases in wnt4 mRNA and protein levels reached statistical significance in the hippocampus and striatum, respectively. This is the first finding to help elucidate the selective biosynthesis of central wnt4 through cAMP-stimulated microglia and astrocytes interaction.

  18. Canonical Wnt signaling is antagonized by noncanonical Wnt5a in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuzugullu, Haluk; Benhaj, Khemais; Ozturk, Nuri; Senturk, Serif; Celik, Emine; Toylu, Asli; Tasdemir, Nilgun; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Erdal, Esra; Akcali, Kamil Can; Atabey, Nese; Ozturk, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Background β-catenin mutations that constitutively activate the canonical Wnt signaling have been observed in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). These mutations are associated with chromosomal stability, low histological grade, low tumor invasion and better patient survival. We hypothesized that canonical Wnt signaling is selectively activated in well-differentiated, but repressed in poorly differentiated HCCs. To this aim, we characterized differentiation status of HCC cell lines and compared their expression status of Wnt pathway genes, and explored their activity of canonical Wnt signaling. Results We classified human HCC cell lines into "well-differentiated" and "poorly differentiated" subtypes, based on the expression of hepatocyte lineage, epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Poorly differentiated cell lines lost epithelial and hepatocyte lineage markers, and overexpressed mesenchymal markers. Also, they were highly motile and invasive. We compared the expression of 45 Wnt pathway genes between two subtypes. TCF1 and TCF4 factors, and LRP5 and LRP6 co-receptors were ubiquitously expressed. Likewise, six Frizzled receptors, and canonical Wnt3 ligand were expressed in both subtypes. In contrast, canonical ligand Wnt8b and noncanonical ligands Wnt4, Wnt5a, Wnt5b and Wnt7b were expressed selectively in well- and poorly differentiated cell lines, respectively. Canonical Wnt signaling activity, as tested by a TCF reporter assay was detected in 80% of well-differentiated, contrary to 14% of poorly differentiated cell lines. TCF activity generated by ectopic mutant β-catenin was weak in poorly differentiated SNU449 cell line, suggesting a repressive mechanism. We tested Wnt5a as a candidate antagonist. It strongly inhibited canonical Wnt signaling that is activated by mutant β-catenin in HCC cell lines. Conclusion Differential expression of Wnt ligands in HCC cells is associated with selective activation of canonical Wnt signaling in well

  19. Probing Wnt Receptor Turnover: A Critical Regulatory Point of Wnt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaomo; Cong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Wnt pathways are critical for embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis in all multicellular animals. Many regulatory mechanisms exist to control proper signaling output. Recent studies suggest that cell surface Wnt receptor level is controlled by ubiquitination, and serve as a critical regulatory point of Wnt pathway activity as it determines the responsiveness of cells to Wnt signal. Here, we describe flow cytometry, cell surface protein biotinylation, and immunofluorescence pulse-chase methods to probe the surface expression, ubiquitination, and internalization of the Wnt receptors FZD and LRP6.

  20. Jagged1 is the pathological link between Wnt and Notch pathways in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rodilla, Verónica; Villanueva, Alberto; Obrador-Hevia, Antonia; Robert-Moreno, Àlex; Fernández-Majada, Vanessa; Grilli, Andrea; López-Bigas, Nuria; Bellora, Nicolás; Albà, M. Mar; Torres, Ferran; Duñach, Mireia; Sanjuan, Xavier; Gonzalez, Sara; Gridley, Thomas; Capella, Gabriel; Bigas, Anna; Espinosa, Lluís

    2009-01-01

    Notch has been linked to β-catenin-dependent tumorigenesis; however, the mechanisms leading to Notch activation and the contribution of the Notch pathway to colorectal cancer is not yet understood. By microarray analysis, we have identified a group of genes downstream of Wnt/β-catenin (down-regulated when blocking Wnt/β-catenin) that are directly regulated by Notch (repressed by γ-secretase inhibitors and up-regulated by active Notch1 in the absence of β-catenin signaling). We demonstrate that Notch is downstream of Wnt in colorectal cancer cells through β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of the Notch-ligand Jagged1. Consistently, expression of activated Notch1 partially reverts the effects of blocking Wnt/β-catenin pathway in tumors implanted s.c. in nude mice. Crossing APCMin/+ with Jagged1+/Δ mice is sufficient to significantly reduce the size of the polyps arising in the APC mutant background indicating that Notch is an essential modulator of tumorigenesis induced by nuclear β-catenin. We show that this mechanism is operating in human tumors from Familial Adenomatous Polyposis patients. We conclude that Notch activation, accomplished by β-catenin-mediated up-regulation of Jagged1, is required for tumorigenesis in the intestine. The Notch-specific genetic signature is sufficient to block differentiation and promote vasculogenesis in tumors whereas proliferation depends on both pathways. PMID:19325125

  1. Jagged1 is the pathological link between Wnt and Notch pathways in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodilla, Verónica; Villanueva, Alberto; Obrador-Hevia, Antonia; Robert-Moreno, Alex; Fernández-Majada, Vanessa; Grilli, Andrea; López-Bigas, Nuria; Bellora, Nicolás; Albà, M Mar; Torres, Ferran; Duñach, Mireia; Sanjuan, Xavier; Gonzalez, Sara; Gridley, Thomas; Capella, Gabriel; Bigas, Anna; Espinosa, Lluís

    2009-04-14

    Notch has been linked to beta-catenin-dependent tumorigenesis; however, the mechanisms leading to Notch activation and the contribution of the Notch pathway to colorectal cancer is not yet understood. By microarray analysis, we have identified a group of genes downstream of Wnt/beta-catenin (down-regulated when blocking Wnt/beta-catenin) that are directly regulated by Notch (repressed by gamma-secretase inhibitors and up-regulated by active Notch1 in the absence of beta-catenin signaling). We demonstrate that Notch is downstream of Wnt in colorectal cancer cells through beta-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of the Notch-ligand Jagged1. Consistently, expression of activated Notch1 partially reverts the effects of blocking Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in tumors implanted s.c. in nude mice. Crossing APC(Min/+) with Jagged1(+/Delta) mice is sufficient to significantly reduce the size of the polyps arising in the APC mutant background indicating that Notch is an essential modulator of tumorigenesis induced by nuclear beta-catenin. We show that this mechanism is operating in human tumors from Familial Adenomatous Polyposis patients. We conclude that Notch activation, accomplished by beta-catenin-mediated up-regulation of Jagged1, is required for tumorigenesis in the intestine. The Notch-specific genetic signature is sufficient to block differentiation and promote vasculogenesis in tumors whereas proliferation depends on both pathways.

  2. Hypermethylation of Wnt antagonist gene promoters and activation of Wnt pathway in myelodysplastic marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Masala, Erico; Valencia, Ana; Buchi, Francesca; Nosi, Daniele; Spinelli, Elena; Gozzini, Antonella; Sassolini, Francesca; Sanna, Alessandro; Zecchi, Sandra; Bosi, Alberto; Santini, Valeria

    2012-10-01

    We observed aberrant gene methylation of Wnt antagonists: sFRP1, sFRP2, sFRP4, sFRP5 and DKK1 in marrow cells of 55 MDS cases. Methylation of Wnt antagonist genes was associated with activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, consistent with the up-regulation of the Wnt downstream genes TCF1 and LEF1. Azacitidine exposure induced demethylation of Wnt-antagonist gene promoters and reduction of the non-phosphorylated β-catenin (NPBC) which is prevalent during Wnt pathway inactivation. Presence of ≥5% of bone marrow blasts was associated with methylation of sFRP1 and DKK1 and with methylation of more than two of the five Wnt antagonist genes.

  3. In the Wnt-er of life: Wnt signalling in melanoma and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Webster, Marie R; Weeraratna, Ashani T

    2016-01-01

    Although the clinical landscape of melanoma is improving rapidly, metastatic melanoma remains a deadly disease. Age remains one of the greatest risk factors for melanoma, and patients older than 55 have a much poorer prognosis than younger individuals, even when the data are controlled for grade and stage. The reasons for this disparity have not been fully uncovered, but there is some recent evidence that Wnt signalling may have a role. Wnt signalling is known to have roles both in cancer progression as well as in organismal ageing. In melanoma, the interplay of Wnt signalling pathways is complex, with different members of the Wnt family guiding different aspects of invasion and proliferation. Here, we will briefly review the current literature addressing the roles of different Wnt pathways in melanoma pathogenesis, provide an overview of Wnt signalling during ageing, and discuss the intersection between melanoma and ageing in terms of Wnt signalling. PMID:27764844

  4. BMP-FGF signaling axis mediates Wnt-induced epidermal stratification in developing mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, YuDong; Dai, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yang, XueQin; Li, Yan; Qiu, Mengsheng; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Zunyi

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal stratification of the mammalian skin requires proliferative basal progenitors to generate intermediate cells that separate from the basal layer and are replaced by post-mitotic cells. Although Wnt signaling has been implicated in this developmental process, the mechanism underlying Wnt-mediated regulation of basal progenitors remains elusive. Here we show that Wnt secreted from proliferative basal cells is not required for their differentiation. However, epidermal production of Wnts is essential for the formation of the spinous layer through modulation of a BMP-FGF signaling cascade in the dermis. The spinous layer defects caused by disruption of Wnt secretion can be restored by transgenically expressed Bmp4. Non-cell autonomous BMP4 promotes activation of FGF7 and FGF10 signaling, leading to an increase in proliferative basal cell population. Our findings identify an essential BMP-FGF signaling axis in the dermis that responds to the epidermal Wnts and feedbacks to regulate basal progenitors during epidermal stratification.

  5. Molecular Genetics of Intracranial Meningiomas with Emphasis on Canonical Wnt Signalling.

    PubMed

    Pećina-Šlaus, Nives; Kafka, Anja; Lechpammer, Mirna

    2016-07-15

    Research over the last decade recognized the importance of novel molecular pathways in pathogenesis of intracranial meningiomas. In this review, we focus on human brain tumours meningiomas and the involvement of Wnt signalling pathway genes and proteins in this common brain tumour, describing their known functional effects. Meningiomas originate from the meningeal layers of the brain and the spinal cord. Most meningiomas have benign clinical behaviour and are classified as grade I by World Health Organization (WHO). However, up to 20% histologically classified as atypical (grade II) or anaplastic (grade III) are associated with higher recurrent rate and have overall less favourable clinical outcome. Recently, there is emerging evidence that multiple signalling pathways including Wnt pathway contribute to the formation and growth of meningiomas. In the review we present the synopsis on meningioma histopathology and genetics and discuss our research regarding Wnt in meningioma. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a process in which Wnt signalling plays an important role, is shortly discussed.

  6. Retromer dependent recycling of the Wnt secretion factor Wls is dispensable for stem cell maintenance in the mammalian intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Reinoud E A; Farin, Henner F; Macůrková, Marie; van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans C; Korswagen, Hendrik C

    2013-01-01

    In C. elegans and Drosophila, retromer mediated retrograde transport of Wntless (Wls) from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is required for Wnt secretion. When this retrograde transport pathway is blocked, Wls is missorted to lysosomes and degraded, resulting in reduced Wnt secretion and various Wnt related phenotypes. In the mammalian intestine, Wnt signaling is essential to maintain stem cells. This prompted us to ask if retromer mediated Wls recycling is also important for Wnt signaling and stem cell maintenance in this system. To answer this question, we generated a conditional Vps35 (fl) allele. As Vps35 is an essential subunit of the retromer complex, this genetic tool allowed us to inducibly interfere with retromer function in the intestinal epithelium. Using a pan-intestinal epithelial Cre line (Villin-CreERT2), we did not observe defects in crypt or villus morphology after deletion of Vps35 from the intestinal epithelium. Wnt secreted from the mesenchyme of the intestine may compensate for a reduction in epithelial Wnt secretion. To exclude the effect of the mesenchyme, we generated intestinal organoid cultures. Loss of Vps35 in intestinal organoids did not affect the overall morphology of the organoids. We were able to culture Vps35 (∆/∆) organoids for many passages without Wnt supplementation in the growth medium. However, Wls protein levels were reduced and we observed a subtle growth defect in the Vps35 (∆/∆) organoids. These results confirm the role of retromer in the retrograde trafficking of Wls in the intestine, but show that retromer mediated Wls recycling is not essential to maintain Wnt signaling or stem cell proliferation in the intestinal epithelium.

  7. WNT Signaling in Bone Development and Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhendong; Ethen, Nicole J.; Williams, Bart O.

    2014-01-01

    The balance between bone formation and bone resorption controls postnatal bone homeostasis. Research over the last decade has provided a vast amount of evidence that WNT signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating this balance. Therefore, understanding how the WNT signaling pathway regulates skeletal development and homeostasis is of great value for human skeletal health and disease. PMID:25270716

  8. Arginine methylation of G3BP1 in response to Wnt3a regulates β-catenin mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Bikkavilli, Rama Kamesh; Malbon, Craig C.

    2011-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for normal mammalian development. Wnt3a activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through stabilization of β-catenin; a process in which the phosphoprotein Dishevelled figures prominently. Protein arginine methylation in signaling complexes containing Dishevelled was investigated. Mass spectrometry of a prominent arginine-methylated, Dishevelled-associated protein identified the Ras GTPase activating protein-binding protein 1 G3BP1. Stimulation of totipotent mouse embryonic F9 cells with Wnt3a provoked increased methylation of G3BP1. We show that G3BP1 is a novel Ctnnb1 mRNA binding protein. Methylation of G3BP1 constitutes a molecular switch that regulates Ctnnb1 mRNA in response to Wnt3a. Thus, the protein arginine methylation that targets G3BP1 acts as a novel regulator of Ctnnb1 mRNA. PMID:21652632

  9. What Lies Beneath: Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Cell Fate in the Lower Dermis.

    PubMed

    Jahoda, Colin A B; Gilmore, Adam C

    2016-06-01

    Dermal cell populations are markedly heterogeneous, and they have the capacity to differentiate into dynamic and complex dermal cell compartments. However, the regulatory processes that govern the establishment of each dermal subset remain unknown. Mastrogiannaki et al. provide evidence of Wnt/β-catenin signaling controlling adipogenic differentiation in the developing reticular dermis. They also show that overexpression of localized Wnt converts dermal adipose cells into a distinct fibroblast subtype, which leads to fibrosis and disrupted hair follicle cycling. These findings highlight the multifaceted roles of Wnt signaling in the normal development and pathology of skin, including the establishment of dermal identity. Further understanding of Wnt involvement and uncovering the roles of specific Wnt ligands could be useful for discovering new therapeutic targets in treating fibrosis-related disorders.

  10. Dynamic Association with Donor Cell Filopodia and Lipid-Modification Are Essential Features of Wnt8a during Patterning of the Zebrafish Neuroectoderm

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Marta; Spannl-Müller, Stephanie; Özhan, Günes; Kagermeier-Schenk, Birgit; Rhinn, Muriel; Weidinger, Gilbert; Brand, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Wnt proteins are conserved signaling molecules that regulate pattern formation during animal development. Many Wnt proteins are post-translationally modified by addition of lipid adducts. Wnt8a provides a crucial signal for patterning the anteroposterior axis of the developing neural plate in vertebrates. However, it is not clear how this protein propagates from its source, the blastoderm margin, to the target cells in the prospective neural plate, and how lipid-modifications might influence Wnt8a propagation and activity. Results We have dynamically imaged biologically active, fluorescently tagged Wnt8a in living zebrafish embryos. We find that Wnt8a localizes to membrane-associated, punctate structures in live tissue. In Wnt8a expressing cells, these puncta are found on filopodial cellular processes, from where the protein can be released. In addition, Wnt8a is found colocalized with Frizzled receptor-containing clusters on signal receiving cells. Combining in vitro and in vivo assays, we compare the roles of conserved Wnt8a residues in cell and non-cell-autonomous signaling activity and secretion. Non-signaling Wnt8 variants show these residues can regulate Wnt8a distribution in producing cell membranes and filopodia as well as in the receiving tissue. Conclusions Together, our results show that Wnt8a forms dynamic clusters found on filopodial donor cell and on signal receiving cell membranes. Moreover, they demonstrate a differential requirement of conserved residues in Wnt8a protein for distribution in producing cells and receiving tissue and signaling activity during neuroectoderm patterning. PMID:24427298

  11. The Wnt signaling pathway in cancer.

    PubMed

    Duchartre, Yann; Kim, Yong-Mi; Kahn, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is critically involved in both the development and homeostasis of tissues via regulation of their endogenous stem cells. Aberrant Wnt signaling has been described as a key player in the initiation of and/or maintenance and development of many cancers, via affecting the behavior of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). CSCs are considered by most to be responsible for establishment of the tumor and also for disease relapse, as they possess inherent drug-resistance properties. The development of new therapeutic compounds targeting the Wnt signaling pathway promises new hope to eliminate CSCs and achieve cancer eradication. However, a major challenge resides in developing a strategy efficient enough to target the dysregulated Wnt pathway in CSCs, while being safe enough to not damage the normal somatic stem cell population required for tissue homeostasis and repair. Here we review recent therapeutic approaches to target the Wnt pathway and their clinical applications.

  12. Ectodermal Wnt signaling regulates abdominal myogenesis during ventral body wall development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingling; Li, Hanjun; Yu, Jian; Cao, Jingjing; Chen, Huihui; Zhao, Haixia; Zhao, Jianzhi; Yao, Yiyun; Cheng, Huihui; Wang, Lifang; Zhou, Rujiang; Yao, Zhengju; Guo, Xizhi

    2014-03-01

    Defects of the ventral body wall are prevalent birth anomalies marked by deficiencies in body wall closure, hypoplasia of the abdominal musculature and multiple malformations across a gamut of organs. However, the mechanisms underlying ventral body wall defects remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of Wnt signaling in ventral body wall development by inactivating Wls or β-catenin in murine abdominal ectoderm. The loss of Wls in the ventral epithelium, which blocks the secretion of Wnt proteins, resulted in dysgenesis of ventral musculature and genito-urinary tract during embryonic development. Molecular analyses revealed that the dermis and myogenic differentiation in the underlying mesenchymal progenitor cells was perturbed by the loss of ectodermal Wls. The activity of the Wnt-Pitx2 axis was impaired in the ventral mesenchyme of the mutant body wall, which partially accounted for the defects in ventral musculature formation. In contrast, epithelial depletion of β-catenin or Wnt5a did not resemble the body wall defects in the ectodermal Wls mutant. These findings indicate that ectodermal Wnt signaling instructs the underlying mesodermal specification and abdominal musculature formation during ventral body wall development, adding evidence to the theory that ectoderm-mesenchyme signaling is a potential unifying mechanism for the origin of ventral body wall defects.

  13. Up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 expression and FGF-WNT/β-catenin signaling in laser-induced wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhenlong; Kang, Hye-Young; Lee, Sunha; Kang, Shin-Wook; Goo, Boncheol; Cho, Sung Bin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 is secreted by both mesothelial and epithelial cells, and plays important roles in organ development and wound healing via WNT/β-catenin signaling. The aim of this study was to evaluate FGF9 expression and FGF-WNT/β-catenin signaling during wound healing of the skin. We investigated FGF9 expression and FGF-WNT/β-catenin signaling after laser ablation of mouse skin and adult human skin, as well as in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) upon stimulation with recombinant human (rh) FGF9 and rh-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Our results showed that laser ablation of both mouse skin and human skin leads to marked overexpression of FGF9 and FGF9 mRNA. Control NHEKs constitutively expressed FGF9, WNT7b, WNT2, and β-catenin, but did not show Snail or FGF receptor (FGFR) 2 expression. We also found that FGFR2 was significantly induced in NHEKs by rhFGF9 stimulation, and observed that FGFR2 expression was slightly up-regulated on particular days during the wound healing process after ablative laser therapy. Both WNT7b and WNT2 showed up-regulated protein expression during the laser-induced wound healing process in mouse skin; moreover, we discerned that the stimulatory effect of rhFGF9 and rhTGF-β1 activates WNT/β-catenin signaling via WNT7b in cultured NHEKs. Our data indicated that rhFGF9 and/or rhTGF-β1 up-regulate FGFR2, WNT7b, and β-catenin, but not FGF9 and Snail; pretreatment with rh dickkopf-1 significantly inhibited the up-regulation of FGFR2, WNT7b, and β-catenin. Our results suggested that FGF9 and FGF-WNT/β-catenin signaling may play important roles in ablative laser-induced wound healing processes.

  14. Characterization of ALD Processed Gallium Doped TiO2 Hole Blocking Layer in an Inverted Organic Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Sang Ouk

    2017-02-01

    To improve power conversion efficiency (PCE) of inverted structure organic solar cells a buffer layer, a hole blocking layer (HBL) was introduced between cathode and active photovoltaic layer. Gallium (Ga) doped TiO2 as a HBL was fabricated by means of atomic layer deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the highest Ga-Ti complex binding characteristics was achieved at 5% doping concentration. Gallium doped TiO2 layer exhibited over 94% of optical transmittance at the process temperature of 200°C. The resulting PCE of inverted structure organic solar cell having 5% doping in the hole block layer was 2.7%. The PCE was improved 35% compared to the cell without gallium doping.

  15. Wnt Signaling Regulates Airway Epithelial Stem Cells in Adult Murine Submucosal Glands.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Thomas J; Anderson, Preston J; Xie, Weiliang; Crooke, Adrianne K; Liu, Xiaoming; Tyler, Scott R; Luo, Meihui; Kusner, David M; Zhang, Yulong; Neff, Traci; Burnette, Daniel C; Walters, Katherine S; Goodheart, Michael J; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Engelhardt, John F

    2016-06-24

    Wnt signaling is required for lineage commitment of glandular stem cells (SCs) during tracheal submucosal gland (SMG) morphogenesis from the surface airway epithelium (SAE). Whether similar Wnt-dependent processes coordinate SC expansion in adult SMGs following airway injury remains unknown. We found that two Wnt-reporters in mice (BAT-gal and TCF/Lef:H2B-GFP) are coexpressed in actively cycling SCs of primordial glandular placodes and in a small subset of adult SMG progenitor cells that enter the cell cycle 24 hours following airway injury. At homeostasis, these Wnt reporters showed nonoverlapping cellular patterns of expression in the SAE and SMGs. Following tracheal injury, proliferation was accompanied by dynamic changes in Wnt-reporter activity and the analysis of 56 Wnt-related signaling genes revealed unique temporal changes in expression within proximal (gland-containing) and distal (gland-free) portions of the trachea. Wnt stimulation in vivo and in vitro promoted epithelial proliferation in both SMGs and the SAE. Interestingly, slowly cycling nucleotide label-retaining cells (LRCs) of SMGs were spatially positioned near clusters of BAT-gal positive serous tubules. Isolation and culture of tet-inducible H2B-GFP LRCs demonstrated that SMG LRCs were more proliferative than SAE LRCs and culture expanded SMG-derived progenitor cells outcompeted SAE-derived progenitors in regeneration of tracheal xenograft epithelium using a clonal analysis competition assay. SMG-derived progenitors were also multipotent for cell types in the SAE and formed gland-like structures in xenografts. These studies demonstrate the importance of Wnt signals in modulating SC phenotypes within tracheal niches and provide new insight into phenotypic differences of SMG and SAE SCs. Stem Cells 2016.

  16. NFAT5 regulates the canonical Wnt pathway and is required for cardiomyogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Atsuo; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Ogata, Takehiro; Imoto-Tsubakimoto, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ueyama, Tomomi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NFAT5 protein expression is downregulated during cardiomyogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of NFAT5 function suppresses canonical Wnt signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of NFAT5 function attenuates mesodermal induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NFAT5 function is required for cardiomyogenesis. -- Abstract: While nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), a transcription factor implicated in osmotic stress response, is suggested to be involved in other processes such as migration and proliferation, its role in cardiomyogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of P19CL6 cells, and observed that it was abundantly expressed in undifferentiated P19CL6 cells, and its protein expression was significantly downregulated by enhanced proteasomal degradation during DMSO-induced cardiomyogenesis. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of NFAT5 markedly attenuated cardiomyogenesis, which was associated with the inhibition of mesodermal differentiation. TOPflash reporter assay revealed that the transcriptional activity of canonical Wnt signaling was activated prior to mesodermal differentiation, and this activation was markedly attenuated by NFAT5 inhibition. Pharmacological activation of canonical Wnt signaling by [2 Prime Z, 3 Prime E]-6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (BIO) restored Brachyury expression in NFAT5DN-expressing cells. Inhibition of NFAT5 markedly attenuated Wnt3 and Wnt3a induction. Expression of Dkk1 and Cerberus1, which are secreted Wnt antagonists, was also inhibited by NFAT5 inhibition. Thus, endogenous NFAT5 regulates the coordinated expression of Wnt ligands and antagonists, which are essential for cardiomyogenesis through the canonical Wnt pathway. These results demonstrated a novel role of NFAT5 in cardiac differentiation of stem cells.

  17. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-01-01

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17769.001 PMID:27919318

  18. Autocrine stimulation of osteoblast activity by Wnt5a in response to TNF-α in human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briolay, A.; Lencel, P.; Caverzasio, J.; Buchet, R.; Magne, D.

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) leads to bone fusions and ankylosis. ► TNF-α stimulates osteoblasts through growth factors in AS. ► We compare the involvement of canonical vs non-canonical Wnt signaling. ► Canonical Wnt signaling is not involved in TNF-α effects in differentiating hMSCs. ► TNF-α stimulates osteoblasts through Wnt5a autocrine secretion in hMSCs. -- Abstract: Although anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treatments efficiently block inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), they are inefficient to prevent excessive bone formation. In AS, ossification seems more prone to develop in sites where inflammation has resolved following anti-TNF therapy, suggesting that TNF-α indirectly stimulates ossification. In this context, our objectives were to determine and compare the involvement of Wnt proteins, which are potent growth factors of bone formation, in the effects of TNF-α on osteoblast function. In human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), TNF-α significantly increased the levels of Wnt10b and Wnt5a. Associated with this effect, TNF-α stimulated tissue-non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and mineralization. This effect was mimicked by activation of the canonical β-catenin pathway with either anti-Dkk1 antibodies, lithium chloride (LiCl) or SB216763. TNF-α reduced, and activation of β-catenin had little effect on expression of osteocalcin, a late marker of osteoblast differentiation. Surprisingly, TNF-α failed to stabilize β-catenin and Dkk1 did not inhibit TNF-α effects. In fact, Dkk1 expression was also enhanced in response to TNF-α, perhaps explaining why canonical signaling by Wnt10b was not activated by TNF-α. However, we found that Wnt5a also stimulated TNAP in MSCs cultured in osteogenic conditions, and increased the levels of inflammatory markers such as COX-2. Interestingly, treatment with anti-Wnt5a antibodies reduced endogenous TNAP expression and activity. Collectively, these data suggest that increased

  19. Temporary, Systemic Inhibition of the WNT/β-Catenin Pathway promotes Regenerative Cardiac Repair following Myocardial Infarct

    PubMed Central

    Bastakoty, Dikshya; Saraswati, Sarika; Joshi, Piyush; Atkinson, James; Feoktistov, Igor; Liu, Jun; Harris, Jennifer L; Young, Pampee P

    2016-01-01

    Aims The WNT/β-catenin pathway is temporarily activated in the heart following myocardial infarction (MI). Despite data from genetic models indicating both positive and negative roles for the WNT pathway depending on the model used, the effect of therapeutic inhibition of WNT pathway on post-injury outcome and the cellular mediators involved are not completely understood. Using a newly available, small molecule, GNF-6231, which averts WNT pathway activation by blocking secretion of all WNT ligands, we sought to investigate whether therapeutic inhibition of the WNT pathway temporarily after infarct can mitigate post injury cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis and the cellular mechanisms responsible for the effects. Methods and Results Pharmacologic inhibition of the WNT pathway by post-MI intravenous injection of GNF-6231 in C57Bl/6 mice significantly reduced the decline in cardiac function (Fractional Shortening at day 30: 38.71 ± 4.13% in GNF-6231 treated vs. 34.89 ± 4.86% in vehicle-treated), prevented adverse cardiac remodeling, and reduced infarct size (9.07 ± 3.98% vs. 17.18 ± 4.97%). WNT inhibition augmented proliferation of interstitial cells, particularly in the distal myocardium, inhibited apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and reduced myofibroblast proliferation in the peri-infarct region. In vitro studies showed that WNT inhibition increased proliferation of Sca1+ cardiac progenitors, improved survival of cardiomyocytes, and inhibited collagen I synthesis by cardiac myofibroblasts. Conclusion Systemic, temporary pharmacologic inhibition of the WNT pathway using an orally bioavailable drug immediately following MI resulted in improved function, reduced adverse remodeling and reduced infarct size in mice. Therapeutic WNT inhibition affected multiple aspects of infarct repair: it promoted proliferation of cardiac progenitors and other interstitial cells, inhibited myofibroblast proliferation, improved cardiomyocyte survival, and reduced collagen I gene

  20. A VLSI Architecture for Output Probability Computations of HMM-Based Recognition Systems with Store-Based Block Parallel Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Masatoshi; Takagi, Kazuyoshi; Takagi, Naofumi

    In this paper, a fast and memory-efficient VLSI architecture for output probability computations of continuous Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) is presented. These computations are the most time-consuming part of HMM-based recognition systems. High-speed VLSI architectures with small registers and low-power dissipation are required for the development of mobile embedded systems with capable human interfaces. We demonstrate store-based block parallel processing (StoreBPP) for output probability computations and present a VLSI architecture that supports it. When the number of HMM states is adequate for accurate recognition, compared with conventional stream-based block parallel processing (StreamBPP) architectures, the proposed architecture requires fewer registers and processing elements and less processing time. The processing elements used in the StreamBPP architecture are identical to those used in the StoreBPP architecture. From a VLSI architectural viewpoint, a comparison shows the efficiency of the proposed architecture through efficient use of registers for storing input feature vectors and intermediate results during computation.

  1. Promising Druggable Target in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aminuddin, Amnani; Ng, Pei Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling pathway, also known as Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, is a crucial mechanism for cellular maintenance and development. It regulates cell cycle progression, apoptosis, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Dysregulation of this pathway correlates with oncogenesis in various tissues including breast, colon, pancreatic as well as head and neck cancers. Furthermore, the canonical Wnt signaling pathway has also been described as one of the critical signaling pathways for regulation of normal stem cells as well as cancer cells with stem cell-like features, termed cancer stem cells (CSC). In this review, we will briefly describe the basic mechanisms of Wnt signaling pathway and its crucial roles in the normal regulation of cellular processes as well as in the development of cancer. Next, we will highlight the roles of canonical Wnt signaling pathway in the regulation of CSC properties namely self-renewal, differentiation, metastasis, and drug resistance abilities, particularly in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we will examine the findings of several recent studies which explore druggable targets in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway which could be valuable to improve the treatment outcome for head and neck cancer. PMID:27570510

  2. Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt4 Signaling to Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Maitreyi; Martino Cortez, Yesenia; Wong-Deyrup, SiuWah; Tavares, Leticia; Schowalter, Sean; Flora, Pooja; Hill, Corinne; Nasrallah, Mohamad Ali; Chittur, Sridar; Rangan, Prashanth

    2016-03-01

    Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation are required for the sustained production of gametes. GSC differentiation in Drosophila oogenesis requires expression of the histone methyltransferase dSETDB1 by the somatic niche, however its function in this process is unknown. Here, we show that dSETDB1 is required for the expression of a Wnt ligand, Drosophila Wingless type mouse mammary virus integration site number 4 (dWnt4) in the somatic niche. dWnt4 signaling acts on the somatic niche cells to facilitate their encapsulation of the GSC daughter, which serves as a differentiation cue. dSETDB1 is known to repress transposable elements (TEs) to maintain genome integrity. Unexpectedly, we found that independent upregulation of TEs also downregulated dWnt4, leading to GSC differentiation defects. This suggests that dWnt4 expression is sensitive to the presence of TEs. Together our results reveal a chromatin-transposon-Wnt signaling axis that regulates stem cell fate.

  3. Gpr177 deficiency impairs mammary development and prohibits Wnt-induced tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Eri Ohfuchi; Yu, H-M Ivy; Jiang, Ming; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of the Wnt pathway, essential for various developmental processes, is tightly linked to human breast cancers. By hijacking this evolutionary conserved signaling pathway, cancer cells acquire sustaining proliferation ability, leading to modification of physiologic properties necessary for tumor initiation and progression. An enormous wealth of knowledge on the importance of Wnt signaling in breast development and cancer has been obtained, but the cell types responsible for production of this proliferative signal operating within normal and malignant tissues remains poorly understood. Here we report that Wnt production mediated by Gpr177 is essential for mammary morphogenesis. The loss of Gpr177 interferes with mammary stem cells, leading to deficiencies in cell proliferation and differentiation. Genetic analysis further demonstrates an indispensable role of Gpr177 in Wnt-induced tumorigenesis. The Gpr177-deficiency mice are resistant to malignant transformation. This study not only demonstrates the necessity of Wnt in mammary organogenesis but also provides a proof-of-principle for targeting of Gpr177 as a potential new treatment for human diseases with aberrant Wnt stimulation.

  4. Transposon Dysregulation Modulates dWnt4 Signaling to Control Germline Stem Cell Differentiation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Maitreyi; Martino Cortez, Yesenia; Wong-Deyrup, SiuWah; Tavares, Leticia; Schowalter, Sean; Flora, Pooja; Hill, Corinne; Nasrallah, Mohamad Ali; Chittur, Sridar; Rangan, Prashanth

    2016-01-01

    Germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation are required for the sustained production of gametes. GSC differentiation in Drosophila oogenesis requires expression of the histone methyltransferase dSETDB1 by the somatic niche, however its function in this process is unknown. Here, we show that dSETDB1 is required for the expression of a Wnt ligand, Drosophila Wingless type mouse mammary virus integration site number 4 (dWnt4) in the somatic niche. dWnt4 signaling acts on the somatic niche cells to facilitate their encapsulation of the GSC daughter, which serves as a differentiation cue. dSETDB1 is known to repress transposable elements (TEs) to maintain genome integrity. Unexpectedly, we found that independent upregulation of TEs also downregulated dWnt4, leading to GSC differentiation defects. This suggests that dWnt4 expression is sensitive to the presence of TEs. Together our results reveal a chromatin-transposon-Wnt signaling axis that regulates stem cell fate. PMID:27019121

  5. microRNA regulation of Wnt signaling pathways in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jia L.; Nigam, Priya; Tektas, Senel S.; Selva, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathways and microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of development. Aberrant Wnt signaling pathways and miRNA levels lead to developmental defects and diverse human pathologies including but not limited to cancer. Wnt signaling pathways regulate a plethora of cellular processes during embryonic development and maintain homeostasis of adult tissues. A majority of Wnt signaling components are regulated by miRNAs which are small noncoding RNAs that are expressed in both animals and plants. In animal cells, miRNAs fine tune gene expression by pairing primarily to the 3′untranslated region of protein coding mRNAs to repress target mRNA translation and/or induce target degradation. miRNA-mediated regulation of signaling transduction pathways is important in modulating dose-sensitive response of cells to signaling molecules. This review discusses components of the Wnt signaling pathways that are regulated by miRNAs in the context of development and diseases. A fundamental understanding of miRNA functions in Wnt signaling transduction pathways may yield new insight into crosstalks of regulatory mechanisms essential for development and disease pathophysiology leading to novel therapeutics. PMID:25843779

  6. Heparin activates Wnt signaling for neuronal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Colombres, Marcela; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Reig, Germán F; Scheu, Jessica; Calderón, Rosario; Alvarez, Alejandra; Brandan, Enrique; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2008-09-01

    Wnt factors are secreted ligands that affect different aspects of the nervous system behavior like neurodevelopment, synaptogenesis and neurodegeneration. In different model systems, Wnt signaling has been demonstrated to be regulated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Whether HSPGs modulate Wnt signaling in the context of neuronal behavior is currently unknown. Here we demonstrate that activation of Wnt signaling with the endogenous ligand Wnt-7a results in an increased of neurite outgrowth in the neuroblastoma N2a cell line. Interestingly, heparin induces glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) inhibition, beta-catenin stabilization and morphological differentiation in both N2a cells and in rat primary hippocampal neuronal cultures. We also show that heparin modulates Wnt-3a-induced stabilization of beta-catenin. Several extracellular matrix and membrane-attached HSPGs were found to be expressed in both in vitro neuronal models. Changes in the expression of specific HSPGs were observed upon differentiation of N2a cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that HSPGs may modulate canonical Wnt signaling for neuronal morphogenesis.

  7. Wnt signaling inhibits CTL memory programming.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhengguo; Sun, Zhifeng; Smyth, Kendra; Li, Lei

    2013-12-01

    Induction of functional CTLs is one of the major goals for vaccine development and cancer therapy. Inflammatory cytokines are critical for memory CTL generation. Wnt signaling is important for CTL priming and memory formation, but its role in cytokine-driven memory CTL programming is unclear. We found that wnt signaling inhibited IL-12-driven CTL activation and memory programming. This impaired memory CTL programming was attributed to up-regulation of eomes and down-regulation of T-bet. Wnt signaling suppressed the mTOR pathway during CTL activation, which was different to its effects on other cell types. Interestingly, the impaired memory CTL programming by wnt was partially rescued by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. In conclusion, we found that crosstalk between wnt and the IL-12 signaling inhibits T-bet and mTOR pathways and impairs memory programming which can be recovered in part by rapamycin. In addition, direct inhibition of wnt signaling during CTL activation does not affect CTL memory programming. Therefore, wnt signaling may serve as a new tool for CTL manipulation in autoimmune diseases and immune therapy for certain cancers.

  8. The effect of a thin weak layer covering a basalt block on the impact cratering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohi, Koji; Arakawa, Masahiko; Okamoto, Chisato; Hasegawa, Sunao; Yasui, Minami

    2012-04-01

    To clarify the effect of a surface regolith layer on the formation of craters in bedrock, we conducted impact-cratering experiments on two-layered targets composed of a basalt block covered with a mortar layer. A nylon projectile was impacted on the targets at velocities of 2 and 4 km s-1, and we investigated the crater size formed on the basalt. The crater size decreased with increased mortar thickness and decreased projectile mass and impact velocity. The normalized crater volume, πV, of all the data was successfully scaled by the following exponential equation with a reduction length λ0: π=b0πY-b1exp(-λ/λ0), where λ is the normalized thickness T/Lp, T and Lp are the mortar thickness and the projectile length, respectively, b0 and b1 are fitted parameters obtained for a homogeneous basalt target, 10-2.7±0.7 and -1.4 ± 0.3, respectively, and λ0 is obtained to be 0.38 ± 0.03. This empirical equation showing the effect of the mortar layer was physically explained by an improved non-dimensional scaling parameter, πY∗, defined by πY∗=Y/(ρup2), where up was the particle velocity of the mortar layer at the boundary between the mortar and the basalt. We performed the impact experiments to obtain the attenuation rate of the particle velocity in the mortar layer and derived the empirical equation of {u}/{v}=0.50exp-{λ}/{1.03}, where vi is the impact velocity of the projectile. We propose a simple model for the crater formation on the basalt block that the surface mortar layer with the impact velocity of up collides on the surface of the basalt block, and we confirmed that this model could reproduce our empirical equation showing the effect of the surface layer on the crater volume of basalt.

  9. Expression of MIG-6, WNT-9A, and WNT-7B during osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Velasquillo, Cristina; Garciadiego-Cázares, David; Almonte, Maylin; Bustamante, Marcia; Ibarra, Clemente; Kouri, Juan B; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2007-11-01

    Although the molecular mechanisms for initiation of cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis (OA) are unknown, it has been demonstrated that disruption of mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) in mice leads to the onset of a degenerative joint disease like OA. On this basis, we correlated gene expression of Mig-6 with Wnt-9a and Wnt-7b genes; we showed downregulation of Mig-6, Wnt-7b, and Wnt-9a during OA, while Wnt-7b was expressed also in osteoblast-like cells. Here we suggest that Aggrecan degradation occurs before the downregulation of Mig-6. It remains to be proven whether there is any relation between Wnt signaling and Aggrecan degradation.

  10. Sea-floor character and sedimentary processes of Block Island Sound, offshore Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; McMullen, K.Y.; Blankenship, M.A.; Glomb, K.A.; Wright, D.B.; Smith, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 634 square kilometers of sea floor in Block Island Sound. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic surveys H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12033, H12137, and H12139, these combined acoustic data and the sea-floor sediment sampling and photography stations subsequently occupied to verify them during U.S. Geological Survey cruise 2011-006-FA (1) show the composition and terrain of the seabed, (2) provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat, and (3) are part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities (for example, wind farms and fisheries) along the Rhode Island inner continental shelf.

  11. Polymorphisms in WNT6 and WNT10A and Colorectal Adenoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Rachel L.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Duggan, David; Muehling, Jill; Hsu, Li; Makar, Karen; Xiao, Liren; Potter, John D.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    The WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway upregulates transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation and cancer progression; it has been implicated in colorectal adenoma formation. To date, no studies have examined polymorphisms in WNT genes or WNT gene–environment interactions in relation to adenoma risk. Within a colonoscopy-based case-control study of 628 adenoma cases and 516 polyp-free controls, we analyzed two tagSNPs in WNT6 (rs6747776 G > C, rs6754599 G > C) and WNT10A (rs7349332 G > A, rs10177996 A > G). The WNT6 rs6747776 homozygous minor allele (CC) was associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma (OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.03–7.31). We observed a statistically significant interaction between WNT6 rs6747776 and the proportion of calories from total fat (P-int = 0.02), where the highest risk was observed among those with minor alleles and lowest fat intake. We also detected a marginally significant (0.05 < P ≤ 0.10) interaction with fish intake (P-int = 0.09). Additionally, a marginally significant interaction was observed between proportion of calories from saturated fat and the WNT10A rs7349332 polymorphism. Our results suggest that genetic variability in the WNT pathway may play a role in colorectal adenoma formation or may partly mediate the increased risk of colorectal cancer associated with fat intake. PMID:21547848

  12. Polymorphisms in WNT6 and WNT10A and colorectal adenoma risk.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Rachel L; Poole, Elizabeth M; Duggan, David; Muehling, Jill; Hsu, Li; Makar, Karen; Xiao, Liren; Potter, John D; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2011-01-01

    The WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway upregulates transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation and cancer progression; it has been implicated in colorectal adenoma formation. To date, no studies have examined polymorphisms in WNT genes or WNT gene-environment interactions in relation to adenoma risk. Within a colonoscopy-based case-control study of 628 adenoma cases and 516 polyp-free controls, we analyzed two tagSNPs in WNT6 (rs6747776 G > C, rs6754599 G > C) and WNT10A (rs7349332 G > A, rs10177996 A > G). The WNT6 rs6747776 homozygous minor allele (CC) was associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma (OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.03-7.31). We observed a statistically significant interaction between WNT6 rs6747776 and the proportion of calories from total fat (P-int = 0.02), where the highest risk was observed among those with minor alleles and lowest fat intake. We also detected a marginally significant (0.05 < P ≤ 0.10) interaction with fish intake (P-int = 0.09). Additionally, a marginally significant interaction was observed between proportion of calories from saturated fat and the WNT10A rs7349332 polymorphism. Our results suggest that genetic variability in the WNT pathway may play a role in colorectal adenoma formation or may partly mediate the increased risk of colorectal cancer associated with fat intake.

  13. Activation of the Wnt Pathway by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Wnt-Wnt Situation.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Tomás; Madrid-Paulino, Edgardo; Maldonado-Bravo, Rafael; Urbán-Aragón, Antonio; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an intracellular pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, is the cause of tuberculosis (TB), a major worldwide human infectious disease. The innate immune system is the first host defense against M. tuberculosis. The recognition of this pathogen is mediated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors expressed on the host innate immune cells, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors like Dectin-1, the Mannose receptor, and DC-SIGN. M. tuberculosis interaction with any of these receptors activates multiple signaling pathways among which the protein kinase C, the MAPK, and the NFκB pathways have been widely studied. These pathways have been implicated in macrophage invasion, M. tuberculosis survival, and impaired immune response, thus promoting a successful infection and disease. Interestingly, the Wnt signaling pathway, classically regarded as a pathway involved in the control of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in embryonic development, has recently been involved in immunoregulatory mechanisms in infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as TB, sepsis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. In this review, we present the current knowledge supporting a role for the Wnt signaling pathway during macrophage infection by M. tuberculosis and the regulation of the immune response against M. tuberculosis. Understanding the cross talk between different signaling pathways activated by M. tuberculosis will impact on the search for new therapeutic targets to fuel the rational design of drugs aimed to restore the immunological response against M. tuberculosis.

  14. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario

    PubMed Central

    Arrázola, Macarena S.; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as “mitochondrial dynamics” is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. PMID:25999816

  15. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario.

    PubMed

    Arrázola, Macarena S; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as "mitochondrial dynamics" is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

  16. Recording Block Transfer Agreements with PCTIA-Accredited Institutions: Policy and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this policy and process document is to provide advice to public and private institutions intending to enter into articulation agreements regarding: (1) Appropriate steps to be taken by each partner to the agreement; (2) Recommended processes for recording and monitoring the agreement; and (3) Circumstances under which agreements…

  17. Wnt3a mitigates acute lung injury by reducing P2X7 receptor-mediated alveolar epithelial type I cell death

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Y; Mishra, A; Weng, T; Chintagari, N R; Wang, Y; Zhao, C; Huang, C; Liu, L

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cell damage, and loss of the alveolar–capillary barrier. We have previously shown that P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a cell death receptor, is specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial type I cells (AEC I). In this study, we hypothesized that P2X7R-mediated purinergic signaling and its interaction with Wnt/β-catenin signaling contributes to AEC I death. We examined the effect of P2X7R agonist 2′-3′-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) and Wnt agonist Wnt3a on AEC I death in vitro and in vivo. We also assessed the therapeutic potential of Wnt3a in a clinically relevant ALI model of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in ventilated mice. We found that the activation of P2X7R by BzATP caused the death of AEC I by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling through stimulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and proteasome. On the other hand, the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Wnt3a, GSK-3β inhibitor, or proteasome inhibitor blocked the P2X7R-mediated cell death. More importantly, Wnt3a attenuated the AEC I damage caused by intratracheal instillation of BzATP in rats or LPS in ventilated mice. Our results suggest that Wnt3a overrides the effect of P2X7R on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent the AEC I death and restrict the severity of ALI. PMID:24922070

  18. WNT signaling suppression in the senescent human thymus.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Velardi, Enrico; Grillari, Johannes; Kreil, David P; Muñoz-Fernandez, M Ángeles; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Leal, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Human thymus is completely developed in late fetal stages and its function peaks in newborns. After the first year of life, the thymus undergoes a progressive atrophy that dramatically decreases de novo T-lymphocyte maturation. Hormonal signaling and changes in the microRNA expression network are identified as underlying causes of human thymus involution. However, specific pathways involved in the age-related loss of thymic function remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed differential gene-expression profile and microRNA expression in elderly (70 years old) and young (less than 10 months old and 11 years old) human thymic samples. Our data have shown that WNT pathway deregulation through the overexpression of different inhibitors by the nonadipocytic component of the human thymus stimulates the age-related involution. These results are of particular interest because interference of WNT signaling has been demonstrated in both animal models and in vitro studies, with the three major hallmarks of thymic involution: (i) epithelial structure disruption, (ii) adipogenic process, and (iii) thymocyte development arrest. Thus, our results suggest that secreted inhibitors of the WNT pathway could be explored as a novel therapeutical target in the reversal of the age-related thymic involution.

  19. RHOA inactivation enhances Wnt signaling and promotes colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Paulo; Macaya, Irati; Bazzocco, Sarah; Mazzolini, Rocco; Andretta, Elena; Dopeso, Higinio; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Bilić, Josipa; Cartón-García, Fernando; Nieto, Rocio; Suárez-López, Lucia; Afonso, Elsa; Landolfi, Stefania; Hernandez-Losa, Javier; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Cajal, Santiago Ramón y; Tabernero, Josep; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Mariadason, John M.; Schwartz, Simo; Arango, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small GTPase RHOA has strong oncogenic effects in many tumor types, although its role in colorectal cancer remains unclear. Here we show that RHOA inactivation contributes to colorectal cancer progression/metastasis, largely through the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. RhoA inactivation in the murine intestine accelerates the tumorigenic process and in human colon cancer cells leads to the redistribution of β-catenin from the membrane to the nucleus and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling, resulting in increased proliferation, invasion and de-differentiation. In mice, RHOA inactivation contributes to colon cancer metastasis and reduced RHOA levels were observed at metastatic sites compared to primary human colon tumors. Therefore, we have identified a new mechanism of activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and characterized the role of RHOA as a novel tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. These results constitute a shift from the current paradigm and demonstrate that RHO GTPases can suppress tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:25413277

  20. Differential transformation of mammary epithelial cells by Wnt genes.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, G T; Gavin, B J; McMahon, A P

    1994-01-01

    The mouse Wnt family includes at least 10 genes that encode structurally related secreted glycoproteins. Wnt-1 and Wnt-3 were originally identified as oncogenes activated by the insertion of mouse mammary tumor virus in virus-induced mammary adenocarcinomas, although they are not expressed in the normal mammary gland. However, five other Wnt genes are differentially expressed during development of adult mammary tissue, suggesting that they may play distinct roles in various phases of mammary gland growth and development. Induction of transformation by Wnt-1 and Wnt-3 may be due to interference with these normal regulatory events; however, there is no direct evidence for this hypothesis. We have tested Wnt family members for the ability to induce transformation of cultured mammary cells. The results demonstrate that the Wnt gene family can be divided into three groups depending on their ability to induce morphological transformation and altered growth characteristics of the C57MG mammary epithelial cell line. Wnt-1, Wnt-3A, and Wnt-7A were highly transforming and induced colonies which formed and shed balls of cells. Wnt-2, Wnt-5B, and Wnt-7B also induced transformation but with a lower frequency and an apparent decrease in saturation density. In contrast, Wnt-6 and two other family members which are normally expressed in C57MG cells, Wnt-4 and Wnt-5A, failed to induce transformation. These data demonstrate that the Wnt genes have distinct effects on cell growth and should not be regarded as functionally equivalent. Images PMID:8065359

  1. Processing Cyclic Peptide-polymer Conjugates in Block Copolymer Thin Films for Sub-nm Porous Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Xu, Ting

    2014-03-01

    Porous thin films containing subnanometer channels oriented normal to the surface exhibit unique transport and separation properties and can serve as selective membranes for separation. Inspired by natural protein channels, we have developed an approach using cyclic peptide nanotubes (CPNs) embedded in polymeric matrix to mimic the transport of natural channels. The co-assembly of polymer-covered CPNs in a block copolymer (BCP) thin film requires the synchronization of two self-assembly processes, namely the microphase separation of BCP and the nanotube growth of CP-polymer conjugates. We systematically investigated the co-assembly of isolated CP-poly(ethylene glycol) (CP-PEG) conjugates and polystyrene-b-poly (methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) in thin films as a function of CP-PEG loading (fCP-PEG) and solvent-polymer interactions. We find that there is a strong dependence of the co-assembly process on fCP-PEG due to thermodynamic limit of incorporating one CPN in one PMMA microdomain, as well as the kinetic pathway in which favorable PEG-solvent interaction helps to disperse CPNs and thus lowers the activation energy barrier of the system. This study presents critical insights in guided assemblies of functional building blocks within nanoscopic frameworks. DOE-EFRC-Gas Separation, Army Research Office.

  2. Wnt ligands from the embryonic surface ectoderm regulate ‘bimetallic strip’ optic cup morphogenesis in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, April C.; Smith, April N.; Wagner, Heidi; Cohen-Tayar, Yamit; Rao, Sujata; Wallace, Valerie; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Lang, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin response pathway is central to many developmental processes. Here, we assessed the role of Wnt signaling in early eye development using the mouse as a model system. We showed that the surface ectoderm region that includes the lens placode expressed 12 out of 19 possible Wnt ligands. When these activities were suppressed by conditional deletion of wntless (Le-cre; Wlsfl/fl) there were dramatic consequences that included a saucer-shaped optic cup, ventral coloboma, and a deficiency of periocular mesenchyme. This phenotype shared features with that produced when the Wnt/β-catenin pathway co-receptor Lrp6 is mutated or when retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the eye is compromised. Consistent with this, microarray and cell fate marker analysis identified a series of expression changes in genes known to be regulated by RA or by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Using pathway reporters, we showed that Wnt ligands from the surface ectoderm directly or indirectly elicit a Wnt/β-catenin response in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) progenitors near the optic cup rim. In Le-cre; Wlsfl/fl mice, the numbers of RPE cells are reduced and this can explain, using the principle of the bimetallic strip, the curvature of the optic cup. These data thus establish a novel hypothesis to explain how differential cell numbers in a bilayered epithelium can lead to shape change. PMID:25715397

  3. The impact of Wnt signalling and hypoxia on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuigen; Shao, Jin; Zhou, Yinghong; Friis, Thor; Yao, Jiangwu; Shi, Bin; Xiao, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Cementum is a periodontal support tissue that is directly connected to the periodontal ligament. It shares common traits with bone tissues, however, unlike bone, the cementum has a limited capacity for regeneration. As a result, following damage the cementum rarely, if ever, regenerates. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) are able to differentiate into osteoblastic and cementogenic lineages according to specific local environmental conditions, including hypoxia, which is induced by inflammation or activation of the Wnt signalling pathway by local loading. The interactions between the Wnt signalling pathway and hypoxia during cementogenesis are of particular interest to improve the understanding of periodontal tissue regeneration. In the present study, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of PDLCs was investigated under hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of Wnt pathway activation. Protein and gene expression of the osteogenic markers type 1 collagen (COL1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) were used as markers for osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation, respectively. Wnt signalling activation inhibited cementogenesis, whereas hypoxia alone did not affect PDLC differentiation. However, hypoxia reversed the inhibition of cementogenesis that resulted from overexpression of Wnt signalling. Cross-talk between hypoxia and Wnt signalling pathways was, therefore, demonstrated to be involved in the differentiation of PDLCs to the osteogenic and cementogenic lineages. In summary, the present study suggests that the differentiation of PDLCs into osteogenic and cementogenic lineages is partially regulated by the Wnt signalling pathway and that hypoxia is also involved in this process. PMID:27840938

  4. Genome‐wide analysis of canonical Wnt target gene regulation in Xenopus tropicalis challenges β‐catenin paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yukio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Wnt/β‐catenin signaling is an important cell‐to‐cell signaling mechanism that controls gene expression during embryonic development and is critically implicated in human diseases. Developmental, cellular, and transcriptional responses to Wnt signaling are remarkably context‐specific in different biological processes. While nuclear localization of β‐catenin is the key to activation of the Wnt/β‐catenin pathway and target gene expression, the molecular mechanisms of how the same Wnt/β‐catenin signaling pathway induces specific responses remain undetermined. Recent advances in high‐throughput sequencing technologies and the availability of genome information for Xenopus tropicalis have enabled us to uncover a genome‐wide view of Wnt/β‐catenin signaling in early vertebrate embryos, which challenges previous concepts about molecular mechanisms of Wnt target gene regulation. In this review, we summarize our experimental approaches, introduce the technologies we employed and focus on recent findings about Wnt target gene regulation from Xenopus research. We will also discuss potential functions of widespread β‐catenin binding in the genome that we discovered in this species. PMID:28095618

  5. Role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in gastric cancer: An in-depth literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most common cancers worldwide and one of the leading cause for cancer-related deaths. Gastric adenocarcinoma is a multifactorial disease that is genetically, cytologically and architecturally more heterogeneous than other gastrointestinal carcinomas. The aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the development and progression of a significant proportion of gastric cancer cases. This review focuses on the participation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in gastric cancer by offering an analysis of the relevant literature published in this field. Indeed, it is discussed the role of key factors in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and their downstream effectors regulating processes involved in tumor initiation, tumor growth, metastasis and resistance to therapy. Available data indicate that constitutive Wnt signalling resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection and inactivation of Wnt inhibitors (mainly by inactivating mutations and promoter hypermethylation) play an important role in gastric cancer. Moreover, a number of recent studies confirmed CTNNB1 and APC as driver genes in gastric cancer. The identification of specific membrane, intracellular, and extracellular components of the Wnt pathway has revealed potential targets for gastric cancer therapy. High-throughput “omics” approaches will help in the search for Wnt pathway antagonist in the near future. PMID:25992323

  6. Wnt-Frizzled/Planar Cell Polarity Signaling: Cellular Orientation by Facing the Wind (Wnt)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingzi; Mlodzik, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial and mesenchymal cells is a critical, evolutionarily conserved process during development and organogenesis. Analyses in Drosophila and several vertebrate model organisms have contributed a wealth of information on the regulation of PCP. A key conserved pathway regulating PCP, the so-called core Wnt-Frizzled PCP (Fz/PCP) signaling pathway, was initially identified through genetic studies of Drosophila. PCP studies in vertebrates, most notably mouse and zebrafish, have identified novel factors in PCP signaling and have also defined cellular features requiring PCP signaling input. These studies have shifted focus to the role of Van Gogh (Vang)/Vangl genes in this molecular system. This review focuses on new insights into the core Fz/Vangl/PCP pathway and recent advances in Drosophila and vertebrate PCP studies. We attempt to integrate these within the existing core Fz/Vangl/PCP signaling framework. PMID:26566118

  7. Building the blocks of executive functioning: differentiating early developing processes contributing to executive functioning skills.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Dorothy J; Ward, Sarah E

    2011-12-01

    The neural processes that underlie executive function begin to develop in infancy. However, it is unclear how the behavior manifested by these processes are related or if they can be differentiated early in development. This study seeks to examine early emerging executive functioning skills in monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) by using an error analysis approach where traditional measures of the tasks, as well as identification of major error patterns are related. Results show that during the infancy and early juvenile period, two processes that help support set-maintenance could be differentiated: modulation of responses to novelty and persistence despite negative feedback. The results suggest that these two aspects of set-maintenance were largely independent. Modulation of responses to novelty was most prominent in the infancy and early juvenile period. The ability to persist with a response set despite negative feedback emerged in the early juvenile period and was related to task performance until the end of the study.

  8. Compute-unified device architecture implementation of a block-matching algorithm for multiple graphical processing unit cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massanes, Francesc; Cadennes, Marie; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2011-07-01

    We describe and evaluate a fast implementation of a classical block-matching motion estimation algorithm for multiple graphical processing units (GPUs) using the compute unified device architecture computing engine. The implemented block-matching algorithm uses summed absolute difference error criterion and full grid search (FS) for finding optimal block displacement. In this evaluation, we compared the execution time of a GPU and CPU implementation for images of various sizes, using integer and noninteger search grids. The results show that use of a GPU card can shorten computation time by a factor of 200 times for integer and 1000 times for a noninteger search grid. The additional speedup for a noninteger search grid comes from the fact that GPU has built-in hardware for image interpolation. Further, when using multiple GPU cards, the presented evaluation shows the importance of the data splitting method across multiple cards, but an almost linear speedup with a number of cards is achievable. In addition, we compared the execution time of the proposed FS GPU implementation with two existing, highly optimized nonfull grid search CPU-based motion estimations methods, namely implementation of the Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical flow algorithm in OpenCV and simplified unsymmetrical multi-hexagon search in H.264/AVC standard. In these comparisons, FS GPU implementation still showed modest improvement even though the computational complexity of FS GPU implementation is substantially higher than non-FS CPU implementation. We also demonstrated that for an image sequence of 720 × 480 pixels in resolution commonly used in video surveillance, the proposed GPU implementation is sufficiently fast for real-time motion estimation at 30 frames-per-second using two NVIDIA C1060 Tesla GPU cards.

  9. Compute-unified device architecture implementation of a block-matching algorithm for multiple graphical processing unit cards.

    PubMed

    Massanes, Francesc; Cadennes, Marie; Brankov, Jovan G

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we describe and evaluate a fast implementation of a classical block matching motion estimation algorithm for multiple Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) computing engine. The implemented block matching algorithm (BMA) uses summed absolute difference (SAD) error criterion and full grid search (FS) for finding optimal block displacement. In this evaluation we compared the execution time of a GPU and CPU implementation for images of various sizes, using integer and non-integer search grids.The results show that use of a GPU card can shorten computation time by a factor of 200 times for integer and 1000 times for a non-integer search grid. The additional speedup for non-integer search grid comes from the fact that GPU has built-in hardware for image interpolation. Further, when using multiple GPU cards, the presented evaluation shows the importance of the data splitting method across multiple cards, but an almost linear speedup with a number of cards is achievable.In addition we compared execution time of the proposed FS GPU implementation with two existing, highly optimized non-full grid search CPU based motion estimations methods, namely implementation of the Pyramidal Lucas Kanade Optical flow algorithm in OpenCV and Simplified Unsymmetrical multi-Hexagon search in H.264/AVC standard. In these comparisons, FS GPU implementation still showed modest improvement even though the computational complexity of FS GPU implementation is substantially higher than non-FS CPU implementation.We also demonstrated that for an image sequence of 720×480 pixels in resolution, commonly used in video surveillance, the proposed GPU implementation is sufficiently fast for real-time motion estimation at 30 frames-per-second using two NVIDIA C1060 Tesla GPU cards.

  10. The upstream components of the Wnt signalling pathway in the dynamic EMT and MET associated with colorectal cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Vincan, Elizabeth; Barker, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The constitutive activation of beta-catenin-dependent ('canonical') Wnt signalling is a necessary initiating event in the genesis of most colorectal cancers. As this constitutive activation occurs through genetic mutation of one of the down-stream components of the signalling pathway, it was presumed that additional regulation of beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signalling would be inconsequential. However, it is now recognised that additional modulation of beta-catenin-dependent Wnt signalling is involved in tumour progression, and many of the genes associated with tumour invasion and metastasis are beta-catenin/TCF transcriptional target genes that are dynamically regulated during cancer progression. Intriguingly, the demonstration that naturally occurring inhibitors of Wnt-Frizzled (FZD) interaction are bona fide tumour suppressors in this cancer suggests that additional modulation of Wnt signalling is via the upstream components of the pathway. This is corroborated by recent studies that demonstrate tumour-promoting roles for Wnt and FZD per se. Moreover, both beta-catenin-dependent and beta-catenin-independent Wnt/FZD-mediated signalling is implicated during the dynamic and reversible EMT and MET that underscore colorectal cancer progression. Importantly, therapeutic targeting of the Wnt signalling pathway at the plasma membrane is clearly indicated by the profound anti-tumour activity of small molecule inhibitors and dominant-negative receptor constructs that target the receptor complex. The potential to effectively target EMT and MET processes at the plasma membrane via the upstream components of the Wnt signalling pathway offers new hope for anti-cancer therapy.

  11. The role of nutraceuticals in the regulation of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiwei; Wang, Zhiwei; Kong, Dejuan

    2010-01-01

    Multiple cellular signaling pathways have been involved in the processes of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Among many signaling pathways, Wnt and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathways are critically involved in embryonic development, in the biology of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and in the acquisition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus this article will remain focused on Wnt and Hh signaling. Since CSCs and EMT are also known to be responsible for cancer cell invasion and metastasis, the Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways are also intimately associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. Emerging evidence suggests the beneficial role of chemopreventive agents commonly known as nutraceutical in cancer. Among many such agents, soy isoflavones, curcumin, green tea polyphenols, 3,3′-diindolylmethane, resveratrol, lycopene, vitamin D, etc. have been found to prevent, reverse, or delay the carcinogenic process. Interestingly, these agents have also shown to prevent or delay the progression of cancer, which could in part be due to their ability to attack CSCs or EMT-type cells by attenuating the Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the current state of our knowledge on the role of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling pathways, and their targeted inactivation by chemopreventive agents (nutraceuticals) for the prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of human malignancies. PMID:20711635

  12. Cell shape and Wnt signaling redundantly control the division axis of C. elegans epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wildwater, Marjolein; Sander, Nicholas; de Vreede, Geert; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2011-10-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells combine proliferative and asymmetric divisions to balance self-renewal with differentiation. Tight regulation of the orientation and plane of cell division is crucial in this process. Here, we study the reproducible pattern of anterior-posterior-oriented stem cell-like divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans seam epithelium. In a genetic screen, we identified an alg-1 Argonaute mutant with additional and abnormally oriented seam cell divisions. ALG-1 is the main subunit of the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and was previously shown to regulate the timing of postembryonic development. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of developing larvae revealed that reduced alg-1 function successively interferes with Wnt signaling, cell adhesion, cell shape and the orientation and timing of seam cell division. We found that Wnt inactivation, through mig-14 Wntless mutation, disrupts tissue polarity but not anterior-posterior division. However, combined Wnt inhibition and cell shape alteration resulted in disordered orientation of seam cell division, similar to the alg-1 mutant. Our findings reveal additional alg-1-regulated processes, uncover a previously unknown function of Wnt ligands in seam tissue polarity, and show that Wnt signaling and geometric cues redundantly control the seam cell division axis.

  13. Wnt some lose some: transcriptional governance of stem cells by Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Wen-Hui; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, Wnt/β-catenin signaling features prominently in stem cells and cancers, but how and for what purposes have been matters of much debate. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and its downstream transcriptional regulators in normal and malignant stem cells. We centered this review largely on three types of stem cells—embryonic stem cells, hair follicle stem cells, and intestinal epithelial stem cells—in which the roles of Wnt/β-catenin have been extensively studied. Using these models, we unravel how many controversial issues surrounding Wnt signaling have been resolved by dissecting the diversity of its downstream circuitry and effectors, often leading to opposite outcomes of Wnt/β-catenin-mediated regulation and differences rooted in stage- and context-dependent effects. PMID:25030692

  14. Recombinant R-spondin2 and Wnt3a Up- and Down-Regulate Novel Target Genes in C57MG Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baljinnyam, Bolormaa; Klauzinska, Malgorzata; Saffo, Saad; Callahan, Robert; Rubin, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    R-spondins (Rspos) comprise a family of four secreted proteins that have important roles in cell proliferation, cell fate determination and organogenesis. Rspos typically exert their effects by potentiating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. To systematically investigate the impact of Rspo/Wnt on gene expression, we performed a microarray analysis using C57MG mouse mammary epithelial cells treated with recombinant Rspo2 and/or Wnt3a. We observed the up- and down-regulation of several previously unidentified target genes, including ones that encode proteins involved in immune responses, effectors of other growth factor signaling pathways and transcription factors. Dozens of these changes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Time course experiments showed that Rspo2 typically had little or no effect on Wnt-dependent gene expression at 3 or 6 h, but enhanced expression at 24 h, consistent with biochemical data indicating that Rspo2 acts primarily to sustain rather than acutely increase Wnt pathway activation. Up-regulation of gene expression was inhibited by pre-treatment with Dickkopf1, a Wnt/β-catenin pathway antagonist, and by siRNA knockdown of β-catenin expression. While Dickkopf1 blocked Rspo2/Wnt3a-dependent down-regulation, a number of down-regulated genes were not affected by β-catenin knockdown, suggesting that in these instances down-regulation was mediated by a β-catenin-independent mechanism. PMID:22238613

  15. wnt3a but not wnt11 supports self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singla, Dinender K. . E-mail: Dinender.Kumar@uvm.edu; Schneider, David J.; LeWinter, Martin M.; Sobel, Burton E.

    2006-06-30

    wnt proteins (wnts) promote both differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic cells and self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be maintained and self-renew on mouse feeder cell layers or in media containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). However, the effects of wnts on ES cells self-renewal and differentiation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that conditioned medium prepared from L cells expressing wnt3a can replace feeder cell layers and medium containing LIF in maintaining ES cells in the proliferation without differentiation (self-renewal) state. By contrast, conditioned medium from NIH3T3 cells expressing wnt11 did not. Alkaline phosphatase staining and compact colony formation were used as criteria of cells being in the undifferentiated state. ES cells maintained in medium conditioned by Wnt3a expressing cells underwent freezing and thawing while maintaining properties seen with LIF maintained ES cells. Purified wnt3a did not maintain self-renewal of ES cells for prolonged intervals. Thus, other factors in the medium conditioned by wnt3a expressing cells may have contributed to maintenance of ES cells in a self-renewal state. Pluripotency of ES cells was determined with the use of embryoid bodies in vitro. PD98059, a MEK specific inhibitor, promoted the growth of undifferentiated ES cells maintained in conditioned medium from wnt3a expressing cells. By contrast, the P38 MAPK inhibitor SB230580 did not, suggesting a role for the MEK pathway in self-renewal and differentiation of ES cells maintained in the wnt3a cell conditioned medium. Thus, our results show that conditioned medium from wnt3a but not wnt11 expressing cells can maintain ES cells in self-renewal and in a pluripotent state.

  16. Wear Protection of AJ62 Mg Engine Blocks using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and pollution, automotive companies are developing magnesium-intensive components. However, due to the low wear resistance of the magnesium (Mg) alloys, Mg cylinder bores are vulnerable to the sliding wear attack. In this thesis, two approaches were used to protect the cylinder bores, made of a new developed Mg engine alloy AJ62 (MgA16Mn0.34Sr2). The first one was to use a Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process to produce oxide coatings on the Mg bores. The wear properties of the PEO coatings were evaluated by sliding wear tests under the boundary lubrication condition at the room and elevated temperatures. It was found that due to the substrate softening and the vaporization loss of the lubricant, the tribological properties of the PEO coatings were deteriorated at the elevated temperature. In order to optimize the PEO process, a statistical method (Response surface method) was used to analyze the effects of the 4 main PEO process parameters with 2 levels for each and their interactions on the tribological properties of the PEO coatings at the room and elevated temperatures, individually. A cylinder liner made of an economical metal-matrix composite (MMC) was another approach to improve the wear resistance of the Mg cylinder bore. In this thesis, an A1383/SiO2 MMC was designed to replace the expensive Alusil alloy used in the BMW Mg/Al composite engine to build the cylinder liner. To further increase the wear resistance of the MMC, PEO process was also used to form an oxide coating on the MMC. The effects of the SiO 2 content and coating thickness on the tribological properties of the MMC were studied. To evaluate the wear properties of the optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the MMC with the oxide coatings, Alusil and cast iron, currently used on the cylinder bores of the commercial aluminum engines, were used as reference materials. The optimal PEO coated Mg coupons and the oxidized MMC showed their advantages over the

  17. Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the prefrontal cortex is required for cocaine-induced neuroadaptations.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Santiago; Severin, Maria J; Batuecas, Jorgelina; Rosso, Silvana B; Pacchioni, Alejandra M

    2016-02-22

    Behavioral sensitization is a progressive and enduring enhancement of the motor stimulant effects elicited by repeated administration of drugs of abuse. It can be divided into two distinct temporal and anatomical domains, termed initiation and expression, which are characterized by specific molecular and neurochemical changes. This study examines the role of the Wnt canonical pathway mediating the induction of cocaine sensitization. We found that β-catenin levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (Amyg) and dorsal striatum (CPu) are decreased in animals that show sensitization. Accordingly, GSK3β activity levels are increased in the same areas. Moreover, β-catenin levels in nuclear fraction, mRNA expression of Axin2 and Wnt7b are decreased in the PFC of sensitized animals. Then, in order to demonstrate that changes in the PFC are crucial for initiation of sensitization, we either rescue β-catenin levels with a systemic treatment of a GSK3β inhibitor (Lithium Chloride) or inhibit Wnt/β-catenin pathway with an intracerebral infusion of Sulindac before each cocaine injection. As expected, rescuing β-catenin levels in the PFC as well as CPu and Amyg blocks cocaine-induced sensitization, while decreasing β-catenin levels exclusively in the PFC exacerbates it. Therefore, our results demonstrate a new role for the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a required neuroadaptation in inducing behavioral sensitization.

  18. Specification of osteoblast cell fate by canonical Wnt signaling requires Bmp2.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Valerie S; Ohte, Satoshi; Capelo, Luciane P; Gamer, Laura; Rosen, Vicki

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced BMP or canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling are therapeutic strategies employed to enhance bone formation and fracture repair, but the mechanisms each pathway utilizes to specify cell fate of bone-forming osteoblasts remain poorly understood. Among all BMPs expressed in bone, we find that singular deficiency of Bmp2 blocks the ability of cWnt signaling to specify osteoblasts from limb bud or bone marrow progenitors. When exposed to cWnts, Bmp2-deficient cells fail to progress through the Runx2/Osx1 checkpoint and thus do not upregulate multiple genes controlling mineral metabolism in osteoblasts. Cells lacking Bmp2 after induction of Osx1 differentiate normally in response to cWnts, suggesting that pre-Osx1(+) osteoprogenitors are an essential source and a target of BMP2. Our analysis furthermore reveals Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) as a transcription factor in the osteoblast gene regulatory network induced during bone development and bone repair, which acts upstream of Osx1 in a BMP2-dependent manner. The Runx2/Osx1 transition therefore receives crucial regulatory inputs from BMP2 that are not compensated for by cWnt signaling, and this is mediated at least in part by induction and activation of Grhl3.

  19. Ethosuximide Induces Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Reverses Cognitive Deficits in an Amyloid-β Toxin-induced Alzheimer Rat Model via the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Seth, Brashket; Agarwal, Swati; Yadav, Anuradha; Karmakar, Madhumita; Gupta, Shailendra Kumar; Choubey, Vinay; Sharma, Abhay; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis involves generation of new neurons through finely tuned multistep processes, such as neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration into existing neuronal circuitry in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and subventricular zone. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in cognitive functions and altered in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer disease (AD). Ethosuximide (ETH), an anticonvulsant drug is used for the treatment of epileptic seizures. However, the effects of ETH on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism(s) are yet unexplored. Herein, we studied the effects of ETH on rat multipotent NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in an amyloid β (Aβ) toxin-induced rat model of AD-like phenotypes. ETH potently induced NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hippocampus-derived NSC in vitro. ETH enhanced NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation and reduced Aβ toxin-mediated toxicity and neurodegeneration, leading to behavioral recovery in the rat AD model. ETH inhibited Aβ-mediated suppression of neurogenic and Akt/Wnt/β-catenin pathway gene expression in the hippocampus. ETH activated the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin transduction pathways that are known to be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis. Inhibition of the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin pathways effectively blocked the mitogenic and neurogenic effects of ETH. In silico molecular target prediction docking studies suggest that ETH interacts with Akt, Dkk-1, and GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that ETH stimulates NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro and adult hippocampal neurogenesis via the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin signaling. PMID:26420483

  20. Ethosuximide Induces Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Reverses Cognitive Deficits in an Amyloid-β Toxin-induced Alzheimer Rat Model via the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Seth, Brashket; Agarwal, Swati; Yadav, Anuradha; Karmakar, Madhumita; Gupta, Shailendra Kumar; Choubey, Vinay; Sharma, Abhay; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-11-20

    Neurogenesis involves generation of new neurons through finely tuned multistep processes, such as neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, migration, differentiation, and integration into existing neuronal circuitry in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and subventricular zone. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is involved in cognitive functions and altered in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer disease (AD). Ethosuximide (ETH), an anticonvulsant drug is used for the treatment of epileptic seizures. However, the effects of ETH on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism(s) are yet unexplored. Herein, we studied the effects of ETH on rat multipotent NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in an amyloid β (Aβ) toxin-induced rat model of AD-like phenotypes. ETH potently induced NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hippocampus-derived NSC in vitro. ETH enhanced NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation and reduced Aβ toxin-mediated toxicity and neurodegeneration, leading to behavioral recovery in the rat AD model. ETH inhibited Aβ-mediated suppression of neurogenic and Akt/Wnt/β-catenin pathway gene expression in the hippocampus. ETH activated the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin transduction pathways that are known to be involved in the regulation of neurogenesis. Inhibition of the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin pathways effectively blocked the mitogenic and neurogenic effects of ETH. In silico molecular target prediction docking studies suggest that ETH interacts with Akt, Dkk-1, and GSK-3β. Our findings suggest that ETH stimulates NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro and adult hippocampal neurogenesis via the PI3K·Akt and Wnt·β-catenin signaling.

  1. Modulating effects of acyl-CoA synthetase 5-derived mitochondrial Wnt2B palmitoylation on intestinal Wnt activity

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Christina; Schneider, Ursula; Hedberg, Christian; Schütz, Anke K; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Waldmann, Herbert; Gassler, Nikolaus; Kaemmerer, Elke

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACSL5) activity in Wnt signaling in intestinal surface epithelia. METHODS: Several cell lines were used to investigate the ACSL5-dependent expression and synthesis of Wnt2B, a mitochondrially expressed protein of the Wnt signaling family. Wnt activity was functionally assessed with a luciferase reporter assay. ACSL5-related biochemical Wnt2B modifications were investigated with a modified acyl-exchange assay. The findings from the cell culture models were verified using an Apcmin/+ mouse model as well as normal and neoplastic diseased human intestinal tissues. RESULTS: In the presence of ACSL5, Wnt2B was unable to translocate into the nucleus and was enriched in mitochondria, which was paralleled by a significant decrease in Wnt activity. ACSL5-dependent S-palmitoylation of Wnt2B was identified as a molecular reason for mitochondrial Wnt2B accumulation. In cell culture systems, a strong relation of ACSL5 expression, Wnt2B palmitoylation, and degree of malignancy were found. Using normal mucosa, the association of ACSL5 and Wnt2B was seen, but in intestinal neoplasias the mechanism was only rudimentarily observed. CONCLUSION: ACSL5 mediates antiproliferative activities via Wnt2B palmitoylation with diminished Wnt activity. The molecular pathway is probably relevant for intestinal homeostasis, overwhelmed by other pathways in carcinogenesis. PMID:25356045

  2. Regulation of NMDA-receptor synaptic transmission by Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cerpa, Waldo; Gambrill, Abigail; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Barria, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Wnt ligands are secreted glycoproteins controlling gene expression and cytoskeleton reorganization involved in embryonic development of the nervous system. However, their role in later stages of brain development, particularly in the regulation of established synaptic connections is not known. We found that Wnt-5a acutely and specifically up-regulates synaptic NMDAR currents in rat hippocampal slices facilitating induction of LTP, a cellular model of learning and memory. This effect requires an increase in postsynaptic Ca2+ and activation of non-canonical downstream effectors of the Wnt signaling pathway. In contrast, Wnt-7a, an activator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, has no effect on NMDAR mediated synaptic transmission. Moreover, endogenous Wnt ligands are necessary to maintain basal NMDAR synaptic transmission adjusting the threshold for synaptic potentiation. This novel role for Wnt ligands provides a mechanism for Wnt signaling to acutely modulate synaptic plasticity and brain function in later stages of development and in the mature organism. PMID:21715611

  3. The interferon-induced gene ISG15 blocks retrovirus release from cells late in the budding process.

    PubMed

    Pincetic, Andrew; Kuang, Zhizhou; Seo, Eun Joo; Leis, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    The release of retroviruses from cells requires ubiquitination of Gag and recruitment of cellular proteins involved in endosome sorting, including the ESCRT-III proteins and the Vps4 ATPase. In response to infection, cells have evolved an interferon-induced mechanism to block virus replication through expression of the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), a dimer homologue of ubiquitin, which interferes with ubiquitin pathways in cells. Previously, it has been reported that ISG15 expression inhibited the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4, and prevented association of the ESCRT-I protein Tsg101 with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag. The budding of avian sarcoma leukosis virus and HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles containing L-domain mutations can be rescued by fusion to ESCRT proteins, which cause entry into the budding pathway beyond these early steps. The release of these fusions from cells was susceptible to inhibition by ISG15, indicating that there was a block late in the budding process. We now demonstrate that the Vps4 protein does not associate with the avian sarcoma leukosis virus or the HIV-1 budding complexes when ISG15 is expressed. This is caused by a loss in interaction between Vps4 with its coactivator protein LIP5 needed to promote the formation of the ESCRT-III-Vps4 double-hexamer complex required for membrane scission and virus release. The inability of LIP5 to interact with Vps4 is the probable result of ISG15 conjugation to the ESCRT-III protein, CHMP5, which regulates the availability of LIP5. Thus, there appear to be multiple levels of ISG15-induced inhibition acting at different stages of the virus release process.

  4. Specification of hepatopancreas progenitors in zebrafish by hnf1ba and wnt2bb

    PubMed Central

    Lancman, Joseph J.; Zvenigorodsky, Natasha; Gates, Keith P.; Zhang, Danhua; Solomon, Keely; Humphrey, Rohan K.; Kuo, Taiyi; Setiawan, Linda; Verkade, Heather; Chi, Young-In; Jhala, Ulupi S.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Dong, P. Duc Si

    2013-01-01

    Although the liver and ventral pancreas are thought to arise from a common multipotent progenitor pool, it is unclear whether these progenitors of the hepatopancreas system are specified by a common genetic mechanism. Efforts to determine the role of Hnf1b and Wnt signaling in this crucial process have been confounded by a combination of factors, including a narrow time frame for hepatopancreas specification, functional redundancy among Wnt ligands, and pleiotropic defects caused by either severe loss of Wnt signaling or Hnf1b function. Using a novel hypomorphic hnf1ba zebrafish mutant that exhibits pancreas hypoplasia, as observed in HNF1B monogenic diabetes, we show that hnf1ba plays essential roles in regulating β-cell number and pancreas specification, distinct from its function in regulating pancreas size and liver specification, respectively. By combining Hnf1ba partial loss of function with conditional loss of Wnt signaling, we uncover a crucial developmental window when these pathways synergize to specify the entire ventrally derived hepatopancreas progenitor population. Furthermore, our in vivo genetic studies demonstrate that hnf1ba generates a permissive domain for Wnt signaling activity in the foregut endoderm. Collectively, our findings provide a new model for HNF1B function, yield insight into pancreas and β-cell development, and suggest a new mechanism for hepatopancreatic specification. PMID:23720049

  5. Anti-adipogenic activity of berberine is not mediated by the WNT/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sungmin; Yoon, Yoosik

    2013-06-01

    Adipogenesis is a differentiation process from preadipocytes to adipocytes, accompanied by the inductions of adipogenic transcription factors and lipid metabolizing enzymes. Among cellular pathways regulating adipogenesis, the WNT/β-catenin pathway is well-known as a suppressor of adipogenesis. Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid component of the medicinal plants including Coptis chinensis and Coptis japonica with diverse biological activities. This study was conducted to elucidate whether the anti-adipogenic effect of BBR is mediated by the WNT/β-catenin pathway. The results of the present study confirmed that BBR efficiently inhibited adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. However, the anti-adipogenic effects of BBR were not accompanied by the modulations of the WNT/β-catenin pathway members including WNT10B, LRP6, DVL2, GSK3β and β-catenin. When β-catenin was knocked down by its siRNA transfection, the anti-adipogenic effects of BBR including the expression of adipogenic transcription factors and lipid metabolizing enzymes as well as the intracellular fat accumulation were not affected at all. The results of this study showed that the anti-adipogenic effect of BBR is not mediated by the WNT/β-catenin pathway.

  6. Discrete somatic niches coordinate proliferation and migration of primordial germ cells via Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cantú, Andrea V.; Altshuler-Keylin, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance depends on the expansion of a small number of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the early embryo. Proliferation of mammalian PGCs is concurrent with their movement through changing microenvironments; however, mechanisms coordinating these conflicting processes remain unclear. Here, we find that PGC proliferation varies by location rather than embryonic age. Ror2 and Wnt5a mutants with mislocalized PGCs corroborate the microenvironmental regulation of the cell cycle, except in the hindgut, where Wnt5a is highly expressed. Molecular and genetic evidence suggests that Wnt5a acts via Ror2 to suppress β-catenin–dependent Wnt signaling in PGCs and limit their proliferation in specific locations, which we validate by overactivating β-catenin in PGCs. Our results suggest that the balance between expansion and movement of migratory PGCs is fine-tuned in different niches by the opposing β-catenin–dependent and Ror2-mediated pathways through Wnt5a. This could serve as a selective mechanism to favor early and efficient migrators with clonal dominance in the ensuing germ cell pool while penalizing stragglers. PMID:27402951

  7. NLK-mediated phosphorylation of HDAC1 negatively regulates Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Katarzyna Chmielarska; Daams, Renée; Sime, Wondossen; Siino, Valentina; Ke, Hengning; Levander, Fredrik; Massoumi, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is essential in regulating various cellular processes. Different mechanisms of inhibition for Wnt signaling have been proposed. Besides β-catenin degradation through the proteasome, nemo-like kinase (NLK) is another molecule that is known to negatively regulate Wnt signaling. However, the mechanism by which NLK mediates the inhibition of Wnt signaling was not known. In the present study, we used primary embryonic fibroblast cells isolated from NLK-deficient mice and showed that these cells proliferate faster and have a shorter cell cycle than wild-type cells. In NLK-knockout cells, we observed sustained interaction between Lef1 and β-catenin, leading to elevated luciferase reporter of β-catenin/Lef1–mediated transcriptional activation. The mechanism for the reduced β-catenin/Lef1 promoter activation was explained by phosphorylation of HDAC1 at serine 421 via NLK. The phosphorylation of HDAC1 was achieved only in the presence of wild-type NLK because a catalytically inactive mutant of NLK was unable to phosphorylate HDAC1 and reduced the luciferase reporter of β-catenin/Lef1–mediated transcriptional activation. This result suggests that NLK and HDAC1 together negatively regulate Wnt signaling, which is vital in preventing aberrant proliferation of nontransformed primary fibroblast cells. PMID:27903773

  8. Plakophilin-1, a Novel Wnt Signaling Regulator, Is Critical for Tooth Development and Ameloblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Chieko; Yamada, Aya; Saito, Kan; Ishikawa, Masaki; Xue, Han; Funada, Keita; Haruyama, Naoto; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Takahashi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Tooth morphogenesis is initiated by reciprocal interactions between the ectoderm and neural crest-derived mesenchyme, and the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in this process. We found that Plakophilin (PKP)1, which is associated with diseases such as ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome, was highly expressed in teeth and skin, and was upregulated during tooth development. We hypothesized that PKP1 regulates Wnt signaling via its armadillo repeat domain in a manner similar to β-catenin. To determine its role in tooth development, we performed Pkp1 knockdown experiments using ex vivo organ cultures and cell cultures. Loss of Pkp1 reduced the size of tooth germs and inhibited dental epithelial cell proliferation, which was stimulated by Wnt3a. Furthermore, transfected PKP1-emerald green fluorescent protein was translocated from the plasma membrane to the nucleus upon stimulation with Wnt3a and LiCl, which required the PKP1 N terminus (amino acids 161 to 270). Localization of PKP1, which is known as an adhesion-related desmosome component, shifted to the plasma membrane during ameloblast differentiation. In addition, Pkp1 knockdown disrupted the localization of Zona occludens 1 in tight junctions and inhibited ameloblast differentiation; the two proteins were shown to directly interact by immunoprecipitation. These results implicate the participation of PKP1 in early tooth morphogenesis as an effector of canonical Wnt signaling that controls ameloblast differentiation via regulation of the cell adhesion complex. PMID:27015268

  9. Sequential and Opposing Activities of Wnt and BMP Coordinate Zebrafish Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott; Gomez, Alan W.; Armstrong, Benjamin E.; Henner, Astra; Stankunas, Kryn

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Zebrafish fully regenerate lost bone, including after fin amputation, through a process mediated by dedifferentiated, lineage-restricted osteoblasts. Mechanisms controlling the osteoblast regenerative program from its initiation through reossification are poorly understood. We show that fin amputation induces a Wnt/β-catenin-dependent epithelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of osteoblasts in order to generate proliferative Runx2+ preosteoblasts. Localized Wnt/β-catenin signaling maintains this progenitor population toward the distal tip of the regenerative blastema. As they become proximally displaced, preosteoblasts upregulate sp7 and subsequently mature into re-epithelialized Runx2−/sp7+ osteoblasts that extend preexisting bone. Auto-crine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling promotes osteoblast differentiation by activating sp7 expression and counters Wnt by inducing Dickkopf-related Wnt antagonists. As such, opposing activities of Wnt and BMP coordinate the simultaneous demand for growth and differentiation during bone regeneration. This hierarchical signaling network model provides a conceptual framework for understanding innate bone repair and regeneration mechanisms and rationally designing regenerative therapeutics. PMID:24485659

  10. Simulation of plasma based semiconductor processing using block structured locally refined grids

    SciTech Connect

    Wake, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    We have described a new numerical method for plasma simulation. Calculations have been presented which show that the method is accurate and suggest the regimes in which the method provides savings in CPU time and memory requirements. A steady state simulation of a four centimeter domain was modeled with sheath scale (150 microns) resolution using only 40 grid points. Simulations of semiconductor processing equipment have been performed which imply the usefulness of the method for engineering applications. It is the author`s opinion that these accomplishments represent a significant contribution to plasma simulation and the efficient numerical solution of certain systems of non-linear partial differential equations. More work needs to be done, however, for the algorithm to be of practical use in an engineering environment. Despite our success at avoiding the dielectric relaxation timestep restrictions the algorithm is still conditionally stable and requires timesteps which are relatively small. This represents a prohibitive runtime for steady state solutions on high resolution grids. Current research suggests that these limitations may be overcome and the use of much larger timesteps will be possible.

  11. Pentagalloylglucose Blocks the Nuclear Transport and the Process of Nucleocapsid Egress to Inhibit HSV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fujun; Ma, Kaiqi; Chen, Maoyun; Zou, Muping; Wu, Yanting; Li, Feng; Wang, Yifei

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a widespread virus, causes a variety of human viral diseases worldwide. The serious threat of drug-resistance highlights the extreme urgency to develop novel antiviral drugs with different mechanisms of action. Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with significant anti-HSV activity; however, the mechanisms underlying its antiviral activity need to be defined by further studies. In this study, we found that PGG treatment delays the nuclear transport process of HSV-1 particles by inhibiting the upregulation of dynein (a cellular major motor protein) induced by HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, PGG treatment affects the nucleocapsid egress of HSV-1 by inhibiting the expression and disrupting the cellular localization of pEGFP-UL31 and pEGFP-UL34, which are indispensable for HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress from the nucleus. However, the over-expression of pEGFP-UL31 and pEGFP-UL34 could decrease the antiviral effect of PGG. In this study, for the first time, the antiviral activity of PGG against acyclovir-resistant virus was demonstrated in vitro, and the possible mechanisms of its anti-HSV activities were identified based on the inhibition of nuclear transport and nucleocapsid egress in HSV-1. It was further confirmed that PGG could be a promising candidate for HSV therapy, especially for drug-resistant strains.

  12. Blocking serotonin but not dopamine reuptake alters neural processing during perceptual decision making

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Vincent D.; Kakalios, Laura; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine and serotonin have opponent interactions on aspects of impulsivity. Therefore we wanted to test the hypothesis that dopamine and serotonin would have opposing effects on speed-accuracy trade-offs in a perceptual decision making task. Unlike other behavioral measures of impulsivity, perceptual decision making allows us to determine whether decreasing premature responses, often interpreted as decreased impulsivity, corresponds to increased behavioral performance. We administered GBR-12909 (a dopamine transporter blocker), escitalopram (a serotonin transporter blocker) or saline in separate sessions to three rhesus macaques. We found that animals had slower reaction times on escitalopram than on GBR-12909 or saline. However, they were also least accurate on escitalopram. Animals were faster, although non-significantly, on GBR than saline and had equivalent accuracy. Administration of GBR-12909 did cause animals to be faster in error trials than correct trials. Therefore, from the point of view of reaction times the animals were less impulsive on escitalopram. However, the decreased accuracy shows that they were not able to make use of the slower response time to make more accurate decisions. Therefore, impulsivity was reduced on escitalopram, but at the expense of information processing rate in the perceptual inference task. PMID:27513807

  13. Delivery of the Porcupine Inhibitor WNT974 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-shu; Lum, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    We describe here a technique for delivering the porcupine inhibitor WNT974 (formerly LGK974) in mice. The protocol entails once-a-day oral delivery of WNT974 for up to 3 months at a concentration sufficient to achieve systemic Wnt pathway inhibition with limited toxicity as measured by weight change. This route of delivery enables extended durations of Wnt signaling inhibition in a mammalian model organism. PMID:27590157

  14. A VLSI Architecture with Multiple Fast Store-Based Block Parallel Processing for Output Probability and Likelihood Score Computations in HMM-Based Isolated Word Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Shimazaki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Masatoshi; Takagi, Kazuyoshi; Takagi, Naofumi

    This paper presents a memory-efficient VLSI architecture for output probability computations (OPCs) of continuous hidden Markov models (HMMs) and likelihood score computations (LSCs). These computations are the most time consuming part of HMM-based isolated word recognition systems. We demonstrate multiple fast store-based block parallel processing (MultipleFastStoreBPP) for OPCs and LSCs and present a VLSI architecture that supports it. Compared with conventional fast store-based block parallel processing (FastStoreBPP) and stream-based block parallel processing (StreamBPP) architectures, the proposed architecture requires fewer registers and less processing time. The processing elements (PEs) used in the FastStoreBPP and StreamBPP architectures are identical to those used in the MultipleFastStoreBPP architecture. From a VLSI architectural viewpoint, a comparison shows that the proposed architecture is an improvement over the others, through efficient use of PEs and registers for storing input feature vectors.

  15. Exosomes go with the Wnt.

    PubMed

    Koles, Kate; Budnik, Vivian

    2012-07-01

    Exosomes, small secreted microvesicles, are implicated in intercellular communication in diverse cell types, transporting protein, lipid and nucleic acid cargo that impact the physiology of recipient cells. Besides the signaling function of exosomes they also serve as a mechanism to dispose obsolete cellular material.(1) Particularly exciting is the involvement of exosomal communication in the nervous system, as this has important implications for brain development and function. The properties of exosomes are also beginning to entice the biomedical community since they represent potentially novel avenues for the targeted delivery of customized exosome cargo, such as miRNAs, during disease. Our findings implicating exosomes in trans-synaptic communication emerged from the serendipitous observation that at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) the release of a signaling molecule, Wnt1/Wingless (Wg) and its binding partner Evenness Interrupted (Evi)/Wntless (Wls)/Sprint (Srt), were released by motorneurons in association with vesicles, which we postulated to be exosomes.(2) In our most recent paper(3) using in vivo analysis at the Drosophila NMJ as well as in cultured insect cells we formally demonstrate that Evi rides in exosomes that are released to the extracellular space and identify some of the players involved in their release. In addition, a proteomic analysis of exosomes highlights novel potential function of exosomes.

  16. DIANNEXIN DOWN-MODULATES TNF-INDUCED ENDOTHELIAL MICROPARTICLE RELEASE BY BLOCKING MEMBRANE BUDDING PROCESS

    PubMed Central

    Combes, Valéry; Latham, Sharissa L.; Wen, Beryl; Allison, Anthony C.; Grau, Georges E. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Microparticles are now recognised as true biological effectors with a role in immunopathology through their ability to disseminate functional properties. Diannexin, a homodimer of annexin V, binds to PS with a higher affinity and longer blood half-life than the monomer, inhibits prothrombinase complex activity thereby diminishing coagulation and reperfusion injury mediators and prevent microvesicle-mediated material transfer. Our aim was to determine if Diannexin could modulate microparticle production by endothelial cells by interacting with the phosphatidylserine exposure occurring during the release of these vesicles. Results In this study we showed that fluorescently labelled Diannexin binds to calcimycin-activated endothelial cells but not to resting cells. After overnight incubation, Diannexin enters cells and their released MP carry Diannexin. Some Diannexin seems to be processed via early endosomes and later is found in lysosomes. Both unlabelled Diannexin and fluorescent Diannexin inhibit MP release from TNF-activated endothelial cells. However, Diannexin treatment does not prevent endothelial activation by TNF. In addition, the inhibitory effect of Diannexin on MP release could be observed when cells were pre-, concomitantly or post-treated with cytokines. Scanning electron microscopy showed differences in the numbers and types of protuberances at the cell surface when cells were treated or not with Diannexin. Finally, there is no apparent congruency between fluorescent Diannexin labelling and surface protuberances as shown by correlative microscopy. Conclusions Altogether these data suggest that Diannexin can inhibit endothelial vesiculation by binding PS present either at the cell surface or at the level of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. PMID:28149531

  17. Curcumin-loaded nanoparticles potently induce adult neurogenesis and reverse cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease model via canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Agarwal, Swati; Seth, Brashket; Yadav, Anuradha; Nair, Saumya; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Karmakar, Madhumita; Kumari, Manisha; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Srivastava, Vikas; Singh, Dhirendra; Gupta, Shailendra Kumar; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2014-01-28

    Neurogenesis, a process of generation of new neurons, is reported to be reduced in several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Induction of neurogenesis by targeting endogenous neural stem cells (NSC) could be a promising therapeutic approach to such diseases by influencing the brain self-regenerative capacity. Curcumin, a neuroprotective agent, has poor brain bioavailability. Herein, we report that curcumin-encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles (Cur-PLGA-NPs) potently induce NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation in vitro and in the hippocampus and subventricular zone of adult rats, as compared to uncoated bulk curcumin. Cur-PLGA-NPs induce neurogenesis by internalization into the hippocampal NSC. Cur-PLGA-NPs significantly increase expression of genes involved in cell proliferation (reelin, nestin, and Pax6) and neuronal differentiation (neurogenin, neuroD1, neuregulin, neuroligin, and Stat3). Curcumin nanoparticles increase neuronal differentiation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, involved in regulation of neurogenesis. These nanoparticles caused enhanced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, decreased GSK-3β levels, and increased promoter activity of the TCF/LEF and cyclin-D1. Pharmacological and siRNA-mediated genetic inhibition of the Wnt pathway blocked neurogenesis-stimulating effects of curcumin. These nanoparticles reverse learning and memory impairments in an amyloid beta induced rat model of AD-like phenotypes, by inducing neurogenesis. In silico molecular docking studies suggest that curcumin interacts with Wif-1, Dkk, and GSK-3β. These results suggest that curcumin nanoparticles induce adult neurogenesis through activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and may offer a therapeutic approach to treating neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, by enhancing a brain self-repair mechanism.

  18. Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (nsPEFs) Regulate Phenotypes of Chondrocytes through Wnt/β-catenin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Guo, Jinsong; Ge, Zigang; Zhang, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) characterized by high voltage, low energy and non-thermal effects, have been broadly investigated as a potential tumor therapy; however, little is known about their effects on somatic cells. In this current study, we evaluated effects of nsPEFs on the phenotype of chondrocytes (morphology, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, proliferation and gene expression) and explored the mechanisms involved. Our results demonstrated that exposing chondrocytes to nsPEFs led to enhanced proliferation and dedifferentiation, evidenced by the upregulated gene expression of collagen type I (COL I) and downregulated gene expression of Sox9, collagen type II (COL II) and aggrecan (AGG) with activation of the wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Inhibition of the wnt/β-catenin pathway partially blocked these effects. Thus we concluded that nsPEFs induce dedifferentiation of chondrocytes partially through transient activation of the wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:25060711

  19. A Genome-Wide RNA Interference Screen Identifies a Role for Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling during Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Brooke; Bird, Sara W.; Schudel, Benjamin R.; Hatch, Anson V.; Rasley, Amy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus within the Bunyaviridae family capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. To identify host factors involved in bunyavirus replication, we employed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening and identified 381 genes whose knockdown reduced infection. The Wnt pathway was the most represented pathway when gene hits were functionally clustered. With further investigation, we found that RVFV infection activated Wnt signaling, was enhanced when Wnt signaling was preactivated, was reduced with knockdown of β-catenin, and was blocked using Wnt signaling inhibitors. Similar results were found using distantly related bunyaviruses La Crosse virus and California encephalitis virus, suggesting a conserved role for Wnt signaling in bunyaviral infection. We propose a model where bunyaviruses activate Wnt-responsive genes to regulate optimal cell cycle conditions needed to promote efficient viral replication. The findings in this study should aid in the design of efficacious host-directed antiviral therapeutics. IMPORTANCE RVFV is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus that is endemic to Africa but has demonstrated a capacity for emergence in new territories (e.g., the Arabian Peninsula). As a zoonotic pathogen that primarily affects livestock, RVFV can also cause lethal hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis in humans. Currently, there are no treatments or fully licensed vaccines for this virus. Using high-throughput RNAi screening, we identified canonical Wnt signaling as an important host pathway regulating RVFV infection. The beneficial role of Wnt signaling was observed for RVFV, along with other disparate bunyaviruses, indicating a conserved bunyaviral replication mechanism involving Wnt signaling. These studies supplement our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of bunyavirus infection and provide new avenues for countermeasure development against pathogenic bunyaviruses. PMID:27226375

  20. Wnt5a-Dopamine D2 Receptor Interactions Regulate Dopamine Neuron Development via Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sehyoun; Choi, Mi-hyun; Chang, Min Seok; Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) plays an important role in mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal development, particularly coupled with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Wnt5a protein is known to regulate the development of dopaminergic neurons. We analyzed the effect of Wnt5a on dopaminergic neuron development in mesencephalic primary cultures from wild-type (WT) and D2R knock-out (D2R−/−) mice. Treatment with Wnt5a increased the number and neuritic length of dopamine neurons in primary mesencephalic neuronal cultures from WT mice, but not from D2R−/− mice. The effect of Wnt5a was completely blocked by treatment with D2R antagonist or inhibitors of MAPK or EGFR. Wnt5a-mediated ERK activation in mesencephalic neuronal cultures was inhibited by treatment of D2R antagonist and EGFR inhibitors in WT mice. However, these regulations were not observed for D2R−/− mice. Co-immunoprecipitation and displacement of [3H]spiperone from D2R by Wnt5a demonstrated that Wnt5a could bind with D2R. This interaction was confirmed by GST pulldown assays demonstrating that the domain including transmembrane domain 4, second extracellular loop, and transmembrane domain 5 of D2R binds to Wnt5a. These results suggest that the interaction between D2R and Wnt5a has an important role in dopamine neuron development in association with EGFR and the ERK pathway. PMID:21454669

  1. A genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies a role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling during Rift Valley Fever Virus infection

    DOE PAGES

    Harmon, Brooke; Bird, Sara W.; Schudel, Benjamin R.; ...

    2016-05-25

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus within the Bunyaviridae family capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. To identify host factors involved in bunyavirus replication, we employed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening and identified 381 genes whose knockdown reduced infection. The Wnt pathway was the most represented pathway when gene hits were functionally clustered. With further investigation, we found that RVFV infection activated Wnt signaling, was enhanced when Wnt signaling was preactivated, was reduced with knockdown of β-catenin, and was blocked using Wnt signaling inhibitors. Similar results were found using distantly related bunyaviruses Lamore » Crosse virus and California encephalitis virus, suggesting a conserved role for Wnt signaling in bunyaviral infection. We propose a model where bunyaviruses activate Wnt-responsive genes to regulate optimal cell cycle conditions needed to promote efficient viral replication. The findings in this study should aid in the design of efficacious host-directed antiviral therapeutics. IMPORTANCE RVFV is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus that is endemic to Africa but has demonstrated a capacity for emergence in new territories (e.g., the Arabian Peninsula). As a zoonotic pathogen that primarily affects livestock, RVFV can also cause lethal hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis in humans. Currently, there are no treatments or fully licensed vaccines for this virus. Using high-throughput RNAi screening, we identified canonical Wnt signaling as an important host pathway regulating RVFV infection. The beneficial role of Wnt signaling was observed for RVFV, along with other disparate bunyaviruses, indicating a conserved bunyaviral replication mechanism involving Wnt signaling. Lastly, these studies supplement our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of bunyavirus infection and provide new avenues for countermeasure development against pathogenic bunyaviruses.« less

  2. A genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies a role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling during Rift Valley Fever Virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Brooke; Bird, Sara W.; Schudel, Benjamin R.; Hatch, Anson V.; Rasley, Amy; Negrete, Oscar A.

    2016-05-25

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus within the Bunyaviridae family capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. To identify host factors involved in bunyavirus replication, we employed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening and identified 381 genes whose knockdown reduced infection. The Wnt pathway was the most represented pathway when gene hits were functionally clustered. With further investigation, we found that RVFV infection activated Wnt signaling, was enhanced when Wnt signaling was preactivated, was reduced with knockdown of β-catenin, and was blocked using Wnt signaling inhibitors. Similar results were found using distantly related bunyaviruses La Crosse virus and California encephalitis virus, suggesting a conserved role for Wnt signaling in bunyaviral infection. We propose a model where bunyaviruses activate Wnt-responsive genes to regulate optimal cell cycle conditions needed to promote efficient viral replication. The findings in this study should aid in the design of efficacious host-directed antiviral therapeutics.

    IMPORTANCE RVFV is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus that is endemic to Africa but has demonstrated a capacity for emergence in new territories (e.g., the Arabian Peninsula). As a zoonotic pathogen that primarily affects livestock, RVFV can also cause lethal hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis in humans. Currently, there are no treatments or fully licensed vaccines for this virus. Using high-throughput RNAi screening, we identified canonical Wnt signaling as an important host pathway regulating RVFV infection. The beneficial role of Wnt signaling was observed for RVFV, along with other disparate bunyaviruses, indicating a conserved bunyaviral replication mechanism involving Wnt signaling. Lastly, these studies supplement our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of bunyavirus infection and provide new avenues for

  3. A Second WNT for Old Drugs: Drug Repositioning against WNT-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Kamal; Shaw, Holly V.; Koval, Alexey; Katanaev, Vladimir L.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant WNT signaling underlies cancerous transformation and growth in many tissues, such as the colon, breast, liver, and others. Downregulation of the WNT pathway is a desired mode of development of targeted therapies against these cancers. Despite the urgent need, no WNT signaling-directed drugs currently exist, and only very few candidates have reached early phase clinical trials. Among different strategies to develop WNT-targeting anti-cancer therapies, repositioning of existing drugs previously approved for other diseases is a promising approach. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin, the anti-leprotic clofazimine, and the anti-trypanosomal suramin are among examples of drugs having recently revealed WNT-targeting activities. In total, 16 human-use drug compounds have been found to be working through the WNT pathway and show promise for their prospective repositioning against various cancers. Advances, hurdles, and prospects of developing these molecules as potential drugs against WNT-dependent cancers, as well as approaches for discovering new ones for repositioning, are the foci of the current review. PMID:27429001

  4. Early Transcriptional Changes Induced by Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Palma, Eduardo; Andrade, Víctor; Caracci, Mario O.; Bustos, Bernabé I.; Villaman, Camilo; Medina, Matías A.; Ávila, Miguel E.; Ugarte, Giorgia D.

    2016-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling modulates brain development and function and its deregulation underlies pathological changes occurring in neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Since one of the main effects of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is the modulation of target genes, in the present work we examined global transcriptional changes induced by short-term Wnt3a treatment (4 h) in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. RNAseq experiments allowed the identification of 170 differentially expressed genes, including known Wnt/β-catenin target genes such as Notum, Axin2, and Lef1, as well as novel potential candidates Fam84a, Stk32a, and Itga9. Main biological processes enriched with differentially expressed genes included neural precursor (GO:0061364, p-adjusted = 2.5 × 10−7), forebrain development (GO:0030900, p-adjusted = 7.3 × 10−7), and stem cell differentiation (GO:0048863 p-adjusted = 7.3 × 10−7). Likewise, following activation of the signaling cascade, the expression of a significant number of genes with transcription factor activity (GO:0043565, p-adjusted = 4.1 × 10−6) was induced. We also studied molecular networks enriched upon Wnt3a activation and detected three highly significant expression modules involved in glycerolipid metabolic process (GO:0046486, p-adjusted = 4.5 × 10−19), learning or memory (GO:0007611, p-adjusted = 4.0 × 10−5), and neurotransmitter secretion (GO:0007269, p-adjusted = 5.3 × 10−12). Our results indicate that Wnt/β-catenin mediated transcription controls multiple biological processes related to neuronal structure and activity that are affected in synaptic dysfunction disorders. PMID:28116168

  5. The Response of wnt/ ß-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Osteocytes Under Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Sun, Lian-Wen; Liang, Meng; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2015-11-01

    Osteocytes were considered as potential sensors of mechanical loading and orchestrate the bone remodeling adapted to mechanical loading. On the other hand, osteocytes are also considered as the unloading sensors in vivo. Previous studies showed that the mechanosensation and mechanotransduction of osteocytes may play an essential role in mediating bone response to microgravity, and one of the most important molecular signaling pathway involved in the mechanotransduction is the Wnt/ ß-catenin signaling pathway. In order to investigate the effect of simulated microgravity on the Wnt/ ß-catenin signaling pathway in osteocytes, MLO-Y4 cells (an osteocyte-like cell line) were cultured under controlled rotation to simulate microgravity for 5 days. The cytoskeleton and ß-catenin nuclear translocation of MLO-Y4 cells were detected by laser scanning confocal microscope and the fluorescence intensity was quantified; the mRNA expressions of upstream and downstream key components in Wnt canonical signaling were detected with RT-PCR. Two regulators of the Wnt/ ß-catenin pathway, NMP4/CIZ and Smads, were also investigated by RT-PCR; finally the expression of Wnt target genes and Sost protein level were detected with the absence or presence of the Sclerostin antibody (Scl-AbI) under simulated microgravity. The results showed that under simulated microgravity, (1) F-actin filaments were disassembled and some short dendritic processes appeared at the cell periphery; (2) the gene expression of Wnt3a, Wnt5a, DKK1, CyclinD1, LEF-1 and CX43 in the simulated microgravity group were significantly lower whereas Wnt1 and Sost in the simulated microgravity group were significantly higher than the control group; (3) the gene and protein level of ß-catenin were reduced, and no ß-catenin nuclear translocation observed; (4) the gene expression of Smad1, Smad4 and Smad7 were significantly lower whereas NMP4/CIZ and Smad3 in the simulated microgravity were significantly higher than the

  6. Parkin protects dopaminergic neurons from excessive Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Nina; Corti, Olga; Sacchetti, Paola; Ardilla-Osorio, Hector; Sehat, Bita; Brice, Alexis; Arenas, Ernest

    2009-10-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra but the molecular mechanisms underlying the degenerative process remain elusive. Several reports suggest that cell cycle deregulation in post-mitotic neurons could lead to neuronal cell death. We now show that Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase linked to familial PD, regulates beta-catenin protein levels in vivo. Stabilization of beta-catenin in differentiated primary ventral midbrain neurons results in increased levels of cyclin E and proliferation, followed by increased levels of cleaved PARP and loss of DA neurons. Wnt3a signaling also causes death of post-mitotic DA neurons in parkin null animals, suggesting that both increased stabilization and decreased degradation of beta-catenin results in DA cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel regulation of Wnt signaling by Parkin and suggest that Parkin protects DA neurons against excessive Wnt signaling and beta-catenin-induced cell death.

  7. Parkin protects dopaminergic neurons from excessive Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Rawal, Nina; Corti, Olga; Sacchetti, Paola; Ardilla-Osorio, Hector; Sehat, Bita; Brice, Alexis; Arenas, Ernest

    2009-10-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra but the molecular mechanisms underlying the degenerative process remain elusive. Several reports suggest that cell cycle deregulation in post-mitotic neurons could lead to neuronal cell death. We now show that Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase linked to familial PD, regulates {beta}-catenin protein levels in vivo. Stabilization of {beta}-catenin in differentiated primary ventral midbrain neurons results in increased levels of cyclin E and proliferation, followed by increased levels of cleaved PARP and loss of DA neurons. Wnt3a signaling also causes death of post-mitotic DA neurons in parkin null animals, suggesting that both increased stabilization and decreased degradation of {beta}-catenin results in DA cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel regulation of Wnt signaling by Parkin and suggest that Parkin protects DA neurons against excessive Wnt signaling and {beta}-catenin-induced cell death.

  8. Wnt Signaling in Cell Motility and Invasion: Drawing Parallels between Development and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sedgwick, Alanna E.; D’Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2016-01-01

    The importance of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signal transduction cascades in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis is well recognized. The aberrant activation of these pathways in the adult leads to abnormal cellular behaviors, and tumor progression is frequently a consequence. Here we discuss recent findings and analogies between Wnt signaling in developmental processes and tumor progression, with a particular focus on cell motility and matrix invasion and highlight the roles of the ARF (ADP-Ribosylation Factor) and Rho-family small GTP-binding proteins. Wnt-regulated signal transduction from cell surface receptors, signaling endosomes and/or extracellular vesicles has the potential to profoundly influence cell movement, matrix degradation and paracrine signaling in both development and disease. PMID:27589803

  9. The Wnt signaling pathway in cellular proliferation and differentiation: A tale of two coactivators.

    PubMed

    Teo, Jia-Ling; Kahn, Michael

    2010-09-30

    Wnt signaling pathways play divergent roles during development, normal homeostasis and disease. The responses that result from the activation of the pathway control both proliferation and differentiation. Tight regulation and controlled coordination of the Wnt signaling cascade is required to maintain the balance between proliferation and differentiation. The non-redundant roles of the coactivator proteins CBP and p300, within the context of Wnt signaling are discussed. We highlight their roles as integrators of the various inputs that a cell receives to elicit the correct and coordinated response. We propose that essentially all cellular information - i.e. from other signaling pathways, nutrient levels, etc. - is funneled down into a choice of coactivators usage, either CBP or p300, by their interacting partner beta-catenin (or catenin-like molecules in the absence of beta-catenin) to make the critical decision to either remain quiescent, or once entering cycle to proliferate without differentiation or to initiate the differentiation process.

  10. Activation of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway enhances monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong Kun . E-mail: leedk@memorialhealthsource.com; Nathan Grantham, R.; Trachte, Aaron L.; Mannion, John D.; Wilson, Colleen L.

    2006-08-18

    Monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium has been reported to be one of the early processes in the development of atherosclerosis. In an attempt to develop strategies to prevent or delay atherosclerosis progression, we analyzed effects of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway on monocyte adhesion to various human endothelial cells. Adhesion of fluorescein-labeled monocytes to various human endothelial cells was analyzed under a fluorescent microscope. Unlike sodium chloride, lithium chloride enhanced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3{beta} or proteosome enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Results of semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway did not change expression levels of mRNA for adhesion molecules. In conclusion, the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion without changing expression levels of adhesion molecules.

  11. Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Oral Tissue Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F.; Millar, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of several key conserved intercellular signaling pathways in animals, and plays fundamental roles in the proliferation, regeneration, differentiation, and function of many cell and tissue types. This pathway is activated in a dynamic manner during the morphogenesis of oral organs, including teeth, taste papillae, and taste buds, and is essential for these processes to occur normally. Conversely, forced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes the formation of ectopic teeth and taste papillae. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in oral tissue development and in related human diseases, and the potential of manipulating this pathway for therapeutic purposes. PMID:20200414

  12. Induction of WNT11 by hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Yao, Yao; Learman, Brian S.; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Ishida, Joji; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Overmyer, Katherine A.; Xue, Xiang; Cawthorn, William P.; Reid, Michael A.; Taylor, Matthew; Ning, Xiaomin; Shah, Yatrik M.; MacDougald, Ormond A.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in cellular oxygen tension play important roles in physiological processes including development and pathological processes such as tumor promotion. The cellular adaptations to sustained hypoxia are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) to regulate downstream target gene expression. With hypoxia, the stabilized HIF-α and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT, also known as HIF-β) heterodimer bind to hypoxia response elements (HREs) and regulate expression of target genes. Here, we report that WNT11 is induced by hypoxia in many cell types, and that transcription of WNT11 is regulated primarily by HIF-1α. We observed induced WNT11 expression in the hypoxic area of allograft tumors. In addition, in mice bearing orthotopic malignant gliomas, inhibition with bevacizumab of vascular endothelial growth factor, which is an important stimulus for angiogenesis, increased nuclear HIF-1α and HIF-2α, and expression of WNT11. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches revealed that WNT11 stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer-derived cells, and increases activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and 9. Since tumor hypoxia has been proposed to increase tumor aggressiveness, these data suggest WNT11 as a possible target for cancer therapies, especially for tumors treated with antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26861754

  13. Wnt5a Increases the Glycolytic Rate and the Activity of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cisternas, Pedro; Salazar, Paulina; Silva-Álvarez, Carmen; Barros, L. Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, several reports have proposed that Wnt signaling is a general metabolic regulator, suggesting a role for this pathway in the control of metabolic flux. Wnt signaling is critical for several neuronal functions, but little is known about the correlation between this pathway and energy metabolism. The brain has a high demand for glucose, which is mainly used for energy production. Neurons use energy for highly specific processes that require a high energy level, such as maintaining the electrical potential and synthesizing neurotransmitters. Moreover, an important metabolic impairment has been described in all neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the key role of glucose metabolism in the brain, little is known about the cellular pathways involved in regulating this process. We report here that Wnt5a induces an increase in glucose uptake and glycolytic rate and an increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway; the effects of Wnt5a require the intracellular generation of nitric oxide. Our data suggest that Wnt signaling stimulates neuronal glucose metabolism, an effect that could be important for the reported neuroprotective role of Wnt signaling in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27688915

  14. Cryptococcus gattii Capsule Blocks Surface Recognition Required for Dendritic Cell Maturation Independent of Internalization and Antigen Processing.

    PubMed

    Huston, Shaunna M; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Xiang, Richard F; Ogbomo, Henry; Stack, Danuta; Li, Shu Shun; Timm-McCann, Martina; Kyei, Stephen K; Oykhman, Paul; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J; Mody, Christopher H

    2016-02-01

    Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging fungal pathogen on the west coast of Canada and the United States that causes a potentially fatal infection in otherwise healthy individuals. In previous investigations of the mechanisms by which C. gattii might subvert cell-mediated immunity, we found that C. gattii failed to induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation, leading to defective T cell responses. However, the virulence factor and the mechanisms of evasion of DC maturation remain unknown. The cryptococcal polysaccharide capsule is a leading candidate because of its antiphagocytic properties. Consequently, we asked if the capsule of C. gattii was involved in evasion of DC maturation. We constructed an acapsular strain of C. gattii through CAP59 gene deletion by homologous integration. Encapsulated C. gattii failed to induce human monocyte-derived DC maturation and T cell proliferation, whereas the acapsular mutant induced both processes. Surprisingly, encapsulation impaired DC maturation independent of its effect on phagocytosis. Indeed, DC maturation required extracellular receptor signaling that was dependent on TNF-α and p38 MAPK, but not ERK activation, and the cryptococcal capsule blocked this extracellular recognition. Although the capsule impaired phagocytosis that led to pH-dependent serine-, threonine-, and cysteine-sensitive protease-dependent Ag processing, it was insufficient to impair T cell responses. In summary, C. gattii affects two independent processes, leading to DC maturation and Ag processing. The polysaccharide capsule masked extracellular detection and reduced phagocytosis that was required for DC maturation and Ag processing, respectively. However, the T cell response was fully restored by inducing DC maturation.

  15. Gene regulatory networks mediating canonical Wnt signal-directed control of pluripotency and differentiation in embryo stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Peterson, Kevin A; Liu, X Shirley; McMahon, Andrew P; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2013-12-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling supports the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) but also promotes differentiation of early mammalian cell lineages. To explain these paradoxical observations, we explored the gene regulatory networks at play. Canonical Wnt signaling is intertwined with the pluripotency network comprising Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 in mouse ESCs. In defined media supporting the derivation and propagation of ESCs, Tcf3 and β-catenin interact with Oct4; Tcf3 binds to Sox motif within Oct-Sox composite motifs that are also bound by Oct4-Sox2 complexes. Furthermore, canonical Wnt signaling upregulates the activity of the Pou5f1 distal enhancer via the Sox motif in ESCs. When viewed in the context of published studies on Tcf3 and β-catenin mutants, our findings suggest Tcf3 counters pluripotency by competition with Sox2 at these sites, and Tcf3 inhibition is blocked by β-catenin entry into this complex. Wnt pathway stimulation also triggers β-catenin association at regulatory elements with classic Lef/Tcf motifs associated with differentiation programs. The failure to activate these targets in the presence of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor essential for ESC culture suggests MEK/ERK signaling and canonical Wnt signaling combine to promote ESC differentiation.

  16. ROS, Notch, and Wnt signaling pathways: crosstalk between three major regulators of cardiovascular biology.

    PubMed

    Caliceti, C; Nigro, P; Rizzo, P; Ferrari, R

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), traditionally viewed as toxic by-products that cause damage to biomolecules, now are clearly recognized as key modulators in a variety of biological processes and pathological states. The development and regulation of the cardiovascular system require orchestrated activities; Notch and Wnt/β -catenin signaling pathways are implicated in many aspects of them, including cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells survival, angiogenesis, progenitor cells recruitment and differentiation, arteriovenous specification, vascular cell migration, and cardiac remodelling. Several novel findings regarding the role of ROS in Notch and Wnt/β-catenin modulation prompted us to review their emerging function in the cardiovascular system during embryogenesis and postnatally.

  17. Complex function block of processing and transferring asynchronous data for the IC of reading out the signals of multichannel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumkin, O. V.; Normanov, D. D.; Ivanov, P. Ya; Atkin, E. V.; Voronin, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of a 32-channel system of asynchronous data processing is considered. The data come from the detectors of nuclear physics experiments. Processing is provided for signals with a mean frequency of up to 10 MHz in each channel. The system provides generation of data packages, consisting of digital codes of signal amplitude, of signal superposition in peak detectors, of signal arrival time and number of channel wherein the event has occurred with a subsequent 8b10b coding. The considered system allows us to regulate dynamically the number of active channels. Two interface of data exchange – the slow I2C and high-speed (320 MHz), providing communication IC with the GBTX chip, have been built in the system. The results of developing the structural diagram and circuital-layout solutions of separate units are presented. System prototyping is implemented by the 180nm CMOS technology of UMC. The results of testing both separate blocks and the whole system are presented.

  18. Predicting process windows for pattern density multiplication using block copolymer directed self-assembly in conjunction with chemoepitaxial guiding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nation, Benjamin D.; Peters, Andrew; Lawson, Richard A.; Ludovice, Peter J.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2014-03-01

    Pattern density multiplication using directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) is a technique capable of producing patterns with small pitches utilizing guiding template patterns printed as larger feature sizes and pitches. One method for achieving this density multiplication is to utilize chemoepitaxy based on a guiding underlayer that is nominally topographically flat but which is composed of a pinning region, or stripe if referring to lamellae, which will chemically prefer one microphase of the BCP, as well as a second region that is often referred to as "neutral" to both phases of the BCP. In most conceptions of such a chemoepitaxial approach for alignment of lamellae patterns, the pinning stripe is typically the width of a single lamellae of the phase separated BCP, while the neutral stripe is some odd number of lamellae widths. In this work, detailed simulation studies have been performed to elucidate the effects of variables such as guiding stripe size, chemical composition of the neutral stripes, and small topography on the process window of DSA pitch sub-division patterning processes. A simple but novel technique has been developed and utilized to quantify the level of alignment of a simulated BCP film to an underlying guiding pattern. Such process windows and lithographic parameters have been studied for different pitch sub-division conditions including 1:3 and 1:5 pinning stripe:neutral stripe width ratios. It is found that the center of the processing window occurs at a composition of the "neutral stripe" such that it is slightly to somewhat strongly preferential to the type of polymer of opposite type to that attracted by the pinning stripe, and that this ideal "neutral stripe" composition becomes more neutral as the density multiplication increases.

  19. Transcriptional regulation of WNT2B based on the balance of Hedgehog, Notch, BMP and WNT signals.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2009-05-01

    We cloned and characterized human WNT2B in 1996, and then others cloned and characterized mouse, chicken, and zebrafish WNT2B orthologs. WNT2B is expressed in several types of human cancer, such as basal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, breast cancer, head/neck squamous cell carcinoma, cervical cancer and leukemia. WNT2B is one of canonical WNTs transducing signals through Frizzled (FZD) and LRP5/LRP6 receptors to beta-catenin-TCF/LEF signaling cascade. Here, refined integrative genomic analyses on WNT2B orthologs were carried out to elucidate its transcriptional mechanisms. GLI-, double FOX-, HES/HEY-, bHLH-, and Sp1-binding sites within mammalian WNT2B promoter were well conserved. Because GLI1, FOXA2, FOXC2, FOXE1, FOXF1 and FOXL1 are direct target genes of Hedgehog-GLI2 signaling cascade, Hedgehog signals should induce WNT2B upregulation through GLI family members as well as FOX family members. Notch, BMP and Hedgehog signals inhibit WNT2B expression via HES/HEY-binding to N-box, whereas BMP and WNT signals inhibit bHLH transcription factor-induced WNT2B expression via ID1, ID2, ID3, MSX1 or MSX2. Together these facts indicate that Hedgehog signals and bHLH transcription factors are involved in WNT2B upregulation, which is counteracted by BMP, WNT and Notch signals. Mesenchymal BMP induces IHH expression in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and then epithelial Hedgehog induces WNT2B and BMP4 expression in mesenchymal cells. NF-kappaB signals induce SHH upregulation, and WNT2B is upregulated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). BMP-IHH and inflammation-SHH signaling loops are involved in WNT2B up-regulation during embryogenesis, adult tissue homeostasis, and carcinogenesis.

  20. Heterotrimeric G protein-dependent WNT-5A signaling to ERK1/2 mediates distinct aspects of microglia proinflammatory transformation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    protein-dependent signaling to ERK1/2 is important for the regulation of proinflammatory responses in mouse primary microglia cells. We show for the first time that WNT-5A/G protein signaling mediates physiologically important processes in primary mammalian cells with natural receptor and G protein stochiometry. Consequently, WNT-5A emerges as an important means of astrocyte-microglia communication and we, therefore, suggest WNT-5A as a new player in neuroinflammatory conditions, such as neurodegenerative disease, hypoxia, stroke, injury and infection. PMID:22647544

  1. The role of the Hes1 crosstalk hub in Notch-Wnt interactions of the intestinal crypt.

    PubMed

    Kay, Sophie K; Harrington, Heather A; Shepherd, Sarah; Brennan, Keith; Dale, Trevor; Osborne, James M; Gavaghan, David J; Byrne, Helen M

    2017-02-28

    The Notch pathway plays a vital role in determining whether cells in the intestinal epithelium adopt a secretory or an absorptive phenotype. Cell fate specification is coordinated via Notch's interaction with the canonical Wnt pathway. Here, we propose a new mathematical model of the Notch and Wnt pathways, in which the Hes1 promoter acts as a hub for pathway crosstalk. Computational simulations of the model can assist in understanding how healthy intestinal tissue is maintained, and predict the likely consequences of biochemical knockouts upon cell fate selection processes. Chemical reaction network theory (CRNT) is a powerful, generalised framework which assesses the capacity of our model for monostability or multistability, by analysing properties of the underlying network structure without recourse to specific parameter values or functional forms for reaction rates. CRNT highlights the role of β-catenin in stabilising the Notch pathway and damping oscillations, demonstrating that Wnt-mediated actions on the Hes1 promoter can induce dynamic transitions in the Notch system, from multistability to monostability. Time-dependent model simulations of cell pairs reveal the stabilising influence of Wnt upon the Notch pathway, in which β-catenin- and Dsh-mediated action on the Hes1 promoter are key in shaping the subcellular dynamics. Where Notch-mediated transcription of Hes1 dominates, there is Notch oscillation and maintenance of fate flexibility; Wnt-mediated transcription of Hes1 favours bistability akin to cell fate selection. Cells could therefore regulate the proportion of Wnt- and Notch-mediated control of the Hes1 promoter to coordinate the timing of cell fate selection as they migrate through the intestinal epithelium and are subject to reduced Wnt stimuli. Furthermore, mutant cells characterised by hyperstimulation of the Wnt pathway may, through coupling with Notch, invert cell fate in neighbouring healthy cells, enabling an aberrant cell to maintain its

  2. The role of the Hes1 crosstalk hub in Notch-Wnt interactions of the intestinal crypt

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Heather A.; Dale, Trevor; Gavaghan, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The Notch pathway plays a vital role in determining whether cells in the intestinal epithelium adopt a secretory or an absorptive phenotype. Cell fate specification is coordinated via Notch’s interaction with the canonical Wnt pathway. Here, we propose a new mathematical model of the Notch and Wnt pathways, in which the Hes1 promoter acts as a hub for pathway crosstalk. Computational simulations of the model can assist in understanding how healthy intestinal tissue is maintained, and predict the likely consequences of biochemical knockouts upon cell fate selection processes. Chemical reaction network theory (CRNT) is a powerful, generalised framework which assesses the capacity of our model for monostability or multistability, by analysing properties of the underlying network structure without recourse to specific parameter values or functional forms for reaction rates. CRNT highlights the role of β-catenin in stabilising the Notch pathway and damping oscillations, demonstrating that Wnt-mediated actions on the Hes1 promoter can induce dynamic transitions in the Notch system, from multistability to monostability. Time-dependent model simulations of cell pairs reveal the stabilising influence of Wnt upon the Notch pathway, in which β-catenin- and Dsh-mediated action on the Hes1 promoter are key in shaping the subcellular dynamics. Where Notch-mediated transcription of Hes1 dominates, there is Notch oscillation and maintenance of fate flexibility; Wnt-mediated transcription of Hes1 favours bistability akin to cell fate selection. Cells could therefore regulate the proportion of Wnt- and Notch-mediated control of the Hes1 promoter to coordinate the timing of cell fate selection as they migrate through the intestinal epithelium and are subject to reduced Wnt stimuli. Furthermore, mutant cells characterised by hyperstimulation of the Wnt pathway may, through coupling with Notch, invert cell fate in neighbouring healthy cells, enabling an aberrant cell to maintain

  3. MicroRNA-27a-3p Inhibits Melanogenesis in Mouse Skin Melanocytes by Targeting Wnt3a.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Pengchao; Meng, Jinzhu; Ji, Yuankai; Xu, Dongmei; Chen, Tianzhi; Fan, Ruiwen; Yu, Xiuju; Yao, Jianbo; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-05-14

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the regulation of almost all the biological processes, including melanogenesis. MiR-27a-3p is nearly six times higher in white alpaca skin compared to brown skin, which indicates that miR-27a-3p may be a candidate regulator for melanogenesis. Wnt3a plays an important role in promoting melanoblasts to differentiate into melanocytes and melanogenesis. To confirm the function of miR-27a-3p to melanogenesis in mammals, miR-27a-3p mimic, inhibitor and their negative control were transfected into mouse melanocytes. As a result, miR-27a-3p inhibits melanogenesis by repressing Wnt3a at post-transcriptional level. A significant decrease in Wnt3a luciferase activity was observed in 293T cells co-transfected with the matched luciferase reporter vector and pre-miR-27a. Furthermore, the presence of exogenous miR-27a-3p significantly decreased Wnt3a protein expression rather than mRNA and reduced β-catenin mRNA levels in melanocytes. The over-expression of miR-27a-3p significantly increased the melanin content of melanocytes. However, miR-27a-3p inhibitor performs an opposite effect on melanogenesis. Wnt3a is one target of miR-27a-3p. MiR-27a-3p could inhibit Wnt3a protein amount by post-transcriptional regulation and melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. Previous studies reported that Wnt3a promoted melanogenensis in mouse melanocytes. Thus, miR-27-3p inhibits melanogenesis by repressing Wnt3a protein expression.

  4. USP6 oncogene promotes Wnt signaling by deubiquitylating Frizzleds

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Babita; Walker, Matthew P.; Young, Robert; Quick, Laura; Orgel, Kelly A.; Ryan, Meagan; Gupta, Priti; Henrich, Ian C.; Ferrer, Marc; Marine, Shane; Roberts, Brian S.; Arthur, William T.; Berndt, Jason D.; Oliveira, Andre M.; Moon, Randall T.; Chou, Margaret M.; Major, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathways play pivotal roles in carcinogenesis. Modulation of the cell-surface abundance of Wnt receptors is emerging as an important mechanism for regulating sensitivity to Wnt ligands. Endocytosis and degradation of the Wnt receptors Frizzled (Fzd) and lipoprotein-related protein 6 (LRP6) are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligases zinc and ring finger 3 (ZNRF3) and ring finger protein 43 (RNF43), which are disrupted in cancer. In a genome-wide small interfering RNA screen, we identified the deubiquitylase ubiquitin-specific protease 6 (USP6) as a potent activator of Wnt signaling. USP6 enhances Wnt signaling by deubiquitylating Fzds, thereby increasing their cell-surface abundance. Chromosomal translocations in nodular fasciitis result in USP6 overexpression, leading to transcriptional activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Inhibition of Wnt signaling using Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) or a Porcupine (PORCN) inhibitor significantly decreased the growth of USP6-driven xenograft tumors, indicating that Wnt signaling is a key target of USP6 during tumorigenesis. Our study defines an additional route to ectopic Wnt pathway activation in human disease, and identifies a potential approach to modulate Wnt signaling for therapeutic benefit. PMID:27162353

  5. Wnt2 regulates progenitor proliferation in the developing ventral midbrain.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Kyle M; Villaescusa, J Carlos; Cajanek, Lukas; Ondr, Jennifer K; Castelo-Branco, Goncalo; Hofstra, Wytske; Bryja, Vitezslav; Palmberg, Carina; Bergman, Tomas; Wainwright, Brandon; Lang, Richard A; Arenas, Ernest

    2010-03-05

    Wnts are secreted, lipidated proteins that regulate multiple aspects of brain development, including dopaminergic neuron development. In this study, we perform the first purification and signaling analysis of Wnt2 and define the function of Wnt2 in ventral midbrain precursor cultures, as well as in Wnt2-null mice in vivo. We found that purified Wnt2 induces the phosphorylation of both Lrp5/6 and Dvl-2/3, and activates beta-catenin in SN4741 dopaminergic cells. Moreover, purified Wnt2 increases progenitor proliferation, and the number of dopaminergic neurons in ventral midbrain precursor cultures. In agreement with these findings, analysis of the ventral midbrain of developing Wnt2-null mice revealed a decrease in progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis that lead to a decrease in the number of postmitotic precursors and dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, our observations identify Wnt2 as a novel regulator of dopaminergic progenitors and dopaminergic neuron development.

  6. Wnt2 Regulates Progenitor Proliferation in the Developing Ventral Midbrain*

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Kyle M.; Villaescusa, J. Carlos; Cajanek, Lukas; Ondr, Jennifer K.; Castelo-Branco, Goncalo; Hofstra, Wytske; Bryja, Vitezslav; Palmberg, Carina; Bergman, Tomas; Wainwright, Brandon; Lang, Richard A.; Arenas, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Wnts are secreted, lipidated proteins that regulate multiple aspects of brain development, including dopaminergic neuron development. In this study, we perform the first purification and signaling analysis of Wnt2 and define the function of Wnt2 in ventral midbrain precursor cultures, as well as in Wnt2-null mice in vivo. We found that purified Wnt2 induces the phosphorylation of both Lrp5/6 and Dvl-2/3, and activates β-catenin in SN4741 dopaminergic cells. Moreover, purified Wnt2 increases progenitor proliferation, and the number of dopaminergic neurons in ventral midbrain precursor cultures. In agreement with these findings, analysis of the ventral midbrain of developing Wnt2-null mice revealed a decrease in progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis that lead to a decrease in the number of postmitotic precursors and dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, our observations identify Wnt2 as a novel regulator of dopaminergic progenitors and dopaminergic neuron development. PMID:20018874

  7. Targeting Wnt signaling at the neuroimmune interface for dopaminergic neuroprotection/repair in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    L’Episcopo, Francesca; Tirolo, Cataldo; Caniglia, Salvo; Testa, Nuccio; Morale, Maria Concetta; Serapide, Maria Francesca; Pluchino, Stefano; Marchetti, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt) signaling cascade has emerged as an essential system regulating multiple processes in developing and adult brain. Accumulating evidence points to a dysregulation of Wnt signaling in major neurodegenerative pathologies including Parkinson’s disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons and deregulated activation of astrocytes and microglia. This review highlights the emerging link between Wnt signaling and key inflammatory pathways during mDA neuron damage/repair in PD progression. In particular, we summarize recent evidence documenting that aging and neurotoxicant exposure strongly antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mDA neurons and subventricular zone (SVZ) neuroprogenitors via astrocyte–microglial interactions. Dysregulation of the crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin signaling and anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory pathways delineate novel mechanisms driving the decline of SVZ plasticity with age and the limited nigrostriatal dopaminergic self-repair in PD. These findings hold a promise in developing therapies that target Wnt/β-catenin signaling to enhance endogenous restoration and neuronal outcome in age-dependent diseases, such as PD. PMID:24431301

  8. Interplay between microRNAs and WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghahhari, Nastaran Mohammadi; Babashah, Sadegh

    2015-08-01

    The WNT/β-catenin signalling implies its significance in maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype, proper cell-cell junctions, and tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of the members of this pathway involves in the development of cancer and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for metastasis. Loss of E-cadherin is the major contributor to an EMT process and is largely influenced by the WNT/β-catenin signalling. An E-cadherin/β-catenin complex maintains epithelial integrity and disturbance of this complex and WNT/β-catenin pathway will ultimately lead to the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and transcription of EMT-promoting genes. WNT/β-catenin signalling is controlled by microRNAs (miRNAs), several of which are either up- or downregulated during EMT. The strong association between the expression of the WNT signalling components with miRNAs in the initiation and achievement of an EMT phenotype is suggestive of introducing these miRNAs as therapeutic targets against metastatic tumours. Therefore, this review aims to describe these putative miRNAs in altering the WNT/β-catenin signalling in EMT, and whether targeting them is a useful therapeutic option for human invasive tumours.

  9. The evolving roles of canonical WNT signaling in stem cells and tumorigenesis: Implications in targeted cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Zhongliang; Nan, Guoxin; Li, Yasha; Zhang, Fugui; Mohammed, Maryam K.; Haydon, Rex C.; Luu, Hue H.; Bi, Yang; He, Tong-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway governs a myriad of biological processes underlying development and maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis, including regulation of stem cell self-renewal, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. WNTs are secreted lipid-modified glycoproteins that act as short-range ligands to activate receptor-mediated signaling pathways. The hallmark of the canonical pathway is the activation of β-catenin mediated transcriptional activity. Canonical WNTs control the β-catenin dynamics as the cytoplasmic level of β-catenin is tightly regulated via phosphorylation by the ‘destruction complex’, consisting of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), casein kinase 1α (CK1α), the scaffold protein AXIN, and the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Aberrant regulation of this signaling cascade is associated with varieties of human diseases, especially cancers. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of canonical WNT signaling. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of WNT signaling at the extracellular, cytoplasmic membrane, and intracellular/nuclear levels, including the emerging knowledge of crosstalk with other pathways. Recent progresses in developing novel WNT pathway-targeted therapies will also be reviewed. Thus, this review is intended to serve as a refresher of the current understanding about the physiologic and pathogenic roles of WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, and to outline potential therapeutic opportunities by targeting the canonical WNT pathway. PMID:26618721

  10. Structure and functional properties of Norrin mimic Wnt for signalling with Frizzled4, Lrp5/6, and proteoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tao-Hsin; Hsieh, Fu-Lien; Zebisch, Matthias; Harlos, Karl; Elegheert, Jonathan; Jones, E Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Wnt signalling regulates multiple processes including angiogenesis, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Norrin (Norrie Disease Protein) is a cystine-knot like growth factor. Although unrelated to Wnt, Norrin activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Signal complex formation involves Frizzled4 (Fz4), low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 5/6 (Lrp5/6), Tetraspanin-12 and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Here, we report crystallographic and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses of Norrin in complex with Fz4 cysteine-rich domain (Fz4CRD), of this complex bound with GAG analogues, and of unliganded Norrin and Fz4CRD. Our structural, biophysical and cellular data, map Fz4 and putative Lrp5/6 binding sites to distinct patches on Norrin, and reveal a GAG binding site spanning Norrin and Fz4CRD. These results explain numerous disease-associated mutations. Comparison with the Xenopus Wnt8–mouse Fz8CRD complex reveals Norrin mimics Wnt for Frizzled recognition. The production and characterization of wild-type and mutant Norrins reported here open new avenues for the development of therapeutics to combat abnormal Norrin/Wnt signalling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06554.001 PMID:26158506

  11. Highly efficient processable molybdenum trioxide as a hole blocking interlayer for super-yellow organic light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talik, N. A.; Woon, K. L.; Yap, B. K.; Wong, W. S.; Whitcher, T. J.; Chanlek, N.; Nakajima, H.; Saisopa, T.; Songsiriritthigul, P.

    2016-10-01

    By inserting lithium fluoride (LiF) between solution-processed MoO3 with optimal thickness on top of super yellow poly-(p-phenylenevinylene) (SY-PPV), the efficiency of the SY-PPV fluorescent-based devices can be significantly improved by more than two-fold. Despite the increased driving voltage, the device showed a current and a luminance efficiency up to 22.8 cd A-1 and 14.3 lm W-1 respectively, which is a more than a two-fold increase in efficiency compared to the control device using LiF/Al at a brightness of 1000 cdm-2. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) is used to analyze the energy alignment between SY-PPV and the solution processed MoO3 and MoO3/LiF/Al interfaces. We found that the solution processed MoO3 using diluted sodium hydroxide has relatively low ionization energy (IA), electron affinity (EA) and work function decreasing with increasing thickness of MoO3. However, the optical bandgap increases with increasing spin-speed. A large energetic barrier is always present between the SY-PPY and deep lying valence band of MoO3. This is supported by suppression of hole current in hole dominating devices. The ability of thin MoO3 (~2 nm) acting as a hole blocking layer while allowing electrons to be transported across the layer and a large upward vacuum shift appeared to be the origin of efficiency enhancement of SY-PPV light-emitting diode when MoO3/LiF/Al is used.

  12. WNT4 acts downstream of BMP2 and functions via β-catenin signaling pathway to regulate human endometrial stromal cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanxi; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Das, Amrita; Demayo, Franco J; Hornsby, Peter J; Young, Steven L; Taylor, Robert N; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into decidual cells is a prerequisite for successful embryo implantation. Our previous studies in the mouse have shown that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a morphogen belonging to the TGFβ superfamily, is essential for this differentiation process. BMP2 is markedly induced in human primary endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) as they undergo differentiation in response to steroid hormones and cAMP. The present study was undertaken to identify the BMP2-mediated molecular pathways in primary cultures of HESCs during decidualization. Using gene expression profiling, we identified wingless-related murine mammary tumor virus integration site 4 (WNT4) as a target of BMP2 regulation during decidualization. Attenuation of WNT4 expression in HESCs by small interfering RNA administration greatly reduced BMP2-induced stromal differentiation. Additionally, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of WNT4 in HESCs markedly advanced the differentiation program, indicating that it is a key regulator of decidualization. The stimulatory effect of WNT4 was accompanied by the accumulation of active β-catenin in the nuclei of decidualizing stromal cells, indicating the involvement of the canonical WNT signaling pathway. Functional inhibition of WNT4/β-catenin pathway by Dickkopf-1, an inhibitor of the canonical WNT signaling, or small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of β-catenin expression, greatly reduced the BMP2- and WNT4-induced decidualization. Gene expression profiling revealed that Forkhead box protein O1, a forkhead family transcription factor and previously reported regulator of HESC differentiation, is a common downstream mediator of both BMP2 and WNT4 signaling. Taken together, these studies uncovered a linear pathway involving BMP2, WNT4/β-catenin, and Forkhead box protein O1 that operates in human endometrium to critically control decidualization.

  13. Activation of Wnt Signaling by Chemically Induced Dimerization of LRP5 Disrupts Cellular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pond, Adam C.; Seethammagari, Mamatha; Chiou, Shin-Heng; Cho, Kyucheol; Carstens, Julienne L.; Decker, William K.; McCrea, Pierre D.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Rosen, Jeffrey M.; Spencer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling is crucial for a variety of biological processes, including body axis formation, planar polarity, stem cell maintenance and cellular differentiation. Therefore, targeted manipulation of Wnt signaling in vivo would be extremely useful. By applying chemical inducer of dimerization (CID) technology, we were able to modify the Wnt co-receptor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), to generate the synthetic ligand inducible Wnt switch, iLRP5. We show that iLRP5 oligomerization results in its localization to disheveled-containing punctate structures and sequestration of scaffold protein Axin, leading to robust β-catenin-mediated signaling. Moreover, we identify a novel LRP5 cytoplasmic domain critical for its intracellular localization and casein kinase 1-dependent β-catenin signaling. Finally, by utilizing iLRP5 as a Wnt signaling switch, we generated the Ubiquitous Activator of β-catenin (Ubi-Cat) transgenic mouse line. The Ubi-Cat line allows for nearly ubiquitous expression of iLRP5 under control of the H-2Kb promoter. Activation of iLRP5 in isolated prostate basal epithelial stem cells resulted in expansion of p63+ cells and development of hyperplasia in reconstituted murine prostate grafts. Independently, iLRP5 induction in adult prostate stroma enhanced prostate tissue regeneration. Moreover, induction of iLRP5 in male Ubi-Cat mice resulted in prostate tumor progression over several months from prostate hyperplasia to adenocarcinoma. We also investigated iLRP5 activation in Ubi-Cat-derived mammary cells, observing that prolonged activation results in mammary tumor formation. Thus, in two distinct experimental mouse models, activation of iLRP5 results in disruption of tissue homeostasis, demonstrating the utility of iLRP5 as a novel research tool for determining the outcome of Wnt activation in a precise spatially and temporally determined fashion. PMID:22303459

  14. Haplotype association analysis of genes within the WNT signalling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal interstitial fibrosis and glomerular sclerosis are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and several studies have implicated members of the WNT pathways in these pathological processes. This study comprehensively examined common genetic variation within the WNT pathway for association with DN. Methods Genes within the WNT pathways were selected on the basis of nominal significance and consistent direction of effect in the GENIE meta-analysis dataset. Common SNPs and common haplotypes were examined within the selected WNT pathway genes in a white population with type 1 diabetes, discordant for DN (cases: n = 718; controls: n = 749). SNPs were genotyped using Sequenom or Taqman assays. Association analyses were performed using PLINK, to compare allele and haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Correction for multiple testing was performed by either permutation testing or using false discovery rate. Results A logistic regression model including collection centre, duration of diabetes, and average HbA1c as covariates highlighted three SNPs in GSK3B (rs17810235, rs17471, rs334543), two in DAAM1 (rs1253192, rs1252906) and one in NFAT5 (rs17297207) as being significantly (P < 0.05) associated with DN, however these SNPs did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing. Logistic regression of haplotypes, with ESRD as the outcome, and pairwise interaction analyses did not yield any significant results after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions These results indicate that both common SNPs and common haplotypes of WNT pathway genes are not strongly associated with DN. However, this does not completely exclude these or the WNT pathways from association with DN, as unidentified rare genetic or copy number variants could still contribute towards the genetic architecture of DN. PMID:23777469

  15. Activation of the wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fuchen; Liang, Zonglai; Xu, Jingwen; Li, Wei; Zhao, Dandan; Zhao, Yuying

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in embryonic development and adult-tissue homeostasis. Recent investigations implicate the importance of wnt/β-catenin signaling in normal wound healing and its sustained activation being associated with fibrogenesis. We investigated the immunolocalization and activation of wnt/β-catenin in polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis of β-catenin were performed in muscle specimens from 6 PM, 8 DM, and 6 DMD subjects. The β-catenin/Tcf4 DNA-binding activity in muscle was studied using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and serum wnt/β-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity was measured using a luciferase reporter gene assay. Results Immunoreactivity for β-catenin was found in the cytoplasm and nuclei of muscle fibers in PM, DM, and DMD. The protein level of β-catenin was elevated, and EMSA analysis confirmed the activation of wnt/β-catenin signaling. The transcriptional activities of β-catenin/Tcf in the circulation were increased in patients with PM, DM, and DMD, especially in those with interstitial lung disease, and these transcriptional activities decreased when PM or DM patients exhibited obvious clinical improvements. Conclusions Our findings indicate that wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in PM, DM, and DMD. Its activation in muscle tissue and the circulation may play a role in modulating muscle regeneration and be at least partly involved in the process of muscle and pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27165423

  16. IL-4 Causes Hyperpermeability of Vascular Endothelial Cells through Wnt5A Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Skaria, Tom; Burgener, Julia; Bachli, Esther; Schoedon, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular leakage due to endothelial barrier dysfunction is a prominent feature of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine mediated allergic inflammation. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a potent Th2 cytokine, known to impair the barrier function of endothelial cells. However, the effectors mediating IL-4 induced cytoskeleton remodeling and consequent endothelial barrier dysfunction remain poorly defined. Here we have used whole genome transcriptome profiling and gene ontology analyses to identify the genes and processes regulated by IL-4 signaling in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). The study revealed Wnt5A as an effector that can mediate actin cytoskeleton remodeling in IL-4 activated HCAEC through the regulation of LIM kinase (LIMK) and Cofilin (CFL). Following IL-4 treatment, LIMK and CFL were phosphorylated, thereby indicating the possibility of actin stress fiber formation. Imaging of actin showed the formation of stress fibers in IL-4 treated live HCAEC. Stress fiber formation was notably decreased in the presence of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1). Non-invasive impedance measurements demonstrated that IL-4 increased the permeability and impaired the barrier function of HCAEC monolayers. Silencing Wnt5A significantly reduced permeability and improved the barrier function of HCAEC monolayers upon IL-4 treatment. Our study identifies Wnt5A as a novel marker of IL-4 activated vascular endothelium and demonstrates a critical role for Wnt5A in mediating IL-4 induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Wnt5A could be a potential therapeutic target for reducing microvascular leakage and edema formation in Th2 driven inflammatory diseases. PMID:27214384

  17. Jarid2 Coordinates Nanog Expression and PCP/Wnt Signaling Required for Efficient ESC Differentiation and Early Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Landeira, David; Bagci, Hakan; Malinowski, Andrzej R; Brown, Karen E; Soza-Ried, Jorge; Feytout, Amelie; Webster, Zoe; Ndjetehe, Elodie; Cantone, Irene; Asenjo, Helena G; Brockdorff, Neil; Carroll, Thomas; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Fisher, Amanda G

    2015-07-28

    Jarid2 is part of the Polycomb Repressor complex 2 (PRC2) responsible for genome-wide H3K27me3 deposition. Unlike other PRC2-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however, Jarid2-deficient ESCs show a severe differentiation block, altered colony morphology, and distinctive patterns of deregulated gene expression. Here, we show that Jarid2(-/-) ESCs express constitutively high levels of Nanog but reduced PCP signaling components Wnt9a, Prickle1, and Fzd2 and lowered β-catenin activity. Depletion of Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 from wild-type ESCs or overexpression of Nanog largely phenocopies these cellular defects. Co-culture of Jarid2(-/-) with wild-type ESCs restores variable Nanog expression and β-catenin activity and can partially rescue the differentiation block of mutant cells. In addition, we show that ESCs lacking Jarid2 or Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 or overexpressing Nanog induce multiple ICM formation when injected into normal E3.5 blastocysts. These data describe a previously unrecognized role for Jarid2 in regulating a core pluripotency and Wnt/PCP signaling circuit that is important for ESC differentiation and for pre-implantation development.

  18. Jarid2 Coordinates Nanog Expression and PCP/Wnt Signaling Required for Efficient ESC Differentiation and Early Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Landeira, David; Bagci, Hakan; Malinowski, Andrzej R.; Brown, Karen E.; Soza-Ried, Jorge; Feytout, Amelie; Webster, Zoe; Ndjetehe, Elodie; Cantone, Irene; Asenjo, Helena G.; Brockdorff, Neil; Carroll, Thomas; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Fisher, Amanda G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Jarid2 is part of the Polycomb Repressor complex 2 (PRC2) responsible for genome-wide H3K27me3 deposition. Unlike other PRC2-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however, Jarid2-deficient ESCs show a severe differentiation block, altered colony morphology, and distinctive patterns of deregulated gene expression. Here, we show that Jarid2−/− ESCs express constitutively high levels of Nanog but reduced PCP signaling components Wnt9a, Prickle1, and Fzd2 and lowered β-catenin activity. Depletion of Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 from wild-type ESCs or overexpression of Nanog largely phenocopies these cellular defects. Co-culture of Jarid2−/− with wild-type ESCs restores variable Nanog expression and β-catenin activity and can partially rescue the differentiation block of mutant cells. In addition, we show that ESCs lacking Jarid2 or Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 or overexpressing Nanog induce multiple ICM formation when injected into normal E3.5 blastocysts. These data describe a previously unrecognized role for Jarid2 in regulating a core pluripotency and Wnt/PCP signaling circuit that is important for ESC differentiation and for pre-implantation development. PMID:26190104

  19. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... not used to treat first-degree heart block. All types of heart block may increase your risk for other arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fih-brih-LA-shun). Talk with your doctor ...

  20. Additive-Driven Assembly of Block Copolymer-Nanoparticle Hybrid Materials for Solution Processable Floating Gate Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Lin, Ying; Anderson, Eric; Briseno, Alejandro; Gido, Samuel; Watkins, James

    2012-02-01

    The preparation of well-ordered hybrid materials at nanoscale is not only fundamentally interesting but also of significant importance for the development of next generation functional devices. In this study, we present a simple approach for the preparation of well-ordered polymer/NP composites through the concept of additive-driven assembly, and its application for the fabrication of floating gate organic FET memory devices. The addition of gold NPs that selectively hydrogen bond with pyridine in poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) is shown to induce an ordered structure. This enables the fabrication of well-ordered hybrid materials with lamellar domains at Au NP loadings of more than 40 wt%. The fabrication of floating gate memory devices was demonstrated by the ordered Au NPs / block copolymer hybrid film as a charge trapping layer, which is sandwiched between a SiO2 dielectric layer and a poly(3-hexylthiophene) semiconductor layer. This approach enables us to fabricate well-ordered charge storage layers by solution processing and to achieve facile control of the memory windows by changing the density of gold NPs. The devices show high carrier mobility (> 0.1 cm^2/Vs), controllable memory windows (0˜50V), high on/off ratio (>10^5) between memory states and long retention times (>10^4 s). This approach is potentially suitable for roll-to-roll printing techniques to make flexible, large area and high density devices.

  1. p120-catenin in canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Duñach, Mireia; Del Valle-Pérez, Beatriz; García de Herreros, Antonio

    2017-03-03

    Canonical Wnt signaling controls β-catenin protein stabilization, its translocation to the nucleus and the activation of β-catenin/Tcf-4-dependent transcription. In this review, we revise and discuss the recent results describing actions of p120-catenin in different phases of this pathway. More specifically, we comment its involvement in four different steps: (i) the very early activation of CK1ɛ, essential for Dvl-2 binding to the Wnt receptor complex; (ii) the internalization of GSK3 and Axin into multivesicular bodies, necessary for a complete stabilization of β-catenin; (iii) the activation of Rac1 small GTPase, required for β-catenin translocation to the nucleus; and (iv) the release of the inhibitory action caused by Kaiso transcriptional repressor. We integrate these new results with the previously known action of other elements in this pathway, giving a particular relevance to the responses of the Wnt pathway not required for β-catenin stabilization but for β-catenin transcriptional activity. Moreover, we discuss the possible future implications, suggesting that the two cellular compartments where β-catenin is localized, thus, the adherens junction complex and the Wnt signalosome, are more physically connected that previously thought.

  2. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  3. Gut Commensal Bacteria and Regional Wnt Gene Expression in the Proximal Versus Distal Colon

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Koch, Stefan; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Perez-Chanona, Ernesto; Denning, Patricia; Jobin, Christian; Nusrat, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Regional expression of Wingless/Int (Wnt) genes plays a central role in regulating intestinal development and homeostasis. However, our knowledge of such regional Wnt proteins in the colon remains limited. To understand further the effect of Wnt signaling components in controlling intestinal epithelial homeostasis, we investigated whether the physiological heterogeneity of the proximal and distal colon can be explained by differential Wnt signaling. With the use of a Wnt signaling-specific PCR array, expression of 84 Wnt-mediated signal transduction genes was analyzed, and a differential signature of Wnt-related genes in the proximal versus distal murine colon was identified. Several Wnt agonists (Wnt5a, Wnt8b, and Wnt11), the Wnt receptor frizzled family receptor 3, and the Wnt inhibitory factor 1 were differentially expressed along the colon length. These Wnt signatures were associated with differential epithelial cell proliferation and migration in the proximal versus distal colon. Furthermore, reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity and decreased Wnt5a and Wnt11 expression were observed in mice lacking commensal bacteria, an effect that was reversed by conventionalization of germ-free mice. Interestingly, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 knockout mice showed decreased Wnt5a levels, indicating a role for Toll-like receptor signaling in regulating Wnt5a expression. Our results suggest that the morphological and physiological heterogeneity within the colon is in part facilitated by the differential expression of Wnt signaling components and influenced by colonization with bacteria. PMID:24418259

  4. Role of Wnt Signaling in Central Nervous System Injury.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Catherine; Cisternas, Pedro; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-05-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is highly sensitive to external mechanical damage, presenting a limited capacity for regeneration explained in part by its inability to restore either damaged neurons or the synaptic network. The CNS may suffer different types of external injuries affecting its function and/or structure, including stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury. These pathologies critically affect the quality of life of a large number of patients worldwide and are often fatal because available therapeutics are ineffective and produce limited results. Common effects of the mentioned pathologies involves the triggering of several cellular and metabolic responses against injury, including infiltration of blood cells, inflammation, glial activation, and neuronal death. Although some of the underlying molecular mechanisms of those responses have been elucidated, the mechanisms driving these processes are poorly understood in the context of CNS injury. In the last few years, it has been suggested that the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway could be important in the regenerative response after CNS injury, activating diverse protective mechanisms including the stimulation of neurogenesis, blood brain structure consolidation and the recovery of cognitive brain functions. Because Wnt signaling is involved in several physiological processes, the putative positive role of its activation after injury could be the basis for novel therapeutic approaches to CNS injury.

  5. Solution processable colloidal nanoplates as building blocks for high-performance electronic thin films on flexible substrates.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhaoyang; Chen, Yu; Yin, Anxiang; He, Qiyuan; Huang, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yuxi; Liu, Yuan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-11-12

    Low-temperature solution-processed electronic materials on plastic substrates are of considerable interest for flexible electronics. Solution dispersible inorganic nanostructures (e.g., zero-dimensional (0D) quantum dots or one-dimensional (1D) nanowires) have emerged as interesting ink materials for low-temperature solution processing of electronic thin films on flexible substrates, but usually with limited performance due to the large number of grain boundaries (0D) or incomplete surface coverage (1D). Here, we report two-dimensional (2D) colloidal nanoplates of layered materials as a new ink material for solution assembly of high-performance electronic thin films. The 2D colloidal nanoplates exhibit few dangling bonds and represent an ideal geometry for the assembly of highly uniform continuous thin films with greatly reduced grain boundaries dictated by large-area conformal plane-plane contact with atomically flat/clean interfaces. It can therefore promise efficient charge transport across neighboring nanoplates and throughout the entire thin film to enable unprecedented electronic performance. We show that Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 nanoplates can be synthesized with well-controlled thickness (6-15 nm) and lateral dimension (0.5-3 μm) and can be used for the assembly of highly uniform continuous thin films with a full surface coverage and an excellent room temperature carrier mobility >100 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1), approaching that of chemical vapor deposition grown materials. Our study demonstrates a general strategy to using 2D nanoplates as a unique building block for the construction of high-performance electronic thin films on plastic substrates for future flexible electronics and optoelectronics.

  6. Loss of WNT-TCF addiction and enhancement of HH-GLI1 signalling define the metastatic transition of human colon carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Varnat, Frédéric; Siegl-Cachedenier, Irene; Malerba, Monica; Gervaz, Pascal; Ruiz i Altaba, Ariel

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies demonstrate the initiation of colon cancers through deregulation of WNT-TCF signalling. An accepted but untested extension of this finding is that incurable metastatic colon carcinomas (CCs) universally remain WNT-TCF-dependent, prompting the search for WNT-TCF inhibitors. CCs and their stem cells also require Hedgehog (HH)-GLI1 activity, but how these pathways interact is unclear. Here we define coincident high-to-low WNT-TCF and low-to-high HH-GLI transitions in patient CCs, most strikingly in their CD133(+) stem cells, that mark the development of metastases. We find that enhanced HH-GLI mimics this transition, driving also an embryonic stem (ES)-like stemness signature and that GLI1 can be regulated by multiple CC oncogenes. The data support a model in which the metastatic transition involves the acquisition or enhancement of a more primitive ES-like phenotype, and the downregulation of the early WNT-TCF programme, driven by oncogene-regulated high GLI1 activity. Consistently, TCF blockade does not generally inhibit tumour growth; instead, it, like enhanced HH-GLI, promotes metastatic growth in vivo. Treatments for metastatic disease should therefore block HH-GLI1 but not WNT-TCF activities.

  7. Wnt signaling in heart valve development and osteogenic gene induction

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Christina M.; Cheek, Jonathan; Chakraborty, Santanu; Yutzey, Katherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Wnt signaling mediated by beta-catenin has been implicated in early endocardial cushion development, but its roles in later stages of heart valve maturation and homeostasis have not been identified. Multiple Wnt ligands and pathway genes are differentially expressed during heart valve development. At E12.5, Wnt2 is expressed in cushion mesenchyme, whereas Wnt4 and Wnt9b are predominant in overlying endothelial cells. At E17.5, both Wnt3a and Wnt7b are expressed in the remodeling atrioventricular (AV) and semilunar valves. In addition, the TOPGAL Wnt reporter transgene is active throughout the developing AV and semilunar valves at E16.5, with more localized expression in the stratified valve leaflets after birth. In chicken embryo aortic valves, genes characteristic of osteogenic cell lineages including periostin, osteonectin, and Id2 are expressed specifically in the collagen-rich fibrosa layer at E14. Treatment of E14 aortic valve interstitial cells (VIC) in culture with osteogenic media results in increased expression of multiple genes associated with bone formation. Treatment of VIC with Wnt3a leads to nuclear localization of beta-catenin and induction of periostin and matrix gla-protein, but does not induce genes associated with later stages of osteogenesis. Together, these studies provide evidence for Wnt signaling as a regulator of endocardial cushion maturation as well as valve leaflet stratification, homeostasis and pathogenesis. PMID:19961844

  8. Noncanonical Wnt Signaling Maintains Hematopoietic Stem Cells in the Niche

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; He, Xi C.; Venkatraman, Aparna; Arai, Fumio; Box, Andrew; Semerad, Craig; Haug, Jeffrey S.; Peng, Lai; Zhong, Xiao-bo; Suda, Toshio; Li, Linheng

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt signaling is involved in self-renewal and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); however, the particular role of noncanonical Wnt signaling in regulating HSCs in vivo is largely unknown. Here, we show Flamingo (Fmi) and Frizzled (Fz) 8, members of noncanonical Wnt signaling, both express in and functionally maintain quiescent long-term HSCs. Fmi regulates Fz8 distribution at the interface between HSCs and N-cadherin+ osteoblasts (N-cad+OBs that enrich osteoprogenitors) in the niche. We further found that N-cad+OBs predominantly express noncanonical Wnt ligands and inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling under homeostasis. Under stress, noncanonical Wnt signaling is attenuated and canonical Wnt signaling is enhanced in activation of HSCs. Mechanistically, noncanonical Wnt signaling mediated by Fz8 suppresses the Ca2+-NFAT- IFNγ pathway, directly or indirectly through the CDC42-CK1α complex and also antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling in HSCs. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that noncanonical Wnt signaling maintains quiescent long-term HSCs through Fmi and Fz8 interaction in the niche. PMID:22817897

  9. Wnt-11 overexpression promoting the invasion of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Heng; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Shizhuo; Pang, Xiaoao; Zhang, Shulan

    2016-09-01

    Wnt-11 is a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. However, Wnt-11 expression in cervical cancer has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Wnt-11 in cervical tumor proliferation and invasion. This study examined 24 normal cervical squamous epithelia, 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 78 cervical cancer samples. The expression of Wnt-11 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) E6 oncoprotein was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of Wnt-11, HR-HPV E6, JNK-1, phosphorylated JNK-1(P-JNK1), and β-catenin was examined by western blot analysis following Wnt-11 knockdown or overexpression in HeLa or SiHa cells, respectively. The promotion of cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion was investigated using the cell counting kit-8 and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. Wnt-11 and HR-HPV E6 expression increased in a manner that corresponded with the progression of cervical cancer and was significantly correlated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics cancer stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and HPV infection. Wnt-11 protein expression was positively associated with HR-HPV E6 protein expression in all 78 cervical cancer samples (P < 0.001). Furthermore, Wnt-11 was positively associated with P-JNK1 expression and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. These observations suggest that the increased Wnt-11 expression observed in cervical cancer cells may lead to the phosphorylation and activation of JNK-1 and significantly promote tumor cell proliferation and cell migration/invasion through activation of the Wnt/JNK pathway. Consequently, Wnt-11 may serve as a novel target for cervical cancer therapy.

  10. Wnt-3a is critical for caudal embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Camper, S.A.; Greco, T.L.; Newhouse, M.M.

    1994-09-01

    Skeletal and neural tube defects represent an important class of birth defects. The majority of mouse mutants with neural tube defects also have malformations of the tail. Vestigial tail (vt) is an autosomal recessive mouse mutation characterized by reduction or absence of the tail, vertebral abnormalities, and reduced fertility. The phenotype has been described as the result of failure of cell migration through the primitive streak, causing abnormalities in the development of the neural tube and a reduction in the ventral ectodermal ridge. Wnt3a is an excellent candidate gene for vt because Wnt3a is expressed in the primitive streak and in the embryonic mesoderm, and it is thought to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and formation of the dorsal-ventral axis in the CNS. A lack of Wnt3a might be expected to result in overdorsalization of the neural tube and reduction of the ventral ectodermal ridge characteristic of vt/vt embryos. In a high resolution backcross segregating vt, we observed no recombination between vt and Wnt3a in 363 individuals analyzed. In vt/vt mice, Southern blot analysis revealed no abnormalities in the Wnt3a gene, and the Wnt3a cDNA sequence does not encode any amino acid changes. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that Wnt3a expression is severely reduced in the developing tailbud of day 9.5 vt/vt embryos, suggestive of a lesion in the regulation on Wnt3a expression. An alleleism test, carried out by mating vt/vt males with Wnt3a +/Wnt3a- females, demonstrated that vt and Wnt3a are noncomplementing alleles. All of the compound heterozygotes exhibited severe tail defects, including occasional examples of hind limb parlaysis and spina bifida. The vertebral defects are intermediate between those of vt and Wnt3a homozygotes, suggesting that the concentration of Wnt3a correlates with the severity of the defect.

  11. Is resistant starch protective against colorectal cancer via modulation of the WNT signalling pathway?

    PubMed

    Malcomson, Fiona C; Willis, Naomi D; Mathers, John C

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that non-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) including resistant starch are protective against colorectal cancer. These anti-neoplastic effects are presumed to result from the production of the SCFA, butyrate, by colonic fermentation, which binds to the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR43 to regulate inflammation and other cancer-related processes. The WNT pathway is central to the maintenance of homeostasis within the large bowel through regulation of processes such as cell proliferation and migration and is frequently aberrantly hyperactivated in colorectal cancers. Abnormal WNT signalling can lead to irregular crypt cell proliferation that favours a hyperproliferative state. Butyrate has been shown to modulate the WNT pathway positively, affecting functional outcomes such as apoptosis and proliferation. Butyrate's ability to regulate gene expression results from epigenetic mechanisms, including its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and through modulating DNA methylation and the expression of microRNA. We conclude that genetic and epigenetic modulation of the WNT signalling pathway may be an important mechanism through which butyrate from fermentation of resistant starch and other NDC exert their chemoprotective effects.

  12. DIXDC1 activates the Wnt signaling pathway and promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cong; Qiao, Fan; Wei, Ping; Chi, Yayun; Wang, Weige; Ni, Shujuan; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Tongzhen; Sheng, Weiqi; Du, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    DIXDC1 (Dishevelled-Axin domain containing 1) is a DIX (Dishevelled-Axin) domain-possessing protein that promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and increases the invasion and migration ability of non-small-cell lung cancer via the PI3K pathway. As a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, the biological role of DIXDC1 in human gastric cancer and the relationship between DIXDC1 and the Wnt pathway are unclear. In the current study, the upregulation of DIXDC1 was detected in gastric cancer and was associated with advanced TNM stage cancer, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. We also found that the overexpression of DIXDC1 could promote the invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells. The upregulation of MMPs and the downregulation of E-cadherin were found to be involved in the process. DIXDC1 enhanced β-catenin nuclear accumulation, which activated the Wnt pathway. Additionally, the inhibition of β-catenin in DIXDC1-overexpressing cells reversed the metastasis promotion effects of DIXDC1. These results demonstrate that the expression of DIXDC1 is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients and that DIXDC1 promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis through the activation of the Wnt pathway; E-cadherin and MMPs are also involved in this process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A uniform human Wnt expression library reveals a shared secretory pathway and unique signaling activities.

    PubMed

    Najdi, Rani; Proffitt, Kyle; Sprowl, Stephanie; Kaur, Simran; Yu, Jia; Covey, Tracy M; Virshup, David M; Waterman, Marian L

    2012-09-01

    Wnt ligands are secreted morphogens that control multiple developmental processes during embryogenesis and adult homeostasis. A diverse set of receptors and signals have been linked to individual Wnts, but the lack of tools for comparative analysis has limited the ability to determine which of these signals are general for the entire Wnt family, and which define subsets of differently acting ligands. We have created a versatile Gateway library of clones for all 19 human Wnts. An analysis comparing epitope-tagged and untagged versions of each ligand shows that despite their similar expression at the mRNA level, Wnts exhibit considerable variation in stability, processing and secretion. At least 14 out of the 19 Wnts activate β-catenin-dependent signaling, an activity that is cell type-dependent and tracks with the stabilization of β-catenin and LRP6 phosphorylation. We find that the core Wnt modification and secretion proteins Porcupine (PORCN) and Wntless (WLS) are essential for all Wnts to signal through β-catenin-dependent and independent pathways. This comprehensive toolkit provides critical tools and new insights into human Wnt gene expression and function.

  14. Targeted interference of SIN3A-TGIF1 function by SID decoy treatment inhibits Wnt signaling and invasion in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yeon-Jin; Leibovitch, Boris A; Bansal, Nidhi; Pereira, Lutecia; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Ariztia, Edgardo V; Zelent, Arthur; Farias, Eduardo F; Waxman, Samuel

    2016-08-19

    Cancer cell invasion is an obligatory step for metastatic dissemination that contributes to rapid relapse and a poorer survival in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Development of novel therapeutic strategies to block tumor invasion is an unmet need in the treatment of cancer. We reported that the selective inhibition of the PAH2 domain of SIN3A protein function markedly suppressed metastatic dissemination to the lungs in TNBC xenograft bearing mice. Here, we show that TNBC cell lines treated with Sin3 interaction domain (SID) decoy peptides that bind to PAH2 display a strong in vitro inhibition of transwell invasion. This is accompanied by actin cytoskeleton reorganization with increased cortical actin deposition and downregulation of known Wnt target genes that are associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer cell invasion. Wnt pathway inhibition by SID decoy peptide was confirmed by decreased Wnt reporter activity and altered cytoplasmic localization of nuclear β-catenin. TGIF1, a transcription factor that modulates Wnt signaling and known to interact with the PAH2 domain of SIN3A, can be dissociated from the SIN3A complex by SID decoys. TGIF1 knockdown inhibits WNT target genes and in vitro cell invasion suggesting that TGIF1 might be a key target of the SID decoys to block tumor invasion. Taken together, targeting SIN3 function using SID decoys is a novel strategy to reverse invasion and the EMT program in TNBC translating into the inhibition of metastasis dissemination and eradication of residual disease.

  15. Androgens Up-regulate Transcription of the Notch Inhibitor Numb in C2C12 Myoblasts via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling to T Cell Factor Elements in the Numb Promoter*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Wu, Yong; Yao, Shen; Levine, Alice C.; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Collier, Lauren; Bauman, William A.; Cardozo, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen signaling via the androgen receptor is a key pathway that contributes to development, cell fate decisions, and differentiation, including that of myogenic progenitors. Androgens and synthetic steroids have well established anabolic actions on skeletal muscle. Wnt and Notch signaling pathways are also essential to myogenic cell fate decisions during development and tissue repair. However, the interactions among these pathways are largely unknown. Androgenic regulation of Wnt signaling has been reported. Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, has been shown to inhibit Notch signaling and up-regulate Numb, a Notch inhibitor. To elucidate the mechanisms of interaction between nandrolone and Wnt/Notch signaling, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Numb expression and Wnt signaling and determined the roles of Wnt signaling in nandrolone-induced Numb expression in C2C12 myoblasts. Nandrolone increased Numb mRNA and protein levels and T cell factor (Tcf) transcriptional activity via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β. Up-regulation of Numb expression by nandrolone was blocked by the Wnt inhibitors, sFRP1 and DKK1, whereas Wnt3a increased Numb mRNA and protein expression. In addition, we observed that the proximal promoter of the Numb gene had functional Tcf binding elements to which β-catenin was recruited in a manner enhanced by both nandrolone and Wnt3a. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the Tcf binding sites in the Numb promoter are required for the nandrolone-induced Numb transcriptional activation in this cell line. These results reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying up-regulation of Numb transcription with a critical role for increased canonical Wnt signaling. In addition, the data identify Numb as a novel target gene of the Wnt signaling pathway by which Wnts would be able to inhibit Notch signaling. PMID:23649620

  16. Kallistatin induces breast cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy by modulating Wnt signaling and microRNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Guo, Youming; Bledsoe, Grant; Yang, Zhirong; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Kallistatin is an endogenous protein that regulates differential signaling pathways and biological functions. Our previous studies showed that kallistatin gene therapy inhibited angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis in mice, and kallistatin protein suppressed Wnt-mediated growth, migration and invasion by blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. In this study, we show that kallistatin reduced cell viability, and increased apoptotic cell death and caspase-3 activity in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Kallistatin also induced cancer cell autophagy, as evidenced by increased LC3B levels and elevated Atg5 and Beclin-1 expression; however, co-administration of Wnt or PPARγ antagonist GW9662 abolished these effects. Moreover, kallistatin via its heparin-binding site antagonized Wnt3a-induced cancer cell proliferation and increased PPARγ expression. Kallistatin inhibited oncogenic miR-21 synthesis associated with reduced Akt phosphorylation and Bcl-2 synthesis, but increased BAX expression. Kallistatin via PKC-ERK activation reduced miR-203 levels, leading to increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a tumor suppressor. Conversely, kallistatin stimulated expression of the tumorigenic suppressors miR-34a and p53. Kallistatin’s active site is essential for suppressing miR-21 and miR-203, and stimulating miR-34a and SOCS3 expression. This is the first study to demonstrate that kallistatin’s heparin-binding site is essential for inhibiting Wnt-mediated effects, and its active site plays a key role in regulating miR-21, miR-203, miR-34a and SOCS3 synthesis in breast cancer cells. These findings reveal novel mechanisms of kallistatin in inducing apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells, thus inhibiting tumor progression by regulation of Wnt/PPARγ signaling, as well as miR-21, miR-203 and miR-34a synthesis. PMID:26790955

  17. Wnt-7a induces presynaptic colocalization of alpha 7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and adenomatous polyposis coli in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Farías, Ginny G; Vallés, Ana S; Colombres, Marcela; Godoy, Juan A; Toledo, Enrique M; Lukas, Ronald J; Barrantes, Francisco J; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2007-05-16

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) contribute significantly to hippocampal function. Alpha7-nAChRs are present in presynaptic sites in hippocampal neurons and may influence transmitter release, but the factors that determine their presynaptic localization are unknown. We report here that Wnt-7a, a ligand active in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, induces dissociation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein from the beta-catenin cytoplasmic complex and the interaction of APC with alpha7-nAChRs in hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, Wnt-7a induces the relocalization of APC to membranes, clustering of APC in neurites, and coclustering of APC with different, presynaptic protein markers. Wnt-7a also increases the number and size of coclusters of alpha7-nAChRs and APC in presynaptic terminals. These short-term changes in alpha7-nAChRs occur in the few minutes after ligand exposure and involve translocation to the plasma membrane without affecting total receptor levels. Longer-term exposure to Wnt-7a increases nAChR alpha7 subunit levels in an APC-independent manner and increases clusters of alpha7-nAChRs in neurites via an APC-dependent process. Together, these results demonstrate that stimulation through the canonical Wnt pathway regulates the presynaptic localization of APC and alpha7-nAChRs with APC serving as an intermediary in the alpha7-nAChR relocalization process. Modulation by Wnt signaling may be essential for alpha7-nAChR expression and function in synapses.

  18. Genetic Screening of WNT4 and WNT5B in Two Populations with Deviating Bone Mineral Densities.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Gretl; Boudin, Eveline; Steenackers, Ellen; Nielsen, Torben Leo; Andersen, Marianne; Brixen, Kim; Van Hul, Wim

    2017-03-01

    A role for WNT4 and WNT5B in bone metabolism was indicated by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a Wnt4 knockout mouse model. The aim of this study was therefore to replicate and further investigate the causality between genetic variation in WNT4 and WNT5B and deviating bone mineral density (BMD) values. A WNT4 and WNT5B mutation screening was performed in patients with craniotubular hyperostosis using Sanger sequencing. Here, no putative causal mutations were detected. Moreover, a high and low BMD cohort was selected from the Odense Androgen Study population for re-sequencing. In WNT4 we detected four variants (three rare, one common), while in WNT5B we detected five variants (two rare, three common). For the common variants, no significant difference in genotype frequencies between the high and low BMD cohorts was observed. The SNPs associated with the GWAS were genotyped in these cohorts, but again no significant difference in genotype frequencies was observed. Despite the findings of the GWAS, we were not able to replicate or further verify the genetic association of polymorphisms in WNT4 and WNT5B with BMD. In order to do so, the intronic regions of both genes could be investigated more thoroughly in more extended populations (or extremes) with greater power. Future genetic and functional studies toward adjacent genes of WNT4 and WNT5B can also be interesting to figure out whether the signal from GWAS could possibly be attributed to genetic variation in these genes.

  19. Expression of WNT genes in cervical cancer-derived cells: Implication of WNT7A in cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Meza-Canales, Ivan D.; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Alvarez-Zavala, Monserrat; and others

    2015-07-01

    According to the multifactorial model of cervical cancer (CC) causation, it is now recognized that other modifications, in addition to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are necessary for the development of this neoplasia. Among these, it has been proposed that a dysregulation of the WNT pathway might favor malignant progression of HPV-immortalized keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to identify components of the WNT pathway differentially expressed in CC vs. non-tumorigenic, but immortalized human keratinocytes. Interestingly, WNT7A expression was found strongly downregulated in cell lines and biopsies derived from CC. Restoration of WNT7A in CC-derived cell lines using a lentiviral gene delivery system or after adding a recombinant human protein decreases cell proliferation. Likewise, WNT7A silencing in non-tumorigenic cells markedly accelerates proliferation. Decreased WNT7A expression was due to hypermethylation at particular CpG sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting reduced WNT7A levels in CC-derived cells and that ectopic WNT7A restoration negatively affects cell proliferation and migration. - Highlights: • WNT7A is expressed in normal keratinocytes or cervical cells without lesion. • WNT7A is significantly reduced in cervical cancer-derived cells. • Restoration of WNT7A expression in HeLa decreases proliferation and cell migration. • Silencing of WNT7A in HaCaT induces an increased proliferation and migration rate. • Decreased WNT7A expression in this model is due to hypermethylation.

  20. A novel Wnt5a-Frizzled4 signaling pathway mediates activity-independent dendrite morphogenesis via the distal PDZ motif of Frizzled 4.

    PubMed

    Bian, Wen-Jie; Miao, Wan-Ying; He, Shun-Ji; Wan, Zong-Fang; Luo, Zhen-Ge; Yu, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    The morphology of the dendritic tree is critical to neuronal function and neural circuit wiring. Several Wnt family members have been demonstrated to play important roles in dendrite development. However, the Wnt receptors responsible for mediating this process remain largely elusive. Using primary hippocampal neuronal cultures as a model system, we report that Frizzled4 (Fzd4), a member of the Fzd family of Wnt receptors, specifically signals downstream of Wnt5a to promote dendrite branching and growth. Interestingly, the less conserved distal PDZ binding motif of Fzd4, and not its conserved proximal Dvl-interacting PDZ motif, is required for mediating this effect. We further showed that Dvl signaled parallel to and independent of Fzd4 in promoting dendrite growth. Unlike most previously described pathways, Wnt5a/Fzd4 signaling promoted dendrite development in an activity-independent and autocrine fashion. Together, these results provide the first identification of a Wnt receptor for regulating dendrite development in the mammalian system, and demonstrate a novel function of the distal PDZ motif of Fzd4 in dendrite morphogenesis, thereby expanding our knowledge of the complex roles of Wnt signaling in neural development.

  1. Tip cell-specific requirement for an atypical Gpr124- and Reck-dependent Wnt/β-catenin pathway during brain angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Stone, Oliver A; Bostaille, Naguissa; Cho, Chris; Zhou, Yulian; Maquet, Emilie; Gauquier, Anne; Cabochette, Pauline; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Mochizuki, Naoki; Nathans, Jeremy; Stainier, Didier YR

    2015-01-01

    Despite the critical role of endothelial Wnt/β-catenin signaling during central nervous system (CNS) vascularization, how endothelial cells sense and respond to specific Wnt ligands and what aspects of the multistep process of intra-cerebral blood vessel morphogenesis are controlled by these angiogenic signals remain poorly understood. We addressed these questions at single-cell resolution in zebrafish embryos. We identify the GPI-anchored MMP inhibitor Reck and the adhesion GPCR Gpr124 as integral components of a Wnt7a/Wnt7b-specific signaling complex required for brain angiogenesis and dorsal root ganglia neurogenesis. We further show that this atypical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway selectively controls endothelial tip cell function and hence, that mosaic restoration of single wild-type tip cells in Wnt/β-catenin-deficient perineural vessels is sufficient to initiate the formation of CNS vessels. Our results identify molecular determinants of ligand specificity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and provide evidence for organ-specific control of vascular invasion through tight modulation of tip cell function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06489.001 PMID:26051822

  2. Wnt secretion is required to maintain high levels of Wnt activity in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Voloshanenko, Oksana; Erdmann, Gerrit; Dubash, Taronish D; Augustin, Iris; Metzig, Marie; Moffa, Giusi; Hundsrucker, Christian; Kerr, Grainne; Sandmann, Thomas; Anchang, Benedikt; Demir, Kubilay; Boehm, Christina; Leible, Svenja; Ball, Claudia R; Glimm, Hanno; Spang, Rainer; Boutros, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has an important role during the onset and progression of colorectal cancer, with over 90% of cases of sporadic colon cancer featuring mutations in APC or β-catenin. However, it has remained a point of controversy whether these mutations are sufficient to activate the pathway or require additional upstream signals. Here we show that colorectal tumours express elevated levels of Wnt3 and Evi/Wls/GPR177. We found that in colon cancer cells, even in the presence of mutations in APC or β-catenin, downstream signalling remains responsive to Wnt ligands and receptor proximal signalling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that truncated APC proteins bind β-catenin and key components of the destruction complex. These results indicate that cells with mutations in APC or β-catenin depend on Wnt ligands and their secretion for a sufficient level of β-catenin signalling, which potentially opens new avenues for therapeutic interventions by targeting Wnt secretion via Evi/Wls.

  3. Canonical Wnt signaling is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Fortress, Ashley M; Schram, Sarah L; Tuscher, Jennifer J; Frick, Karyn M

    2013-07-31

    Wnt signaling has emerged as a potent regulator of hippocampal synaptic function, although no evidence yet supports a critical role for Wnt signaling in hippocampal memory. Here, we sought to determine whether canonical β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling is necessary for hippocampal memory consolidation. Immediately after training in a hippocampal-dependent object recognition task, mice received a dorsal hippocampal (DH) infusion of vehicle or the canonical Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1; 50, 100, or 200 ng/hemisphere). Twenty-four hours later, mice receiving vehicle remembered the familiar object explored during training. However, mice receiving Dkk-1 exhibited no memory for the training object, indicating that object recognition memory consolidation is dependent on canonical Wnt signaling. To determine how Dkk-1 affects canonical Wnt signaling, mice were infused with vehicle or 50 ng/hemisphere Dkk-1 and protein levels of Wnt-related proteins (Dkk-1, GSK3β, β-catenin, TCF1, LEF1, Cyclin D1, c-myc, Wnt7a, Wnt1, and PSD95) were measured in the dorsal hippocampus 5 min or 4 h later. Dkk-1 produced a rapid increase in Dkk-1 protein levels and a decrease in phosphorylated GSK3β levels, followed by a decrease in β-catenin, TCF1, LEF1, Cyclin D1, c-myc, Wnt7a, and PSD95 protein levels 4 h later. These data suggest that alterations in Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling may underlie the memory impairments induced by Dkk-1. In a subsequent experiment, object training alone rapidly increased DH GSK3β phosphorylation and levels of β-catenin and Cyclin D1. These data suggest that canonical Wnt signaling is regulated by object learning and is necessary for hippocampal memory consolidation.

  4. Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Mediated-UCH-L1 Expression in Podocytes of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongxia; Luo, Weili; Sun, Yonghong; Qiao, Yanchun; Zhang, Liying; Zhao, Zhilian; Lv, Shijun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing studies identified podocyte injury as a key early risk factor resulting in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCH-L1) participates in podocyte differentiation and injury, which is elevated in the podocytes of a variety of nephritis. Whether UCH-L1 expression is positively related to podocyte injury of DN remains unclear. In this study, elevated expression of UCH-L1 and its intrinsic mechanism in high glucose (HG)-stimulated murine podocytes were investigated using western blot and real-time quantitative PCR. Kidney biopsies of DN patients and health individuals were stained by immunofluorescence (IF) method. The morphological and functional changes of podocytes were tested by F-actin staining and cell migration assay. Results demonstrated that HG induced upregulation of UCH-L1 and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in podocytes. However, blocking of the Wnt pathway by dickkopf related protein 1 (DKK1) eliminated the above changes. Furthermore, IF staining confirmed that, compared with healthy individuals, the expression of UCH-L1 and β-catenin were obviously increased in kidney biopsy of DN patients. Overexpression of UCH-L1 remodeled its actin cytoskeleton, increased its cell migration and impacted its important proteins. All the findings manifested that Wnt/β-catenin/UCH-L1 may be a new potential therapy method in the treatment of DN in future. PMID:27571062

  5. Interacting network of Hippo, Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling represses liver tumor formation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wantae; Khan, Sanjoy Kumar; Yang, Yingzi

    2017-01-01

    Acquiring a selective growth advantage by breaking the proliferation barrier established by gatekeeper genes is a centrally important event in tumor formation. Removal of the mammalian Hippo kinase Mst1 and Mst2 in hepatocytes leads to rapid hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) formation, indicating that the Hippo signaling pathway is a critical gatekeeper that restrains abnormal growth in hepatocytes. By rigorous genetic approaches, we identified an interacting network of the Hippo, Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways that control organ size and HCC development. We found that in hepatocytes, the loss of Mst1/2 leads to the activation of Notch signaling, which forms a positive feedback loop with Yap/Taz (transcription factors controlled by Mst1/2). This positive feedback loop results in severe liver enlargement and rapid HCC formation. Blocking the Yap/Taz-Notch positive feedback loop by Notch inhibition in vivo significantly reduced the Yap/Taz activities, hepatocyte proliferation and tumor formation. Furthermore, we uncovered a surprising inhibitory role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling to Yap/Taz activities, which are important in tumor initiation. Genetic removal of β-catenin in the liver of the Mst1/2 mutants significantly accelerates tumoriogenesis. Therefore, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, known for its oncogenic property, exerts an unexpected function in restricting Yap/Taz and Notch activities in HCC initiation. The molecular interplay between the three signaling pathways identified in our study provides new insights in developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat liver tumors. PMID:27881216

  6. LRRK2: an éminence grise of Wnt-mediated neurogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Berwick, Daniel C.; Harvey, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    The importance of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) to mature neurons is well-established, since mutations in PARK8, the gene encoding LRRK2, are the most common known cause of Parkinson’s disease. Nonetheless, despite the LRRK2 knockout mouse having no overt neurodevelopmental defect, numerous lines of in vitro data point toward a central role for this protein in neurogenesis. Roles for LRRK2 have been described in many key processes, including neurite outgrowth and the regulation of microtubule dynamics. Moreover, LRRK2 has been implicated in cell cycle control, suggesting additional roles in neurogenesis that precede terminal differentiation. However, we contend that the suggested function of LRRK2 as a scaffolding protein at the heart of numerous Wnt signaling cascades provides the most tantalizing link to neurogenesis in the developing brain. Numerous lines of evidence show a critical requirement for multiple Wnt pathways in the development of certain brain regions, not least the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral mid-brain. In conclusion, these observations indicate a function of LRRK2 as a subtle yet critical mediator of the action of Wnt ligands on developing neurons. We suggest that LRRK2 loss- or gain-of-function are likely modifiers of developmental phenotypes seen in animal models of Wnt signaling deregulation, a hypothesis that can be tested by cross-breeding relevant genetically modified experimental strains. PMID:23754980

  7. Activated Wnt signaling induces myofibroblast differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, contributing to pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaorui; Wang, Cong; Shi, Chaowen; Sun, Fangfang; Xu, Xiaomeng; Qian, Weiping; Nie, Shinan; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-05-01

    Acute lung injury may lead to fibrogenesis. However, no treatment is currently available. This study was conducted to determine the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a model of HCl-induced acute lung injury in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 have been shown to participate in mobilizing MSCs. Adenovirus carrying the CXCR4 gene was used to transfect MSCs in order to increase the engraftment numbers of MSCs at injured sites. Histological examination data demonstrated that the engraftment of MSCs did not attenuate lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. The results showed that engraftment of MSCs almost differentiated into myofibroblasts, but rarely differentiated into lung epithelial cells. Additionally, it was demonstrated that activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in injured lung tissue regulated the myofibroblast differentiation of MSCs in vivo. The in vitro study results demonstrated that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling stimulated MSCs to express myofibroblast markers; however, this process was attenuated by Wnt antagonist DKK1. Therefore, the results demonstrated that the aberrant activation of Wnt signaling induces the myofibroblast differentiation of engrafted MSCs, thus contributing to pulmonary fibrosis following lung injury.

  8. Modulation of Wnt Signaling Enhances Inner Ear Organoid Development in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    DeJonge, Rachel E.; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Deig, Christopher R.; Heller, Stefan; Koehler, Karl R.; Hashino, Eri

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell-derived inner ear sensory epithelia are a promising source of tissues for treating patients with hearing loss and dizziness. We recently demonstrated how to generate inner ear sensory epithelia, designated as inner ear organoids, from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in a self-organizing 3D culture. Here we improve the efficiency of this culture system by elucidating how Wnt signaling activity can drive the induction of otic tissue. We found that a carefully timed treatment with the potent Wnt agonist CHIR99021 promotes induction of otic vesicles—a process that was previously self-organized by unknown mechanisms. The resulting otic-like vesicles have a larger lumen size and contain a greater number of Pax8/Pax2-positive otic progenitor cells than organoids derived without the Wnt agonist. Additionally, these otic-like vesicles give rise to large inner ear organoids with hair cells whose morphological, biochemical and functional properties are indistinguishable from those of vestibular hair cells in the postnatal mouse inner ear. We conclude that Wnt signaling plays a similar role during inner ear organoid formation as it does during inner ear development in the embryo. PMID:27607106

  9. BMP-FGF Signaling Axis Mediates Wnt-Induced Epidermal Stratification in Developing Mammalian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Liu, YuDong; Dai, Zhong-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Yang, XueQin; Li, Yan; Qiu, Mengsheng; Fu, Jiang; Hsu, Wei; Chen, YiPing; Zhang, Zunyi

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal stratification of the mammalian skin requires proliferative basal progenitors to generate intermediate cells that separate from the basal layer and are replaced by post-mitotic cells. Although Wnt signaling has been implicated in this developmental process, the mechanism underlying Wnt-mediated regulation of basal progenitors remains elusive. Here we show that Wnt secreted from proliferative basal cells is not required for their differentiation. However, epidermal production of Wnts is essential for the formation of the spinous layer through modulation of a BMP-FGF signaling cascade in the dermis. The spinous layer defects caused by disruption of Wnt secretion can be restored by transgenically expressed Bmp4. Non-cell autonomous BMP4 promotes activation of FGF7 and FGF10 signaling, leading to an increase in proliferative basal cell population. Our findings identify an essential BMP-FGF signaling axis in the dermis that responds to the epidermal Wnts and feedbacks to regulate basal progenitors during epidermal stratification. PMID:25329657

  10. Early neural crest induction requires an initial inhibition of Wnt signals.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Ben; Mayor, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Neural crest (NC) induction is a long process that continues through gastrula and neurula stages. In order to reveal additional stages of NC induction we performed a series of explants where different known inducing tissues were taken along with the prospective NC. Interestingly the dorso-lateral marginal zone (DLMZ) is only able to promote the expression of a subset of neural plate border (NPB) makers without the presence of specific NC markers. We then analysed the temporal requirement for BMP and Wnt signals for the NPB genes Hairy2a and Dlx5, compared to the expression of neural plate (NP) and NC genes. Although the NP is sensitive to BMP levels at early gastrula stages, Hairy2a/Dlx5 expression is unaffected. Later, the NP becomes insensitive to BMP levels at late gastrulation when NC markers require an inhibition. The NP requires an inhibition of Wnt signals prior to gastrulation, but becomes insensitive during early gastrula stages when Hairy2a/Dlx5 requires an inhibition of Wnt signalling. An increase in Wnt signalling is then important for the switch from NPB to NC at late gastrula stages. In addition to revealing an additional distinct signalling event in NC induction, this work emphasizes the importance of integrating both timing and levels of signalling activity during the patterning of complex tissues such as the vertebrate ectoderm.

  11. A Fully Human Inhibitory Monoclonal Antibody to the Wnt Receptor RYK

    PubMed Central

    Parish, Clare L.; Takano, Elena A.; Fox, Stephen; Layton, Daniel; Nice, Edouard; Stacker, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    RYK is an unusual member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that is classified as a putative pseudokinase. RYK regulates fundamental biological processes including cell differentiation, migration and target selection, axon outgrowth and pathfinding by transducing signals across the plasma membrane in response to the high affinity binding of Wnt family ligands to its extracellular Wnt inhibitory factor (WIF) domain. Here we report the generation and initial characterization of a fully human inhibitory monoclonal antibody to the human RYK WIF domain. From a naïve human single chain fragment variable (scFv) phage display library, we identified anti-RYK WIF domain–specific scFvs then screened for those that could compete with Wnt3a for binding. Production of a fully human IgG1κ from an inhibitory scFv yielded a monoclonal antibody that inhibits Wnt5a-responsive RYK function in a neurite outgrowth assay. This antibody will have immediate applications for modulating RYK function in a range of settings including development and adult homeostasis, with significant potential for therapeutic use in human pathologies. PMID:24058687

  12. Molecular Genetics of Intracranial Meningiomas with Emphasis on Canonical Wnt Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Pećina-Šlaus, Nives; Kafka, Anja; Lechpammer, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Research over the last decade recognized the importance of novel molecular pathways in pathogenesis of intracranial meningiomas. In this review, we focus on human brain tumours meningiomas and the involvement of Wnt signalling pathway genes and proteins in this common brain tumour, describing their known functional effects. Meningiomas originate from the meningeal layers of the brain and the spinal cord. Most meningiomas have benign clinical behaviour and are classified as grade I by World Health Organization (WHO). However, up to 20% histologically classified as atypical (grade II) or anaplastic (grade III) are associated with higher recurrent rate and have overall less favourable clinical outcome. Recently, there is emerging evidence that multiple signalling pathways including Wnt pathway contribute to the formation and growth of meningiomas. In the review we present the synopsis on meningioma histopathology and genetics and discuss our research regarding Wnt in meningioma. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a process in which Wnt signalling plays an important role, is shortly discussed. PMID:27429002

  13. A possible role for the canonical Wnt pathway in endocrine cell development in chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, Anna Hauntoft; Heller, R. Scott . E-mail: shll@hagedorn.dk

    2005-08-05

    Wnt signalling is involved in many developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, cell fate decisions, and morphogenesis. However, little is known about Wnt signalling during pancreas development. Multiple Wnt ligands and Frizzled receptors are expressed in the embryonic mouse pancreas, the surrounding mesenchyme, and have also been detected in the chicken endoderm during development. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of canonical Wnt signalling on endocrine cell development by use of the in ovo electroporation of the chicken endoderm. Overexpression with a constitutive active form of {beta}-catenin in combination with Ngn3 resulted in reduced numbers of glucagon cells. dnLEF-1 or naked-1 did not alter endocrine cell differentiation when co-expressed with Ngn3, but dnLEF-1 appeared to have some potential for inhibiting delamination of Ngn3 cells. In addition, neuronal {beta}-III-tubulin, which had previously been considered a specific marker for neuronal cells, was observed in the pancreas and was upregulated in the electroporated Ngn3 cells and thus may be a new endocrine marker in the chicken.

  14. Preclinical validation and imaging of Wnt-induced repair in human 3D lung tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Franziska E; Vierkotten, Sarah; Wagner, Darcy E; Burgstaller, Gerald; Costa, Rita; Koch, Ina; Lindner, Michael; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a progressive loss of lung tissue. Inducing repair processes within the adult diseased lung is of major interest and Wnt/β-catenin signalling represents a promising target for lung repair. However, the translation of novel therapeutic targets from model systems into clinical use remains a major challenge.We generated murine and patient-derived three-dimensional (3D) ex vivo lung tissue cultures (LTCs), which closely mimic the 3D lung microenvironment in vivo. Using two well-known glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and CHIR 99021 (CT), we determined Wnt/β-catenin-driven lung repair processes in high spatiotemporal resolution using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, (immuno)histological assessment, and four-dimensional confocal live tissue imaging.Viable 3D-LTCs exhibited preserved lung structure and function for up to 5 days. We demonstrate successful Wnt/β-catenin signal activation in murine and patient-derived 3D-LTCs from COPD patients. Wnt/β-catenin signalling led to increased alveolar epithelial cell marker expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression, as well as altered macrophage activity and elastin remodelling. Importantly, induction of surfactant protein C significantly correlated with disease stage (per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in patient-derived 3D-LTCs.Patient-derived 3D-LTCs represent a valuable tool to analyse potential targets and drugs for lung repair. Enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signalling attenuated pathological features of patient-derived COPD 3D-LTCs.

  15. Wnt Signaling Prevents the Aβ Oligomer-Induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening Preserving Mitochondrial Structure in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Arrázola, Macarena S.; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Cisternas, Pedro; Ordenes, Daniela; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly known for synaptic impairment and neuronal cell loss, affecting memory processes. Beside these damages, mitochondria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD through the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). The mPTP is a non-selective pore that is formed under apoptotic conditions, disturbing mitochondrial structure and thus, neuronal viability. In AD, Aβ oligomers (Aβos) favor the opening of the pore, activating mitochondria-dependent neuronal cell death cascades. The Wnt signaling activated through the ligand Wnt3a has been described as a neuroprotective signaling pathway against amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide toxicity in AD. However, the mechanisms by which Wnt signaling prevents Aβos-induced neuronal cell death are unclear. We proposed here to study whether Wnt signaling protects neurons earlier than the late damages in the progression of the disease, through the preservation of the mitochondrial structure by the mPTP inhibition. To study specific events related to mitochondrial permeabilization we performed live-cell imaging from primary rat hippocampal neurons, and electron microscopy to analyze the mitochondrial morphology and structure. We report here that Wnt3a prevents an Aβos-induced cascade of mitochondrial events that leads to neuronal cell death. This cascade involves (a) mPTP opening, (b) mitochondrial swelling, (c) mitochondrial membrane potential loss and (d) cytochrome c release, thus leading to neuronal cell death. Furthermore, our results suggest that the activation of the Wnt signaling prevents mPTP opening by two possible mechanisms, which involve the inhibition of mitochondrial GSK-3β and/or the modulation of mitochondrial hexokinase II levels and activity. This study suggests a possible new approach for the treatment of AD from a mitochondrial perspective, and will also open new lines of study in the field of Wnt signaling in neuroprotection

  16. Wnt Signaling Prevents the Aβ Oligomer-Induced Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening Preserving Mitochondrial Structure in Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Arrázola, Macarena S; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Cisternas, Pedro; Ordenes, Daniela; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly known for synaptic impairment and neuronal cell loss, affecting memory processes. Beside these damages, mitochondria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD through the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). The mPTP is a non-selective pore that is formed under apoptotic conditions, disturbing mitochondrial structure and thus, neuronal viability. In AD, Aβ oligomers (Aβos) favor the opening of the pore, activating mitochondria-dependent neuronal cell death cascades. The Wnt signaling activated through the ligand Wnt3a has been described as a neuroprotective signaling pathway against amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide toxicity in AD. However, the mechanisms by which Wnt signaling prevents Aβos-induced neuronal cell death are unclear. We proposed here to study whether Wnt signaling protects neurons earlier than the late damages in the progression of the disease, through the preservation of the mitochondrial structure by the mPTP inhibition. To study specific events related to mitochondrial permeabilization we performed live-cell imaging from primary rat hippocampal neurons, and electron microscopy to analyze the mitochondrial morphology and structure. We report here that Wnt3a prevents an Aβos-induced cascade of mitochondrial events that leads to neuronal cell death. This cascade involves (a) mPTP opening, (b) mitochondrial swelling, (c) mitochondrial membrane potential loss and (d) cytochrome c release, thus leading to neuronal cell death. Furthermore, our results suggest that the activation of the Wnt signaling prevents mPTP opening by two possible mechanisms, which involve the inhibition of mitochondrial GSK-3β and/or the modulation of mitochondrial hexokinase II levels and activity. This study suggests a possible new approach for the treatment of AD from a mitochondrial perspective, and will also open new lines of study in the field of Wnt signaling in neuroprotection.

  17. [Cytokines in bone diseases. Wnt signal and excessive bone formation].

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Takayuki

    2010-10-01

    Wnt signal has been known to play various roles in many organ from the beginning of embryogensis. Its role in bone metabolism has also been investigated and established. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) is one of the important molecules in wnt signal pathway whose point mutations are related to both bone loss and excessive bone formation. Wnt signal is involved in the action of sclerostin which was found as a gene for osteosclerosis, one of the diseases of excessive bone formation. Wnt signal is keeping the position as an important research target for normal and pathological bone formation.

  18. Wnt/β-catenin signaling enables developmental transitions during valvulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bosada, Fernanda M; Devasthali, Vidusha; Jones, Kimberly A; Stankunas, Kryn

    2016-03-15

    Heart valve development proceeds through coordinated steps by which endocardial cushions (ECs) form thin, elongated and stratified valves. Wnt signaling and its canonical effector β-catenin are proposed to contribute to endocardial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) through postnatal steps of valvulogenesis. However, genetic redundancy and lethality have made it challenging to define specific roles of the canonical Wnt pathway at different stages of valve formation. We developed a transgenic mouse system that provides spatiotemporal inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by chemically inducible overexpression of Dkk1. Unexpectedly, this approach indicates canonical Wnt signaling is required for EMT in the proximal outflow tract (pOFT) but not atrioventricular canal (AVC) cushions. Furthermore, Wnt indirectly promotes pOFT EMT through its earlier activity in neighboring myocardial cells or their progenitors. Subsequently, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in cushion mesenchymal cells where it supports FGF-driven expansion of ECs and then AVC valve extracellular matrix patterning. Mice lacking Axin2, a negative Wnt regulator, have larger valves, suggesting that accumulating Axin2 in maturing valves represents negative feedback that restrains tissue overgrowth rather than simply reporting Wnt activity. Disruption of these Wnt/β-catenin signaling roles that enable developmental transitions during valvulogenesis could account for common congenital valve defects.

  19. Strategy to Achieve Highly Porous/Biocompatible Macroscale Cell Blocks, Using a Collagen/Genipin-bioink and an Optimal 3D Printing Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Bok; Lee, Hyeongjin; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-11-30

    Recently, a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting process for obtaining a cell-laden structure has been widely applied because of its ability to fabricate biomimetic complex structures embedded with and without cells. To successfully obtain a cell-laden porous block, the cell-delivering vehicle, bioink, is one of the significant factors. Until now, various biocompatible hydrogels (synthetic and natural biopolymers) have been utilized in the cell-printing process, but a bioink satisfying both biocompatibility and print-ability requirements to achieve a porous structure with reasonable mechanical strength has not been issued. Here, we propose a printing strategy with optimal conditions including a safe cross-linking procedure for obtaining a 3D porous cell block composed of a biocompatible collagen-bioink and genipin, a cross-linking agent. To obtain the optimal processing conditions, we modified the 3D printing machine and selected an optimal cross-linking condition (∼1 mM and 1 h) of genipin solution. To show the feasibility of the process, 3D pore-interconnected cell-laden constructs were manufactured using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Under these processing conditions, a macroscale 3D collagen-based cell block of 21 × 21 × 12 mm(3) and over 95% cell viability was obtained. In vitro biological testing of the cell-laden 3D porous structure showed that the embedded cells were sufficiently viable, and their proliferation was significantly higher; the cells also exhibited increased osteogenic activities compared to the conventional alginate-based bioink (control). The results indicated the fabrication process using the collagen-bioink would be an innovative platform to design highly biocompatible and mechanically stable cell blocks.

  20. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  1. Systematic Mapping of WNT-FZD Protein Interactions Reveals Functional Selectivity by Distinct WNT-FZD Pairs*

    PubMed Central

    Dijksterhuis, Jacomijn P.; Baljinnyam, Bolormaa; Stanger, Karen; Sercan, Hakki O.; Ji, Yun; Andres, Osler; Rubin, Jeffrey S.; Hannoush, Rami N.; Schulte, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors of the FZD1–10 class are bound and activated by the WNT family of lipoglycoproteins, thereby inducing a complex network of signaling pathways. However, the specificity of the interaction between mammalian WNT and FZD proteins and the subsequent signaling cascade downstream of the different WNT-FZD pairs have not been systematically addressed to date. In this study, we determined the binding affinities of various WNTs for different members of the FZD family by using bio-layer interferometry and characterized their functional selectivity in a cell system. Using purified WNTs, we show that different FZD cysteine-rich domains prefer to bind to distinct WNTs with fast on-rates and slow off-rates. In a 32D cell-based system engineered to overexpress FZD2, FZD4, or FZD5, we found that WNT-3A (but not WNT-4, -5A, or -9B) activated the WNT-β-catenin pathway through FZD2/4/5 as measured by phosphorylation of LRP6 and β-catenin stabilization. Surprisingly, different WNT-FZD pairs showed differential effects on phosphorylation of DVL2 and DVL3, revealing a previously unappreciated DVL isoform selectivity by different WNT-FZD pairs in 32D cells. In summary, we present extensive mapping of WNT-FZD cysteine-rich domain interactions complemented by analysis of WNT-FZD pair functionality in a unique cell system expressing individual FZD isoforms. Differential WNT-FZD binding and selective functional readouts suggest that endogenous WNT ligands evolved with an intrinsic natural bias toward different downstream signaling pathways, a phenomenon that could be of great importance in the design of FZD-targeting drugs. PMID:25605717

  2. Wnt5b-associated exosomes promote cancer cell migration and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Harada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kishida, Shosei; Kishida, Michiko; Awada, Chihiro; Takao, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Wnt5b is a member of the same family of proteins as Wnt5a, the overexpression of which is associated with cancer aggressiveness. Wnt5b is also suggested to be involved in cancer progression, however, details remain unclarified. We analyzed the biochemical properties of purified Wnt5b and the mode of secretion of Wnt5b by cancer cells. Wnt5b was glycosylated at three asparagine residues and lipidated at one serine residue, and these post-translational modifications of Wnt5b were essential for secretion. Purified Wnt5b showed Dvl2 phosphorylation and Rac activation abilities to a similar extent as Wnt5a. In cultured-cell conditioned medium, Wnt5b was detected in supernatant or precipitation fractions that were separated by centrifugation at 100 000 g. In PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells, 55% of secreted endogenous Wnt5b was associated with exosomes. Exosomes from wild-type PANC-1 cells, but not those from Wnt5b-knockout PANC-1 cells, activated Wnt5b signaling in CHO cells and stimulated migration and proliferation of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, suggesting that endogenous, Wnt5b-associated exosomes are active. The exosomes were taken up by CHO cells and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that Wnt5b is indeed associated with exosomes. In Caco-2 colon cancer cells, most Wnt5b was recovered in precipitation fractions when Wnt5b was ectopically expressed (Caco-2/Wnt5b cells). Knockdown of TSG101, an exosome marker, decreased the secretion of Wnt5b-associated exosomes from Caco-2/Wnt5b cells and inhibited Wnt5b-dependent cell proliferation. Exosomes secreted from Caco-2/Wnt5b cells stimulated migration and proliferation of A549 cells. These results suggest that Wnt5b-associated exosomes promote cancer cell migration and proliferation in a paracrine manner.

  3. Early planarian brain regeneration is independent of blastema polarity mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Marta; Almuedo-Castillo, Maria; Aboobaker, A Aziz; Saló, Emili

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of anteroposterior (AP) axis specification in regenerating planarian flatworms has shown that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for posterior specification and that the FGF-like receptor molecule nou-darake (ndk) may be involved in restricting brain regeneration to anterior regions. The relationship between re-establishment of AP identity and correct morphogenesis of the brain is, however, still poorly understood. Here we report the characterization of two axin paralogs in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Although Axins are well known negative regulators of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, no role in AP specification has previously been reported for axin genes in planarians. We show that silencing of Smed-axin genes by RNA interference (RNAi) results in two-tailed planarians, a phenotype previously reported after silencing of Smed-APC-1, another β-catenin inhibitor. More strikingly, we show for the first time that while early brain formation at anterior wounds remains unaffected, subsequent development of the brain is blocked in the two-tailed planarians generated after silencing of Smed-axin genes and Smed-APC-1. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying early brain formation can be uncoupled from the specification of AP identity by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Finally, the posterior expansion of the brain observed following Smed-ndk RNAi is enhanced by silencing Smed-APC-1, revealing an indirect relationship between the FGFR/Ndk and Wnt/β-catenin signaling systems in establishing the posterior limits of brain differentiation.

  4. wnt4 Is associated with the development of ovarian tissue in the protandrous black Porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guan-Chung; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2009-12-01

    The protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, has a striking life cycle with sex differentiation at the juvenile stage, mono-male development, and male-to-female sex change (with vitellogenic oocytes) at age 3 yr. In the present study, we investigated the possible roles of wnt4 in gonadal development in a nonmammalian model organism (protandrous black porgy), especially in relation to sex differentiation, ovarian growth, and sex change. Fish of various ages were treated with estradiol (E2) or aromatase inhibitor (AI) to determine whether manipulation of the hormonal environment had an effect on these processes. Furthermore, a natural sex change (> or =2-yr-old fish) and a nonchemical method to induce an early sex change (> or =1-yr-old fish) via the removal of testicular tissue were examined in this study. We present herein an integrative immunohistochemical, cellular, and molecular data set describing these phenomena. During gonadal sex differentiation, no increase in wnt4 expression was detected. A profile of increased wnt4 expression and decreased cyp19a1a expression was associated with ovarian growth (proliferation of oogonia and development of ovarian lamellae) in > or =1-yr-old fish. Both E2 and AI induced an increase in wnt4 transcripts and resulted in ovarian development in > or =0-yr-old and > or =1-yr-old fish. Increased wnt4 transcripts were found in ovarian tissue undergoing development from primary oocytes to vitellogenic oocytes during the natural sex change in > or =2-yr-old fish. Removal of testicular tissue in > or =1-yr-old fish resulted in successful early sex change (with vitellogenic oocytes) 6 mo after the excision. During the process of the early sex change (3 mo after testis excision), the fish ovary became active and had increased diameter of the primary oocytes; this was in accord with increased ovarian wnt4 expression but not sf1, foxl2, and genes in the steroidogenic pathway, including cyp19a1a. Wnt4 staining further confirmed

  5. Self-assembly of high-resolutions PS-b-PMMA block-copolymers: processes capabilities and integration on 300mm track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, X.; Nicolet, C.; Tiron, R.; Gharbi, A.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Jullian, K.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Argoud, M.; Peyre, J.-L.; Van Spaandonk, R.; Fleury, G.; Hadziioannou, G.; Navarro, C.

    2014-03-01

    Careful control and reproducibility of BCP's synthesis are mandatory parameters to push-down PS-b-PMMA block-copolymer systems toward its lowest dimensions for microelectronic applications. The self-assembly process optimization of different high-resolution cylindrical PS-b-PMMA block-copolymers (i.e. L0 period below 25 nm) is studied to highlight processes-variations as regard to more classical PS-b-PMMA systems while the characterizations of bulk materials provide deeper insights on the parameters addressing the self-assembly of such materials. The integration of a high-resolution BCP on 300 mm track is then studied to check the capabilities of such materials in terms of lithographic applications. CD uniformity measurements in contact hole shrink approach, as well as the transfer of the BCP mask into typical industrial under-layer stacks leading to aggressive features, show that these materials exhibit promising potentials for advanced lithographic nodes.

  6. PLD1 regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements by mediating Frizzled7 endocytosis for Wnt/PCP signal activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoon; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Yeo, Inchul; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in the regulation of receptor-associated signaling, cell movement, cell adhesion and endocytosis. However, its physiological role in vertebrate development remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that PLD1 is required for the convergent extension (CE) movements during Xenopus gastrulation by activating Wnt/PCP signaling. Xenopus PLD1 protein is specifically enriched in the dorsal region of Xenopus gastrula embryo and loss or gain-of-function of PLD1 induce defects in gastrulation and CE movements. These defective phenotypes are due to impaired regulation of Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Biochemical and imaging analysis using Xenopus tissues reveal that PLD1 is required for Fz7 receptor endocytosis upon Wnt11 stimulation. Moreover, we show that Fz7 endocytosis depends on dynamin and regulation of GAP activity of dynamin by PLD1 via its PX domain is crucial for this process. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD1 acts as a new positive mediator of Wnt/PCP signaling by promoting Wnt11-induced Fz7 endocytosis for precise regulation of Xenopus CE movements.

  7. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Wnt signaling as well as β-catenin overexpression enhance HuR cytoplasmic export. • HuR overexpression promotes cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin from the perinuclear fraction. • Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity is repressesed by HuR. - Abstract: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells.

  8. GOLPH3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Yang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Ru; Liu, Suqing; Gan, Xupei; Xi, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhenbo; Feng, Youji; Sun, Yunyan

    2017-03-23

    Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3), a newly recognized oncogene, is associated with tumor growth, metastasis, and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, its biological role and underlying mechanism in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain poorly understood. Here, we found that GOLPH3 was overexpressed in EOC tissues and cell lines. This overexpression promoted the migration and invasion of EOC cells. Moreover, GOLPH3 upregulated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as N-cadherin and Snail, and the Wnt/β-catenin-related genes cyclin-D1 and c-Myc, which were restored via silencing of GOLPH3 expression. Furthermore, the inhibitor and activator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, XAV939 and LiCl, enhanced or decreased, respectively, the effect of GOLPH3 on EMT, which further confirmed that GOLPH3 promoted EMT progression via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In addition, we found that EDD, the human hyperplastic discs gene, was consistent with GOLPH3 expression and also promoted the EMT process and activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These findings demonstrate that EDD might be a downstream factor of GOLPH3. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the existence of a GOLPH3-Wnt/β-catenin-EMT axis in EOC and provide a new therapeutic target to treat EOC.

  9. Loss of Wnt5a disrupts second heart field cell deployment and may contribute to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Tanvi; Li, Ding; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Hutson, Mary R.; Kelly, Robert G.; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Outflow tract (OFT) malformation accounts for ∼30% of human congenital heart defects and manifests frequently in TBX1 haplo-insufficiency associated DiGeorge (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome. OFT myocardium originates from second heart field (SHF) progenitors in the pharyngeal and splanchnic mesoderm (SpM), but how these progenitors are deployed to the OFT is unclear. We find that SHF progenitors in the SpM gradually gain epithelial character and are deployed to the OFT as a cohesive sheet. Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt, is expressed specifically in the caudal SpM and may regulate oriented cell intercalation to incorporate SHF progenitors into an epithelial-like sheet, thereby generating the pushing force to deploy SHF cells rostrally into the OFT. Using enhancer trap and Cre transgenes, our lineage tracing experiments show that in Wnt5a null mice, SHF progenitors are trapped in the SpM and fail to be deployed to the OFT efficiently, resulting in a reduction in the inferior OFT myocardial wall and its derivative, subpulmonary myocardium. Concomitantly, the superior OFT and subaortic myocardium are expanded. Finally, in chick embryos, blocking the Wnt5a function in the caudal SpM perturbs polarized elongation of SHF progenitors, and compromises their deployment to the OFT. Collectively, our results highlight a critical role for Wnt5a in deploying SHF progenitors from the SpM to the OFT. Given that Wnt5a is a putative transcriptional target of Tbx1, and the similar reduction of subpulmonary myocardium in Tbx1 mutant mice, our results suggest that perturbing Wnt5a-mediated SHF deployment may be an important pathogenic mechanism contributing to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. PMID:25410658

  10. Loss of Wnt5a disrupts second heart field cell deployment and may contribute to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanvi; Li, Ding; Théveniau-Ruissy, Magali; Hutson, Mary R; Kelly, Robert G; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-03-15

    Outflow tract (OFT) malformation accounts for ∼30% of human congenital heart defects and manifests frequently in TBX1 haplo-insufficiency associated DiGeorge (22q11.2 deletion) syndrome. OFT myocardium originates from second heart field (SHF) progenitors in the pharyngeal and splanchnic mesoderm (SpM), but how these progenitors are deployed to the OFT is unclear. We find that SHF progenitors in the SpM gradually gain epithelial character and are deployed to the OFT as a cohesive sheet. Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt, is expressed specifically in the caudal SpM and may regulate oriented cell intercalation to incorporate SHF progenitors into an epithelial-like sheet, thereby generating the pushing force to deploy SHF cells rostrally into the OFT. Using enhancer trap and Cre transgenes, our lineage tracing experiments show that in Wnt5a null mice, SHF progenitors are trapped in the SpM and fail to be deployed to the OFT efficiently, resulting in a reduction in the inferior OFT myocardial wall and its derivative, subpulmonary myocardium. Concomitantly, the superior OFT and subaortic myocardium are expanded. Finally, in chick embryos, blocking the Wnt5a function in the caudal SpM perturbs polarized elongation of SHF progenitors, and compromises their deployment to the OFT. Collectively, our results highlight a critical role for Wnt5a in deploying SHF progenitors from the SpM to the OFT. Given that Wnt5a is a putative transcriptional target of Tbx1, and the similar reduction of subpulmonary myocardium in Tbx1 mutant mice, our results suggest that perturbing Wnt5a-mediated SHF deployment may be an important pathogenic mechanism contributing to OFT malformations in DiGeorge syndrome.

  11. Hox genes control vertebrate body elongation by collinear Wnt repression.

    PubMed

    Denans, Nicolas; Iimura, Tadahiro; Pourquié, Olivier

    2015-02-26

    In vertebrates, the total number of vertebrae is precisely defined. Vertebrae derive from embryonic somites that are continuously produced posteriorly from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) during body formation. We show that in the chicken embryo, activation of posterior Hox genes (paralogs 9-13) in the tail-bud correlates with the slowing down of axis elongation. Our data indicate that a subset of progressively more posterior Hox genes, which are collinearly activated in vertebral precursors, repress Wnt activity with increasing strength. This leads to a graded repression of the Brachyury/T transcription factor, reducing mesoderm ingression and slowing down the elongation process. Due to the continuation of somite formation, this mechanism leads to the progressive reduction of PSM size. This ultimately brings the retinoic acid (RA)-producing segmented region in close vicinity to the tail bud, potentially accounting for the termination of segmentation and axis elongation.

  12. Feedback Activation of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Zhu, Yuting; Sun, Congcong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Yingjie; Cai, Wanhui; Sun, Jia; Chi, Lisha; Wang, Haijun; Song, Na; Niu, Chao; Shen, Jiayi; Cong, Weitao; Zhu, Zhongxin; Xuan, Yuanhu; Li, Xiaokun; Jin, Litai

    2017-01-01

    Skin wound healing is a complex process requiring the coordinated behavior of many cell types, especially in the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a member of the FGF family that promotes fibroblast migration, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. The present RNA sequencing study showed that the expression levels of several canonical Wnt pathway genes, including Wnt2b, Wnt3, Wnt11, T-cell factor 7 (TCF7), and Frizzled 8 (FZD8) were modified by bFGF stimulation in fibroblasts. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis also showed that Wnt pathway was activated under bFGF treatment. Furthermore, treatment of fibroblasts with lithium chloride or IWR-1, an inducer and inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway, respectively, promoted and inhibited cell migration. Also, levels of cytosolic glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta phosphorylated at serine9 (pGSK3β Ser9) and nuclear β-catenin were increased upon exposure to bFGF. Molecular and biochemical assays indicated that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling activated the GSK3β/β-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway via activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), suggesting that PI3K and JNK act at the upstream of β-catenin. In contrast, knock-down of β-catenin delayed fibroblast cell migration even under bFGF stimulation. RNA sequencing analysis of β-catenin knock-down fibroblasts demonstrated that β-catenin positively regulated the transcription of bFGF and FGF21. Moreover, FGF21 treatment activated AKT and JNK, and accelerated fibroblast migration to a similar extent as bFGF does. In addition, ELISA analysis demonstrated that both of bFGF and FGF21 were auto secretion factor and be regulated by Wnt pathway stimulators. Taken together, our analyses define a feedback regulatory loop between bFGF (FGF21) and Wnt signaling acting through β-catenin in skin fibroblasts. PMID:28217097

  13. Feedback Activation of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhu, Yuting; Sun, Congcong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Yingjie; Cai, Wanhui; Sun, Jia; Chi, Lisha; Wang, Haijun; Song, Na; Niu, Chao; Shen, Jiayi; Cong, Weitao; Zhu, Zhongxin; Xuan, Yuanhu; Li, Xiaokun; Jin, Litai

    2017-01-01

    Skin wound healing is a complex process requiring the coordinated behavior of many cell types, especially in the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a member of the FGF family that promotes fibroblast migration, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. The present RNA sequencing study showed that the expression levels of several canonical Wnt pathway genes, including Wnt2b, Wnt3, Wnt11, T-cell factor 7 (TCF7), and Frizzled 8 (FZD8) were modified by bFGF stimulation in fibroblasts. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis also showed that Wnt pathway was activated under bFGF treatment. Furthermore, treatment of fibroblasts with lithium chloride or IWR-1, an inducer and inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway, respectively, promoted and inhibited cell migration. Also, levels of cytosolic glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta phosphorylated at serine(9) (pGSK3β Ser(9)) and nuclear β-catenin were increased upon exposure to bFGF. Molecular and biochemical assays indicated that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling activated the GSK3β/β-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway via activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), suggesting that PI3K and JNK act at the upstream of β-catenin. In contrast, knock-down of β-catenin delayed fibroblast cell migration even under bFGF stimulation. RNA sequencing analysis of β-catenin knock-down fibroblasts demonstrated that β-catenin positively regulated the transcription of bFGF and FGF21. Moreover, FGF21 treatment activated AKT and JNK, and accelerated fibroblast migration to a similar extent as bFGF does. In addition, ELISA analysis demonstrated that both of bFGF and FGF21 were auto secretion factor and be regulated by Wnt pathway stimulators. Taken together, our analyses define a feedback regulatory loop between bFGF (FGF21) and Wnt signaling acting through β-catenin in skin fibroblasts.

  14. Wnt Expression in the Adult Rat Subventricular Zone After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel C.; Zhang, Zheng Geng; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Rui Lan; Greg, Sara; Liu, Xian Shuang; Chopp, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In the adult brain, neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. During development, the Wnt pathways contribute to stem cell maintenance and promote neurogenesis. We hypothesized that the Wnt family genes are expressed in neural progenitor cells of the non-ischemic and ischemic SVZ of the adult rodent brain after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Methods: Non-ischemic and ischemic cultured SVZ cells and a single population of non-ischemic and ischemic SVZ cells isolated by laser capture microdisection (LCM) were analyzed for Wnt pathway expression using real-time RT-PCR and immunostaining. Results: The number of neurospheres increased significantly (p<0.05) in SVZ cells derived from ischemic (32 ±4.7/rat) compared with the number in non-ischemic SVZ cells (18 ± 3/rat). Wnt family gene mRNA levels were detected in SVZ cells isolated from both cultured and LCM SVZ cells, however there was no upregulation between non-ischemic and ischemic SVZ cells. Immunostaining on brain sections also demonstrated no upregulation of Wnt pathway protein between ischemic and non-ischemic SVZ cells. Conclusions: Expression of the Wnt family genes in SVZ cells suggests that the Wnt pathway may be involved in neurogenesis in the adult brain. However, ischemia does not upregulate Wnt family gene expression. PMID:17400378

  15. Non-canonical WNT signalling in the lung.

    PubMed

    Li, Changgong; Bellusci, Saverio; Borok, Zea; Minoo, Parviz

    2015-11-01

    The role of WNT signalling in metazoan organogenesis has been a topic of widespread interest. In the lung, while the role of canonical WNT signalling has been examined in some detail by multiple studies, the non-canonical WNT signalling has received limited attention. Reliable evidence shows that this important signalling mechanism constitutes a major regulatory pathway in lung development. In addition, accumulating evidence has also shown that the non-canonical WNT pathway is critical for maintaining lung homeostasis and that aberrant activation of this pathway may underlie several debilitating lung diseases. Functional analyses have further revealed that the non-canonical WNT pathway regulates multiple cellular activities in the lung that are dependent on the specific cellular context. In most cell types, non-canonical WNT signalling regulates canonical WNT activity, which is also critical for many aspects of lung biology. This review will summarize what is currently known about the role of non-canonical WNT signalling in lung development, homeostasis and pathogenesis of disease.

  16. Mutations in WNT1 Cause Different Forms of Bone Fragility

    PubMed Central

    Keupp, Katharina; Beleggia, Filippo; Kayserili, Hülya; Barnes, Aileen M.; Steiner, Magdalena; Semler, Oliver; Fischer, Björn; Yigit, Gökhan; Janda, Claudia Y.; Becker, Jutta; Breer, Stefan; Altunoglu, Umut; Grünhagen, Johannes; Krawitz, Peter; Hecht, Jochen; Schinke, Thorsten; Makareeva, Elena; Lausch, Ekkehart; Cankaya, Tufan; Caparrós-Martín, José A.; Lapunzina, Pablo; Temtamy, Samia; Aglan, Mona; Zabel, Bernhard; Eysel, Peer; Koerber, Friederike; Leikin, Sergey; Garcia, K. Christopher; Netzer, Christian; Schönau, Eckhard; Ruiz-Perez, Victor L.; Mundlos, Stefan; Amling, Michael; Kornak, Uwe; Marini, Joan; Wollnik, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    We report that hypofunctional alleles of WNT1 cause autosomal-recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, a congenital disorder characterized by reduced bone mass and recurrent fractures. In consanguineous families, we identified five homozygous mutations in WNT1: one frameshift mutation, two missense mutations, one splice-site mutation, and one nonsense mutation. In addition, in a family affected by dominantly inherited early-onset osteoporosis, a heterozygous WNT1 missense mutation was identified in affected individuals. Initial functional analysis revealed that altered WNT1 proteins fail to activate canonical LRP5-mediated WNT-regulated β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, osteoblasts cultured in vitro showed enhanced Wnt1 expression with advancing differentiation, indicating a role of WNT1 in osteoblast function and bone development. Our finding that homozygous and heterozygous variants in WNT1 predispose to low-bone-mass phenotypes might advance the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for congenital forms of bone fragility, as well as for common forms of age-related osteoporosis. PMID:23499309

  17. Non-canonical WNT signalling in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changgong; Bellusci, Saverio; Borok, Zea; Minoo, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    The role of WNT signalling in metazoan organogenesis has been a topic of widespread interest. In the lung, while the role of canonical WNT signalling has been examined in some detail by multiple studies, the non-canonical WNT signalling has received limited attention. Reliable evidence shows that this important signalling mechanism constitutes a major regulatory pathway in lung development. In addition, accumulating evidence has also shown that the non-canonical WNT pathway is critical for maintaining lung homeostasis and that aberrant activation of this pathway may underlie several debilitating lung diseases. Functional analyses have further revealed that the non-canonical WNT pathway regulates multiple cellular activities in the lung that are dependent on the specific cellular context. In most cell types, non-canonical WNT signalling regulates canonical WNT activity, which is also critical for many aspects of lung biology. This review will summarize what is currently known about the role of non-canonical WNT signalling in lung development, homeostasis and pathogenesis of disease. PMID:26261051

  18. Role of the Wnt Pathway in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sastre-Perona, Ana; Santisteban, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling is involved in the development of several epithelial tumors. Wnt signaling includes two major types of pathways: (i) the canonical or Wnt/β-catenin pathway; and (ii) the non-canonical pathways, which do not involve β-catenin stabilization. Among these pathways, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has received most attention during the past years for its critical role in cancer. A number of publications emphasize the role of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in thyroid cancer. This pathway plays a crucial role in development and epithelial renewal, and components such as β-catenin and Axin are often mutated in thyroid cancer. Although it is accepted that altered Wnt signaling is a late event in thyroid cell transformation that affects anaplastic thyroid tumors, recent data suggest that it is also altered in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with RET/PTC mutations. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the main relevant data of Wnt signaling in thyroid cancer, with special emphasis on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:22645520

  19. [3D structure of DKK1 indicates its involvement in both canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways].

    PubMed

    Khalili, S; Rasaee, M J; Bamdad, T

    2017-01-01

    Dikkoppf-1 (DKK1) is an antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. The importance of DKK1 as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent in a wide range of diseases along with its significance in a variety of biological processes accentuate the necessity to decipher its 3D structure that would pave the way towards the development of relevant selective inhibitors. A DKK1 structure model predicted by the Robetta server with structural refinements including a 10 ns molecular dynamics run was subjected to functional and docking analyses. We hypothesize that the N-terminal region of the DKK1 molecule could be functionally important for both canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways. Moreover, it seems that DKK1 could be involved in interactions with the Frizzled receptors, leading to the activation of the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway (activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) Pathway) and Wnt/Ca^(2+) pathway (activation of CamKII).

  20. Keeping Wnt Signalosome in Check by Vesicular Traffic

    PubMed Central

    FENG, QIANG; GAO, NAN

    2015-01-01

    Wg/Wnts are paracrine and autocrine ligands that activate distinct signaling pathways while being internalized through surface receptors. Converging and contrasting views are shaping our understanding of whether, where, and how endocytosis may modulate Wnt signaling. We gather considerable amount of evidences to elaborate the point that signal-receiving cells utilize distinct, flexible, and sophisticated vesicular trafficking mechanisms to keep Wnt signaling activity in check. Same molecules in a highly context-dependent fashion serve as regulatory hub for various signaling purposes: amplification, maintenance, inhibition, and termination. Updates are provided for the regulatory mechanisms related to the three critical cell surface complexes, Wnt-Fzd-LRP6, Dkk1-Kremen-LRP6, and R-spondin-LGR5-RNF43, which potently influence Wnt signaling. We pay particular attentions to how cells achieve sustained and delicate control of Wnt signaling strength by employing comprehensive aspects of vesicular trafficking. PMID:25336320

  1. Wntless in Wnt secretion: molecular, cellular and genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Stypulkowski, Ewa; Gao, Nan

    2012-12-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, Wnt-triggered signal transduction pathways play fundamental roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Wnt proteins are modified as glycolipoproteins and are secreted into the extracellular environment as morphogens. Recent studies on the intracellular trafficking of Wnt proteins demonstrate multiple layers of regulation along its secretory pathway. These findings have propelled a great deal of interest among researchers to further investigate the molecular mechanisms that control the release of Wnts and hence the level of Wnt signaling. This review is dedicated to Wntless, a putative G-protein coupled receptor that transports Wnts intracellularly for secretion. Here, we highlight the conclusions drawn from the most recent cellular, molecular and genetic studies that affirm the role of Wntless in the secretion of Wnt proteins.

  2. Regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Combs, Joseph A; Morris, Cindy A; Sullivan, Deborah E

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is instrumental in successful differentiation and proliferation of mammalian cells. It is therefore not surprising that the herpesvirus family has developed mechanisms to interact with and manipulate this pathway. Successful coexistence with the host requires that herpesviruses establish a lifelong infection that includes periods of latency and reactivation or persistence. Many herpesviruses establish latency in progenitor cells and viral reactivation is linked to host-cell proliferation and differentiation status. Importantly, Wnt/β-catenin is tightly connected to stem/progenitor cell maintenance and differentiation. Numerous studies have linked Wnt/β-catenin signaling to a variety of cancers, emphasizing the importance of Wnt/β-catenin pathways in development, tissue homeostasis and disease. This review details how the alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses interact and manipulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway to promote a virus-centric agenda. PMID:27878101

  3. Wnt pathway regulation of embryonic stem cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Bradley J

    2012-09-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can generate all of the cell types found in the adult organism. Remarkably, they retain this ability even after many cell divisions in vitro, as long as the culture conditions prevent differentiation of the cells. Wnt signaling and β-catenin have been shown to cause strong effects on ESCs both in terms of stimulating the expansion of stem cells and stimulating differentiation toward lineage committed cell types. The varied effects of Wnt signaling in ESCs, alongside the sometimes unconventional mechanisms underlying the effects, have generated a fair amount of controversy and intrigue regarding the role of Wnt signaling in pluripotent stem cells. Insights into the mechanisms of Wnt function in stem cells can be gained by examination of the causes for seemingly opposing effects of Wnt signaling on self-renewal versus differentiation.

  4. Follistatin Operates Downstream of Wnt4 in Mammalian Ovary Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Humphrey H.C.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Menke, Douglas B.; Page, David C.; Swain, Amanda; Capel, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    Wnt4−/− XX gonads display features normally associated with testis differentiation, suggesting that WNT4 actively represses elements of the male pathway during ovarian development. Here, we show that follistatin (Fst), which encodes a TGFβ superfamily binding protein, is a downstream component of Wnt4 signaling. Fst inhibits formation of the XY-specific coelomic vessel in XX gonads. In addition, germ cells in the ovarian cortex are almost completely lost in both Wnt4 and Fst null gonads before birth. Thus, we propose that WNT4 acts through FST to regulate vascular boundaries and maintain germ cell survival in the ovary. Developmental Dynamics 230:210–215, 2004. PMID:15162500

  5. The sclerostin-neutralizing antibody AbD09097 recognizes an epitope adjacent to sclerostin's binding site for the Wnt co-receptor LRP6

    PubMed Central

    Boschert, V.; Frisch, C.; Back, J. W.; van Pee, K.; Weidauer, S. E.; Muth, E.-M.; Schmieder, P.; Beerbaum, M.; Knappik, A.; Timmerman, P.

    2016-01-01

    The glycoprotein sclerostin has been identified as a negative regulator of bone growth. It exerts its function by interacting with the Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6, blocks the binding of Wnt factors and thereby inhibits Wnt signalling. Neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies are able to restore Wnt activity and enhance bone growth thereby presenting a new osteoanabolic therapy approach for diseases such as osteoporosis. We have generated various Fab antibodies against human and murine sclerostin using a phage display set-up. Biochemical analyses have identified one Fab developed against murine sclerostin, AbD09097 that efficiently neutralizes sclerostin's Wnt inhibitory activity. In vitro interaction analysis using sclerostin variants revealed that this neutralizing Fab binds to sclerostin's flexible second loop, which has been shown to harbour the LRP5/6 binding motif. Affinity maturation was then applied to AbD09097, providing a set of improved neutralizing Fab antibodies which particularly bind human sclerostin with enhanced affinity. Determining the crystal structure of AbD09097 provides first insights into how this antibody might recognize and neutralize sclerostin. Together with the structure–function relationship derived from affinity maturation these new data will foster the rational design of new and highly efficient anti-sclerostin antibodies for the therapy of bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27558933

  6. Prednisolone induces the Wnt signalling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Wilco W M; Linssen, Margot M L; Toonen, Erik J M; van der Zon, Gerard C M; Guigas, Bruno; de Vlieg, Jacob; Dokter, Wim H A; Ouwens, D Margriet; Alkema, Wynand

    2013-05-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs but show dose-dependent metabolic side effects such as the development of insulin resistance and obesity. The precise mechanisms involved in these glucocorticoid-induced side effects, and especially the participation of adipose tissue in this are not completely understood. We used a combination of transcriptomics, antibody arrays and bioinformatics approaches to characterize prednisolone-induced alterations in gene expression and adipokine secretion, which could underlie metabolic dysfunction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Several pathways, including cytokine signalling, Akt signalling, and Wnt signalling were found to be regulated at multiple levels, showing that these processes are targeted by prednisolone. These results suggest that mechanisms by which prednisolone induce insulin resistance include dysregulation of wnt signalling and immune response processes. These pathways may provide interesting targets for the development of improved glucocorticoids.

  7. Prednisolone induces the Wnt signalling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fleuren, Wilco W. M.; Linssen, Margot M. L.; Toonen, Erik J. M.; van der Zon, Gerard C. M.; Guigas, Bruno; de Vlieg, Jacob; Dokter, Wim H. A.; Ouwens, D. Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs but show dose-dependent metabolic side effects such as the development of insulin resistance and obesity. The precise mechanisms involved in these glucocorticoid-induced side effects, and especially the participation of adipose tissue in this are not completely understood. We used a combination of transcriptomics, antibody arrays and bioinformatics approaches to characterize prednisolone-induced alterations in gene expression and adipokine secretion, which could underlie metabolic dysfunction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Several pathways, including cytokine signalling, Akt signalling, and Wnt signalling were found to be regulated at multiple levels, showing that these processes are targeted by prednisolone. These results suggest that mechanisms by which prednisolone induce insulin resistance include dysregulation of wnt signalling and immune response processes. These pathways may provide interesting targets for the development of improved glucocorticoids. PMID:23506355

  8. IGF-1R inhibition in mammary epithelia promotes canonical Wnt signaling and Wnt1-driven tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Lauren M.; Albanito, Lidia; Shin, Marcus E.; Goyeneche, Corey L.; Shushanov, Sain; Gallagher, Emily J.; LeRoith, Derek; Lazzarino, Deborah A.; Wood, Teresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are an aggressive disease subtype which unlike other subtypes lack an effective targeted therapy. Inhibitors of the insullin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have been considered for use in treating TNBC. Here we provide genetic evidence that IGF-1R inhibition promotes development of Wnt1-mediated murine mammary tumors that offer a model of TNBC. We found that in a double transgenic mouse model carrying activated Wnt-1 and mutant IGF-1R, a reduction in IGF-1R signaling reduced tumor latency and promoted more aggressive phenotypes. These tumors displayed a squamal cell phenotype with increased expression of keratins 5/6 and β-catenin. Notably, cell lineage analyses revealed an increase in basal (CD29hi/CD24+) and luminal (CD24+/CD61+/CD29lo) progenitor cell populations, along with increased Nanog expression and decreased Elf5 expression. In these doubly transgenic mice, lung metastases developed with characteristics of the primary tumors, unlike MMTV-Wnt1 mice. Mechanistic investigations showed that pharmacological inhibition of the IGF-1R in vitro was sufficient to increase the tumorsphere-forming efficiency of MMTV-Wnt1 tumor cells. Tumors from doubly transgenic mice also exhibited an increase in the expression ratio of the IGF-II-sensitive, A isoform of the insulin receptor vs the IR-B isoform, which in vitro resulted in enhanced expression of β-catenin. Overall, our results revealed that in Wnt-driven tumors an attenuation of IGF-1R signaling accelerates tumorigenesis and promotes more aggressive phenotypes, with potential implications for understanding TNBC pathobiology and treatment. PMID:25092896

  9. Regulation of Wnt4 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Andrew L.; McLaren, Alistair; Hayes, Brian P.; Caramori, Gaetano; Clayton, Chris L.; Barnes, Peter J.; Chung, K. Fan; Adcock, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with persistent inflammation and oxidative stress in susceptible individuals. Using microarray analysis of bronchial biopsy samples from patients with COPD and controls, we identified Wnt4 as being up-regulated in COPD. Analysis of bronchial biopsy samples showed a very strong correlation between Wnt4 and IL8 gene expression, suggesting that Wnt4 plays a role in chronic lung inflammation. In vitro, Wnt4 induced proliferation and inflammation in human epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was enhanced in the presence of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as a result of activation of the p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Hydrogen peroxide, but not proinflammatory stimuli, up-regulated Wnt4 expression in epithelial cells. In monocytic THP-1 and primary airway smooth muscle cells, Wnt4 induced inflammation and enhanced the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide and IL-1β but did not induce proliferation. In addition, these other cell types did not have enhanced Wnt4 expression in response to hydrogen peroxide. Our results indicate that airway epithelial activation, due to oxidative stress, may lead to Wnt4 induction. Wnt4, in turn, acts through the noncanonical pathway to activate epithelial cell remodeling and IL8 gene expression, leading to neutrophil infiltration and inflammation.—Durham, A. L., McLaren, A., Hayes, B. P., Caramori, G., Clayton, C. L., Barnes, P. J., Chung, K. F., Adcock, I. M. Regulation of Wnt4 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23463699

  10. Wnt3a regulates proliferation and migration of HUVEC via canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Samarzija, Ivana; Sini, Patrizia; Schlange, Thomas; MacDonald, Gwen; Hynes, Nancy E.

    2009-08-28

    Untangling the signaling pathways involved in endothelial cell biology is of central interest for the development of antiangiogenesis based therapies. Here we report that Wnt3a induces the proliferation and migration of HUVECs, but does not affect their survival. Wnt3a-induced proliferation was VEGFR signaling independent, but reduced upon CamKII inhibition. In a search for the downstream mediators of Wnt3a's effects on HUVEC biology, we found that Wnt3a treatment leads to phosphorylation of DVL3 and stabilization of {beta}-catenin. Moreover, under the same conditions we observed an upregulation in c-MYC, TIE-2 and GJA1 mRNA transcripts. Although treatment of HUVECs with Wnt5a induced DVL3 phosphorylation, we did not observe any of the other effects seen upon Wnt3a stimulation. Taken together, our data indicate that Wnt3a induces canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling in HUVECs, and stimulates their proliferation and migration.

  11. Jade-1 inhibits Wnt signalling by ubiquitylating beta-catenin and mediates Wnt pathway inhibition by pVHL.

    PubMed

    Chitalia, Vipul C; Foy, Rebecca L; Bachschmid, Markus M; Zeng, Liling; Panchenko, Maria V; Zhou, Mina I; Bharti, Ajit; Seldin, David C; Lecker, Stewart H; Dominguez, Isabel; Cohen, Herbert T

    2008-10-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau protein pVHL suppresses renal tumorigenesis in part by promoting the degradation of hypoxia-inducible HIF-alpha transcription factors; additional mechanisms have been proposed. pVHL also stabilizes the plant homeodomain protein Jade-1, which is a candidate renal tumour suppressor that may correlate with renal cancer risk. Here we show that Jade-1 binds the oncoprotein beta-catenin in Wnt-responsive fashion. Moreover, Jade-1 destabilizes wild-type beta-catenin but not a cancer-causing form of beta-catenin. Whereas the well-established beta-catenin E3 ubiquitin ligase component beta-TrCP ubiquitylates only phosphorylated beta-catenin, Jade-1 ubiquitylates both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated beta-catenin and therefore regulates canonical Wnt signalling in both Wnt-off and Wnt-on phases. Thus, the different characteristics of beta-TrCP and Jade-1 may ensure optimal Wnt pathway regulation. Furthermore, pVHL downregulates beta-catenin in a Jade-1-dependent manner and inhibits Wnt signalling, supporting a role for Jade-1 and Wnt signalling in renal tumorigenesis. The pVHL tumour suppressor and the Wnt tumorigenesis pathway are therefore directly linked through Jade-1.

  12. Wnt3a Promotes the Vasculogenic Mimicry Formation of Colon Cancer via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lisha; Song, Wangzhao; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiulan; Cao, Wenfeng; Sun, Baocun

    2015-08-10

    Our previous study provided evidence that non-canonical Wnt signaling is involved in regulating vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation. However, the functions of canonical Wnt signaling in VM formation have not yet been explored. In this study, we found the presence of VM was related to colon cancer histological differentiation (p < 0.001), the clinical stage (p < 0.001), and presence of metastasis and recurrence (p < 0.001). VM-positive colon cancer samples showed increased Wnt3a expression (p < 0.001) and β-catenin nuclear expression (p < 0.001) compared with the VM-negative samples. In vitro, over-regulated Wnt3a expression in HT29 colon cancer cells promoted the capacity to form tube-like structures in the three-dimensional (3-D) culture together with increased expression of endothelial phenotype-associated proteins such as VEGFR2 and VE-cadherin. The mouse xenograft model showed that Wnt3a-overexpressing cells grew into larger tumor masses and formed more VM than the control cells. In addition, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonist Dickkopf-1(Dkk1) can reverse the capacity to form tube-like structures and can decrease the expressions of VEGFR2 and VE-cadherin in Wnt3a-overexpressing cells. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in VM formation in colon cancer and might contribute to the development of more accurate treatment modalities aimed at VM.

  13. Interplay between Wnt2 and Wnt2bb controls multiple steps of early foregut-derived organ development

    PubMed Central

    Poulain, Morgane; Ober, Elke A.

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrate liver, pancreas and lung arise in close proximity from the multipotent foregut endoderm. Tissue-explant experiments uncovered instructive signals emanating from the neighbouring lateral plate mesoderm, directing the endoderm towards specific organ fates. This suggested that an intricate network of signals is required to control the specification and differentiation of each organ. Here, we show that sequential functions of Wnt2bb and Wnt2 control liver specification and proliferation in zebrafish. Their combined specific activities are essential for liver specification, as their loss of function causes liver agenesis. Conversely, excess wnt2bb or wnt2 induces ectopic liver tissue at the expense of pancreatic and anterior intestinal tissues, revealing the competence of intestinal endoderm to respond to hepatogenic signals. Epistasis experiments revealed that the receptor frizzled homolog 5 (fzd5) mediates part of the broader hepatic competence of the alimentary canal. fzd5 is required for early liver formation and interacts genetically with wnt2 as well as wnt2bb. In addition, lack of both ligands causes agenesis of the swim bladder, the structural homolog of the mammalian lung. Thus, tightly regulated spatiotemporal expression of wnt2bb, wnt2 and fzd5 is central to coordinating early liver, pancreas and swim bladder development from a multipotent foregut endoderm. PMID:21771809

  14. Wnt antagonist gene polymorphisms and renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Hinoda, Yuji; Nakajima, Koichi; Kikuno, Nobuyuki; Yamamura, Soichiro; Kawakami, Kazumori; Suehiro, Yutaka; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Epigenetic silencing of several Wnt pathway related genes has been reported in renal cancer. Except for the TCF4 gene, there are no reports regarding Wnt pathway gene polymorphisms in renal cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized that the polymorphisms in Wnt signaling genes may be risk factors for renal cancer. Experimental Design A total of 210 patients (145 male and 65 female) with pathologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and 200 age- and sex-matched control individuals were enrolled in this study. We genotyped 14 SNPs in six genes including DKK2 (rs17037102, rs419558, rs447372), DKK3 (rs3206824, rs11022095, rs1472189, rs7396187, rs2291599), DKK4 (rs2073664), sFRP4 (rs1802073, rs1802074), SMAD7 (rs12953717), DAAM2 (rs6937133, rs2504106) using PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing in RCC and age-matched healthy subjects. We also tested the relationship between these polymorphisms and clinicopathologic data including gender, grade, tumor stage, lymph-node involvement, distant metastasis, and overall survival. Results A significant decrease in the frequency of the G/A+A/A genotypes in the DKK3 codon335 rs3206824 was observed in RCC patients compared with controls. The frequency of the rs3206824 (G/A) A- rs7396187 (G/C) C haplotype was significantly lower in RCC compared with other haplotypes. We also found that DKK3 rs1472189 C/T is associated with distant metastasis and furthermore, DKK2 rs17037102 G homozygous patients had a decreased risk for death by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Conclusions This is the first report documenting that DKK3 polymorphisms are associated with RCC and that the DKK2 rs17037102 polymorphism may be a predictor for survival in RCC patients after radical nephrectomy. PMID:19562778

  15. Knockdown of IQGAP1 inhibits proliferation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition by Wnt/β-catenin pathway in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dongyue; Liu, Yang; Song, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignant disease with a high incidence rate. The expression of IQGAP1 is upregulated in various cancers, including thyroid cancer. However, the role and underlying mechanism of IQGAP1 in thyroid cancer are still not clear. Materials and methods The expression of IQGAP1 in thyroid cancer tissues and cells was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Cells were transfected with different siRNAs using Lipofectamine 2000 or were treated with various concentrations of XAV939. The effects of IQGAP1 knockdown on proliferation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of thyroid cancer cells were determined by MTT assay and Western blot analysis. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects of IQGAP1 knockdown on the growth of tumors in vivo. Results High IQGAP1 expression is found in thyroid cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of IQGAP1 had inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and EMT, as well as on the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Additionally, inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by XAV939 or si-β-catenin suppressed cell proliferation and EMT. Furthermore, suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway reversed the positive effects of pcDNA-IQGAP1 on cell proliferation and EMT in vitro. Moreover, downregulation of IQGAP1 suppressed tumor growth and EMT in SW579 tumor xenografts through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vivo. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that knockdown of IQGAP1 inhibited cell proliferation and EMT through blocking the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in thyroid cancer. PMID:28352188

  16. Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Cernohous, Bob R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-11-11

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a PAMI of a parallel computer is disclosed. The PAMI is composed of data communications endpoints, each including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications through the PAMI. The parallel application establishes a data communications geometry specifying a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI by associating with the geometry a list of collective algorithms valid for use with the endpoints of the geometry; registering in each endpoint in the geometry a dispatch callback function for a collective operation; and executing without blocking, through a single one of the endpoints in the geometry, an instruction for the collective operation.

  17. Endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Cernohous, Bob R; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-11-18

    Methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for endpoint-based parallel data processing with non-blocking collective instructions in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer are provided. Embodiments include establishing by a parallel application a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI, including associating with the geometry a list of collective algorithms valid for use with the endpoints of the geometry. Embodiments also include registering in each endpoint in the geometry a dispatch callback function for a collective operation and executing without blocking, through a single one of the endpoints in the geometry, an instruction for the collective operation.

  18. Wnt Signaling in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    resume in Ace-1- Dkk1 cells. However, SP600125 significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes that induce osteoblast differentiation as well as...decreased osteolytic genes (decreased RANKL:OPG ratio) in both Ace-1- Dkk1 and Ace-1-Vector cells. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Bone...pathway in Ace-1-VectorAP-1 and Ace-1-Dkk-1AP-1 cell lines with the anti- Dkk1 -antibody. Aim 2. Determine the role of the canonical Wnt pathway on the

  19. The effect of different component ratios in block polymers and processing conditions on electrodeposition efficiency onto titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Yusuke; Kyuzo, Megumi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Nagai, Akiko; Chen, Peng; Hanawa, Takao

    2015-11-01

    2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers for electrodeposition to titanium surfaces were synthesized. The polymers were block-type copolymers composed of a poly(MPC) segment and a poly(2-aminoethylmethacrylate (AEMA)) segment, which could electronically adsorb to a titanium oxide film on the titanium surface. The polymer was synthesized as expected by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. In a 0.26 mmol L-1 PMbA solution adjusted to pH 11, -3.0 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode) was applied to a titanium substrate for 300 s. We evaluated the effects of the molecular structure of poly(MPC-block-AEMA) (PMbA) with a different polymerization degree of MPC unit, whereas the polymerization degree of the AEMA units was fixed. The 15-min electrodeposition of PMbA100 was the most efficient condition in this study. On the other hand, the results of the water contact angle and the amount of adsorbed protein did not change, even when altering the MPC unit number and electrodeposition time. This indicates that the immobilization by electrodeposition of PMbA is important for the inhibition of protein adsorption, while the polymerization degree of the MPC unit and the electrodeposition time do not influence them. This study will enhance the understanding of effective polymer structures for electrodeposition and electrodeposition conditions.

  20. Neuromuscular block

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  1. Neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors.

  2. Identification of Wnt Pathway Target Genes Regulating the Division and Differentiation of Larval Seam Cells and Vulval Precursor Cells in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gorrepati, Lakshmi; Krause, Michael W.; Chen, Weiping; Brodigan, Thomas M.; Correa-Mendez, Margarita; Eisenmann, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, regulating numerous processes including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Wnt ligand binding leads to stabilization of the transcriptional effector β-catenin and upregulation of target gene expression to mediate a cellular response. During larval development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, Wnt/β-catenin pathways act in fate specification of two hypodermal cell types, the ventral vulval precursor cells (VPCs) and the lateral seam cells. Because little is known about targets of the Wnt signaling pathways acting during larval VPC and seam cell differentiation, we sought to identify genes regulated by Wnt signaling in these two hypodermal cell types. We conditionally activated Wnt signaling in larval animals and performed cell type–specific "mRNA tagging" to enrich for VPC and seam cell–specific mRNAs, and then used microarray analysis to examine gene expression compared to control animals. Two hundred thirty-nine genes activated in response to Wnt signaling were identified, and we characterized 50 genes further. The majority of these genes are expressed in seam and/or vulval lineages during normal development, and reduction of function for nine genes caused defects in the proper division, fate specification, fate execution, or differentiation of seam cells and vulval cells. Therefore, the combination of these techniques was successful at identifying potential cell type–specific Wnt pathway target genes from a small number of cells and at increasing our knowledge of the specification and behavior of these C. elegans larval hypodermal cells. PMID:26048561

  3. EPO relies upon novel signaling of Wnt1 that requires Akt1, FoxO3a, GSK-3β, and β-catenin to foster vascular integrity during experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen; Wang, Shaohui; Maiese, Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    Multiple complications can ensue in the cardiovascular, renal, and nervous systems during diabetes mellitus (DM). Given that endothelial cells (ECs) are susceptible targets to elevated serum D-glucose, identification of novel cellular mechanisms that can protect ECs may foster the development of unique strategies for the prevention and treatment of DM complications. Erythropoietin (EPO) represents one of these novel strategies but the dependence of EPO upon Wnt1 and its downstream signaling in a clinically relevant model of DM with elevated D-glucose has not been elucidated. Here we show that EPO can not only maintain the integrity of EC membranes, but also prevent apoptotic nuclear DNA degradation and the externalization of membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) residues during elevated D-glucose over a 48-hour period. EPO modulates the expression of Wnt1 and utilizes Wnt1 to confer EC protection during elevated D-glucose exposure, since application of a Wnt1 neutralizing antibody, treatment with the Wnt1 antagonist DKK-1, or gene silencing of Wnt1 with Wnt1 siRNA transfection abrogates the protective capability of EPO. EPO through a novel Wnt1 dependent mechanism controls the post-translational phosphorylation of the "pro-apoptotic" forkhead member FoxO3a and blocks the trafficking of FoxO3a to the cell nucleus to prevent apoptotic demise. EPO also employs the activation of protein kinase B (Akt1) to foster phosphorylation of GSK-3β that appears required for EPO vascular protection. Through this inhibition of GSK-3β, EPO maintains β-catenin activity, allows the translocation of β-catenin from the EC cytoplasm to the nucleus through a Wnt1 pathway, and requires β-catenin for protection against elevated D-glucose since gene silencing of β-catenin eliminates the ability of EPO as well as Wnt1 to increase EC survival. Subsequently, we show that EPO requires modulation of both Wnt1 and FoxO3a to oversee mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and

  4. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Sekiya, Manami; Hirata, Michiko; Ye, Mingjuan; Yamagishi, Azumi; Lee, Sang-Mi; Kang, Man-Jong; Hosoda, Akemi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Kim, Dong-Ho; Saeki, Shigeru

    2010-02-19

    Wnt signaling pathways play fundamental roles in the differentiation, proliferation and functions of many cells as well as developmental, growth, and homeostatic processes in animals. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) 5 and LRP6 serve as coreceptors of Wnt proteins together with Frizzled receptors, triggering activation of canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Here, we found that LRP10, a new member of the LDLR gene family, inhibits the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. The {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells was activated by transfection with Wnt3a or LRP6, which was then inhibited by co-transfection with LRP10. Deletion of the extracellular domain of LRP10 negated its inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of LRP10 was consistently conserved in HEK293 cells even when GSK3{beta} phosphorylation was inhibited by incubation with lithium chloride and co-transfection with constitutively active S33Y-mutated {beta}-catenin. Nuclear {beta}-catenin accumulation was unaffected by LRP10. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may interfere with the formation of the {beta}-catenin/TCF complex and/or its binding to target DNA in the nucleus, and that the extracellular domain of LRP10 is critical for inhibition of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  5. Homeobox, Wnt, and Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling is Augmented During Alveogenesis in Mice Lacking Superoxide Dismutase 3, Extracellular.

    PubMed

    Thimraj, Tania A; Birru, Rahel L; Mitra, Ankita; Schulz, Holger; Leikauf, George D; Ganguly, Koustav

    2017-04-01

    Superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular (SOD3) polymorphisms have been implicated in reduced pulmonary function development and altered risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We previously reported that gene-targeted Sod3-/- mice have impaired lung function and human SOD3 variants are associated with reduced pulmonary function in children. Reduced lung SOD3 levels were reported in mice with lower lung function with the greatest difference occurring during alveogenesis phase [postnatal (P) days 14-28]. Interactions between homeobox (HOX), wingless-type MMTV integration site member (WNT), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling govern complex developmental processes in several organs. A subset of HOX family members, HOXA5 and HOXB5, is expressed in the developing lung. Therefore, in this study we assessed the transcript expression of these family members and their downstream targets in Sod3-/- mice during alveogenesis (P14). In the lung of Sod3-/- mice, Hoxa5 and Hoxb5 increased. These transcription factors regulate WNT gene expression and were accompanied by increases in their downstream targets Wnt2 and Wnt5A, canonical and noncanonical WNT members, respectively. The WNT signaling target, lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (Lef1), also increased along with its downstream targets Fgf2, Fgf7, and Fgf10 in the lungs of Sod3-/- mice. Due to limited knowledge on the role of FGF2 in lung development, we further examined FGF2 protein and found increased levels in the bronchial and alveolar type II epithelial cells of Sod3-/- mice compared to age-matched controls. Thus, our findings suggest that deficient management of extracellular superoxide can lead to altered lung developmental signaling during alveogenesis in mice.

  6. Effects of Block Length and Membrane Processing Conditions on the Morphology and Properties of Perfluorosulfonated Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Multiblock Copolymer Membranes for PEMFC.

    PubMed

    Assumma, Luca; Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Iojoiu, Cristina; Lyonnard, Sandrine; Mercier, Régis; Espuche, Eliane

    2015-07-01

    Perfluorosulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) multiblock copolymers have been shown to be promising as proton exchange membranes. The commonly used approach for preparation of the membrane is solvent casting; the properties of the resulting membranes are very dependent on the membrane processing conditions. In this paper, we study the effects of block length, selectivity of the solvent, and thermal treatment on the membrane properties such as morphology, water uptake, and ionic conductivity. DiMethylSulfOxide (DMSO), and DiMethylAcetamide (DMAc) were selected as casting solvents based on the Flory-Huggins parameter calculated by inversion gas chromatography (IGC). It was found that the solvent selectivity has a mild impact on the mean size of the ionic domains and the expansion upon swelling, while it dramatically affects the supramolecular ordering of the blocks. The membranes cast from DMSO exhibit more interconnected ionic clusters yielding higher conductivities and water uptake as compared to membranes cast from DMAc. A 10-fold increase in proton conductivity was achieved after thermal annealing of membranes at 150 °C, and the ionomers with longer block lengths show conductivities similar to Nafion at 80 °C and low relative humidity (30%).

  7. Canonical Wnt Signaling Regulates Atrioventricular Junction Programming and Electrophysiological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gillers, Benjamin S; Chiplunkar, Aditi; Aly, Haytham; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Efimov, Igor R; Boukens, Bastiaan J; Rentschler, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Proper patterning of the atrioventricular canal (AVC) is essential for delay of electrical impulses between atria and ventricles, and defects in AVC maturation can result in congenital heart disease. Objective To determine the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium during AVC development. Methods and Results We utilized a novel allele of β-catenin that preserves β-catenin’s cell adhesive functions but disrupts canonical Wnt signaling, allowing us to probe the effects of Wnt loss of function independently. We show that loss of canonical Wnt signaling in the myocardium results in tricuspid atresia with hypoplastic right ventricle associated with loss of AVC myocardium. In contrast, ectopic activation of Wnt signaling was sufficient to induce formation of ectopic AV junction-like tissue as assessed by morphology, gene expression, and electrophysiologic criteria. Aberrant AVC development can lead to ventricular preexcitation, a characteristic feature of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We demonstrate that postnatal activation of Notch signaling downregulates canonical Wnt targets within the AV junction. Stabilization of β-catenin protein levels can rescue Notch-mediated ventricular preexcitation and dysregulated ion channel gene expression. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that myocardial canonical Wnt signaling is an important regulator of AVC maturation and electrical programming upstream of Tbx3. Our data further suggests that ventricular preexcitation may require both morphologic patterning defects, as well as myocardial lineage reprogramming, to allow robust conduction across accessory pathway tissue. PMID:25599332

  8. Wnt signaling regulates pulp volume and dentin thickness

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Won Hee; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Du; Hunter, Daniel J; Zhong, Zhendong; Ramos, Daniel M; Williams, Bart O; Sharpe, Paul T; Bardet, Claire; Mah, Su-jung; Helms, Jill A

    2015-01-01

    Odontoblasts, cementoblasts, ameloblasts and osteoblasts all form mineralized tissues in the craniofacial complex, and all these cell types exhibit active Wnt signaling during postnatal life. We set out to understand the functions of this Wnt signaling, by evaluating the phenotypes of mice in which the essential Wnt chaperone protein, Wingless was eliminated. The deletion of Wls was restricted to cells expressing Osteocalcin, which in addition to osteoblasts includes odontoblasts, cementoblasts, and ameloblasts. Dentin, cementum, enamel, and bone all formed in OCN-Cre;Wlsfl/fl mice but their homeostasis was dramatically affected. The most notable feature was a significant increase in dentin volume and density. We attribute this gain in dentin volume to a Wnt-mediated mis-regulation of Runx2. Normally, Wnt signaling stimulates Runx2, which in turn inhibits DSP; this inhibition must be relieved for odontoblasts to differentiate. In OCN-Cre;Wlsfl/fl mice, Wnt pathway activation is reduced and Runx2 levels decline. The Runx2-mediated repression of DSP is relieved and odontoblast differentiation is accordingly enhanced. This study demonstrates the importance of Wnt signaling in the homeostasis of mineralized tissues of the craniofacial complex. PMID:23996396

  9. The complex roles of Wnt antagonists in RCC.

    PubMed

    Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2011-10-25

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of all the genitourinary cancers, as it is generally refractory to current treatment regimens, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Targeted therapies against critical signaling pathways associated with RCC pathogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor and mammalian target of rapamycin, have shown limited efficacy so far. Thus, Wnt signaling, which is known to be intricately involved in the pathogenesis of RCC, has attracted much interest. Several Wnt signaling components have been examined in RCC, and, while studies suggest that Wnt signaling is constitutively active in RCC, the molecular mechanisms differ considerably from other human carcinomas. Increasing evidence indicates that secreted Wnt antagonists have important roles in RCC pathogenesis. Considering these vital roles, it has been postulated--and supported by experimental evidence--that the functional loss of Wnt antagonists, for example by promoter hypermethylation, can contribute to constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway, resulting in carcinogenesis through dysregulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. However, subsequent functional studies of these Wnt antagonists have demonstrated the inherent complexities underlying their role in RCC pathogenesis.

  10. SOX9 drives WNT pathway activation in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fen; Ye, Huihui; He, Housheng Hansen; Gerrin, Sean J.; Chen, Sen; Tanenbaum, Benjamin A.; Sowalsky, Adam G.; He, Lingfeng; Wang, Hongyun; Balk, Steven P.; Yuan, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX9 is critical for prostate development, and dysregulation of SOX9 is implicated in prostate cancer (PCa). However, the SOX9-dependent genes and pathways involved in both normal and neoplastic prostate epithelium are largely unknown. Here, we performed SOX9 ChIP sequencing analysis and transcriptome profiling of PCa cells and determined that SOX9 positively regulates multiple WNT pathway genes, including those encoding WNT receptors (frizzled [FZD] and lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP] family members) and the downstream β-catenin effector TCF4. Analyses of PCa xenografts and clinical samples both revealed an association between the expression of SOX9 and WNT pathway components in PCa. Finally, treatment of SOX9-expressing PCa cells with a WNT synthesis inhibitor (LGK974) reduced WNT pathway signaling in vitro and tumor growth in murine xenograft models. Together, our data indicate that SOX9 expression drives PCa by reactivating the WNT/β−catenin signaling that mediates ductal morphogenesis in fetal prostate and define a subgroup of patients who would benefit from WNT-targeted therapy. PMID:27043282

  11. RhoA Controls Wnt Upregulation on Microstructured Titanium Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mazzotta, Silvia; Piergianni, Maddalena; Piemontese, Marilina; Passeri, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Rough topography enhances the activation of Wnt canonical signaling in vitro, and this mediates its effects on cell differentiation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying topography-dependent control of Wnt signaling are still poorly understood. As the small GTPase RhoA controls cytoskeletal reorganization and actomyosin-induced tensional forces, we hypothesized that RhoA could affect the activation of Wnt signaling in cells on micropatterned titanium surfaces. G-LISA assay revealed that RhoA activation was higher in C2C12 cells on rough (SLA) surfaces under basal conditions than on smooth (Polished) titanium. Transfection with dominant negative RhoA decreased Wnt activation by normalized TCF-Luc activity on SLA, whilst transfection with constitutively active RhoA increased TCF-Luc activation on Polished titanium. One mM Myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin increased RhoA activation but decreased Wnt activation on SLA surfaces, indicating that tension-generating structures are required for canonical Wnt modulation on titanium surfaces. Actin inhibitor Cytochalasin markedly enhanced RhoA and TCF-Luc activation on both surfaces and increased the expression of differentiation markers in murine osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. Taken together, these data show that RhoA is upregulated in cells on rough surfaces and it affects the activation of Wnt canonical signaling through Myosin II modulation. PMID:24949442

  12. Targets of Wnt/ß-Catenin Transcription in Penile Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Henrique, Rui; Millar, Michael; Hamblin, Ruth; Davda, Reena; Aare, Kristina; Masters, John R.; Thomson, Calum; Muneer, Asif; Patel, Hitendra R. H.; Ahmed, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma (PeCa) is a rare malignancy and little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis of PeCa. The Wnt signaling pathway, with the transcription activator ß-catenin as a major transducer, is a key cellular pathway during development and in disease, particularly cancer. We have used PeCa tissue arrays and multi-fluorophore labelled, quantitative, immunohistochemistry to interrogate the expression of WNT4, a Wnt ligand, and three targets of Wnt-ß-catenin transcription activation, namely, MMP7, cyclinD1 (CD1) and c-MYC in 141 penile tissue cores from 101 unique samples. The expression of all Wnt signaling proteins tested was increased by 1.6 to 3 fold in PeCa samples compared to control tissue (normal or cancer adjacent) samples (p<0.01). Expression of all proteins, except CD1, showed a significant decrease in grade II compared to grade I tumors. High magnification, deconvolved confocal images were used to measure differences in co-localization between the four proteins. Significant (p<0.04-0.0001) differences were observed for various permutations of the combinations of proteins and state of the tissue (control, tumor grades I and II). Wnt signaling may play an important role in PeCa and proteins of the Wnt signaling network could be useful targets for diagnosis and prognostic stratification of disease. PMID:25901368

  13. Wnt Signaling in Dendritic Cells: Its Role in Regulation of Immunity and Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Swafford, Daniel; Manicassamy, Santhakumar

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental puzzle in immunology is how the immune system launches robust immunity against pathogens while maintaining a state of tolerance to the body's own tissues and the trillions of commensal microorganisms and food antigens that confront them every day. Innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, play a fundamental role in this process. Emerging studies have highlighted that the Wnt signaling pathway, particularly in DCs, plays a major role in regulating tolerance versus immunity. Here, we review our current understanding of how Wnt-signaling shapes the immune response and, in addition, highlight unanswered questions, the solution of which will be imperative in the rational exploitation of this pathway in vaccine design and immune therapy. PMID:25977193

  14. The Tale of the Three Brothers - Shh, Wnt, and Fgf during Development of the Thalamus.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Anja I H; Scholpp, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The thalamic complex is an essential part of the brain that requires a combination of specialized activities to attain its final complexity. In the following review we will describe the induction process of the mid-diencephalic organizer (MDO) where three different signaling pathways merge: Wnt, Shh, and Fgf. Here, we dissect the function of each signaling pathway in the thalamus in chronological order of their appearance. First we describe the Wnt mediated induction of the MDO and compartition of the caudal forebrain, then the Shh mediated determination of proneural gene expression before discussing recent progress in characterizing Fgf function during thalamus development. Then, we focus on transcription factors, which are regulated by these pathways and which play a pivotal role in neurogenesis in the thalamus. The three signaling pathways act together in a strictly regulated chronology to orchestrate the development of the entire thalamus.

  15. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a key role in the development of spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wanqing; Zhou, Lijiang; Li, Shan; Hui, Tianqian; Chen, Di

    2015-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of diseases consisting of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), reactive arthritis, arthritis related to inflammatory bowel disease (a subgroup of juvenile idiopathic arthritis), and ankylosing spondylitis (the prototype of SpA). Axial bone formation and the combination of concurrent erosion and new bone formation are specific characteristics of SpA disease. The use of anti-proinflammatory cytokines, such as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), appears to be the greatest advance in the treatment of SpA over the past 20 years. However, TNF-α blockers do not halt new bone formation. Recent clinical observations and animal studies demonstrate that Wnt signaling proteins and natural Wnt inhibitors, such as DKK1 and sclerostin, are likely to play important roles in the process of ankylosis in SpA, and could potentially serve as therapeutic targets for the treatment of SpA. PMID:26629686

  16. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a key role in the development of spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wanqing; Zhou, Lijiang; Li, Shan; Hui, Tianqian; Chen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of diseases consisting of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), reactive arthritis, arthritis related to inflammatory bowel disease (a subgroup of juvenile idiopathic arthritis), and ankylosing spondylitis (the prototype of SpA). Axial bone formation and the combination of concurrent erosion and new bone formation are specific characteristics of SpA disease. The use of antiproinflammatory cytokines, such as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), appears to be the greatest advance in the treatment of SpA over the past 20 years. However, TNF-α blockers do not halt new bone formation. Recent clinical observations and animal studies demonstrate that Wnt signaling proteins and natural Wnt inhibitors, such as DKK1 and sclerostin, are likely to play important roles in the process of ankylosis in SpA, and could potentially serve as therapeutic targets for the treatment of SpA.

  17. Concentration-dependent effects of WNTLESS on WNT1/3A signaling

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Lisa M.; Szabo, Linda A.; Li, Lydia; Htaik, Yin Min; Onguka, Ouma; Burrus, Laura W.

    2014-01-01

    Background WNTLESS (WLS) is a multi-transmembrane protein that transports Wnt ligands from the Golgi to the cell surface. Although WLS loss-of-function experiments in the developing central nervous system reveal phenotypes consistent with defects in WNT1 and WNT3A signaling, data from complementary gain-of-function experiments have not yet been reported. Here, we report the phenotypic consequences of WLS overexpression in cultured cells and in the developing chick spinal cord. Results Overexpression of small amounts of WLS along with either WNT1 or WNT3A promotes the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in HEK293T cells, while overexpression of higher levels of WLS inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in these cells. Similarly, overexpressed WLS inhibits the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the developing spinal cord, as assessed by cell proliferation and specification. These effects appear to be Wnt-specific as overexpression of WLS inhibits the expression of FZD10, a target of β-catenin-dependent transcription. Conclusion Our results show that overexpression of WLS inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the spinal cord. As the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the spinal cord requires WNT1 or WNT3A, our results are consistent with a model in which the relative concentration of WLS to Wnt regulates WNT1/3A signaling in the developing spinal cord. PMID:24866848

  18. Bioinspired Synthesis of Well-Ordered Layered Organic-Inorganic Nanohybrids: Mimicking the Natural Processing of Nacre by Mineralization of Block Copolymer Templates.

    PubMed

    Voet, Vincent S D; Kumar, Kamlesh; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2015-10-01

    The unique mechanical performance of nacre, the pearly internal layer of shells, is highly dependent on its complex morphology. Inspired by the structure of nacre, the fabrication of well-ordered layered inorganic-organic nanohybrids is presented herein. This biomimetic approach includes the use of a block copolymer template, consisting of hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) lamellae covered with hydrophilic poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), to direct silica (SiO2 ) mineralization. The resulting PVDF/PMAA/SiO2 nanohybrid material resembles biogenic nacre with respect to its well-ordered and layered nanostructure, alternating organic-inorganic phases, macromolecular template, and mild processing conditions.

  19. Teaching resource. Canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Moon, Randall T

    2004-06-29

    This animation provides an interactive presentation of the Wnt signaling pathway as it may occur in multiple cell types. This animation would be useful in teaching developmental biology, immunology, and cell signaling courses. Activation of Wnt pathways can modulate cell proliferation, cell survival, cell behavior, and cell fate. In the basal, unstimulated state in the absence of ligand, there is a constitutively active kinase, which phosphorylates target proteins, resulting in their degradation. Thus, the presence of the ligand Wnt inactivates the kinase allowing accumulation of beta-catenin, which then translocates to the nucleus and acts as a transcriptional regulator.

  20. Deferoxamine alleviates chronic hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage through iron chelation and Wnt1/Wnt3a inhibition.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hui; Li, Fei; Hu, Rong; Yuan, Yikai; Gong, Guoqi; Hu, Shengli; Feng, Hua

    2015-03-30

    Post-hemorrhagic chronic hydrocephalus (PHCH) is a common complication after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The mechanism of PHCH is not fully understood, and its treatment is relatively difficult. In the present study, a rat model of PHCH was used to elucidate the role of iron in the pathogenesis of PHCH. The action of deferoxamine (DFX) in IVH-induced PHCH, the expression of brain ferritin, the concentration of iron in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and changes in Wnt1/Wnt3a gene expression were determined. Results indicate that iron plays an important role in the occurrence of hydrocephalus after IVH. The iron chelator, DFX, can decrease the concentrations of iron and ferritin after cerebral hemorrhage and can thereby decrease the incidence of hydrocephalus. In addition, after IVH, the gene expression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a was enhanced, with protein expression also upregulated; DFX was able to suppress both gene and protein expression of Wnt1 and Wnt3a in brain tissue. This indicates that iron may be the key stimulus that activates the Wnt signaling pathway and regulates subarachnoid fibrosis after cerebral hemorrhage, and that DFX may be a candidate for preventing PHCH in patients with IVH.

  1. The Wnt gatekeeper SFRP4 modulates EMT, cell migration and downstream Wnt signalling in serous ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ford, Caroline E; Jary, Eve; Ma, Sean Si Qian; Nixdorf, Sheri; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A; Ward, Robyn L

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant Wnt signalling is implicated in numerous human cancers, and understanding the effects of modulation of pathway members may lead to the development of novel therapeutics. Expression of secreted frizzled related protein 4 (SFRP4), an extracellular modulator of the Wnt signalling pathway, is progressively lost in more aggressive ovarian cancer phenotypes. Here we show that recombinant SFRP4 (rSFRP4) treatment of a serous ovarian cancer cell line results in inhibition of β-catenin dependent Wnt signalling as measured by TOP/FOP Wnt reporter assay and decreased transcription of Wnt target genes, Axin2, CyclinD1 and Myc. In addition, rSFRP4 treatment significantly increased the ability of ovarian cancer cells to adhere to collagen and fibronectin, and decreased their ability to migrate across an inflicted wound. We conclude that these changes in cell behaviour may be mediated via mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET), as rSFRP4 treatment also resulted in increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and reduced expression of Vimentin and Twist. Combined, these results indicate that modulation of a single upstream gatekeeper of Wnt signalling can have effects on downstream Wnt signalling and ovarian cancer cell behaviour, as mediated through epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). This raises the possibility that SFRP4 may be used both diagnostically and therapeutically in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  2. Wnt5a participates in hepatic stellate cell activation observed by gene expression profile and functional assays

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wu-Jun; Hu, Li-Juan; Jian, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Li-Jing; Jiang, Ming; Li, Wei; He, Yi

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify differentially expressed genes in quiescent and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and explore their functions. METHODS: HSCs were isolated from the normal Sprague Dawley rats by in suit perfusion of collagenase and pronase and density Nycodenz gradient centrifugation. Total RNA and mRNA of quiescent HSCs, and culture-activated HSCs were extracted, quantified and reversely transcripted into cDNA. The global gene expression profile was analyzed by microarray with Affymetrix rat genechip. Differentially expressed genes were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and analyzed with Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Microarray data were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The function of Wnt5a on human HSCs line LX-2 was assessed with lentivirus-mediated Wnt5a RNAi. The expression of Wnt5a in fibrotic liver of a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrosis rat model was also analyzed with Western blotting. RESULTS: Of the 28 700 genes represented on this chip, 2566 genes displayed at least a 2-fold increase or decrease in expression at a P < 0.01 level with a false discovery rate. Of these, 1396 genes were upregulated, while 1170 genes were downregulated in culture-activated HSCs. These differentially expressed transcripts were grouped into 545 GO based on biological process GO terms. The most enriched GO terms included response to wounding, wound healing, regulation of cell growth, vasculature development and actin cytoskeleton organization. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that Wnt5a signaling pathway participated in the activation of HSCs. Wnt5a was significantly increased in culture-activated HSCs as compared with quiescent HSCs. qRT-PCR validated the microarray data. Lentivirus-mediated suppression of Wnt5a expression in activated LX-2 resulted in significantly impaired proliferation, downregulated expressions of

  3. Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tetsuroh; Mine, Tetsuya; Katoh, Masaru

    2002-05-01

    WNT signal is transduced to the beta-catenin - TCF pathway, the JNK pathway, or the Ca2+-releasing pathway through seven-transmembrane-type WNT receptors encoded by Frizzled genes (FZD1-FZD10). We have previously cloned and characterized human WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, and WNT14B/WNT15 by using bioinformatics, cDNA-library screening, and cDNA-PCR. Here, we investigated expression of human WNT5A mRNA in various normal tissues, 66 primary tumors derived from various tissues, and 15 human cancer cell lines. WNT5A mRNA was relatively highly expressed in salivary gland, bladder, uterus, placenta, and fetal kidney. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was detected in 5 out of 8 cases of primary gastric cancer, 5 out of 18 cases of primary colorectal tumors, and in 2 out of 7 cases of primary uterus tumors by using matched tumor/normal expression array analysis. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was also detected in 7 out of 10 other cases of primary gastric cancer by using cDNA-PCR. Although low-level expression of WNT5A mRNA was detected in gastric cancer cell line MKN45, WNT5A mRNA was almost undetectable in gastric cancer cell lines OKAJIMA, TMK1, MKN7, MKN28, MKN74, and KATO-III. Compared with frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer, expression levels of WNT5A mRNA in 7 gastric cancer cell lines were significantly lower than that in normal stomach. Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in human primary gastric cancer might be due to cancer-stromal interaction.

  4. Wnt5a is required for endothelial differentiation of embryonic stem cells and vascularization via pathways involving both Wnt/beta-catenin and protein kinase Calpha.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Hwa; Yoon, Ju-Young; Lee, Soung-Hoon; Bryja, Vitezslav; Andersson, Emma R; Arenas, Ernest; Kwon, Young-Guen; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2009-02-13

    In this study, we examined the signaling pathways activated by Wnt5a in endothelial differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and the function of Wnt5a during vascular development. We first found that Wnt5a(-/-) mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells exhibited a defect in endothelial differentiation, which was rescued by addition of Wnt5a, suggesting that Wnt5a is required for endothelial differentiation of ES cells. Involvement of both beta-catenin and protein kinase (PK)Calpha pathways in endothelial differentiation of mES cells requiring Wnt5a was indicated by activation of both beta-catenin and PKCalpha in Wnt5a(+/-) but not in Wnt5a(-/-) mES cells. We also found that beta-catenin or PKCalpha knockdowns inhibited the Wnt5a-induced endothelial differentiation of ES cells. Moreover, the lack of endothelial differentiation of Wnt5a(-/-) mES cells was rescued only by transfection of both beta-catenin and PKCalpha, indicating that both genes are required for Wnt5a-mediated endothelial differentiation. Wnt5a was also found to be essential for the differentiation of mES cells into immature endothelial progenitor cells, which are known to play a role in repair of damaged endothelium. Furthermore, a defect in the vascularization of the neural tissue was detected at embryonic day 14.5 in Wnt5a(-/-) mice, implicating Wnt5a in vascular development in vivo. Thus, we conclude that Wnt5a is involved in the endothelial differentiation of ES cells via both Wnt/beta-catenin and PKC signaling pathways and regulates embryonic vascular development.

  5. Wnt10b Activates the Wnt, Notch and NFκB Pathways in U2OS Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mödder, Ulrike I.; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep; Monroe, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Although osteosarcoma represents the most common bone malignancy, the molecular and cellular mechanisms influencing its pathogenesis have remained elusive. Recent evidence has suggested that the Wnt signaling pathway may play a crucial role in osteosarcoma. This study employed a microarray approach to discover novel genes and pathways involved in Wnt signaling in osteosarcoma. We developed a Wnt10b-expressing cell line using the human U2OS osteosarcoma model (U2OS-Wnt10b) and performed microarray and pathway analyses using parental U2OS cells as control. Differential expression of 1003 genes encompassing 28 pathways was noted. The Wnt, NFκB and Notch pathways were chosen for further study based on their known importance in bone biology. Known Wnt-responsive genes Axin-2 (4.9-fold), CD44 (2.1-fold), endothelin-1 (4.2-fold) and sclerostin domain containing-1 (43-fold) were regulated by Wnt10b. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1α and tumor necrosis factor-α, known inducers of NFκB, were upregulated both at the transcript and protein level, and NFκB reporter activity was stimulated 3.8-fold, confirming NFκB activation. Interestingly, genes involved in Notch signaling [Notch-1 (2.4-fold) and Jagged-1 (3.1-fold)] were upregulated, whereas the Notch inhibitor, lunatic fringe, was downregulated (8.2-fold). This resulted in the activation of the classic Notch-responsive genes, hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes-1; 2.2-fold) and hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-1 (Hey-1; 2.5-fold). A Hey-1 reporter construct was regulated 9.1-fold in U2OS-Wnt10b cells, confirming Notch activation. Interestingly, Wnt3a failed to induce the Notch and NFκB pathways, demonstrating Wnt-specificity. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Wnt10b, but not Wnt3a, stimulates the NFκB and Notch pathways in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. PMID:21321991

  6. Mapping the dynamic expression of Wnt11 and the lineage contribution of Wnt11-expressing cells during early mouse development

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Tanvi; Lin, Lizhu; Li, Ding; Davis, Jennifer; Evans, Sylvia; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Wang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that coordinates polarized cell behavior to regulate tissue morphogenesis during vertebrate gastrulation, neurulation and organogenesis. In Xenopus and zebrafish, PCP signaling is activated by non-canonical Wnts such as Wnt11, and detailed understanding of Wnt11 expression has provided important clues on when, where and how PCP may be activated to regulate tissue morphogenesis. To explore the role of Wnt11 in mammalian development, we established a Wnt11 expression and lineage map with high spatial and temporal resolution by creating and analyzing a tamoxifen-inducible Wnt11-CreER BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mouse line. Our short- and long-term lineage tracing experiments indicated that Wnt11-CreER could faithfully recapitulate endogenous Wnt11 expression, and revealed for the first time that cells transiently expressing Wnt11 at early gastrulation were fated to become specifically the progenitors of the entire endoderm. During mid-gastrulation, Wnt11-CreER expressing cells also contribute extensively to the endothelium in both embryonic and extraembryonic compartments, and the endocardium in all chambers of the developing heart. In contrast, Wnt11-CreER expression in the myocardium starts from late-gastrulation, and occurs in three transient, sequential waves: first in the precursors of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium from E7.0 to 8.0; subsequently in the right ventricular (RV) myocardium from E8.0 to 9.0; and finally in the superior wall of the outflow tract (OFT) myocardium from E8.5 to 10.5. These results provide formal genetic proof that the majority of the endocardium and myocardium diverge by mid-gastrulation in the mouse, and suggest a tight spatial and temporal control of Wnt11 expression in the myocardial lineage to coordinate with myocardial differentiation in the first and second heart field progenitors to form the LV, RV and OFT. The insights gained

  7. Mutation of KREMEN1, a modulator of Wnt signaling, is responsible for ectodermal dysplasia including oligodontia in Palestinian families.

    PubMed

    Issa, Yasmin A; Kamal, Lara; Rayyan, Amal Abu; Dweik, Dima; Pierce, Sarah; Lee, Ming K; King, Mary-Claire; Walsh, Tom; Kanaan, Moien

    2016-10-01

    Tooth development is controlled by the same processes that regulate formation of other ectodermal structures. Mutations in the genes underlying these processes may cause ectodermal dysplasia, including severe absence of primary or permanent teeth. Four consanguineous Palestinian families presented with oligodontia and hair and skin features of ectodermal dysplasia. Appearance of ectodermal dysplasia was consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Exome sequencing followed by genotyping of 56 informative relatives in the 4 families suggests that the phenotype is due to homozygosity for KREMEN1 p.F209S (c.626 T>C) on chromosome 22 at g.29,521,399 (hg19). The variant occurs in the highly conserved extracellular WSC domain of KREMEN1, which is known to be a high affinity receptor of Dickkopf-1, a component of the Dickkopf-Kremen-LRP6 complex, and a potent regulator of Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is critical to development of ectodermal structures. Mutations in WNT10A, LRP6, EDA, and other genes in this pathway lead to tooth agenesis with or without other ectodermal anomalies. Our results implicate KREMEN1 for the first time in a human disorder and provide additional details on the role of the Wnt signaling in ectodermal and dental development.

  8. GS-5806 Inhibits a Broad Range of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Clinical Isolates by Blocking the Virus-Cell Fusion Process

    PubMed Central

    Stray, Kirsten; Kinkade, April; Theodore, Dorothy; Lee, Gary; Eisenberg, Eugene; Sangi, Michael; Gilbe