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  1. The Language Situation in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Timor-Leste celebrated its formal political independence on 20th May 2002. The National Constitution of the new nation declared the endogenous lingua franca (Tetum) and the former colonial language (Portuguese) to be co-official. The remaining local languages were given the status of national languages. Indonesian and English were designated as…

  2. Pre-Deployment Handbook: Timor-Leste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    the beginning of 2007 however, Ramos-Horta had lost patience with Reinado’s public rantings and threats in Indonesian and Australian media. He told...memorial for lives lost in the Indonesian occupation. Source; DSTO, Defence of abortion for Timorese women under any circumstances. There are three...ranks Timor-Leste as 174th out of 183 countries for “ease” of doing business. Terrace Gardens near Suai Source: DSTO, Defence THE PELICAN PARADISE

  3. Governing sex workers in Timor Leste.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs "knowledge networks" to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste.

  4. Adult Literacy Education in Timor-Leste: Multilayered Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on multilingualism in adult literacy education in Timor-Leste and explores how choices made at the formal level of national language policy are dealt with at the operational level of adult literacy education. The 2002 constitution of Timor-Leste declares Portuguese and Tetum as the official languages. It recognises the need…

  5. Adult Literacy Education in Timor-Leste: Multilayered Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on multilingualism in adult literacy education in Timor-Leste and explores how choices made at the formal level of national language policy are dealt with at the operational level of adult literacy education. The 2002 constitution of Timor-Leste declares Portuguese and Tetum as the official languages. It recognises the need…

  6. 77 FR 33640 - International Service Change-Timor-Leste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... reflect Timor-Leste's independence from Indonesia, and its joining the Universal Postal Union as a... of Countries and Localities * * * * * [Revise the current listing for ``East Timor (Indonesia)'' to...

  7. NGOs, Pluralism and Advisory Services--Timor Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Max

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses the role, approach, issues and opportunities faced by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the promotion of agriculture in Timor Leste from independence through to the countrywide roll out of a public extension service in 2009. Design/methodology/approach: The research draws on semi-structured interviews with NGO…

  8. NGOs, Pluralism and Advisory Services--Timor Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Max

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses the role, approach, issues and opportunities faced by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the promotion of agriculture in Timor Leste from independence through to the countrywide roll out of a public extension service in 2009. Design/methodology/approach: The research draws on semi-structured interviews with NGO…

  9. Goodbye Conflict, Hello Development? Curriculum Reform in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Motivations to reform curriculum in post-conflict, or post-colonial states are often driven by the need to (re) construct a cohesive and publicly legitimated national identity that is starkly different to that which existed prior. This paper explores the context behind such action in the Timor-Leste (East Timor) and some challenges which policy…

  10. Competing Visions of Education in Timor-Leste's Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Timor-Leste's independence in 2002 marked the end of centuries of foreign control. Early post-independence education reforms successfully increased school enrolments and rebuilt education infrastructure, however, teacher qualifications and student outcomes have remained poor. The current Curriculum Reform, initiated in 2013, aims to improve…

  11. Goodbye Conflict, Hello Development? Curriculum Reform in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Motivations to reform curriculum in post-conflict, or post-colonial states are often driven by the need to (re) construct a cohesive and publicly legitimated national identity that is starkly different to that which existed prior. This paper explores the context behind such action in the Timor-Leste (East Timor) and some challenges which policy…

  12. Adult Literacy Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In Timor-Leste, many adults learn to read and write in a multilingual context. The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, 15 regional languages are being further developed and Bahasa Indonesia and English are accepted as working languages. Most literacy programmes take place in Tetum, the lingua franca, and often regional languages are used…

  13. Adult Literacy Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In Timor-Leste, many adults learn to read and write in a multilingual context. The official languages are Tetum and Portuguese, 15 regional languages are being further developed and Bahasa Indonesia and English are accepted as working languages. Most literacy programmes take place in Tetum, the lingua franca, and often regional languages are used…

  14. Distinct immunosuppressive effect by Isodon serra extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jianwen; Jia, Wei; Zhao, Aihua; Li, Ting

    2005-12-01

    Distinct effect of ent-Kaurene Diterpenoids from Isodon serra on abnormal proliferation of murine lymphocytes was examined with MTT assay and Flow Cytometry Analyses (FCAS). After choosing the most appropriate monomer from these Diterpenoids, we introduced mouse tumescence model to investigate whether it could impact cytokine production in vivo with ELISA assay. The result of MTT assay showed that four ent-Kaurene Diterpenoids could effectively suppress the murine splenic T lymphocytes overproduction stimulated by Concanavalin A, while inhibitive effect was softer on normal sleep lymphocytes than the stimulated ones. Among four ent-Kaurene Diterpenoids, Enmein was the most sensitive one with IC50/EC50 equaling to 1.55. This inhibitive activity was due to interfering DNA replication in G1-S stage and to regulating cell cycle according to flow cytometry analyses (FCAS) result. Xylene-induced mouse tumescence model result further suggested that Enmein depressed the murine ear swelling extent and the level of Interleukin-2 in blood serum in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, it demonstrated that four ent-Kaurene Diterpenoids from I. serra had distinct immunosuppressive effect in vitro and in vivo systems, which primarily differentiated Enmein from the others. The experimental results provided insight into a potential immunosuppressive action of Enmein as a promising drug, though profound mechanism remained to be further studied.

  15. The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Hinrich; Carvalho, Venancio Lopes; Ceballos, Jester; Freed, Paul; Heacox, Scott; Lester, Barbara; Richards, Stephen J.; Trainor, Colin R.; Sanchez, Caitlin; O’Shea, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Fieldwork conducted throughout Timor-Leste in September 2004 and July 2009 resulted in a collection or recording of 263 herpetological specimens (100 amphibians, 163 reptiles), comprising at least seven species of frogs and toads, 20 species of lizards, seven species of snakes, two species of turtles, and one species of crocodile. Among the amphibians, the most frequently encountered species were toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), rice paddy frogs (genus Fejervarya), and rhacophorid treefrogs (Polypedates cf. leucomystax). All three variants of rice paddy frogs encountered represent undescribed species similar to Fejervarya verruculosa from neighboring Wetar Island. Records of Fejervarya cancrivora and Fejervarya limnocharis for Timor Island are apparently errors based on misidentification. We obtained voucher specimens for a total of 147 lizards and voucher photographs only for four specimens of Varanus timorensis. Aside from geckos frequently associated with human habitations (e.g., Gehyra mutilata, Gekko gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, Hemidactylus platyurus), we discovered an as yet undescribed species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus, in the Same valley. Our specimens of Hemidactylus platyurus are the first record of this species from Timor-Leste. Commonly encountered skinks included four-fingered skinks (genus Carlia), wedge skinks (genus Sphenomorphus), and night skinks (genus Eremiascincus). Notable among the 15 snakes collected was the frequency of pitvipers (Cryptelytrops insularis), which amounted to over 25% of all snakes. Our specimen of the wolfsnake Lycodon subcinctus is the first record of this species for Timor-Leste. Based on these findings, it appears that the biodiversity of amphibians and reptiles in this remote corner of Wallacea is much greater than previously thought, particularly with respect to scincid lizards. The detail we provide in the species accounts is designed to allow the use of this report as a preliminary field

  16. The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Hinrich; Carvalho, Venancio Lopes; Ceballos, Jester; Freed, Paul; Heacox, Scott; Lester, Barbara; Richards, Stephen J; Trainor, Colin R; Sanchez, Caitlin; O'Shea, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Fieldwork conducted throughout Timor-Leste in September 2004 and July 2009 resulted in a collection or recording of 263 herpetological specimens (100 amphibians, 163 reptiles), comprising at least seven species of frogs and toads, 20 species of lizards, seven species of snakes, two species of turtles, and one species of crocodile. Among the amphibians, the most frequently encountered species were toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), rice paddy frogs (genus Fejervarya), and rhacophorid treefrogs (Polypedates cf. leucomystax). All three variants of rice paddy frogs encountered represent undescribed species similar to Fejervarya verruculosa from neighboring Wetar Island. Records of Fejervarya cancrivora and Fejervarya limnocharis for Timor Island are apparently errors based on misidentification. We obtained voucher specimens for a total of 147 lizards and voucher photographs only for four specimens of Varanus timorensis. Aside from geckos frequently associated with human habitations (e.g., Gehyra mutilata, Gekko gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, Hemidactylus platyurus), we discovered an as yet undescribed species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus, in the Same valley. Our specimens of Hemidactylus platyurus are the first record of this species from Timor-Leste. Commonly encountered skinks included four-fingered skinks (genus Carlia), wedge skinks (genus Sphenomorphus), and night skinks (genus Eremiascincus). Notable among the 15 snakes collected was the frequency of pitvipers (Cryptelytrops insularis), which amounted to over 25% of all snakes. Our specimen of the wolfsnake Lycodon subcinctus is the first record of this species for Timor-Leste. Based on these findings, it appears that the biodiversity of amphibians and reptiles in this remote corner of Wallacea is much greater than previously thought, particularly with respect to scincid lizards. The detail we provide in the species accounts is designed to allow the use of this report as a preliminary field guide to

  17. Life-history evolution when Lestes damselflies invaded vernal ponds.

    PubMed

    De Block, Marjan; McPeek, Mark A; Stoks, Robby

    2008-02-01

    We know little about the macroevolution of life-history traits along environmental gradients, especially with regard to the directionality compared to the ancestral states and the associated costs to other functions. Here we examine how age and size at maturity evolved when Lestes damselflies shifted from their ancestral temporary pond habitat (i.e., ponds that may dry once every decade or so) to extremely ephemeral vernal ponds (ponds that routinely dry completely each year). Larvae of three species were reared from eggs until emergence under different levels of photoperiod and transient starvation stress. Compared to the two temporary-pond Lestes, the phylogenetically derived vernal-pond Lestes dryas developed more rapidly across photoperiod treatments until the final instar, and only expressed plasticity in development time in the final instar under photoperiod levels that simulated a later hatching date. The documented change in development rate can be considered adaptive and underlies the success of the derived species in vernal ponds. Results suggest associated costs of faster development are lower mass at maturity and lower immune function after transient starvation stress. These costs may not only have impeded further evolution of the routine development rate to what is physiologically maximal, but also maintained some degree of plasticity to time constraints when the habitat shift occurred.

  18. Child size and household characteristics in rural Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Reghupathy, Nadine; Judge, Debra S; Sanders, Katherine A; Amaral, Pedro Canisio; Schmitt, Lincoln H

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to determine those characteristics of the family and household that affects child health (as measured by child size for age) in the rural Ossu area of Timor-Leste. Interviews of parents in 102 households assessed reproductive histories, the amount and type of resources available and family composition (number, sex, and age of members). Height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference were measured for all children in the household. To standardize for age and sex, raw measures were transformed into WHO Z scores and compared across households. Children were low in both height and weight relative to international standards and older children compared with international standards more poorly than under-fives. There was no evidence of sex difference in relative growth. The number of children in a household was negatively associated with height but not weight and positively with BMI. Children living in the villages more distant from Ossu town center had significantly lower Z scores for height than children in town. No crop or livestock indices were related to growth. Fostered children did not show growth different from biological children, but biological children in households with fostered children were slightly larger for age. Short stature inflates BMI and harvest season measures may have captured short-term increases in children's energy balance. Social networks may increase child well-being by moving children toward resource richer households. Social and cultural factors influence resource allocations among children and their health in rural Timor-Leste. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Patterns of trauma in conflict victims from Timor Leste.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra A; Lathrop, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Understanding population-level trauma patterns has implications for the recognition of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Trauma data were abstracted from autopsy and anthropology reports for 105 victims from the 1999 conflict in Timor Leste. A significant number of individuals displayed no evidence of injury. No trauma was found in 25% of the sample, while a further 5% had only minor, nonlethal wounds. Where trauma was evident, sharp force injuries were most common (35%), followed by gunshot (20%) and blunt force (13.33%). Timorese frequencies of trauma differ significantly from percentages found in prior reports of mass killings from Cambodia, Bosnia, Croatia, and Afghanistan but closely resemble reported trauma patterns in Rwanda. Decomposition and percentage of body recovered were shown to have a significant impact on the presence/absence of trauma. Complete, fleshed remains were 10.4 times more likely than skeletal remains to have evidence of major or lethal trauma. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Factors limiting immunization coverage in urban Dili, Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ruhul; De Oliveira, Telma Joana Corte Real; Da Cunha, Mateus; Brown, Tanya Wells; Favin, Michael; Cappelier, Kelli

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Timor-Leste's immunization coverage is among the poorest in Asia. The 2009/2010 Demographic and Health Survey found that complete vaccination coverage in urban areas, at 47.7%, was lower than in rural areas, at 54.1%. The city of Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste, had even lower coverage (43.4%) than the national urban average. Objective: To better understand the service- and user-related factors that account for low vaccination coverage in urban Dili, despite high literacy rates and relatively good access to immunization services and communication media. Methods: A mixed-methods (mainly qualitative) study, conducted in 5 urban sub-districts of Dili, involved in-depth interviews with18 Ministry of Health staff and 6 community leaders, 83 observations of immunization encounters, 37 exit interviews with infants' caregivers at 11 vaccination sites, and 11 focus group discussions with 70 caregivers of vaccination-eligible children ages 6 to 23 months. Results: The main reasons for low vaccination rates in urban Dili included caregivers' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions as well as barriers at immunization service sites. Other important factors were access to services and information, particularly in the city periphery, health workers' attitudes and practices, caregivers' fears of side effects, conflicting priorities, large family size, lack of support from husbands and paternal grandmothers, and seasonal migration. Conclusion: Good access to health facilities or health services does not necessarily translate into uptake of immunization services. The reasons are complex and multifaceted but in general relate to the health services' insufficient understanding of and attention to their clients' needs. Almost all families in Dili would be motivated to have their children immunized if services were convenient, reliable, friendly, and informative. PMID:25276554

  1. Prelacteal feeding of newborns in postconflict Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; Lee, Andy H; Nunes Brites da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca; Karkee, Rajendra

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of prelacteal feeding and its associated factors in Timor-Leste using updated data from the national survey. Complex sample analysis was undertaken to account for the 2-stage cluster design of the Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010. Backward stepwise logistic regression was conducted to ascertain factors associated with the prevalence of prelacteal feeding. A total of 4821 mother-infant pairs were included in the analysis. The prevalence of prelacteal feeding was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.1-13.5). The most popular prelacteal food was plain water (50.7%), followed by glucose/sugar water (32.5%) and milk other than breast milk (22.7%). Older mothers (35-49 years), mothers with upper socioeconomic status, those who perceived their newborns as small size, and those residing in urban areas were approximately 1.5 times more likely to give prelacteal feeds, whereas women who followed religions other than Roman Catholic had twice the risk (adjusted odds ratio 1.98; 95% CI 1.16-3.41). Antenatal and postnatal counselling sessions that promote exclusive breast-feeding and discourage prelacteal feeding are needed that specifically target these vulnerable subgroups of Timorese mothers.

  2. Nation-building policies in Timor-Leste: disaster risk reduction, including climate change adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Jessica; Kelman, Ilan; do Rosario, Francisco; de Deus de Jesus Lima, Abilio; da Silva, Augusto; Beloff, Anna-Maija; McClean, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have explored the relationships between nation-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Focusing on small island developing states, this paper examines nation-building in Timor-Leste, a small island developing state that recently achieved independence. Nation-building in Timor-Leste is explored in the context of disaster risk reduction, which necessarily includes climate change adaptation. The study presents a synopsis of Timor-Leste's history and its nation-building efforts as well as an overview of the state of knowledge of disaster risk reduction including climate change adaptation. It also offers an analysis of significant gaps and challenges in terms of vertical and horizontal governance, large donor presence, data availability and the integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation for nation-building in Timor-Leste. Relevant and applicable lessons are provided from other small island developing states to assist Timor-Leste in identifying its own trajectory out of underdevelopment while it builds on existing strengths. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  3. The complex impact structure Serra da Cangalha, Tocantins State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Vasconcelos, Marcos A. R.; Crósta, Alvaro P.; Reimold, Wolf U.

    2011-06-01

    Serra da Cangalha is a complex impact structure with a crater diameter of 13,700 m and a central uplift diameter of 5800 m. New findings of shatter cones, planar fractures, feather features, and possible planar deformation features are presented. Several ring-like features that are visible on remote sensing imagery are caused by selective erosion of tilted strata. The target at Serra da Cangalha is composed of Devonian to Permian sedimentary rocks, mainly sandstones that are interlayered with siltstone and claystones. NNE-SSW and WNW-ESE-striking joint sets were present prior to the impact and also overprinted the structure after its formation. As preferred zones of weakness, these joint sets partly controlled the shape of the outer perimeter of the structure and, in particular, affected the deformation within the central uplift. Joints in radial orientation to the impact center did not undergo a change in orientation during tilting of strata when the central uplift was formed. These planes were used as major displacement zones. The asymmetry of the central uplift, with preferred overturning of strata in the northern to western sector, may suggest a moderately oblique impact from a southerly direction. Buckle folding of tilted strata, as well as strata overturning, indicates that the central uplift became gravitationally unstable at the end of crater formation.

  4. Palaeomagnetism of the Mesozoic Serra Geral Formation, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, M.; Pacca, I. G.; Hiodo, F. Y.; Nardy, A. J. R.

    1990-12-01

    Palaeomagnetic results from 20 volcanic sequences and 11 intrusive bodies (sills and dykes) of the Serra Geral Formation (Paraná Basin) are reported in this paper. The sequences are widespread all over the basin, while sills and dykes (Ponta Grossa arch) come from the northeastern portion. Three mean palaeomagnetic poles were computed for the Serra Geral Formation, which account for a time interval of ˜ 15 Ma. Pole SG1 is located at 85°S,108°E ( α95 = 1.1°, N = 18) and represents the main phase of the magmatic activity in the basin, with a mean age of ˜ 135 Ma. Pole SG2 is located at 82°S,38°E ( α95 = 7.8°, N = 2) and represents a younger magmatic phase, with an associated age of ˜ 130 Ma. Pole SG3 (72° S,37° E; α95 = 6.8°, N = 10) is the youngest pole. It is computed from the intrusive rocks and its age is assumed to be not younger than 118 Ma, the lower limit of the 'Cretaceous normal magnetic interval'. These three poles describe a shifting path, which suggest that the South American platform moved ˜ 5° southwards and rotated ˜ 10° clockwise during the Lower Cretaceous, preceding the South Atlantic opening.

  5. Mind the Gap: Global Quality Norms, National Policy Interpretations and Local Praxis in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ritesh; Quinn, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, the imperative for improving educational quality in schooling systems throughout the developing world is harnessed to a particular set of teaching and learning practices, such as child-centred, child-friendly or learner-centred pedagogy (LCP). Such was the case in Timor-Leste where, after independence, LCP was heavily promoted as a…

  6. Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Asante, Augustine D; Martins, Nelson; Otim, Michael E; Dewdney, John

    2014-04-01

    Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country's health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doctors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste's medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government's goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention.

  7. Mind the Gap: Global Quality Norms, National Policy Interpretations and Local Praxis in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ritesh; Quinn, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, the imperative for improving educational quality in schooling systems throughout the developing world is harnessed to a particular set of teaching and learning practices, such as child-centred, child-friendly or learner-centred pedagogy (LCP). Such was the case in Timor-Leste where, after independence, LCP was heavily promoted as a…

  8. Attitudes towards the legal context of unsafe abortion in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Belton, Suzanne; Whittaker, Andrea; Fonseca, Zulmira; Wells-Brown, Tanya; Pais, Patricia

    2009-11-01

    The new Penal Code in 2009 was an opportunity for Timor-Leste to allow some legal grounds for abortion, which was highly restricted under Indonesian rule. Public debate was contentious before ratification of the new code, which allowed abortion to save a woman's life and health. A month later, 13 amendments to the code were passed, highly restricting abortion again. This paper describes the socio-legal context of unsafe abortion in Timor-Leste, based on research in 2006-08 on national laws and policies and interviews with legal professionals, police, doctors and midwives, and community-based focus group discussions. Data on unsafe abortions in Timor-Leste are rarely recorded. A small number of cases of abortion and infanticide are reported but are rarely prosecuted, due to deficiencies in evidence and procedure. While there are voices supporting law reform, the Roman Catholic church heavily influences public policy and opinion. Professional views on when abortion should be legal varied, but in the community people believed that saving women's lives was paramount and came before the law. The revised Penal Code is insufficient to reduce unsafe abortion and maternal mortality. Change will be slow, but access to safe abortion and modern contraception are crucial to women's ability to participate fully as citizens in Timor-Leste.

  9. Transformative Teachers or Teachers to Be Transformed? The Cases of Bolivia and Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ritesh; Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Applying the Strategic Relational Approach, this paper analyses the circumstances behind and educators' strategies in response to education reforms in two nation-states undergoing socio-political transformation--Bolivia and Timor-Leste. Despite the starkly different histories and contemporary context of each nation, we suggest that transformation…

  10. Multilingual Language Policy and Mother Tongue Education in Timor-Leste: A Multiscalar Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffery, Jo; Coronado, Gabriela; Hodge, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at multilingual, mother-tongue-based language policies influenced by colonial and postcolonial histories and globalization processes. We use multiscalar analysis to show these policies as creative responses to problems affected by national and international forces. Our study focuses on Timor-Leste, specifically a pilot…

  11. Transformative Teachers or Teachers to Be Transformed? The Cases of Bolivia and Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ritesh; Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Applying the Strategic Relational Approach, this paper analyses the circumstances behind and educators' strategies in response to education reforms in two nation-states undergoing socio-political transformation--Bolivia and Timor-Leste. Despite the starkly different histories and contemporary context of each nation, we suggest that transformation…

  12. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (8 tetranucleotide and 2 dinucleotide) and 3 imperfect repeats (2 tetranucleotide and 1 dinucleo...

  13. Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste: Missed Opportunities and Hard Lessons in Empowering the Host-Nation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste: Missed Opportunities and Hard Lessons in Empowering the Host-Nation Nicholas J. Armstrong Jacqueline Chura... Jacqueline Chura-Beaver Isaac Kfir April 2012 The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official...Isaac Kfir, Nicholas Armstrong, and Jacqueline Chura-Beaver ex- amine an important case study of the United Nation’s transition efforts in Timor-Leste

  14. Long-distance lava correlation in the Paraná volcanic province along the Serra Geral cuesta, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L. A.; Arena, K. R.; Duarte, S. K.; Pertille, J.

    2013-09-01

    The capability of determining the flow-by-flow stratigraphy and the long-distance correlation of lava flows in large continental volcanic provinces leads to a considerable advance in the understanding of processes related to generation and evolution of the lavas. The Paraná volcanic province is exposed along the Serra Geral cuesta of southern Brazil in a steeply inclined, 1,000-m-high section starting 40-m above sea level. Each of the 10-20 pahoehoe flows and rhyodacite flow units has a unique chemical composition. Integrated with field stratigraphy and gamma-spectrometric measurements, this leads to the establishment of the correct stratigraphic sequence in each of three different vertical sections. The number of flows integrating the three serras is 26 ("serra" is a mountain range in Portuguese). Each serra has basaltic andesites at the base, whereas rhyodacites are intercalated with basaltic andesites at the top. Three basaltic andesite flows and one rhyodacite flow unit are correlated between Serra Umbu and Serra Boa Vista (10 km). In the Serra Faxinal, a thick (170 m) sill at the base correlates with flow 13F, whereas a dike-sill in the Graxaim quarry (24 km distance) correlates with flow 3F. One basaltic andesite and two rhyodacite flow units correlate between Serra Faxinal and Serra Umbu (50 km). The results are most significant for the understanding of large tracts of continental volcanic provinces with use of common geochemical and gamma-spectrometric techniques.

  15. Retaining doctors in rural Timor-Leste: a critical appraisal of the opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Nelson; Otim, Michael E; Dewdney, John

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Timor-Leste is in the process of addressing a key issue for the country’s health sector: a medical workforce that is too small to provide adequate care. In theory, a bilateral programme of medical cooperation with Cuba created in 2003 could solve this problem. By the end of 2013, nearly 700 new doctors trained in Cuba had been added to Timor-Leste’s medical workforce and by 2017 a further 328 doctors should have been trained in the country by Cuban and local health professionals. A few more doctors who have been trained in Indonesia and elsewhere will also soon enter the workforce. It is expected that the number of physicians in Timor-Leste in 2017 will be more than three times the number present in the country in 2003. Most of the new physicians are expected to work in rural communities and support the national government’s goal of improving health outcomes for the rural majority. Although the massive growth in the medical workforce could change the way health care is delivered and substantially improve health outcomes throughout the country, there are challenges that must be overcome if Timor-Leste is to derive the maximum benefit from such growth. It appears crucial that most of the new doctors be deployed in rural communities and managed carefully to optimize their rural retention. PMID:24700995

  16. Exhumation history of the Serra do Mar, southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carina Siqueira-Ribeiro, Marli; Hackspacher, Peter; Stuart, Finlay M.

    2016-04-01

    The Serra do Mar (SM) mountain range located along the southeast Brazilian continental margin is characterized by a low-lying coastal plateau separated from the elevated inland plateau by a steep escarpment. This morphology is a result of reactivation of Precambrian shear zones since the break-up of the Western Gondwana and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean in Early Cretaceous (1). Previous Thermochronological data from southeast Brazilian highlands (2,3), indicates that the landscape evolution is associated with several distinct exhumation events. In order to clarify the intensity and duration of the post-break up tectonic processes that shaped the SM we have undertaken a low temperature thermochronology study of crystalline basement, from the plateaus and escarpments situated between south of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo state. Apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th/He) and (AHe) dating has been combined with geologic information to generate precise thermal histories and make initial attempts to quantify the amount of exhumation. AFT ages range from 145 to 53 Ma whereas preliminary AHe ages range from 75 to 37 Ma. Forward modeling using QTQt confirms Late Cretaceous-Paleogene cooling identified earlier (4,5) and identifies a distinct cooling phase in Neogene, between 30 and 10 Ma. Neogene cooling rapid caused exhumation of rocks 1 km through of the crust mainly in south portion of the SM in Rio de Janeiro state. (1) Almeida, 1976. An. Academia Bras de Cien 48 (suppl.), 15-(2) (2) Hackspacher et al. 2004. Gondwana Research,vol.2, 91-101. (3) Hiruma et al. 2010. Gondwana Research,18,674-687. (4) Siqueira-Ribeiro et al. 2011. Revista Bras. de Geomorfologia, 13, 3-14 (5) Cogné et al. 2012. Journal Geophysical Research, vol.117,1-16.

  17. Genesis of the cumulate eucrites Serra de Mage and Moore County - A geochemical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis of element abundances in whole rock and plagioclase separates of the Serra de Mage chondrite has been conducted; plagioclase data and plagioclase mineral/liquid partition coefficients are employed to determine the REE abundances in the derivative equilibrium magmas from which Serra de Mage and Moore County chondrite plagioclases crystallized. No simple genetic relationship between the two chondrites appears likely through the route of fractional crystallization. A difference in degrees of partial melting of a similar source material (different from the source proposed for noncumulate eucrites) could be invoked to relate the two chondrites.

  18. Domestic violence, marital control, and family planning, maternal, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Meiksin, Rebecca; Meekers, Dominique; Thompson, Susan; Hagopian, Amy; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2015-06-01

    Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste provide a context that facilitates violence against women. More than a third of ever-married Timorese women report physical and/or sexual domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by their most recent partner. DV violates women's rights and may threaten their reproductive health. Marital control may also limit women's reproductive control and healthcare access. Our study investigated relationships between DV and marital control and subsequent family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using logistic regression, we examined 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,951 women in Timor-Leste. We controlled for age, education, and wealth. We limited our analyses of pregnancy- and birth-related outcomes to those from the 6 months preceding the survey. Rural women with controlling husbands were less likely than other rural women to have an unmet need for family planning (Adj. OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9). Rural women who experienced DV were more likely than other rural women to have an unplanned pregnancy (Adj. OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-4.8), fewer than four antenatal visits (Adj. OR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.1-4.9), or a baby born smaller than average (Adj. OR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.4-6.7). DV and marital control were not associated with the tested outcomes among urban women. Given high rates of DV internationally, our findings have important implications. Preventing DV may benefit both women and future generations. Furthermore, rural women who experience DV may benefit from targeted interventions that mediate associated risks of negative family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes.

  19. Assessment of equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Asante, Augustine D; Price, Jennifer; Hayen, Andrew; Irava, Wayne; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Limwattananon, Supon; Mills, Anne; Jan, Stephen; Wiseman, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Equitable health financing remains a key health policy objective worldwide. In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is evidence that many people are unable to access the health services they need due to financial and other barriers. There are growing calls for fairer health financing systems that will protect people from catastrophic and impoverishing health payments in times of illness. This study aims to assess equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste in order to support government efforts to improve access to healthcare and move towards universal health coverage in the two countries. Methods and analysis The study employs two standard measures of equity in health financing increasingly being applied in LMICs—benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and financing incidence analysis (FIA). In Fiji, we will use a combination of secondary and primary data including a Household Income and Expenditure Survey, National Health Accounts, and data from a cross-sectional household survey on healthcare utilisation. In Timor-Leste, the World Bank recently completed a health equity and financial protection analysis that incorporates BIA and FIA, and found that the distribution of benefits from healthcare financing is pro-rich. Building on this work, we will explore the factors that influence the pro-rich distribution. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of University of New South Wales, Australia (Approval number: HC13269); the Fiji National Health Research Committee (Approval # 201371); and the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health (Ref MS/UNSW/VI/218). Results Study outcomes will be disseminated through stakeholder meetings, targeted multidisciplinary seminars, peer-reviewed journal publications, policy briefs and the use of other web-based technologies including social media. A user-friendly toolkit on how to analyse healthcare financing equity will be developed for use by policymakers and

  20. The impact of violence against women on reproductive health and child mortality in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Taft, Angela J; Powell, Rhonda L; Watson, Lyndsey F

    2015-04-01

    To determine differences in reproductive health and infant and child mortality and health between abused and non-abused ever-married women in Timor-Leste. Secondary data analysis of Timor-Leste Demographic Health Survey (1,959 ever-married women aged 15-49 years). Associations with violence estimated using multinomial logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables and age of first intercourse. Overall, 45% of ever-married women experienced violence: 34% reported physical only and 11% reported combined physical, sexual and/or emotional violence. Compared to non-abused women, women reporting physical violence only were more likely to use traditional contraception (AdjOR 2.35, 95%CI 1.05-5.26) or report: a sexually transmitted infection (AdjOR 4.46, 95%CI 3.27-6.08); a pregnancy termination (AdjOR 1.42, 95%CI 1.03-1.96); a child who had died (AdjOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.05-1.60), a low birth weight infant (AdjOR 2.08, 95%CI 1.64-2.64); and partially vaccinated children (AdjOR 1.35, 95%CI 1.05-1.74). Women who reported combined abuse were more likely to report: a sexually transmitted infection (AdjOR 3.51, 95%CI 2.26-5.44); a pregnancy termination (AdjOR 1.95, 95%CI 1.27-3.01); few antenatal visits (AdjOR 1.76 95%CI 1.21-2.55); and a child who had died (AdjOR 1.45, 95%CI 1.06-2.00). Violence exposes women to poor reproductive health, infant and child mortality and poor infant and child health. Preventing and reducing violence against women should improve women and children's health outcomes in Timor-Leste. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Household resources and seasonal patterns of child growth in rural Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Canisio Amaral, Pedro; Judge, Debra S

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine through detailed contextual investigation the effects of seasonal resource shortages, and household and individual level differences, on child growth in rural Timor-Leste. We compared trends in growth across two rural Timorese villages with different ecologies. Heads of 104 households in Natarbora, Timor-Leste, were interviewed and resource levels assessed during the food shortage season. In these households, 337 children were measured for height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference. World Health Organization standardized measures were calculated and compared with dry season measurements. Using hierarchical linear models, child growth was related to household resource levels. Results were then compared to data from rural mountainous Ossu, Timor-Leste. z BMI declined over the wet season when food resources were scarce compared with the dry season (P < .001). Both age and sex were strong predictors of child growth, with older children having worse z height-for-age (P = .001) and z weight-for-age (P < .001) and boys shorter for age than girls (P = .049). Children were taller in households with modern flushable toilets (P = .005). Agricultural strategies such as crop diversity and land cultivation were linked to child growth. Results parallel findings from Ossu on the effects of season, child age and sex, but not household level socioeconomic differences. Results highlight the importance of subsistence-based resource stabilization and of early intervention to prevent growth faltering. Predicting growth using ecological models requires small-scale investigation, as variation exists among rural areas within an ecologically and culturally diverse country. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Implementing what works: a case study of integrated primary health care revitalisation in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Martins, Nelson; Trevena, Lyndal J

    2014-02-24

    Revitalising primary health care (PHC) and the need to reach MDG targets requires developing countries to adapt current evidence about effective health systems to their local context. Timor-Leste in one of the world's newest developing nations, with high maternal and child mortality rates, malaria, TB and malnutrition. Mountainous terrain and lack of transport pose serious challenges for accessing health services and implementing preventive health strategies. We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature and identified six components of an effective PHC system. These were mapped onto three countries' PHC systems and present a case study from Timor-Leste's Servisu Integrado du Saude Comunidade (SISCa) focussing on MDGs. Some of the challenges of implementing these into practice are shown through locally collected health system data. An effective PHC system comprises 1) Strong leadership and government in human rights for health; 2) Prioritisation of cost-effective interventions; 3) Establishing an interactive and integrated culture of community engagement; 4) Providing an integrated continuum of care at the community level; 5) Supporting skilled and equipped health workers at all levels of the health system; 6) Creating a systems cycle of feedback using data to inform health care. The implementation case study from Timor-Leste (population 1 million) shows that in its third year, limited country-wide data had been collected and the SISCa program provided over half a million health interactions at the village level. However, only half of SISCa clinics were functional across the country. Attendances included not only pregnant women and children, but also adults and older community members. Development partners have played a key role in supporting this implementation process. The SISCa program is a PHC model implementing current best practice to reach remote communities in a new developing country. Despite limited resources, village level healthcare and

  3. The role of international NGOs in health systems strengthening: the case of Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Mary Anne; Thompson, Susan M; de Araujo, Rui Maria

    2014-01-01

    Achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals for health will require that programs supporting health in developing countries focus on strengthening national health care systems. However, the dominant neoliberal model of development mandates reduced public spending on health and other social services, often resulting in increased funding for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the expense of support for government systems. East Timor, later Timor-Leste, is an example of a post-crisis country where international NGO efforts were initially critical to providing relief efforts to a traumatized population. Those groups were not prepared to help develop and support a standardized Timorese national health plan, however, and the cost of their support was unsustainable in the long term. In response, local authorities designed and implemented a post-crisis NGO phase-over plan that addressed risks to service disruption and monitored the process. Since then, some NGOs have worked collaboratively with the Ministry of Health to support specific efforts and initiatives under a framework provided by the ministry. Timor-Leste has shown that ministries of health can facilitate an effective transition of NGO support from crisis to development if they are allowed to plan and manage the process.

  4. The Catholic Church and reproductive health and rights in Timor-Leste: contestation, negotiation and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Esther

    2015-01-01

    In Timor-Leste, high fertility, high maternal mortality and low levels of contraceptive prevalence demonstrate the importance of exploring perceptions, policies and practices around reproductive health and rights. This paper explores the influence of the Catholic Church on reproductive decision-making at different levels of policy and practice. Utilising a feminist qualitative research methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with a range of participants including nuns and priests, Timorese women and men of different ages and backgrounds and local and national stakeholders working in reproductive health and women's rights. Findings reveal that the Church is reported to play a significant role in reproductive health and rights decision-making at all levels of society, from policy-making to the reproductive decisions made by individual Timorese women and men. Nevertheless, the translation of Church teachings into practice, particularly by nuns, priests and Timorese men and women, reveal a range of attitudes and opinions; some that support and others that contest official Catholic doctrine. In light of the significant influence of the Timorese Catholic Church on policy and practice at many levels of society, there is a need to prioritise the development of rights-based strategies to improve reproductive health services in Timor-Leste.

  5. Impacts of the Conservation Education Program in Serra Malagueta Natural Park, Cape Verde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Edmund; Sills, Erin; Peterson, M. Nils; DePerno, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and conservation education programs are commonly offered in the rapidly expanding network of protected areas in developing countries. There have been few evaluations of these programs and their impacts on participants. At Serra Malagueta Natural Park in Cape Verde, we assessed changes in environmental knowledge, opinions, and…

  6. Impacts of the Conservation Education Program in Serra Malagueta Natural Park, Cape Verde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Edmund; Sills, Erin; Peterson, M. Nils; DePerno, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and conservation education programs are commonly offered in the rapidly expanding network of protected areas in developing countries. There have been few evaluations of these programs and their impacts on participants. At Serra Malagueta Natural Park in Cape Verde, we assessed changes in environmental knowledge, opinions, and…

  7. The Serra Pelada Au-PGE deposit, Serra dos Carajás (Pará State, Brazil): geological and geochemical indications for a composite mineralising process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, Marilena; Girardi, Vicente A.; Ferrario, Alfredo

    2001-12-01

    The Serra Pelada Au-PGE-rich deposit is located in the Serra dos Carajás, a leading mining area in Brazil. This region is characterised by a complex geological and structural framework and is affected by deep lateritisation which has lasted for more than 70 Ma. The Serra Pelada deposit is emplaced in a late-Archean low-grade metasedimentary sequence (Rio Fresco/Águas Claras Formation) which is host to other gold deposits in the region (Igarapé Bahia, Águas Claras). The Rio Fresco/Águas Claras sequence was deposited in tectonic basins developed on Archean basement and Au-bearing greenstone terranes which were intruded by PGE-rich layered mafic complexes (e.g. Luanga). The Serra Pelada mineralisation is located along a regional, complex system of strike-slip faults (Cinzento-Carajás systems) which were active during the late Archean to early Proterozoic. The mineralisation appears to be concentrated along a faulted hinge zone of a fold. Ore zone rock facies are dominated by low-grade ferruginous to carbonaceous metasiltstones and minor sandstones, locally brecciated and cemented by quartz (±sulphide) stockwork. Supergene alteration led to partial to total transformation into friable aggregates of kaolinite, Fe oxide-hydroxides, silica and secondary phosphate-sulphates even at depths exceeding 200 m. Precious metals are exceptionally enriched, with up to more than 1,000 ppm Au+PGE in some peculiar ferruginous-graphitic zones locally called "hidrotermalito". Geochemistry shows complex patterns of major and trace elements, particularly rare-earth elements (REE), in mineralised vs. nonmineralised samples. These patterns are interpreted in terms of variable degree of superposition of hydrothermal and supergene alteration. Precious metals show progressive increase from samples with hydrothermal imprint to samples with supergene imprint. The geological evolution of the Carajás region and the characteristics of mineralisation at Serra Pelada may suggest a composite

  8. Educational Administration in Timor Leste: Language Policy and Capacity Building Challenges in a Post-Conflict Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Timor Leste was established as a country in 1999 when the Indonesians relinquished sovereignty and their departing military units and associated militias left most of the educational infrastructure in ruins. Civil disorder flared again in 2006 and the Government invited international military and reconstruction aid agencies in to restore…

  9. Public-Private Partnerships in Development: Three Applications in Timor Leste. Working Paper No. 221 (Formerly Webdoc No. 9)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braz, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Timor Leste, the first new nation of the twenty-first century, is a young country facing many of the most challenging problems of underdevelopment: illiteracy, malnutrition, low skills base and high unemployment. It also is on the threshold of facing the potential pitfalls of being a relatively large-scale exporter of oil and gas. Finally…

  10. Educational Administration in Timor Leste: Language Policy and Capacity Building Challenges in a Post-Conflict Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Timor Leste was established as a country in 1999 when the Indonesians relinquished sovereignty and their departing military units and associated militias left most of the educational infrastructure in ruins. Civil disorder flared again in 2006 and the Government invited international military and reconstruction aid agencies in to restore…

  11. Public-Private Partnerships in Development: Three Applications in Timor Leste. Working Paper No. 221 (Formerly Webdoc No. 9)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braz, Jose

    2003-01-01

    Timor Leste, the first new nation of the twenty-first century, is a young country facing many of the most challenging problems of underdevelopment: illiteracy, malnutrition, low skills base and high unemployment. It also is on the threshold of facing the potential pitfalls of being a relatively large-scale exporter of oil and gas. Finally…

  12. An analysis of global youth tobacco survey for developing a comprehensive national smoking policy in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio; Yehadji, Degninou

    2016-01-22

    Smoking is a global public health concern. Timor-Leste is facing a rapidly growing epidemic of tobacco use. The trend of smoking in Timor-Leste seems to be increasing and the magnitude of the problem affects people who smoke before reaching adulthood. One of the factors implicated in the continuously rising trend of smoking among young people in Timor-Leste is clearly due to unavailability of restrictive laws and regulations. Therefore, our study sought to analyze available dataset from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for developing a comprehensive national smoking policy in order to lower smoking risks among young people in Timor-Leste. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2009 GYTS in Timor-Leste. The 2009 GYTS assessed 1657 in-school students aged 13-15 years for current smoking prevalence and determinants of tobacco use. We used IBM SPSS version 21 software to analyze the data. Frequency analyses were computed to identify demographic characteristics of study participants. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between each demographic characteristic as well as each independent variable and the outcome of being current smokers. Out of 1657 in-school students, 51 % were of ages less than 15; 53 % were girls; and 45 % were in grade 2. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was found to be 51 %. The prevalence of current smoking among in-school students increased with ages (from 46 % in less than 15 to 57 % in 15 plus). Boys were more likely to be smokers than girls (59 % versus 28 %). Significant factors positively associated with current smoking included parental smoking; closed-peer smoking; number of days people smoked in the house; having family discussion about harmful effects of smoking; being smoking in areas such as school, public places and home; and having seen cigarette advertisements on billboard. Timor-Leste has higher prevalence of cigarette smoking among minors, especially among boys. Our analysis

  13. Ergonomics analyses of five joineries located in Florianópolis-SC, using the LEST Method.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Lizandra Lupi Garcia; Garcia, Carolina Schwinden; Miranda, Felipe Vergara

    2012-01-01

    Considering the goal of Ergonomic Work Analysis to establish, from the point of view of workers, safe, healthy, comfortable and efficient environments, this study propose to analyze the work situation of machine operators at five joineries from Florianópolis-SC. For this, it was applied the LEST Method to evaluate the task made by the operators, considering the physical, cognitive and organizational work environment. As results, it was identified the main ergonomics problems of these workstations, presenting an ergonomic diagnosis and their implications on health and safety of workers. As result, it was concluded that the main ergonomics problems at joineries are related with noise, with constant load of weight and with the postures taken. Besides these problems, others were diagnosed, for example, the pressure for workers to comply strictly the task stipulated and also the poor training and capacity of workers.

  14. Climate change and population growth in Timor Leste: implications for food security.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Nicholas; da Cruz, Gil Rangel; Williams, Robert L; Andersen, Rebecca; Turner, Neil C

    2012-12-01

    The climate in Timor Leste (East Timor) is predicted to become about 1.5 °C warmer and about 10 % wetter on average by 2050. By the same year, the population is expected to triple from 1 to 2.5-3 million. This article maps the predicted changes in temperature and rainfall and reviews the implications of climate change and population growth on agricultural systems. Improved cultivars of maize, rice, cassava, sweet potato and peanuts with high yield performance have been introduced, but these will need to be augmented in the future with better adapted cultivars and new crops, such as food and fodder legumes and new management practices. The requirements for fertilizers to boost yields and terracing and/or contour hedgerows to prevent soil erosion of steeply sloping terrain are discussed. Contour hedges can also be used for fodder for improved animal production to provide protein to reduce malnutrition.

  15. General health in Timor-Leste: self-assessed health in a large household survey.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Jaya; Finger, Robert P

    2009-08-01

    Timor-Leste is one of the world's newest nations and became a democracy in 2002. Ranked 150 out of 177 in the 2007 UNDP Human Development Index, the country has the worst health indicators in the Asia-Pacific region. The objective of this study was to collect and analyse data on subjectively assessed general health, health service use, migration and mobility patterns. The data collection involved recording self-reported status of general health using a structured questionnaire. The survey was administered to 1,213 Timorese households in six districts using a multi-stage random cluster sampling procedure. Basic descriptive statistical analyses were performed on all variables with SPSS version 13. More than a quarter (27%) of respondents reported a health problem at the time of the survey. Only approximately half of respondents assessed their health to be good (53%) or average (38%). Barriers reported in the uptake of healthcare services were no felt needed; difficulty in accessing services and unavailability of service. Results reveal that Timor-Leste needs a more decentralised provision of healthcare through primary healthcare centres or integrated health services. Trained traditional healers, who are familiar with the difficult terrain and understand cultural contexts and barriers, can be used to improve uptake of public health services. An adult literacy and community health education program is needed to further improve the extremely poor health indicators in the country. Key lessons that emerged were the importance of understanding cultural mechanisms in areas of protracted conflict and the need for integrated health services in communities.

  16. Implementing what works: a case study of integrated primary health care revitalisation in Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Revitalising primary health care (PHC) and the need to reach MDG targets requires developing countries to adapt current evidence about effective health systems to their local context. Timor-Leste in one of the world’s newest developing nations, with high maternal and child mortality rates, malaria, TB and malnutrition. Mountainous terrain and lack of transport pose serious challenges for accessing health services and implementing preventive health strategies. Methods We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature and identified six components of an effective PHC system. These were mapped onto three countries’ PHC systems and present a case study from Timor-Leste’s Servisu Integrado du Saude Comunidade (SISCa) focussing on MDGs. Some of the challenges of implementing these into practice are shown through locally collected health system data. Results An effective PHC system comprises 1) Strong leadership and government in human rights for health; 2) Prioritisation of cost-effective interventions; 3) Establishing an interactive and integrated culture of community engagement; 4) Providing an integrated continuum of care at the community level; 5) Supporting skilled and equipped health workers at all levels of the health system; 6) Creating a systems cycle of feedback using data to inform health care. The implementation case study from Timor-Leste (population 1 million) shows that in its third year, limited country-wide data had been collected and the SISCa program provided over half a million health interactions at the village level. However, only half of SISCa clinics were functional across the country. Attendances included not only pregnant women and children, but also adults and older community members. Development partners have played a key role in supporting this implementation process. Conclusion The SISCa program is a PHC model implementing current best practice to reach remote communities in a new developing country. Despite limited

  17. Pyroxenes in Serra de Mage - Cooling history in comparison with Moama and Moore County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, G. E.; Prinz, M.; Nehru, C. E.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1979-01-01

    Thin sections and single grains of pyroxenes from the Serra de Mage feldspar cumulate eucrites were studied by X-ray crystallography, electron microprobe and optical techniques. It was concluded that the pyroxene crystallized as pigeonite. On cooling augite was exsolved along (001) and inverted to hypersthene, with exsolution of (100) augite from hypersthene during continued slow cooling. The estimated original bulk composition of the pigeonite pyroxene is Wo10En51Fs39. The compositional data, textural relations, and existence of P2 sub 1 ca hypersthene suggest very low cooling (about 0.0004 deg C/year) below 800 deg. The Serra de Mage augite lamellae were found to be as thick or thicker than those of Moore County and Moama meteorites.

  18. Pyroxenes in Serra de Mage - Cooling history in comparison with Moama and Moore County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, G. E.; Prinz, M.; Nehru, C. E.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1979-01-01

    Thin sections and single grains of pyroxenes from the Serra de Mage feldspar cumulate eucrites were studied by X-ray crystallography, electron microprobe and optical techniques. It was concluded that the pyroxene crystallized as pigeonite. On cooling augite was exsolved along (001) and inverted to hypersthene, with exsolution of (100) augite from hypersthene during continued slow cooling. The estimated original bulk composition of the pigeonite pyroxene is Wo10En51Fs39. The compositional data, textural relations, and existence of P2 sub 1 ca hypersthene suggest very low cooling (about 0.0004 deg C/year) below 800 deg. The Serra de Mage augite lamellae were found to be as thick or thicker than those of Moore County and Moama meteorites.

  19. Stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera) from Serra Bonita, Bahia, Brazil: new species and updated records.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Tácio; Lecci, Lucas S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-03-13

    There are 176 species representing eight genera and two families of Plecoptera known from Brazil. However, only ten of these species are recorded from the State of Bahia. In this study, an inventory of stoneflies from the southern region of Bahia State, Serra Bonita, including the municipality of Camacan, was undertaken from 2007-2012. Stoneflies were collected using UV light pan traps, Malaise traps, and aerial nets. One new gripopterygid species, Tupiperla bispoi n. sp., is described and illustrated. Four genera representing ten other species are recorded: Gripopteryx cancellata, G. clemira, G. garbei, G. pinima, Paragripopteryx sp., and Tupiperla tessellata (Gripopterygidae), Kempnyia alterosarum, K. gracilenta, K. jatim, and K. neotropica (Perlidae). With the present study, the number of known species of stoneflies recorded from Bahia State is 17, ten of these recorded from the Serra Bonita region.

  20. Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

  1. A long-term perspective on biomass burning in the Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Simon E.; Araújo, João; van der Knaap, Willem O.; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.

    2012-11-01

    Fire is currently perceived as a major threat to ecosystems and biodiversity in the mountains of the Mediterranean region. Portugal's highest mountain range, the Serra da Estrela, is one of the country's most important protected areas and also the most fire-prone. We present a ˜14,000-year fire history based on microscopic charred particles in an infilled glacial lake to better understand the antiquity of biomass burning and its effects on Mediterranean vegetation at the Atlantic margin. Results indicate the continuous occurrence of fire in the Serra da Estrela over the period of the record. Two periods of increased fire activity - around 12,000-11,000 calendar years before the present (cal. a BP) and 3500-2500 cal. a BP - were accompanied by major vegetation changes and followed by long periods of vegetation stabilisation. Cross-correlation analyses reveal that post-fire succession consistently began with herbaceous vegetation, followed by forest and shrubland stages. Past successional trends were often markedly different to those observed at present. Holocene climatic changes, including shifts in the North Atlantic Oscillation, played a pivotal role in the vegetation development and fire history of the Serra da Estrela. In the late Holocene, human use of fire became a major agent of vegetation change, accelerating the Holocene decline of forests.

  2. Use of medicines and adherence to standard treatment guidelines in rural community health centers, Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Michiyo; Okumura, Junko; Aoyama, Atsuko; Suryawati, Sri; Porter, John

    2015-03-01

    The use of medicines and nurses'/midwives' adherence to standard treatment guidelines (STGs) were examined in Timor-Leste during the early stage of the nation's new health system development. A cross-sectional study was conducted as the quantitative element of mixed methods research. Retrospective samples from patient registration books and prospective observations were obtained in 20 randomly selected rural community health centers. The medicines use indicators, in particular the level of injection use, in Timor-Leste did not suggest overprescription. Prescribers with clinical nurse training prescribed significantly fewer antibiotics than those without such training (P < .01). The adjusted odds ratio of prescribing adherence for clinical nurse training, after accounting for confounders and prescriber clustering, was 6.6 (P < .01). STGs for nonphysician health professionals at the primary health care level have potential value in basic health care delivery, including appropriate use of medicines, in resource-limited communities when strategically developed and introduced.

  3. Changing the malaria treatment protocol policy in Timor-Leste: an examination of context, process, and actors' involvement.

    PubMed

    Martins, João S; Zwi, Anthony B; Hobday, Karen; Bonaparte, Fernando; Kelly, Paul M

    2013-05-15

    In 2007 Timor-Leste, a malaria endemic country, changed its Malaria Treatment Protocol for uncomplicated falciparum malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine. The change in treatment policy was based on the rise in morbidity due to malaria and perception of increasing drug resistance. Despite a lack of nationally available evidence on drug resistance, the Ministry of Health decided to change the protocol. The policy process leading to this change was examined through a qualitative study on how the country developed its revised treatment protocol for malaria. This process involved many actors and was led by the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and the WHO country office. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities identified during this period of treatment protocol change.

  4. Changing the malaria treatment protocol policy in Timor-Leste: an examination of context, process, and actors’ involvement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 Timor-Leste, a malaria endemic country, changed its Malaria Treatment Protocol for uncomplicated falciparum malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine. The change in treatment policy was based on the rise in morbidity due to malaria and perception of increasing drug resistance. Despite a lack of nationally available evidence on drug resistance, the Ministry of Health decided to change the protocol. The policy process leading to this change was examined through a qualitative study on how the country developed its revised treatment protocol for malaria. This process involved many actors and was led by the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and the WHO country office. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities identified during this period of treatment protocol change. PMID:23672371

  5. An investigation of classical swine fever virus seroprevalence and risk factors in pigs in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Sawford, Kate; do Karmo, Antonino; da Conceicao, Felisiano; Geong, Maria; Tenaya, I Wayan Masa; Hartawan, Dinar H W; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-11-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a highly infectious pathogen of pigs and believed to be a major constraint to pig production in Timor-Leste. The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries conducts vaccination campaigns in an attempt to control clinical disease, however, there is no empirical data available concerning the seroprevalence and distribution of CSFV in Timor-Leste. To help address this knowledge deficit, a cross-sectional study to determine seroprevalence was conducted in the three districts that border Indonesia. Data on farmer- and pig-level factors were also collected to look at their impact on CSFV serological status. Overall, true CSFV seroprevalence was estimated at 34.4%. Seroprevalence estimates varied widely between and within districts, subdistricts, and villages. Older pigs and pigs that had been vaccinated for CSFV were more likely to test positive for CSFV antibody. Pigs owned by farmers that experienced the sudden death of pigs in the 12 months prior to the survey were more likely to test positive for CSFV antibody, while pigs that had been sick in the previous three months were less likely to test positive for CSFV antibody. The final multivariable model accounted for a large amount of variation in the data, however, much of this variation was explained by the random effects with less than one percent of the variation explained by the fixed effects. This work further supports the need for a collaborative approach to whole-island CSFV control between West Timor, Indonesia and Timor-Leste. Further work is needed to better understand the risk factors for CSFV serological status in order to allocate resources for control. As CSFV is now endemic in Timor-Leste research involving a combination of serology, antigen detection and in-depth investigation of suspect cases over a period of time may be required.

  6. Trauma exposure, PTSD and psychotic-like symptoms in post-conflict Timor Leste: an epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Soosay, Ian; Silove, Derrick; Bateman-Steel, Catherine; Steel, Zachary; Bebbington, Paul; Jones, Peter B; Chey, Tien; Ivancic, Lorraine; Marnane, Claire

    2012-12-18

    Studies in developed countries indicate that psychotic-like symptoms are prevalent in the community and are related to trauma exposure and PTSD. No comparable studies have been undertaken in low-income, post-conflict countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in conflict-affected Timor Leste and to examine whether symptoms were associated with trauma and PTSD. The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (assessing trauma exposure and PTSD) were administered in an epidemiological survey of 1245 adults (response rate 80.6%) in a rural and an urban setting in Timor Leste. We defined PSQ screen-positive cases as those people reporting at least one psychotic-like symptom (paranoia, hallucinations, strange experiences, thought interference, hypomania). The prevalence of PSQ screen-positive cases was 12 percent and these persons were more disabled. PSQ cases were more likely to reside in the urban area, experienced higher levels of trauma exposure and a greater prevalence of PTSD. PTSD only partially mediated the relationship between trauma exposure and psychotic-like symptoms. Psychotic-like symptoms may be prevalent in countries exposed to mass conflict. The cultural and contextual meaning of psychotic-like symptoms requires further inquiry in low-income, post-conflict settings such as Timor Leste.

  7. "The family is the clinic, the community is the hospital": community mental health in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Zoe; Tilman, Teofilo

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the history and recent development of mental health services in Timor-Leste, a small developing country recovering from conflict. Challenges to effective service delivery are discussed as well as plans for future development. Timor-Leste's mental health service began just over a decade ago. Unlike many other low and middle income countries where hospital-based services predominate, the mental health model in Timor-Leste is entirely community based. However, challenges to effective mental health care delivery are similar to most developing countries and include a lack of sufficient financial resources, human resources, and mental health infrastructure. Addressing these issues successfully requires political will, a greater prioritization of mental health services, close coordination between stakeholders, as well as developments in the area of education, training and infrastructure. Greater understanding and education about the links between mental and physical health would benefit the overall health of the population, and integration of these respective policies may prove a successful method of more equitably redistributing finances and resources.

  8. Trauma exposure, PTSD and psychotic-like symptoms in post-conflict Timor Leste: an epidemiological survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies in developed countries indicate that psychotic-like symptoms are prevalent in the community and are related to trauma exposure and PTSD. No comparable studies have been undertaken in low-income, post-conflict countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of psychotic-like symptoms in conflict-affected Timor Leste and to examine whether symptoms were associated with trauma and PTSD. Methods The Psychosis Screening Questionnaire and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (assessing trauma exposure and PTSD) were administered in an epidemiological survey of 1245 adults (response rate 80.6%) in a rural and an urban setting in Timor Leste. We defined PSQ screen-positive cases as those people reporting at least one psychotic-like symptom (paranoia, hallucinations, strange experiences, thought interference, hypomania). Results The prevalence of PSQ screen-positive cases was 12 percent and these persons were more disabled. PSQ cases were more likely to reside in the urban area, experienced higher levels of trauma exposure and a greater prevalence of PTSD. PTSD only partially mediated the relationship between trauma exposure and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusions Psychotic-like symptoms may be prevalent in countries exposed to mass conflict. The cultural and contextual meaning of psychotic-like symptoms requires further inquiry in low-income, post-conflict settings such as Timor Leste. PMID:23249370

  9. Prevalence and correlates of explosive anger among pregnant and post-partum women in post-conflict Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Susan; Tam, Natalino; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Tol, Wietse

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about explosive anger as a response pattern among pregnant and post-partum women in conflict-affected societies. Aims To investigate the prevalence and correlates of explosive anger among this population in Timor-Leste. Method We assessed traumatic events, intimate partner violence, an index of adversity, explosive anger, psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder among 427 women (257 in the second trimester of pregnancy, 170 who were 3–6 months post-partum) residing in two districts of Timor-Leste (response >99%). Results Two-fifths (43.6%) had explosive anger. Levels of functional impairment were related to frequency of explosive anger episodes. Explosive anger was associated with age (>35 years), being married, low levels of education, being employed, traumatic event count, ongoing adversity and intimate partner violence. Conclusions A combination of social programmes and novel psychological therapies may assist in reducing severe anger among pregnant and post-partum women in conflict-affected countries such as Timor-Leste. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703721

  10. Prevalence and correlates of explosive anger among pregnant and post-partum women in post-conflict Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Silove, Derrick; Rees, Susan; Tam, Natalino; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Tol, Wietse

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about explosive anger as a response pattern among pregnant and post-partum women in conflict-affected societies. To investigate the prevalence and correlates of explosive anger among this population in Timor-Leste. We assessed traumatic events, intimate partner violence, an index of adversity, explosive anger, psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder among 427 women (257 in the second trimester of pregnancy, 170 who were 3-6 months post-partum) residing in two districts of Timor-Leste (response >99%). Two-fifths (43.6%) had explosive anger. Levels of functional impairment were related to frequency of explosive anger episodes. Explosive anger was associated with age (>35 years), being married, low levels of education, being employed, traumatic event count, ongoing adversity and intimate partner violence. A combination of social programmes and novel psychological therapies may assist in reducing severe anger among pregnant and post-partum women in conflict-affected countries such as Timor-Leste. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  11. Quaternary Uplift of Coral Terraces from Active Folding and Thrusting Along the Northern Coast of Timor-Leste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L.; Harris, R.; Merritts, D.

    2006-12-01

    Emergent coral terraces along the northern coast of Timor-Leste, reveal differential vertical strain along the strike of the active Banda arc-continent collision complex. The number of major coral terraces in surveyed profiles increases from 2 to 25 along a coastal distance of 150 km from central to eastern Timor-Leste. Comparison of 8 separate terrace profiles with sea level curves predicts vertical displacement rates that increase eastward from <0.3 to 1.0-1.5 mm/year. This pattern is corroborated by U-series age analyses that document non-linear increases in vertical strain eastward with the uplift rates ranging from <.04 to 2.0 mm/year. U-series ages also indicates the occurrence of both erosional (regressional) and depositional terraces. Two profiles, dominated by erosional terraces, have associated local lower depositional terraces. The erosional terraces are more abundant, but yield apparent lower uplift rates in comparison with the depositional terraces. This occurrence questions the validity of uplift rates obtained by age analysis for the errosional terraces and/or aids in the conclusion that differential vertical strain not only exists with distance between profiles but with time for each profile. We associate active uplift with northward movement along retro- wedge thrust faults that are well documented in seismic reflection profiles adjacent to the north coast of Timor- Leste.

  12. Pesticide levels in ground and surface waters of Primavera do Leste Region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Carbo, Leandro; Ribeiro, Maria L; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M

    2008-08-01

    Residues of the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, trifluralin, atrazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), are surveyed in the surface and groundwater of the Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso, Brazil during September and December 1998 and April 1999. Different water source sampling stations of groundwater (irrigation water well, drinking water well, and water hole) and surface water (dam and river) are set up based on agricultural land use. A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection is used for the determination of these compounds. All compounds are detected at least once in water samples. A temporal trend of pesticide contamination is observed, with the highest contamination frequency occurring in December during the main application season. Metribuzin shows the highest individual detection frequencies throughout the monitoring period, followed by metolachlor, simazine, and DEA. The maximum mean concentrations of pesticides in this study are in the range from 0.14 to 1.7 microg/L. We deduct that the contamination of water resources is predominantly caused by non-point pollution of pesticides used in intensive cash-crop cultures of the Cerrado area. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of pesticide concentrations in water resources of this tropical region is necessary to detect the longer term contamination trends and developing health risks.

  13. Associations between bride price stress and intimate partner violence amongst pregnant women in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Soares, Elisa; Tam, Natalino; da Costa, Zelia; Tol, Wietse; Silove, Derrick

    2017-08-28

    Reducing violence against women is a global public health priority, particularly in low-income and conflict-affected societies. However, more needs to be known about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in these settings, including the stress of bride price obligations. The representative study of women attending ante-natal clinics in Dili, Timor-Leste was conducted between June, 2013 and September, 2014 with 1672 pregnant women, a response rate of 96%. We applied contextually developed measures for the stress of bride price and poverty, and the World Health Organisation measure for intimate partner violence. Compared to those with no problems with bride price, women with moderate or serious problems with that custom reported higher rates of IPV (18.0% vs. 43.6%). Adjusting for socio-demographic factors, multivariate analysis revealed that ongoing poverty (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.20-2.56) was significantly associated with IPV. Importantly, the strongest association with IPV was problems with bride price (OR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.86-4.01). This is the first large consecutively sampled study to demonstrate a strong association between the stressors of bride price and poverty with IPV. Notably, bride price stress had the strongest association with IPV. Revealing this hitherto unrecognized factor of bride price stress may prove pivotal in guiding policy and interventions aimed at reducing IPV, and thereby improve the health and psychosocial status of women in low income and conflict-affected settings.

  14. Agenda Setting and Evidence in Maternal Health: Connecting Research and Policy in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kayli; Kelly, Paul; Barclay, Lesley; Martins, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-based policy (EBP) movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature; however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low- and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors, and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organization representatives, and United Nations advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops, and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this ethnographic case study demonstrate that although the post-conflict context opened up space for new policy ideas senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors had the most power in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial, and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers.

  15. Floristic analysis and dispersal syndromes of woody species of the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, W M; Sartori, A L B

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a floristic survey of the wood component of cerrado s.s. (eastern face) and gallery forest (western face) areas carried out in the southern part of the Serra de Maracaju. The dispersal syndromes and floristic relations of this portion of the Serra were compared to those of other formations from different regions of Brazil. Between October 2007 and September 2008, monthly collections identified 144 species. As for dispersal syndromes, zoochory prevails, followed by autochory and anemochory. The gallery forest is a heterogeneous formation that shelters floristic elements shared with the Atlantic rain forest, the Amazonian forest, semi-deciduous seasonal forests and dry forests of the Pantanal. Low similarity between the two areas analyzed makes this region unique and suggests that the Serra de Maracaju is greatly influenced by the semi-deciduous seasonal forests of the southeastern region.

  16. Microfossils in micrites from Serra da Bodoquena (MS), Brazil: taxonomy and paleoenvironmental implications.

    PubMed

    Utida, Giselle; Petri, Setembrino; Oliveira, Emiliano C; Boggiani, Paulo C

    2012-06-01

    Microfossils present in Quaternary micrites from Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, are here described for the first time. The studied taxa are: a) ostracods: Candona sp., Candonopsis sp., Cyclocypris sp., Cypria sp., Cypridopsis sp., Notodromas sp., Ilyocypris sp., Cyprideis sp., Wolburgiopsis cf. chinamuertensis (Musacchio 1970), Darwinula sp. and 5 morphotypes; b) microgastropod Acrobis sp., and c) Characeae remains and gyrogonites Chara sp.. The presence of these microfossils suggests clear-water shallow lacustrine paleoenvironments and the presence of aquatic vegetation. Similarities between microfossils and the living taxa suggest possible Holocene ages for these deposits, which is in accordance with previous C(14) dates.

  17. Pioneer Robotic Serra-Doria Operation for Recurrent Achalasia After Heller's Cardiomyotomy: A "New Quondam" Procedure.

    PubMed

    Zilberstein, Bruno; Franciss, Maurice Youssef; Genovesi, Aletheia; Volpe, Paula; Domene, Carlos Eduardo; Barchi, Leandro Cardoso

    2017-05-01

    Recurrence of achalasia may occur in 10%-20% of cases operated by Heller's cardiomyotomy. Most of these patients will require further surgery to relieve symptoms. Major technical difficulties can be found in these reoperations. A 50-year-old female patient with relapsed idiopathic achalasia after Heller's technique was treated with an unusual procedure, for the first time in the literature, by minimally invasive access with robotic assistance. The Serra-Doria operation allows preserving the esophagus and alleviating dysphagic symptoms with low rates of postoperative complications. The use of robotic technology is perfectly feasible and allows minimally invasive access in complex cases and reoperations.

  18. Scaling-up the medical workforce in Timor-Leste: challenges of a great leap forward.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Jorge; Dussault, Gilles; Buchan, James; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2013-11-01

    The health services system of Timor-Leste (T-L) will, by 2015, add 800 physicians, most of them trained in Cuba, to the 233 employed by the national health system in 2010-2011. The need for more physicians is not in discussion: poor health indicators, low coverage and utilization of services, and poor quality of services are well documented in T-L. However, the choice of this scaling-up, with a relatively narrow focus on the medical workforce, needs to be assessed for its relevance to the health profile of the country, for its comprehensiveness in terms of other complementary measures needed to make it effective. This article discusses the potential effects of the rapid scaling-up of the medical workforce, and the organizational capacity needed to monitor the process and eventually mitigate any deleterious consequences. The analysis is based on a review of documentation collected on site (T-L) and on interviews with key-informants conducted in 2011. We stress that any workforce scaling-up is not simply a matter of increasing numbers of professionals, but should combine improved training, distribution, working conditions, management and motivation, as a means towards better performing health services' systems. This is a major challenge in a context of limited organizational and managerial capacity, underdeveloped information systems, limited training and research capacity, and dependency on foreign aid and technical assistance. Potential risks are associated with funding the additional costs of recruiting more personnel, associated expenditures on infrastructure, equipment and consumables, the impact on current staff mix, and the expected increased demand for services. We conclude that failing to manage effectively the forthcoming "great leap forward" will have long term effects: formal policies and plans for the balanced development of the health workforce, as well as strengthened institutions are urgently needed.

  19. Explosive anger as a response to human rights violations in post-conflict Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Silove, Derrick; Brooks, Robert; Bateman Steel, Catherine Robina; Steel, Zachary; Hewage, Kalhari; Rodger, James; Soosay, Ian

    2009-09-01

    Over several decades, clinicians have documented a pattern of explosive anger amongst survivors of gross human rights violations. Yet there is a dearth of epidemiological research investigating explosive anger in post-conflict countries. In the present study undertaken in Timor-Leste between March and November 2004, we identified an indigenous descriptor for explosive anger, including this index in the East Timor Mental Health Epidemiological Needs Study, a small area total population survey of 1544 adults living in an urban and a rural area. Other measures included indices of past trauma events, post-traumatic stress and general psychological distress, and socio-demographic variables. We found that 38% of the population reached the defined threshold of one attack of explosive anger a month (average=1 episode every 2-3 days). Only a minority of persons with explosive anger reached threshold scores for post-traumatic stress and general psychological distress. High levels of trauma exposure represented the strongest predictor of explosive anger. Latent class analysis identified three sub-groups with explosive anger: young trauma-affected adults living in the capital city who were unemployed; an older group, predominantly men, who had experienced extensive violence, including combat, assault and torture; and a less well characterized group of women. The findings offer support for a sequential model of explosive anger in which experiences of past persecution are compounded by frustrations in the post-conflict environment. The data provide a foundation for exploring further the role of trauma-induced anger in the cycles of violence that are prevalent in post-conflict countries.

  20. Birth choices in Timor-Leste: a framework for understanding the use of maternal health services in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kayli; Barclay, Lesley; Kelly, Paul; Martins, Nelson

    2010-12-01

    The high rate of maternal mortality in Timor-Leste is a persistent problem which has been exacerbated by the long history of military occupation and ongoing political crises since independence in 1999. It is similar to other developing countries where there have been slow declines in maternal mortality despite 20 years of Safe Motherhood interventions. The national Ministry of Health, United Nations (UN) agencies and non-government organisations (NGOs) have attempted to reduce maternal mortality by enacting policies and interventions to increase the number of births in health centres and hospitals. Despite considerable effort in promoting facility-based delivery, most Timorese women birth at home and the lack of midwives means few women have access to a skilled birth attendant. This paper investigates factors influencing access to and use of maternal health services in rural areas of Timor-Leste. It draws on 21 interviews and 11 group discussions with Timorese women and their families collected over two periods of fieldwork, one month in September 2006 and five months from July to December 2007. Theoretical concepts from anthropology and health social science are used to explore individual, social, political and health system issues which affect the way in which maternal health services are utilised. In drawing together a range of theories this paper aims to extend explanations around access to maternal health services in developing countries. An empirically informed framework is proposed which illustrates the complex factors that influence women's birth choices. This framework can be used by policy-makers, practitioners, donors and researchers to think critically about policy decisions and where investments can have the most impact for improving maternal health in Timor-Leste and elsewhere.

  1. Age distribution of Serra Geral (Paraná) flood basalts, southern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Roisenberg, A.

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Paraná) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ≈130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35° and 19°S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140–160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques.

  2. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  3. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  4. An estimation of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in adults in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Rosie Claire Hewitt; Oliver, Genevieve Frances; Sharma, Manoj; Pinto, Basilio Martins; Jeronimo, Belmerio; Pereira, Bernadete; Magno, Julia; Motta, Lara Alexandra; Verma, Nitin; Shephard, Mark

    2015-06-18

    Once considered an affliction of people in high-income countries, diabetes mellitus is increasingly seen as a global epidemic. However, for many countries very little is known about the prevalence of diabetes and its complications. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of diabetes, and diabetic retinopathy, in adults in Timor-Leste. From March 2013 to May 2014, adult patients being assessed for cataract surgery at the Sentru Matan Nasional (National Eye Centre) in Dili, Timor-Leste had a point-of-care HbA1c measurement performed on the DCA Vantage device (Siemens Ltd) under a quality framework. A diagnostic cut-off of 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) HbA1c was used for diagnosis of diabetes. Ocular examination, blood pressure, demographic and general health data were also collected. Diabetic retinopathy assessment was carried out by ophthalmologists. A total of 283 people [mean age 63.6 years (range 20-90 years)] were tested and examined during the study period. Forty-three people (15.2%) were found to have diabetes, with a mean HbA1c of 9.5% (77 mmol/mol). Of these, 27 (62.9%) were newly diagnosed, with a mean HbA1c of 9.7% (83 mmol/mol) and a range of 6.6-14% (49-130 mmol/mol). Nearly half (48.1%) of people newly diagnosed with diabetes had an HbA1c over 10.0% (86 mmol/mol). Of those with known diabetes, only 68.8% were receiving any treatment. Mean HbA1c for treated patients was 9.9% (85 mmol/mol). Diabetic retinopathy was identified in 18.6% of people with diabetes, of whom half had no previous diagnosis of diabetes. This study estimates the prevalence of diabetes at 15% in adults in Timor-Leste, a substantial proportion of whom have evidence of diabetic retinopathy. This is consistent with regional estimates. With the majority of patients undiagnosed, and management of people known to have diabetes largely inadequate, point-of-care testing is a valuable tool to assist with diabetes case detection and management. Whilst only a preliminary estimate, our data provides

  5. A new species of Tupiperla Froehlich, 1969 (Plecoptera: Gripopterygidae) from Serra da Jibóia, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Tácio; Bispo, Pitágoras C; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-07-09

    The gripopterygid genus Tupiperla comprises 18 species, 16 have been recorded from Brazil, including T. guariru n. sp., described here. The new species was collected from streams in the Serra da Jibóia region, Bahia State, Brazil using light traps. Additional material from Amargosa, Bahia State, Brazil was also studied.

  6. Identifying national health research priorities in Timor-Leste through a scoping review of existing health data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Health research is crucial to understand a country’s needs and to improve health outcomes. We conducted a scoping review and analysis of existing health data in Timor-Leste to identify the health research priorities of the country. Published and unpublished health research in Timor-Leste from 2001 to 2011 that reported objectives, methods and results were identified. Key findings were triangulated with data from national surveys and the Health Management Information System; 114 eligible articles were included in the analysis, the leading topics of which were communicable (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases and dengue) and non-communicable (eye and mental health) diseases. There were 28 papers (25%) on safe motherhood, child health and nutrition, of which 20 (71%) were unpublished. The review of national indicators showed high infant, under-five and maternal mortality rates. Burden of disease is greatest in young children, with respiratory infections, febrile illnesses and diarrheal disease predominating. There is poor access to and utilization of health care. Childhood malnutrition is an important unresolved national health issue. There are several obstacles leading to under-utilization of health services. The following topics for future health research are suggested from the review: nutrition, safe motherhood, childhood illness (in particular identifying the causes and cause-specific burden of severe respiratory, febrile and diarrheal diseases) and access to and use of health services. PMID:23452321

  7. The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy to Treat Symptoms Following Trauma in Timor Leste.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Sarah J; Lee, Christopher W; de Araujo, Guilhermina; Butler, Susan R; Taylor, Graham; Drummond, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for treating trauma symptoms was examined in a postwar/conflict, developing nation, Timor Leste. Participants were 21 Timorese adults with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed as those who scored ≥2 on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Participants were treated with EMDR therapy. Depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Symptom changes post-EMDR treatment were compared to a stabilization control intervention period in which participants served as their own waitlist control. Sessions were 60-90 mins. The average number of sessions was 4.15 (SD = 2.06). Despite difficulties providing treatment cross-culturally (i.e., language barriers), EMDR therapy was followed by significant and large reductions in trauma symptoms (Cohen's d = 2.48), depression (d = 2.09), and anxiety (d = 1.77). At posttreatment, 20 (95.2%) participants scored below the HTQ PTSD cutoff of 2. Reliable reductions in trauma symptoms were reported by 18 participants (85.7%) posttreatment and 16 (76.2%) at 3-month follow-up. Symptoms did not improve during the control period. Findings support the use of EMDR therapy for treatment of adults with PTSD in a cross-cultural, postwar/conflict setting, and suggest that structured trauma treatments can be applied in Timor Leste.

  8. Micromorphology of selected relict slope deposits from Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Vieira, Gonçalo; Schaefer, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Serra da Estrela is the highest mountain in Portugal (1,993 m ASL) and part of the Iberian Central Cordillera. The mountain has a strong relief and a lithological diversity with several types of granitoids and metasediments. Most of the western plateau area was glaciated during the Last Glacial Maximum and its morphology is dominated by glacial landforms. Vieira (2004) produced a detailed geomorphological map of Serra da Estrela and described several sites showing stratified slope, head and debris-flow deposits. Based on the geomorphological analysis of the relationships between glacial and periglacial evidence, a first relative chronology was presented. However, a detailed and systematical sedimentological analysis has not been conducted before and absolute ages are also lacking. Micromorphology analysis has proven to be of considerable value in the interpretation of mountain soils and sediments. Such interpretation depends on identifying diagnostic features, indicating factors as the presence or absence of permafrost, thickness of the active layer, ice segregation and the operation of processes of mass-wasting. In this study, micromorphology was used to answer questions concerning the composition, structure, origin and depositional processes of relict slope deposits. Micromorphology allowed a systematic description of the physical characteristics of the sediments. Lamination and sorting, when preserved, are good evidence for overland flow. Features due to deformation (folds, boudins, coatings and tails due to the rotation of clasts) are associated with sliding. Other mass-movements such as debris flows, earth flows, and to a certain extent, dry grain flows may be characterized by similar microscopic facies, typically a poorly sorted, porphyric material. Porosity gives evidence for both liquefaction (debris flows) and frost-induced mass-movement (solifluction). The relict slope deposits of the Serra da Estrela show an increase in cryogenic micromorphological

  9. Effective compounds screening from Rabdosia serra (Maxim) Hara against HBV and tumor in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Chen, Yang; Zhu, Hongyuan; Xiao, Yiyun; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Zhao, Jingfeng; Chen, Yuxiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and investigate the anti-HBV and anti-tumor activities of separated compounds from Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) Hara to lay the basis for further isolate active entity. Three kinds of extractions from Rabdosia serra using different solvents (petroleum ether, acetidin, butyl alcohol) were prepared and used to analyze their anti-HBV activity in HepG2.2.15 cells for further separation. The cytotoxicity of each extraction was tested by MTT assay, the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in supernatants from HepG2.2.15 cells were detected by ELISA and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, the most effective extraction was further separated, the anti-HBV activities of separated compounds were also tested by MTT and ELISA, and three compounds with highest cytotoxicity were selected to further identify their anti-tumor activities on MCF-7, BGC-823 and HepG2 cells. Acetidin extraction C2 had the most effective anti-HBV activity that was used to be further separated, it led to statistically significant reduction in HBsAg and HBeAg secretion and HBV DNA. The separation of C2 resulted in 14 compounds, A3 and A5 markedly inhibited HBsAg secretion, while A9 inhibited HBeAg secretion in a dose-dependent manner with higher TI comparing with C2. A6, A7, A11 had different anti-tumor activity against different tumor cells. These data showed that the extraction and their separated effective compounds had strong inhibitory effect on HBV replication so as to have anti-HBV activity, and further separation and purification could enhance anti-HBV activity. Meanwhile, some compounds have high cytotoxicities on different tumor cells. Our study could provide a theoretical basis for the next clinical use and the development of potential and efficient drugs for HBV and tumor therapy from Rabdosia serra. PMID:24600493

  10. Changes in the oral health of the children of Dili, Timor Leste, between 2002 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Babo Soares, Lucio F; Allen, Penny L; Kingi, Jenna; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Bettiol, Silvana; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    This research compared the oral health status of school children in Dili (the capital of Timor Leste) in 2002 and 2014. The 2014 oral health survey of Dili's children replicated the methods of an AusAID-supported oral health survey conducted in 2002. Equal numbers of children were invited to participate from four age groups (6-8, 9-11, 12-14 and 15-17 years). For the 2014 survey, the subdistricts of Dom Aleixo, Cristo Rei, Metinaro and Vera Cruz were randomly selected for inclusion. A questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics and oral health behaviours. Oral epidemiological examinations were conducted by four dentists and five dental nurses. The 2014 survey in Dili recruited 758 participants for the questionnaire and 655 children for the oral examination. In 2014, a lower proportion of children reported brushing their teeth the previous day (97% vs 100%, p=0.01) and a larger proportion reported having toothache (40% vs 19%, p<0.001) (sometimes to very often) during the previous 12 months. The mean number of decayed, missing or filled teeth in the primary plus permanent dentition (dmft + DMFT) was greater in 2014 than in 2002 (4.2 vs 3.5, p=0.01). There was no difference in the prevalence of decay in the primary dentition (39% vs 37%, p=0.61) or the mean number of decayed, missing or filled (dmft) teeth in the primary dentition in 2014 compared to 2002 (2.0 vs 1.8, p=0.47). However, the prevalence of decay in the permanent dentition was greater in 2014 (70% vs 53%, p<0.001) as was the mean DMFT (2.3 vs 1.7, p=0.04). The prevalence of gingival bleeding (65% vs 81%, p<0.001) and calculus (57% vs 86%, p<0.001) was lower in 2014. There was an increase in dental caries experiences in Dili school children between 2002 and 2014, associated with more permanent teeth dental caries experiences.

  11. Finding Space for Non-Dominant Languages in Education: Language Policy and Medium of Instruction in Timor-Leste 2000-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Timor-Leste offers a rich case study of the array of discursive influences on medium-of-instruction (MOI) policy in multilingual, post-colonial developing contexts. MOI policy in this young nation is a site of tension between struggles to define national identity in the shadow of colonial language ideologies and the globalised discourses of…

  12. Finding Space for Non-Dominant Languages in Education: Language Policy and Medium of Instruction in Timor-Leste 2000-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Timor-Leste offers a rich case study of the array of discursive influences on medium-of-instruction (MOI) policy in multilingual, post-colonial developing contexts. MOI policy in this young nation is a site of tension between struggles to define national identity in the shadow of colonial language ideologies and the globalised discourses of…

  13. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  14. Basil as functional and preserving ingredient in "Serra da Estrela" cheese.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Soković, Marina; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-15

    Antitumor, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of basil were studied, along with its characterization in phenolic compounds, organic acids and soluble sugars. The results placed basil as a valuable candidate for functionalization and conservation of food products, maintaining their nutritional properties, while increasing their shelf life and potential health effects. The basil leaves were then incorporated in "Serra da Estrela Cheese", either in its dehydrated form or as a decoction. The cheeses were then subject to a nutritional evaluation, being characterized for their fatty acids, minerals and CIE color parameters. To assess the combined effects of plant incorporation and storage time, a 2-way ANOVA was used to process the results, further analysed through a linear discriminant analysis. Overall, basil leaves provided antioxidant activity to the cheeses, reduced the moisture, and preserved the unsaturated fatty acids and proteins. Comparing both incorporation types, the decoctions had a higher functionalizing and conservative effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visiting Richard Serra's "Promenade" sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Zoï; Lang, Alexandre; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Adenis, Marie-Sarah; Yang, Qing; Lipede, Gabi; Vernet, Marine

    2014-01-01

    Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra's Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesized to have stimulated the body's vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased five monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69(°) angle. Using computerized dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements) before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade). A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway). Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability [in terms of spectral power and canceling time (CT) of body sway] at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of CT). Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto) was canceled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power) increased after the promenade. Fourteen additional visitors were asked to stand in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra's monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test. We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic "training ground" thereby improving the visitors' overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium, and gravity.

  16. The rise and fall of an arc-continent collisional orogen: insights from synorogenic sediments in Timor Leste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, B. G.; Quigley, M.; Nguyen, N.; Shulmeister, J.

    2011-12-01

    The island of Timor consists in part of synorogenic, late Miocene to Pleistocene mid-bathyal marine sequences that record structural, sedimentological, and palynological aspects of the collision between the northern Australian continental shelf and the Banda arc. Structural analysis of these sediments in the Viqueque, Laleia and Marobo Basins of Timor Leste reveals that the post-collisional phase is dominated by extensional and strike slip deformation related to the interplay between topographic and buoyancy forces and a dynamically evolving tectonic stress field. Sedimentological and palynological data combined with U-Pb dating of detrital corals provide temporal constraints on the topographic evolution and aerial emergence of the source region. Rapid Pliocene to Holocene uplift is driven primarily by the regional buoyant rebound of crustal lithosphere in response to slab delamination, rather than by crustal thickening alone.

  17. Understanding Health Workers’ Job Preferences to Improve Rural Retention in Timor-Leste: Findings from a Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Smitz, Marc-Francois; Witter, Sophie; Lemiere, Christophe; Eozenou, Patrick Hoang-Vu; Lievens, Tomas; Zaman, Rashid U.; Engelhardt, Kay; Hou, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Background Timor-Leste built its health workforce up from extremely low levels after its war of independence, with the assistance of Cuban training, but faces challenges as the first cohorts of doctors will shortly be freed from their contracts with government. Retaining doctors, nurses and midwives in remote areas requires a good understanding of health worker preferences. Methods The article reports on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) carried out amongst 441 health workers, including 173 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives. Qualitative methods were conducted during the design phase. The attributes which emerged were wages, skills upgrading/specialisation, location, working conditions, transportation and housing. Findings One of the main findings of the study is the relative lack of importance of wages for doctors, which could be linked to high intrinsic motivation, perceptions of having an already highly paid job (relative to local conditions), and/or being in a relatively early stage of their career for most respondents. Professional development provides the highest satisfaction with jobs, followed by the working conditions. Doctors with less experience, males and the unmarried are more flexible about location. For nurses and midwives, skill upgrading emerged as the most cost effective method. Conclusions The study is the first of its kind conducted in Timor-Leste. It provides policy-relevant information to balance financial and non-financial incentives for different cadres and profiles of staff. It also augments a thin literature on the preferences of working doctors (as opposed to medical students) in low and middle income countries and provides insights into the ability to instil motivation to work in rural areas, which may be influenced by rural recruitment and Cuban-style training, with its emphasis on community service. PMID:27846242

  18. Understanding Health Workers' Job Preferences to Improve Rural Retention in Timor-Leste: Findings from a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    PubMed

    Smitz, Marc-Francois; Witter, Sophie; Lemiere, Christophe; Eozenou, Patrick Hoang-Vu; Lievens, Tomas; Zaman, Rashid U; Engelhardt, Kay; Hou, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Timor-Leste built its health workforce up from extremely low levels after its war of independence, with the assistance of Cuban training, but faces challenges as the first cohorts of doctors will shortly be freed from their contracts with government. Retaining doctors, nurses and midwives in remote areas requires a good understanding of health worker preferences. The article reports on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) carried out amongst 441 health workers, including 173 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives. Qualitative methods were conducted during the design phase. The attributes which emerged were wages, skills upgrading/specialisation, location, working conditions, transportation and housing. One of the main findings of the study is the relative lack of importance of wages for doctors, which could be linked to high intrinsic motivation, perceptions of having an already highly paid job (relative to local conditions), and/or being in a relatively early stage of their career for most respondents. Professional development provides the highest satisfaction with jobs, followed by the working conditions. Doctors with less experience, males and the unmarried are more flexible about location. For nurses and midwives, skill upgrading emerged as the most cost effective method. The study is the first of its kind conducted in Timor-Leste. It provides policy-relevant information to balance financial and non-financial incentives for different cadres and profiles of staff. It also augments a thin literature on the preferences of working doctors (as opposed to medical students) in low and middle income countries and provides insights into the ability to instil motivation to work in rural areas, which may be influenced by rural recruitment and Cuban-style training, with its emphasis on community service.

  19. Population structure, growth and production of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae) on two Namibian sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudien, J.; Brey, T.; Arntz, W. E.

    2003-10-01

    Population structure, growth and production of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae), inhabiting highly exposed sandy beaches of Namibia, were investigated between November 1997 and December 1999. From length-frequency distribution and tagging-recapture data, a von Bertalanffy growth function with an asymptotic length ( L ∞) of 82 mm and a growth constant ( K) of 0.274 yr -1 was established. Regarding growth performance of Donacidae, D. serra fits in a group of species inhabiting cold temperate and upwelling regions. The intertidal biomass of the studied population ranged between 141 and 546 g ash-free dry mass (AFDM) m -2 yr -1. Individual production was maximal at 56.5 mm shell length (0.83 g AFDM ind. -1 yr -1), and annual production ranged between 167 and 637 g AFDM m -2 yr -1, resulting in productivity values (P/ B¯) between 1.167 and 1.589 yr -1. These data underline the importance of D. serra for the beach/surf ecosystem. Further, the findings of this study are crucial to support future aquaculture or exploitation activities and management.

  20. Rheomorphic diapirs in densely welded ignimbrites: The Serra di Paringianu ignimbrite of Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Mulas, M.

    2013-05-01

    Rheomorphic structures in welded ignimbrites are commonly associated with deposition from hot pyroclastic flows on inclined topography or by tractional shear on aggrading agglutinate by the pyroclastic density current. We describe a type of rheomorphic deformation involving the formation of diapirs in ignimbrite following the re-equilibration of internal gravitational instabilities within the deposit. We show that diapirs can develop in horizontal welded ignimbrites that have an inverted density stratification. The interpretation of these structures in terms of their dynamics and kinematics can help in defining the timing of the deformation history of ignimbrites. The rhyolitic Serra di Paringianu Ignimbrite is the uppermost, largest ignimbrite of Cenozoic volcanism in SW Sardinia. A detailed study at La Punta, north of San Pietro island (Sardinia; Italy), schematically characterized by a twin sequence of densely welded and partially welded ignimbrite flow units of the Serra di Paringianu Ignimbrite, revealed the presence of mushroom and pillow-shaped diapiric structures, constituted by material of an intermediate, partially welded, flow unit intruding into an upper, densely welded, unit. The diapirs are generally connected with their source region and show both vertical and lateral variations in the textural and physical features. The uppermost densely welded unit is deformed within a few meters of the diapiric structures, with the foliation pattern of the surrounding ignimbrite enveloping the cup region of diapirs. We used the existing numerical models of cooling-compaction of welded ignimbrites to constrain the time scale for the development of specific rheomorphic structures. We present a model in which the diapirism involves the buoyant rise of partially welded lithofacies into the densely welded cover in a time scale of a few months. The diapir model takes into account the rheology of the host and intruding layers and explains the textural and physical

  1. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  2. Quartz grain surface analysis for paleoenvironmental reconstruction in Western Iberia mountain environments (Serra da Estrela, Portugal).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Woronko, Barbara; Schaefer, Carlos; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with the genesis and paleoenvironmental significance of relict slope deposits in Serra da Estrela, Central Portugal and is part of a wider sedimentological and dating approach. The aim is to identify what microstructures indicate frost weathering, witch mechanisms are responsible for their development and the effectiveness of frost weathering across an altitudinal profile. Our goals are to contribute to the better understanding of the morphogenetical significance of the different types of slope deposits, clarifying the role of cold environment processes and develop a chronological framework for the Late Quaternary evolution of the slope environment of the mountains of Western Iberia. Quartz grains, 0.5 mm in diameter, were collected from samples from stratified, head and debris-flow deposits. Cailleux (1942) analysis, with modifications from Gozdzik (1980), was performed allowing assessing frosting and rounding, as well as the effects of later frost weathering in vertical profiles from slope deposits. Grains were also analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) following Mahaney (2002). The effects of frost weathering comprise several microstructures such as breakage blocks, conchoidal fractures and fresh surfaces. Breakage blocks microstructures are the most common. Two types of frost weathering were distinguished: weathering of the P type is mainly initiated on convex fragments of grains as the result of ice segregation, and F type is linked to the volumetric expansion of ice and usually observed within concave linear microstructures. The frost action index (FAI) was estimated from the rate of microstructures from frost weathering. FAI varies between 0 and 3. The values of the sediments from the slope deposits vary between 1.2 and 2.05. This approach was for the first time applied on slope deposits from Serra da Estrela. There is a clear correlation between deposits in weathering type. Samples that display intensive physical weathering in

  3. The Serra da Cangalha impact structure, Brazil: Geological, stratigraphic and petrographic aspects of a recently confirmed impact structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Marcos Alberto Rodrigues; Crósta, Alvaro P.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Góes, Ana Maria; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael H.

    2013-08-01

    Serra da Cangalha is a complex impact structure with an apparent diameter of 13.7 km located in essentially undisturbed sedimentary rocks of the Parnaíba basin in northeastern Brazil. The stratigraphy of the crater region includes, from bottom to top, the Longá, Poti, Piauí and Pedra de Fogo formations of Devonian to Late Permian age. The age of the impact event is constrained to <250 Ma by stratigraphy - the youngest formation affected by the event is the ˜250 Ma Pedra de Fogo Formation. The structure comprises a ˜5.8 km wide central uplift involving the Piauí, Poti and Longá formations and a prominent ˜3 km wide collar of Poti Formation rocks. We divided Serra da Cangalha into four distinctive structural domains (i-iv), from the innermost zone outward. (i) The central domain, with an inner collar ˜1.5 km radius from the center, yielded all the samples with microscopic shock features identified so far. These include planar deformation features (PDF), feather features (FF), and planar fractures (PF) in quartz grains found in polymict breccias and shatter cones from the central depression. Furthermore, significant cementation with iron oxide is observed in the rocks of Serra da Cangalha, especially in the Poti Formation and in the polymict breccias, conferring to them a peculiar red color. Macroscopic deformation involves faulted, folded and subvertical strata within a ˜2.9 km radius from the center. (ii) The annular basin domain has limited outcrops; its most prominent features are two concentric annular ridges formed by chert breccias and fossilized wood-bearing folded strata of the Pedra de Fogo Formation. (iii) The crater rim and (iv) external domains comprise undisturbed strata of the Pedra de Fogo and Piauí formations with well-preserved sedimentary structures. Whilst the existing literature on Serra da Cangalha has focused on the structure morphology, general geology and some shock features, we present here a detailed description of the

  4. Social and trauma-related pathways leading to psychological distress and functional limitations four years after the humanitarian emergency in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Silove, D; Brooks, R; Bateman, C Steel; Steel, Z; Amaral, Z Fonseca C; Rodger, J; Soosay, I

    2010-02-01

    There is growing acknowledgment that research in the postconflict field needs to include a focus on social conditions. The authors applied structural equation modeling to epidemiologic data obtained from postconflict Timor-Leste, to examine for links involving potentially traumatic events and sociodemographic factors (age, gender, educational levels, and unemployment) with psychological symptoms and functioning. Exposure to trauma and lack of education emerged as most relevant with psychological distress impacting on education in the urban area. Age and gender exerted influences at different points in the model consistent with the known history of Timor. Although based on cross-sectional data, the model supports the relevance of past trauma, posttraumatic distress, and postconflict social conditions to functioning in societies such as Timor-Leste.

  5. Synoptic patterns associated with landslide events in the Serra do Mar, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seluchi, Marcelo E.; Chou, Sin Chan

    2009-09-01

    Heavy rains frequently occur over the Serra do Mar, in the southeast coastal mountain region in Brazil, particularly during the summer season. These rains can cause landslides and loss of life. The objective of this work is to produce a synoptic climatology of heavy rainfall episodes of the period from November to April using 10-year reanalyses data. The identification of the synoptic pattern of these events should provide guidance to forecasters. The landslide events were mostly related to cold front passages and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). These systems differed from the climatology by exhibiting more intense characteristics for the frontal situations and a blocking circulation configuration for the SACZ situations. In both cases, the composite fields showed that the 250-hPa mass divergence was strikingly more intense than the climatology and had a preferred location in the 24 h prior to landslide events. Anomalies of this ten-year event climatology showed above-normal moisture anomalies, which are more evident in the SACZ than in the frontal cases.

  6. La Serra d'Almos (Tarragona): an example of phenological data rescue and preservation in Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavi; Borrell, Josep

    2016-04-01

    The interruption of important phenological series and the progressive disappearance of phenological observations in Catalonia led the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC) to design and impulse a new phenological network promoted by the Climate Change Unit of this Met Service. The "Fenocat" network was born in March 2013, and currently has around fifty observers distributed throughout Catalonia that observe plants, birds and butterflies. We are providing data from different plant phenophases to PEP725 database. Besides this new phenological network (Fenocat), one of the aims of SMC is to rescue and preserve historical data from different observation points in Catalonia. We show in this poster the example of rescue and preservation of phenological data from la Serra d'Almos (in Tivissa, near Tarragona, Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula), an observation series that began in 1973. After digitalization process and quality control tasks, we show preliminary results of this phenological series, and we compare them with those of similar European series. We show the evolution trends for different observed species, such as almond tree (Prunus dulcis), hazel (Corylus avellana), plum (Prunus domestica), olive tree (Olea europea), apple tree (Malus domestica) or vineyard (Vitis vinifera).

  7. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the tectonic setting of Serra dos Carajas belt, eastern Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, W. J., Jr.; Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lower part of the Serra dos Carajas belt is the metavolcanic and metasedimentary Grao para Group (GPG). The GPG is thought to unconformably overlie the older (but undated) Xingu Complex, composed of medium and high-grade gneisses and amphibolite and greenstone belts. The geochemical data indicate that the GPG has many features in common with ancient and modern volcanic suites erupted through continental crust. The mafic rocks clearly differ from those of most Archean greenstone belts, and modern MORB, IAB, and hot-spot basalts. The geological, geochemical, and isotopic data are all consistent with deposition on continental crust, presumably in a marine basin formed by crustal extension. The isotopic data also suggest the existence of depleted mantle as a source for the parent magmas of the GPG. The overall results suggest a tectonic environment, igneous sources, and petrogenesis similar to many modern continental extensional basins, in contrast to most Archean greenstone belts. The Hammersley basin in Australia and the circum-Superior belts in Canada may be suitable Archean and Proterozoic analogues, respectively.

  8. Quartz resources in the Serra de Santa Helena formation, Brazil: A geochemical and technological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Murilo Ferreira Marques dos; Fujiwara, Eric; Schenkel, Egont Alexandre; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Suzuki, Carlos Kenichi

    2014-12-01

    This study presents an evaluation of Brazilian quartz deposits of Corinto and Olhos D'água, in Minas Gerais State, as potential high purity raw material for the production of silica glass. Both deposits are part of the Serra de Santa Helena formation, which holds other quartz deposits. Several quartz samples from these mines were analyzed to evaluate their chemical purity, by determination of the content of trace elements by ICP-MS after acid digestion. The technological characteristics of the ores after flame-fusion into silica glass were evaluated according to their bubble generation and UV transparency. The results indicate that silica glass with chemistry suitable for crucible applications can be obtained from materials of both mines, and even optical grade silica glass can be manufactured using transparent ore from one of the mines. In addition, this work explores the trace elements composition of each mine, as well as their fluid inclusions, and characterizes the mines as being of hydrothermal origin. Small differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of quartz that could affect the technological behavior of the ores are related to the geological history of the mines and provide interesting insights regarding the exploration of other quartz resources within the same geological formation.

  9. Mapping soil erosion risk in Serra de Grândola (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto Paixão, H. M.; Granja Martins, F. M.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.; Bellinfante, N.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological processes can pose environmental risks to people and economical activities. Information and a better knowledge of the genesis of these processes is important for environmental planning, since it allows to model, quantify and classify risks, what can mitigate the threats. The objective of this research is to assess the soil erosion risk in Serra de Grândola, which is a north-south oriented mountain ridge with an altitude of 383 m, located in southwest of Alentejo (southern Portugal). The study area is 675 km2, including the councils of Grândola, Santiago do Cacém and Sines. The process for mapping of erosive status was based on the guidelines for measuring and mapping the processes of erosion of coastal areas of the Mediterranean proposed by PAP/RAC (1997), developed and later modified by other authors in different areas. This method is based on the application of a geographic information system that integrates different types of spatial information inserted into a digital terrain model and in their derivative models. Erosive status are classified using information from soil erodibility, slope, land use and vegetation cover. The rainfall erosivity map was obtained using the modified Fournier index, calculated from the mean monthly rainfall, as recorded in 30 meteorological stations with influence in the study area. Finally, the soil erosion risk map was designed by ovelaying the erosive status map and the rainfall erosivity map.

  10. First report of Entamoeba histolytica infection from Timor-Leste--acute amoebic colitis and concurrent late development of amoebic liver abscess in returned travellers to Australia.

    PubMed

    Nourse, Clare B; Robson, Jennifer M; Whitby, Michael R; Francis, Josh R

    2016-02-01

    This communication reports invasive amoebic colitis and late onset amoebic liver abscess in three members of a group of 12 Australian travellers to Timor-Leste (TL). This is the first report of Entamoeba histolytica infection from TL. Clinicians in Australia need to consider amoebiasis in the differential diagnosis in travellers returning with colitis, abdominal pain and fever. Presentation with amoebic liver abscess months after exposure is rare but should be suspected in symptomatic individuals with a relevant history of travel.

  11. 'They say God punishes people with HIV': experiences of stigma and discrimination among adults with HIV in Dili, Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kate; Haire, Bridget G; Nathan, Sally

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the experiences of people with HIV in the small island nation of Timor-Leste. This study explored the HIV-related stigma experiences of adults aged between 18 and 40 living with HIV in Dili, Timor-Leste. Participants were interviewed on topics related to living with HIV, both as key informants describing the experience of others with HIV known to them, and also with respect to their own personal experiences. Findings suggest that people with HIV in Timor-Leste face stigma and discrimination in various contexts. In this predominantly Catholic country, perceptions of HIV and attitudes towards people with HIV appear to be commonly shaped by religious beliefs. In families and communities, participants encountered gossip, social exclusion and threats of violence. In health settings, participants experienced discrimination from health providers in the form of failing to maintain confidentiality and inappropriate treatment. The impact of stigma was profoundly negative and influenced participants' decision to disclose their status to others. Participants attributed stigma to a lack of information about HIV among the general public. Unless stigma reduction interventions also address the Church's role in shaping perceptions of HIV, education campaigns are unlikely to be effective in reducing HIV-related stigma.

  12. An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Rebecca; Clements, Archie C A; Lal, Aparna; Summers, David; Llewellyn, Stacey; Campbell, Suzy J; McCarthy, James; Gray, Darren J; V Nery, Susana

    2017-05-01

    In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH) deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste. Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial. Infection status was determined for Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Baseline infection data were linked to environmental data obtained for each household. Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with random effects at the village and household level were conducted, with all models adjusted for age and sex. For A. lumbricoides, being a school-aged child increased the odds of infection, whilst higher temperatures in the coolest quarter of the year, alkaline soils, clay loam/loam soils and woody savannas around households were associated with decreased infection odds. For N. americanus, greater precipitation in the driest month, higher average enhanced vegetation index, age and sandy loam soils increased infection odds, whereas being female and living at higher elevations decreased the odds of infection. Predictive risk maps generated for Manufahi based upon these final models highlight the high predicted risk of N. americanus infection across the district and the more focal nature of A. lumbricoides infection. The predicted risk of any STH infection is high across the entire district. The widespread predicted risk of any STH infection in 6 to 18 year olds provides strong evidence to

  13. Traditional Birth Attendance (TBA) in a health system: what are the roles, benefits and challenges: A case study of incorporated TBA in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio

    2014-01-01

    One current strategy to overcome the issue of shortage of qualified health workers has focused on the use of community health workers in the developing countries to deliver health care services specifically to the most vulnerable communities in the rural areas. Timor-Leste is the one of the world's newest developing countries that has incorporated the traditional birth attendance in its health system through a family health promoter initiative in response to reproductive and child health, hence to improve primary health care delivery and increase number of healthcare workforce. The study utilized a non-systematic review of the literature using key words such as community health workers, traditional birth attendants, reproductive health, child health and health outcomes. A case study from Timor-Leste was also used. Traditional birth attendants have performed wide variety of tasks including outreach and case finding, health and patient education, referrals, home visits and care management. Evidence indicated that there were, to varying degrees, positive associations between traditional birth attendance training and maternity care. Traditional birth attendance training was found to be associated with significant increases in attributes such as knowledge, attitude, behavior, advice for antenatal care, and pregnancy outcomes. However, some challenges faced by traditional birth attendants' role in encouraging women to go to health center for preventive services would be the compliance and refusal of the referral. The implementation case study from Timor-Leste shows that integrating traditional birth attendance into a national healthcare system through Family Health Promoter program has been programmatic effective. It is recommended that the implementation should consider regular communication between health staff and community leaders in recruiting members of family health promoters, and the use of supportive supervision tools to identify weaknesses in the management of

  14. Paleoenvironmental significance of Holocene widespread deposition of continental carbonates in Serra da Bodoquena, West-central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallun Filho, W.; Ribeiro, L. M. A. L.; Sawakuchi, A. O.; Boggiani, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    Continental carbonates are used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions in several parts of the world. Tufas and unconsolidated micrites can provide valuable information about the environmental conditions during the period of deposition. When the deposits are discontinuous, their presence is evidence of a wet period with conditions that are favourable to deposition; the deposits can be a record of the hydrologic systems and paleoclimate of the period of deposition. Discontinuous periods of deposition could also indicate changes in hydrological conditions that were independent of changes in climate, such as by temporary activity of springs or changes in a river's position. Deposits of continental carbonates in Brazil are rare, but in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, there are extensive deposits, especially in the Serra da Bodoquena karst area, which form expansive plains of unconsolidated micrite and phytohermal fluvial tufa. These deposits are collectively called the Serra da Bodoquena Formation. New radiocarbon and OSL ages confirm the Holocene as the age of The Serra da Bodoquena Formation which shows periods of more extensive deposition than today. Well-dated deposits of unconsolidated micrites from paleolakes indicate a deposition that occurred approximately 6,500 to 2,000 years BP. These deposits can be identified by their smooth textures, as compared to surrounding karst areas. Over the paleolake deposits, there are phytohermal tufas that can be identified adjacent to present-day fluvial channels, presenting irregular winding arcs and relict fluvial channels. These arcs correspond to the edges of ancient tufa dams. One ancient and inactive dam have radiocarbon ages between 680 and 895 cal years AD. Apparently, there was a distinct lack of deposition between approximately 2,000 and 1,270 years BP, after which the deposition is continuous. Younger radiocarbon ages of 670 to 550 cal years BP are found in terrace tufa deposits (present-day river channel). This work

  15. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Tatiani C; Bourke, Brian P; Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2012-02-16

    The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil). Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop) based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04), bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03) and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p < 0.01) influenced mosquito assemblage structure. Renyi diversity index show that lowland possesses the highest diversity indices. The presence of An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The bromeliad factor that influenced

  16. Magma evolution in the Ellittico volcano sequence outcropping at Serra Giannicola Grande, Mt. Etna, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, R.; de Rosa, R.; Ferlito, C.; Tripodo, M.

    2003-04-01

    The volcanic sequence examined here outcrops at Serra Giannicola Grande, along the south-western wall of the Valle del Bove (Mt. Etna Volcano), at an elevation between 2230 and 2700 m (Cristofolini et al., 2002). It is referred to the activity of the Ellittico volcanic complex (Ferlito &Cristofolini, 1989), and unconformably lies over on an erosional surface of the Cuvigghiuni synthem (Calvari et al., 1994). Petrological and geochimical investigations on lava flows, showed that: -The analyzed rocks have a Na-alkaline affinity and cover a compositional range from hawaiites to benmoreites and trachytes. -The common mineral association (pl+cpx+ol+mt) of Etnean lavas is present, both as phenocrysts and in groundmass; kaersutite as phenocryst phase isalso present in some of the samples. -The least differentiated lava flows, interbedded with volcanoclastic deposits in the middle part of the sequence, exhibit the widest compositional heterogeneity; they are referable to the existence of distinct magma batches, characterized by differing ascent rates and/or other processes, such as crustal contamination, occurring at shallow levels. It is noteworthy that mafic lavas differ in their contents of K (and Rb) and follow distinct trends of evolution. This suggests that magmas from at least two different sources were feeding the activity of the volcano. -The presence of the most differentiated lavas in the upper part of the sequence, is consistent with the presence of shallow reservoirs during the last stages of the Ellittico activity, where magmas could evolve due to crystal fractionation. The MELTS petrological code (Ghiorso &Sack, 1995) was used in order to quantify the evolution of the different magmas; this program simulates fractionation and assimilation processes in silicate melts under various physical and compositional conditions, and gives as a result compositions of residual liquids and of fractionated solid phases and their amounts. References Calvari, S., Groppelli

  17. Middle Jurassic Radiolaria from a siliceous argillite block in a structural melange zone near Viqueque, Timor Leste: Paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, David W.; Bandini, Alexandre Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Thin-bedded siliceous argillite forming a large block within a structural melange zone at Viqueque, Timor Leste, has yielded a Middle Jurassic (late Bathonian-early Callovian) radiolarian assemblage belonging to Unitary Association Zone 7. Fifty-five species are recognized and illustrated, forming the most diverse radiolarian fauna yet documented from the Jurassic of Timor. The fauna shows little similarity in species content to the few other assemblages previously listed from the Middle or Late Jurassic of Timor, and also has few species in common with faunas known elsewhere in the region from Rotti, Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Sula. Based on lithofacies similarities and age, the siliceous argillite succession in the melange block at Viqueque is included in the Noni Group originally described as the lower part of the Palelo Series in West Timor. In terms of lithofacies, the Noni Group is distinct from other stratigraphic units known in Timor. It may be associated with volcanic rocks but age relationships are uncertain, although some of the radiolarian cherts in the Noni Group in West Timor have been reported to include tuffaceous sediment. The deep-water character of the siliceous hemipelagite-pelagite facies, the probable volcanic association, and an age close to that of continental breakup in the region suggest deposition in a newly rifted Indian Ocean. In Timor's tectonostratigraphic classification scheme, the Noni Group is here placed in the "Indian Ocean Megasequence".

  18. Spatiotemporal allozyme variation in the damselfly, Lestes viridis (Odonata: Zygoptera): gene flow among permanent and temporary ponds.

    PubMed

    De Block, Marjan; Geenen, Sofie; Jordaens, Kurt; Backeljau, Thierry; Stoks, Robby

    2005-07-01

    Several insect species seem to persist not only in permanent but also in temporary ponds where they face particularly harsh conditions and frequent extinctions. Under such conditions, gene flow may prevent local adaptation to temporary ponds and may promote phenotypic plasticity, or maintain apparent population persistence. The few empirical studies on insects suggest the latter mechanism, but no studies so far quantified gene flow including both pond types. We investigated the effects of pond type and temporal variation on population genetic differentiation and gene flow in the damselfly Lestes viridis in northern Belgium. We report a survey of two allozyme loci (Gpi, Pgm) with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 14 populations from permanent and temporary ponds, and compared these results with similar data from the same permanent populations one year before. The data suggested that neither pond-drying regime, nor temporal variation have a substantial effect on population genetic structuring and did not provide evidence for stable population differentiation in L. viridis in northern Belgium. Gene flow estimates were high within permanent and temporary ponds, and between pond types. Our data are consistent with a source-sink metapopulation system where temporary ponds act as sinks in dry years, and are quickly recolonized after local population extinction. This may create a pattern of apparent population persistence of this species in permanent and temporary ponds without clear local adaptation.

  19. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2014-04-22

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home.

  20. Clustering of symptoms of mental disorder in the medium-term following conflict: an epidemiological study in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Silove, Derrick; Ivancic, Lorraine; Rees, Susan; Bateman-Steel, Catherine; Steel, Zachary

    2014-10-30

    It is important to define subpopulations with mental health and psychosocial reactions in the medium-term following conflict to ensure that an appropriate array of services are provided to meet the diversity of needs. We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on epidemiological data drawn from an urban and rural sample of 1221 adults (581 men and 640 women, response 82%) in post-conflict Timor Leste 4 years after the cessation of violence. The prevalence of PTSD was 4.9%; severe distress 4.8%; anger attacks 38.3%; and paranoid-like symptoms 10.9%. The best fitting LCA yielded three classes comprising those with no or minimal symptoms (86%), a class with anger-paranoia (13%) and a comorbid mental disorder class (1.5%) characterized by PTSD (100%) and severe distress (98%). The comorbid mental disorder class had an over-representation of men, the unemployed, residents in the urban area and persons with the greatest exposure to human rights trauma, murder and health stress. The anger-paranoia class experienced moderate levels of trauma and had an over-representation of urban dwellers, women, and those with higher levels of education. The analysis assists in clarifying the populations with mental disorder and adverse psychosocial reactions in need of intervention in the medium-term following conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Egg clutch patterning in Lestes virens (Odonata, Lestidae) with evolutionary emphasis on endophytic oviposition in lestid dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Matushkina, Natalia A; Buy, Denis; Lambret, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Egg deposition within plants is one of the most widely distributed and ancient behaviors in Odonata. The resulting clutch consists of eggs placed in peculiar pattern that can be a characteristic for certain groups of Odonata. Despite their importance for paleontological and evolutionary research, data on egg-clutch positioning are missing or insufficient for most species. Here, patterning of egg clutches in Lestes virens was measured and described in detail for the first time. The female usually produces a linear row of single eggs directed at an angle rightward or leftward to the longitudinal axis of plant substrate. Less often eggs are arranged in egg-sets consisting of up to 4 eggs. Apparently, the female insect follows the rigid behavior stereotypes during oviposition and is unable to easily switch to the alternate stereotypical behavior of single egg deposition or production of multiegg sets. Based on a literature review and original data, egg clutch patterning of European Lestidae is overlaid on preexisting phylogenies. The resulting evolutionary scenario of egg-clutch patterning can be considered in the framework of egg-laying behavior in Lestidae.

  2. Latitudinal and age-specific patterns of larval mortality in the damselfly Lestes sponsa: Senescence before maturity?

    PubMed

    Dańko, Maciej J; Dańko, Aleksandra; Golab, Maria J; Stoks, Robby; Sniegula, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    Latitudinal differences in life history traits driven by differences in seasonal time constraints have been widely documented. Yet, latitudinal patterns in (age-specific) mortality rates have been poorly studied. Here, we studied latitudinal differences in pre-adult age-specific mortality patterns in the strictly univoltine damselfly Lestes sponsa. We compared individuals from three latitudes reared from the egg stage in the laboratory at temperatures and photoperiods simulating those at the latitude of origin (main experiment) and under common-garden conditions at a fixed temperature and photoperiod (supplementary experiment). Results from the main experiment showed that the high-latitude population exhibited higher mortality rates than the central and southern populations, likely reflecting a cost of their faster development. Age-specific mortality patterns, also indicated higher ageing rates in the high-latitude compared to the low-latitude population, which likely had a genetic basis. The strong within-population variation in hatching dates in the low-latitude population caused variation in mortality rates; individuals that hatched later showed higher mortality rates presumably due to their shorter development times compared to larvae that hatched earlier. In both experiments, larvae from all three latitudes showed accelerated mortality rates with age, which is consistent with a pattern of senescence before adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Outbreak of oropouche virus fever in Serra Pelada, municipality of Curionópolis, Pará, 1994].

    PubMed

    Rosa, A P; Rodrigues, S G; Nunes, M R; Magalhães, M T; Rosa, J F; Vasconcelos, P F

    1996-01-01

    In the final of November 1994, an outbreak of a febrile disease was observed in the Serra Pelada gold mine (5 degrees 35'S: 49 degrees 30'W) in the Southeast region of Pará State. Twenty samples were collected and sent to the laboratory of Arbovirus of Instituto Evandro Chagas. The tests showed that the disease was caused by Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus, Simbu serological group). Between 8-22 December 296 serum samples were taken (54 from febrile patients, 16 paired samples and 242 from contacts and convalescent patients) of the 73 familiar groups. From febrile patients, ten Oropouche virus strains were obtained. From paired serum, six seroconversions were obtained and 242 other Oropouche infections were diagnosed by HI and MAC ELISA. The clinical-picture of febrile disease accompanied by severe bedache, chills, myalgia, photophobia retrobulbar pain and malaise was observed. Involvement of central nervous system was not observed. Based on the serological data, we estimated that in the outbreak of Serra Pelada around 5,000 cases occurred corresponding to a prevalence of 83%.

  4. Parasites of domestic and wild canids in the region of Serra do Cipó National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Magalhães, Noele Borges; Dos Santos, Hudson Andrade; Ribeiro, Raul Rio; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades, diseases have been shown to be important causes of extinctions among wild species. Greater emphasis has been given to diseases transmitted by domestic animals, which have been increasing in numbers in natural areas, along with human populations. This study had the aim of investigating the presence of intestinal helminths in wild canids (maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous) in the Serra do Cipó National Park (43-44º W and 19-20º S) and endo and ectoparasites of domestic dogs in the Morro da Pedreira Environmental Protection Area (an area surrounding the National Park). The Serra do Cipó is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the enteroparasites found in domestic and wild canids, the following taxons were identified: Ancylostomidae, Trichuridae, Toxocara sp., Spirocerca sp., Physaloptera sp., Strongyloides sp., Cestoda, Dipylidium caninum, Diphyllobothriidae, Hymenolepidae, Anoplocephalidae, Trematoda, Acanthocephala and Isospora sp. Domestic dogs were positive for leishmaniasis and Babesia canis in serological tests. Among the ectoparasites, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Ctenocephalides felis felis were observed in domestic dogs. Variations in the chaetotaxy of the meta-episternum and posterior tibia were observed in some specimens of C. felis felis.

  5. Enhanced benthic response to upwelling of the Indonesian Throughflow onto the southern shelf of Timor-Leste, Timor Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, Daniel M.; Brinkman, Richard; Trott, Lindsay A.; Silva, Fernando; Pereira, Francisco; Wagey, Tonny

    2013-03-01

    Benthic microbial metabolism and bacterial diagenetic pathways were measured along the southern shelf of Timor-Leste during an upwelling event in the winter SE monsoon season. Vertical profiles of water properties and bottom water nutrient concentrations, and operational ocean modeling showed subsurface upwelling from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) along the southern shelf west of longitude 126°25'E and surface upwelling at the far eastern end of the shelf. Warm surface waters above the halocline had salinities of 33.6 to 33.9 overlying cooler ITF water with salinities of 34.4 to 34.6. Beneath the zone of subsurface upwelling and stratification, sediment chlorophyll a (range: 2.8-4.4 µg g-1) and phaeopigment (range: 4.5-7.0 µg g-1) concentrations were sufficient to fuel very rapid rates of benthic oxygen consumption (range: 89.9-142.3 mmol m-2 day-1) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) release (range: 108.1-148.9 mmol m-2 day-1) across the sediment-water interface, and DIC (range: 94.7-142.5 mmol m-2 day-1) and NH4+ (range: 13.3-19.9 mmol m-2 day-1) production from incubated surface (0-10 cm) sediments. Molar ratios of DIC/NH4+ production were lower (range: 6.6-7.7) in fine-grained sediments under the subsurface upwelling regime than in sandy, possibly scoured sediments under surface upwelling (range: 11.9-21.2) where there was no evidence of benthic enrichment. It is proposed that subsurface upwelling along the widest portions of the shelf stimulates phytoplankton production, leading to deposition of fresh phytodetritus that is rapidly decomposed on the seafloor. These zones of high biological activity may attract and support large populations of pelagic fish and cetaceans that have been caught for centuries along the south coast.

  6. Water, sanitation and hygiene related risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth and Giardia duodenalis infections in rural communities in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Amaral, Salvador; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-11-01

    There is little evidence on prevalence or risk factors for soil transmitted helminth infections in Timor-Leste. This study describes the epidemiology, water, sanitation and hygiene, and socioeconomic risk factors of STH and intestinal protozoa amongst communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted across 18 villages, with data from six additional villages. Stool samples were assessed for soil transmitted helminth and protozoal infections using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and questionnaires administered to collect water, sanitation and hygiene and socioeconomic data. Risk factors for infection were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression, stratified by age group (preschool, school-aged and adult). Overall, soil transmitted helminth prevalence was 69% (95% Confidence Interval 67-71%), with Necator americanus being most common (60%; 95% Confidence Interval 58-62%) followed by Ascaris spp. (24%; 95% Confidence Interval 23-26%). Ascaris-N. americanus co-infection was common (17%; 95% Confidence Interval 15%-18%). Giardia duodenalis was the main protozoan identified (13%; 95% Confidence Interval 11-14%). Baseline water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and behaviours were poor. Although risk factors varied by age of participants and parasite species, risk factors for N. americanus infection included, generally, age in years, male sex, and socioeconomic quintile. Risk factors for Ascaris included age in years for children, and piped water to the yard for adults. In this first known assessment of community-based prevalence and associated risk factors in Timor-Leste, soil transmitted helminth infections were highly prevalent, indicating a need for soil transmitted helminth control. Few associations with water, sanitation and hygiene were evident, despite water, sanitation and hygiene being generally poor. In our water, sanitation and hygiene we will

  7. The factor structures and correlates of PTSD in post-conflict Timor-Leste: an analysis of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Mohsin, Mohammed; Rees, Susan; Steel, Zachary; Tam, Natalino; Soares, Zelia; Baker, Jessica; Silove, Derrick

    2017-05-22

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most widely assessed form of mental distress in cross-cultural studies conducted amongst populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement. Nevertheless, there have been longstanding concerns about the universality of PTSD as a diagnostic category when applied across cultures. One approach to examining this question is to assess whether the same factor structure can be identified in culturally diverse populations as has been described in populations of western societies. We examine this issue based on an analysis of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) completed by a large community sample in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess exposure to conflict-related traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversities, symptoms of PTSD and psychological distress, and functional impairment amongst a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82.4%) in post-conflict Timor-Leste. Confirmatory factor analyses of the ICD-10, ICD-11, DSM-IV, four-factor Emotional Numbing and five-factor Dysphoric-Arousal PTSD structures, found considerable support for all these models. Based on these classifications, concurrent validity was indicated by logistic regression analyses which showed that being a woman, trauma exposure, ongoing adversity, severe distress, and functional impairment were all associated with PTSD. Although symptom prevalence estimates varied widely based on different classifications, our study found a general agreement in PTSD assignments across contemporary diagnostic systems in a large conflict-affected population in Timor-Leste. Further studies are needed, however, to establish the construct and concurrent validity of PTSD in other cultures.

  8. Ore mineralogy of the Serra Pelada Au-Pd-Pt deposit, Carajás, Brazil and implications for ore-forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Gabriel V.; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Lobato, Lydia M.; Wall, Vic

    2016-08-01

    Serra Pelada is a world-class hydrothermal Au-Pd-Pt deposit located at the eastern border of the Amazon craton, northern Brazil. The rocks at Serra Pelada have experienced intense tropical weathering for about 70 Ma, but drill core samples preserve the primary mineralogy and hydrothermal alteration features, with extreme grades of Au, Pd and Pt individually reaching hundreds of parts per million (ppm) by weight. Mineralization at Serra Pelada occurs in hydrothermally altered metasiltstones and dolomitic metasandstones at the hinge zone of a recumbent syncline, comprising zones of hematite, chlorite-carbon, argillic, and siliceous alteration. The main hydrothermal gangue minerals are quartz, kaolinite, sericite, amesite, hematite, monazite, florencite and variable amounts of highly reflective carbonaceous matter. Hydrothermal carbon input is evident from precipitated carbon occurring along crenulation planes and veinlets associated with the precious metals. Ore and accessory minerals include a variety of sulphide, selenide, arsenide, sulphate and oxide minerals, including gold with variable metal contents, palladian gold, fischesserite, sudovikovite, sperrylite, selenian braggite, isomertieite, mertieite-II and secondary Au-Pt-Pd alloys. The composition of fischesserite varies from the ideal formula (Ag3AuSe2) towards a more Ag-rich composition, indicating a disordered solid solution form that is stable only above 260 °C, consistent with the high thermal maturity of associated carbonaceous matter approaching graphite. Primary ore and gangue minerals at Serra Pelada comprise a suite of elements that are best transported in oxidising conditions and precipitated upon reduction. This suggests that fluid mixing between a highly oxidised (metal carrier) and a reduced fluid was a key process for high-grade noble metal precipitation at Serra Pelada.

  9. Evaluation of the 40-km Eta Model during a SACZ event at Serra do Mar (Southeast Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereczynski, C.; Almeida, V.

    2009-04-01

    During the first week of March 2005, the north portion of Serra do Mar (Southeast Brazil) received heavy rains (200-300 mm), causing some deaths, landslides and flooding. The event was caused by the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), which is normally configured during the Southeast Brazil summer season. The aim of this work is to evaluate subjectively Eta Model's forecasts and to identify the major meteorological ingredients for heavy rainfall during SACZ events. The Eta Model (40-km) uses the Center for Weather Prediction and Climate Studies (CPTEC) Global Model as lateral boundary conditions. The results showed that Eta Model predicted rain over the affected area, although the maximum was predicted south of the observed region. At high levels (200 hPa) the position of the subtropical jetstream, the Bolivian High and the Northeast Cyclonic Vortex were very well predicted by the model. At 500 hPa the maximum of omega was correctly positioned at the SACZ area, but it was stronger (<-0.7 Pa.s-1) than observed (between -0.5 and -0.4 Pa.s-1). At low levels, the model underestimated the 850 hPa specific humidity (between 10 and 12 g.kg-1), which was in fact between 12 and 14 g.kg-1. The mean sea level pressure was correctly predicted (between 1012 and 1014 hPa). The humidity divergence at 1000 hPa (between -20 and -15 g.kg-1.dia-1) and the surface mass divergence(-20x10-6 s-1) were also well predicted. In conclusion, the heavy rainfall was caused by Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) developed over Serra do Mar, and although the model is able to reproduce the supportive environment of the MCS, it fails to predict the exact heavy rain area. Large-scale analyses provided little insight into the causes of this severe weather event. Higher time and space resolution observational data may be needed to improve forecasts of some severe weather events over Serra do Mar area.

  10. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil). Methods Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop) based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. Results A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04), bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03) and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p < 0.01) influenced mosquito assemblage structure. Renyi diversity index show that lowland possesses the highest diversity indices. The presence of An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. Conclusions One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The

  11. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Langley, Michelle C; O'Connor, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region.

  12. Oldest human occupation of Wallacea at Laili Cave, Timor-Leste, shows broad-spectrum foraging responses to late Pleistocene environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Stuart; O'Connor, Sue; Maloney, Tim Ryan; Litster, Mirani; Kealy, Shimona; Fenner, Jack N.; Aplin, Ken; Boulanger, Clara; Brockwell, Sally; Willan, Richard; Piotto, Elena; Louys, Julien

    2017-09-01

    The Wallacea Archipelago provides an extraordinary laboratory for the study of human colonisation and adaptation, yet few detailed archaeological studies have been conducted in the region that span the earliest phase of human settlement. Laili Cave, in northern Timor-Leste, preserves the oldest human occupation in this insular region with a cultural sequence spanning 11,200 to 44,600 cal BP. Small-bodied vertebrates and invertebrates were recovered to the lowest excavated levels, associated with highly concentrated stone artefacts. We report on human behavioural adaptations within the context of Pleistocene environments and changing landscapes using zooarchaeological, stone artefact, bathymetric, and experimental isotopic analyses. Results indicate that Pleistocene humans used the abundant local chert liberally and engaged in mobile broad-spectrum exploitation of invertebrates and fishes from marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments within close proximity of Laili Cave. The faunal assemblage indicates heterogeneous but relatively stable environments during the late Pleistocene. Variability in subsistence strategies over time appears to be a response to changing landscapes and concomitant local resources. This record contrasts with marine specialisations evident from other sites in Timor-Leste and within the broader Wallacean region.

  13. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    O‘Connor, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace), and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region. PMID:27537696

  14. Achieving convergence between a community-based measure of explosive anger and a clinical interview for intermittent explosive disorder in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Liddell, Belinda J; Silove, Derrick; Tay, Kuowei; Tam, Natalino; Nickerson, Angela; Brooks, Robert; Rees, Susan; Zwi, Anthony B; Steel, Zachary

    2013-09-25

    There is growing research interest in understanding and analyzing explosive forms of anger. General epidemiological studies have focused on the DSM-IV category of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED), while refugee and post-conflict research have used culturally-based indices of explosive anger. The aim of this study was to test the convergence of a culturally-sensitive community measure of explosive anger with a structured clinical interview diagnosis of IED in Timor-Leste, a country with a history of significant mass violence and displacement. A double-blind clinical concordance study was conducted amongst a stratified community sample in post-conflict Timor-Leste (n=85) to compare a community measure of anger against the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) module for IED. Clinical concordance between the two measures was high: the area under the curve (AUC) index was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.98); sensitivity and specificity were 93.3% and 87.5% respectively. Response rates were modest due to the participant's time commitments. It is possible to achieve convergence between culturally-sensitive measures of explosive anger and the DSM-IV construct of IED, allowing comparison of findings across settings and populations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chestnut and lemon balm based ingredients as natural preserving agents of the nutritional profile in matured "Serra da Estrela" cheese.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-08-01

    Chestnut flowers, lemon balm plants and their decoctions were incorporated into "Serra da Estrela" cheese, to assess their potential to preserve its nutritional properties and provide new foodstuffs. The analyses were carried out after the normal ripening period of 1month and after 6months of storage. The most abundant nutrients were proteins and fats. The most abundant minerals were Ca and Na, while C16:0 and C18:1 were the main fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids were the most abundant, followed by the monounsaturated. Moisture seemed to be lower in the samples with the plants incorporated. The dried plants, when incorporated, seemed to be more efficient as preservers then the decoctions, although these better preserved the proteins. These plants can be regarded as promising natural preservers in foodstuffs cheese, given the preservation of key parameters and the slight impact on the nutritional value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluoride characterization by principal component analysis in the hydrochemical facies of Serra Geral Aquifer System in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Arthur; Roisenberg, Ari; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Mesquita, Gilberto; Danieli, Cristiano

    2008-12-01

    Principal component analysis is applied to 309 groundwater chemical data information from wells in the Serra Geral Aquifer System. Correlations among seven hydrochemical parameters are statistically examined. A four-component model is suggested and explains 81% of total variance. Component 1 represents calcium-magnesium bicarbonated groundwaters with long time of residence. Component 2 represents sulfated and chlorinated calcium and sodium groundwaters; Component 3 represents sodium bicarbonated groundwaters; and Component 4 is characterized by sodium sulfated with high fluoride facies. The components' spatial distribution shows high fluoride concentration along analyzed tectonic fault system and aligned on northeast direction in other areas, suggesting other hydrogeological fault systems. High fluoride concentration increases according to groundwater pumping depth. The Principal Component Analysis reveals features of the groundwater mixture and individualizes water facies. In this scenery, it can be determined hydrogeological blocks associated with tectonic fault system here introduced.

  17. New records of Anopheles homunculus in central and Serra do Mar biodiversity corridors of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cardoso, Jader C; Bergo, Eduardo S; Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Sant'ana, Denise C; Motoki, Maysa T; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2012-03-01

    Two new records of Anopheles homunculus in the eastern part of the Atlantic Forest are reported. This species was found for the first time in Barra do Ouro district, Maquiné municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the southern limit of the Atlantic Forest. The 2nd new record was in the Serra Bonita Reserve, Camacan municipality, southeast Bahia state. These records extend the geographical distribution of An. homunculus, suggesting that the species may be widely distributed in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest. It is hypothesized that the disjunct distribution of the species may be caused by inadequate sampling, and also difficulties in species identification based only on female external characteristics. Species identification was based on morphological characters of the male, larva, and pupa, and corroborated by DNA sequence analyses, employing data from both 2nd internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I.

  18. Multiseasonal and geobotanical approach in remote detection of greisenization areas in the Serra da Pedra Branca Granite, Goias State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Almeidafilho, R.

    1983-01-01

    Multiseasonal analysis of LANDSAT multispectral images in CCT format permitted the mapping of lithologic facies in the Pedra Branca Granite, using geobotanical associations, which occur in the form of variations in the density of cerrado vegetation, as well as the predominance of certain distinctive vegetation species. Dry season images did not show very good results in lithological differentiation due to anomalous illumination conditions related to the low solar elevation and the homogeneity in the vegetation cover, specially the grasses that become dry during this season. Rainy season image, on the other hand, allowed the separation of the lithological types, a fact that can be attributed to a greater differentiation among the geobotanical associations. As a result of this study, the muscovite-granite facies with greisenization zones, which are lithological indicators of important tin mineralization within the Serra da Pedra Branca Granite, were mapped. This methodology can be sucessfully applied to similar known granite bodies elsewhere in the Tin Province of Goias.

  19. Assessment of computer techniques for processing digital LANDSAT MSS data for lithological discrimination of Serra do Ramalho, State of Bahia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradella, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Vitorello, I.; Monteiro, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Enhancement techniques and thematic classifications were applied to the metasediments of Bambui Super Group (Upper Proterozoic) in the Region of Serra do Ramalho, SW of the state of Bahia. Linear contrast stretch, band-ratios with contrast stretch, and color-composites allow lithological discriminations. The effects of human activities and of vegetation cover mask and limit, in several ways, the lithological discrimination with digital MSS data. Principal component images and color composite of linear contrast stretch of these products, show lithological discrimination through tonal gradations. This set of products allows the delineations of several metasedimentary sequences to a level superior to reconnaissance mapping. Supervised (maximum likelihood classifier) and nonsupervised (K-Means classifier) classification of the limestone sequence, host to fluorite mineralization show satisfactory results.

  20. Strict specificity for high-mannose type N-glycans and primary structure of a red alga Eucheuma serra lectin.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kanji; Sato, Yuichiro; Ito, Kaori; Fujiwara, Yoshifumi; Iwamoto, Yasumasa; Makino, Hiroyuki; Kawakubo, Akihiro

    2007-05-01

    We have elucidated the carbohydrate-binding profile of a non-monosaccharide-binding lectin named Eucheuma serra lectin (ESA)-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra using a lectin-immobilized column and a centrifugal ultrafiltration-high performance liquid chromatography method with a variety of fluorescence-labeled oligosaccharides. In both methods, ESA-2 exclusively bound with high-mannose type (HM) N-glycans, but not with any of other N-glycans including complex type, hybrid type and core pentasaccharides, and oligosaccharides from glycolipids. These findings indicate that ESA-2 recognizes the branched oligomannosides of the N-glycans. However, ESA-2 did not bind with any of the free oligomannoses examined that are constituents of the branched oligomannosides implying that the portion of the core N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residue(s) of the N-glycans is also essential for binding. Thus, the algal lectin was strictly specific for HM N-glycans and recognized the extended carbohydrate structure with a minimum size of the pentasaccharide, Man(alpha1-3)Man(alpha1-6)Man(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-4) GlcNAc. Kinetic analysis of binding with a HM heptasaccharide (M5) showed that ESA-2 has four carbohydrate-binding sites per polypeptide with a high association constant of 1.6x10(8) M-1. Sequence analysis, by a combination of Edman degradation and mass analyses of the intact protein and of peptides produced by its enzymic digestions, showed that ESA-2 is composed of 268 amino acids (molecular weight 27950) with four tandemly repeated domains of 67 amino acids. The number of repeats coincided with the number of carbohydrate-binding sites in the monomeric molecule. Surprisingly, the marine algal lectin was homologous to hemagglutinin from the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

  1. RAPD and SCAR markers as potential tools for detection of milk origin in dairy products: Adulterant sheep breeds in Serra da Estrela cheese production.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Joana T; Ribeiro, Tânia I B; Rocha, João B; Nunes, João; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-11-15

    Serra da Estrela Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese is the most famous Portuguese cheese and has a high commercial value. However, the adulteration of production with cheaper/lower-quality milks from non-autochthones ovine breeds compromises the quality of the final product and undervalues the original PDO cheese. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for efficient detection of adulterant breeds in milk mixtures used for fraudulent production of this cheese. Furthermore, Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers were designed envisioning the detection of milk adulteration in processed dairy foods. The RAPD-SCAR technique is here described, for the first time, to be potentially useful for detection of milk origin in dairy products. In this sense, our findings will play an important role on the valorization of Serra da Estrela cheese, as well as on other high-quality dairy products prone to adulteration, contributing to the further development of the dairy industry.

  2. Values: Lest We Forget

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    and assurance. Soon the supply of Jackets were exhausted, yet four young soldiers afraid and without vests, stood waiting. Quickly the chaplains...stripped off their own and forced them upon the young soldiers. These four men of God had given away their only means of saving themselves in order to save...welfare, as well as the discipline and military training, of the young men under their command. General John S. Lejeune You cannot expect a soldier to be

  3. Criteria for recognition and taphonomy of coprolites from the Serra da Galga Member, Marília Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Fábio Antônio; Santucci, Rodrigo Miloni

    2017-10-01

    The Cretaceous sedimentary rocks from Uberaba, Minas Gerais, have provided a rich vertebrate fauna unearthed from rocks of the Serra da Galga Member, Marília Formation, Bauru Group, of Maastrichtian age. Together with these fossils, a large number of coprolites have also been found from two main localities, here called the Peirópolis and Serra da Galga sites. During field trips carried out in the last few years, 340 samples have been collected, prepared, and analyzed in laboratory. By using parameters such as weight, density, mineralogical composition, and content, we identified 199 coprolites and 141 inorganic nodules (pseudocoprolites). The coprolites have been divided into four morphotypes, which suggest their producers varied in feeding strategies and size. The taphonomic study, based on morphological characters such as wear, presence of pebbles or pebble marks, and desiccation cracks, suggests they underwent temporal and spatial-mixing, and that the material from the Peirópolis Site were transported essentially by alluvial processes (alluvial fans), whereas the material from the Serra da Galga Site were reworked mainly by fluvial streams. The same taphonomic processes may well have affected other fossils from these sites, which are highly abundant in the rocks of this area. Because of that, this taphonomic aspect becomes an important parameter to be taken into account in future studies on the biota of the region.

  4. GC/MS analysis of volatiles obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous-distillation extraction from Rabdosia serra (MAXIM.) HARA leaf and stem.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lianzhu; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lei, Fenfen; Yang, Bao; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-01-15

    Volatiles in Rabdosia serra were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous-distillation extraction (SDE). The HS-SPME technique was previously evaluated to optimise sampling conditions. A total of 56 and 48 compounds including alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, carboxylic acid, ester, and aromatics were identified in leaf and stem by optimised HS-SPME method (CAR/PDMS fibre; incubation time, 10 min; extraction temperature, 50°C; extraction time, 40 min), respectively. 1-Octen-3-ol and (2E)-hexenal had significant contribution to R. serra aroma. Cluster analysis indicated that leaf and stem exhibited different volatile diversity. Air drying was favourable for the retention of the volatiles, while freeze- and sun-drying led to the loss of volatiles. SDE method preferred to the analysis of compounds with low volatility including fatty acids and esters. HS-SPME was a useful technique for the analysis of readily volatile components for the characteristics of R. serra aroma.

  5. Progressive coaxial Variscan deformation in the Centro-Iberian Zone (Portugal): Serra do Moradal-Fajao complex syncline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metodiev, Daniel; Romao, Jose; Dias, Rui; Ribeiro, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The Serra do Moradal-Fajão syncline is a major NNW-SSE Variscan structure developed in the SW sector of the Centro-Iberian Zone, one of the main geodynamical structures of the Iberian Variscides. This tight syncline with a 1.5 km wavelength, could be followed for more than 80 km and represents one of the most important regional structures. Its complex structure has been possible to characterize, not only due to excellent outcrop condition (mostly induced by the competent behaviour of the Lower Ordovician Armorican Quartzite Formation), but also to the detailed lithostratigraphic control of the Ordovician-Silurian lithologies. These units are present in a homogeneous regional distribution, unconformably overlain the Cambrian Beiras Group. Concerning the Variscan structures, their geometry and kinematics show that they could be ascribed to progressive deformation induced by the first and main D1 tectonic event. During this event, a complex NNW-SSE aggregation of fold and thrust arrays have been developed. At the macroscale, this pattern is mainly characterized by the Serra de Moradal-Fajão syncline. Both limbs of this major D1 Variscan fold, which present a slightly ENE facing, have been disrupted by convergent thrust systems, leading to the superposition of the Cambrian Beiras metasediments on top of the Ordovician-Silurian succession. Concerning its SW limb, a major single overthrust has been developed, the Vilar Barroco-Fajão one, although in some very localized sectors, some minor thrusts could be emphasized; as they present a ENE facing, they are interpreted as duplex style forethrusts in relation to the main overthrust. Regarding the NE limb, a different behaviour is found. Indeed, in this sector, an imbricated thrust system has been mapped; due to their WSW facing it should be considered as backthrusts. Concerning the temporal relations between the previously described structures, although in some rare cases backthrusts cut forethrusts, the scarcity of

  6. Does mobile phone ownership predict better utilization of maternal and newborn health services? a cross-sectional study in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Nie, Juan; Unger, Jennifer Anna; Thompson, Susan; Hofstee, Marisa; Gu, Jing; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2016-07-23

    Increasingly popular mobile health (mHealth) programs have been proposed to promote better utilization of maternal, newborn and child health services. However, women who lack access to a mobile phone are often left out of both mHealth programs and research. In this study, we determine whether household mobile phone ownership is an independent predictor of utilization of maternal and newborn health services in Timor-Leste. The study included 581 women aged 15-49 years with a child under the age of two years from the districts of Manufahi and Ainaro in Timor-Leste. Participants were interviewed via a structured survey of knowledge, practices, and coverage of maternal and child health services, with additional questions related to ownership and utilization of mobile phones. Mobile phone ownership was the exposure variable, and the dependent variables included having at least four antenatal care visits, skilled birth attendance, health facility delivery, a postnatal checkup within 24 h, and a neonatal checkup within 24 h for their youngest child. Logistic regression models were applied to assess for associations. Sixty-seven percent of women reported having at least one mobile phone in the family. Women who had a mobile phone were significantly more likely to be of higher socioeconomic status and to utilize maternal and newborn health services. However, after adjusting socioeconomic factors, household mobile phone ownership was not independently associated with any of the dependent variables. Evaluations of the effects of mHealth programs on health in a population need to consider the likelihood of socioeconomic differentials indicated by mobile phone ownership.

  7. The experience of medical training and expectations regarding future medical practice of medical students in the Cuban-supported Medical School in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Valdes, Ana C; Cabral, Jorge

    2015-03-28

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the professional expectations and profile of medical students at the Cuban-supported School of General Medicine, in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of the National University of Timor-Leste. A piloted, standardized questionnaire, with closed- and open-ended questions, was distributed to registered medical students attending classes on the day of the survey. All data were analysed using SPSS. The statistical analysis is mostly descriptive. Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population is high. Medical students are in general satisfied with the training received, though demanding improvements in terms of systems to support their studies and training (e.g. libraries, laboratories, access to computers and the Internet). Medical students know that they will be needed in the public sector and that it would represent their opportunity to contribute to the public's welfare. Nonetheless, they report that they expect to combine public sector practice with private work, probably, in order to improve their earnings. This may be explained by their expectations for salaries, which are much higher than the current level of public sector salaries. A significant proportion of students are unsure about their future area of specialization. Of those that have determined their desired specialization, most intend to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. For many, specialization is equated with migration to study abroad. There are important differences between students at the start of their training compared with more advanced students. This paper gives an overview of student expectations for alignment with stated national human resources for health priorities for Timor-Leste.

  8. Effects of genetic polymorphisms at the growth hormone gene on milk yield in Serra da Estrela sheep.

    PubMed

    Marques, Maria do Rosário; Santos, Ingrid C; Carolino, Nuno; Belo, Carlos C; Renaville, Robert; Cravador, Alfredo

    2006-11-01

    The five exons and the 5' and 3'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR and 3'-UTR) of the oGH gene were screened for mutations using PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) procedures in 523 Serra da Estrela ewes and were found to be highly polymorphic. The region extending across and between the GH2-N and GH2-Z copies was sequenced allowing the design of primers for the specific PCR amplification of each copy. These were cloned and sequenced in 20 animals representative of all SSCP patterns. The corresponding genotypes were established for each copy following nucleotide sequencing of SSCP alleles. Twenty-four polymorphic sites were found at the GH2-N (or GH1) and fourteen at the GH2-Z copies. Eight amino acid substitutions were predicted at the GH2-N and six at the GH2-Z copies. Milk yield adjusted to 150 lactation days was analysed for the genotype of each oGH gene copy taken separately or together (associated genotypes) by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) through a univariate best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) animal model with repeated measures. Significant associations between genotypes and milk yield were observed. Within GH2-N genotypes there was a milk yield differential of 21.4+/-0.2 l/150 d between the most (N7) and the least (N5) productive ones. Within GH2-Z genotypes there was a differential of 21.6+/-0.2 l/150 d between the most (Z8) and the least (Z1) productive ones. The effect of associated GH2-N and GH2-Z genotypes revealed a differential of 39.6+/-0.3 l/150 d between the most (N1+Z7) and the least (N3+Z2) productive associated genotypes. The results show that GH2-N and GH2-Z genotypes significantly affect milk yield in Serra da Estrela ewes. Moreover, the apparent joint effect of GH2-N and GH2-Z genotype could improve milk yield in 25% as compared with the mean milk production of the analysed population.

  9. The (serra da) Estrela Aspiring Geopark (Portugal): preserving geoheritage, while promoting science and its links to local communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Hugo; Fernandes, Magda; Castro, Emanuel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2017-04-01

    The serra da Estrela (1,993 m asl) is the highest mountain range in mainland Portugal. Bounded by two main fault scarps, a granite massif occupies the central area forming a summit plateau between ci. 1,500 and 2,000 m. To the north and south, schists and greywackes dominate the landscape, also with granite presence. During the Last Glacial a plateau ice-field and five radiating valley glaciers occupied the highest parts of the mountain with an estimated equilibrium line altitude at 1,650 m asl. The plateau style of the glaciation and the Equilibrium Line Altitude just below the plateau edge made the Estrela very sensitive to climate fluctuations, having resulted in several terminal moraine complexes that reveal several glacial stages. The central plateau area shows widespread glacial erosion features and an almost complete stripping of the Cenozoic weathering mantle. The non-glaciated plateaus show a rich landscape dominated by granite weathering landforms. The remarkable glacial landscape of the serra da Estrela when considering its setting in SW Europe, together with other significant geoheritage such as periglacial, weathering and mass wasting phenomena, tectonic, petrological and hydrogeological features, are at the core of Estrela's application to become a UNESCO Global Geopark. But the framework of the application encompasses both the natural and the human landscape, involving nine municipalities in the wider Estrela range, whose population bears an Estrelean signature in its roots, traditions, culture and economy. The Estrela Aspiring Geopark builds on a high value geoheritage closely bonded with biodiversity and the local communities, and its strategy aims at conservation and promoting regional development in an interdisciplinary approach committed UNESCO's principles. This presentation is a brief overview of the Estrela geoheritage, with a focus on the strategy for the implementation and management of the Geopark, emphasising on the science-support plan

  10. On Ensino de Astronomia nas Cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Apesar da astronomia ser um dos temas indicados pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, observa-se que poucas mudanças ocorreram desde a implementação do mesmo em sala de aula. A presente pesquisa diz respeito sobre como os tópicos de astronomia estão sendo abordados pelos professores no ensino médio. Optou-se por aplicar um questionário com os professores que ministram a disciplina de física. Os mesmos trabalham em escolas estaduais situadas nas cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra, ambas subordinadas a Diretoria de Ensino de Mauá, no Estado de São Paulo. O questionário foi aplicado durante o 2° semestre de 2006. Até o momento os resultados são preliminares. Dos 82,0% dos professores que responderam ao questionário no município de Rio Grande da Serra, 66,7% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 77,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 66,7% não utilizaram laboratório, que 77,8% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetários e que 66,7% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia aos seus alunos. No município de Ribeirão Pires, 53,3% dos professores responderam ao questionário, destes 75,0% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 93,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 75,0% não utilizaram laboratório, 81,3% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetário e 56,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia ao seus alunos. Apesar da maioria dos professores reconhecerem que o conteúdo de astronomia influi na formação do jovem, os mesmos não incluem o tema em seus planejamentos escolares.

  11. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effects of novel Span 80 vesicles containing immobilized Eucheuma serra agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Omokawa, Yousuke; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Walde, Peter; Akiyama, Koichi; Sugahara, Takuya; Masuda, Seizo; Inada, Akihiro; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Saeki, Toshiaki; Kato, Keiichi

    2010-04-15

    The lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) is known from previous studies to specifically bind to high-mannose type N-glycans and to induce apoptotic cancer cell death in vitro. In this study, Span 80 vesicles, with an average diameter between about 200 and 400 nm, containing immobilized ESA were prepared from the nonionic surfactant Span 80, also known as sorbitan monooleate. The vesicles were investigated in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the vesicles's potential applicability as novel drug delivery system. The results obtained are promising since the following was observed: (i) vesicular ESA had the same hemagglutinating activity as free ESA, demonstrating its biological activity when bound to the vesicles; (ii) vesicles containing immobilized ESA decreased the viability of Colo201 cancer cells in vitro while the growth of normal cells was not affected; (iii) the vesicles showed binding to Colo201 cells in vitro and caused inhibition of cancer cell growth in nude mice to which the vesicle-treated cells were added; (iv) the vesicles diminished tumor growth after intravenous administration to nude mice which contained an implanted Colo201 tumor; (v) the vesicles showed a tendency to accumulate at the site of the tumor 6h after i.v. administration to nude mice. Thus, all measurements carried out indicate that this type of Span 80 vesicle can be considered as promising alternatives to conventional phospholipid-based vesicles.

  12. Argyrogrammana Strand (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2015-10-08

    The species of Argyrogrammana Strand, 1932 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and detailed with behavioral notes. In total, 17 species were recorded, including 13 new records for Brazil (marked with an asterisk): A. alstonii (Smart, 1979)*, A. nurtia ludibunda Brévignon & Gallard, 1995*, A. pulchra (Talbot, 1929)*, A. bonita Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. amalfreda (Staudinger, [1877])*, A. physis phyton (Stichel, 1911), A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. celata Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. aparamilla Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. praestigiosa (Stichel, 1929), A. johannismarci Brévignon, 1995*, A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. rameli (Stichel, 1930), A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov.*. Four new species are described, two from "amalfreda complex": A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. and A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; one from "trochilia complex": A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; and one from "stilbe complex": A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. Argyrogrammana iracyi saulensis Gallard, 2008 is recognized as a valid species, A. saulensis saulensis, stat. nov., and a new combination is proposed to A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov. The females of A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari are recognized and figured for the first time. The taxonomy of the species found at the PNSD is discussed and adults are figured, including illustrations of the genitalia.

  13. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  14. Holocene history of a lake filling and vegetation dynamics of the Serra Sul dos Carajás, southeast Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, José T F; Sahoo, Prafulla K; Souza-Filho, Pedro W M; Figueiredo, Mariana M J Costa DE; Reis, Luiza S; Silva, Marcio S DA; Rodrigues, Tarcísio M

    2017-07-24

    Down-core changes in sedimentary facies, elemental geochemistry, pollen, spore, δ13C, δ15N and radiocarbon records from a filled lake, named R4, of the Serra Sul dos Carajás were used to study the relationship between the paleomorphological and paleoecological processes and their significance for Holocene paleoclimatology of the southeast Amazonia. The sediment deposition of the R4 lake started around 9500 cal yr BP. Increase of detrital components from 9500 to 7000 cal yr BP suggests high weathering of surrounding catchment rocks and soils, and deposition into the lake basin under mudflows. At that time, montane savanna and forest formation were already established suggesting predominance of wet climate. However, from 7000 to 3000 cal yr BP, a decline of detrital input occurred. Also, forest formation and pteridophytes were declined, while palms and macrophytes were remained relatively stable, indicating that water levels of the lake is likely dropped allowing the development of plants adapted to subaerial condition under drier climate conditions. After 3000 cal yr BP, eutrophication and low accommodation space lead to high lake productivity and the final stage of the lake filling respectively, and forest formation may has acquired its current structure, which suggests return of wetter climate conditions.

  15. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area. PMID:24141956

  16. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and environmental risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth intensity of infection in Timor-Leste, using real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; Wardell, Rebecca; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-03-01

    No investigations have been undertaken of risk factors for intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in Timor-Leste. This study provides the first analysis of risk factors for intensity of STH infection, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR), examining a broad range of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors, among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. A baseline cross-sectional survey of 18 communities was undertaken as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with additional identically-collected data from six other communities. qPCR was used to assess STH infection from stool samples, and questionnaires administered to collect WASH, demographic, and socioeconomic data. Environmental information was obtained from open-access sources and linked to infection outcomes. Mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression was undertaken to assess risk factors for intensity of Necator americanus and Ascaris infection. 2152 participants provided stool and questionnaire information for this analysis. In adjusted models incorporating WASH, demographic and environmental variables, environmental variables were generally associated with infection intensity for both N. americanus and Ascaris spp. Precipitation (in centimetres) was associated with increased risk of moderate-intensity (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-19.3) and heavy-intensity (ARR 6.6; 95% CI 3.1-14.1) N. americanus infection, as was sandy-loam soil around households (moderate-intensity ARR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0-4.3; heavy-intensity ARR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6-4.5; compared to no infection). For Ascaris, alkaline soil around the household was associated with reduced risk of moderate-intensity infection (ARR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.51), and heavy-intensity infection (ARR 0.04; 95% CI 0.01-0.25). Few WASH risk factors were significant. In this high-prevalence setting, strong risk associations with environmental factors indicate that anthelmintic

  17. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and environmental risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth intensity of infection in Timor-Leste, using real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Susana V.; Wardell, Rebecca; D’Este, Catherine A.; Gray, Darren J.; McCarthy, James S.; Traub, Rebecca J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J.; Williams, Gail M.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background No investigations have been undertaken of risk factors for intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in Timor-Leste. This study provides the first analysis of risk factors for intensity of STH infection, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR), examining a broad range of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors, among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. Methods A baseline cross-sectional survey of 18 communities was undertaken as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with additional identically-collected data from six other communities. qPCR was used to assess STH infection from stool samples, and questionnaires administered to collect WASH, demographic, and socioeconomic data. Environmental information was obtained from open-access sources and linked to infection outcomes. Mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression was undertaken to assess risk factors for intensity of Necator americanus and Ascaris infection. Results 2152 participants provided stool and questionnaire information for this analysis. In adjusted models incorporating WASH, demographic and environmental variables, environmental variables were generally associated with infection intensity for both N. americanus and Ascaris spp. Precipitation (in centimetres) was associated with increased risk of moderate-intensity (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9–19.3) and heavy-intensity (ARR 6.6; 95% CI 3.1–14.1) N. americanus infection, as was sandy-loam soil around households (moderate-intensity ARR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0–4.3; heavy-intensity ARR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6–4.5; compared to no infection). For Ascaris, alkaline soil around the household was associated with reduced risk of moderate-intensity infection (ARR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09–0.51), and heavy-intensity infection (ARR 0.04; 95% CI 0.01–0.25). Few WASH risk factors were significant. Conclusion In this high-prevalence setting, strong risk associations with

  18. Intermittent explosive disorder amongst women in conflict affected Timor-Leste: associations with human rights trauma, ongoing violence, poverty, and injustice.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X(2) (2) = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08-2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48-3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09-3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27-2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08-1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35-3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and disabling amongst women in conflict-affected Timor-Leste

  19. Six-year longitudinal study of pathways leading to explosive anger involving the traumas of recurrent conflict and the cumulative sense of injustice in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Silove, Derrick; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Steel, Zachary; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Da Costa, Zelia Maria; Rees, Susan

    2017-08-20

    Cumulative evidence suggests that explosive anger may be a common reaction among survivors of mass conflict. However, little is known about the course of explosive anger in the years following mass conflict, or the psychosocial factors that influence the trajectory of that reaction pattern. We examined these issues in a 6-year longitudinal study (2004-2010) conducted among adult residents of a rural and an urban village in Timor-Leste (n = 1022). We derived a brief, context-specific index of explosive anger using qualitative methods. Widely used measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and severe psychological distress were calibrated to the Timor context. We developed an index of the cumulative sense of injustice related to consecutive historical periods associated with conflict in Timor-Leste. We applied partial structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine pathways from baseline explosive anger, socio-demographic factors, recurrent trauma, mental health indices (PTSD, severe psychological distress) and the sense of injustice, to explosive anger. Half of the sample with explosive anger at baseline continued to report that reaction pattern after 6 years; and a third of those who did not report explosive anger at baseline developed the response by follow-up. A symmetrical pattern of younger age, female gender and the trauma count for the preceding historical period predicted explosive anger at each assessment point. The sense of injustice was related to explosive anger at follow-up. Explosive anger was associated with impairment in functioning and conflict with the intimate partner and wider family. Sampling constraints caution against generalizing our findings to other populations. Nevertheless, our data suggest that explosive anger may persist for a prolonged period of time following mass conflict and that the response pattern is initiated and maintained by recurrent trauma exposure associated with a sense of injustice. Averting recurrence of mass

  20. Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2(2)  = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder is

  1. Thematic mapping of likely target areas for the occurence of cassiterite in the Serra do Mocambo (GO) granitic massifs using LANDSAT 2 digital imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeidofilho, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The applicability of LANDSAT/MSS images, enhanced by computer derived techniques, as essential tools in mineral research was investigated and the Serra do Mocambo granitic massif was used as illustration. Given the peculiar factors founded in this area, orbital imagery permitted the delineation of potential target areas of mineralization occurrences, associated to albitized/greisenized types. Follow up prospection for primary tin deposits in this granitic massif should be restricted to the delineated areas which are less than 5% of the total superficial area of the massif.

  2. Did the first Global Fund grant (2003-2006) contribute to malaria control and health system strengthening in Timor-Leste?

    PubMed

    Martins, João Soares; Zwi, Anthony B; Kelly, Paul M

    2012-07-23

    In 2003, Timor-Leste successfully obtained its first Global Fund grant for a three-year programme for malaria control. The grant aimed to reduce malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 30 % by the end of the implementation. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the impact of the grant implementation. Fifty-eight in-depth interviews, eight group interviews, 16 focus group discussions, and on-site observations were used. Morbidity data reported to the Ministry of Health were also examined to assess trends. The National Malaria Programme with funding support from the Global Fund grant and other development partners contributed considerably to strengthening malaria control and the general health system. It also brought direct and indirect benefits to pregnant women and to the community at large. However, it failed to achieve the stated objective of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality by 30 %. The implementation was hampered by inadequate human resources, the rigidity of Global Fund rules, weak project management and coordination, and inadequate support from external stakeholders. Despite limitations, the grant was implemented until the agreed closing date. Considerable contributions to malaria control, health system, and the community have been made and the malaria programme was sustained.

  3. Human settlement history between Sunda and Sahul: a focus on East Timor (Timor-Leste) and the Pleistocenic mtDNA diversity.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sibylle M; Bodner, Martin; Souto, Luis; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Strobl, Christina; Röck, Alexander W; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Côrte-Real, Francisco; Parson, Walther

    2015-02-14

    Distinct, partly competing, "waves" have been proposed to explain human migration in(to) today's Island Southeast Asia and Australia based on genetic (and other) evidence. The paucity of high quality and high resolution data has impeded insights so far. In this study, one of the first in a forensic environment, we used the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) for generating complete mitogenome sequences via stand-alone massively parallel sequencing and describe a standard data validation practice. In this first representative investigation on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation of East Timor (Timor-Leste) population including >300 individuals, we put special emphasis on the reconstruction of the initial settlement, in particular on the previously poorly resolved haplogroup P1, an indigenous lineage of the Southwest Pacific region. Our results suggest a colonization of southern Sahul (Australia) >37 kya, limited subsequent exchange, and a parallel incubation of initial settlers in northern Sahul (New Guinea) followed by westward migrations <28 kya. The temporal proximity and possible coincidence of these latter dispersals, which encompassed autochthonous haplogroups, with the postulated "later" events of (South) East Asian origin pinpoints a highly dynamic migratory phase.

  4. Phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmania infection in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a natural Brazilian heritage site.

    PubMed

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil--the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park.

  5. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park. PMID:25793193

  6. Elements concentration analysis in groundwater from the North Serra Geral aquifer in Santa Helena-Brazil using SR-TXRF spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Justen, Gisele C; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Bergamasco, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    In this work the analysis of elements concentration in groundwater was performed using the synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) technique. A set of nine tube-wells with serious risk of contamination was chosen to monitor the mean concentration of elements in groundwater from the North Serra Geral aquifer in Santa Helena, Brazil, during 1 year. Element concentrations were determined applying a SR-TXRF methodology. The accuracy of SR-TXRF technique was validated by analysis of a certified reference material. As the groundwater composition in the North Serra Geral aquifer showed heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of eight major elements, a hierarchical clustering to the data was performed. By a similarity in their compositions, two of the nine wells were grouped in a first cluster, while the other seven were grouped in a second cluster. Calcium was the major element in all wells, with higher Ca concentration in the second cluster than in the first cluster. However, concentrations of Ti, V, Cr in the first cluster are slightly higher than those in the second cluster. The findings of this study within a monitoring program of tube-wells could provide a useful assessment of controls over groundwater composition and support management at regional level.

  7. The cytotoxic effect of Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) on cancer cells and its application to molecular probe for drug delivery system using lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, T; Ohama, Y; Fukuda, A; Hayashi, M; Kawakubo, A; Kato, K

    2001-07-01

    Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) derived from a marine red alga, Eucheuma serra, is a lectin that specifically binds to mannose-rich carbohydrate chains. ESA is a monomeric molecule, with a molecular weight of29,000. ESA induced cell death against several cancer cell lines, such as colon cancer Colo201 cells and cervix cancer HeLa cells. DNA ladder detection and the induction of caspase-3 activity suggested that the cell death induced by ESA against cancer cells was apoptosis. ESA bound to the cell surface of Colo201 cells in the sugar chain dependent manner. This means that the binding of ESA to the cell surface is specific for mannose-rich sugar chains recognized by ESA. The binding of ESA to the cell surface of Colo201 cells was slightly suppressed by the high concentrations of serum because of the competition with serum components possessing the mannose-rich sugar chain motifs. On the other hand, a lipid vesicle is a very useful microcapsule constructed by multilamellar structure,and adopted as drug or gene carrier. ESA was immobilized on the surface of the lipid vesicles to apply the lipid vesicles to cancer specific drug delivery system. ESA-immobilized lipid vesicles were effectively bound to cancer cell lines compared with plane vesicles.

  8. Assessment of risk to human health from simultaneous exposure to multiple contaminants in an artisanal gold mine in Serra Pelada, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Edna Santos; Texeira, Renato Alves; da Costa, Hercília Samara Cardoso; Oliveira, Fábio Júnior; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; Fernandes, Antonio Rodrigues

    2017-01-15

    Contamination of soil, water and plants caused by gold mining is of great societal concern because of the risk of environmental pollution and risk to human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk to human health from ingestion of As, Ba, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Ni present in soil, sterile and mineralized waste, and water and plants at a gold mine in Serra Pelada, Pará, Brazil. Samples of soil, sterile and mineralized waste, water and plants were collected around an artisanal gold mine located in Serra Pelada. The mean concentrations of potentially toxic elements in the soil were higher than the soil quality reference values as defined in the legislation, which may be attributeable to past mining activities. Water from the area close to the mine exhibited As, Ba and Pb concentrations exceeding the reference values established by the World Health Organization, deemed unfit for human consumption. Plants exhibited high Pb concentrations, representing a food safety risk to the population. The mean hazard index (HI) values were below the acceptable limit (1.0) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, although the highest HI values observed for adults and children were higher than the respective acceptable limits. Environmental contamination and risk to human health were heterogeneous in the surroundings of the mine. Mitigation strategies need to be adopted to decrease the risks of contamination to the environment and to the local population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive inversion of extensional footwalls in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Brazil--insights from sandbox laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Caroline J S; Martins-Neto, Marcelo A; Ribeiro, Valéria E

    2006-06-01

    Analogue experiments were carried out to get insights into the processes governing positive inversion during the foreland propagating thrust tectonics in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, a Brasiliano/Panafrican foldthrust belt in southeast Brazil. In particular, model listric half-grabens were inverted by applying contractional displacement to the footwall blocks. We investigated two different inversion conditions in listric half-grabens: (i) extensional and contractional detachments at the same level and (ii) at different positions. The models revealed that the development of a forward-breaking thrust system occurs in the basin synrift deposits, by contractional translation of the extensional footwall block when the extensional and contractional master faults do not coincide. Our experiments show the tectonic imbrication between basement and synrift sequences which characterizes the southern Serra do Espinhaço, and support the location in the eastern mountain range domain of the Espinhaço rift master fault system, which is not exposed at the surface.

  10. Magnetic Anisotropic Susceptibility Studies on Impact Structures in the Serra Geral Basalt, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, A. P.; MacDonald, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of magnetic properties of shocked basalt are underway for two impact craters in the 132 Ma Serra Geral basalt of southern Brazil: the Vista Alegre crater (25.95°S, 41.69°W) in the state of Paraná, with a diameter of 12.4 km, and the Vargeão crater (26.81°S, 52.17°W) in Santa Catarina, of 9.5 km. Shatter cones and quartz planar deformation features (pdfs) have been found at both structures. Uplifted crater rims and external ejecta deposits have been removed by erosion at both craters. The interior of the Vista Alegre crater contains ejecta fallback deposits, typically reworked and weathered, and basalts of the crater floor are poorly exposed. In contrast, shocked basalts are exposed across the interior of the Vargeão structure, ejecta fallback deposits have been removed by erosion, and a central domal uplift of quartzose strata from beneath the basalt is found. Discounting the possibility of differential erosion rates, these differences might suggest that the Vargeão is the older of the two structures. Laboratory experiments elsewhere have suggested that major axes of the ellipse of anisotropic susceptibility (K1 major; K3 minor) could be aligned with the direction of propagation of the shockwave accompanying impact processes. Insufficient exposures exist at Vista Alegre to test this hypothesis. Oriented samples along a NNW-trending diametral profile across the better exposed Vargeão structure did not show a radial alignment of either K1 or K3 relative to the centre of that structure. In general, the mean susceptibility at Vargeão is lower towards the center; the degree of anisotropy is low (Pj<1.01), and the highest degree of anisotropy is in basalts adjacent to the central uplift. The shape factor (T) varies considerably (-0.5 (prolate) to +0.7 (oblate)); most magnetofabrics are oblate. Only 3 of 16 sites are prolate, and those are near the crater margin. K3 (minimum) axes are mainly steep, with a mean direction steep and slightly north of the

  11. Testing a cycle of family violence model in conflict-affected, low-income countries: a qualitative study from Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Thorpe, Rosamund; Tol, Wietse; Fonseca, Mira; Silove, Derrick

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines key aspects of an emerging cycle of violence model as applied to conflict-affected countries. We focus specifically on the roles of intimate partner violence (IPV), consequent experiences of explosive anger amongst women, and associated patterns of harsh parenting. Between 2010 and 2011, we conducted a women-centred and culturally sensitive qualitative inquiry with 77 mothers drawn consecutively from a data-base of all adults residing in two villages in Timor-Leste. We over-sampled women who in the preceding whole of household survey met criteria for Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED). Our methodology included in-depth qualitative interviews followed by a focus group with a comprehensive array of service providers. We used the NVivo software package to manage and analyse data. Our findings provide support for a link between IPV and experiences of explosive anger amongst Timorese mothers. Furthermore, women commonly reported that experiences of explosive anger were accompanied by harsh parenting directed at their children. Women identified the role of patriarchy in legitimizing and perpetuating IPV. Our findings suggest that empowering women to address IPV and poverty may allow them to overcome or manage feelings of anger in a manner that will reduce risk of associated harsh parenting. A fuller examination of the cycle of violence model will need to take into account wider contributing factors at the macro-level (historical, conflict-related, political), the meso-level (community-wide adherence to patriarchal norms affecting the rights and roles of women), and the micro-level (family interactions and gendered role expectations, individual psychological responses, and parenting). Longitudinal studies in post-conflict settings are needed to examine whether the sequence of male violence against women, mothers experience of explosive anger, and consequent harsh parenting contributes to risk of aggression and mental disorder in offspring

  12. Histoire du télescope, la contemplation de l'Univers, des premiers instruments aux actuelles machines célestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-01-01

    Alors que la plupart des scientifiques réalisent leurs expérimentations en laboratoire, les astronomes sont condamnés à ne jamais pouvoir toucher l'objet de leurs travaux: le ciel se laisse contempler mais demeure hors d'atteinte. Pour déchiffrer le message céleste, l'oeil ne suffit pas. Il fallut attendre la naissance de la première lunette astronomique pour ouvrir une nouvelle voie à notre insatiable désir de savoir. Ancêtre de tous les télescopes petits et grands, ce tout premier instrument d'observation allait en effet étendre vers l'infini le pouvoir de nos yeux. Quatre cents ans après, ce sont d'immenses machines qui scrutent pour nous l'Univers, en nous permettant même de remonter le temps. C'est leur histoire qui nous est racontée ici mais, par deçà les engins les plus complexes, ce livre nous parle de leurs bâtisseurs. Démontant au passage certaines idées reçues, ce livre nous plonge dans les balbutiements de ces instruments avant de nous emmener côtoyer les premiers géants et découvrir les révolutions en cours. Illustré de nombreux documents historiques et techniques, ce récit est également pourvu d'encadrés expliquant en profondeur le fonctionnement des instruments.

  13. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial

  14. Short-range ensemble predictions based on convection perturbations in the Eta Model for the Serra do Mar region in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, J. F. F.; Chou, S. C.; Gomes, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Southeast Brazil, in the coastal and mountain region called Serra do Mar, between Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, is subject to frequent events of landslides and floods. The Eta Model has been producing good quality forecasts over South America at about 40-km horizontal resolution. For that type of hazards, however, more detailed and probabilistic information on the risks should be provided with the forecasts. Thus, a short-range ensemble prediction system (SREPS) based on the Eta Model is being constructed. Ensemble members derived from perturbed initial and lateral boundary conditions did not provide enough spread for the forecasts. Members with model physics perturbation are being included and tested. The objective of this work is to construct more members for the Eta SREPS by adding physics perturbed members. The Eta Model is configured at 10-km resolution and 38 layers in the vertical. The domain covered is most of Southeast Brazil, centered over the Serra do Mar region. The constructed members comprise variations of the cumulus parameterization Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) and Kain-Fritsch (KF) schemes. Three members were constructed from the BMJ scheme by varying the deficit of saturation pressure profile over land and sea, and 2 members of the KF scheme were included using the standard KF and a momentum flux added to KF scheme version. One of the runs with BMJ scheme is the control run as it was used for the initial condition perturbation SREPS. The forecasts were tested for 6 cases of South America Convergence Zone (SACZ) events. The SACZ is a common summer season feature of Southern Hemisphere that causes persistent rain for a few days over the Southeast Brazil and it frequently organizes over Serra do Mar region. These events are particularly interesting because of the persistent rains that can accumulate large amounts and cause generalized landslides and death. With respect to precipitation, the KF scheme versions have shown to be able to reach the

  15. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:24744831

  16. Karyotypic description of the stingless bee Oxytrigona cf. flaveola (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina) of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to broaden knowledge on the cytogenetics of the subtribe Meliponina, by furnishing cytogenetic data as a contribution to the characterization of bees from the genus Oxytrigona. Individuals of the species Oxytrigona cf. flaveola, members of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied. The chromosome number was 2n = 34, distributed among four chromosomal morphologies, with the karyotype formula 8m+8sm+16st+2t. Size heteromorphism in the first metacentric pair, subsequently confirmed by sequential staining with fluorochrome (DA/DAPI/CMA3 ), was apparent in all the examined individuals The nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are possibly located in this metacentric chromosome pair. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the genus Oxytrigona. Given that species in this group are threatened, the importance of their preservation and conservation can be shown in a sensible, concise fashion through studies such as this. PMID:21637423

  17. New karyologycal data and cytotaxonomic considerations on small mammals from Santa Virgínia (Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; Neves, Carolina Lima; Vilela, Júlio Fernando; Silva, Maria José de J

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic Forest, in the eastern coast of Brazil, is a hotspot of biodiversity of mammals, and Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM) is the largest continuous area of this biome. Here, we characterized the karyotype composition of the small mammals from Santa Virgínia, a region in the northern part of PESM. Specimens were collected from July 2008 to September 2009. We identified 17 species (13 rodents and 4 marsupials) from which 7 exhibited species-specific karyotypes, illustrating the importance of karyotype information in cytotaxonomy. We report for first time the karyotype of Monodelphis scalops (Thomas, 1888) and two new records for PESM: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 and Brucepattersonius soricinus Hershkovitz, 1998. Cytogenetic polymorphisms were detected for some species trapped in the area. Our results show the importance of Santa Virgínia / PESM in addressing studies for the conservation of small mammal wildlife in the Atlantic Forest.

  18. Mesene Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with taxonomic notes and the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2016-10-17

    The species of Mesene Doubleday, 1847 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and supplemented by taxonomic and behavioral notes. In total, 30 specimens were collected, representing seven species including one new: M. monostigma monostigma (Erichson, [1849]), M. nepticula stigmosa Stichel, 1910, M. eupteryx Bates, 1868 stat. rest., M. paraena Bates, 1868, M. epaphus pyrrha Bates, 1868, M. leucophrys Bates, 1868, and M. gracielae sp. nov. The following notes on the taxonomy of Mesene are proposed: M. eupteryx Bates, 1868 stat. rest. is recognized as a valid species, M. epaphus sertata Stichel, 1910 syn. nov. is a new synonym of M. epaphus pyrrha Bates, 1868, and M. lecointrei P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2008 syn. nov. is a new synonym of M. philonis Hewitson, 1874. Mesene margaretta (White, 1843), M. philonis and M. nola are recognized as closely related. Species encountered at the PNSD are illustrated, including the genitalia of males and females, when available.

  19. Multitemporal and geobotanical approach in the remote detection of Greisenization areas in the Serra da Pedra Branca Granite, Goias State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    A multiseasonal analysis of LANDSAT multispectral images in CCT format permitted the mapping of lithologic facies in the Pedra Branca Granite, using geobotanical associations, which occur in the form of variations in the density of the cerrado vegetation, as well as the predominance of certain distinct vegetation species. Dry season images did not show very good results in lithological differentiation due to anomalous illumination conditions related to the low solar elevation and the homogeneity in the vegetation cover, specially the grass that becomes dry during this season. Rainy season images, on the other hand, allowed the separation of the lithological types, a fact that can be attributed to a greater differentiation among the geobotanical associations. The muscovite-granite facies with greisenization zones within the Serra da Pedra Branca were mapped. This methodology can be successfully applied to similar known granite bodies elsewhere in the Tin Province of Goias.

  20. Feeding ecology of the lizard Tropidurus oreadicus Rodrigues 1987 (Tropiduridae) at Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Siqueira, C C

    2008-02-01

    Tropidurus species commonly prey on arthropods, but they may also feed on vertebrates and plant material. The lizard Tropidurus oreadicus (Tropiduridae) is common in open vegetation habitats and generally has sexual dimorphism. In this study we analyzed the diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás, Pará, in the north of Brazil. Snout-vent length (SVL) and jaw width (JW) were taken for 34 lizards. There was a significant difference in SVL and in JW, with males being larger than females. All lizards analyzed contained food in their stomachs. The diet of T. oreadicus at Serra dos Carajás was characterized by the consumption of a relative wide spectrum of food item categories (21 types of items), consisting of arthropods, part of one vertebrate and plant material, which characterizes the diet of a generalist predator. Volumetrically, the most important items in the diet of both sexes of T. oreadicus were flowers (M = 61.7%; F = 33%) and orthopterans (M = 1.7%; F = 3.5%). Ants were the most frequently consumed (100% for both sexes) and the most numerous (M = 94.5%; F = 89.4%) food item. Flowers also were frequently consumed (M = 91.7%; F = 54.5%), with their relative consumption differing significantly between sexes. There was not a significant sexual difference in prey volume, neither in number of preys per stomach, nor in type of prey ingested. There was no relationship between lizard jaw width and the mean volume of prey. The data showed that T. oreadicus is a relatively generalist lizard in terms of diet and that consumes large volumes of plant material, especially flowers of one species of genus Cassia.

  1. Geochemistry of upland lacustrine sediments from Serra dos Carajás, Southeastern Amazon, Brazil: Implications for catchment weathering, provenance, and sedimentary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Felix Guimarães, José Tasso; Martins Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir; Sousa da Silva, Marcio; Maurity, Clovis Wagner; Powell, Mike A.; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; Fonseca da Silva, Delmo; Mardegan, Sílvia Fernanda; Furtini Neto, Antonio Eduardo; Dall'Agnol, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    A multi-proxy geochemical study of surficial sediments of an upland lake (Amendoim Lake), located in the Serra dos Carajás region, Brazil, was carried out to understand catchment weathering and provenance of sediments in the basin, as well as sedimentary processes. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of organic matter in the sediment were quite homogeneous, and suggest that the organic sources for this lake are mainly composed of palms and submerged macrophytes. The R-mode factor analysis indicates that most of the trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), are clustered with Al (Group 1), Si is grouped with Zr and Hf (Group 4), total organic carbon (TOC) with TS and Hg (Group 2), and Fe with Mn and As (Group 3). The elements of the Group 1 show strong positive correlations with Al, suggesting that these elements are hosted in detrital minerals during laterization in the catchment basin and not significantly affected by diagenesis. The high CIA values (96-99) of sediments together with their position in A-CN-K and log (Fe2O3/K2O) vs log (SiO2/Al2O3) plots indicate intense chemical weathering in source area. However, similar geochemical signatures between lake sediments and catchment lateritic crust indicates that mechanical erosion was the dominant sediment formation process. REE patterns normalized to chondrite along with geochemical indices (Al/K, Al/Ti, La/Th, La/Al, Ti/Zr, Zr/Hf, Th/Sc, Co/Th, Ba/Sr, and Eu/Eu*) also indicate that the sediments are mainly derived from laterite crust. This study provides reliable background information to reconstruct weathering processes and lake evolution in the Serra dos Carajás area.

  2. The Serra de Tramuntana World Heritage Site (Mallorca, Spain). Landslide activity valuation by means of Persistent Scatterers Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Rosa Maria; Bianchini, Silvia; Herrera, Gerardo; Garcia, Inmaculada; Sanabria, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    The Serra de Tramuntana, which forms the backbone of the north-west of Mallorca (Spain), was declared in 2011 World Heritage Site by UNESCO under the cultural landscape category. The particular landscape of this range is the fruit of the exchange of knowledge between cultures, with small-scale works performed collectively for a productive aim, conditioned by the limitations imposed by the physical medium. The steep topography of the chain, highly related to its geological complexity, and the Mediterranean climate, influence intense slope dynamics with the consequent multiple types of slope failures: rock slides, earth landslides and rockfalls, which cause significant damage and specifically to the road network (Mateos, 2013a). The human landscape marked by agricultural terraces (dry stone constructions) has significantly contributed to the slope stability in the range for centuries. In the present work, a landslide inventory map with 918 events has been updated and the landslides state of activity was analyzed exploiting 14 ALOS PALSAR satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images acquired during the period 2007-2010. Landslide activity maps were elaborated through the use of PSI (Persistent Scatterers Interferometry) technique (Bianchini et al., 2013). Besides assessing the PS visibility of the study area according to the relief, land use and satellite acquisition parameters, these maps evaluate, for every monitored landslide, the average velocities along the satellite Line Of Sight (VLOS) and along the maximum local steepest slope (VSLOPE), providing an estimate of their state of activity and their potential to cause damages. Additionally, a ground motion activity map is also generated, based on active PS clusters not included within any mapped landslide phenomenon. A confidence degree evaluation is carried out to attest the reliability of measured displacements to represent landslide dynamics. Results show that 42 landslides were identified as active (VSLOPE

  3. Paleoecology and paleoenvironments of Permian bivalves of the Serra Alta Formation, Brazil: Ordinary suspension feeders or Late Paleozoic Gondwana seep organisms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Suzana Aparecida; Warren, Lucas Verissimo; Fürsich, Franz Theodor; Alessandretti, Luciano; Assine, Mario Luis; Riccomini, Claudio; Simões, Marcello Guimarães

    2017-08-01

    This is the first record of a Permian seep deposit and an associated, morphologically bizarre, bivalve-dominated fauna from the Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, Brazil. Shales of the outer-shelf facies of the Serra Alta Formation preserve a low-diversity but high-abundant, large-sized bivalve fauna with unusual morphologies inside discoidal carbonate concretions. The bivalves are about ten times larger than tiny bivalves found scattered in laterally equivalent mudstones of the same unit. Intercalated between two concretion-bearing horizons, a cm-thick, sheet-like, disrupted, ;brecciated;, partially silicified carbonate layer with microbially-induced lamination is recorded. In some areas, the carbonate layer shows vertical structures formed by injections of mud mixed with white limestone clasts and microbial linings. Immediately above this, silicified mudstones preserve small domal structures (= mounds) with a slightly depressed center. Monospecific concentrations of closed articulated shells of Tambaquyra camargoi occur at the base of these domes. Carbon-isotope (δ13C) values from the shells, ;brecciated; carbonates, and fossil-rich concretions are all depleted (negative values ∼ -6.1 to -7.6‰). Combined taphonomic, sedimentological, petrographic, geochemical and paleontological data suggest that the disrupted, ;brecciated; carbonate and associated fauna and domes may have formed by an exudation system. Indeed, this interval of the Serra Alta Formation is ∼8.7 m above the contact with the underlying, oil-rich Irati Formation. This unit has very high total organic carbon (up to 23%) values and high sulphur contents, supporting the interpretation of the lithological and paleontological features as result of seepage of organic compounds at the seafloor. Where the gases and hydrocarbons escaped, the seabed was colonized by, at least facultatively, chemosymbiotic bivalves. The species above belong to a highly endemic group of pachydomids that were shallow

  4. New evidence of a magmatic arc in the southern Brasília Belt, Brazil: The Serra da Água Limpa batholith (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, Rodrigo; Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Duffles, Patrícia; Peternel, Rodrigo; Matos, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the Neoproterozoic Serra da Água Limpa batholith (SALB) and the interpretation of its genesis. The batholith, located along the border of the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, was involved in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, a tectonic unit that integrates the southern Brasília Belt. The tectonic evolution of this nappe is related to the convergence and subsequent collision between the Paranapanema paleocontinent, representing the upper plate, with the São Francisco paleocontinent, resulting in the construction of the southern Brasília Belt. The active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent developed during the pre-collisional stage a magmatic arc composed of batholithic igneous bodies. The Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe represents this active margin and SALB is one of those bodies. U-Pb dating (Laser Ablation, LA-ICP-MS) in zircon was performed in five samples of SALB. The results are as follows: sample RDTM 62, 667 ± 10 Ma; RDPA 44, 645 ± 5 Ma; RDPA 46, 630 ± 12 Ma; VAC 10, 631 ± 7 Ma and RDIT 41, 635 ± 8 Ma. These ages indicate that the body crystallized between 670 and 630 Ma, with predominance of ages in the interval 645-630 Ma, demonstrating that the magmatic event that formed the arc lasted at least 40 myr. Younger ages, measured in rims of zircon grains, mainly in the range 625-600 Ma were interpreted as metamorphic ages. The lithogeochemical analyses indicate that the I-type rocks of the Serra da Água Limpa batholith belong to the high K calc-alkaline series, and are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Tectonic environment diagrams also indicate that the batholith was produced in a volcanic arc setting which is confirmed by negative anomalies of elements of high ionic potential (HFS) in multi-element diagrams. Whole rock Sm-Nd isotope analyses show highly negative εNd values (-12 to -7), indicating significant crustal contamination or origin of the magma by melting of enriched lower crust.

  5. Effects of recurrent violence on post-traumatic stress disorder and severe distress in conflict-affected Timor-Leste: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Silove, Derrick; Liddell, Belinda; Rees, Susan; Chey, Tien; Nickerson, Angela; Tam, Natalino; Zwi, Anthony B; Brooks, Robert; Sila, Lazaro Lelan; Steel, Zachary

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of recurrent episodes of communal violence on mental health in countries recovering from mass conflict. We report results of a 6-year longitudinal study in post-conflict Timor-Leste assessing changes in mental health after a period of communal violence. We assessed 1022 adults (600 from a rural village, 422 from an urban district) exposed to mass conflict during the Indonesian occupation after independence in 2004, and again in 2010-11, following a period of internal conflict. We took a census of all adults living at the two sites. The survey included measures of post-traumatic stress disorder, severe distress, traumatic events, poverty, ongoing conflict, and injustice. 1247 (80%) of 1554 invited adults participated in the baseline survey. 1038 (89% of those eligible) were followed up. The analysis included 1022 people who had sufficient data at baseline and follow-up. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder increased from 23 of 1022 (2.3%) in 2004, to 171 of 1022 (16.7%) in 2010. The prevalence of severe distress also increased, from 57 of 1022 (5.6%) in 2004, to 162 of 1022 (15.9%) in 2010. Both these outcomes were associated with disability at follow-up. Having post-traumatic stress at follow-up was associated with being a woman (odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.32), experience of human rights trauma (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.47), or exposure to murder (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) during the Indonesian occupation (1975-99), human rights trauma during the period of internal violence in 2006-07 (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.03), and ongoing family or community conflict (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15-2.80) or preoccupations with injustice for two or three historical periods (OR 4.06, 2.63-6.28). Severe distress at follow-up was associated with health stress (OR 1.47, 1.14-1.90), exposure to murder (OR 1.57, 1.27-1.95), and natural disaster (OR 1.65, 1.03-2.64) during the Indonesian occupation, conflict-related trauma during the internal

  6. Identifying a combined construct of grief and explosive anger as a response to injustice amongst survivors of mass conflict: A latent class analysis of data from Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Susan J.; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Savio, Elisa; Maria Da Costa, Zelia; Silove, Derrick

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have identified high rates of explosive anger amongst post-conflict populations including Timor-Leste. We sought to test whether explosive anger was integrally associated with symptoms of grief amongst the Timorese, a society that has experienced extensive conflict-related losses. In 2010 and 2011 we recruited adults (n = 2964), 18-years and older, living in an urban and a rural village in Timor-Leste. We applied latent class analysis to identify subpopulations based on symptoms of explosive anger and grief. The best fitting model comprised three classes: grief (24%), grief-anger (25%), and a low symptom group (51%). There were more women and urban dwellers in the grief and grief-anger classes compared to the reference class. Persons in the grief and grief-anger classes experienced higher rates of witnessing murder and atrocities and traumatic losses, ongoing poverty, and preoccupations with injustice for the two historical periods of conflict (the Indonesian occupation and the later internal conflict). Compared to the reference class, only the grief-anger class reported greater exposure to extreme deprivations during the conflict, ongoing family conflict, and preoccupations with injustice for contemporary times; and compared to the grief class, greater exposure to traumatic losses, poverty, family conflict and preoccupations with injustice for both the internal conflict and contemporary times. A substantial number of adults in this post-conflict country experienced a combined constellation of grief and explosive anger associated with extensive traumatic losses, deprivations, and preoccupations with injustice. Importantly, grief-anger may be linked to family conflict in this post-conflict environment. PMID:28430793

  7. Identifying a combined construct of grief and explosive anger as a response to injustice amongst survivors of mass conflict: A latent class analysis of data from Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan J; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Savio, Elisa; Maria Da Costa, Zelia; Silove, Derrick

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have identified high rates of explosive anger amongst post-conflict populations including Timor-Leste. We sought to test whether explosive anger was integrally associated with symptoms of grief amongst the Timorese, a society that has experienced extensive conflict-related losses. In 2010 and 2011 we recruited adults (n = 2964), 18-years and older, living in an urban and a rural village in Timor-Leste. We applied latent class analysis to identify subpopulations based on symptoms of explosive anger and grief. The best fitting model comprised three classes: grief (24%), grief-anger (25%), and a low symptom group (51%). There were more women and urban dwellers in the grief and grief-anger classes compared to the reference class. Persons in the grief and grief-anger classes experienced higher rates of witnessing murder and atrocities and traumatic losses, ongoing poverty, and preoccupations with injustice for the two historical periods of conflict (the Indonesian occupation and the later internal conflict). Compared to the reference class, only the grief-anger class reported greater exposure to extreme deprivations during the conflict, ongoing family conflict, and preoccupations with injustice for contemporary times; and compared to the grief class, greater exposure to traumatic losses, poverty, family conflict and preoccupations with injustice for both the internal conflict and contemporary times. A substantial number of adults in this post-conflict country experienced a combined constellation of grief and explosive anger associated with extensive traumatic losses, deprivations, and preoccupations with injustice. Importantly, grief-anger may be linked to family conflict in this post-conflict environment.

  8. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-05-29

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells.

  9. [Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha Lima; Chame, Marcia; Cordeiro, José Luis Passos; de Miranda Chaves, Sérgio Augusto

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu) and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa), which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC) and surrounding areas in order to analise the diversity of mammal intestinal helminths. This work used the helminthological fauna findings of wild and domestic mammals, to consider a possible helminth flux between these two host groups using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of the hosts based on helminthological fauna composition. The results indicate that the region of the PNSC still maintains environmental conditions that still keep wild mammal helminthological fauna composition different from the one found for domestic mammals.

  10. Comparison of the social systems of primates and feral horses: data from a newly established horse research site on Serra D'Arga, northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ringhofer, Monamie; Inoue, Sota; Mendonça, Renata S; Pereira, Carlos; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shinya

    2017-06-05

    Horses are phylogenetically distant from primates, but considerable behavioral links exist between the two. The sociality of horses, characterized by group stability, is similar to that of primates, but different from that of many other ungulates. Although horses and primates are good models for exploring the evolution of societies in human and non-human animals, fewer studies have been conducted on the social system of horses than primates. Here, we investigated the social system of feral horses, particularly the determinant factors of single-male/multi-male group dichotomy, in light of hypotheses derived from studies of primate societies. Socioecological data from 26 groups comprising 208 feral horses on Serra D'Arga, northern Portugal suggest that these primate-based hypotheses cannot adequately explain the social system of horses. In view of the sympatric existence of multi- and single-male groups, and the frequent intergroup transfers and promiscuous mating of females with males of different groups, male-female relationships of horses appear to differ from those of polygynous primates.

  11. Dating of fossil human teeth and shells from Toca do Enoque site at Serra das Confusões National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Sullasi, Henry L; Asfora, Viviane K; Azevedo, Renata L; Guzzo, Pedro; Guidon, Niede; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Khoury, Helen; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2016-06-07

    This work reports the dating of a fossil human tooth and shell found at the archaeological site Toca do Enoque located in Serra das Confusões National Park (Piauí, Brazil). Many prehistoric paintings have been found at this site. An archaeological excavation unearthed three sepulchers with human skeletons and some shells. Two Brazilian laboratories, in Ribeirão Preto (USP) and Recife (UFPE), independently performed Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements to date the tooth and the shell and obtain the equivalent dose received by each sample. The laboratories determined similar ages for the tooth and the shell (~4.8 kyBP). The results agreed with C-14 dating of the shell and other samples (charcoal) collected in the same sepulcher. Therefore, this work provides a valid inter-comparison of results by two independent ESR-dating laboratories and between two dating methods; i.e., C-14 and ESR, showing the validity of ESR dating for this range of ages.

  12. Entry Inhibition of Influenza Viruses with High Mannose Binding Lectin ESA-2 from the Red Alga Eucheuma serra through the Recognition of Viral Hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuichiro; Morimoto, Kinjiro; Kubo, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Nishizono, Akira; Hirayama, Makoto; Hori, Kanji

    2015-01-01

    Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells. PMID:26035023

  13. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50 μg/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2 μg/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:23346404

  14. Active Targeting to Osteosarcoma Cells and Apoptotic Cell Death Induction by the Novel Lectin Eucheuma serra Agglutinin Isolated from a Marine Red Alga.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Keita; Walde, Peter; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Sakayama, Kenshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kameda, Kenji; Masuda, Seizo; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kato, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the novel lectin Eucheuma serra agglutinin from a marine red alga (ESA) induces apoptotic cell death in carcinoma. We now find that ESA induces apoptosis also in the case of sarcoma cells. First, propidium iodide assays with OST cells and LM8 cells showed a decrease in cell viability after addition of ESA. With 50 μg/ml ESA, the viabilities after 24 hours decreased to 54.7 ± 11.4% in the case of OST cells and to 41.7 ± 12.3% for LM8 cells. Second, using fluorescently labeled ESA and flow cytometric and fluorescence microscopic measurements, it could be shown that ESA does not bind to cells that were treated with glycosidases, indicating importance of the carbohydrate chains on the surface of the cells for efficient ESA-cell interactions. Third, Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA as active targeting ligand were shown to display sarcoma cell binding activity, leading to apoptosis and complete OST cell death after 48 hours at 2 μg/ml ESA. The findings indicate that Span 80 vesicles with surface-bound ESA are a potentially useful drug delivery system not only for the treatment of carcinoma but also for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  15. The Serra das Araras Batholith: An example of Ediacaran syntectonic peraluminous granitic magmatism in the southwestern Paraíba do Sul Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retamal, Iuri; Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Lana, Cristiano; Gonçalves, Guilherme O.

    2017-10-01

    The Serra das Araras Batholith (SAB), located at the southwest portion of the Paraíba do Sul Domain, Central Ribeira Belt, is composed of orthogneisses with peraluminous character. Combined LA-ICP-MS U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses have been performed in zircon grains for a representative sample (SA-3H) of SAB. Data point to Rhyacian to Orosirian (ca. 2.1-1.8 Ga) inherited zircon cores with positive ɛHf(t) values and Ediacaran U-Pb crystallization age (595 ± 8 Ma). A leucogranite dyke (SA-3D), 15-25 cm thick, which crosscuts SAB and a biotite-hornblende quartz diorite enclave (SA-06) have been analyzed. Crystallization ages for the three samples (ca. 600-590 Ma) and ɛHf(t) values, ranging from -5.6 to -29.4 for Neoproterozoic zircon grains, indicate an Ediacaran crustal magmatism involving mid to lower crust anatexis and the reworking of Paleoproterozoic juvenile and crustal rocks.

  16. Petrography and chemistry of SiO 2 filling phases in the amethyst geodes from the Serra Geral Formation deposit, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commin-Fischer, Adriane; Berger, Gilles; Polvé, Mireille; Dubois, Michel; Sardini, Paul; Beaufort, Daniel; Formoso, Milton

    2010-04-01

    The filling process of amethyst-bearing geodes from Serra Geral Formation basalts, Brazil, is investigated by different methods performed on the SiO 2 filling phases. Image analysis of quartz-amethyst deposits suggests a single growing mechanism ruled by geometric selection of randomly oriented crystals. Microthermometry of fluid inclusions reveals formation temperature lower than 100 °C, probably lower than 50 °C, and fluid salinity as high as 3 mass% NaCl eq. Composition in REE and trace-elements measured by ICP-MS on acid-digested or laser-ablated samples indicates a common genesis for amethyst, quartz and chalcedony, as well as the absence of significant variations from one geode to another. 87Sr/ 86Sr data on chalcedony shows that both the host basalt or the Botucatu sandstone are possible silica sources. These data, combined with thermo-kinetic considerations, permit us to discuss the filling process. We argue in favor of the contribution of a mineralized fluid of hydrothermal origin producing a regional silica source which decreased with time. The observed mineral sequence is related to the depletion of silica in the solution.

  17. The influence of fire on the assemblage structure of foraging birds in grasslands of the Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Matheus G; Fieker, Carolline Z; Dias, Manoel M

    2016-05-13

    Grasslands are the most threatened physiognomies of the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savanna), a biodiversity hotspot with conservation as a priority. The Serra da Canastra National Park protects the most important remnants of the Cerrado's southern grasslands, which are under strong anthropogenic pressure. The present study describes the structure of bird assemblages that directly use food resources in burned areas, comparing areas affected by natural fire to the areas where controlled fires were set (a management strategy to combat arson). The tested null hypothesis was that different bird assemblages are structured in a similar manner, regardless of the post-fire period or assessed area. Between December/2012 and January/2015, 92 species were recorded foraging in the study areas. The results indicate that both types of burnings triggered profound and immediate changes in bird assemblages, increasing the number of species and individuals. Natural fires exhibited a more significant influence on the structure (diversity and dominance) than prescribed burnings. Nevertheless, all the differences were no longer noticeable after a relatively short time interval of 2-3 months after prescribed burnings and 3-4 after natural fires. The findings may help the understanding of prescribed burnings as a management strategy for bird conservation in grasslands.

  18. Susceptibility of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) from Serra da Mesa Dam, Goiás, Brazil to infection with three strains of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Ecological changes from water resources development projects often affect the epidemiology of water-associated diseases. In order to investigate the occurrence and distribution of freshwater snails of medical and veterinary importance in the area of influence of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric a survey has been performed since 1997 and revealed the occurrence of well-established populations of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) in the 8 municipalities surrounding the lake. Areas of epidemiologic risk for schistosomiasis were selected and studies of parasite-mollusc compatibility were undertaken using specimens from 19 populations of B. straminea and 3 strains (CM, EC and PB) originally isolated from B. straminea. Among 1,135 specimens used 15 became infected (infection index of 1.3%) and 8 populations were susceptible to the schistosome strains: B. straminea from Campinorte (Castelão, susceptible to CM and EC strains, and Planeta Agua, EC strain), Colinas (Tocantinzinho river, CM and EC strains), Minaçu (Canabrava river, EC strain), Niquelândia (Codemin, CM and PB strains, and Almas river, CM strain), Uruaçu (touristic area, PB strain) and Santa Rita do Novo Destino (Maranhão river, CM and EC strains). These results, associated with marked social and ecological changes occurred, strongly suggest the possibility of B. straminea coming to act as a vector of schistosomiasis in the studied area.

  19. [Ecological aspects of phlebotomus of the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgãos, Rio de Janeiro. I. Monthly frequency in human baits (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae)].

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, G M; Soucasaux, T

    1984-01-01

    During two full years--from October 1980 to September 1982--we captured sandflies in the National Park of Serra dos Orgãos, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The captures, with human bait, were carried out weekly, each with a duration of two hours, and at three different times (6 to 8 a.m., 5 to 7 a.m. and 7:30 to 9:30 p.m.). In every capture, we recorded the phase of the moon and, at each hour, the temperature, relative humidity, wind and rain. In 586 hours 4,834 sandflies of ten species were captured, all belonging to genus Lutzomyia França, 1924. L. ayrozai and L. hirsuta represented 92% of the total species captured. However, they were dominant at different times, the former being more frequent in the warm and wet months, and considerably declining in the cold and dry months, in which the latter gradually prevailed. L. fischeri and L. shannoni were shown to be the most resistant to unfavourable weather conditions. Whenever there was any rain or wind, they were, in general, the only species captured. With regard to lunar cycle, we observed that new moon was the most favourable phase for the capture of sandflies and full moon the one with the smallest yield, except for L. shannoni which occurred more frequently during this period.

  20. Combining lead isotopes and cluster analysis to distinguish the Guarani and Serra Geral Aquifer Systems and contaminated waters in a highly industrialized area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Isadora Aumond; Roisenberg, Ari

    2017-10-01

    The Rio dos Sinos Watershed area is located at the Middle-West region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, along thirty two municipalities and affecting 1.5 million inhabitants and many important industrial centers. Three main aquifers are recognized in the study area: the unconfined-fractured Serra Geral Aquifer System, the porous Guarani Aquifer System, and the Permian Aquitard. This study aims to understand groundwater, surface water and human activity interactions in the Rio dos Sinos Watershed, evaluating the application of stable lead isotopic ratios analyzed for this propose. Thirty six groundwater samples, 8 surface water samples and 5 liquid effluents of tanneries and landfills samples were measured using a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer Thermo-Finnigan and a Neptune Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Groundwater isotopic ratios have a wider range compared to the surface water, with less radiogenic averages (208)Pb/(204)Pb = 38.1837 vs 38.4050 (standard deviation = 0.2921 vs 0.1343) and (206)Pb/(204)Pb = 18.2947 vs 18.4766 (standard deviation = 0.2215 vs 0.1059), respectively. Industrial liquid effluents (tanneries and industrial landfill) have averages (208)Pb/(204)Pb = 38.1956 and (206)Pb/(204)Pb = 18.3169, distinct from effluent samples of domestic sanitary landfill (averages (208)Pb/(204)Pb = 38.2353 and (206)Pb/(204)Pb = 18.6607). Hierarchical cluster analysis led to distinguish six groups of groundwater, representing the three aquifers that occur in the area, two clusters suggesting groundwater mixtures and one demonstrating a highly contaminated groundwater. By analyzing the cluster results and wells' stratigraphic profiles it was possible to distinguish the different aquifers in the area. The Serra Geral Aquifer System has (206)Pb/(204)Pb ratios between 18.4718 and 18.7089; (207)Pb/(204)Pb between 15.6692 and 15.6777; (208)Pb/(204)Pb between 38.6826 and 38.7616; (207)Pb/(206)Pb between 0

  1. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  2. Low-Altitude Long-Endurance Solar Unmanned Plane for Forest Fire Prevention: Application to the Natural Park of Serra do Xures (spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Jorge, H.; Bueno, M.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2017-08-01

    Unamnned aerial systems (UAS) show great potential in operations related to surveillance. These systems can be successfully applied to the prevention of forest fires, especially those caused by human intervention. The present works focuses on a study of the operational possibilities of the unmanned system "AtlantikSolar" developed by the ETH Zurich for the prevention of forest fires in the Spanish natural park of Serra do Xurés, an area of 20,920 ha with height variations between 300 m and 1,500 m. The operation evaluation of AtlantikSolar is based on the use of Flir Tau 2 LWIR camera as imaging payload which could detect illegal activities in the forest, such as bonfires, uncontrolled burning or pyromaniacs. Flight surveillance is planned for an altitude of 100 m to obey the legal limit of the Spanish UAS regulation. This altitude produces a swath width of 346.4 m and pixel resolution between 1.5 and 1.8 pixels/m. Operation is planned to adapt altitude to the change on the topography and obtain a constant ground resolution. Operational speed is selected to 52 km/h. The UAS trajectory is adapted to the limits of the natural park and the border between Spain and Portugal. Matlab code is developed for mission planning. The complete surveillance of the natural park requires a total time of 15.6 hours for a distance of 811.6 km.

  3. Elevation as a barrier: genetic structure for an Atlantic rain forest tree (Bathysa australis) in the Serra do Mar mountain range, SE Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Talita Soares; Ciampi-Guillardi, Maísa; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; de Souza, Anete Pereira; dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maës

    2015-01-01

    Distance and discrete geographic barriers play a role in isolating populations, as seed and pollen dispersal become limited. Nearby populations without any geographic barrier between them may also suffer from ecological isolation driven by habitat heterogeneity, which may promote divergence by local adaptation and drift. Likewise, elevation gradients may influence the genetic structure and diversity of populations, particularly those marginally distributed. Bathysa australis (Rubiaceae) is a widespread tree along the elevation gradient of the Serra do Mar, SE Brazil. This self-compatible species is pollinated by bees and wasps and has autochoric seeds, suggesting restricted gene dispersal. We investigated the distribution of genetic diversity in six B. australis populations at two extreme sites along an elevation gradient: a lowland site (80–216 m) and an upland site (1010–1100 m.a.s.l.). Nine microsatellite loci were used to test for genetic structure and to verify differences in genetic diversity between sites. We found a marked genetic structure on a scale as small as 6 km (FST = 0.21), and two distinct clusters were identified, each corresponding to a site. Although B. australis is continuously distributed along the elevation gradient, we have not observed a gene flow between the extreme populations. This might be related to B. australis biological features and creates a potential scenario for adaptation to the different conditions imposed by the elevation gradient. We failed to find an isolation-by-distance pattern; although on the fine scale, all populations showed spatial autocorrelation until ∼10-20 m. Elevation difference was a relevant factor though, but we need further sampling effort to check its correlation with genetic distance. The lowland populations had a higher allelic richness and showed higher rare allele counts than the upland ones. The upland site may be more selective, eliminating rare alleles, as we did not find any evidence

  4. Hematology and blood chemistry parameters differ in free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) living in the Serra da Canastra National Park versus adjacent farmlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    May-Júnior, J A; Songsasen, N; Azevedo, F C; Santos, J P; Paula, R C; Rodrigues, F H G; Rodden, M D; Wildt, D E; Morato, R G

    2009-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the specific impacts of anthropogenic factors on the health of wildlife. This study examined hematology and serum chemistry status of a prominent carnivore, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), living in, on the boundaries to, or on adjacent farmlands to the Serra da Canastra National Park, Brazil. Twenty-eighty wolves were captured, and values were compared 1) between subadults (n=8 animals) and adults (n=20 animals), 2) males (n=12 animals) and females (n=16 animals), and 3) among wolves living inside the park (n=11), near the park border (n=11 animals), and in neighboring farming areas (n=6 animals). Age, gender, and wolf locations influenced (P<0.05) hematology and serum biochemistry values. Specifically, adults had lower (P<0.05) circulating phosphorus than subadults. Males had lower (P<0.05) serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase, and cholesterol and higher (P<0.05) potassium than females. Erythrocyte count and serum cholinesterase were lower (P<0.05) in wolves living within the park compared with near the park border or on farmlands. Mean corpuscular volume was lower (P<0.05) in wolves living near the park border than those ranging within the park and on farmlands. Aspartate transaminase and chloride were higher (P<0.05) in wolves living inside the park compared with those ranging near the park border. Creatinine phosphokinase was lower (P<0.05) in wolves living on farmland compared with the other two locations. These results clearly reveal a relationship between age and gender on hematology and serum biochemistry values in free-living maned wolves. More importantly, certain traits indicative of health are potentially compromised in wolves living in areas under anthropogenic pressure. These data lay a foundation for examining the influence of farming and local domestic species on disease susceptibility and fitness in the maned wolf.

  5. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole rock analyses of basalts of the Grao Para Group, Serra dos Carajas, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, W.J. Jr.; Gibbs, A.K.; Wirth, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Grao Para Group at Serra dos Carajas in the Guapore Shield of Brazil is a 6 km thick sequence of bimodal metavolcanic rock with interbedded iron formations. Rhyolites are a minor part of the low grade meta-volcanic section, with the bulk consisting of subalkaline basalt, basaltic andesite, and shoshonite. Rb-Sr whole rock analyses of 7 basalts yield an age of 2687 +/- 54 Ma. This agrees well with an age of 2758 +/- 39 Ma from zircon U-Pb analyses of the interbedded rhyolites. Except for the allocthonous Imataca Complex of Venezuela, these dates for the Grao Para Group are the first well-constrained Archean ages from the Amazonian Craton. An even older age for the basement to the Grao Para Group is also implied. Sm-Nd whole-rock analyses of four of these basalts did not yield an isochron because of the limited range of /sup 147/Sm//sup 144/Nd values, but element of/sub Nd/ values relative to CHUR were calculated using the Rb-Sr age. The typical LREE-enrichment, lack of Ce depletion or spilitic alteration of alkalies, and the high Sr initial ratios, may indicate that these isotopic patterns were derived by incorporation of some older continental crust in the mafic melts. These data together with an element of/sub Sr/ of +63.6 might indicate significant seawater exchange with volcanic rocks derived from mantle with chondritic REE patterns. This demonstrates the presence of significant continental crust in the Archean and seawater-volcanic rock interaction in a rifting environment similar to modern analogs.

  6. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae) of Serra da Cantareira, Greater São Paulo Metropolitan region, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moschin, José Carlos; Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Sei, Iole Arumi; Galati, Eunice A B

    2013-03-01

    Human cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been recorded in Serra da Cantareira, in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Region, where two conservation units are situated, the Parque Estadual da Cantareira and the Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren. The present study aimed to identify the sandfly fauna and some of its ecological aspects in these two parks and their surrounding area to investigate Leishmania sp. vectors. The captures were undertaken monthly from January to December 2009, from 6:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m., with automatic light traps installed in forests and peridomicile areas and with modified black/white Shannon traps in the peridomicile. A total of 12 species and 5,436 sandflies were captured: with automatic light traps (141), Shannon traps (5,219) and attempting to bite the researchers while they were conducting the collection in Shannon traps (76). Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei were the most abundant species. Pi. fischeri predominated in all three kinds of captures (49%, 88.8% and 65.8%, respectively). Mg. migonei was the second most prevalent in Shannon traps (10.0%) and attempting to bite the researchers (22.4%). Pi. fischeri females were significantly more attracted to black and those of Mg. migonei to white Shannon traps. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the numbers of Pi. fischeri and the mean of minimum relative humidity values on the fifteen days prior to capture, while there was a negative and significant correlation between the relative humidity on the capture day and the two most abundant species. The anthropophilia and high frequencies of Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei suggest that both species may be transmitting ACL agents in this region.

  7. A high-risk group of pregnant women with elevated levels of conflict-related trauma, intimate partner violence, symptoms of depression and other forms of mental distress in post-conflict Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Rees, S J; Tol, W; Mohsin, M; Mohammad, M; Tay, A K; Tam, N; dos Reis, N; da Costa, E; Soares, C; Silove, D M

    2016-02-02

    Women in low-income, post-conflict (LI-PC) [Corrected] countries are at risk of exposure to the traumatic events (TEs) of war and intimate partner violence (IPV), forms of stress that are known to lead to depression and other adverse mental health outcomes. We aimed to assess an index of exposure to these two forms of trauma to identify pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in conflict-affected Timor-Leste at high risk of depression and other forms of stress. A large, cross-sectional study of women in the second trimester of pregnancy was conducted in the four main government antenatal clinics in Dili district of Timor-Leste, between May 2014, and January 2015. The sample consisted of 1672 consecutive women, 3 to 6 months pregnant, with a response rate of 96%. We applied the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Kessler-10 psychological distress scale and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. IPV was assessed by the World Health Organisation measure. Composite categories of conflict-related TEs and severity of IPV showed a dose-response relationship with depressive symptoms: for exposure to four or more conflict-related TEs and severe psychological IPV, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 3.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10-7.40); for four or more TEs and physical abuse, AOR 8.16 (95% CI 3.53-18.85); and for four or more TEs and severe psychological and physical abuse, AOR 9.78 (95% CI 5.31-18.02). For any mental distress, the AOR for four or more TEs and severe psychological abuse was 3.60 (95% CI 2.08-6.23); for four or more TEs and physical abuse 7.03 (95% CI 3.23-15.29); and for four or more TEs and severe psychological and physical abuse the AOR was 10.45 (95% CI 6.06-18.01). Of 184 women (11% of the sample) who reported ⩾ 4 TEs and either physical abuse alone or in combination with severe psychological abuse, 78 (42%) reached threshold for depressive symptoms and 93 (51%) for any mental distress, a 10-fold increase in depressive and other mental

  8. A high-risk group of pregnant women with elevated levels of conflict-related trauma, intimate partner violence, symptoms of depression and other forms of mental distress in post-conflict Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S J; Tol, W; Mohammad, M; Tay, A K; Tam, N; dos Reis, N; da Costa, E; Soares, C; Silove, D M

    2016-01-01

    Women in post-conflict, low-income, post-conflict (LI-PC) countries are at risk of exposure to the traumatic events (TEs) of war and intimate partner violence (IPV), forms of stress that are known to lead to depression and other adverse mental health outcomes. We aimed to assess an index of exposure to these two forms of trauma to identify pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in conflict-affected Timor-Leste at high risk of depression and other forms of stress. A large, cross-sectional study of women in the second trimester of pregnancy was conducted in the four main government antenatal clinics in Dili district of Timor-Leste, between May 2014, and January 2015. The sample consisted of 1672 consecutive women, 3 to 6 months pregnant, with a response rate of 96%. We applied the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Kessler-10 psychological distress scale and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. IPV was assessed by the World Health Organisation measure. Composite categories of conflict-related TEs and severity of IPV showed a dose–response relationship with depressive symptoms: for exposure to four or more conflict-related TEs and severe psychological IPV, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 3.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10–7.40); for four or more TEs and physical abuse, AOR 8.16 (95% CI 3.53–18.85); and for four or more TEs and severe psychological and physical abuse, AOR 9.78 (95% CI 5.31–18.02). For any mental distress, the AOR for four or more TEs and severe psychological abuse was 3.60 (95% CI 2.08–6.23); for four or more TEs and physical abuse 7.03 (95% CI 3.23–15.29); and for four or more TEs and severe psychological and physical abuse the AOR was 10.45 (95% CI 6.06–18.01). Of 184 women (11% of the sample) who reported ⩾4 TEs and either physical abuse alone or in combination with severe psychological abuse, 78 (42%) reached threshold for depressive symptoms and 93 (51%) for any mental distress, a 10-fold increase in depressive and

  9. Field evaluation of the response of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) to three oviposition attractants and different ovitrap placements using black and clear autocidal ovitraps in a rural area of Same, Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E M; Davis, J A

    2014-12-01

    Known oviposition attractants or stimulants were compared, singly and in combination, using inexpensive autocidal ovitraps designed to trap emerging adults, in a rural area of Timor-Leste during the dry season. In this area, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was abundant, but Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) L. was not detected. The attractants were: (a) a compound found in Aedes eggs (dodecanoic acid); (b) components of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium-based (NPK) fertilizer, and (c) infusions of discarded cigarette butts. A solution of ammonium phosphate and potassium nitrate was significantly more attractive to gravid Ae. albopictus than water only. Dodecanoic acid and cigarette butt infusions were not significantly more attractive than the control; however, they attracted various other Diptera and many non-culicid larvae developed in ovitraps in which these substances were used; thus, the presence of eggs or larvae of other species may have deterred Aedes oviposition. Significantly more Aedes eggs were found in ovitraps under vegetation than in ovitraps placed inside houses or against external walls. Clear-sided ovitraps in which black mesh was placed over a black ring floating on the water surface collected significantly fewer eggs than black ovitraps with identically placed mesh and rings. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Stratigraphy of fluvial sediment sequences and their palaeoenvironmental information in the foreland of the Serra dos Órgãos, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, André; Nehren, Udo; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    In the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro city the rivers Guapiaçu, Macacu and Iconha originate in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Since their channelization in the 1950s, higher flow velocities caused an incision of the rivers into the valley fills. These circumstances provide the possibility to study the alluvial deposits along the streams during low water level and allow conclusions on palaeoenvironmental change and landscape history. Sedimentological investigations of 13 exposures as well as AMS 14C measurements were carried out to investigate sediment properties and reconstruct the sedimentation history within the floodplains. These results enable to distinguish three different facies units. A late Pleistocene Unit I can be detected at the base of the observed exposures and consists of clast-supported fine to coarse gravels. It can be assumed that the gravel bodies were formed by a climatically induced erosional-depositional cycle within a braided river system. The gravels are overlaid by Unit II, a grayish to bluish loam mainly of mid-Holocene age. During generally drier climates these loams have been deposited during high water stages or flooding events as a splay facies proximal to the rivers. A reduced flow competence and relatively stable morphodynamic conditions are assumed for that period. Unit III accumulated in the late Holocene typically consists of several meters of planar or cross bedded sands to fine gravels, interfingered by loamy inclusions, buried peat bogs and organic debris. Fining-upward sequences can be frequently studied within Unit III which were completed by loamy sediments in the uppermost parts of the exposures. The increased flow competence from Unit II to Unit III seems to be a fluvial response to the increased humidity of the late Holocene as well as the enhancement of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Heavy rainfall likely caused higher sediment supply from the steep slopes as well as a

  11. Geochemistry and geochronology of the rapakivi granites and associated rocks in the midwest portion of the Serra da Providência composite batholith, SW of Amazonian craton, Rondônia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manoel Augusto Corrêa da; Sousa, Maria Zélia Aguiar de; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Scandolara, Jaime E.; Ruiz, Amarildo Salina

    2016-08-01

    The Serra da Providência batholith includes the type area of the homonymous suite, the oldest rapakivi magmatic assemblage in the SW of the Amazonian craton (1.60-1.53 Ga). In the midwest portion of this massif, besides wiborgites/pyterlites and granophyric syenogranites, a leucosyenogranite facies and porphyritic rhyolites constitute new rock varieties recently described in that area. Usbnd Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon ages of 1574 ± 9 Ma and 1604 ± 3 Ma, respectively, were obtained for these new varieties and confirm their link with the Serra da Providência magmatism, whereas the subvolcanic rocks are older than the main rock varieties and were formed in a precursor event. These granitic facies are metaluminous to peraluminous, alkali-calcic, A2-type, ferroan granites. Their FeOt/(FeOt + MgO) ratios vary from 0.83 to 0.98 and suggest that these rocks were crystallized from oxidized-to reduced-A-type magmas, where the leucosyenogranites and granophyric sienogranites tend to be formed under more reduced conditions. They show fractionated REE patterns with very pronounced to weak negative Eu anomalies. The presence of granophyric textures and miarolitic cavities in equigranular syenogranitic facies suggests that these rocks were formed at shallow crustal depths, lower than 3 km. Three samples of leucosyenogranite have silica contents higher than 75% and low K/Rb ratios (<150), similarly to the tin specialized granites described in the Amazonian craton. Two distinctive groups of mafic rocks were recognized in the study area: porphyritic and equigranular gabbronorites. They correspond to tholeiitic basalts, with #Mg varying from 37 to 41 in porphyritic gabbronorites and 51 to 65 in equigranular gabbronorites. The low to moderate #Mg suggests that these rocks were crystallized from more evolved basaltic magmas. The porphyritic gabbronorites are enriched in TiO2, FeOt, K2O, P2O5 and REE compared to the equigranular gabbronorites that are enriched in MgO and CaO. The

  12. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of "Reserva Ecológica Michelin", "RPPN Serra Bonita" and one Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Bahia, Brazil, with new geographic records.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A

    2014-02-01

    The orchid bee faunas of two private natural preserves, 'Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural da Serra Bonita' (RSB) and 'Reserva Ecológica Michelin' (REM), and a forest fragment inside the campus of the 'Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz', were surveyed for the first time. All three areas constitute Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 1,782 males belonging to 32 species were actively collected with insect nets during 90 hours of field work from November, 2009, to January, 2012. Euglossa cyanochlora Moure, 1996-one of the rarest orchid bee species-was found at RSB and REM, the latter representing the northernmost record for this species. Euglossa cognata, Moure, 1970 was found at RSB, the northernmost record for this species in the Atlantic Forest and the only recent record for this species at the northern border of Jequitinhonha river.

  13. Reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus Cuvier, 1819) in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar-Núcleo Santa Virgínia, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize seasonally and locally the reproduction of Pirapitinga do Sul (Brycon opalinus). The study area included three rivers (Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande) in the Santa Virgínia Unit of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Breeding occurred in spring, summer, and autumn. The L(50) and the L(100) of this species were 16 to 18 cm and 26 to 28 cm, respectively. Spawning was total, with synchronous development in two groups. The size of mature oocytes was 1,346.4 microm, reaching a maximum of 2,570.4 microm, with a mean fecundity of 9,190.5 oocytes. This species has external fertilization, is non-migratory, and lacks parental care of the young. Preservation of the Pirapitinga do Sul depends, in great part, on maintaining water quality, preservation of the riverine forests, and access to breeding areas.

  14. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. Methods and analysis WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded

  15. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol.

    PubMed

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-12-30

    There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded by a Partnership for Better Health--Project grant from the National

  16. Lest We Forget the Service They Rendered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oteghen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    More than 50 retired health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) professionals, many of whom served in World War II, were interviewed in an extensive oral history research project that was carried out between 1987 and 1991. This article, based on interviewees' stories, highlights the military service that male and female HPER professionals…

  17. Lest We Forget the Service They Rendered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oteghen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    More than 50 retired health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) professionals, many of whom served in World War II, were interviewed in an extensive oral history research project that was carried out between 1987 and 1991. This article, based on interviewees' stories, highlights the military service that male and female HPER professionals…

  18. The influence of the area of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Plant, State of Goiás, on the frequency and diversity of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae): a study on the effect of a reservoir.

    PubMed

    Melandri, Vanessa; Alencar, Jerônimo; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2015-01-01

    Bioecological aspects of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) near areas under the direct influence of the hydroelectric plant reservoir of Serra da Mesa in Goiás, Brazil, were analyzed. Samples were collected at the surrounding dam area during the phases before and after reservoir impoundment. The influence of climatic and environmental factors on the occurrence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albitarsis, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles evansae was assessed using Pearson's correlations with indicators for richness and diversity as well as the index of species abundance (ISA) and the standardized index of species abundance (SISA). The highest anopheline density occurred during the phase after filling the tank; however, no direct correlation with the climatic factors was observed during this stage. The reservoir formation determined the incidence of the anopheline species. An. darlingi was the predominant species (SISA = 1.00). The significant difference (p < 0.05) observed between the species incidence during the different reservoir phases demonstrates the environmental effect of the reservoir on anophelines.

  19. Evaluation of water and sediment of the Graminha and Águas da Serra streams in the city of Limeira (Sp-Brazil) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Fazza, Elizete Vieira

    2008-12-01

    The city of Limeira is located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and has the second largest economy and demographic growth of the state. It comprises an expressive economy with industries in several productive sectors. The source of the Graminha and Águas da Serra streams is located within the Limeira urban zone. The streams cross part of the rural zone and unite by draining into the Piracicaba River. It is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts of environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Since the city has galvanization industries for the production of precious and semi-precious jewels as well as imitation jewelry, the concentration descriptions and interpretations of heavy metals in waters and sediments indicate anthropogenic influence and the dumping of these compounds into the Piracicaba River. The Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used for determining the metals. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples were 0.04 μg L - 1 and in sediment samples 0.03 μg g - 1 for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples, concentrations higher than permissible as established by the Brazilian legislation (CONAMA) for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb, were observed. For sediment samples, values higher than quality reference values defined by the Brazilian legislation (CETESB) were verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb.

  20. In-situ 57Fe Mössbauer characterization of iron oxides in pigments of a rupestrian painting from the Serra da Capivara National Park, in Brazil, with the backscattering Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares Meneses Lage, Maria Conceiç ao; Duarte Cavalcante, Luis Carlos; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Fabris, José Domingos

    2016-12-01

    It is reported the use of the miniaturized portable 57Fe Mössbauer backscattering spectrometer MIMOS II to perform in situ measurements in the archaeological site known as Toca do Boqueirão do Sítio da Pedra Furada (BPF), in Serra da Capivara National Park, in order to specifically examine shades of dark red pigments and compare their differences relatively to the light red part of the same painting. The hyperfine Mössbauer parameters reveal that the dark red area of the rupestrian painting is composed of three populations of hematite and of a small proportion of maghemite, whereas the light red are of the same painting contain hematite mixed with a small proportion of maghemite and a (super)paramagnetic Fe 3+. The Fe content in the dark red area from the rupestrian painting is of approximately twice the amount in the light red of the same prehistoric graphism. The corresponding analysis of red ochre sample collected in the excavation of these archaeological site exhibited two populations of hematite and also a small proportion of maghemite.

  1. Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Pinese, José P. P.

    2008-08-01

    The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km2 in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant & Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGyṡh-1) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119±24 nGyṡh-1, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5±8.2 nGyṡh-1. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71±23 nGyṡh-1. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28±12 nGyṡh-1). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

  2. Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km{sup 2} in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant and Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119{+-}24 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5{+-}8.2 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71{+-}23 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28{+-}12 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

  3. Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil: the search for respiratory symptomatic patients in emergency service of "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano, Fundação Educacional Serra dos Orgãos".

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Bisaglia, Joana B; Borlot, Paulo Estevão W; D'avila Junior, Heraldo X; Faria, Carolina Gonçalves P P de; Braga, Bernardo D; Bezerra, Tiago S; Cedrola, Juan Pedro V; Almeida, Guilherme C; Couto, Lílian S; Nacif, Marcelo; Crivano, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the detection percentage of tuberculosis among patients that are respiratory symptomatic (TB suspects). In this work, we present the preliminary results of research carried out at "Hospital das Clínicas de Teresópolis Costantino Ottaviano da Fundacao Educacional Serra dos Orgãos (FESO)" from November 2003 to April 2004. Among the 40 respiratory symptomatic individuals identified and referred to the Tuberculosis Control Program in Teresópolis , two (5.0%) were characterized as smear-positive. These results confirm reports in the literature and underscore the need for and importance of this strategy.

  4. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  5. Reply to the two Comments, by A. Serra, D. J. Bacon and R. C. Pond, and by H. El Kadiri and C. Barrett on B. Li, H. El Kadiri and M.F. Horstemeyer "Extended zonal dislocations mediating ? ? twinning in titanium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Serra, Bacon and Pond argue that, when the direction of the resolved shear stress on the ? twinning plane is reversed, the K 2 plane for ? ? twinning changes from (0 0 0 1) to ? , and the core structure, configuration and magnitude of the twinning dislocation change from b ±1 to b ±3. I contend that such behaviour has not been observed in any twinning mode in metals. A twinning mode should have a K 2 plane and the corresponding twinning dislocation that is structurally and energetically favourable and independent of the direction of the resolved shear stress. El Kadiri and Barrett echo the Comment by Serra et al. and argue that the one-layer twinning dislocation is an "artifact", disregarding the fact that all the simulation results converge to one conclusion, i.e. the one-layer twinning dislocation is more favourable than the three-layer zonal dislocation, irrespective of the interatomic potentials used in the simulations. In this Reply, I seek to clarify such misinterpretations regarding twinning dislocation, twinning shear and shuffling in these Comments.

  6. Six-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress and severe psychological distress symptoms and associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and sense of injustice: a latent transition analysis of a community cohort in conflict-affected Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, S; Steel, Z; Tam, N; Soares, Z; Soares, C; Silove, DM

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the 6-year trajectories of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological distress symptoms, and examine for associations with timing of trauma exposure, ongoing adversity and with the sense of injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste. Setting A whole-of-household survey was conducted in 2004 and 2010 in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste. Participants 1022 adults were followed up over 6 years (retention rate 84.5%). Interviews were conducted by field workers applying measures of traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, a sense of injustice, PTS symptoms and psychological distress. Results Latent transition analysis supported a 3-class longitudinal model (psychological distress, comorbid symptoms and low symptoms). We derived 4 composite trajectories comprising recovery (20.8%), a persisting morbidity trajectory (7.2%), an incident trajectory (37.2%) and a low-symptom trajectory (34.7%). Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the persistent and incident trajectories reported greater stress arising from poverty and family conflict, higher TE exposure for 2 historical periods, and a sense of injustice for 2 historical periods. The persistent trajectory was unique in reporting greater TE exposure in the Indonesian occupation, whereas the incident trajectory reported greater TE exposure during the later internal conflict that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Compared with the low-symptom trajectory, the incident trajectory reported a greater sense of injustice relating to the periods of the Indonesian occupation and independence. The persistent trajectory was characterised by a sense of injustice relating to the internal conflict and contemporary times. The recovery trajectory was characterised by the absence of these risk factors, the only difference from the low-symptom trajectory being that the former reported a sense of injustice for the period surrounding independence. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the timing

  7. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in a basaltic aquifer based on chemical and stable isotopic data: Case study from the Northeastern portion of Serra Geral Aquifer, São Paulo state (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastmans, Didier; Hutcheon, Ian; Menegário, Amauri Antônio; Chang, Hung Kiang

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater from the fractured basalt Serra Geral Aquifer (SGA) represents an important source for water supply in Northeastern São Paulo state (Brazil). Groundwater flow conditions in fractured aquifers hosted in basaltic rocks are difficult to define because flow occurs through rock discontinuities. The evaluation of hydrodynamic information associated with hydrochemical data has identified geochemical processes related to groundwater evolution, observed in regional flowpaths. SGA groundwaters are characterized by low TDS with pH varying from neutral to alkaline. Two main hydrochemical facies are recognized: Ca-Mg-HCO3, and Na-HCO3 types. Primarily, the geochemical evolution of SGA groundwater occurs under CO2 open conditions, and the continuous uptake of CO2 is responsible for mineral dissolution, producing bicarbonate as the main anion, and calcium and magnesium in groundwater. Ion exchange between smectites (Na and Ca-beidelites) seems to be responsible for the occurrence of Na-HCO3 groundwater. Toward the Rio Grande, in the northern portion of the study area, there is mixing between SGA groundwater and water from the sandstones of the Guarani Aquifer System, as evidenced by the chemical and isotopic composition of the groundwater. Inverse mass balance modeling performed using NETPATH XL produces results in agreement with the dissolution of minerals in basalt (feldspars and pyroxenes) associated with the uptake of atmospheric CO2, as well as the dissolution of clay minerals present in the soil. Kaolinite precipitation occurs due to the incongruent dissolution of feldspars, while Si remains almost constant due to the precipitation of silica. The continuous uptake of CO2 under open conditions leads to calcite precipitation, which in addition to ion exchange are responsible by Ca removal from groundwater and an increase in Na concentrations. Down the flow gradientCO2 is subject to closed conditions where the basalts are covered by the sediments of Bauru Group or

  8. Professor Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915): Lest we forget.

    PubMed

    Toodayan, Nadeem

    2016-09-01

    December 19(th) 2015 marks the centennial anniversary of the death of the great Bavarian psychiatrist and neuropathologist, Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915), a man immortalised by the still incurable dementing process described by him in 1906 and firmly established in his name. Notwithstanding the great wealth of research into the history of Alzheimer's disease and legacy, the life of this exemplary clinician remains less than widely appreciated today, and it is the purpose of this brief reminiscence to retell the story of the pioneering neuropsychiatrist in this centenary year of his passing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lest We Forget: The Role of Internships in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Sharon B.

    Two observations point to the need for improvement of teacher internship programs in speech communication: (1) the supply of education graduates is far greater than the demand, and (2) in many universities and colleges, communication departments are struggling for survival. Scholars of communication must provide the most competent leadership…

  10. Lest We Forget: Tribute to Martin Luther King, Jr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Rudy

    1983-01-01

    The civil rights accomplishments and precepts of Dr. King are reviewed and parallels are drawn to the present problems of public education. It is argued that a belief such as his, in people of good will, must be reawakened to force the schools to be passionate and compassionate institutions. (Author/CM)

  11. The legacy of the Cartwright report: "lest it happen again".

    PubMed

    Bismark, Marie; Morris, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    The 1987 Cartwright Report into events at New Zealand's National Women's Hospital catalysed sweeping changes to promote and protect patients' rights. A generation on, it is comfortable to believe that such sustained and deliberate violations of patient rights "couldn't happen here" and "couldn't happen now." And yet, contemporary examples beg a different truth. Three of Cartwright's messages hold an enduring relevance for health practitioners and patients: the need for patients to be respected as people; to be supported to make informed choices; and to have their voices heard, even when they whisper. These challenges cannot be met in isolation from broader determinants of patients' rights and will require social, technological, and cultural change in order to prevent another "unfortunate experiment."

  12. Lest We Forget: Remembering the Consequences of Child Neglect--A Clarion Call to "Feisty Advocates"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSherry, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that, across the United Kingdom and the USA, childcare practitioners often struggle with cases of child neglect, because of the difficulties involved in attempting to define the problem at hand, and balancing these cases with others in the caseload that may appear more pressing, such as physical abuse. Consequently, in an…

  13. Large Eddy Simulation of Flow in Turbine Cascades Using LEST and UNCLE Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David (Technical Monitor); Huang, P. G.

    2004-01-01

    During the period December 23, 1997 and December August 31, 2004, we accomplished the development of 2 CFD codes for DNS/LES/RANS simulation of turbine cascade flows, namely LESTool and UNCLE. LESTool is a structured code making use of 5th order upwind differencing scheme and UNCLE is a second-order-accuracy unstructured code. LESTool has both Dynamic SGS and Sparlart's DES models and UNCLE makes use of URANS and DES models. The current report provides a description of methodologies used in the codes.

  14. Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

  15. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers Lest We Forget: Remembering Pearl Harbor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites about Pearl Harbor (Hawaii). Includes Web sites that cover Pearl Harbor history, a live view of Pearl Harbor, stories from people who remember where they were during the attack, information on the naval station at Pearl Harbor, and a virtual tour of the USS Arizona. (CMK)

  16. It Takes Two (or More) to Tango: Partnerships within the Education Sector in Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Recent international declarations stress the importance of partnerships between and amongst donors, the state and civil society, in order to improve service delivery and promote qualities of good governance, particularly in key sectors such as education. However, in conditions of state fragility--where high levels of distrust between and amongst…

  17. Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

  18. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers Lest We Forget: Remembering Pearl Harbor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites about Pearl Harbor (Hawaii). Includes Web sites that cover Pearl Harbor history, a live view of Pearl Harbor, stories from people who remember where they were during the attack, information on the naval station at Pearl Harbor, and a virtual tour of the USS Arizona. (CMK)

  19. Lest We Forget Our Past: A Leader in Curriculum Development--Ralph Winfred Tyler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, David J.

    2011-01-01

    In the history of education, every generation brings forth someone who has a lasting impact on the current and future generations of educators. Ralph Winfred Tyler was one of those people. His life spanned nearly the entire 20th century, and his concepts of curriculum and instruction transcended this long and fruitful existence. They are found…

  20. Lest We Forget Our Past: A Leader in Curriculum Development--Ralph Winfred Tyler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, David J.

    2011-01-01

    In the history of education, every generation brings forth someone who has a lasting impact on the current and future generations of educators. Ralph Winfred Tyler was one of those people. His life spanned nearly the entire 20th century, and his concepts of curriculum and instruction transcended this long and fruitful existence. They are found…

  1. Lest We Remember: Civil War Memory and Commemoration among the Five Tribes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the ways in which Natives practiced self-silence in regard to public Civil War commemoration. Notwithstanding the incredible impact on Indian Territory and Indian lives, Oklahoma Indians themselves did not typically commemorate the Civil War. Therefore, Native American contribution to the Civil War was largely skewed in the…

  2. Lest We Remember: Civil War Memory and Commemoration among the Five Tribes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortney, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the ways in which Natives practiced self-silence in regard to public Civil War commemoration. Notwithstanding the incredible impact on Indian Territory and Indian lives, Oklahoma Indians themselves did not typically commemorate the Civil War. Therefore, Native American contribution to the Civil War was largely skewed in the…

  3. Situational Ignorance; The UN and Security Sector Development in Timor-Leste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    regular and special forces using modern US weapons and aircraft.40 FALINTIL’s first commander, Nicolau Lobato ,41 Xanana Gusmão became the commander...line FRETILIN aligning with Minister of Interior Rogerio Lobato , while President Gusmão retained the allegiance of senior F-FDTL personnel. was...and recognized that 40 Ballard, Triumph of Self-Determination, 10. 41 Lobato is a Timorese folk hero. He was the elder brother of Rogerio Lobato

  4. Recognition features of felsic pyroclastics of Serra do Tombo formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Paes, Vinícius José; Ozanam Raposo, Frederico; Chaves Sgarbi, Geraldo Norberto; Schiazza, Mariangela; Stoppa, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution we report a study of poorly exposed, rhyodacitic welded-ignimbrite deposit from Minas Gerais. A petrographic study of textures indicate high temperature of emplacement. Key features include eutaxitic texture, flattened and agglutinated lapilli and glass menisci. Most of the feldspar minerals and glass are extensively altered to clay minerals, which pseudomorph the original volcanic textures. Glass menisci and spherules suggest a possible process of liquid immiscibility. Immobile trace element distribution indicates a possible link with other post-Palaeozoic felsic volcanic rocks in Brazil, a magmatism interpreted as due to basaltic underplating and partial melting of a hydrous continental crust. A peculiar feature is a high Light REE/Heavy REE ratio. Depletion in heavy rare earth elements is possibly due to a residual HREE-bearing phase in the source. The geologic context of these rocks suggests a Lower Cretaceous age and a tectonic relationship with a continental rifting event.

  5. A new species of Atanatolica Mosely 1936 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from Serra Bonita, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Anne M; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-04-16

    The Neotropical genus Atanatolica includes 17 species distributed from Costa Rica to Brazil, but only two, A. brasiliana and A. flinti, have been recorded from Brazil, both occurring in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States. A new species, Atanatolica bonita n. sp., is described and illustrated based on males and females from the Atlantic Forest in Bahia State in northeastern Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed by the following characters: Apicomesal and apicolateral processes of segment X of same length, long and digitate; and second article of each inferior appendage well developed, long, and thumb-shaped. Notes on demographic changes and correlations with seasonal variation and precipitation are also given.

  6. Lest we forget Hansen's disease (leprosy): an unusual presentation with an acute onset of inflammatory polyarthritis and the rheumatology experience.

    PubMed

    Sheetal, Salvi; Arvind, Chopra

    2009-04-01

    Several forms of arthritis and rheumatism can sometimes complicate leprosy. However, its presentation as an acute onset arthritis is unusual. We report two adult male naïve patients who presented to our rheumatology outpatient clinic with acute onset inflammatory polyarthritis, skin rash and mild sensory neurodeficit. Borderline lepromatous leprosy (in type I lepra reaction) was diagnosed. We also refer to 19 case records of Hansen arthritis in the clinic database (1998-2007) from approximately 35,000 patients and a community study to highlight the missed diagnosis of Hansen's disease and its unusual association with rheumatoid arthritis. In countries like India where leprosy is endemic, this disease also merits attention in rheumatology clinics.

  7. Lest we forget: Comparing retrospective and prospective assessments of adverse childhood experiences in the prediction of adult health

    PubMed Central

    Reuben, Aaron; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, Honalee; Schroeder, Felix; Hogan, Sean; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Danese, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs; e.g., abuse, neglect, parental loss, etc.) have been associated with increased risk for later-life disease and dysfunction using adults’ retrospective self-reports of ACEs. Research should test whether associations between ACEs and health outcomes are the same for prospective and retrospective ACE measures. Methods We estimated agreement between ACEs prospectively-recorded throughout childhood (by Study staff at Study member ages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15) and retrospectively-recalled in adulthood (by Study members when they reached age 38), in the population-representative Dunedin cohort (N=1,037). We related both retrospective and prospective ACE measures to physical, mental, cognitive, and social health at midlife measured through both objective (e.g., biomarkers and neuropsychological tests) and subjective (e.g., self-reported) means. Results Dunedin and CDC ACE distributions were similar. Retrospective and prospective measures of adversity showed moderate agreement (r=.47, p<.001; weighted Kappa = .31, 95% CI: .27–.35). Both associated with all midlife outcomes. As compared to prospective ACEs, retrospective ACEs showed stronger associations with life outcomes that were subjectively assessed, and weaker associations with life outcomes that were objectively assessed. Recalled ACEs and poor subjective outcomes were correlated regardless of whether prospectively-recorded ACEs were evident. Individuals who recalled more ACEs than had been prospectively recorded were more neurotic than average, and individuals who recalled fewer ACEs than recorded were more agreeable. Conclusions Prospective ACE records confirm associations between childhood adversity and negative life outcomes found previously using retrospective ACE reports. However, more agreeable and neurotic dispositions may respectively bias retrospective ACE measures toward underestimating the impact of adversity on objectively-measured life outcomes and overestimating the impact of adversity on self-reported outcomes. Associations between personality factors and the propensity to recall adversity were extremely modest and warrant further investigation. Risk predictions based on retrospective ACE reports should utilize objective outcome measures. Where objective outcome measurements are difficult to obtain, correction factors may be warranted. PMID:27647050

  8. A Surgeon's View on Endarterectomy and Stenting in 2011: Lest We Forget, It's All About Preventing Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, A. Ross

    2012-04-15

    It has been nearly 60 years since Felix Eastcott published his seminal paper on carotid reconstruction, which paved the way for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and then carotid artery stenting (CAS) to assume prominent roles in the prevention of stroke. Yet the ensuing 60 years has witnessed repeated cycles of challenges to practice, professional mistrust, conflicts of interest, dogmatic retention of traditional management strategies, inappropriate corporate interventions, and a general failure to adapt to new evidence. Even the performance of large-scale randomised trials has been associated with rancour and a lack of consensus. This article reviews the history of invasive interventions in the treatment of carotid disease and makes a plea to both the surgical and interventional communities that the fundamental priority must always be the prevention of stroke. It concludes with an appeal for colleagues to collaborate to determine how best to treat patients during the hyperacute period after the onset of symptoms and to identify a smaller cohort of asymptomatic patients who are truly at high risk for stroke in whom to target CAS or CEA.

  9. 76 FR 17979 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Timor-Leste and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Scholarship Programs Announcement Type: New Cooperative Agreement. Funding Opportunity Number: ECA/A/E/EAP-11... scholarships: Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga... include public administration, journalism, education, environmental studies, agriculture,...

  10. The Letter-Sound Test (LeST): A Reliable and Valid Comprehensive Measure of Grapheme-Phoneme Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Linda; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Children who have difficulty learning to read are at increased risk for academic failure, poor self-esteem, anxiety and depression, and unemployment. To help reduce these risks, it is important to identify and treat weaknesses in a child's reading as early as possible. The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable comprehensive…

  11. A surgeon's view on endarterectomy and stenting in 2011: lest we forget, it's all about preventing stroke.

    PubMed

    Naylor, A Ross

    2012-04-01

    It has been nearly 60 years since Felix Eastcott published his seminal paper on carotid reconstruction, which paved the way for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and then carotid artery stenting (CAS) to assume prominent roles in the prevention of stroke. Yet the ensuing 60 years has witnessed repeated cycles of challenges to practice, professional mistrust, conflicts of interest, dogmatic retention of traditional management strategies, inappropriate corporate interventions, and a general failure to adapt to new evidence. Even the performance of large-scale randomised trials has been associated with rancour and a lack of consensus. This article reviews the history of invasive interventions in the treatment of carotid disease and makes a plea to both the surgical and interventional communities that the fundamental priority must always be the prevention of stroke. It concludes with an appeal for colleagues to collaborate to determine how best to treat patients during the hyperacute period after the onset of symptoms and to identify a smaller cohort of asymptomatic patients who are truly at high risk for stroke in whom to target CAS or CEA.

  12. 76 FR 54928 - Export Administration Regulations: Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Timor-Leste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Administration Regulations (EAR), e.g., the Commerce Country Chart, the Country Groups, and License Exception APP... Services, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce at 202-482-2440 or by e-mail... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  13. The Letter-Sound Test (LeST): A Reliable and Valid Comprehensive Measure of Grapheme-Phoneme Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Linda; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Children who have difficulty learning to read are at increased risk for academic failure, poor self-esteem, anxiety and depression, and unemployment. To help reduce these risks, it is important to identify and treat weaknesses in a child's reading as early as possible. The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable comprehensive…

  14. Cuba's "Yes, I Can" Mass Adult Literacy Campaign Model in Timor-Leste and Aboriginal Australia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Bob; Durnan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of international adult education, mass literacy campaigns enjoyed wide support in the 20th century, when they were seen as a way to increase the participation of previously marginalised and excluded populations in national development. Cuba's 1961 campaign achieved iconic status, but was only one of many successful campaigns in Latin…

  15. Lest We Forget: A Critical Analysis of Bioterrorist Incidents, National Exercises, and U.S. Prevention, Response and Recovery Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Chicago, Ill . ................................................... 21 Exercise Description...750 fell ill suffering from salmonella poisoning. This attack was the act of a religious cult residing in the United States. Cult Overview “In...typhimurium (causes gastrointestinal illness ).9 The cult’s Rajneeshee Medical Corporation and pharmacy also legally obtained biological agents, an

  16. Cuba's "Yes, I Can" Mass Adult Literacy Campaign Model in Timor-Leste and Aboriginal Australia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Bob; Durnan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In the field of international adult education, mass literacy campaigns enjoyed wide support in the 20th century, when they were seen as a way to increase the participation of previously marginalised and excluded populations in national development. Cuba's 1961 campaign achieved iconic status, but was only one of many successful campaigns in Latin…

  17. Analysis of marble statues from the San Bruno Church (Serra San Bruno, Southern Italy): provenance and degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miriello, D.; Alfano, I.; Miceli, C.; Ruffolo, S. A.; Pingitore, V.; Bloise, A.; Barca, D.; Apollaro, C.; Crisci, G. M.; Oliva, A.; Lezzerini, M.; de Chirico, F.; Mari, N.; Murat, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the results of a multidisciplinary study on two white marble statues placed in the San Bruno Church (Calabria—Southern Italy): the `Madonna con Bambino' and `San Bruno' statues. The study, performed by combining different analytical techniques (LA-ICP-MS, CL, SEM-EDS, OM, FT-IR, isotopic ratios of 18O/16O and 13C/12C by mass spectrometry), aims to give information on the provenance of the marble, the kinds and causes of decay forms that affect the surface of the statues, and the materials used during some undated renovation works. As regards the "San Bruno" statue, three past undocumented restoration samples were analysed. Two of these samples were made with a mixture of gypsum and white pigments, while the other one is a mixture of lime mortar and white pigments, with the addition of diatomaceous earth. A comparison of the obtained data with bibliographic studies concerning pigments allowed the formulation of some hypotheses about the renovation works: they were probably carried out after the early 800s. For both statues several analyses were carried out to characterise some yellow-brown patinas present on their bases. Wax and calcium oxalate are the main components of the patinas on the statues: the former attributable to the use of wax candles, the latter, probably due to the alteration of organic matter, which may have been used during previous restoration phases. The Mn content, the maximum grain size (MGS) of calcite crystals and the isotopic analyses ( δ 13C, δ 18O) confirmed that Carrara white marble was used to sculpt the two statues and their bases.

  18. Frost weathering microstructures on quartz grains as paleoenvironmental indicators in Western Iberia mountain environments (Serra da Estrela, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Woronko, Barbara; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2016-04-01

    Cailleux analysis (1942) with modifications from Mycielska-Dowgiallo and Woronko (1998) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) following Mahaney (2002) were performed on quartz grains from vertical slope deposits profiles. Other analyses include granulometric composition. The degree of weathering (ST) of single grains was determined by identifying frost-weathering microstructures. The frost action index (FAI) is the average value of the ST for a given sample. The FAI value varies between 0 and 3, and the higher the value, the more intensive the frost weathering (Woronko and Hoch, 2011). The effects of frost weathering comprise several microstructures, such as, breakage blocks and conchoidal fractures and scaling. Chemical weathering effects were also seen, like solution pits, solution crevasses and amorphous precipitation. The values of FAI index of the sediments from the slope deposits vary between 0.6 and 2.05. Samples with a FAI higher than 1.3 indicate that frost weathering occurred for a longer period and was more intense where the dominant microstructures are breakage blocks registered within microdepressions and microfissures. The samples that have a FAI below 1.3, frost weathering was less intense and for a shorter period, with less frequent freeze-thaw cycles and the dominant microstructures are small conchoidal fractures. The values of the FAI in sediments from the slope deposits reveal changes along the vertical profiles. The maximum value of frost-weathering intensity imprinted on quartz grains were observed in sediments near the base of the slope deposits, and this could be attributed to the effects of seasonal freezing and thawing, as well as to the influence of short term temperature changes. The lower frost-weathering intensity was observed in the near-surface layers probably because they were exposed to frost weathering for a shorter time. References Cailleux A. 1942. Les actiones éoliennes périglaciaires en Europe. Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France 41: 1-176. Mahaney WC. 2002. Atlas of sand grain surface textures and applications. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK. Mycielska-Dowgiałło E, Woronko B. 1998. Analiza obtoczenia i zmatowienia powierzchni ziarn kwarcowych frakcji piaszczystej i jej wartość interpretacyjna. Przegląd Geologiczny 46: 1275-1281 (Summary). Woronko B, Hoch M. 2011. The Development of Frost-weathering Microstructures on Sand-sized Quartz Grains: Examples from Poland and Mongolia. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 22: 214-227. DOI: 10.1002/ppp.725.

  19. Infection of Amblyomma ovale with Rickettsia species Atlantic rainforest in Serra do Mar, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; McIntosh, Douglas; Furusawa, Guilherme P; Flausino, Walter; Rozental, Tatiana; Lemos, Elba R S; Landulfo, Gabriel A; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, that is considered to represent a genetic variant of Rickettsia parkeri, are confirmed as being capable of infecting humans in Brazil. This study reports the detection and characterization, by PCR and nucleotide sequencing, of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rain forest in Amblyomma ovale parasitizing a human, in ticks infesting dogs and in free-living ticks collected from the environment where the human infestation was recorded. The data contribute to our knowledge of infection rates in A. ovale with Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and identified an additional location in the state of São Paulo populated with ticks infected with this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. [Presence of Loxosceles similis Moenkhaus, 1898 (Araneae, Sicariidae) in Serra da Bodoquena, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Andrade, R M; Galati, E A; Tambourgi, D V

    2001-01-01

    The venom of Loxosceles spiders causes dermonecrotic lesion and induces complement-dependent intravascular haemolysis that characterizes a severe systemic effect. In Brazil, L. gaucho, L. intermedia and L. laeta, present in the anthropic environment, have been pointed out as the most important agents of the loxoscelism. Besides these species there are others that, by predominating in the natural environment, have not been evaluated regarding human health risk, as in the case of Loxosceles similis. The development of a research project in Bodoquena Range, for ecological observation and identification of insects of medical interest, enabled the capture of Loxosceles similis specimens in the "Pitangueiras" cave and "Lago Azul" cave, in Bodoquena Range, municipality of Bonito, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to define the parameters for identification, environmental features of the habitat of this species, as well as an update of its geographical distribution.

  1. Analyse dendroecologique et dendroclimatique des gisements de bois de lacs de la taiga de l'est de l'Amerique du Nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, Fabio

    The aim of this thesis was to reconstruct ecological processes and climate change in the taiga of Quebec over the last two millennia to understand factors that have strongly influenced the evolution of this majestic region. To obtain the finest spatial and temporal resolution in our analysis, we used annual growth rings of subfossil logs collected in six lakes as paleoecological and paleoclimatic proxies. Deposits of subfossil logs determine the structure of lake littoral ecosystems and support their food webs. Moreover, they may represent long-term carbon sinks. In the first chapter of the thesis, we described present-day stocks of subfossil logs in the selected littoral zones and established log residence time in the lakes by tree-ring or radio carbon dating. Dating also allowed precise identification of each fire that burned the riparian forests during the last millennium. This chapter showed that interactions between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the taiga are strongly influenced by wildfires whose effects can persist for centuries because of strong postfire reductions of log recruitments in lakes. At a local scale, the amount of logs and carbon preserved in littoral stocks depends on the fire history of the last millennium that is specific to each site. At a regional scale, wildfires limit significantly the amount of carbon sequestered in littoral stocks of logs. These stocks represent a negligible fraction of the total taiga carbon storage despite the abundance of lakes and the long residence time of littoral logs (up to five millennia for buried logs). In the second chapter, we combined a detailed inventory of the present-day riparian forest situated along the shoreline of two lakes with the tree-ring dating of the subfossil logs accumulated in the littoral zones facing these shores. Our objective was to determine whether changes in current riparian forest structure and composition within a given site could be attributed to different fire histories over the last millennium and to show the impacts of past fires on tree mortality, density and growth. Using our impressive paleoecological dataset (n = 1037 logs) in combination with our present-day forest inventory, we were able to reconstruct millennial forest dynamics with an unprecedented high spatial (few hundreds of square meters) and temporal (annual) resolution. Our findings help explain how the present-day landscape diversity in the taiga reflects the fire history of the last millennium, which varies from site to site. Fires have caused persistent and cumulative impacts resulting in a progressive opening of the forest coyer along with exclusion of balsam fir, a fire-sensitive tree species. The taiga landscape is a mosaic of forest stands characterized by different times since fire and different postfire forest structure trajectories. In the third chapter, we used our network of millennial tree-ring chronologies developed from the collected subfossil logs to pro duce a regional reconstruction of July-August temperatures over the last 1100 years. Our network filled a wide gap in the north-hemispheric network of paleoclimate proxies with annual resolution used for temperature reconstructions of the last millennium (see IPCC report). Moreover, our reconstruction provided direct field evidence that the climate of Northeastern North America is particularly sensitive to volcanic forcing. Indeed, successive large eruptions triggered the beginning of cold episodes in the study area that persisted for decades. In particular, two series of eruptions, centered around the Samalas event in 1257 and the Tambora event in 1815, coincided with two abrupt temperature regime shifts. In Northeastern North America, these shifts marked the onset of the Little Ice Age and the beginning of its coldest phase, respectively. Our reconstruction also showed a well-expressed Medieval Climate Anomaly, which included a few decades significantly warmer than the last 10 years. Keywords : fire ecology; forest-lake interactions; large woody debris; Little Ice Age; Medieval Climate Anomaly; millennial tree-ring chronologies; plant-climate interactions; temperature regime shifts; trajectories of forest structure and composition; volcanic forcing.

  2. Étude de la transition entre le gaz atomique et le gaz moléculaire dans deux cirrus de la boucle céleste nord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriault, Léo

    2010-11-01

    The infrared (IR) cirrus clouds observed at high Galactic latitude are excellent candidates to study the transition between the atomic gas and the molecular gas. In this thesis, two potential sites of H2 formation have been discovered in the North Celestial Loop (l = 135°, b = 40°) through examining the far-IR-Hl ratio and looking for an excess over that expected from an atomic medium. I call these sites the Spider and Ursa Major fields. The comparison between the IR excess map and the 12CO (J - 1 - 0) data from the Five College Radio Astronomical Observatory (resolution = 45 arcsec) shows that the IR excess peaks do not coincide with the 12CO peaks. The absence of coincidence is explained by (i) a density too small to allow CO excitation, (ii) insufficient CO self-shielding or (iii) variations of the dust properties. The comparison between 12CO data and Hi data from the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (resolution = 1 arcmin) is in agreement with the models! that predict CO formation where large velocity shears and turbulence dissipation are observed. OH observations of 108 locations over the two diffuse clouds from the Green Bank Telescope (resolution = 7 arcmin) are analyzed. OH is a precursor molecule to CO and its formation requires H2. The coincidence between the OH emission peak and the IR excess peak indicates that OH could be a better tracer of H2 than CO in these low-density regions. 12CO (7 = 1-0) and 13CO (J = 1 -0) observations from the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique and 12CO ( J = 2 - 1) observations from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (resolution = 20 arcsec) are analyzed on a small number of fields in both regions. Using a large velocity gradient model, we found smaller densities at the location of the IR excess peak while self-shielding should be efficient given the computed column densities.

  3. Healthy Eyes in Schools: An Evaluation of a School and Community-Based Intervention to Promote Eye Health in Rural Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobday, Karen; Ramke, Jacqueline; du Toit, Rènée; Pereira, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether there was an improvement in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of students after the Healthy Eyes in Schools Project intervention and to complete a process evaluation to inform future implementation of health promotion interventions. Design: A descriptive, mixed-methods design was used, including questionnaires and…

  4. Présence du complexe tectonique Malaguide à l'est de Carthagène (zone interne Bétique, Espagne)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Tortosa, Francisco Juan; López-Garrido, Angel Carlos; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    Triassic materials belonging to the Malaguide Complex east of Cartagena are described for the first time. This is the easternmost Malaguide outcrop known and it overlies the Portmán Alpujarride unit. Knowledge of this outcrop contributes to the palaeogeographic reconstruction of the Betic Internal Zone in an area where the Alpujarride Complex is considerably thinned due to stratigraphic and tectonic reasons.

  5. Healthy Eyes in Schools: An Evaluation of a School and Community-Based Intervention to Promote Eye Health in Rural Timor-Leste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobday, Karen; Ramke, Jacqueline; du Toit, Rènée; Pereira, Sara M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether there was an improvement in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of students after the Healthy Eyes in Schools Project intervention and to complete a process evaluation to inform future implementation of health promotion interventions. Design: A descriptive, mixed-methods design was used, including questionnaires and…

  6. Phycocharax rasbora, a new genus and species of Brazilian tetra (Characiformes: Characidae) from Serra do Cachimbo, rio Tapajós basin

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Mirande, Juan Marcos; de Lima, Flávio Cesar Thadeo

    2017-01-01

    A new genus and species of characid fish is described from rio Braço Norte, a tributary of rio Teles Pires, Tapajós basin, Mato Groso, Brazil. The new taxa can be diagnosed from the remaining characids by a unique combination of characters that includes the presence of a single row of relatively compressed premaxillary teeth, large teeth with four to nine cusps on premaxillary and dentary, absence of pseudotympanum, incomplete lateral line with 7–13 pored scales, sexually-dimorphic males with distal margin of anal fin approximately straight, and presence of a nearly triangular and horizontally elongated blotch from the posterior half of the body to caudal peduncle. The most parsimonious phylogenetic hypothesis, using morphological data, recovered the new genus and species in a clade including Paracheirodon axelrodi and Hyphessobrycon elachys. PMID:28199336

  7. Phycocharax rasbora, a new genus and species of Brazilian tetra (Characiformes: Characidae) from Serra do Cachimbo, rio Tapajós basin.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Mirande, Juan Marcos; de Lima, Flávio Cesar Thadeo

    2017-01-01

    A new genus and species of characid fish is described from rio Braço Norte, a tributary of rio Teles Pires, Tapajós basin, Mato Groso, Brazil. The new taxa can be diagnosed from the remaining characids by a unique combination of characters that includes the presence of a single row of relatively compressed premaxillary teeth, large teeth with four to nine cusps on premaxillary and dentary, absence of pseudotympanum, incomplete lateral line with 7-13 pored scales, sexually-dimorphic males with distal margin of anal fin approximately straight, and presence of a nearly triangular and horizontally elongated blotch from the posterior half of the body to caudal peduncle. The most parsimonious phylogenetic hypothesis, using morphological data, recovered the new genus and species in a clade including Paracheirodon axelrodi and Hyphessobrycon elachys.

  8. [Asbestos, danger and invisibility: perception of environmental risks and health of the residents of Bom Jesus da Serra/Bahia state].

    PubMed

    Moniz, Marcela de Abreu; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Peres, Frederico

    2012-02-01

    It is important for society as a whole to know how environmentally exposed populations understand and respond to technological chemical risks. This study aimed to analyze the perception of environmental risks and health of the residents of BJS/BA, which is an area especially subjected to environmental exposure to asbestos in Brazil. Mixed questionnaires were used on residents who attend the "Family Health Program" of this city. The subjects of the study were selected according to the following characteristics: specific age groups--one group from 20 to 35 and the other group over 60; sex; length of time and location of dwelling. The intentional sample reached comprised 83 individuals. The results showed that there was general concern about contamination by dust in the air, but general denial of the environmental risks related to asbestos. With respect to health risks, there was lack of visibility by the majority of informants regarding greater risk of getting cancer and pulmonary diseases, mainly for the group of the residents close to the mine and elderly ex-workers.

  9. Osteobiographic analysis of skeleton I, Sítio Toca dos Coqueiros, Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil, 11,060 BP: first results.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Andrea; Guidon, Niéde

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents an osteobiographic analysis of a single skeleton found in a small rock shelter known as Toca dos Coqueiros, Piauí, Brazil. This find is of interest because of an exceptionally old radiocarbon date associated with it. The date (11,060 BP) was obtained from charcoal associated directly with the skeleton. This is an interesting find because of the rarity of osteobiographic studies of skeletons of such antiquity. Despite the existence of two projectile points in association with the burial, the morphological and molecular analyses of the skeleton demonstrated that this was a female. She was about 35-45 years of age at death. The skeleton exhibited acute and chronic bone lesions. Oral pathology was also observed, including an interproximal dental groove, probably caused by the therapeutic use of a cactus thorn. This could be one of the oldest cases of an analgesic plant used in the prehistoric Americas.

  10. Nematocera flies recorded in Serra do Courel, northwest Spain, May 2012 (Diptera: Anisopodidae, Blepharoceridae, Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae, Tipulidae and Trichoceridae) including descriptions of two new species of Limoniidae.

    PubMed

    Hancock, E Geoffrey; Hewitt, Stephen M; Horsfield, David; Lyszkowsi, Richard M; Macgowan, Iain; Ricarte, Antonio; Rotheray, Graham E; Watt, Kenneth

    2015-01-19

    During May 2012 Diptera were sampled in the Serro do Courel area of Lugo Province, Galicia, northwest Spain. The authors of this paper, members of the Malloch Society (see website) are active in attempting to understand the detailed ecology of flies. Much of this work is through targeting larval stages often with an emphasis on saproxylic situations. By rearing adults from larvae direct relationships between them and their detailed habitat requirements are established. The list of nematocerous Diptera that were sampled includes 36 species two of them new to science and records of six others new to the Iberian peninsula are provided. We describe Lipsothrix galiciensis Hancock & Hewitt sp. nov., and Prionolabis pjotri Hancock sp. nov. of the family Limoniidae and provide a key to adults of European Lipsothrix species. Such results from this brief opportunity indicate the potential of the area for further field work in these and other families of Diptera. 

  11. Presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fuzari, Andressa Alencastre; Delmondes, Aline Ferreira Dos Santos; Barbosa, Vanessa De Araújo; Marra, Francisco de Assis; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2016-01-01

    The sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis, is the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Americas, primarily occurring in areas of apparent anthropomorphic modifications in several regions of Brazil. Sand flies were captured using light traps. Out of all captured species, Lu. longipalpis numbers had increased within the park. We report the occurrence of Lu. longipalpis in an area of Atlantic Forest, possibly representing the first sylvatic population of Lu. longipalpis in an area absent of peridomestic captures, but with the risk of L. infantum transmission in the areas of Niterói and Maricá.

  12. 75 FR 12250 - Notification of the Imposition of Conditions of Entry for Certain Vessels Arriving to the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... United States from the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. DATES: The requirements announced in this... the United States From the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste are not maintaining effective anti- terrorism measures. Inclusive to...

  13. Magmatic structure and geochemistry of the Luanga Mafic-Ultramafic Complex: Further constraints for the PGE-mineralized magmatism in Carajás, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Eduardo Teixeira; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    The Luanga Complex is part of the Serra Leste Magmatic Suite, a cluster of PGE-mineralized mafic-ultramafic intrusions located in the northeastern portion of the Carajás Mineral Province. The Luanga Complex is a medium-sized layered intrusion consisting of three main zones: i. the lower Ultramafic Zone comprising ultramafic adcumulates (peridotite), ii. the Transition Zone comprising interlayered ultramafic and mafic cumulates (harzburgite, orthopyroxenite and norite) and iii. the upper Mafic Zone comprising a monotonous sequence of mafic cumulates (norite) with minor orthopyroxenite layers. Several PGE-mineralized zones occur in the Transition Zone but the bulk of the PGE resources are hosted within a 10-50 meter thick interval of disseminated sulfides at the contact of the Ultramafic and Transition Zones. The compositional range of cumulus olivine (Fo78.9-86.4) is comparable to those reported for layered intrusions originated from moderate primitive parental magmas. Mantle normalized alteration-resistant trace element patterns of noritic rocks are fractionated, as indicated by relative enrichment in LREE and Th, with negative Nb and Ta anomalies, suggesting assimilation of older continental crust. Ni contents in olivine in the Luanga Complex (up to 7500 ppm) stand among the highest values reported in layered intrusions globally. The highest Ni contents in olivine in the Luanga Complex occur in distinctively PGE enriched (Pt + Pd > 1 ppm) intervals of the Transition Zone, in both sulfide-poor and sulfide bearing (1-3 vol.%) rocks. The origin of the PGE- and Ni-rich parental magma of the Luanga Complex is discussed considering the upgrading of magmas through dissolution of previously formed Ni-rich sulfide melts. Our results suggest that high Ni contents in olivine and/or orthopyroxene provide an additional exploration tool for Ni-PGE deposits, particularly useful for target selection in large magmatic provinces.

  14. Geochronology and Nd isotope geochemistry of the Gameleira Cu-Au deposit, Serra dos Carajás, Brazil: 1.8-1.7 Ga hydrothermal alteration and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Márcio M.; Lindenmayer, Zara G.; Laux, Jorge H.; Armstrong, Richard; de Araújo, Janice Caldas

    2003-01-01

    The Gameleira deposit is one of several important Cu-Au deposits associated with the late Archean (ca. 2.7 Ga) volcanic rocks of the Itacaiúnas supergroup in the Carajás mineral province, southeastern Pará. It comprises mainly biotite- and sulphide-rich veins and quartz-grunerite-biotite-gold hydrothermal veins that cut andesitic rocks. It is interpreted as representative of the Fe oxide Cu-Au class of deposit. Sm-Nd isotopic data indicate an age of 2719±80 Ma (MSWD=3.0) and ɛNd( T) of -1.4 for the host meta-andesites. Metavolcanic rocks and cogenetic gabbros give an age of 2757±81 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -0.8. This is considered the best estimate for the crystallization age of the Gameleira volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Negative ɛNd( T) and Archean TDM model ages (mostly between 2.8 and 3.1 Ga) suggest some contamination with older crustal material. The andesitic/gabbroic rocks are cut by two generations of granite dykes. The older has striking petrographic and geochemical similarities to the ca. 1.87 Ga alkali-rich Pojuca granite, which is exposed a few kilometers to the northwest of the deposit. The younger is a leucogranite with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 1583+9/-7 Ma. Neodymium isotopic analyses of the two generations of granites indicate a strong crustal affinity and possible derivation from reworking of the Archean crust. The quartz-grunerite-gold hydrothermal vein yields a Sm-Nd isochron (MSWD=.83) age of 1839±15 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -9.2. Pervasive potassic alteration, represented by the widespread formation of biotite in the country rocks, is dated by Ar-Ar at 1734±8 Ma, and a similar age of 1700±31 Ma (1 σ) is indicated by the Sm-Nd isochron for the biotite-sulphide veins. Similar to that for the quartz-grunerite vein, the ɛNd( T) value for the sulphide-rich veins is strongly negative (-8.2), thereby suggesting that the original fluids percolated through, leached, or were derived from igneous rocks with an Archaean Nd isotopic signature. The geochronological data suggest that the Gameleira Cu-Au mineralization is related to a Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.83 Ga) episode of hydrothermal activity and is not Archaean. The younger ages of ca. 1.70-1.73 might be interpreted as products of the lower blocking temperatures of biotite in relation to the Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd isotopic systems. Combined with previous geochemistry and stable isotope data, the Nd isotopic data suggest that the mineralizing fluids were derived from, or strongly interacted with, a Paleoproterozoic crustal granite, possibly similar in age and composition to the Pojuca granite.

  15. Condition factor of Astyanax intermedius Eigenmann, 1908 (OSTEICHTHYES, CHARACIDAE) parasitised by Paracymothoa astyanaxi Lemos de Castro, 1955 (CRUSTACEA, CYMOTHOIDAE) in the Grande River, Serra do Mar State Park - Santa Virgínia Unit, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Souza, U P; Braga, F M S

    2012-05-01

    In this work the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of Astyanax intermedius parasitised and not by Paracymothoa astyanaxi were analysed in the Grande River. The length-weight relationship was estimated for females, males and immatures, and seasonally for the fishes and the parasites through the expression W = aLb. The condition factor of non-parasitised specimens differed seasonally and between sexes, contrasting with the results for parasitised fishes which showed no differences between sexes and season. The condition factor of non-parasitised specimens was higher than that of the parasitised fishes. Specimens of Astyanax intermedius parasitised do not have the same biotic conditions compared to non-parasitised individuals, in which the condition factor was similar over the years. In conclusion, parasitism by P. astyanaxi has deleterious effects on this host population which may cause changes in the reproductive and food dynamics of parasitised specimens due to low body conditions.

  16. Mobilité des terres rares au cours des altérations hydrothermales: l'exemple du granité de Serra Branca, Brésil central

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Coelho, Cristina; Botelho, Nilson F.; Roger, Guy

    1999-05-01

    The Middle Proterozoic granitic massif, in the Goiás Tin Province, is affected by pervasive post-magmatic hydrothermal alterations, chiefly by eastward, increasingly developed greisenization. Hydrothermal alteration results in strong mineralogical and chemical modifications of granite composition, but nevertheless the effect of fluid circulations is probably limited to a dilution of the initial REE content in magmatic rocks without any important fractionation, as suggested by the similarity between chondrite-normalized patterns for all rocks, from the less altered granite to the muscovite-topaz-bearing greisen.

  17. Relicts of a forested past: Southernmost distribution of the hairy frog genus Trichobatrachus Boulenger, 1900 (Anura: Arthroleptidae) in the Serra do Pingano region of Angola with comments on its taxonomic status.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Raffael; Nienguesso, Alvaro Bruno Toto; Lautenschläger, Thea; Barej, Michael F; Schmitz, Andreas; Scmitz, Andreas; Hölting, Monique

    2014-03-14

    The monotypic genus Trichobatrachus, with its sole representative, the hairy frog, Trichobatrachus robustus Boulenger, 1900, could be considered one of the most well-known frogs of Africa. Despite its broad recognition and the fact that it is considered wide-spread and locally common (Amiet & Burger 2004), surprisingly little is known about the actual distribution and the specific occurrence patterns of the species. It was originally described by Boulenger (1900) from the Benito River, previously erroneously stated to be located in Gabon. However, Lötters et al. (2001) clarified that the type locality was actually situated in Equatorial Guinea, then part of French Congo, and subsequently provided the first confirmed country record for Gabon. Hairy frogs were previously included in the herpetofaunal lists of Cameroon (Parker 1936; Perret & Mertens 1957), the Democratic Republic of Congo (Laurent 1956), and Nigeria (Schiøtz 1963). More recently published accounts list them for Cameroon (Euskirchen et al. 1999; Herrmann et al. 2005; Gonwouo & Rödel 2008), Equatorial Guinea (De la Riva 1994; Lasso et al. 2002), Gabon (Lötters et al. 2001; Rödel & Pauwels 2003; Burger et al. 2004; Pauwels & Rödel 2007; Bell et al. 2011), and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Fretey et al. 2011), and speculate about their potential occurrence in Congo and the Cabinda enclave of Angola (Amiet & Burger 2004). The DRC record so far represented the most southerly distribution, while the most northerly account comes from the Adamaoua Province of northern Cameroon (Tadpole voucher MHNG-AMP/ERPI-1035.006 from Bénoué source, Northern cliff Ngaoundéré, Adamaoua, Cameroon/Adamaoua Province, cf. Perret 1966). Specimens stored in the collection at the Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren (RMCA) under collection numbers RMCA B 90060.0004-11 confirm the occurrence of the species in Congo. To our knowledge, these specimens represent yet unpublished first country records.

  18. Genesis of amethyst geodes in basaltic rocks of the Serra Geral Formation (Ametista do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil): a fluid inclusion, REE, oxygen, carbon, and Sr isotope study on basalt, quartz, and calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilg, H. Albert; Morteani, Giulio; Kostitsyn, Yuri; Preinfalk, Christine; Gatter, Istvan; Strieder, Adelir J.

    2003-12-01

    In the Ametista do Sul area, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, amethyst-bearing geodes are hosted by a ~40- to 50-m-thick subhorizontal high-Ti basaltic lava flow of the Lower Cretaceous Paraná Continental Flood Basalt Province. The typically spherical cap-shaped, sometimes vertically elongated geodes display an outer rim of celadonite followed inwards by agate and colorless and finally amethystine quartz. Calcite formed throughout the whole crystallization sequence, but most commonly as very late euhedral crystals, sometimes with gypsum, in the central cavity. Fluid inclusions in colorless quartz and amethyst are predominantly monophase and contain an aqueous liquid. Two-phase liquid-vapor inclusions are rare. Some with a consistent degree of fill homogenize into the liquid between 95 and 98 °C. Ice-melting temperatures in the absence of a vapor phase between -4 and +4 °C indicate low salinities. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of calcites are highly variable and show generally no systematic correlation with the paragenetic sequence. The oxygen isotope composition of calcites is very homogeneous (δ18OVSMOW=24.9±1.1‰, n=34) indicating crystallization temperatures of less than 100 °C. Carbon isotope values of calcites show a considerable variation ranging from -18.7 to -2.9‰ (VPDB). The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of calcites varies between 0.706 and 0.708 and is more radiogenic than that of the host basalt (~0.705). The most likely source of silica, calcium, carbon, and minor elements in the infill of the geodes is the highly reactive interstitial glass of the host basalts leached by gas-poor aqueous solutions of meteoric origin ascending from the locally artesian Botucatú aquifer system in the footwall of the volcanic sequence. The genesis of amethyst geodes in basalts at Ametista do Sul, Brazil, is thus considered as a two-stage process with an early magmatic protogeode formation and a late, low temperature infill of the cavity.

  19. A New Protective Circuit to Improve Short-Circuit Withstanding Capability of a Lateral Emitter Switched Thyristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young‑Hwan; Ji, In‑Hwan; Jeon, Byung‑Chul; Choi, Yearn‑Ik; Han, Min‑Koo

    2006-04-01

    A new circuit to protect lateral emitter switched thyristors (LESTs) for high voltage current saturation is proposed. We fabricated this circuit by employing a widely used process compatible with insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the floating n+ voltage is larger than the threshold voltage of protecting metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), the protective circuit alters the operation of the LEST from regenerative mode to non-regenerative mode. Experimental results showed that a high voltage current saturation exceeding 200 V was measured in the LEST with the proposed protective circuit, while the current saturation of the conventional LEST was limited to 17 V. This allowed the LEST to withstand the hard switching fault (HSF) condition over 10 μs during the hard switching fault (HSF) condition.

  20. Bambuina bambui: a new genus and species of cave cricket from Brazil (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Francisco De A G; Horta, Lília S; Bolfarini, Marcio P

    2013-01-03

    Bambuina bambui, um novo gênero e espécie de grilo falangopsídeo é descrito a partir de espécimes obtidos na Gruta do Centenário, uma caverna de quartzo localizada na Serra do Inficionado, um subconjunto de montanhas pertencentes ao complexo da Serra do Caraça no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil.

  1. Preventing and Managing Conflict in an Unstable World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Emilia Pires and Michael Francino, “National Ownership and International Trusteeship: The Case of Timor-Leste,” in Peace and the Public Purse, ed. James...Vol. 1 (4), 1-37. Carlisle, PA: Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute, 2011. Pires, Emilia , and Michael Francino. “National Ownership and...Stability Operations Institute, 2011. Pires, Emilia , and Michael Francino. “National Ownership and International Trusteeship: The Case of Timor-Leste

  2. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SOAP FACTORY (S. W. Side) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SMITHY AND SOAP FACTORY (LOOKING SOUTH) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF FOUNTAIN, SMITHY AND SOAP FACTORY (LOOKING EAST) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SOAP FACTORY FROM EAST CORNER. - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Parameters. U.S. Army War College Quarterly. Volume 20, Number 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    del Territorio ), structured as a spiderweb linking Madrid to nine regional military headquarters. The strategic reserve comprised an army corps...espafholes intervengan en misiones de la OTAN fuera del territorio nacional," El Pats, 24 February 1988; Carlos Yarnoz, "Serra disting-t entre ’trinsito...8217 y ’escala’ al hablar del paso de armas nucleares por territorio espafiol," El Pats, 20 April 198S; Carlos Yarnoz, "Serra dice que no se enviaran

  7. Relief evolution of the Continental Rift of Southeast Brazil revealed by in situ-produced 10Be concentrations in river-borne sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, André Augusto Rodrigues; Rezende, Eric de Andrade; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; da Silva, Juliana Rodrigues; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to quantify the denudation dynamics of the Brazilian passive margin along a segment of the Continental Rift of Southeast Brazil. The denudation rates of 30 basins that drain both horsts of the continental rift, including the mountain ranges of the Serra do Mar (seaside horst); and the Serra da Mantiqueira (continental horst); were derived from 10Be concentrations measured in sand-sized river sediment. The mean denudation rate ranges from 9.2 m Ma-1 on the plateau of the Serra do Mar to 37.1 m Ma-1 along the oceanic escarpment of the Serra do Mar. The seaward-facing scarps of both mountain ranges exhibit mean denudation rates that are approximately 1.5 times those of the inland-facing scarps. The escarpments of the horst nearer to the ocean (Serra do Mar) exhibit higher denudation rates (mean 30.2 m Ma-1) than the escarpments of the continental horst (Serra da Mantiqueira) (mean 16.5 m Ma-1). The parameters that impact these denudation rates include the catchment relief, the slope gradient, the rock and the climate. The incongruent combination of a mountainous landscape and moderate to low 10Be-based denudation rates averaging at ∼20 m Ma-1 suggests a reduction in intraplate tectonic activity beginning in the Middle Quaternary or earlier.

  8. Historical somersaults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, R

    1993-01-01

    The author and his youngest sister attended a mass at the Mission San Diego in California where the Monsignor discussed the life of Father Serra who founded the Mission in 1769. A letter to Father Serra from another priest showed the priest's distress over an abortion done to an Indian woman living at the Mission. Recollecting this historical letter was used to express the Monsignor's views on abortion today. He then reminded the congregation of the upcoming presidential election. He claimed that either Indians or people claiming to be Indians are trying to prevent the canonization of Father Serra without explaining why these people objected. He argued that the secular world cannot judge this man by contemporary standards. Yet, he had earlier implored the congregants to make secular political choices based on the absolute standards of the church. The objections to Father Serra by various secular people where he had been a member of the Spanish Inquisition and the missions he established served as forced confinement for the Indians. Supposedly, Father Serra and other priests kept Indian women in the missions to protect them from the brutality of Spanish soldiers. In fact, the pregnant Indian mentioned in the Monsignor's sermon was most likely raped by a Spaniard. Women in the missions were forced to stay in the missions while men could at least go to the fields. Unsanitary conditions were very unhealthy for the women, leading to considerable mortality. The child mortality rate was higher than 20%. Women who tried to control their fertility were harshly punished. The Catholic Church would do better if it canonized Father de las Casas who defended the autonomy and intellectual credibility of Indian culture. The author concludes that it is indeed unfair to judge Father Serra by contemporary standards, just as it is unfair and unreasonable to force Catholic standards on others.

  9. AN EXPERIMENT IN "ANIMATION SOCIALE" AMONG THE CLERGY OF THE PILOT REGION (BAEQ). CONDENSED REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONTMINY, J.P.

    THIS REPORT, PREPARED FOR THE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION BY CARLETON OPINION RESEARCH SERVICES, IS A CONDENSATION OF A SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY IN THE PILOT REGION OF THE BAEQ (BUREAU D'AMENAGEMENT DE L'EST DU QUEBEC). MEETINGS WERE HELD IN 1964 IN THE DIOCESES OF RIMOUSKI AND GASPE TO HELP INDUCE ROMAN CATHOLIC CLERGYMEN TO…

  10. 78 FR 46792 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... through the Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG) and the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC). These changes... February 13, 2013, to incorporate the changes to the UN Least Developed Countries List, the USTR has...: Changed the name of East Timor to Timor-Leste, reflecting the change on the UN list. Removed the Maldives...

  11. Methodology for Establishing the Mine/IED Resistance Capacity of Vehicle Seats for Crew Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    rn/s and a high level of 9 m/s. Hardware slock concerns limited the number of teSls Ihat could be execuled, ,md preliminary analysis of Ihe data...suggested a threshold level response would be unal1ainable. In each venical tesl , the ATD’s feel were supponed on Ihe lest plnlform so Ihal the feet e

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7017 - Photovoltaic Devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu..., Belize, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Curacao, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat... to remove barriers to purchases of supplies produced in the other country or services performed...

  13. The Rise of the Graphical User Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Alastair D. N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the history of the graphical user interface (GUI) and the growing realization that adaptations must be made to it lest its visual nature discriminate against nonsighted or sight-impaired users. One of the most popular commercially developed adaptations is to develop sounds that signal the location of icons or menus to mouse users.…

  14. Bomb Crater Repair Techniques for Permanent Airfields. Report 3. Series 4 Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    reported herein. a. The performance of the 14-in. grout-limestone repair was very good in lane 1 and fair in lane 2. The numerous shrinkage cracks in the...Subbase, and Base-Course -Materials, MIL-STD-62., Method 104. Hutchinson, R. L., Roe C. L., and Denso R. 1!. 1981. "Field lest Eval- uation of

  15. Research on New Approaches to Optical Systems for Inertial Rotation Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-30

    antireflection roated for 1.06-t pm . . \\fl<’r pussing lhrongh the :\\fd:YAG crystal the unabsorbed pump was E.’liminated .... LEST AVAILABLE CO.ry...of the beams and blocking only the pump. This led to poor measurements since the coupling ratk of the signal through the directional coupler was a

  16. The Vital Role of Intelligence in Counterinsurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    Mao Tse-tung, E.L. Katzenbach , jr., warns that counterinsurgency “operations must cause minimum harm to the people, lest they become antagonistic to the...106 Cordesman, 17. 107 Katzenbach , E.L., jr., “Time, Space, and Will: The Politico-Military Views of Mao Tse- tung,” in The Guerrilla – And How to

  17. A Jesuit Approach to Campus Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the newly revised speakers policy in Boston College. The revised policy, defended by administrators as being consistent with past practice, differs in two important respects from the speakers policy it replaced. Lest the scope of this unfortunate policy be exaggerated, it is important to note that the policy…

  18. Les observateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsard, P.

    2014-09-01

    Nore observatoire de Nandrin vous attend - Comète Jacques (C/2014 E2) - Nuages noctulescents - L’observatoire de Cointe vu du monument interalliés - Orage sur la province de Liège - La police de Liège à l’heure des rendez-vous célestes

  19. Copyright in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringer, Barbara

    Burgeoning technology has had a tremendous influence on literature and creativity and promises to continue such influence. The number of works and the subject matter protected by copyright is also expanding, but we must be careful lest the effect be to destroy creativity. Compulsory licensing of recordings, television programs, and other media…

  20. Creativity, Content, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Creativity, content, and policy have multiple relationships. Creativity and disciplinary content are inextricably linked. In dealing with creativity, the first education policy choice is whether to recognize and act on that fact. Care is needed in using the term "creativity" in advocacy contexts, lest the relationship between creativity and…

  1. The Ukrainians of Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Stephen; And Others

    This book is an in depth study of Ukrainian Americans in Maryland. The book was published now lest educators, governmental officials, curriculum planners, and librarians continue certain stances of "selected inattention" about Ukrainians and other East Europeans in American studies. Chapter 1 examines the European background of the…

  2. Press conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Exposés de plusieurs intervenants de la direction et du conseil, comme le Prof.Ramsey, président du conseil sur l'adhésion récente de la Finlande et le "boom" scientifique des pays de l'est.

  3. Key Issues in the Emerging U.S. Debate on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Swaziland, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Trinidad and Tobago, Yemen, Zimbabwe Table 1. States That Have Not Ratified the CTBT.13... erosion of confidence.88 The 2002 report from the National Academy of Sciences and the 2006 JASON report provided reassurance regarding the safety and

  4. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, FURADAN 4F ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-13

    ... I, jIQ!" , ,13 1 1 II! I! __ ··I:!·~· H .-. llil~~ JIll. I d,~~ li .~ i !~ 11· ~ I .", .. lEST AVAILABLE capy ~f HH!t"inU11 niJltlrliflli!l1lif ,fUU "ql'ilU iflRf 'fili !Hil iUI ! ...

  5. Developing Collections of Web-Published Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Inga K.; Murray, Kathleen R.; Hartman, Cathy Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Librarians and archivists face challenges when adapting traditional collection development practices to meet the unique characteristics of Web-published materials. Likewise, preservation activities for Web-published materials must be undertaken at the outset of collection development lest they be lost forever. Standards and best practices for…

  6. Organ procurement: let's presume consent

    PubMed Central

    Moustarah, F

    1998-01-01

    IN WINNING FIRST PRIZE in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Dr. Fady Moustarah made a strong and compelling argument in favour of presumed consent in the procurement of donor organs. He stressed that a major education campaign will be needed when such a policy is adopted lest some people begin to regard physicians as "organ vultures." PMID:9469147

  7. The Rise of the Graphical User Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Alastair D. N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the history of the graphical user interface (GUI) and the growing realization that adaptations must be made to it lest its visual nature discriminate against nonsighted or sight-impaired users. One of the most popular commercially developed adaptations is to develop sounds that signal the location of icons or menus to mouse users.…

  8. Possible Correlations of Multinational Military Operations and State Stability, and Application to State Building in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    TANZANIA COTE DIVOIRE MAURITANIA TUNISIA D. R. CONGO MOROCCO UGANDA ERITREA MOZAMBIQUE ZAMBIA ETHIOPIA NAMIBIA ZIMBABWE With a large number of...UNOCI COTE DIVOIRE 2004-2009 UNMIL LIBERIA 2003-2009 MONUC DR CONGO 1999-2009 MINUSTAH HAITI 2004-2009 UNMIT TIMOR LESTE 2006-2009 UNFICYP

  9. An Arabic-English-French Lexicon of the Dialects Spoken in the Chad-Sudan Area, 1. [Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais, 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth-Laly, Arlette, Comp.

    This lexicon, a preliminary publication of a project dealing with Arabic dialects in the Chad-Sudan area, has been compiled from four earlier lexicons: G. Trenga, "Le bura-maband du Ouadai"; H. Carbou, "Methode pratique pour l'etude de l'arabe parle au Ouaday et a l'Est du Tchad"; G.L. Lethem, "Colloquial Arabic, Shua…

  10. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  11. Bowditch, Nathaniel (1773-1838)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Insurance actuary, astronomer, mathematician, born in Salem, MA. Self-taught, by age 15 he had compiled an astronomical almanac. Based on practical experience at sea, he wrote the New American Practical Navigator; published papers on comets and meteors, and translated PIERRE LAPLACE's Mécanique Céleste....

  12. Determination of the Number of Items and Passing Score in a Mastery Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1980-01-01

    A method based on the Poisson approximation to the binomial distribution and on the relation between the Chi-Squared distribution and the Poisson distribution is suggested for selected use in determining the number of items and passing scores in mastery Lests. (Author/RL)

  13. "Animation Sociale": The Experience of the BAEQ. Condensed Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morency, Marc-A.

    To promote popular participation as a means and goal of community development, the Bureau d'Amenagement de l'Est du Quebec (BAEQ) had to work within a milieu that favored traditional power structures over social participation in decision making. Phase 1 (May-September 1963) of this project was mainly a time for recruiting and training change…

  14. Copyright in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringer, Barbara

    Burgeoning technology has had a tremendous influence on literature and creativity and promises to continue such influence. The number of works and the subject matter protected by copyright is also expanding, but we must be careful lest the effect be to destroy creativity. Compulsory licensing of recordings, television programs, and other media…

  15. Tenure, Academic Freedom, and the Career I Once Loved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodny, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Given the financial burden they are taking on, parents and students are not interested in debates over tenure or academic freedom lest these distract them from the immediate goal of preparing to earn a living. Overburdened undergraduates-- students working twenty to forty hours each week to pay the bills and still taking out student loans--greet…

  16. Teaching Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Judy

    This book provides stories to generate ideas on how to put students at the center of curriculum and how to create a classroom environment that is not based on a "win lest you lose" mentality. This focus is on an inclusive curriculum for all races, ethnic groups, both sexes and all "other" groups. These stories are true, but all student and parent…

  17. Anticholinesterase-Responsive Weakness in the Canine Similar to Myasthenia Gravis of Man.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    achalasia , organophosphate toxicity, and poly- neuritis. Edrop honium is the most widely employed facilitators ’ agent. 11 The main advantag e of e~ ro...The effects in the ease of Ib is relsort lasted approximatel y six hours. Achalasia in older dogs occurs due to degener— ‘the neostigmine lest is

  18. A Jesuit Approach to Campus Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the newly revised speakers policy in Boston College. The revised policy, defended by administrators as being consistent with past practice, differs in two important respects from the speakers policy it replaced. Lest the scope of this unfortunate policy be exaggerated, it is important to note that the policy…

  19. Education in South-East Asia. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Symaco, Lorraine Pe, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book on education in South-East Asia is the very first of its kind to comprehensively cover and discuss the education systems and issues in all the countries in the region--the ten member nations of the Association of South-East Asian nations (ASEAN) plus Timor Leste. The eleven chapters on country case studies are written by education…

  20. Something Else for the Rest of 'Em? Military Recruiting, School Mission and Postsecondary Transitions in Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibner, Kenne Ann

    2013-01-01

    Military recruiting is thoroughly integrated in American public schools. Federal legislation mandates that every public school receiving federal funding open its doors to military recruiters in the same capacity as any postsecondary university or job organization, lest that school risk losing all federal funds. This investigation examines the…

  1. New species of Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 from Southeast of Brazil (Collembola, Isotomidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Mendonça, Maria Cleide; Abrantes, Eduardo A.; Neves, Ana Carolina R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Isotomiella Bagnall, 1939 are described and illustrated, the first: Isotomiella macedoi sp. n., based on males and females, from the “Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos” (Teresópolis municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro) differs from the other by tibiotarsus III thickened and blunt and two antero-lateral chaetae of labrum strongly thickened. The second species Isotomiella uai sp. n. from “Serra da Gandarela”, (Caeté municipality, State of Minas Gerais) differs from the other by presence of short sensilla on antennal IV and tergites, two anterolabral chaetae thickened and falcate mucro. PMID:23226958

  2. Synonymy of Crossodactylus bokermanni Caramaschi & Sazima, 1985 with Crossodactylus trachystomus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and description of a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil (Anura: Hylodidae).

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Bruno V S; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the external morphology variation in Crossodactylus bokermanni, C. trachystomus, and in unidentified specimens from 14 localities along the southern region of the Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, revealed that all of these forms belong to the same taxon. Crossodactylus bokermanni is considered a junior synonym of C. trachystomus, whose holotype is redescribed and figured. The population from Serra da Canastra, western Minas Gerais, previously referred to as Crossodactylus cf. trachystomus, is herein described and figured as Crossodactylus franciscanus. Its advertisement call is redescribed and compared to those known for the genus.

  3. Two new species of the genus Centromacronema Ulmer 1905 (Hydropsychidae: Macronematinae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Everton S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2016-07-08

    Centromacronema is an endemic genus from the Neotropics, with distribution ranging from Mexico to southern Brazil. The genus comprises 15 described species, but only two of them have been recorded in Brazil: Centromacronema               auripenne (Rambur 1842) and C. obscurum (Ulmer 1905). Two new species are herein described and illustrated from   Brazil, C. pioneira n. sp. from Serra da Jiboia, Bahia state, including the first description of a female for the genus, and C. poyanawa n. sp. from Serra do Divisor, Acre state.

  4. Geology, petrology and geochronology of the Lago Grande layered complex: Evidence for a PGE-mineralized magmatic suite in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Antonio Sales; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Giustina, Maria Emilia Schutesky Della; Araújo, Sylvia Maria; da Silva, Heloisa Helena Azevedo Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    ultramafic lithotypes render Nd model ages between 2.94 and 3.56 Ga, with variably negative ɛNd (T = 2.72 Ga) values (-0.32 to -4.25). The crystallization sequence of the intrusion and the composition of cumulus minerals, together with lithogeochemical and Nd isotopic results, are consistent with an original mantle melt contaminated with older continental crust. The contamination of mafic magma with sialic crust is also consistent with intra-plate rifting models proposed in several studies of the CMP. Lithogeochemical and isotopic data from the Lago Grande Complex may also be interpreted as the result of melting an old lithospheric mantle, and alternative models should not be disregarded. PGE mineralizations occur in chromitites and associated with base metal sulfides in the Lago Grande Complex. Chromitite has the highest PGE content (up to 10 ppm) and is characterized by high Pt/Pd ratio (4.3). Mantle-normalized profile of chromitite is highly enriched in PPGE and similar to those from Middle Group (MG) and Upper Group (UG) chromitites from the Bushveld Complex. Platinum group minerals (PGM) occur mainly at the edge of chromite crystals in the Lago Grande chromitite, consisting of arsenides and sulfo-arsenides. Sulfide-bearing harzburgite samples of the Lago Grande complex have PGE content of up to 1 ppm and low Pt/Pd (0.2-0.3) ratios. The 2722 ± 53 Ma U-Pb zircon age determined in this study for the Lago Grande Complex overlaps with the crystallization age of the Luanga Complex. Previous interpretation that the Lago Grande and Luanga layered intrusions are part of a magmatic suite (i.e., Serra Leste Magmatic Suite) is now reinforced by similar fractionation sequences, comparable petrological evolution and overlapped U-Pb zircon ages. The occurrence of the same styles of PGE mineralization in the Lago Grande and Luanga complexes, together with remarkably similar chondrite-normalized PGE profiles and PGE minerals for chromitites of both complexes, support the concept that

  5. Comment on ``Nature of the Collapse Transition for Polymers''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretti, Marco

    2002-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by

    Jurgen F. Stilck, Kleber D. Machado, and Pablo Serra, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 76, 2734 (1996).
    The authors of the Letter offer a Reply.

  6. Hurricane Havens Handbook for the North Atlantic Ocean. Change 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-28

    which crosses central southern Florida. The 72 hour position is represented, in general, by an arc from the Yucatan Peninsula across Cuba, thence...3,625 ft) in the east, and the Serra de Agua de Pau (3,114 ft) in the center. There is a gap about 5 n mi wide between the western and central massifs

  7. Linking Community Communication to Conservation of the Maned Wolf in Central Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizerril, Marcelo Ximenes A.; Soares, Carla Cruz; Santos, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the environmental education (EE) program developed in the neighboring community of Serra da Canastra National Park based on a research project focused on the maned wolf conservation. The article assesses three tools used to foster the community's participation in discussing local issues: (1) communal production of a book…

  8. Two new species of Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 from the Iberian Peninsula, with a key to European species (Acari, Gamasida, Pachylaelapidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mašán, Peter; Özbek, Hasan Hüseyin; Fenďa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pachylaelaps (Pachylaelaps) pyrenaicus sp. n. and Pachylaelaps (Longipachylaelaps) brevipilis sp. n. (Acari, Pachylaelapidae) are described and illustrated based on specimens from litter and soil detritus of forest habitats in Spain (Pyrenees Mts) and Portugal (Serra da Labruja Mts), respectively. An identification key to European species of the genus Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 is provided. PMID:27551197

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-08

    future. A report on this from Nacho Hernandez in Brussels: [Hernandez] This is a NATO Defense Planning Com- mittee meeting marked by the explosion...Serra also spoke about the future of the Spanish Army in the framework of a reduction of conventional forces in Europe. Nacho Her- nandez again

  10. A new brachypterous genus of Brazilian stag beetle (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lucaninae) with description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paschoal Coelho

    2016-02-09

    Montesinus gen. nov. is described from Brazil, along with three new species, Montesinus monnei sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in MNRJ: Brazil, Espírito Santo State, Parque Nacional do Caparaó, 2500 m a.s.l., 13.IV.2001, F.O. Correia leg.), M. tatula sp. nov. (Holotype female deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Corinto, 900 m a.s.l., I.1998, E. Antunes leg.), and M. machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype female deposited in MNRJ: Brazil, Espírito Santo State, Serra do Caparaó, Ibitirama, 2600 m a.s.l., 10-12.IV.2012, M.V.P. Simões leg.). This unusual genus is related to Altitatiayus Weinreich, with which it shares the brachypterous condition and also some characters of the male genitalia, being distinguished from it mainly by its punctate flat head and indistinct elytral striae. The three new species are distinguished by their general color, shape of posterior margin of pronotum, tibial armature and elytral punctures. The new species are from two isolated mountain formations, called Serra do Caparaó and Serra do Espinhaço formations. This is the third brachypterous genus of stag beetle found in Brazil, but it occurs in mountains isolated from the Serra da Mantiqueira where the other two genera are found. The habitus, male genitalia and maxillae of the new species are illustrated.

  11. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographed by Henry F. Withey April 1937 RUINS OF SOAP FACTORY & SMITHY (FROM S. E. END OF SOAP FACTORY) - Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, Industrial Shop (Ruins), West Mission Drive & Junipero Serra Street, San Gabriel, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Paleoenvironmental Evolution of Continental Carbonates in West-Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Emiliano C; Rossetti, Dilce F; Utida, Giselle

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a sedimentological and stratigraphical study of Quaternary (Middle to Late Pleistocene/Holocene) continental carbonates outcrops inside Pantanal Basin and its surroundings, especially in Serra da Bodoquena, Pantanal do Miranda and Corumbá/Ladário plateau, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, as well as in Serra das Araras, in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim is to understand the depositional paleoenvironments and analyse climate and tectonic influences in their genesis and evolution. The results show that the deposition of these continental carbonates started in the Middle to Late Pleistocene and have continued, with some interruptions, until the present days. Sedimentary successions were identified in the different areas, without complete correlation. Two sedimentary successions separated by an erosional surface were described in Serra da Bodoquena and Serra das Araras. In Corumbá and Pantanal do Miranda, only one succession was described. These successions were deposited in elongated lakes parallel to fault planes; small lakes, related plains and plateaus; springs related to cliffs produced by faulting; rivers conditioned by topographic variation. The climatic interpretation, without proper temporal resolution, obtained by the stable-isotope composition and stratigraphic interpretation, indicates alternation of dry and wet periods. The Neoproterozoic faults with their neotectonics and the subsidence of the Pantanal Basin, are the major control for carbonated water flow and development of depositional areas, gradually turning plateaus into slight tilted areas, allowing the evolution of depositional systems from lakes to rivers.

  13. Acquisition des competences discursives dans un contexte plurilingue (Acquisition of Discourse Competencies in a Multilingual Context).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthoud, Anne-Claude, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This collection of articles on second language learning in a multilingual environment includes: "Franzosisch-Deutsch: Zweisprachiges Lernen au der Sekundarstufe 1" (French-German: Learning Two Languages at Secondary School, Level 1) (Otto Stern, Brigit Eriksson, Christine Le Pape, Hans Reutener, Cecilia Serra Oesch); "Das Projekt…

  14. Chloritites of the Tocantins Group, Araguaia fold belt, central-northern Brazil: Vestiges of basaltic magmatism and metallogenetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotschoubey, Basile; Villas, Raimundo Netuno; Aires, Benevides

    2016-08-01

    Chloritites from different localities (Arapoema, Couto Magalhães Velho, Juarina, Morro Grande, Morro do Jabuti, Morro do Pau Ferrado, Morro do Salto, Serra do Jacu, Serra do Quatipuru, Serra do Tapa, Serrinha) of the Araguaia fold belt, Tocantins geotectonic province, central-northern Brazil, have been investigated. Based on field work and petrographic, diffractometric, geochemical and mineral chemistry data, these rocks, commonly associated with metacherts and banded iron formations, have been interpreted as products of ocean-floor exhalative-hydrothermal activity on MORB basalts. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements and diagrams of relatively immobile components in the hydrothermal environment highlight not only the genetic link between the chloritites and the basaltic rocks that occur in the region (Serra do Tapa and Morro do Agostinho), but also some peculiar characteristics of the submarine environment. The rock association and anomalous contents of Cu, Zn, Ni, As, and Au are suggestive that the region was favorable to the formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, what makes it a potential target for mineral exploration programs.

  15. Linking Community Communication to Conservation of the Maned Wolf in Central Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizerril, Marcelo Ximenes A.; Soares, Carla Cruz; Santos, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the environmental education (EE) program developed in the neighboring community of Serra da Canastra National Park based on a research project focused on the maned wolf conservation. The article assesses three tools used to foster the community's participation in discussing local issues: (1) communal production of a book…

  16. Proceedings of the National Forum of the Association of Independent Liberal Arts Colleges for Teacher Education (3rd, Indianapolis, Indiana, June 2-4, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Michael, Ed.

    The 13 papers contained in this document represent a selection of presentations from a national forum on teacher education which addressed empowerment and professionalization of teachers. The papers are: (1) "Imagining Preservice Teachers" (Alison Brennan, M. Serra Goethals, Rose Howard); (2) "Corsini 4R Schools Empower…

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Copy by Bert Shankland, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Copy by Bert Shankland, Photographer August 20, 1974 EAST AND SOUTH ELEVATION AFTER ADDITION OF PORCH, ALTERATION OF WINDOWS Fromthe Collection of the San Diego Historical Society, Serra Museum, San Diego - Temple Beth Israel, 1502 Second Avenue, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  18. The Orosirian-Statherian banded iron formation-bearing sequences of the southern border of the Espinhaço Range, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, Vassily Khoury; Rosière, Carlos A.; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2016-01-01

    The Serra da Serpentina and the Serra de São José groups are two distinct banded iron formation-bearing metasedimentary sequences along the eastern border of the southern Espinhaço Range that were deposited on the boundary between the Orosirian and Statherian periods. The Serra da Serpentina Group (SSG) has an Orosirian maximum depositional age (youngest detrital zircon grain age = 1990 ± 16 Ma) and consists of fine clastic metasediments at the base and chemical sediments, including banded iron formations (BIFs), on the top, corresponding to the Meloso and Serra do Sapo formations, respectively, and correlating with the pre-Espinhaço Costa Sena Group. The SSG represents sedimentary deposition on an epicontinental-epeiric, slow downwarping sag basin with little tectonic activity. The younger Serra de São José Group (SJG) is separated from the older SSG by an erosional unconformity and was deposited in a tectonically active continental rift-basin in the early stages of the opening of the Espinhaço Trough. The Serra do São José sediments stretch along the north-south axis of the rift and comprise a complete cycle of transgressive sedimentary deposits, which were subdivided, from base to top, into the Lapão, Itapanhoacanga, Jacém and Canjica formations. The Itapanhoacanga Formation has a maximum depositional age of 1666 ± 32 Ma (Statherian), which coincides with the maximum depositional age (i.e., 1683 ± 11 Ma) of the São João da Chapada Formation, one of the Espinhaço Supergroup's basal units. The Serra de São José Rift and the Espinhaço Rift likely represent the same system, with basal units that are facies variations of the same sequence. The supracrustal rocks have undergone two stages of deformation during the west-verging Brasiliano orogeny that affected the eastern margin of the São Francisco Craton and generated a regional-scale, foreland N-S trending fold-thrust belt, which partially involved the crystalline basement. Thrust faults have

  19. 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the temporal evolution of Graciosa Island, Azores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrea, Patricia; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Galé, Carlos; Ubide, Teresa; Lago, Marceliano; França, Zilda; Widom, Elisabeth

    2014-02-01

    Lava flows spanning the eruptive record of Graciosa Island (Azores archipelago) and a gabbro xenolith were dated by 40Ar/39Ar in order to constrain the Pleistocene and Holocene volcanic evolution of the island. The results range from 1.05 Ma to 3.9 ka, whereas prior published K-Ar and 14C ages range from 620 to 2 ka. The formation of the Serra das Fontes shield volcano started at minimum 1.05 Ma, and the magmatic system was active for ca. 600 ky, as suggested by the formation of the gabbro xenolith by magmatic differentiation. Evolved magmas making up the Serra das Fontes-Serra Branca composite volcano were generated at ca. 450 ka. After a period of ca. 110 ky of volcanic inactivity and erosion of volcanic edifices, volcanism was reactivated with the formation of the Vitória Unit NW platform. Later, the development of the Vulcão Central Unit started with the formation of monogenetic cones located to the south of the Serra das Fontes-Serra Branca-Vitória Unit. This volcanism became progressively more evolved and was concentrated in a main eruptive center, forming the Vulcão Central stratovolcano with an age older than 50 ka. The caldera related to this stratovolcano is older than 47 ka and was followed by effusion of basaltic magmas into the caldera, resulting in the formation of a lava lake, which ultimately spilled over the caldera rim at ca. 11 ka. The most recent eruptions on Graciosa formed two small pyroclastic cones within the caldera and the Pico do Timão cone within the Vitória Unit at ca 3.9 ka.

  20. Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Carlos de Sá, Luís; Luís, Luís G; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are ubiquitous contaminants able to cause adverse effects on organisms. Three hypotheses were tested here: early Pomatoschistus microps juveniles can ingest MP; the presence of MP may reduce fish predatory performance and efficiency; developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. Predatory bioassays were carried out with juveniles from two estuaries with differences in environmental conditions: Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian coast). Polyethylene MP spheres (3 types) alone and in combination with Artemia nauplii were offered as prey.All the MP types were ingested, suggesting confusion with food. Under simultaneous exposure to MP and Artemia, L-est fish showed a significant reduction of the predatory performance (65%) and efficiency (upto 50%), while M-est fish did not, suggesting that developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. The MP-induced reduction of food intake may decrease individual and population fitness.

  1. Development of Composite Spectrophotometric Procedures for the Analysis of Low-Alloy Steels and of Aluminum and Its Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-11-01

    alloys, granulated lead was added to separate any copper (iron was simultaneously reduced); complete reduction of the iron was effected by addition of...aliquot of the diluted solution taken for the analysis. Copper in the solution was removed by the addition of granulated lead; the precipitated...lest the reaction become too vigorous and the material froth over. too rarcid effervescence may be moderated by adding a little cold water. 3. Some

  2. Right-Sizing Intervention: The Philippines, El Salvador, and the Future of American Foreign Internal Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    of Colombia (FARC). There are a number of other 6 John Falk, “Terror in Paradise : The...of counsel from US military advisors representing a country that had just lost to Vietnamese insurgents.7 Proud and intertwined with the...given, primarily indicating that the death squads must be reined in, lest support be lost . Bush warned: These rightwing fanatics are the best

  3. Program Executive Officer Land Systems Advanced Technology Investment Plan Update 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Saety ard Vehicle ~radesr :;;:r::a:;·1l!Ji:U.,i\\gr.J .J"j I I I I I I II I I I - -- I _t f L I I I if II I I I MlVR Fuel Effideo:y Riiati\\ esl ...M Task Order Build amd ~ra.te Jesting Aut:omotiYe P~rfo11111aooe Testing &!durance lesting: Proof of PrincQlle Final T esling Production

  4. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  5. Depleted Trust in the Cyber Commons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    cyberspace. For natural CPRs, where regen­ eration of the stock occurs, some limits on individuals’ use by amount or kind are needed, lest aggregate...means to monetize their thefts. This sug­ gestion understands (a) the gangs’ dependency on particular banks and (b) that cyber crime serves as a...culture of cybersecurity and taking stock of national efforts to protect critical information infrastructures,” A/Res/64/211, 17 March 2010, http

  6. Systèmes de référence spatio-temporels. Colloque André Danjon "L'astronomie, la recherche et le temps présent".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.; Débarbat, S.

    Contents: 1. Séance commémorative. 2. Méchanique céleste, informatique et relativité. 3. L'astrolabe de Danjon et ses développements. 4. Echelles de temps et astrométrie. 5. Techniques performantes en astrométrie moderne. 6. Des techniques spatiales aux systèmes de reference. 7. Radioastronomie et astronomie.

  7. Risk-Aware Data Processing in Hybrid Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    UsingEncryption.html. [2] J. Alex Halderman, Seth D. Schoen, Nadia Heninger, William Clarkson, William Paul , Joseph A. Calandrino, Ariel J. Feldman, Jacob...Appelbaum, and Edward W. Felten. Lest we remember: Cold boot attacks on encryption keys. In Paul C. van Oorschot, editor, USENIX Security Symposium, pages...services. In CIDR, pages 186–199, 2005. [26] Steven Y. Ko, Kyungho Jeon , and Ramses Morales. The hybrex model for confidentiality and privacy in cloud

  8. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-27

    Resolution 1701 on Lebanon, adopted on 11 August 2006 which expanded the UNIFIL by 15,000 troops; Resolution 1704 on Timor-Leste, adopted on 25...with the UN, could play an effective role in the resolution of conflicts among member states.50 Since the mid-1990s, there has been a trend towards a...be achieved to enhance overall peacekeeping effort. Last but not the least, a holistic and comprehensive approach towards regional integration will

  9. Smoke Hazards Resulting from the Burning of Shipboard Paints. Part 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-18

    conditions was deter- mined the temperature of the test chamber atmosphere and the mode of combustion (i.e.. flaming or smoldering .omhustion) Table I...also given in Table I (lests 7 and 9) % %%, -ZS NRL REPORT 9043 Table I - Test Matrix for Interior Fire Retardant Paints Flow Rate of Heated Radiant...The color of the paint tested was Soft White. Formula No. 124. Table 2 lists the chemical composition of this paint. Regardless of color, the paint

  10. Barriers to Information Transfer and Approaches Toward Their Reduction, Conference Proceedings of the Technical Information Panel Specialists’ Meeting Held in Washington, DC on 23-24 September 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    et Afrique - Swahili Afrique de lEst - Japonais Japon - Portugais Amdrique du Sud 1.2 - La tendance L’ensemble des grands dquilibres ddmographiques...11 a fallu ajouter une langue cyrillique :le russe, et aujourd’hui, une langue iddographique, le japonals . DemaIn, 11 va falloir ajouter une autre...par le Japon que par les autres pays europdens qui utilisent pourtant des langues romanes; - la communication dans les sciences appliqu~es - la

  11. Development and Field Test of the Trial Battery for Project A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    34"Modifications for tfiE F ort Knox Field Test. The Path lest remained unchanged for the field test except for the modification in response for- mat ...disassemble, fix, construct, read, work metal 14. Repair plastic and fiberglass structures--perform corrective actions (e.g., measure, cut, saw, drill...sand, fill, paint, glue) to refabricate plastic and fiberglass structures. Actions may include: calculate, assemble/disassemble, fix, construct, read 15

  12. Lectures in Complex Systems, (1992). Volume 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    a fascinating possibility that by using the nanotechnology of the semicon- ductor industry we will be able to develop the ability to manipulate and...expensive and dangerous military coevolution (see the preceding chapter). The whole dynamic while driven by myriad political and military- industrial ...superior industry , superior reinforcements, or superior allies. An attacker with unreliable allies of his own may seek a quick win lest they begin to

  13. Solar eclipse sign of intussusception on barium enema.

    PubMed

    Raveenthiran, V

    2002-01-01

    The colographic appearance of intussusception is variously described as a claw sign, pincer defect, shouldering effect, and coiled-spring pattern. This report adds a new radiographic sign to the list. An end-on view of an intussusception on barium enema shows a ring of contrast resembling a solar eclipse. Familiarity with this bizarre appearance is desirable, lest it may be mistaken for spillage of barium due to a colonic perforation.

  14. Henri Poincaré: New methods of celestial mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goroff, D. L.

    This three-volume set presents an English translation of Poincaré's "Les méthodes nouvelles de la mécanique céleste", originally published in 1892 - 1899. An introduction, by D. L. Goroff, provides samples of some of the historical studies, mathematical surveys, and personal homages that have been written about Poincaré and his work. Its goal is to make a great but difficult work more accessible to contemporary readers.

  15. Peril of missing a double gall bladder: report of a patient who needed cholecystectomy two times over.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Krithika; Chinna, Sathya; Nair, Nikhil; Das, Chandan J

    2017-01-27

    Gall bladder (GB) duplication is a rare anomaly, not often seen in regular clinical practice. Though a vestigial organ, the presence of calculi within the GB can cause the patient to be acutely symptomatic with right hypochondriac pain, which can even be life threatening if not treated. The presence of two GBs means this pathology can be seen in both the GBs, highlighting the importance of diagnosing this condition, lest the patient returns years after a cholecystectomy with cholecystitis yet again!

  16. Improving Cockpits through Flight Crew Workload Measurement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-25

    Ocic ot the partici pain% %oloi t tcred 11w idva tchat workload was thc amnount ol effort expeiided Ii (lie pertortirance MISSION EVENT TIELINES ...lest o nc’. I igcirk 3 shows tile re I at. in shi Ii bet wee i a Iti tic dc ANALYIS PRCH)LTR IL L:~IMAllY INed a rid hcc~licll ri tci tile List portio

  17. Assessment of population genetic structure in the arbovirus vector midge, Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), using multi-locus DNA microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Maria G; Beebe, Nigel W; Gopurenko, David; Bellis, Glenn; Nicholas, Adrian; Ogugo, Moses; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Kemp, Steve; Walker, Peter J; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard

    2015-09-25

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a major pathogen of ruminants that is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Australian BTV serotypes have origins in Asia and are distributed across the continent into two distinct episystems, one in the north and another in the east. Culicoides brevitarsis is the major vector of BTV in Australia and is distributed across the entire geographic range of the virus. Here, we describe the isolation and use of DNA microsatellites and gauge their ability to determine population genetic connectivity of C. brevitarsis within Australia and with countries to the north. Eleven DNA microsatellite markers were isolated using a novel genomic enrichment method and identified as useful for genetic analyses of sampled populations in Australia, northern Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Timor-Leste. Significant (P < 0.05) population genetic subdivision was observed between all paired regions, though the highest levels of genetic sub-division involved pair-wise tests with PNG (PNG vs. Australia (FST = 0.120) and PNG vs. Timor-Leste (FST = 0.095)). Analysis of multi-locus allelic distributions using STRUCTURE identified a most probable two-cluster population model, which separated PNG specimens from a cluster containing specimens from Timor-Leste and Australia. The source of incursions of this species in Australia is more likely to be Timor-Leste than PNG. Future incursions of BTV positive C. brevitarsis into Australia may be genetically identified to their source populations using these microsatellite loci. The vector's panmictic genetic structure within Australia cannot explain the differential geographic distribution of BTV serotypes.

  18. A caution to Native American institutional review boards about scientism and censorship.

    PubMed

    Askland, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Native American Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) promote the health and welfare of tribes by reviewing protocols for research studies that focus on their tribes. The benefits of approved protocols should not be overstated lest good studies disappoint because they do not satisfy unachievable expectations. IRBs also should avoid the temptation to censor the outcomes of those studies. Science relies on candor and clarity about results and methods to move forward.

  19. Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior and Microstructural Mechanisms in Ti-6Al-4V Manufactured by Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army ARDEC Benet Laboratories, RDAR-WSB...DATE. Full publication date, including day, month, if available. Must cite at lest the year and be Year 2000 compliant, e.g., 30-06- 1998 ; xx-08- 1998 ...xx-xx- 1998 . 2. REPORT TYPE. State the type of report, such as final, technical, interim, memorandum, master’s thesis, progress, quarterly

  20. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2004-02-01

    Stardust; Spirit libéré; Quasars records; Chaîne de galaxies; Des gemmes célestes; Gaz circumgalactiques; La première paire de pulsars; La tarentule en infrarouge; Nébuleuses planétaires seulement pour les étoiles doubles?; Paires exotiques; Exoplanète avec champ magnétique; Bételgeuse; Collisions galactiques; SS433; Survivant; Galaxies précoces; Bébés galaxies; EH_1

  1. Summary Talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2011-04-01

    I first discuss the role of “Solar Polarization” in the context of the development of modern astrophysics, and then show how a few failed projects stimulated the advance that led to the discovery of the Second Solar Spectrum and the development of ZIMPOL. The failed LEST project also helped pave the way for major high-resolution telescope projects like GREGOR, ATST, and EST. I conclude with a small poem in honor of this successful Workshop.

  2. Brazil and the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    American African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI), and the French Renforcement des Capacités 36 Da...kind of training required. In regard to the latter, the French government invited Brazil to participate in two exercises. The first occurred in 1998...Leste: Origens e Evolução. Instituto Rio Branco. FUNAG. Brasília, DF. 2000. Daniel, Donald C. F. and Hayes, Bradd C. Securing Observance of UN

  3. Constitutive expression of high-affinity sulfate transporter (HAST) gene in Indian mustard showed enhanced sulfur uptake and assimilation.

    PubMed

    Abdin, M Z; Akmal, M; Ram, M; Nafis, T; Alam, P; Nadeem, M; Khan, M A; Ahmad, A

    2011-07-01

    Lycopersicon esculantum sulfate transporter gene (LeST 1.1) encodes a high-affinity sulfate transporter (HAST) located in root epidermis. In this study, the LeST 1.1 gene was constitutively expressed in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Jai Kisan). Transgenic as well as untransformed plants were grown in sulfur-insufficient (25 and 50 μM) and sulfur-sufficient (1,000 μM) conditions for 30 days. Two-fold increase was noticed in the sulfate uptake rate of transgenic plants grown in both sulfur-insufficient and -sufficient conditions as compared to untransformed plants. The transgenic B. juncea plants were able to accumulate higher biomass and showed improved sulfur status even in sulfur-insufficient conditions when compared with untransformed plants. Chlorophyll content, ATP sulfurylase activity and protein content were also higher in transgenic plants than untranformed plants under sulfur-insufficient conditions. Our results, thus, clearly indicate that constitutive expression of LeST 1.1 gene in B. juncea had led to enhanced capacity of sulfur uptake and assimilation even in sulfur-insufficient conditions. This approach can also be used in other crops to enhance their sulfate uptake and assimilation potential under S-insufficient conditions.

  4. Engaging Communities With a Simple Tool to Help Increase Immunization Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manish; Taneja, Gunjan; Amin, Ruhul; Steinglass, Robert; Favin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The level of vaccination coverage in a given community depends on both service factors and the degree to which the public understands and trusts the immunization process. This article describes an approach that aims to raise awareness and boost demand. Developed in India, the “My Village Is My Home” (MVMH) tool, known as Uma Imunizasaun (UI) in Timor-Leste, is a poster-sized material used by volunteers and health workers to record the births and vaccination dates of every infant in a community. Introduction of the tool in 5 districts of India (April 2012 to March 2013) and in 7 initial villages in Timor-Leste (beginning in January 2012) allowed community leaders, volunteers, and health workers to monitor the vaccination status of every young child and guided reminder and motivational visits. In 3 districts of India, we analyzed data on vaccination coverage and timeliness before and during use of the tool; in 2 other districts, analysis was based only on data for new births during use of the tool. In Timor-Leste, we compared UI data from the 3 villages with the most complete data with data for the same villages from the vaccination registers from the previous year. In both countries, we also obtained qualitative data about perceptions of the tool through interviews with health workers and community members. Assessments in both countries found evidence suggesting improved vaccination timeliness and coverage. In India, pilot communities had 80% or higher coverage of identified and eligible children for all vaccines. In comparison, overall coverage in the respective districts during the same time period was much lower, at 49% to 69%. In Timor-Leste, both the number of infants identified and immunized rose substantially with use of the tool compared with the previous year (236 vs. 155, respectively, identified as targets; 185 vs. 147, respectively, received Penta 3). Although data challenges limit firm conclusions, the experiences in both countries suggest

  5. Cranial bones and atlas of titanosaurs (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from Late Cretaceous (Bauru Group) of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Marinho, Thiago da Silva; Filippi, Leonardo S.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Borges; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia da Fonseca; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2015-08-01

    Isolated left prefrontal, left squamosal and atlas of titanosaur dinosaurs are described and compared. They come from the Late Cretaceous Serra da Galga Member of the Marília Formation at the Serra do Veadinho region, Peirópolis (Uberaba County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Due to the sparse cranial elements of titanosaurs already known from Brazil, these specimens are noticeable to be presented. In addition, the atlas vertebra is described for the first time for Brazilian titanosaurs. The morphology of the cranial bones closely resembles lithostratian titanosaurs, such as Rapetosaurus, rather than basal titanosaurs. The atlas is similar to that of other titanosaurs, suggesting that the anatomy of this element seems to be more conservative than other vertebral elements, in which vertebral laminae play an important rule in titanosaur taxonomy.

  6. Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae) in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?

    PubMed

    Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented.

  7. Sandy beach molluscs as possible bio-indicators of metal pollution 1. field survey. [South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Watling, H.R.; Watling, R.J.

    1983-09-01

    A great variety of molluscs occur around the South African coast, extending as it does from the sub-tropical environment of Natal to the temperate environment of the Cape. The potential of many of these molluscs as bio-indicators has been discussed in general terms on the basis of the reported use of related species (DARRACOTT and WATLING 1975) and certain of these, among them the bivalve Donax serra and gastropod Bullia rhodostoma, have been included in the national marine pollution monitoring program. The aims of this preliminary investigation are: to determine the metal concentrations in D. serra and B. rhodostoma growing along a 500 km stretch of the southern African coast, supplementing data from sediment and water sampling surveys of the same region; and to determine in laboratory studies whether these molluscs accumulate metals, thus meeting some at least of the criteria for monitoring organisms. The field survey data are presented in this paper.

  8. Characterization of wines according the geographical origin by analysis of isotopes and minerals and the influence of harvest on the isotope values.

    PubMed

    Dutra, S V; Adami, L; Marcon, A R; Carnieli, G J; Roani, C A; Spinelli, F R; Leonardelli, S; Vanderlinde, R

    2013-12-01

    We studied Brazilian wines produced by microvinification from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes, vintages 2007 and 2008, from the Serra Gaúcha, Campanha and Serra do Sudeste regions, in order to differentiate them according to geographical origin by using isotope and mineral element analyses. In addition, the influence of vintage production in isotope values was verified. Isotope analysis was performed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and the determination of minerals was by flame atomic absorption (FAA). The best parameters to classify the wines in the 2008 vintage were Rb and Li. The results of the δ(13)C of wine ethanol, Rb and Li showed a significant difference between the varieties regardless of the region studied. The δ(18)O values of water and δ(13)C of ethanol showed significant differences, regardless of the variety. Discriminant analysis of isotope and minerals values allowed to classify approximately 80% of the wines from the three regions studied.

  9. Demographic history, marker variability and genetic differentiation in sandy beach fauna: What is the meaning of low FST's?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuidenhout, Karien; Nel, Ronel; Hauser, Lorenz

    2014-10-01

    This note demonstrates the effect of locus variability and demographic history on the estimation of genetic differentiation and its interpretation in terms of ecological connectivity. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, mtDNA) sequences of the beach clam Donax serra from four sites along the South African coast were analysed. D. serra showed low COI haplotype diversity (h = 0.30 ± 0.069, 7 haplotypes), suggesting expansion from a small source population into extant habitats. As a consequence, statistical power to measure genetic connectivity was low. The lack of genetic population structure therefore does not necessarily demonstrate high connectivity. Although COI has been used successfully to identify species and populations isolated for prolonged periods of time, lack of differentiation has to be interpreted with caution, especially in terms of extant patterns of connectivity.

  10. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Amazônia XX. description of Tabanus pseudonebulosus n.sp.

    PubMed

    Gorayeb, Inocêncio de Sousa; de Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros

    2006-03-01

    Tabanus pseudonebulosus, new species, is described based on 217 female specimens and 5 males collected in Venezuela (Guarico, Aguaio, Santa Elena, and Palmarito) and in Brazil (Parcí: Santana do Araguaia, Serra das Andorinhas in São Geraldo do Araguaia, Serra Norte Carajás and Gorotire; Amazonas: Canutama; Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá), mostly in open vegetation, scrub forest and in rocky environments. Observed intraspecific variation in the specimens is presented and related to collection localities, and morphological differences are diagnosed in relation to the similar species Tabanus nebulosus DeGeer 1776 and T. importunus Wiedemann 1828. Morphometrical data and indices for specimens in different localities are provided. Drawings and photo of the new species are presented.

  11. Morphological variation, advertisement call, and tadpoles of Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann, 1973), and taxonomic status of B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi, 2004) (Anura, Hylidae, Cophomantini).

    PubMed

    Walker, Marina; Lourenço, Ana Carolina Calijorne; Pimenta, Bruno V S; Nascimento, Luciana Barreto

    2015-03-24

    Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973) and B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) belong to the B. cir-cumdata species group. The type locality of the former is Serra do Cipó, Espinhaço mountain range, and of the latter is Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Mantiqueira mountain range, both in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Differences on dorsal draw-ing pattern of adults, oral disc morphology of tadpoles, and temporal properties of calls were proposed to distinguish these two species. However, several specimens found between the two type localities remain unidentified because diagnostic characters and states occur in all of these populations. Thus, in order to assess these characters variations, we performed an analysis of the morphology and morphometry of adults, vocalization, and morphology of tadpoles. Specimens were divided into three operational taxonomic units (OTUs): B. nanuzae (Serra do Cipó and northwards, Espinhaço mountain range), B. cf. nanuzae (Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Espinhaço mountain range, south of Serra do Cipó), and B. feioi (Serra do Ibitipoca, Mantiqueira mountain range). Drawing patterns of the dorsum and limbs show clinal variation and the three units are morphometrically very similar. Temporal and spectral properties of calls overlap in these three units. The diagnostic differences originally proposed for tadpoles are intrapopulational variations and occur in specimens from all of the locations analyzed. We found that these three units are morphologically indistinguishable. Therefore, we designate Bok-ermannohyla feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) as a junior synonym of Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973), extending its geographical distribution to the Mantiqueira mountain range.

  12. A Mass Tracking Formulation for Bubbles in Incompressible Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-14

    marching method proposed in [23]. The treatment of viscosity for multiphase incompressible flow with appropriate jump conditions at the interface is...A Mass Tracking Formulation for Bubbles in Incompressible Flow Mridul Aanjaneya∗, Saket Patkar∗, Ronald Fedkiw∗ Stanford University, 353 Serra Mall...Gates Computer Science Room 207, Stanford, CA 94305 Abstract We devise a novel method for treating bubbles in incompressible flow that relies on the

  13. An Unconditionally Stable Fully Conservative Semi-Lagrangian Method (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-07

    An Unconditionally Stable Fully Conservative Semi- Lagrangian Method Michael Lentine∗, Jón Tómas Grétarsson∗, Ronald Fedkiw∗ Stanford University...353 Serra Mall Room 207, Stanford, CA 94305 Abstract Semi- Lagrangian methods have been around for some time, dating back at least to [3]. Researchers...the typical semi- Lagrangian interpolation step in order to guarantee that the amount of the con- servative quantity does not increase during this

  14. Ox Mountain Sanitary Landfill Apanolio Canyon Expansion Site, San Mateo County, California. Volume 1. Final EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) and Response to Comments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Burlingame (expansion) San Mateo (expansion) Medio Creek Higgins Creek Canyon Marsh Road (expansion) South San Francisco (expansion) San Bruno Bay...within public parks, and Medio Creek, Junipero Serra and Bernardi Ranch are in residential areas. The only location identified in the � study not...the noise environment is to approximate 3 the ambient or background noise level and the equivalent continuous noise level (L eq). Noise levels are

  15. A massive infestation of sea snakes by cymothoid isopods.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, A; Balasubramanian, T; Raja, K; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a massive infestation of the sea snake Enhydrina schistosa by the cymothoid isopod Nerocila serra, commonly parasitizing fishes, is reported for the first time from India. This isopod was found attached on the different parts of the body of the snake. According to the month, the parasitic prevalence ranged from 30.8 to 55.3%, increasing during the monsson period. It was higher in female than in male snakes.

  16. Primary Cilia in Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    mechanical signals (Satir and Christensen, 2007). The process of Intraflagellar Transport ( IFT ) is responsible for building and maintaining the...Zhang, Q., Song, B., Jackson, W.S., Detloff, P.J., Serra, R., and Yoder, B.K. (2007). Intraflagellar transport is essential for endochondral bone...structure and function of cilia. The absence of Ift88/Tg737/Polaris, a core molecular component of the IFT machinery, results in the loss of cilia

  17. Epigenetic Control of Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-4026 13. Sandoval J, Heyn H, Moran S, Serra-Musach J, Pujana MA, Bibikova M, Esteller M. Validation of a DNA methylation... Sandoval J, Sayols S, Chianese C, Giachini C, Heyn H, Esteller M. Novel insights into DNA methylation features in spermatozoa: stabil- ity and...DNA-methylation-dependent and -inde- pendent mechanisms. Leukemia 2005; 19:103-11; PMID:15510208 23. Han H, Cortez CC , Yang X, Nichols PW, Jones PA

  18. Iridovirus-like viruses in erythrocytes of lacertids from Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Matos, António P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses.

  19. Chemical analysis, antioxidant, antichemotactic and monoamine oxidase inhibition effects of some pteridophytes from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Juliana MM; Passos, Carolina dos S; Dresch, Roger R; Kieling-Rubio, Maria Angélica; Moreno, Paulo Roberto H; Henriques, Amélia T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ferns are a group of plants that have been little explored from a chemical and biological perspective but that have interesting potential, occurring in various parts of the world. Objective: This work investigates the chemical profile and the biological effects of ferns from Brazil. Materials and Methods: Analyses were performed using rapid performance liquid chromatography (RP-LC) with a diode array detector (DAD). Extracts were tested for their in vitro antioxidant activity, by the total reactive antioxidant potential method and for their antichemotactic potential, by the Boyden chamber method. Cytotoxic effects were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase levels, while the monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay was carried out using a fluorescence-based method. Results: Different chemical compositions were found for the studied ferns, such as Asplenium gastonis, in which hesperidin was identified in its extract, while A. serra showed the presence of xanthone mangiferin. The most samples with highest antioxidant activity were the Asplenium serra, Lastreopsis amplissima and Cyathea dichromatolepis extracts, at 10 μg/mL. High antichemotactic activity was found for A. serra (94.06%) and Didymochlaena truncatula (93.41%), at 10 μg/mL. The extracts showed no cytotoxicity at the highest concentration. Against MAO-A, D. truncatula (82.61%), Alsophila setosa (82.21%), Cyathea phalerata (74.07%) and C. delgadii (70.32%) were the most active extracts (100 μg/mL). Conclusion: The hypothesis was considered that phenolics and triterpenes are responsible for these pronounced activities. PMID:24914288

  20. ESR dating of Smilodon populator from Toca de Cima dos Pilão, Piauí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Mollemberg, Michelle; Santana, William; G Figueiredo, Ana Maria; Guidon, Niede; Fátima da Luz, Maria de; Guérin, Claude; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2017-02-01

    Smilodon is a genus of big cats that lived from the early to the late Pleistocene in regions extending from North to South America. The fossil records of the "saber-toothed cats" are uneven, with some taxa being quite abundant in certain regions. In Brazil, Smilodon populator is a well-known species whose remains, although scarce in comparison to other large mammals, are found all across the country. In particular, there are multiple records of this species in the region of the Serra da Capivara National Park. This area was home to a rich Pleistocene-Holocene fauna, including many mammals. Here, we report on the Electron Spin Resonance dating of a Smilodon populator tooth found in "Toca de Cima dos Pilão", located in the surroundings of the Serra da Capivara National Park. The equivalent dose found after exponential fitting of dose-response curve was (2.7±0.3)x10(2)Gy. Neutron Activation Analysis was used to determine the concentration of radioisotopes present in the sample and in the sediment to calculate the internal and external dose rates. The result of age found is 93±9ka, which confirmed the presence of this species in Serra da Capivara National Park in the late Pleistocene.

  1. Enameloid microstructure of the serrated cutting edges in certain fossil carcharhiniform and lamniform sharks.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Plamen S

    2010-07-01

    The triple-layered enameloid organization of neoselachian teeth has proven to be a reliable systematic character of the group. This study uses scanning electron microscopy to investigate the orientation of the parallel enameloid bundles in the area of the serrated cutting edges in certain fossil elasmobranchs. The examined teeth come from two Upper Cretaceous Squalicorax species and the Upper Miocene carcharhiniforms Galeocerdo sp., Carcharhinus sp., and Hemipristis serra. The parallel bundles are revealed by surface etching, which removes the superficial shiny-layered enameloid. In the teeth of Squalicorax, the bundles around the cutting edge bend once, before they reach the serrations. The studied carcharhiniform species show a more complicated pattern with a change of parallel bundle course inside the serrations. H. serra teeth do not display the first bending of the bundles, whereas it was present in the other two carcharhiniforms. The course of the crystalline bundles in both Squalicorax species is not affected by the presence of the serrations, regardless of the twofold difference in tooth size between them. In the carcharhiniform species, the bended bundles occur within the primary and secondary serrations and are always associated with them. This feature might have functional significance by strengthening the cutting edge or could simply develop as a consequence of the enameloid mineralization around the individual serrae. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Hepatic parasitosis in two wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae), due to Aonchotheca annulosa (Nematoda: Trichuridae), and Eucoleus bacillatus (Nematoda: Trichuridae). Erratic parasitism or post mortem migration?

    PubMed

    Debenedetti, Ángela L; Sáez-Durán, Sandra; Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2014-10-01

    Aonchotheca annulosa and Eucoleus bacillatus are two capillariin nematodes parasitizing the intestinal and stomach mucosa, respectively, of various rodent species, and two, among others, component species of the helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. A capillariin each was found in the liver parenchyma of two wood mice in a post-fire regeneration enclave in Serra Calderona Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain). Due to their location, the preliminary identification of the helminths corresponded to Calodium hepaticum, a hepatic capillariin with rodents as its main host. So far, this species had never been found in Serra Calderona. To verify the preliminary identification, a comparative morphometric study between the specimens from Serra Calderona and a preserved individual of C. hepaticum from another enclave was carried out. Morphometric analysis revealed that the adult helminth as well as the eggs found in the liver of the first mouse belonged to A. annulosa, whereas the second one was identified as a male E. bacillatus. Moreover, the liver from both hosts showed a visible pathology, being the consequence of aberrant migration of the parasites. This is the first evidence that A. annulosa and E. bacillatus may migrate erratically and thus produce ectopic foci in other organs.

  3. Environmental yeast communities in vineyards in the mountains of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, S D C; Ramírez-Castrillón, M; Feldberg, N P; Bertoldi, F C; Valente, P

    2017-06-01

    Yeasts were isolated from three vineyards located in the South Region of Brazil. A cross evaluation was carried out at the oldest vineyard of the study in Pinheiro Preto. Samples of grape berries, grapevine leaves and the soil, along with samples of the winery equipment and effluent, were collected. In the Serra do Marari and Campos Novos vineyards only samples of grape clusters were obtained. The 106 yeast isolates were identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of LSU rDNA or ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region in 22 species. The values for the richness indices varied between the vineyards. A comparison of the taxonomic diversity of the yeasts from these regions using the reciprocal Simpson index showed a significant difference between the Serra do Marari and Campos Novos vineyards (5.72 ± 0.36 and 2.92 ± 0.36, respectively, p < 0.0001). The functional diversity was assessed in relation to the use of carbon and nitrogen sources by the yeasts isolated from each location. In general, we observed that the Pinheiro Preto and Campos Novos vineyards differed consistently from the Serra do Marari vineyard according to these indices (FAD2, FDc and Rao, p < 0.0001). The possible spreading of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the winery to the vineyard in Pinheiro Preto was observed.

  4. A Numerical Study of Wind Forcing in the Eastern Boundary Current System Off Portugal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Batteen, I hesis Advisor C. S. Nelsop, Second Reader Curtis A. Collins, Chairman, Department of Oceanography ABSTRACT A high resolution, multi-level...Academia das Ci~ncias, 126 1200 Lisboa Portugal 30. Dr Pedro Re Scqo Biologia \\Iaritirma da Faculdade de Ci~ncias Universidade de Lisboa, Bloco C2

  5. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  6. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  7. History of the Army Ground Forces. Study Number 15. The Desert Training Center and C-AMA, (California - Arizona Area)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-01-01

    vegetation of this arid region? -- "All of the desert plants are the world’s most thorny objects." Such an area naturally supported no centers of...3 ten-grain salt tablets dally. He cautioned men, when dr ving over plants in open cars, to be careful lest flying apines injure their eyes.4 With...kitchens would be eliminated. The Ground Surgeon did not object to the use of the "B" ration, considering the vitamin content adequate if~the ration was

  8. The Coral Triangle Atlas: An Integrated Online Spatial Database System for Improving Coral Reef Management

    PubMed Central

    Cros, Annick; Ahamad Fatan, Nurulhuda; White, Alan; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Tan, Stanley; Handayani, Christian; Huang, Charles; Peterson, Nate; Venegas Li, Ruben; Siry, Hendra Yusran; Fitriana, Ria; Gove, Jamison; Acoba, Tomoko; Knight, Maurice; Acosta, Renerio; Andrew, Neil; Beare, Doug

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the construction of an online GIS database system, hosted by WorldFish, which stores bio-physical, ecological and socio-economic data for the ‘Coral Triangle Area’ in South-east Asia and the Pacific. The database has been built in partnership with all six (Timor-Leste, Malaysia, Indonesia, The Philippines, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea) of the Coral Triangle countries, and represents a valuable source of information for natural resource managers at the regional scale. Its utility is demonstrated using biophysical data, data summarising marine habitats, and data describing the extent of marine protected areas in the region. PMID:24941442

  9. Geomorphology and the Law of Unintended Consequences (Locke, 1691): Lessons from coastal weathering and erosion at Prawle (UK) and Kaikoura (NZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottershead, Derek N.; Stephenson, Wayne J.; Hemmingsen, Maree A.

    2016-07-01

    The sites of two field experiments based on micro-erosion metering, one in UK the other in New Zealand, were independently revisited respectively 33 and 17 years after installation. At both sites natural weathering and erosion processes had been inadvertently interrupted by the experimental works, leading to the development of new microscale landforms. These are interpreted in the context of modifications of the controls on weathering processes, leading to enhanced understanding of the processes themselves. This has lessons for the geomorphologist in maintaining a long-term watching brief over former experimental sites, lest some unintended and potentially beneficial outcome has ensued. This theme is embraced by the Law of Unintended Consequences.

  10. Intrinsic and Thermal Stress Modeling for Thin-Film Multilayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-15

    Halihday, T.B. RymLr, and K.Hi.R. Foyght, Pr•. P y. S’c. Londcn A225 , 548 (1954). 7. A. kinabara, H. Harabi, J. Appl. PHYs., (Ja •¢n), Vol. 4. p. 243...function of film thickaess x as cr (x) - a (16) NW where Nm is the saturation number of n--clei on the substrate. Consequently, •(x) ailexp(bx)?(17) and the...MICRONS) -400 -800 -1200 (.2 -1600 • .k -2000 : Average Stress (lest Fit) -2400 o Sampled IDat., -2800 , .. €",. /" t.... " ~-3200 2 bUnit Strcss cr

  11. Correlation on Noisy Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    pattern were varied., Background 0 Real-world guidance systems (i.e. self -guided missiles) often determine their course of motion by taking continuous...5 5 5 ii 5 5 55 5 5 55 5 5 e a I 5 I I a a tj te I I 5 5 a 5 5 I 5 I 5 5 5 II I 5 asttasataglIeeeelgttgeiseeeIigleg eases legs 555a5 tag tas estee ...tIes ~ii~ 51555 555 55liett estee ,,,, egg,,,e atlas,., 1555i5 sassess gets,,,, asset,,, a ass, less, a gist, ti, ages,, i~~’ a555t gil a lest

  12. Method of separation of celestial gamma-ray bursts from solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, K.W.; White, R.S. ); Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G. )

    1991-09-01

    We recently discovered 217 new'' celestial gamma-ray burst candidates from the new'' burst search of the PVO real time data base.[sup 1] The burst search covered the time period from September 1978 to July 1988. Sixty were confirmed by at lest on other spacecraft, e.g., ISEE-3, V-11, V-12, etc. None triggered the PVO high time resolution memory. In this paper we describe a new algorithm based ont eh relationship between time width [ital T][sub [ital w

  13. The Coral Triangle Atlas: an integrated online spatial database system for improving coral reef management.

    PubMed

    Cros, Annick; Ahamad Fatan, Nurulhuda; White, Alan; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Tan, Stanley; Handayani, Christian; Huang, Charles; Peterson, Nate; Venegas Li, Ruben; Siry, Hendra Yusran; Fitriana, Ria; Gove, Jamison; Acoba, Tomoko; Knight, Maurice; Acosta, Renerio; Andrew, Neil; Beare, Doug

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the construction of an online GIS database system, hosted by WorldFish, which stores bio-physical, ecological and socio-economic data for the 'Coral Triangle Area' in South-east Asia and the Pacific. The database has been built in partnership with all six (Timor-Leste, Malaysia, Indonesia, The Philippines, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea) of the Coral Triangle countries, and represents a valuable source of information for natural resource managers at the regional scale. Its utility is demonstrated using biophysical data, data summarising marine habitats, and data describing the extent of marine protected areas in the region.

  14. Characterization of Cholesteric Cyclic Siloxane Liquid Crystalline Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    34AD-A256 128 CHARACIEUAThIONOFPCl LEST CCYCJC SILOXANE LIQUID CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS TI I Herbert E. Kii C r-• CTr Dept. of Chemical Engineering v... crystalline Materials . 18: 2422 S a.•mo) ... : 01 TJ suning. RR 1*1., Er SamlskI, •L CVa1e. W AMd 7. PWMoaG ORGAIRZAIIO "W3(SC) Sil AQM~SISfS) L. KNOW"ma...ordering of the NLO chromcphore can give rise to large response amplitudes, one system currently being investigated are liquid crystalline materials which

  15. 43. Photographic copy of photograph, dated September 1973 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographic copy of photograph, dated September 1973 (original print in possession of CSSD-HO, Huntsville, AL). Photographer unknown. Aerial view (southwest to northeast) of perimeter acquisition radar building, showing tactical and nontactical support buildings. From lest hand corner, note storage building (#709); to the right, gymnasium (715). Next row, left to BOQ (#708); Bachelor's enlisted men's quarters (#720). Above #720 can be seen industrial building (#730), and above that, a substation (#740). Below PARB, to left and right, are PARPP exhaust shafts and heat sink (#813) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. Correcting the record of structural publications requires joint effort of the community and journal editors.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Bernhard; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek; Helliwell, John R; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Seriously flawed and even fictional models of biomolecular crystal structures, although rare, still persist in the record of structural repositories and databases. The ensuing problems of database contamination and persistence of publications based on incorrect structure models must be effectively addressed. The burden cannot be simply left to the critical voices who take the effort to contribute dissenting comments that are mostly ignored. The entire structural biology community, and particularly the journal editors who exercise significant power in this respect, must engage in a constructive dialog lest structural biology lose its credibility as an evidence-based empirical science.

  17. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    SciTech Connect

    Wanmode, Yashwant D.; Mulchandani, J.; Acharya, M.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-07-01

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  18. Parachute satellites for earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-07-01

    The "parachute" concept presented here is a generic definition for earth observation systems essentially made of a reflector under which a detector associated with a telemetry antenna is suspended [D. Massonnet, (Applicant), Satellite, method and a fleet of satellites for observing a celestial body, Patent 0509-1112, 2006. [1]; D. Massonnet, (Déposant), Satellite, procédé et flotte de satellites d'observation d'un corps céleste, Priorité 04-04327, 2004. [2

  19. Queering the discourse of diversity.

    PubMed

    Morrish, Liz; O'Mara, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use corpus linguistic methods to examine why lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) subjects are poorly recognized within diversity statements of U.K. and U.S. research universities. While universities position diversity as a marketable signifier, we argue that queerness is rendered invisible, lest its manifestation bring universities into disrepute. "Sexual orientation" appears as a "private" or "lifestyle" choice," and universities do not see it as part of their mission to enable students or employees to realize difference. We wish to propose that the language used in diversity statements should acknowledge notions of real inclusion and empowerment of those queers who work within them.

  20. The importance of medico-legal evaluation in a case with intraabdominal gossypiboma.

    PubMed

    Uluçay, Tarik; Dizdar, Mustafa Gökhan; SunayYavuz, Mehmet; Aşirdizer, Mahmut

    2010-05-20

    Data concerning the incidence of gossypiboma tend to fluctuate and is difficult to estimate because of a low reporting rate lest medico-legal implication. Gossypiboma is frequently located in the abdominal and pelvic cavities after gynecologic and upper abdominal surgical operations but can also follow thoracic, orthopedic, and urological and neurosurgical procedures. In medical literature, there are few articles about the medico-legal evaluation of gossypiboma although it is typically subjected to a medico-legal process. In this article, we reported a 22-year-old female case with intraabdominal gossypiboma following a cesarean procedure and discussed the importance of medico-legal evaluation of gossypiboma.

  1. The implicit function theorem and its substitutes in Poincaré's qualitative theory of differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawhin, Jean

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the role of the implicit function theorem and some of its substitutes in the work of Henri Poincaré. Special emphasis is given upon his PhD thesis, his first work on the periodic solutions of the three body problem, his memoir crowned by King Oscar II Prize and its development in Les méthodes nouvelles de la mécanique céleste, and finally his contributions on the figures of equilibrium of rotating fluid masses.

  2. A STANDARDIZED LANTERN FOR TESTING COLOUR VISION.

    PubMed

    Martin, L C

    1939-01-01

    A Lantern for lesting Colour-Vision is arranged to show test colours in pairs as in the Board of Trade Lantern. It is adapted to use electric light, and is standardized by stringent testing. The paper discusses the experiments and considerations which led to the formulation of the allowable tolerances in the transmission and colour co-ordinate specifications of the filters, the colour temperature of the lamps and so on. The results of tests on normal and colour-defective subjects are described.

  3. A STANDARDIZED LANTERN FOR TESTING COLOUR VISION

    PubMed Central

    Martin, L. C.

    1939-01-01

    A Lantern for lesting Colour-Vision is arranged to show test colours in pairs as in the Board of Trade Lantern. It is adapted to use electric light, and is standardized by stringent testing. The paper discusses the experiments and considerations which led to the formulation of the allowable tolerances in the transmission and colour co-ordinate specifications of the filters, the colour temperature of the lamps and so on. The results of tests on normal and colour-defective subjects are described. PMID:18169586

  4. A l'écoute de nos instituts scientifiques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrard, J.; Arnould, M.; Demaret, J.; Noels, A.; Vercheval, J.; Crommelynck, D.; Melchior, P.

    The authors give some important events which occurred during the last academic year 1981-1982 in six scientific institutes in Belgium (Groupe de mécanique céleste, Département de Mathématique, Facultés Universitaires de Namur; Institut d'Astronomie, d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles; Institut d'Astrophysique, Université de Liège; l'Institut d'Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique; Institut Royal Météorologique de Belgique; Observatoire Royal de Belgique).

  5. Planetes, etoiles, galaxies, trous noirs : comment peser l'Univers ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    Depuis plus de trois siècles, les astronomes affinent leurs méthodes pour `peser' à distance les astres qui peuplent l'Univers. Après avoir décortiqué les orbites, étudié les décalages vers le rouge, épluché la luminosité, les scientifiques ont ajouté les lentilles gravitationnelles à la liste de leurs `balances' cosmiques. Outils et moyens de ceux qui évaluent la masse des objets célestes.

  6. CrN-Ag Self-Lubricating Hard Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    U.S. Army ARDEC Benet Laboratories, RDAR-WSB Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARAEW-TR-06011 9. SPONSORING...MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army ARDEC Benet Laboratories, RDAR-WSB Watervliet, NY 12189-4000 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...month, if available. Must cite at lest the year and be Year 2000 compliant, e.g., 30-06- 1998 ; xx-08- 1998 ; xx-xx- 1998 . 2. REPORT TYPE. State the type

  7. Field evaluation and user acceptability of repellent formulations containing DEET against mosquitoes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Field efficacy trials comparing 2 formulations of deet against mosquitoes in Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia were conducted in February 2009. A formulation containing 35% deet in a gel (Australian Defence Force deet) provided > 95% protection for 3 h, while a formulation containing 40% deet in ethanol (Bushman) in a spray applicator provided > 95% for 6 h. A user acceptability study showed that 82% of soldiers using the Bushman formulation during contingency operations for 14-28 days in Timor-Leste would recommend this formulation to others and believed that the formulation provided protection against mosquitoes.

  8. C-X Operational Effectiveness in the Intratheater Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    8217.3urviva3; i li ty include the air:lrop, ti’.1 :-: coff I lcJnding- ct:ld L:\\P .!:S :?h:tses of tactical airlift o~)erutions. J\\.11 of t~ 1esc t"’hases l...airlift aircraft against heat seeking SAM’s, although their effectiveness have not been sutstantiated. During the Southeast Asian conflict, C-130’s...Operational effectiveness in other theaters of operation such as South l!est Asian or Pacific • . 168 f . Notes - Chapter VI 1. Discussed in

  9. Applications of Latent Trait Theory to the Development and Use of Criterion-Referenced Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    trait models for Lest development work is clear but more effective implementation could be achieved if several questions were satisfactorily answered...pirposC.v or this paper wre to considr lntent trait theory DI JN11473 1111c 1 s It f. ed Unclassified SECklIITY CI.AS’,IFICATION4 OF TII% PAC.F’t(Wev.n LIMP...Specifical.y, advantages and diadvantages of latunt trait theoretic concepts wC-Ce considered; a discussion of past applications to test development and test

  10. Commentary on "common genetic polymorphisms modify the effect of smoking on absolute risk of bladder cancer." Garcia-Closas M, Rothman N, Figueroa JD, Prokunina-Olsson L, Han SS, Baris D, Jacobs EJ, Malats N, De Vivo I, Albanes D, Purdue MP, Sharma S, Fu YP, Kogevinas M, Wang Z, Tang W, Tardón A, Serra C, Carrato A, García-Closas R, Lloreta J, Johnson A, Schwenn M, Karagas MR, Schned A, Andriole G Jr., Grubb R 3rd, Black A, Gapstur SM, Thun M, Diver WR, Weinstein SJ, Virtamo J, Hunter DJ, Caporaso N, Landi MT, Hutchinson A, Burdett L, Jacobs KB, Yeager M, Fraumeni JF Jr., Chanock SJ, Silverman DT, Chatterjee N, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.: Cancer Res 2013;73(7):2211-20 [Epub 2013 Mar 27].

    PubMed

    Scherr, Douglas S

    2014-02-01

    Bladder cancer results from the combined effects of environmental and genetic factors, smoking being the strongest risk factor. Evaluating absolute risks resulting from the joint effects of smoking and genetic factors is critical to assess the public health relevance of genetic information. Analyses included up to 3,942 cases and 5,680 controls of European background in seven studies. We tested for multiplicative and additive interactions between smoking and 12 susceptibility loci, individually and combined as a polygenic risk score (PRS). Thirty-year absolute risks and risk differences by levels of the PRS were estimated for U.S. males aged 50 years. Six of 12 variants showed significant additive gene-environment interactions, most notably NAT2 (P = 7×10(-4)) and UGT1A6 (P = 8×10(-4)). The 30-year absolute risk of bladder cancer in U.S. males was 6.2% for all current smokers. This risk ranged from 2.9% for current smokers in the lowest quartile of the PRS to 9.9% for current smokers in the upper quartile. Risk difference estimates indicated that 8,200 cases would be prevented if elimination of smoking occurred in 100,000 men in the upper PRS quartile compared with 2,000 cases prevented by a similar effort in the lowest PRS quartile (P(additive) = 1×10(-4)). Thus, the potential impact of eliminating smoking on the number of bladder cancer cases prevented is larger for individuals at higher than lower genetic risk. Our findings could have implications for targeted prevention strategies. However, other smoking-related diseases, as well as practical and ethical considerations, need to be considered before any recommendations could be made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Rio Doce Orogeny, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, M. C. Campos; Figueiredo, M. C. H.

    1995-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Eopaleozoic superposed orogenic system of Southeastern Brazil, which was active during the Brasiliano-Pan-African Cycle during the assembly of this sector of the Gondwana Supercontinent, includes distinct terranes such as the Guanhães, Curitiba, Apiaí-Guaxupé and Serra do Mar microplates and the Juiz de Fora Thrust Belt. These orogenic systems also affected the reworked border of the São Francisco Craton. The collisional or ocean plate subduction-controlled "Brasiliano I" Orogeny was responsible for the generation of fold belts along the southeastern border of the São Francisco Craton, the accretion of different microplates and the formation of a magmatic arc associated with the roots of a northwestward trending thrust belt. The "Brasiliano I" evolution occurred during the Neoproterozoic and by 600 Ma was already in a post-orogenic stage in the Apiaí-Guaxupé Microplate, with the intrusion of rapakivi-like granitoids. The Rio Doce Orogeny is best characterized in the Serra do Mar Microplate by a magmatic arc, active between 590 and 570 Ma, with batholithic calc-alkaline plutonism exhibiting subduction zone components and a chemical zonation indicative of northwestward subduction. The collisional stage (560-530 Ma) accounted for the accretion of the Serra do Mar Microplate to the former orogenic domains. Anatexis of mostly metasediments producing peraluminous migmatites and granites, began at the calc-alkaline magmatic arc stage and culminated during crustal thickening associated with the northwesterly piling-up of large thrust slices. The post-collisional plutonism (520-480 Ma) is characterized by plutons and dikes of mainly alkali-calcic granitoids enriched in incompatible elements.

  12. Multivariate analysis applied to monthly rainfall over Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Thábata T.; Oliveira-Júnior, José F.; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Gois, Givanildo; Zeri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall were identified over the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. The proximity to the coast and the complex topography create great diversity of rainfall over space and time. The dataset consisted of time series (1967-2013) of monthly rainfall over 100 meteorological stations. Clustering analysis made it possible to divide the stations into six groups (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6) with similar rainfall spatio-temporal patterns. A linear regression model was applied to a time series and a reference. The reference series was calculated from the average rainfall within a group, using nearby stations with higher correlation (Pearson). Based on t-test (p < 0.05) all stations had a linear spatiotemporal trend. According to the clustering analysis, the first group (G1) contains stations located over the coastal lowlands and also over the ocean facing area of Serra do Mar (Sea ridge), a 1500 km long mountain range over the coastal Southeastern Brazil. The second group (G2) contains stations over all the state, from Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira Mountains) and Costa Verde (Green coast), to the south, up to stations in the Northern parts of the state. Group 3 (G3) contains stations in the highlands over the state (Serrana region), while group 4 (G4) has stations over the northern areas and the continent-facing side of Serra do Mar. The last two groups were formed with stations around Paraíba River (G5) and the metropolitan area of the city of Rio de Janeiro (G6). The driest months in all regions were June, July and August, while November, December and January were the rainiest months. Sharp transitions occurred when considering monthly accumulated rainfall: from January to February, and from February to March, likely associated with episodes of "veranicos", i.e., periods of 4-15 days of duration with no rainfall.

  13. High-Ti basalt from the Abrolhos platform, offshore Brazil 18/sup 0/S: implications for mantle metasomatism and heterogeneity, South Atlantic region

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, R.V.; Ragland, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and core samples of the Abrolhos islands and platform (30,000 km/sup 2/), offshore Brazil 18/sup 0/S, yields 35-65 Ma mafic flows and hypabyssal and cumulate rocks. (a) Basalt has very high TiO/sub 2/ attended by high FeO* but not proportionate amounts of incompatible elements; extreme Ti is shown by TiO/sub 2/ 5% at FeO*/MgOapprox. 2.5; LREE enrichment, La/sub (n)/ 80-110, La/Yb/sub (n)/approx. 8.5, Zr/Nbapprox. 6, Zr/Y approx. 7 are those of P-type MORB. (b) Cpx is transitional, Fs/sub 14-23/Wo/sub 42-36/, TiO/sub 2/ 1-2%, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2-5%. (c) Cumulates are clinopyroxenite and wehrlite, with cpx compositions like those of the basalts. The unusually high Ti, several trace elements, and mineral compositions correspond to certain high-TiO/sub 2/ flows and dikes in neighboring Serra Geral CFB province. Age differences and approx. 2 x higher P, Ba, and Sr in Serra Geral point to Abrolhos representing (re-)melting of an enriched CFB source-area similar to that for Serra Geral CFB but differing in metasomatic phases such as ap, amph, and mica. Extensive fractionation of enriched tholeiites with major-element compositions of certain S. Atlantic basin basalts accounts for Abrolhos compositions except for extreme Ti. Cumulates attest to the chamber environment necessary for fractionation, but high Ti must reflect the mantle source. Because Abrolhos rocks have compositional links to both continental and oceanic magmatism that occurred since Gondwanaland rifting, source-regions for each may have been similar throughout South Atlantic history, but with notable anomalies, due in part to localized Fe-Ti metasomatism.

  14. A new species of Neoathripsodes Holzenthal, 1989 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) with new generic and species records in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Everton S; Quinteiro, Fabio B; Calor, Adolfo R

    2015-10-19

    Trichoptera is the most species-rich clade of exclusively aquatic insects. In Brazil, 645 species have been recorded, distributed in 70 genera and 16 families. In the Northeast Region of Brazil, 85 species have been recorded, including 56 in Bahia State. Sixteen of the Northeast Region species belong to the family Leptoceridae. Among these, the long-horned caddisfly genus Neoathripsodes Holzenthal has been a monotypic genus since its erection more than 26 years ago. It is an endemic genus in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and only the male stage has been described for its only known species, Neoathripsodes anomalus. In this paper, we describe a new species of Neoathripsodes, with the first description of a female in this genus. Additionally, we present new records for the family Leptoceridae in Bahia, especially from the Serra Bonita Mountains, in order to help solve a long-term problem in Brazilian caddisfly research: An uneven proportion of studies in some regions of the country due to historical reasons. The Northeast Region of Brazil still remains a neglected area in which efforts to unearth its biodiversity should be focused. In this work, four species are recorded for the first time for Bahia State and its Serra Bonita Mountains: Grumichella rostrata Thienemann 1905, Neoathripsodes holzenthali n. sp., Nectopsyche fuscomaculata Flint 1983, and Notalina cipo Holzenthal 1986. Neoathripsodes and Notalina are new generic records for Bahia State. The following four species are new records for Serra Bonita: Atanatolica bonita Costa & Calor 2014, Oecetis martinae Quinteiro & Calor 2015, O. furcata Quinteiro & Calor 2015, and Triplectides gracilis (Burmeister 1839). Additional new distributional records for Bahia State are included in this study.

  15. Is the 2015 eye care service delivery profile in Southeast Asia closer to universal eye health need!

    PubMed

    Das, Taraprasad; Ackland, Peter; Correia, Marcelino; Hanutsaha, Prut; Mahipala, Palitha; Nukella, Phanindra B; Pokharel, Gopal P; Raihan, Abu; Rao, Gullapalli N; Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Sapkota, Yudha D; Simanjuntak, Gilbert; Tenzin, Ngwang; Thoufeeq, Ubeydulla; Win, Tin

    2017-03-02

    The year 2015 status of eye care service profile in Southeast Asia countries was compared with year 2010 data to determine the state of preparedness to achieve the World Health Organization global action plan 2019. Information was collected from the International Agency for Prevention of Blindness country chairs and from the recent PubMed referenced articles. The data included the following: blindness and low vision prevalence, national eye health policy, eye health expenses, presence of international non-governmental organizations, density of eye health personnel, and the cataract surgical rate and coverage. The last two key parameters were compared with year 2010 data. Ten of 11 country chairs shared the information, and 28 PubMed referenced publications were assessed. The prevalence of blindness was lowest in Bhutan and highest in Timor-Leste. Cataract surgical rate was high in India and Sri Lanka. Cataract surgical coverage was high in Thailand and Sri Lanka. Despite increase in number of ophthalmologists in all countries (except Timor-Leste), the ratio of the population was adequate (1:100,000) only in 4 of 10 countries (Bhutan, India, Maldives and Thailand), but this did not benefit much due to unequal urban-rural divide. The midterm assessment suggests that all countries must design the current programs to effectively address both current and emerging causes of blindness. Capacity building and proportionate distribution of human resources for adequate rural reach along with poverty alleviation could be the keys to achieve the universal eye health by 2019.

  16. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  17. Occupancy dynamics of South American sea-lions in Brazilian haul-outs.

    PubMed

    Pavanato, H; Silva, K G; Estima, S C; Monteiro, D S; Kinas, P G

    2013-11-01

    Along the Brazilian coast only two haul-outs of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) are known: Ilha dos Lobos and Molhe Leste, both located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. Most sea lions observed in these haul-outs are adult and sub-adult males. It is supposed that the species' presence in these areas is due to food supply and absence of parental assistance by males. This study analysed the use of these haul-outs by O. flavescens between 1993 and 2002 based on counting data of observed individuals. Bayesian generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in abundance between areas, long term trends and seasonal patterns. Results showed that for O. flavescens abundance had a long term trend of increased average occupancy over the study period, with seasonal variation reaching the highest within-year value in August (Ilha dos Lobos) and October (Molhe Leste). The novel application of this powerful statistical modelling approach resulted in a useful tool to quantify occupancy dynamic.

  18. The efficacy and tolerability of three different regimens of tafenoquine versus primaquine for post-exposure prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Elmes, N J; Nasveld, P E; Kitchener, S J; Kocisko, D A; Edstein, M D

    2008-11-01

    Tafenoquine is being developed for radical cure and post-exposure prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax malaria. In an open-label study, 1512 Australian Defence Force personnel received one of three tafenoquine 3 d regimens [400 mg once daily (od), 200 mg twice daily (bid), 200 mg od] or daily primaquine (22.5 mg) plus doxycycline (100 mg) over 14 d in Bougainville and in Timor-Leste for post-exposure prophylaxis. The relapse rate of subjects treated in Bougainville with tafenoquine (n=173) was 1.2% (200 mg bid x 3 d) and 2.3% (400 mg od x 3 d), while primaquine plus doxycycline (n=175) was 3.4%. For subjects treated in Timor-Leste with tafenoquine (n=636), the relapse rate was 4.9% (200 mg od x 3 d), 5.3% (200 mg bid x 3 d) and 11.0% (400 mg od x 3d), while primaquine plus doxycycline (n=289) was 10.0%. The most frequent adverse events reported across all groups were nausea, abdominal distress and diarrhoea. There was a dose-dependent reduction in adverse events with a reduced dose of tafenoquine, with the lowest dose (total 600 mg over 3 d) producing rates of adverse events equivalent to that of primaquine plus doxycycline. The much shorter dosing regimen of tafenoquine should increase compliance, which is often suboptimal with primaquine after leaving an endemic area. [Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number 12607000588493].

  19. Aquifer characterisation in East Timor, with ground TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley-Cooper, A.

    2011-12-01

    An assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Groundwater Resources in East Timor led by Geosciences Australia is aimed at assisting East Timor's government to better understand and manage their groundwater resources. Form the current known information most aquifers in Timor-Leste are recharged by rainfall during the wet season. There is a concern that without a regular recharge, the stored groundwater capacity will decrease. Timor's population increase has caused a higher demand for groundwater which is currently been met by regulated pumping bores which are taped into deep aquifers, plus the sprouting of unregulated spear point bores in the shallow aquifers . Both groundwater recharge and the aquifers morphology need to be better understood in order to ensure supply and so groundwater can be managed for the future. Current weather patterns are expected to change and this could cause longer periods of drought or more intense rainfall, which in turn, would affect the availability and quality of groundwater. Salt water intrusions pose a threat on the low-lying aquifers as sea level rises. Australia's CSIRO has undertaken a series hydrogeophysical investigations employing ground TEM to assist in the characterisation of three aquifers near Dili, Timor Leste's capital. Interpreting ground water chemistry and dating; jointly with EM data has enhanced the understanding of the aquifers architecture, groundwater quality and helped identify potential risks of seawater intrusions.

  20. C2 System Engineering for the Adversities of the Amazon Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Bloco G, 2º andar Setor Militar Urbano Brasília-DF-Brasil 70630-901 tel: +55-61-3415-6139 kohlbr@yahoo.com.br kohl@cds.eb.mil.br Marcelo...Integration. (pp. 14). Paper at 17 th ICCRTS [8] Guedes, A.R. & Leite, R.M.O, (2012) Estudo de Viabilidade Técnica e Econômica da Tecnologia HAP em

  1. Paepalanthus serpens, a new microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Echternacht, Livia; Trovó, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe and illustrate Paepalanthus serpens, a microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range. The species is known from a single population growing in rocky areas of the Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais. It is placed in Paepalanthus ser. Paepalanthus, and is easily distinguished from its congeneric species by its elongated, lignescent stem, thickened by the marcescent sheaths of the linear leaves, which are arranged in a rosette at the stem apex, scapes equalling the leaf height, and capitulae with straw-coloured involucral bracts. Comparisons with the morphologically similar species are provided, as well as comments on distribution, ecology, phenology and conservation status. PMID:25931972

  2. European Symposium on Reliability of Electron Devices, Failure Physics and Analysis (5th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-07

    Switzerland F 4 Blue Shift and Mirror Degradation in InGaAs/GaAs Strained Quantum Well Lasers ............................................ 245 L.Serra...individual component lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Ao ,J0.IQ e In*P @WAe {X.I. 2. 4 1.1, In this paper we describe two 1480nm multi- 1201, quantum well ... quantum fgsu-e 2:- Condfuction band schematic of wells was determined so that the lasing wavelength ishne-wUt SCH structure. would be 1480nm. The graded

  3. Petrology of the alkaline rocks of the Macau Volcanic Field, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngonge, Emmanuel Donald; de Hollanda, Maria Helena Bezerra Maia; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; de Oliveira, Diógenes Custódio

    2016-12-01

    The Macau Volcanic Field (MVF) in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, contains multiple centres of volcanic activity of Early to Late Cenozoic ages. We present element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemical data for four of the few most prominent basalt types of this volcanic field: Serrote Preto-type, Serra Aguda-type, Pico do Cabugi-type and Serra Preta-type, in order to assess their magmatic history from source to crystallization and the evolution of the mantle beneath the Borborema Province. The basalts are basically sodic nephelinitic-basanitic-alkali olivine basalts enriched in LILE and in Nb-Ta. The Serra Preta, Cabugi and Serra Aguda types demonstrate compositions close to primitive characteristics with 10% < MgO < 15 wt.% and 200 ppm < Ni < 500 ppm, and experienced limited fractional crystallization of olivine-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-oxides with negligible wall-rock assimilation. Rb/Sr and Ba/Rb constraints support the generation of SiO2-undersaturated magmas from mantle melting of amphibole-bearing peridotites with minor phlogopite. The source for the basanites and alkali basalts is estimated to be a garnet-bearing domain around the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (80-93 km deep), while the nephelinites are derived from the adiabatic asthenosphere at 105 km with temperatures of 1480 °C. Their incompatible trace element patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions are similar to FOZO and EM-type OIB magmas. From the comparison of data with those of the Ceará-Mirim dyke swarm we propose that there is a ubiquitous FOZO reservoir in the SCLM beneath the Borborema Province. This FOZO signature characterized the upwelling asthenosphere during the lithospheric extension and thinning at the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic and is clearly represented in the Mesozoic olivine tholeiites of Ceará-Mirim. The upwelled asthenosphere cooled as a rigid SCLM since the Cretaceous and has preserved its FOZO signature evident in the Macau Cenozoic basalts. The EM signatures

  4. Objective Eulerian Coherent Structures Predict Drifter Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Mattia; Haller, George

    2017-04-01

    Recent results show that Objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) (Serra, M. and Haller, G., Chaos 26(5), 2016) reveal the correct, frame-independent locations of instantaneous saddle-type material behavior in unsteady flows. Using an unsteady ocean surface velocity field reconstructed from high-frequency-radar measurements, we compute attracting OECSs in a region of the North-East coast of the US, where drifter trajectories are also available. Remarkably, we find that despite their non-passive and inertial dynamics, drifters align rapidly with nearby attracting OECSs. At the same time, the drifter attractors remain completely hidden in instantaneous streamlines plots and in the Okubo-Weiss field.

  5. Mesoarchean (3.0 and 2.86 Ga) host rocks of the iron oxide-Cu-Au Bacaba deposit, Carajás Mineral Province: U-Pb geochronology and metallogenetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina Penteado Natividade; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Amaral, Wagner S.; Dos Santos, Ticiano José S.; Juliani, Caetano; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2011-10-01

    The Bacaba iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, situated within a WNW-ESE-striking shear zone in the Carajás Domain, Carajás Mineral Province, is hosted by the Serra Dourada Granite, the Bacaba Tonalite, and crosscutting gabbro intrusions, which were intensely affected by sodic (albite-scapolite), potassic, chloritic, and hydrolytic hydrothermal alteration. This deposit is located 7 km northeast of the world-class Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit and might represent a distal and deeper portion of the same or related hydrothermal system. The U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry data for zircon from a sodically altered sample of the Serra Dourada Granite yielded a 2,860±22 Ma (MSWD=11.5) age. Three samples from the Bacaba Tonalite, including one with potassic alteration and two with Cu-Au mineralization, rendered the 3,001.2±3.6 Ma (MSWD=1.8), 2,990.9±5.8 Ma (MSWD=1.9), and 3,004.6±9 Ma (MSWD=2.2) ages, respectively. The ca. 2.86 and ca. 3.0 Ga ages are interpreted as the timing of the igneous crystallization of the Serra Dourada Granite and the Bacaba Tonalite, respectively, and represent the oldest magmatic events recognized in the Carajás Domain. The Serra Dourada Granite and the Bacaba Tonalite are interpreted to greatly predate the genesis of the Bacaba deposit. A genetic link is improbable in the light of the similarities with the Sossego deposit, which is also hosted by younger ca. 2.76 Ga metavolcano-sedimentary units of the Itacaiúnas Supergroup. In this context, the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits in the southern sector of the Carajás Domain could be mainly controlled by important crustal discontinuities, such as a regional shear zone, rather than be associated with a particular rock type. These results expand the potential for occurrences of iron oxide-copper-gold deposits within the Mesoarchean basement rocks underlying the Carajás Basin, particularly those crosscut by Neoarchean shear zones.

  6. Mesoproterozoic rapakivi granites of the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern border of the Amazonian craton, Brazil-I. Reconnaissance U-Pb geochronology and regional implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Leite, W.B.; Payolla, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapakivi granites and associated mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Rondonia Tin Province, southwestern Amazonian craton, Brazil were emplaced during six discrete episodes of magmatism between ca 1600 and 970 Ma. The seven rapakivi granite suites emplaced at this time were the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1606 and 1532 Ma); Santo Antonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1406 Ma); Teotonio Intrusive Suite (U-Pb age 1387 Ma); Alto Candeias Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1346 and 1338 Ma); Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1314 and 1309 Ma); Santa Clara Intrusive Suite (U-Pb ages between 1082 and 1074 Ma); and Younger Granites of Rondonia (U-Pb ages between 998 and 974 Ma). The Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite intruded the Paleoproterozoic (1.80 to 1.70 Ga) Rio Negro-Juruena crust whereas the other suites were emplaced into the 1.50 to 1.30 Ga Rondonia-San Ignacio crust. Their intrusion was contemporaneous with orogenic activity in other parts of the southwestern Amazonian craton, except for the oldest, Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite. Orogenic events coeval with emplacement of the Serra da Providencia Intrusive Suite are not clearly recognized in the region. The Santo Antonio, Teotonio, Alto Candeias and Sao Lourenco-Caripunas Intrusive Suites are interpreted to represent extensional anorogenic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of the Rondonian-San Ignacio orogeny. At least the Sao Lourenco-Caripunas rapakivi granites and coeval intra-continental rift sedimentary rocks may, in contrast, represent the products of extensional tectonics and rifting preceding the Sunsas/Aguapei orogeny (1.25 to 1.0 Ga). The two youngest rapakivi suites, the Santa Clara Intrusive Suite and Younger Granites of Rondonia, seemingly represent inboard magmatism in the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province during a younger episode of reworking in the Rio Negro-Juruena Province during the waning stages of the collisional 1.1 to 1.0 Ga

  7. Current distribution of Achatina fulica, in the state of São Paulo including records of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda) larvae infestation.

    PubMed

    Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Guimarães, Marisa Cristina de Almeida; Takahashi, Fernanda Yoshika; Eduardo, Juliana Manas

    2010-01-01

    The currently known distribution range of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. The record of A. fulica naturally infested with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (Railliet, 1898) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) can be found in the city of Guaratinguetá. It was found A. fulica with Metastrongylidae larvae without known medical and veterinary importance in the cities of Carapicuíba, Embu-Guaçu, Itapevi, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo and Taboão da Serra.

  8. Anti-inflammatory function of Nodosin via inhibition of IL-2.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiyu; Du, Junming; Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Jianwen; Quan, Zhiwei

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of Nodosin from Isodon serra, a traditional Chinese herb medicine, mouse T lymphocytes were incubated with Nodosin. In the current study, Nodosin suppressed the overproduction of the T lymphocytes; moreover, cell mitosis cycle was modulated by interfering with DNA replication in G1 stages via inhibition of IL-2 cytokine secretion at the mRNA level by Nodosin. Interestingly, Xylene-induced mouse tumescence model results suggested Nodosin depressed the murine ear-swelling extent and the level of IL-2 in the blood serum. Finally, Nodosin possessed significant anti-inflammatory effects and is a potential candidate for further clinical trial.

  9. Loxosceles niedeguidonae (Araneae, Sicariidae) a new species of brown spider from Brazilian semi-arid region

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute Maria; Bertani, Rogério; Nagahama, Roberto Hiroaki; Barbosa, Maria Fatima Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of recluse spider, Loxosceles niedeguidonae sp. n., is described from the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, State of Piauí, Brazil. This is the first endemic species described from Brazilian semi-arid environment. The species is included in gaucho group of Gertsch (1967) due to its spermathecal shape and is considered close to Loxosceles chapadensis Bertani, Fukushima & Nagahama, 2010 by the unusual long male palpal tibia, a character not common for species of this group. An updated key for Loxosceles species of gaucho group is presented. PMID:22451789

  10. Modeling bidirectional reflectance of forests and woodlands using Boolean models and geometric optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, Alan H.; Jupp, David L. B.

    1990-01-01

    Geometric-optical discrete-element mathematical models for forest canopies have been developed using the Boolean logic and models of Serra. The geometric-optical approach is considered to be particularly well suited to describing the bidirectional reflectance of forest woodland canopies, where the concentration of leaf material within crowns and the resulting between-tree gaps make plane-parallel, radiative-transfer models inappropriate. The approach leads to invertible formulations, in which the spatial and directional variance provides the means for remote estimation of tree crown size, shape, and total cover from remotedly sensed imagery.

  11. Paepalanthusserpens, a new microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Echternacht, Livia; Trovó, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We describe and illustrate Paepalanthusserpens, a microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range. The species is known from a single population growing in rocky areas of the Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais. It is placed in Paepalanthusser.Paepalanthus, and is easily distinguished from its congeneric species by its elongated, lignescent stem, thickened by the marcescent sheaths of the linear leaves, which are arranged in a rosette at the stem apex, scapes equalling the leaf height, and capitulae with straw-coloured involucral bracts. Comparisons with the morphologically similar species are provided, as well as comments on distribution, ecology, phenology and conservation status.

  12. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from 5,300 years BP in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mônica Vieira de; Sianto, Luciana; Chame, Marcia; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    2012-06-01

    We present the results of paleoparasitological analyses in coprolites of Kerodon rupestris, rodent endemic to rocky areas of Brazil's semiarid region. The coprolites were collected from excavations at the archaeological site of Toca dos Coqueiros, in the National Park of Serra da Capivara, southeastern of state of Piauí. Syphacia sp. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) eggs were identified in coprolites dated at 5,300 ± 50 years before present. This is the first record of the genus Syphacia in rodent coprolites in the Americas.

  13. Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-03-01

    Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marine fishes was compiled.

  14. The thickness of eucritic crust in the HED parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Takeda, H.

    1993-01-01

    Because cumulate eucrites are generally thought to be located at the lower part in eucritic crust on a diogenitic mantle in the HED parent body, the burial depth of cumulate eucrites gives information on the thickness of the eucritic crust. We estimated the burial depth and cooling rate of cumulate eucrites, Serra de Mage and Moore County on the basis of the width of augite lamellae and compositional gradients of Ca in pyroxenes by numerically solving the diffusion equation. We obtained the burial depth of the eucrites of 7-8 km and cooling rate of 0.00016-0.0002 degrees C/yr.

  15. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  16. Single photons to multiple octaves: Engineering nonlinear optics in micro- and nano-structured media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-18

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      18-05-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 Apr 2012 to 31 Mar 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...0110 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Fejer 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIV CA 450 SERRA MALL STANFORD, CA 94305-2004 US 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  17. Evaluation of reforestation using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.

  18. Estimating reforestation by means of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250.000 and obtained from bands 5 and 7 as well as computer compatible tapes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed orbital data in inventorying forests in a 462,100 area of Brazil emcompassing the cities of Ribeirao, Altinopolis Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, and Santa Rosa do Viterbo. Visual interpretation of LANDSAT imagery shows that 37,766 hectares (1977) and 38,003.75 hectares (1979) were reforested areas of pine and eucalyptus species. An increment of 237.5 hectares was found during this two-year time lapse.

  19. Construction and destruction of a volcanic island developed inside an oceanic rift: Graciosa Island, Terceira Rift, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.

    2014-09-01

    There is a great lack of knowledge regarding the evolution of islands inside active oceanic rifts, in particular the meaning of the different evolutionary steps. Therefore, we conducted an investigation in Graciosa Island, which lies at the northwestern end of the Terceira Rift in the Azores Triple Junction, with the objective of constraining the evolution of the island in terms of volcanic growth and mass wasting, in particular the meaning and age of the destruction events. From digital elevation model (DEM) analysis, stratigraphic and tectonic observations, K/Ar dating on key samples, and available bathymetry and gravity data, we propose that Graciosa comprises five main volcanic complexes separated by major unconformities related to large scale mass wasting: (1) The older volcanic edifice (Serra das Fontes Complex) grew until ca. 700 ka, and was affected by a major flank collapse towards the southwest, which removed the whole SW flank, the summit and a part of the NE flank. (2) The Baía do Filipe Complex developed between at least 472 ka and 433 ka in two different ways: in the SW (presently offshore) as a main volcano, and in the NE unconformably over the sub-aerial remnants of the Serra das Fontes Complex, as secondary volcanic edifices. (3) The Baía do Filipe Complex was affected by a major flank collapse towards the SW, again removing most of the edifice. (4) The remnants of the Baía do Filipe Complex were covered in unconformity by the Serra Dormida Complex between ca. 330 and 300 ka, which in turn was unconformably covered by the younger Basaltic Cover Complex between ca. 300 ka and 214 ka. These two units were affected by a third major sector collapse that removed the whole western flank, the summit and part of the eastern flank of the Serra Dormida and Basaltic Cover complexes. (5) Despite the relatively young age of Graciosa, the collapse scars are not well preserved, and not active anymore. (6) A central-type volcano has been growing since at least

  20. Engaging communities with a simple tool to help increase immunization coverage.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manish; Taneja, Gunjan; Amin, Ruhul; Steinglass, Robert; Favin, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The level of vaccination coverage in a given community depends on both service factors and the degree to which the public understands and trusts the immunization process. This article describes an approach that aims to raise awareness and boost demand. Developed in India, the "My Village Is My Home" (MVMH) tool, known as Uma Imunizasaun (UI) in Timor-Leste, is a poster-sized material used by volunteers and health workers to record the births and vaccination dates of every infant in a community. Introduction of the tool in 5 districts of India (April 2012 to March 2013) and in 7 initial villages in Timor-Leste (beginning in January 2012) allowed community leaders, volunteers, and health workers to monitor the vaccination status of every young child and guided reminder and motivational visits. In 3 districts of India, we analyzed data on vaccination coverage and timeliness before and during use of the tool; in 2 other districts, analysis was based only on data for new births during use of the tool. In Timor-Leste, we compared UI data from the 3 villages with the most complete data with data for the same villages from the vaccination registers from the previous year. In both countries, we also obtained qualitative data about perceptions of the tool through interviews with health workers and community members. Assessments in both countries found evidence suggesting improved vaccination timeliness and coverage. In India, pilot communities had 80% or higher coverage of identified and eligible children for all vaccines. In comparison, overall coverage in the respective districts during the same time period was much lower, at 49% to 69%. In Timor-Leste, both the number of infants identified and immunized rose substantially with use of the tool compared with the previous year (236 vs. 155, respectively, identified as targets; 185 vs. 147, respectively, received Penta 3). Although data challenges limit firm conclusions, the experiences in both countries suggest that "My

  1. Chelidoperca stella, a new species of perchlet (Perciformes: Serranidae) from the Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Matsunuma, Mizuki; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-16

    A new species of serranid fish, Chelidoperca stella, is described on the basis of five specimens from the Andaman Sea in the eastern Indian Ocean. The species can be readily distinguished from all valid congeners by having fewer pored lateral-line scales (34 or 35 vs. 40-45 in the latter) and the pelvic fin white with several small yellow spots (vs. spots absent). The species is also characterized by having relatively high counts of small serrae on the posterior margins of the preopercle (33-43 serrae), interopercle (7-10) and subopercle (18-28), despite the small body size (51.7-61.8 mm SL). Although Chelidoperca stella resembles C. margaritifera in having 2.5 scale rows between lateral line and the sixth dorsal-fin spine base, a relatively wider interorbital region, and the interorbital scales not reaching a vertical through the orbit anterior margin, but differs by having the above-mentioned diagnostic characters plus a slightly shorter longest anal-fin soft ray [17.4-18.7 (mean 18.1) % SL vs. 22.6-26.4 (24.4) % SL in C. margaritifera].

  2. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  3. Economic valuation of the ecosystem services provided by a protected area in the Brazilian Cerrado: application of the contingent valuation method.

    PubMed

    Resende, F M; Fernandes, G W; Andrade, D C; Néder, H D

    2017-11-01

    Considering that the economic valuation of ecosystem services is a useful approach to support the conservation of natural areas, we aimed to estimate the monetary value of the benefits provided by a protected area in southeast Brazil, the Serra do Cipó National Park. We calculated the visitor's willingness to pay to conserve the ecosystems of the protected area using the contingent valuation method. Located in a region under intense anthropogenic pressure, the Serra do Cipó National Park is mostly composed of rupestrian grassland ecosystems, in addition to other Cerrado physiognomies. We conducted a survey consisting of 514 interviews with visitors of the region and found that the mean willingness to pay was R$ 7.16 year-1, which corresponds to a total of approximately R$ 716,000.00 year-1. We detected that per capita income, the household size, the level of interest in environmental issues and the place of origin influenced the likelihood that individuals are willing to contribute to the conservation of the park, as well as the value of the stated willingness to pay. This study conveys the importance of conserving rupestrian grassland and other Cerrado physiognomies to decision makers and society.

  4. The role of climate and environmental variables in structuring bird assemblages in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Gabriela Silva Ribeiro; Cerqueira, Pablo Vieira; Brasil, Leandro Schlemmer; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013. We found with our results that bird species richness is higher in the rainy season and lower during the dry season, indicating a strong influence of seasonality, a pattern also found for environmental heterogeneity. Richness was explained by local environmental factors, while species composition was explained by environmental and spatial factors. The environmental factors were more important in explaining variations in composition. Climate change predictions have currently pointed out frequent drought events and a rise in global temperature by 2050, which would lead to changes in species behavior and to increasing desertification in some regions, including the Caatinga. In addition, the high deforestation rates and the low level of representativeness of the Caatinga in the conservation units negatively affects bird communities. This scenario has demonstrated how climatic factors affect individuals, and, therefore, should be the starting point for conservation initiatives to be developed in xeric environments. PMID:28441412

  5. The role of climate and environmental variables in structuring bird assemblages in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Gabriela Silva Ribeiro; Cerqueira, Pablo Vieira; Brasil, Leandro Schlemmer; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013. We found with our results that bird species richness is higher in the rainy season and lower during the dry season, indicating a strong influence of seasonality, a pattern also found for environmental heterogeneity. Richness was explained by local environmental factors, while species composition was explained by environmental and spatial factors. The environmental factors were more important in explaining variations in composition. Climate change predictions have currently pointed out frequent drought events and a rise in global temperature by 2050, which would lead to changes in species behavior and to increasing desertification in some regions, including the Caatinga. In addition, the high deforestation rates and the low level of representativeness of the Caatinga in the conservation units negatively affects bird communities. This scenario has demonstrated how climatic factors affect individuals, and, therefore, should be the starting point for conservation initiatives to be developed in xeric environments.

  6. Computing gas solubility in reservoir waters for environmental chemistry applications: the role of satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R.; Lima, I.; Ramos, F.; Bambace, L.; Assireu, A.; Stech, J.; Novo, E.; Lorenzeti, L.

    Atmospheric greenhouse gases concentration has increased during the past centuries basically due to biogenic and pyrogenic anthopogenic emissions Recent investigations have shown that gas emission methane as an important example from tropical hydroelectric reservoirs may comprise a considerable fraction of the total anthropogenic bulk In order to evaluate the concentration of gases of potential importance in environmental chemistry the solubility of such gases have been collected and converted into a uniform format using the Henry s law which states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to its partial pressure However the Henry s law can be derived as a function of temperature density molar mixing ratio in the aqueous phase and molar mass of water In this paper we show that due to the complex temperature variation and water composition measured in brazilian tropical reservoirs as Serra da Mesa and Manso expressive secular variation on the traditional solubility constants concentration of a species in the aqueous phase by the partial pressure of that species in the gas phase can change in a rate of approximately 30 in 6 decades This estimation comes from a computational analysis of temperature variation measured during 6 months in Serra da Mesa and Manso reservoirs taking into account a simulated density and molar mass variation of the aqueous composition in these environments As an important global change issue from this preliminary analysis we discuss its role in the current estimations on the concentration emission rates

  7. Magnetotellurics applied to the study of the Guaraní aquifer in Entre Ríos Province, N-E Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favetto, Alicia; Curcio, Ana; Pomposiello, Cristina

    2011-07-01

    The South American Guaraní Aquifer System covers the entire Parana basin and part of the Chaco-Parana basin. This system is one of the most important groundwater reservoirs; it is shared by four neighboring countries covering an area larger than one million square kilometers. The geological units closely related to the Guaraní Aquifer are the Piramboia and Botucatu Formations that consist of Triassic-Jurassic aeolian, fluvial and lacustrine sandstones, and the Serra Geral basalts with clastic intercalations. Serra Geral, an effusive Cretaceous complex, covers the sandstones and provides a high degree of confinement to the system. This paper presents the interpretation of magnetotelluric (MT) data collected during 2007-2008 in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina. These data, recorded in three profiles, mainly provide the depth to the crystalline basement, determinant for the presence of aquifer-related sediments. Models showed that the discrimination of the basalts strongly depends on local electrical characteristics. Model information is quite consistent with the information from oil and thermal wells located close to the profiles.

  8. Recognition of Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Neogene tectonic reactivation through apatite fission-track analysis in Precambrian areas of southeast Brazil: association with the opening of the south Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tello Saenz, C. A.; Hackspacher, P. C.; Hadler Neto, J. C.; Iunes, P. J.; Guedes, S.; Ribeiro, L. F. B.; Paulo, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Apatite fission-track analysis was used for the determination of thermal histories and ages in Precambrian areas of southeast Brazil. Together with geological and geomorphologic information, these ages enable us to quantify the thermal histories and timing of Mesozoic and Cenozoic epirogenic and tectonic processes. The collected samples are from different geomorphologic blocks: the high Mantiqueira mountain range (HMMR) with altitude above 1000 m, the low Mantiqueira mountain range (LMMR) under 1000 m, the Serra do Mar mountain range (SMMR), the Jundiaı´ and Atlantic Plateaus, and the coastline, all of which have distinct thermal histories. During the Aptian (˜120 Ma), there was an uplift of the HMMR, coincident with opening of the south Atlantic Ocean. Its thermal history indicates heating (from ˜60 to ˜80 °C) until the Paleocene, when rocks currently exposed in the LMMR reached temperatures of ˜100 °C. In this period, the Serra do Mar rift system and the Japi erosion surface were formed. The relief records the latter. During the Late Cretaceous, the SMMR was uplifted and probably linked to its origin; in the Tertiary, it experienced heating from ˜60 to ˜90 °C, then cooling that extends to the present. The SMMR, LMMR, and HMMR were reactivated mainly in the Paleocene, and the coastline during the Paleogene. These processes are reflected in the sedimentary sequences and discordances of the interior and continental margin basins.

  9. Observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, C.; Di Martino, M.; Ferreri, W.; Osservatorio Astronomico, Turin )

    1989-07-01

    As part of the planned 'Pluto-Charon Mutual Eclipse Season Campaign', one mutual event was observed at the ESO Observatory on July 10, 1986 and seven mutual events were observed at the Serra La Nave stellar station of Catania Astrophysical Observatory from April 29 to July 21, 1987. At ESO the measurements were performed at the 61-cm Bochum telescope equipped with a photon-counting system and U, B, V, filters; at Serra La Nave the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm reflector was equipped with a photon-counting system and B and V filters. The observed light losses and contact times do not show relevant systematic deviations from the predicted ones. An examination of the behavior of the B and V light curves gives slight indications of a different slope of the B and V light loss of the same event for a superior or an inferior event, and shows that the superior events are shallower at wavelengths longer than B. 6 refs.

  10. A New Iterative Method for the Computation of the Solutions of Nonlinear Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costabile, F.; Gualtieri, M. I.; Luceri, R.

    2001-12-01

    Recently, by Costabile, Gualtieri and Serra (1999), an iterative method was presented for the computation of zeros of C1 functions. This method combines the assured convergence of the bisection-like algorithms with a superlinear convergence speed which characterizes Newton-like methods. The order of the method and the cost per iteration is exactly equivalent to the Newton method. In this paper we present a new iterative method for the computation of the zeros of C1 functions with the same properties of convergence as the method proposed by Costabile, Gualtieri and Serra (1999) but with order 1+ ≐2.41 for C3 functions. Compared with the methods of order 1+ presented by Traub (1964), our methods ensure global convergence. Then we consider a generalization of this procedure which gives a class of methods of order (n+ )/2, where n is the degree of the approximating polynomial, with one-point iteration functions with memory. Finally a number of numerical tests are performed. The numerical results seem to show that, at least on a set of problems, the new methods work better than the methods proposed, and, therefore, than both the Newton and Alefeld and Potra (1992) methods.

  11. Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

  12. Ochres from rituals of prehistoric human funerals at the Toca do Enoque site, Piauí, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, Luis Carlos Duarte; da Luz, Maria De Fátima; Guidon, Niéde; Fabris, José Domingos; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    The archaeological site known as Toca do Enoque (geographical coordinates, 09° 14' 65.3″ S 43° 55' 62.5″ W) is a rock shelter located in the Serra das Andorinhas (Serra das Confusões National Park), rural area of the city of Guaribas, state of Piauí, Brazil. Several rupestrian paintings (anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs along with some pure graphisms), predominantly in red, are found on the sandstone walls. Charcoals, lithic materials, necklaces with teeth, animal bones, gastropod shells, ochres and human skeletons (dated from 6,220 ± 40 to 6,610 ± 40 years before present, BP) were identified in recent excavations in this shelter. Red and yellow ochre samples were collected from prehistoric funeral structures and analyzed with powder X-ray diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 80 K. Mössbauer data indicate that the red ochre do contain predominantly hematite ( α-Fe2O3) whereas goethite ( α-FeOOH) is the major mineral in the yellow ochre.

  13. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Camila S; Hackbart, Vivian C S; Pivello, Vânia R; dos Santos, Rozely F

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  14. Geology and impact features of Vargeão Dome, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crã`Sta, Alvaro P.; Kazzuo-Vieira, César; Pitarello, Lidia; Koeberl, Christian; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Vargeão Dome (southern Brazil) is a circular feature formed in lava flows of the Lower Cretaceous Serra Geral Formation and in sandstones of the Paraná Basin. Even though its impact origin was already proposed in the 1980s, little information about its geological and impact features is available in the literature. The structure has a rim-rim diameter of approximately 12 km and comprises several ring-like concentric features with multiple concentric lineaments. The presence of a central uplift is suggested by the occurrence of deformed sandstone strata of the Botucatu and Pirambóia formations. We present the morphological/structural characteristics of Vargeão Dome, characterize the different rock types that occur in its interior, mainly brecciated volcanic rocks (BVR) of the Serra Geral Formation, and discuss the deformation and shock features in the volcanic rocks and in sandstones. These features comprise shatter cones in sandstone and basalt, as well as planar microstructures in quartz. A geochemical comparison of the target rock equivalents from outside the structure with the shocked rocks from its interior shows that both the BVRs and the brecciated sandstone have a composition largely similar to that of the corresponding unshocked lithologies. No traces of meteoritic material have been found so far. The results confirm the impact origin of Vargeão Dome, making it one of the largest among the rare impact craters in basaltic targets known on Earth.

  15. Thermotectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin: Evidence from apatite fission track data of the offshore Santos Basin and continental basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann de Oliveira, Christie Helouise; Jelinek, Andréa Ritter; Chemale, Farid; Cupertino, José Antônio

    2016-08-01

    The Santos Basin is the largest offshore sedimentary basin in the southeastern Brazilian margin and originated by breakup of West Gondwana in the Early Cretaceous. We carried out a new thermochronological study by apatite fission track analysis from borehole samples of the Santos Basin and its continental basement to constrain the tectonic history of the southeastern Brazilian margin. Apatite fission track central ages of the basement and borehole samples vary from 21.0 ± 1.8 to 157.0 ± 35.0 Ma and from 6.5 ± 1.1 to 208.0 ± 11.0 Ma, respectively. From thermal modeling, the basement samples reached the maximum paleotemperatures during the final breakup of South America and Africa. The onshore basement and offshore basin record an early thermotectonic event during the Late Cretaceous linked to the uplift and denudation of the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira. Maturation of the organic matter in the offshore basin is related with the progressive increase of the geothermal gradient due to burial. The thermal modeling indicates that the oil generation window started at 55-25 Ma. The basement samples experienced the final cooling during the Cenozoic, with an estimated amount of denudation linked to the sedimentary influx in the offshore basin. A rapid cooling during the Neogene becomes evident and it is linked to the reactivation along Precambrian shear zones and change of the Paraíba do Sul drainage system.

  16. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Eder dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. PMID:27833419

  17. Description of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Pará State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Eder Dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2016-01-01

    Rhodnius marabaensissp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensissp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensissp. n.

  18. Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in the subequatorial Amazon: a time series approach.

    PubMed

    Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; Junger, Washington Leite; Mourão, Dennys; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Artaxo, Paulo; Leon, Antônio Carlos Monteiro Ponce de

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of the daily variation in concentrations of fine particulate matter (diameter less than 2.5 microm--PM2.5) resulting from the burning of biomass on the daily number of hospitalizations of children and elderly people for respiratory diseases, in Alta Floresta and Tangará da Serra in the Brazilian Amazon in 2005. This is an ecological time series study that uses data on daily number of hospitalizations of children and the elderly for respiratory diseases, and estimated concentration of PM2.5. In Alta Floresta, the percentage increases in the relative risk (%RR) of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children were significant for the whole year and for the dry season with 3-4 day lags. In the dry season these measurements reach 6% (95%CI: 1.4-10.8). The associations were significant for moving averages of 3-5 days. The %RR for the elderly was significant for the current day of the drought, with a 6.8% increase (95%CI: 0.5-13.5) for each additional 10 microg/m3 of PM2.5. No associations were verified for Tangará da Serra. The PM2.5 from the burning of biomass increased hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in children and the elderly.

  19. Genetic diversity of Vriesea cacuminis (Bromeliaceae): an endangered and endemic Brazilian species.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, P C C; Pinheiro, L C; Domingues, R; Forzza, R C; Machado, M A; Viccini, L F

    2013-06-13

    Data about the genetic structure can help to understand the evolutionary process of natural populations as well as to drive strategies of conservation. Vriesea cacuminis, an endemic Brazilian Bromeliad, has been found in 2 areas of Minas Gerais State. One is a legal preservation unit (Ibitipoca State Park) and the other an unprotected area (Serra Negra). The 2 areas belong to the Mantiqueira Mountain Range Complex; both are characterized by steep relief with high altitudes and by heterogenic vegetation formed by a mosaic of rocky fields and forest fragments. According to International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria, V. cacuminis is designated as "vulnerable". We examined the genetic variability and population structure of 70 individuals (3 populations) of V. cacuminis, using 16 ISSR markers. Although V. cacuminis is considered a rare species, the estimated genetic diversity was found to be relatively high (Shannon index = 0.33; percentage of polymorphic bands = 87%). The populations were found not to be structured (AMOVA test, ΦST = 0.16), probably due to the cross-breeding. Based on Bayesian analysis, this species includes one cluster containing the populations from Ibitipoca State Park and another cluster including the population from Serra Negra. This information will help determine strategies to maintain the genetic variability of these populations.

  20. Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Amazon has suffered impacts from non-sustainable economic development, especially owing to the expansion of agricultural commodities into forest areas. The Tangará da Serra region, located in the southern of the Legal Amazon, is characterized by non-mechanized sugar cane production. In addition, it lies on the dispersion path of the pollution plume generated by biomass burning. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic potential of the atmosphere in the Tangará da Serra region, using Tradescantia pallida as in situ bioindicator. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive. Results The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children. Conclusions Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity. PMID:21575274

  1. All Sky Camera, LIDAR and Electric Field Meter: Auxiliary instruments for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leto, Giuseppe; Zanmar Sanchez, Ricardo; Bellassai, Giancarlo; Bruno, Pietro; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Martinetti, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    ASTRI SST-2M is the end-to-end prototype telescope of the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF, designed to investigate the 10-100 TeV band in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA. The ASTRI SST-2M telescope has been installed in Italy in September 2014, at the INAF observing station located at Serra La Nave on Mount Etna. The telescope is foreseen to be completed and fully operative in spring 2015 including auxiliary instrumentation needed to support both operations and data analysis. In this contribution we present the current status of a sub-set of the auxiliary instruments that are being used at the Serra La Nave site, namely an All Sky Camera, an Electric Field Meter and a Raman Lidar devoted, together with further instrumentation, to the monitoring of the atmospheric and environmental conditions. The data analysis techniques under development for these instruments could be applied at the CTA sites, where similar auxiliary instrumentation will be installed.

  2. Landslides Zonation Hazard: relation between geological structures and landslides occurrence in hilly tropical regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Rodrigo I; Reis, Fábio A G V; Gramani, Marcelo F; Giordano, Lucilia C; Zaine, José Eduardo

    2017-08-31

    This paper presents a new approach of landslides zonation hazard studies, based on an integrated study of structural data along with geomorphological and external factors, in a hilly regions of Brazil, covered by a tropical humid rain-forest, called Serra do Mar. The Serra do Mar consists of a hilly region along the east coast of Brazil, with high slopes and many geological structures in a gneiss - migmatitic terrain. In contrast to traditional approaches, this method proposes that structural data (foliation, fractures and bedding planes) and its relation with the slope geometry, is important to be consider in the landslide zonation hazard, along with declivity, relative relief, soil and rock properties, land use and vegetation cover and hydrogeological and climate factors. Results show that slopes with high hazard have the same dip direction of geological structures. Landslide zonation hazard using structural data contributes to a better understanding of how these structures, preserved in tropical residual soils, influence on slope stability and generates landslides.

  3. Determination of the geographical origin of Brazilian wines by isotope and mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Dutra, S V; Adami, L; Marcon, A R; Carnieli, G J; Roani, C A; Spinelli, F R; Leonardelli, S; Ducatti, C; Moreira, M Z; Vanderlinde, R

    2011-09-01

    In the present research, we studied wines from three different south Brazilian winemaking regions with the purpose of differentiating them by geographical origin of the grapes. Brazil's wide territory and climate diversity allow grape cultivation and winemaking in many regions of different and unique characteristics. The wine grape cultivation for winemaking concentrates in the South Region, mainly in the Serra Gaúcha, the mountain area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which is responsible for 90% of the domestic wine production. However, in recent years, two new production regions have developed: the Campanha, the plains to the south and the Serra do Sudeste, the hills to the southeast of the state. Analysis of isotopic ratios of (18)O/(16)O of wine water, (13)C/(12)C of ethanol, and of minerals were used to characterize wines from different regions. The isotope analysis of δ(18)O of wine water and minerals Mg and Rb were the most efficient to differentiate the regions. By using isotope and mineral analysis, and discrimination analysis, it was possible to classify the wines from south Brazil.

  4. Comments on "extended zonal dislocations mediating ? ? twinning in titanium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kadiri, Haitham; Barrett, Christopher D.

    2013-09-01

    In a recent paper, Li et al. (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006) used results of atomistic simulations to advance a growth mechanism of ? ? twinning in titanium based on the concept of two elementary twinning dislocations which nucleate and glide in pairs but separately and sequentially on two neighbouring planes. This new Comment was stimulated after A. Serra, D.J. Bacon and R.C. Pond privately raised concerns on this growth model to one of the present authors, H. El Kadiri, who This was a co-author of the original paper (Philos. Mag. 92 (2012) p.1006). We repeated the simulations and obtained nearly the same simulations results as Li et al. However, after re-analysing these results, we have concluded that the extended extrinsic zonal dislocation mechanism claimed to be that for twin growth in titanium is in fact false, confirming the accuracy of the Comment by Serra et al that results of Li and co-authors were misinterpreted.

  5. A new large species of Myloplus (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae) from the Rio Madeira basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Marcelo C.; Jégu, Michel; Giarrizzo, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Myloplus zorroi sp. n. is described from the Rio Madeira Basin in Amazonia. The new species had been treated as an undescribed Tometes species because of the absence of a marked abdominal keel and few small spines forming its prepelvic serrae, features commonly found in the species of the Myleus clade of the Serrasalmidae (species of genera Myleus, Mylesinus, Ossubtus and Tometes) and also in species of Utiaritichthys. Myloplus zorroi sp. n. shares the following characters with its congeners and Utiaritichthys: molariform teeth (versus incisiform teeth in Myleus clade members); a labial row of premaxillary teeth separated from lingual row by an internal gap (versus absence of internal gap between premaxillary teeth rows); and an ascending process of premaxilla wide from its base to the tip (versus ascending process tapering from its base to the tip). Like other Myloplus species, Myloplus zorroi sp. n. differs from Utiariticthys by having a deeper body, approximately 60% of standard length (versus usually less than 50% of standard length). Considering all the morphological evidence, including the presence of 13–19 low spines forming the prepelvic serrae in Myloplus zorroi sp. n. versus more than 20 high spines forming a marked prepelvic keel in other species of Mylopus, the new species is here assigned to Myloplus. Comparisons of the new species with nominal species of Myloplus, representatives of the Myleus clade, and other related taxa are provided. PMID:27110164

  6. Foreword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giard, M.; Ristorcelli, I.

    Guy Serra died prematurely on August 15th 2000 aged 52. He was one of the most active pioneers in the field of infrared and submillimeter space astronomy. After completing a PhD thesis on gamma ray astrophysics in 1973, he was among the first to measure the far-infrared dust emission from our Galaxy with the AGLAE balloon-borne experiment. He then devoted his whole career to contribute in a decisive manner to the emergence and achievement of the infrared and submillimeter space program at the French and European levels with the AROME and PRONAOS balloon borne experiments, and with the satellite missions ISO, ODIN, Planck, and FIRST (which became Herschel). This three day conference dedicated to Guy Serra was held in Toulouse on June 11-13 2001. We took time both to remember the legacy of Guy Serra, and to discuss current advances and prospects in the field of infrared and submillimeter space astronomy. It was clear to all of us that in this first year of the XXIst century, with the construction of the SIRTF, Planck and Herschel satellites, we were close to enter in the golden age of infrared astronomy which would bring us fabulous new insights on our Origins. A Great Humanist Guy Serra was passionately interested in science and physics. He had such generosity and enthusiasm to share with others his very wide-ranging knowledge, his intellectual refinement, and his perceptive views of things, that it was a real joy to work with him. His creativity and capacity for hard work were stunning, and extremely motivating. But first of all, we deeply appreciated his exceptional human qualities. He showed a deep respect for the views of others and had a great capacity for listening. In particular, he was very concerned with the training of PhD students for, and through, research, and with their future after the defense of their thesis. Guy was also exceptional in his will to communicate with the general public, including very young pupils in primary schools. Beyond his own

  7. Mélange versus forearc contributions to sedimentation and uplift, during rapid denudation of a young Banda forearc-continent collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Brendan; Kalansky, Julie; Bassett, Kari; Harris, Ron; Quigley, Mark; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Strachan, Lorna J.; Rosenthal, Yair

    2017-05-01

    New sedimentary geochemistry and petrographic analyses provide the most extensive sedimentary documentation yet of the rapid denudation of the young Timor orogen. The data from three basins including two widely-separated, well-dated sections of the Synorogenic Megasequence of Timor-Leste, and a re-dated DSDP 262, constrain the source and timing of detrital sediment flux during forearc-continent collision along the Timor sector of the Banda Arc. The exhumed synorogenic piggy-back basins formed above a mélange unit that developed at the expense of a weak stratigraphic horizon in the Mesozoic stratigraphy, and was exhumed to the sea floor in latest Messinian time. Following an interval of deep marine chalky marl sedimentation, an increasingly muddy sediment flux indicates that the island of Timor became emergent and shed sediment by 4.5 Ma. Comparison of exhumed sections with similar patterns in the DSDP262 chemistry suggests that the sediment source was probably located some 50-60 km distant from the basin, which is consistent with the Aileu region of Timor-Leste that shows an appropriate exhumation history. All sedimentation between 4.5 and 3.2 Ma was probably derived from a low-relief, rapidly eroding, and mudstone-dominated landscape with geochemical affinities to the Triassic-mudstone-derived synorogenic mélange. The mélange unit overlies and surrounds the Banda Terrane, and was presumably structurally emplaced by propagation of a decollement through the Triassic rocks during the collision. After 3.2 Ma, sedimentation was dominated by hard rock lithologies of the Banda Terrane, consisting of forearc cover and basement, the latter including elements of metamafic rocks and metapelites. This phase of sedimentation was accompanied by rapid uplift, which may have been partly driven by a transient imbalance between rock uplift and denudation as resistant lithologies emerged from below mélange-like mudstone. Previous work has suggested that the timing of collision

  8. The Detection of Impact Ejecta on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. W.; Srama, R.; Grun, E.

    2014-04-01

    Based on the recent data, the LDEX (Lunar Dust EXperiment) sensor onboard lunar orbiter LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) already identified the existence of a dust cloud above the lunar surface down to 10 km [1]. Instruments placed on the lunar surface can monitor both secondary ejecta of interplanetary dust impact and lofted dust by electric force. This paper will fucus on the measurement for impact ejecta. Considering the trajectory of the ejecta, we suggest to mount the instrument with a elevation angle of + 15±. The detection of falling down ejecta population is considered as the main science goal. We recorded to add a articulate mechanism to allow the detector scanning by at lest ± 15±) in order to sperate the two ejcta populations.

  9. Atmospheric pollution: a case study of degrading urban air quality over Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Sehra, Parmjit Singh

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study of urban air quality over a densely populated city Ludhiana situated in Punjab, India, in the form of monthly and annual average concentrations of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), NO2 and SO2 for the periods 1988-1989, 1994-1999 and 2001-2005 which is generally found to be increasing with time and thus requires immediate corrective measures lest the situation becomes totally uncontrollable. The present situation is as bad as in other metropolitan Indian cities, although it seems to have somewhat improved as indicated by the latest 2001-2005 data in comparison with the past 1988-1989 and 1994-1999 data, but much more still needs to be done. In addition to the industrial and vehicular pollution, the agricultural pollution due to the burning of wheat and rice straws by the farmers should also be checked because it also creates tremendous pollution in the atmosphere.

  10. Third-generation naval IRST using the step-and-stare architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouguès, Pierre-Olivier; Baize, Paul; Roland, Flavien; Olivier, Jean-François; Renaudat, Mathieu

    2008-04-01

    With large focal plane arrays now widely available, IR detectors have entered their third generation. Performances have increased dramatically with respect to second-generation, line array detectors, due to the longer integration times afforded. For surveillance systems such as InfraRed Search and Track (IRST), however, operational requirements generally impose a very large field of regard in relation to the instantaneous field of view. This characteristic which has traditionally been obtained through scanning motion for second generation line array detectors must now be rethought to obtain staring operation for 3rd generation FPA, lest motion blurring be incurred. This paper presents several approaches considered for naval surveillance systems at Sagem Defense Securite to tackle this challenge. Three techniques are presented and then compared: fully staring systems, step-and-stare systems, and finally a "modified" step-and-stare system.

  11. The Transits of Venus and New Technologies: A Time to Reflect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In the recent history of astronomy there have been occasions where `New Astronomies' have been introduced. In the spirit of the recent excitement of the 2004 transit of Venus, I have used the periods around the historical transits to reflect on the `New Astronomies' of those eras. Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova is a fine representation of the New Astronomy of the 1631-1639 transit pair and Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace's Traité de Mécanique Céleste reflects the New Astronomy of the 1761-1769 transit pair. A combination of Samuel P. Langley's The New Astronomy and James E. Keeler's 1897 paper on astrophysics have been chosen as the exemplars of the New Astronomy of the 1874-1882 transit pair. I am open to suggestions for the works that best represent the 2004-2012 transit pairs.

  12. Cratering Soil by Impinging Jets of Gas, with Application to Landing Rockets on Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Vu, B. T.; Taylor, D. E.; Kromann, M. J.; Fuchs, M.; Yutko, B.; Dokos, A.; Immer, Christopher D.; Lane, J. E.; Dunkel, Michael B.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Several physical mechanisms are involved in excavating granular materials beneath a vertical jet of gas. These occur, for example, beneath the exhaust plume of a rocket landing on the soil of the Moon or Mars. A series of experiments and simulations have been performed to provide a detailed view of the complex gas/soil interactions. Measurements have also been taken from the Apollo lunar landing videos and from photographs of the resulting terrain, and these help to demonstrate how the interactions extrapolate into the lunar environment. It is important to understand these processes at a fundamental level to support the ongoing design of higher-fidelity numerical simulations and larger-scale experiments. These are needed to enable future lunar exploration wherein multiple hardware assets will be placed on the Moon within short distances of one another. The high-velocity spray of soil from landing spacecraft must be accurately predicted and controlled lest it erosively damage the surrounding hardware.

  13. Training Australian Defence Force Medical Officers to civilian general practice training standards--reflections on military medicine and its links to general practice education and training.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Scott J; Rushbrook, Elizabeth; Brennan, Leonard; Davis, Stephen

    2011-06-06

    This article examines military medicine and its links to civilian general practice education and training, drawing attention to the variations and difficulties in, and successful approaches for, training Australian Defence Force (ADF) Medical Officers. Military medicine has been an area of change over the 10 years of the Australian General Practice Training (AGPT) program. Crisis situations like those in Timor Leste and Afghanistan have focused attention and recognition on the importance of primary health care in the work of the ADF. To train doctors in military medicine, there are several different models at different locations around Australia, as well as large variations in military course and experience recognition and approvals between AGPT regional training providers. At times, the lack of standardisation in training delays the progress of ADF registrars moving through the AGPT program and becoming independently deployable Medical Officers.

  14. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, G.; Antonelli, R.; Fine, W.; Li, F.P.; Sallan, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy.

  15. Child development and the PITS: simple questions, complex answers, and developmental theory. Person in the Street.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, F D

    2000-01-01

    The enormous popular interest in the field of child development makes it incumbent upon developmental scientists to convey with care the complexity of development lest oversimplified popular accounts gain credibility. Recent attempted models of development do include the range of variables and complexities that need to be accommodated in accounting for development. A model is presented here that incorporates many of the elements of recent models but elaborates on the role of experience in relation to the constitutional, cultural, economic, and social factors that contribute to advantages and disadvantages in children's development. The importance of accommodating data from prior theoretical perspectives and the importance of the contributions from neuroimaging studies are discussed as they are critical for successful theory building in the field of child development.

  16. Ancient myths with perennial question.

    PubMed

    Mustacchi, Piero

    2008-01-01

    Even though myths have an imaginative component that frequently clashes with logical thinking, their symbolism often resonates with our collective unconscious. The divine inspiration that propels mythological heroes towards the noblest and highest ideals also carries the risk of taunting the jealousy of the gods. This may culminate in fatal results as has happened to Remus when he overstepped the newly defined boundaries set by his twin Romulus when outlining the future city of Rome. Fortunately, mythological heroes often enjoyed the benefit of having wise advisors. These were generally able to counsel their charges against yielding to the sin of pride so as to avoid triggering the anger of the gods. But when deprived of such advisors - as we are - how are we to place legitimate boundaries to our citadel of growing medical knowledge lest we scoff at limits and pay the penalty exacted from Remus?

  17. Litghospheric stress near a ridge-transform intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Jason; Parmentier, Morgan; Parmentier, E. M.

    1984-02-01

    Oceanic lithosphere at a ridge-tgransform intersection has distinct structural characteristics. The spreading axis and normal fault scarps, which parallel the ridge axis away fromm the intersection, locally curve towards the transform fault. This implies that the lest compressive stress direction becomes oblique to the spreading direction near a ridge-transform intersection. This stress field may be the result of a tensile ridge axis stress resisting plate separation and transform sher stress resisting relative plate motion. A plane stress plate model with prescribed plate boundary stresses is formulated to explore this hypothesis. The orientation of the least compressive horizontal stress near an intersection depends strongly on the ratio of the applied boundary stresses. Thus ridge axis curvature may place an important constraint on plate boundary forces.

  18. Pediatric Chiropractic Care: The Subluxation Question And Referral Risk.

    PubMed

    Homola, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Chiropractors commonly treat children for a variety of ailments by manipulating the spine to correct a 'vertebral subluxation' or a 'vertebral subluxation complex' alleged to be a cause of disease. Such treatment might begin soon after a child is born. Both major American chiropractic associations - the International Chiropractic Association and the American Chiropractic Association - support chiropractic care for children, which includes subluxation correction as a treatment or preventive measure. I do not know of any credible evidence to support chiropractic subluxation theory. Any attempt to manipulate the immature, cartilaginous spine of a neonate or a small child to correct a putative chiropractic subluxation should be regarded as dangerous and unnecessary. Referral of a child to a chiropractor for such treatment should not be considered lest a bad outcome harms the child or leads to a charge of negligence or malpractice.

  19. ANEMIA—Differentiating Between Thalassemia Minor and Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wallerstein, Ralph O.; Aggeler, Paul M.

    1956-01-01

    Many of the conditions noted in examination of the blood of patients with thalassemia minor are much like those observed in patients with iron deficiency anemia. A study was made of similarities and contrasts between blood and bone marrow features in both conditions for purposes of differential diagnosis. A salient distinction is that bone marrow hemosiderin is present in normal amount in patients with thalassemia minor, but not in those with iron deficiency anemia. If therapy with iron does not restore hemoglobin values to normal, thalassemia minor is strongly suspect. Even in the latter disease, however, there may be small fluctuations in hemoglobin values, particularly in pregnancy. One must be alert to this possibility lest a slight, fleeting increase in hemoglobin be mistakenly ascribed to iron therapy. PMID:13304673

  20. The grand partition function of dilute biregular solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamori, Meguru; Ito, Kimihisa; Tokuda, Motonori

    1994-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that the grand partition function (GPF) of biregular solutions contains in one single equation such thermodynamic principles as Henry's law, Raoult's law, the Gibbs-Duhem relation, Raoultian activity coefficients and their finite power series, Wagner's rec-iprocity, Schenck-Frohberg-Steinmetz's interchange, Lupis-Elliott's additivity, Mori-Morooka's disparity, and Darken's quadratic formalism. The logarithm of the Raoultian activity coefficient of species i, In γi should not be expressed by the Taylor series expansion, lest its truncation infringe the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The GPF methodology establishes that In γi, is not a vector but a scalar point function, free from any path dependence. While Darken's quadratic formalism employs three parameters to describe a ternary solution, the present biregularity approximation offers an alternative using seven empirical parameters, in case better accuracy is needed.

  1. [Characteristics of soil microbial variation during crop rotation period at cultivation area of Salvia miltiorrhiza in Zhongjiang of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Lin, Guibing; Wan, Deguang; Yang, Xinjie; Zhao, Kui; Zhu, Yuxia; Yan, Zhuyun

    2009-12-01

    To study the characteristics of soil microbial variation during Salvia miltiorrhiza crop rotation. the conventional cultivating microbial method was used to study the microbial number and communities structure and soil microbial biomass phosphorus (SMBP) was determined by chloroform vapor extraction method. The data was then analyzed by SPSS software. With the increase of the crop rotation years, the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in soil also, but the fungi and SMBP decreased. Microbial mechanism of crop rotation of the planting S. miltiorrhiza is the regulation of microbial number and bacteria physiological communities, the process rebuilds the soil ecological system balance. Microbial communities in soil need at lest 2 years to get to restore, after planting S. miltiorrhiza, which consisting with traditional planting experience.

  2. Does the presence of microplastics influence the acute toxicity of chromium(VI) to early juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)? A study with juveniles from two wild estuarine populations.

    PubMed

    Luís, Luís G; Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Oliveira, Miguel; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    Toxicological interactions between microplastics (MP) and other environmental contaminants are of grave concern. Here, the potential influence of MP in the short-term toxicity of chromium to early juveniles of Pomatoschistus microps was investigated. Three null hypotheses were tested: (1) exposure to Cr(VI) concentrations in the low ppm range does not induce toxic effects on juveniles; (2) the presence of microplastics in the water does not influence the acute toxicity of Cr(VI) to juveniles; (3) the environmental conditions of the natural habitat where fish developed do not influence their sensitivity to Cr(VI)-induced acute stress. Fish were collected in the estuaries of Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian Peninsula) that have several abiotic differences, including in the water and sediment concentrations of various environmental contaminants. After acclimatization to laboratory conditions, two 96h acute bioassays were carried out with juveniles from both estuaries to: (i) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) alone; (ii) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) in the presence of MP (polyethylene spheres 1-5μm ∅). Cr(VI) alone induced mortality (96h-LC50s: 14.4-30.5mg/l) and significantly decreased fish predatory performance (≤74%). Thus, in the range of concentrations tested (5.6-28.4mg/l) Cr(VI) was found to be toxic to P. microps early juveniles, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 1. Under simultaneous exposure to Cr(VI) and MP, a significant decrease of the predatory performance (≤67%) and a significant inhibition of AChE activity (≤31%) were found. AChE inhibition was not observed in the test with Cr(VI) alone and MP alone caused an AChE inhibition ≤21%. Mixture treatments containing Cr(VI) concentration ≥3.9mg/l significantly increased LPO levels in L-est fish, an effect that was not observed under Cr(VI) or MP single exposures. Thus, toxicological interactions between Cr(VI) and MP occurred, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 2. In the

  3. Imbalanced Learning for Functional State Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Guangfan; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of several imbalanced learning techniques applied to operator functional state assessment where the data is highly imbalanced, i.e., some function states (majority classes) have much more training samples than other states (minority classes). Conventional machine learning techniques usually tend to classify all data samples into majority classes and perform poorly for minority classes. In this study, we implemented five imbalanced learning techniques, including random undersampling, random over-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), borderline-SMOTE and adaptive synthetic sampling (ADASYN) to solve this problem. Experimental results on a benchmark driving lest dataset show thai accuracies for minority classes could be improved dramatically with a cost of slight performance degradations for majority classes,

  4. Classification of thermal waters based on their inorganic fingerprint and hydrogeothermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Outeiriño, I.; Araujo-Nespereira, P.; Cid-Fernández, J. A.; Mejuto, J. C.; Martínez-Carballo, E.; Simal-Gándara, J.

    2011-05-01

    Hydrothermal features in Galicia have been used since ancient times for therapeutic purposes. A characterization of these thermal waters was carried out in order to understand their behaviour based on inorganic pattern and water-rock interaction mechanisms. In this way 15 thermal water samples were collected in the same hydrographical system. The results of the hydrogeochemistry analysis showed one main water family of bicarbonate type sodium waters, typical in the post-orogenic basins of Galicia. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial lest squared (PLS) clustered the selected thermal waters in two groups, regarding to their chemical composition. This classification agreed with the results obtained by the use of geothermometers and the hydrogeochemical modelling. The first included thermal samples that could be in contact with surface waters and therefore, their residence time in the reservoir and their water-rock interaction would be less important than for the thermal waters of the second group.

  5. Fever during anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Chiharu; Lenhardt, Rainer

    2003-12-01

    Fever occurs when pyrogenic stimulation activates thermal control centres. Fever is common during the perioperative period, but rare during anaesthesia. Although only a limited number of studies are available to explain how anaesthesia affects fever, general anaesthesia seems to inhibit fever by decreasing the thermoregulatory-response thresholds to cold. Opioids also inhibit fever; however, the effect is slightly less than that of general anaesthesia. In contrast, epidural anaesthesia does not affect fever. This suggests that hyperthermia, which is often associated with epidural infusions during labour or in the post-operative period, may be a true fever caused by inflammatory activation. Accordingly, this fever might be diminished in patients who receive opioids for pain treatment. Post-operative fever is a normal thermoregulatory response usually of non-infectious aetiology. Fever may be important in the host defence mechanisms and should not be routinely treated lest the associated risks exceed the benefits.

  6. Unanticipated physcial processes in the inner coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.

    2017-06-01

    Interpreting the spectral emissions of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has been very difficult due to the unanticipated physical processes in the innermost coma of the comet that strongly affect the emission lines, particularly in the UV and visible. When the comet's activity is low and the spacecraft is close to the nucleus, the relevant processes are driven in large part by electron dissociation rather than photoprocesses. These results are very sensitive to the extrapolation of plasma properties from the spacecraft to the 10s of km closest to the nucleus. There is at lest one instance also of emission being driven by solar wind features. We will describe the phenomenology and the interpretation of a variety of the observations and conclude with some comments on the data, both from the laboratory and the comet, to interpret the observations.

  7. Sporadic bilateral synchronous multicentric papillary renal cell carcinoma masquerading as bilateral multifocal pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, V S; Dorairajan, L N; Kumar, S; Vijayakumar, A R; Ramesh, A; Ganesh Rajesh, N; Halanaik, D; Gupta, S

    2014-07-01

    Pyelonephritis is defined as an inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis. The diagnosis is usually clinical. Acute multifocal bacterial nephritis is a rare form of pyelonephritis that is more severe and sepsis is more common. We report a patient who presented with fever and right-sided abdominal pain associated with right flank tenderness, suggesting right acute pyelonephritis. Bilateral multifocal pyelonephritis was diagnosed on ultrasonography, radionuclide renal scintigraphy and computed tomography. However, owing to non-resolution of symptoms, a biopsy was performed, which showed bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). PRCC is known to exhibit multicentricity. To our knowledge, a case of bilateral multicentric PRCC masquerading as bilateral multifocal pyelonephritis has not been reported in the English literature. This case highlights the need to be vigilant while treating patients with focal lesions of the kidney as an inflammatory condition lest a malignancy should be missed.

  8. Sporadic bilateral synchronous multicentric papillary renal cell carcinoma masquerading as bilateral multifocal pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, VS; Kumar, S; Vijayakumar, AR; Ramesh, A; Ganesh Rajesh, N; Halanaik, D; Gupta, A

    2014-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is defined as an inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis. The diagnosis is usually clinical. Acute multifocal bacterial nephritis is a rare form of pyelonephritis that is more severe and sepsis is more common. We report a patient who presented with fever and right-sided abdominal pain associated with right flank tenderness, suggesting right acute pyelonephritis. Bilateral multifocal pyelonephritis was diagnosed on ultrasonography, radionuclide renal scintigraphy and computed tomography. However, owing to non-resolution of symptoms, a biopsy was performed, which showed bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). PRCC is known to exhibit multicentricity. To our knowledge, a case of bilateral multicentric PRCC masquerading as bilateral multifocal pyelonephritis has not been reported in the English literature. This case highlights the need to be vigilant while treating patients with focal lesions of the kidney as an inflammatory condition lest a malignancy should be missed. PMID:24992402

  9. Recent advances in CE and microchip-CE in clinical applications: 2014 to mid-2017.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Terry M

    2017-08-29

    CE and microchip CE (ME) are powerful tools for the analysis of a number of different analytes and have been applied to a variety of clinical fields and human samples. This review will present an overview of the most recent applications of these techniques to different areas of clinical medicine during the period of 2014 to mid-2017. CE and ME have been applied to clinical chemistry, drug detection and monitoring, hematology, infectious diseases, oncology, endocrinology, neonatology, nephrology, and genetic screening. Samples examined range from serum, plasma, and urine to lest utilized materials such as tears, cerebral spinal fluid, sweat, saliva, condensed breath, single cells, and biopsy tissue. Examples of clinical applications will be given along with the various detection systems employed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. On robust regression analysis as a means of exploring environmental and operational conditions for SHM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervilis, N.; Worden, K.; Cross, E. J.

    2015-07-01

    In the data-based approach to structural health monitoring (SHM), the absence of data from damaged structures in many cases forces a dependence on novelty detection as a means of diagnosis. Unfortunately, this means that benign variations in the operating or environmental conditions of the structure must be handled very carefully, lest they lead to false alarms. If novelty detection is implemented in terms of outlier detection, the outliers may arise in the data as the result of both benign and malign causes and it is important to understand their sources. Comparatively recent developments in the field of robust regression have the potential to provide ways of exploring and visualising SHM data as a means of shedding light on the different origins of outliers. The current paper will illustrate the use of robust regression for SHM data analysis through experimental data acquired from the Z24 and Tamar Bridges, although the methods are general and not restricted to SHM or civil infrastructure.

  11. Isolated Follicles Enriched for Centroblasts and Lacking t(14;18)/BCL2 in Lymphoid Tissue: Diagnostic and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Gratzinger, Dita; Jones, Carol D.; Zehnder, James L.; Bangs, Charles D.; Cherry, Athena; Warnke, Roger A.; Natkunam, Yasodha

    2016-01-01

    We sought to address the significance of isolated follicles that exhibit atypical morphologic features that may be mistaken for lymphoma in a background of reactive lymphoid tissue. Seven cases that demonstrated centroblast-predominant isolated follicles and absent BCL2 staining in otherwise-normal lymph nodes were studied. Four of seven cases showed clonal B-cell proliferations amid a polyclonal B cell background; all cases lacked the IGH-BCL2 translocation and BCL2 protein expression. Although three patients had invasive breast carcinoma at other sites, none were associated with systemic lymphoma up to 44 months after diagnosis. The immunoarchitectural features of these highly unusual cases raise the question of whether a predominance of centroblasts and/or absence of BCL2 expression could represent a precursor lesion or atypical reactive phenomenon. Differentiating such cases from follicular lymphoma or another mimic is critical, lest patients with indolent proliferations be exposed to unnecessarily aggressive treatment. PMID:26991267

  12. Fake news of baby booms 9months after major sporting events distorts the public's understanding of early human development science.

    PubMed

    Grech, Victor; Masukume, Gwinyai

    2017-08-23

    In France on 27/6/16, Iceland's men's national football team won 2-1, knocking England out of the UEFA European Championship. Nine months after this momentous Icelandic victory, Ásgeir Pétur Þorvaldsson a medical doctor in Iceland, posted a tweet in jest suggesting that a baby boom had occurred as a result of increased celebratory coital activity following the win. The media covered this widely but statistical analysis shows otherwise and this was confirmed by the original tweet source. Given the increase in fake scientific news, it is especially important for scientists to correct misinformation lest the public loses trust in science or gains a distorted understanding of known facts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hardiness as a predictor of mental health and well-being of Australian army reservists on and after stability operations.

    PubMed

    Orme, Geoffrey J; Kehoe, E James

    2014-04-01

    This study tested whether cognitive hardiness moderates the adverse effects of deployment-related stressors on health and well-being of soldiers on short-tour (4-7 months), peacekeeping operations. Australian Army reservists (N = 448) were surveyed at the start, end, and up to 24 months after serving as peacekeepers in Timor-Leste or the Solomon Islands. They retained sound mental health throughout (Kessler 10, Post-Traumatic Checklist-Civilian, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42). Ratings of either traumatic or nontraumatic stress were low. Despite range restrictions, scores on the Cognitive Hardiness Scale moderated the relationship between deployment stressors and a composite measure of psychological distress. Scatterplots revealed an asymmetric pattern for hardiness scores and measures of psychological distress. When hardiness scores were low, psychological distress scores were widely dispersed. However, when hardiness scores were higher, psychological distress scores became concentrated at a uniformly low level.

  14. [The visibility of the care given by a Brazilian Army nurse to a wounded soldier during World War II].

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco

    2005-03-01

    A historical-sociological study aimed at analyzing and describing the visibility of the performance of a Brazilian Army nurse engaged in the Força Expedicionária Brasileira--FEB (Brazilian Expeditionary Force) during the Second World War. Primary source: a photograph taken at the time, along with the oral testimony of nineteen agents. This mode of gathering data resulted in the creation of a new method of research, which we named Oral-Photographic Analysis. The photo was picked in the Brazilian Army's iconographic collection, located at the Comando Militar do Leste (Eastern Military Command), in Rio de Janeiro. Secondary sources: literature on the sociohistorical context of the period. We used Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, power and cultural capital. The results showed that, in order to face such challenge and care for the wounded, the volunteer nurses had to acquire new habitus through mandatory training given by the military.

  15. Deinstitutionalization

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper treats the issue of the treatment of the chronically mentally disabled. The author challenges the feasibility of plans for the treatment of the chronically disabled outside of mental institutions and questions whether in actuality there has been a sufficient commitment (moral, professional, and financial) to the local noninstitutional care of this population. The history of treatment of the mentally disabled over the past three centuries is reviewed. The failure of the community mental health center movement during the 1960s is described, and the reasons for that failure are presented. A note of extreme caution is sounded as behavioral scientists and mental health planners devise methods of caring for the chronic population, lest courses be embarked upon that have been given inadequate consideration and planning. PMID:439176

  16. Two Orthodoxies and Science: Comparative Reflections.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, Yakov M

    2016-09-01

    This essay offers a comparative discussion of attitudes to science within Jewish and Christian Orthodoxies. When it touches on the contemporary period, it deals with different varieties of Jewish Orthodoxy rather than the more liberal Jewish denominations. Debates about science and religion, rarely involving active—let alone prominent—scientists, take place within both religious traditions. The issues can be roughly divided in two categories—cognitive and social—even though the two may occasionally intersect. The first category, apparently more important for the Greek Orthodox, addresses issues of the content of research and of its influence on ethics. Social issues constitute the other important aspect of the interaction between religion and modernity: Is it desirable to spend time on anything but religious studies and to engage in modern society at all, lest its more permissive norms and ideas corrupt proper behavior? This aspect seems to preoccupy Jewish Orthodoxy more than Greek Orthodoxy.

  17. Effect of gas inlet angle on the gas-assisted extrusion forming of polymer melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Z.; Huang, X. Y.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the effect of gas inlet angle on the gas-assisted extrusion (GAE) forming of polymer melt was studied by means of numerical simulation method. The geometric models and the corresponding finite element meshes of four different gas inlet angles (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°) were established. The computed fluid dynamic software package Polyflow was used. The shear stress, normal stress, and first normal stress difference of melt at the gas/melt interface were obtained. The results show that the influence of gas inlet angle at 30 on the gas-assisted extrusion forming of melt is lest, which can provide the technique guidance for the optimal designing of the gas-assisted die for the polymer melt.

  18. Study on glucose photoacoustic signals denoising based on a modified wavelet shift-invariance thresholding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong

    2016-11-01

    To improve the denoising effect of the glucose photoacoustic signals, a modified wavelet thresholding combined shift-invariance algorithm was used in this paper. In addition, the shift-invariance method was added into the improved algorithm. To verify the feasibility of modified wavelet shift-invariance threshold denoising algorithm, the simulation experiments were performed. Results show that the denoising effect of modified wavelet shift-invariance thresholding algorithm is better than that of others because its signal-to-noise ratio is largest and the root-mean-square error is lest. Finally, the modified wavelet shift-invariance threshold denoising was used to remove the noises of the photoacoustic signals of glucose aqueous solutions.

  19. Health economics in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Abel-Smith, B

    1989-08-01

    The interpretation of health economics chosen for this paper is broad. It includes the relation between economic and other factors in health development. This interpretation has been chosen lest the acceptance of a disciplinary approach in the commissioning of papers should have the unintended effect of excluding some key areas of research which require the consideration of crucial interrelationships between disciplines. The only justification for covering this area in a paper on economics rather than, for example, epidemiology is that increasingly there is and indeed has to be a heavy focus on costs in considering alternative paths to health development. The word 'research' is loosely interpreted and not restricted to the type of activity which could lead to the award of a PhD. The compilation of experience in many areas is, in the view of the author, a priority need, to plan where further research and experiment is needed.

  20. Filtered back-projection reconstruction of photo-acoustic imaging based on an modified wavelet threshold function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the filtered back-projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the photoacoustic imaging. To improve the quality of the reconstructed image, the wavelet threshold denoising method was combined into the filtered back-projection reconstruction algorithm. To obtain the reconstructed effect of the photoacoustic imaging, a modified wavelet threshold function was proposed. To verify the feasibility of the modified wavelet threshold function, the simulation experiments of the standard test phantom were performed by using three different wavelet threshold functions. Compared with the soft- and hard-threshold functions, the modified wavelet threshold function has better denoised and reconstructed effect. Moreover, the peak signal-to-noises ratio (PSNR) value of the modified function is largest, and its mean root square error (MRSE) value is lest than that of two others. Therefore, the filtered back-projection reconstruction algorithm combined with the modified wavelet threshold function has potential value in the reconstruction of the photoacoustic imaging.